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Sample records for protein nifh suggest

  1. Diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (nifH) from ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-12-01

    The diversity of bacterial nitrogenase genes (nifH) and their mRNA transcription in ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) were examined. DNA and RNA were extracted from surface-sterilized and non-sterilized Corsican pine roots colonized by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Suillus variegatus and Tomentellopsis submollis. DNA-derived nifH polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained from all samples, but only a few reverse transcription PCRs for nifH mRNA were successful, suggesting that nitrogenase genes were not always transcribed. Several different nifH sequences were detected and the bacteria actively transcribing nifH were different from those whose genes were detected through DNA-based PCR. Putative nitrogenase amino acid sequences revealed that more than half of the nifH products were derived from methylotrophic bacteria, such as Methylocella spp. The next most frequent sequence types were similar to those from Burkholderia.

  2. NifH- Harboring Bacterial Community Composition Across an Alaskan Permafrost Thaw Gradient

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    Christopher Ryan Penton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since nitrogen (N is often limiting in permafrost soils, we investigated the N2-fixing genetic potential and the inferred taxa harboring those genes by sequencing nifH gene fragments in samples taken along a permafrost thaw gradient in an Alaskan boreal soil. Samples from minimally, moderately and extensively thawed sites were taken to a depth of 79 cm to encompass zones above and below the depth of the water table. NifH reads were translated with frameshift correction and 112,476 sequences were clustered at 5% amino acid dissimilarity resulting in 1,631 OTUs. Sample depth in relation to water table depth was correlated to differences in the NifH sequence classes. NifH sequences most closely related to group I nifH-harboring Alpha- and Beta Proteobacteria were in higher abundance above water table depth while those related to group III nifH-harboring Delta and Gamma Proteobacteria were more abundant below. The most dominant below water table depth NifH sequences, comprising 1/3 of the total, were distantly related to Verrucomicrobia-Opitutaceae. Overall, these results suggest that permafrost thaw alters the class-level composition of N2-fixing communities in the thawed soil layers and that this distinction corresponds to the depth of the water table. These nifH data were also compared to nifH sequences obtained from a study at an Alaskan taiga site, and to those of other geographically distant, non-permafrost sites. The two Alaska sites were differentiated largely by changes in relative abundances of the same OTUs, whereas the non-Alaska sites were differentiated by the lack of many Alaskan OTUs, and the presence of unique halophilic, sulfate- and iron-reducing taxa in the Alaska sites.

  3. A comprehensive aligned nifH gene database: a multipurpose tool for studies of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

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    Gaby, John Christian; Buckley, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    We describe a nitrogenase gene sequence database that facilitates analysis of the evolution and ecology of nitrogen-fixing organisms. The database contains 32 954 aligned nitrogenase nifH sequences linked to phylogenetic trees and associated sequence metadata. The database includes 185 linked multigene entries including full-length nifH, nifD, nifK and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. Evolutionary analyses enabled by the multigene entries support an ancient horizontal transfer of nitrogenase genes between Archaea and Bacteria and provide evidence that nifH has a different history of horizontal gene transfer from the nifDK enzyme core. Further analyses show that lineages in nitrogenase cluster I and cluster III have different rates of substitution within nifD, suggesting that nifD is under different selection pressure in these two lineages. Finally, we find that that the genetic divergence of nifH and 16S rRNA genes does not correlate well at sequence dissimilarity values used commonly to define microbial species, as stains having <3% sequence dissimilarity in their 16S rRNA genes can have up to 23% dissimilarity in nifH. The nifH database has a number of uses including phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses, the design and assessment of primers/probes and the evaluation of nitrogenase sequence diversity. Database URL: http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/buckley/nifh.htm.

  4. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

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    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  5. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  6. Nitrogen Fixation Aligns with nifH Abundance and Expression in Two Coral Trophic Functional Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Pogoreutz, Claudia

    2017-06-28

    Microbial nitrogen fixation (diazotrophy) is a functional trait widely associated with tropical reef-building (scleractinian) corals. While the integral role of nitrogen fixation in coral nutrient dynamics is recognized, its ecological significance across different coral functional groups remains yet to be evaluated. Here we set out to compare molecular and physiological patterns of diazotrophy (i.e., nifH gene abundance and expression as well as nitrogen fixation rates) in two coral families with contrasting trophic strategies: highly heterotrophic, free-living members of the family Fungiidae (Pleuractis granulosa, Ctenactis echinata), and mostly autotrophic coral holobionts with low heterotrophic capacity (Pocilloporidae: Pocillopora verrucosa, Stylophora pistillata). The Fungiidae exhibited low diazotroph abundance (based on nifH gene copy numbers) and activity (based on nifH gene expression and the absence of detectable nitrogen fixation rates). In contrast, the mostly autotrophic Pocilloporidae exhibited nifH gene copy numbers and gene expression two orders of magnitude higher than in the Fungiidae, which coincided with detectable nitrogen fixation activity. Based on these data, we suggest that nitrogen fixation compensates for the low heterotrophic nitrogen uptake in autotrophic corals. Consequently, the ecological importance of diazotrophy in coral holobionts may be determined by the trophic functional group of the host.

  7. Nitrogen Fixation Aligns with nifH Abundance and Expression in Two Coral Trophic Functional Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Pogoreutz, Claudia; Radecker, Nils; Cardenas, Anny; Gä rdes, Astrid; Wild, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial nitrogen fixation (diazotrophy) is a functional trait widely associated with tropical reef-building (scleractinian) corals. While the integral role of nitrogen fixation in coral nutrient dynamics is recognized, its ecological significance across different coral functional groups remains yet to be evaluated. Here we set out to compare molecular and physiological patterns of diazotrophy (i.e., nifH gene abundance and expression as well as nitrogen fixation rates) in two coral families with contrasting trophic strategies: highly heterotrophic, free-living members of the family Fungiidae (Pleuractis granulosa, Ctenactis echinata), and mostly autotrophic coral holobionts with low heterotrophic capacity (Pocilloporidae: Pocillopora verrucosa, Stylophora pistillata). The Fungiidae exhibited low diazotroph abundance (based on nifH gene copy numbers) and activity (based on nifH gene expression and the absence of detectable nitrogen fixation rates). In contrast, the mostly autotrophic Pocilloporidae exhibited nifH gene copy numbers and gene expression two orders of magnitude higher than in the Fungiidae, which coincided with detectable nitrogen fixation activity. Based on these data, we suggest that nitrogen fixation compensates for the low heterotrophic nitrogen uptake in autotrophic corals. Consequently, the ecological importance of diazotrophy in coral holobionts may be determined by the trophic functional group of the host.

  8. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 ... Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... rapidly expanding and is currently composed of over.

  9. Evidence for high-temperature in situ nifH transcription in an alkaline hot spring of Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

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    Loiacono, Sara T; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Havig, Jeff R; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Shock, Everett L

    2012-05-01

    Genes encoding nitrogenase (nifH) were amplified from sediment and photosynthetic mat samples collected in the outflow channel of Mound Spring, an alkaline thermal feature in Yellowstone National Park. Results indicate the genetic capacity for nitrogen fixation over the entire range of temperatures sampled (57.2°C to 80.2°C). Amplification of environmental nifH transcripts revealed in situ expression of nifH genes at temperatures up to 72.7°C. However, we were unable to amplify transcripts of nifH at the higher-temperature locations (> 72.7°C). These results indicate that microbes at the highest temperature sites contain the genetic capacity to fix nitrogen, yet either do not express nifH or do so only transiently. Field measurements of nitrate and ammonium show fixed nitrogen limitation as temperature decreases along the outflow channel, suggesting nifH expression in response to the downstream decrease in bioavailable nitrogen. Nitrogen stable isotope values of Mound Spring sediment communities further support geochemical and genetic data. DNA and cDNA nifH amplicons form several unique phylogenetic clades, some of which appear to represent novel nifH sequences in both photosynthetic and chemosynthetic microbial communities. This is the first report of in situ nifH expression in strictly chemosynthetic zones of terrestrial (non-marine) hydrothermal systems, and sets a new upper temperature limit (72.7°C) for nitrogen fixation in alkaline, terrestrial hydrothermal environments. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Three phylogenetic groups of nodA and nifH genes in Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium isolates from leguminous trees growing in Africa and Latin America.

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    Haukka, K; Lindström, K; Young, J P

    1998-02-01

    The diversity and phylogeny of nodA and nifH genes were studied by using 52 rhizobial isolates from Acacia senegal, Prosopis chilensis, and related leguminous trees growing in Africa and Latin America. All of the strains had similar host ranges and belonged to the genera Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium, as previously determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The restriction patterns and a sequence analysis of the nodA and nifH genes divided the strains into the following three distinct groups: sinorhizobia from Africa, sinorhizobia from Latin America, and mesorhizobia from both regions. In a phylogenetic tree also containing previously published sequences, the nodA genes of our rhizobia formed a branch of their own, but within the branch no correlation between symbiotic genes and host trees was apparent. Within the large group of African sinorhizobia, similar symbiotic gene types were found in different chromosomal backgrounds, suggesting that transfer of symbiotic genes has occurred across species boundaries. Most strains had plasmids, and the presence of plasmid-borne nifH was demonstrated by hybridization for some examples. The nodA and nifH genes of Sinorhizobium teranga ORS1009T grouped with the nodA and nifH genes of the other African sinorhizobia, but Sinorhizobium saheli ORS609T had a totally different nodA sequence, although it was closely related based on the 16S rRNA gene and nifH data. This might be because this S. saheli strain was originally isolated from Sesbania sp., which belongs to a different cross-nodulation group than Acacia and Prosopis spp. The factors that appear to have influenced the evolution of rhizobial symbiotic genes vary in importance at different taxonomic levels.

  11. A computational model of the LGI1 protein suggests a common binding site for ADAM proteins.

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    Emanuela Leonardi

    Full Text Available Mutations of human leucine-rich glioma inactivated (LGI1 gene encoding the epitempin protein cause autosomal dominant temporal lateral epilepsy (ADTLE, a rare familial partial epileptic syndrome. The LGI1 gene seems to have a role on the transmission of neuronal messages but the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. In contrast to other genes involved in epileptic disorders, epitempin shows no homology with known ion channel genes but contains two domains, composed of repeated structural units, known to mediate protein-protein interactions.A three dimensional in silico model of the two epitempin domains was built to predict the structure-function relationship and propose a functional model integrating previous experimental findings. Conserved and electrostatic charged regions of the model surface suggest a possible arrangement between the two domains and identifies a possible ADAM protein binding site in the β-propeller domain and another protein binding site in the leucine-rich repeat domain. The functional model indicates that epitempin could mediate the interaction between proteins localized to different synaptic sides in a static way, by forming a dimer, or in a dynamic way, by binding proteins at different times.The model was also used to predict effects of known disease-causing missense mutations. Most of the variants are predicted to alter protein folding while several other map to functional surface regions. In agreement with experimental evidence, this suggests that non-secreted LGI1 mutants could be retained within the cell by quality control mechanisms or by altering interactions required for the secretion process.

  12. Proteomic analysis of the cyanobacterium of the Azolla symbiosis: identity, adaptation, and NifH modification.

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    Ekman, Martin; Tollbäck, Petter; Bergman, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are able to form stable nitrogen-fixing symbioses with diverse eukaryotes. To extend our understanding of adaptations imposed by plant hosts, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS) were used for comparative protein expression profiling of a cyanobacterium (cyanobiont) dwelling in leaf cavities of the water-fern Azolla filiculoides. Homology-based protein identification using peptide mass fingerprinting [matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF-MS)], tandem MS analyses, and sequence homology searches resulted in an identification success rate of 79% of proteins analysed in the unsequenced cyanobiont. Compared with a free-living strain, processes related to energy production, nitrogen and carbon metabolism, and stress-related functions were up-regulated in the cyanobiont while photosynthesis and metabolic turnover rates were down-regulated, stressing a slow heterotrophic mode of growth, as well as high heterocyst frequencies and nitrogen-fixing capacities. The first molecular data set on the nature of the NifH post-translational modification in cyanobacteria was also obtained: peptide mass spectra of the protein demonstrated the presence of a 300-400 Da protein modification localized to a specific 13 amino acid sequence, within the part of the protein that is ADP-ribosylated in other bacteria and close to the active site of nitrogenase. Furthermore, the distribution of the highest scoring database hits for the identified proteins points to the possibility of using proteomic data in taxonomy.

  13. Molecular phylogeny, population genetics, and evolution of heterocystous cyanobacteria using nifH gene sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, P.; Singh, S. S.; Elster, Josef; Mishra, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 250, č. 3 (2013), s. 751-764 ISSN 0033-183X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : evolution * heterocystous cyanobacteria * nifH gene Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.171, year: 2013

  14. Anthropogenic impact on diazotrophic diversity in the mangrove rhizosphere revealed by nifH pyrosequencing.

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    Jing, Hongmei; Xia, Xiaomin; Liu, Hongbin; Zhou, Zhi; Wu, Chen; Nagarajan, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Diazotrophs in the mangrove rhizosphere play a major role in providing new nitrogen to the mangrove ecosystem and their composition and activity are strongly influenced by anthropogenic activity and ecological conditions. In this study, the diversity of the diazotroph communities in the rhizosphere sediment of five tropical mangrove sites with different levels of pollution along the north and south coastline of Singapore were studied by pyrosequencing of the nifH gene. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that in all the studied locations, the diazotroph communities comprised mainly of members of the diazotrophic cluster I and cluster III. The detected cluster III diazotrophs, which were composed entirely of sulfate-reducing bacteria, were more abundant in the less polluted locations. The metabolic capacities of these diazotrophs indicate the potential for bioremediation and resiliency of the ecosystem to anthropogenic impact. In heavily polluted locations, the diazotrophic community structures were markedly different and the diversity of species was significantly reduced when compared with those in a pristine location. This, together with the increased abundance of Marinobacterium, which is a bioindicator of pollution, suggests that anthropogenic activity has a negative impact on the genetic diversity of diazotrophs in the mangrove rhizosphere.

  15. Small sets of interacting proteins suggest functional linkage mechanisms via Bayesian analogical reasoning.

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    Airoldi, Edoardo M; Heller, Katherine A; Silva, Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    Proteins and protein complexes coordinate their activity to execute cellular functions. In a number of experimental settings, including synthetic genetic arrays, genetic perturbations and RNAi screens, scientists identify a small set of protein interactions of interest. A working hypothesis is often that these interactions are the observable phenotypes of some functional process, which is not directly observable. Confirmatory analysis requires finding other pairs of proteins whose interaction may be additional phenotypical evidence about the same functional process. Extant methods for finding additional protein interactions rely heavily on the information in the newly identified set of interactions. For instance, these methods leverage the attributes of the individual proteins directly, in a supervised setting, in order to find relevant protein pairs. A small set of protein interactions provides a small sample to train parameters of prediction methods, thus leading to low confidence. We develop RBSets, a computational approach to ranking protein interactions rooted in analogical reasoning; that is, the ability to learn and generalize relations between objects. Our approach is tailored to situations where the training set of protein interactions is small, and leverages the attributes of the individual proteins indirectly, in a Bayesian ranking setting that is perhaps closest to propensity scoring in mathematical psychology. We find that RBSets leads to good performance in identifying additional interactions starting from a small evidence set of interacting proteins, for which an underlying biological logic in terms of functional processes and signaling pathways can be established with some confidence. Our approach is scalable and can be applied to large databases with minimal computational overhead. Our results suggest that analogical reasoning within a Bayesian ranking problem is a promising new approach for real-time biological discovery. Java code is available at

  16. Abundance and genetic diversity of nifH gene sequences in anthropogenically affected Brazilian mangrove sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cassia; Cotta, Simone Raposo; Dini Andreote, Francisco; Soares, Fabio Lino; Salles, Joana Falcao; Azevedo, Joao Lucio; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    Although mangroves represent ecosystems of global importance, the genetic diversity and abundance of functional genes that are key to their functioning scarcely have been explored. Here, we present a survey based on the nifH gene across transects of sediments of two mangrove systems located along

  17. Abundance and genetic diversity of nifH gene sequences in anthropogenically affected Brazilian mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cassia; Cotta, Simone Raposo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Soares, Fábio Lino; Salles, Joana Falcão; Azevedo, João Lúcio; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2012-11-01

    Although mangroves represent ecosystems of global importance, the genetic diversity and abundance of functional genes that are key to their functioning scarcely have been explored. Here, we present a survey based on the nifH gene across transects of sediments of two mangrove systems located along the coast line of São Paulo state (Brazil) which differed by degree of disturbance, i.e., an oil-spill-affected and an unaffected mangrove. The diazotrophic communities were assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and clone libraries. The nifH gene abundance was similar across the two mangrove sediment systems, as evidenced by qPCR. However, the nifH-based PCR-DGGE profiles revealed clear differences between the mangroves. Moreover, shifts in the nifH gene diversities were noted along the land-sea transect within the previously oiled mangrove. The nifH gene diversity depicted the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria affiliated with a wide range of taxa, encompassing members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and also a group of anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. We also detected a unique mangrove-specific cluster of sequences denoted Mgv-nifH. Our results indicate that nitrogen-fixing bacterial guilds can be partially endemic to mangroves, and these communities are modulated by oil contamination, which has important implications for conservation strategies.

  18. Abundance and Genetic Diversity of nifH Gene Sequences in Anthropogenically Affected Brazilian Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cassia; Cotta, Simone Raposo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Soares, Fábio Lino; Salles, Joana Falcão; Azevedo, João Lúcio; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Although mangroves represent ecosystems of global importance, the genetic diversity and abundance of functional genes that are key to their functioning scarcely have been explored. Here, we present a survey based on the nifH gene across transects of sediments of two mangrove systems located along the coast line of São Paulo state (Brazil) which differed by degree of disturbance, i.e., an oil-spill-affected and an unaffected mangrove. The diazotrophic communities were assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and clone libraries. The nifH gene abundance was similar across the two mangrove sediment systems, as evidenced by qPCR. However, the nifH-based PCR-DGGE profiles revealed clear differences between the mangroves. Moreover, shifts in the nifH gene diversities were noted along the land-sea transect within the previously oiled mangrove. The nifH gene diversity depicted the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria affiliated with a wide range of taxa, encompassing members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and also a group of anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. We also detected a unique mangrove-specific cluster of sequences denoted Mgv-nifH. Our results indicate that nitrogen-fixing bacterial guilds can be partially endemic to mangroves, and these communities are modulated by oil contamination, which has important implications for conservation strategies. PMID:22941088

  19. Direct interactions of the five known Fanconi anaemia proteins suggest a common functional pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, A L; Huber, P A; Waisfisz, Q; de Winter , J P; Mathew, C G

    2001-02-15

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder associated with a progressive aplastic anaemia, diverse congenital abnormalities and cancer. The condition is genetically heterogeneous, with at least seven complementation groups (A-G) described. Cells from individuals who are homozygous for mutations in FA genes are characterized by chromosomal instability and hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents. These features suggest a possible role for the encoded proteins in the recognition or repair of these lesions, but neither their function nor whether they operate in a concerted or discrete functional pathways is known. The recent cloning of the FANCF and FANCE genes has allowed us to investigate the interaction of the proteins encoded by five of the seven complementation groups of FA. We used the yeast two-hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation analysis to test the 10 possible pairs of proteins for direct interaction. In addition to the previously described binding of FANCA to FANCG, we now demonstrate direct interaction of FANCF with FANCG, of FANCC with FANCE and a weaker interaction of FANCE with both FANCA and FANCG. These findings show that the newly identified FANCE protein is an integral part of the FA pathway, and support the concept of a functional link between all known proteins encoded by the genes that are mutated in this disorder. These proteins may act either as a multimeric complex or by sequential recruitment of subsets of the proteins in a common pathway that protects the genomic integrity of mammalian cells.

  20. Characterization of Reconstructed Ancestral Proteins Suggests a Change in Temperature of the Ancient Biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Satoshi

    2017-08-06

    Understanding the evolution of ancestral life, and especially the ability of some organisms to flourish in the variable environments experienced in Earth's early biosphere, requires knowledge of the characteristics and the environment of these ancestral organisms. Information about early life and environmental conditions has been obtained from fossil records and geological surveys. Recent advances in phylogenetic analysis, and an increasing number of protein sequences available in public databases, have made it possible to infer ancestral protein sequences possessed by ancient organisms. However, the in silico studies that assess the ancestral base content of ribosomal RNAs, the frequency of each amino acid in ancestral proteins, and estimate the environmental temperatures of ancient organisms, show conflicting results. The characterization of ancestral proteins reconstructed in vitro suggests that ancient organisms had very thermally stable proteins, and therefore were thermophilic or hyperthermophilic. Experimental data supports the idea that only thermophilic ancestors survived the catastrophic increase in temperature of the biosphere that was likely associated with meteorite impacts during the early history of Earth. In addition, by expanding the timescale and including more ancestral proteins for reconstruction, it appears as though the Earth's surface temperature gradually decreased over time, from Archean to present.

  1. A functional role of Rv1738 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence suggested by racemic protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Richard D; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Bashiri, Ghader; Chaston, Jessica J; Pentelute, Bradley L; Lott, J Shaun; Kent, Stephen B H; Baker, Edward N

    2015-04-07

    Protein 3D structure can be a powerful predictor of function, but it often faces a critical roadblock at the crystallization step. Rv1738, a protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is strongly implicated in the onset of nonreplicating persistence, and thereby latent tuberculosis, resisted extensive attempts at crystallization. Chemical synthesis of the L- and D-enantiomeric forms of Rv1738 enabled facile crystallization of the D/L-racemic mixture. The structure was solved by an ab initio approach that took advantage of the quantized phases characteristic of diffraction by centrosymmetric crystals. The structure, containing L- and D-dimers in a centrosymmetric space group, revealed unexpected homology with bacterial hibernation-promoting factors that bind to ribosomes and suppress translation. This suggests that the functional role of Rv1738 is to contribute to the shutdown of ribosomal protein synthesis during the onset of nonreplicating persistence of M. tuberculosis.

  2. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  3. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that baculovirus GP64 superfamily proteins are class III penetrenes

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    Garry Robert F

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Baculoviridae encode two types of proteins that mediate virus:cell membrane fusion and penetration into the host cell. Alignments of primary amino acid sequences indicate that baculovirus fusion proteins of group I nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV form the GP64 superfamily. The structure of these viral penetrenes has not been determined. The GP64 superfamily includes the glycoprotein (GP encoded by members of the Thogotovirus genus of the Orthomyxoviridae. The entry proteins of other baculoviruses, group II NPV and granuloviruses, are class I penetrenes. Results Class III penetrenes encoded by members of the Rhabdoviridae and Herpesviridae have an internal fusion domain comprised of beta sheets, other beta sheet domains, an extended alpha helical domain, a membrane proximal stem domain and a carboxyl terminal anchor. Similar sequences and structural/functional motifs that characterize class III penetrenes are located collinearly in GP64 of group I baculoviruses and related glycoproteins encoded by thogotoviruses. Structural models based on a prototypic class III penetrene, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G, were established for Thogoto virus (THOV GP and Autographa california multiple NPV (AcMNPV GP64 demonstrating feasible cysteine linkages. Glycosylation sites in THOV GP and AcMNPV GP64 appear in similar model locations to the two glycosylation sites of VSV G. Conclusion These results suggest that proteins in the GP64 superfamily are class III penetrenes.

  4. Force Spectroscopy of the Plasmodium falciparum Vaccine Candidate Circumsporozoite Protein Suggests a Mechanically Pliable Repeat Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Aditya Prasad; Sharma, Shobhona; Ainavarapu, Sri Rama Koti

    2017-02-10

    The most effective vaccine candidate of malaria is based on the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a major surface protein implicated in the structural strength, motility, and immune evasion properties of the infective sporozoites. It is suspected that reversible conformational changes of CSP are required for infection of the mammalian host, but the detailed structure and dynamic properties of CSP remain incompletely understood, limiting our understanding of its function in the infection. Here, we report the structural and mechanical properties of the CSP studied using single-molecule force spectroscopy on several constructs, one including the central region of CSP, which is rich in NANP amino acid repeats (CSP rep ), and a second consisting of a near full-length sequence without the signal and anchor hydrophobic domains (CSP ΔHP ). Our results show that the CSP rep is heterogeneous, with 40% of molecules requiring virtually no mechanical force to unfold (<10 piconewtons (pN)), suggesting that these molecules are mechanically compliant and perhaps act as entropic springs, whereas the remaining 60% are partially structured with low mechanical resistance (∼70 pN). CSP ΔHP having multiple force peaks suggests specifically folded domains, with two major populations possibly indicating the open and collapsed forms. Our findings suggest that the overall low mechanical resistance of the repeat region, exposed on the outer surface of the sporozoites, combined with the flexible full-length conformations of CSP, may provide the sporozoites not only with immune evasion properties, but also with lubricating capacity required during its navigation through the mosquito and vertebrate host tissues. We anticipate that these findings would further assist in the design and development of future malarial vaccines. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Positive evolutionary selection of an HD motif on Alzheimer precursor protein orthologues suggests a functional role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklós, István; Zádori, Zoltán

    2012-02-01

    HD amino acid duplex has been found in the active center of many different enzymes. The dyad plays remarkably different roles in their catalytic processes that usually involve metal coordination. An HD motif is positioned directly on the amyloid beta fragment (Aβ) and on the carboxy-terminal region of the extracellular domain (CAED) of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and a taxonomically well defined group of APP orthologues (APPOs). In human Aβ HD is part of a presumed, RGD-like integrin-binding motif RHD; however, neither RHD nor RXD demonstrates reasonable conservation in APPOs. The sequences of CAEDs and the position of the HD are not particularly conserved either, yet we show with a novel statistical method using evolutionary modeling that the presence of HD on CAEDs cannot be the result of neutral evolutionary forces (pHD motif is underrepresented in the proteomes of all species of the animal kingdom. Position migration can be explained by high probability occurrence of multiple copies of HD on intermediate sequences, from which only one is kept by selective evolutionary forces, in a similar way as in the case of the "transcription binding site turnover." CAED of all APP orthologues and homologues are predicted to bind metal ions including Amyloid-like protein 1 (APLP1) and Amyloid-like protein 2 (APLP2). Our results suggest that HDs on the CAEDs are most probably key components of metal-binding domains, which facilitate and/or regulate inter- or intra-molecular interactions in a metal ion-dependent or metal ion concentration-dependent manner. The involvement of naturally occurring mutations of HD (Tottori (D7N) and English (H6R) mutations) in early onset Alzheimer's disease gives additional support to our finding that HD has an evolutionary preserved function on APPOs.

  6. Rift Valley fever phlebovirus NSs protein core domain structure suggests molecular basis for nuclear filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, Michal; Brennan, Benjamin; Miller, Ona K; Potter, Jane A; Vijayakrishnan, Swetha; Bhella, David; Naismith, James H; Elliott, Richard M; Schwarz-Linek, Ulrich

    2017-09-15

    Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a clinically and economically important pathogen increasingly likely to cause widespread epidemics. RVFV virulence depends on the interferon antagonist non-structural protein (NSs), which remains poorly characterized. We identified a stable core domain of RVFV NSs (residues 83-248), and solved its crystal structure, a novel all-helical fold organized into highly ordered fibrils. A hallmark of RVFV pathology is NSs filament formation in infected cell nuclei. Recombinant virus encoding the NSs core domain induced intranuclear filaments, suggesting it contains all essential determinants for nuclear translocation and filament formation. Mutations of key crystal fibril interface residues in viruses encoding full-length NSs completely abrogated intranuclear filament formation in infected cells. We propose the fibrillar arrangement of the NSs core domain in crystals reveals the molecular basis of assembly of this key virulence factor in cell nuclei. Our findings have important implications for fundamental understanding of RVFV virulence.

  7. Protein conservation and variation suggest mechanisms of cell type-specific modulation of signaling pathways.

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    Martin H Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins and signaling pathways are present in most cell types and tissues and yet perform specialized functions. To elucidate mechanisms by which these ubiquitous pathways are modulated, we overlaid information about cross-cell line protein abundance and variability, and evolutionary conservation onto functional pathway components and topological layers in the pathway hierarchy. We found that the input (receptors and the output (transcription factors layers evolve more rapidly than proteins in the intermediary transmission layer. In contrast, protein expression variability decreases from the input to the output layer. We observed that the differences in protein variability between the input and transmission layer can be attributed to both the network position and the tendency of variable proteins to physically interact with constitutively expressed proteins. Differences in protein expression variability and conservation are also accompanied by the tendency of conserved and constitutively expressed proteins to acquire somatic mutations, while germline mutations tend to occur in cell type-specific proteins. Thus, conserved core proteins in the transmission layer could perform a fundamental role in most cell types and are therefore less tolerant to germline mutations. In summary, we propose that the core signal transmission machinery is largely modulated by a variable input layer through physical protein interactions. We hypothesize that the bow-tie organization of cellular signaling on the level of protein abundance variability contributes to the specificity of the signal response in different cell types.

  8. Nuclear localization of DMP1 proteins suggests a role in intracellular signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siyam, Arwa [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States); Department of Endodontology, Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University, 3223 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140-5007 (United States); Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Mues, Gabriele [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States); Stevens, Roy [Department of Endodontology, Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University, 3223 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140-5007 (United States); D' Souza, Rena N. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States); Lu, Yongbo, E-mail: ylu@bcd.tamhsc.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of DMP1 in various cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-synchronized cells show either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of DMP1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear DMP1 is restricted to the nucleoplasm but absent in the nucleolus. -- Abstract: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in odontoblasts and osteoblasts/osteocytes and plays an essential role in tooth and bone mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. It is debatable whether DMP1, in addition to its function in the extracellular matrix, can enter the nucleus and function as a transcription factor. To better understand its function, we examined the nuclear localization of endogenous and exogenous DMP1 in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cells. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of endogenous Dmp1 in all three cell lines, while Western-blot analysis detected a major DMP1 protein band corresponding to the 57 kDa C-terminal fragment generated by proteolytic processing of the secreted full-length DMP1. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that non-synchronized cells presented two subpopulations with either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of endogenous DMP1. In addition, cells transfected with a construct expressing HA-tagged full-length DMP1 also showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of the exogenous DMP1 when examined with an antibody against the HA tag. Furthermore, nuclear DMP1 was restricted to the nucleoplasm but was absent in the nucleolus. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, apart from its role as a constituent of dentin and bone matrix, DMP1 might play a regulatory role in the nucleus.

  9. Nuclear localization of DMP1 proteins suggests a role in intracellular signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siyam, Arwa; Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Mues, Gabriele; Stevens, Roy; D’Souza, Rena N.; Lu, Yongbo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nuclear localization of DMP1 in various cell lines. ► Non-synchronized cells show either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of DMP1. ► Nuclear DMP1 is restricted to the nucleoplasm but absent in the nucleolus. -- Abstract: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in odontoblasts and osteoblasts/osteocytes and plays an essential role in tooth and bone mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. It is debatable whether DMP1, in addition to its function in the extracellular matrix, can enter the nucleus and function as a transcription factor. To better understand its function, we examined the nuclear localization of endogenous and exogenous DMP1 in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cells. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of endogenous Dmp1 in all three cell lines, while Western-blot analysis detected a major DMP1 protein band corresponding to the 57 kDa C-terminal fragment generated by proteolytic processing of the secreted full-length DMP1. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that non-synchronized cells presented two subpopulations with either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of endogenous DMP1. In addition, cells transfected with a construct expressing HA-tagged full-length DMP1 also showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of the exogenous DMP1 when examined with an antibody against the HA tag. Furthermore, nuclear DMP1 was restricted to the nucleoplasm but was absent in the nucleolus. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, apart from its role as a constituent of dentin and bone matrix, DMP1 might play a regulatory role in the nucleus.

  10. Dissecting protein loops with a statistical scalpel suggests a functional implication of some structural motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regad, Leslie; Martin, Juliette; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2011-06-20

    One of the strategies for protein function annotation is to search particular structural motifs that are known to be shared by proteins with a given function. Here, we present a systematic extraction of structural motifs of seven residues from protein loops and we explore their correspondence with functional sites. Our approach is based on the structural alphabet HMM-SA (Hidden Markov Model - Structural Alphabet), which allows simplification of protein structures into uni-dimensional sequences, and advanced pattern statistics adapted to short sequences. Structural motifs of interest are selected by looking for structural motifs significantly over-represented in SCOP superfamilies in protein loops. We discovered two types of structural motifs significantly over-represented in SCOP superfamilies: (i) ubiquitous motifs, shared by several superfamilies and (ii) superfamily-specific motifs, over-represented in few superfamilies. A comparison of ubiquitous words with known small structural motifs shows that they contain well-described motifs as turn, niche or nest motifs. A comparison between superfamily-specific motifs and biological annotations of Swiss-Prot reveals that some of them actually correspond to functional sites involved in the binding sites of small ligands, such as ATP/GTP, NAD(P) and SAH/SAM. Our findings show that statistical over-representation in SCOP superfamilies is linked to functional features. The detection of over-represented motifs within structures simplified by HMM-SA is therefore a promising approach for prediction of functional sites and annotation of uncharacterized proteins.

  11. Dissecting protein loops with a statistical scalpel suggests a functional implication of some structural motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Juliette

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the strategies for protein function annotation is to search particular structural motifs that are known to be shared by proteins with a given function. Results Here, we present a systematic extraction of structural motifs of seven residues from protein loops and we explore their correspondence with functional sites. Our approach is based on the structural alphabet HMM-SA (Hidden Markov Model - Structural Alphabet, which allows simplification of protein structures into uni-dimensional sequences, and advanced pattern statistics adapted to short sequences. Structural motifs of interest are selected by looking for structural motifs significantly over-represented in SCOP superfamilies in protein loops. We discovered two types of structural motifs significantly over-represented in SCOP superfamilies: (i ubiquitous motifs, shared by several superfamilies and (ii superfamily-specific motifs, over-represented in few superfamilies. A comparison of ubiquitous words with known small structural motifs shows that they contain well-described motifs as turn, niche or nest motifs. A comparison between superfamily-specific motifs and biological annotations of Swiss-Prot reveals that some of them actually correspond to functional sites involved in the binding sites of small ligands, such as ATP/GTP, NAD(P and SAH/SAM. Conclusions Our findings show that statistical over-representation in SCOP superfamilies is linked to functional features. The detection of over-represented motifs within structures simplified by HMM-SA is therefore a promising approach for prediction of functional sites and annotation of uncharacterized proteins.

  12. Analyses of soft tissue from Tyrannosaurus rex suggest the presence of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Suo, Zhiyong; Avci, Recep; Asara, John M; Allen, Mark A; Arce, Fernando Teran; Horner, John R

    2007-04-13

    We performed multiple analyses of Tyrannosaurus rex (specimen MOR 1125) fibrous cortical and medullary tissues remaining after demineralization. The results indicate that collagen I, the main organic component of bone, has been preserved in low concentrations in these tissues. The findings were independently confirmed by mass spectrometry. We propose a possible chemical pathway that may contribute to this preservation. The presence of endogenous protein in dinosaur bone may validate hypotheses about evolutionary relationships, rates, and patterns of molecular change and degradation, as well as the chemical stability of molecules over time.

  13. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that the Cypovirus 1 major core protein cistron harbours an overlapping gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkins John F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the genus Cypovirus (family Reoviridae are common pathogens of insects. These viruses have linear dsRNA genomes divided into 10–11 segments, which have generally been assumed to be monocistronic. Here, bioinformatic evidence is presented for a short overlapping coding sequence (CDS in the cypovirus genome segment encoding the major core capsid protein VP1, overlapping the 5'-terminal region of the VP1 ORF in the +1 reading frame. In Cypovirus type 1 (CPV-1, a 62-codon AUG-initiated open reading frame (hereafter ORFX is present in all four available segment 1 sequences. The pattern of base variations across the sequence alignment indicates that ORFX is subject to functional constraints at the amino acid level (even when the constraints due to coding in the overlapping VP1 reading frame are taken into account; MLOGD software. In fact the translated ORFX shows greater amino acid conservation than the overlapping region of VP1. The genomic location of ORFX is consistent with translation via leaky scanning. A 62–64 codon AUG-initiated ORF is present in a corresponding location and reading frame in other available cypovirus sequences (2 CPV-14, 1 CPV-15 and an 87-codon ORFX homologue may also be present in Aedes pseudoscutellaris reovirus. The ORFX amino acid sequences are hydrophilic and basic, with between 12 and 16 Arg/Lys residues in each though, at 7.5–10.2 kDa, the putative ORFX product is too small to appear on typical published protein gels.

  14. Molecular Ecology of nifH Genes and Transcripts Along a Chronosequence in Revegetated Areas of the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Bao, Jing-Ting; Li, Xin-Rong; Liu, Yu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The colonization and succession of diazotrophs are essential for the development of organic soil layers in desert. We examined the succession of diazotrophs in the well-established revegetated areas representing a chronosequence of 0 year (control), 22 years (restored artificially since 1981), 57 years (restored artificially since 1956), and more than 100 years (restored naturally) to determine the community assembly and active expression of diazotrophs. The pyrosequencing data revealed that Alphaproteobacteria-like diazotrophs predominated in the topsoil of our mobile dune site, while cyanobacterial diazotrophs predominated in the revegetated sites. The cyanobacterial diazotrophs were primarily composed of the heterocystous genera Anabaena, Calothrix, Cylindrospermum, Nodularia, Nostoc, Trichormus, and Mastigocladus. Almost all the nifH sequences belonged to the Cyanobacteria phylum (all the relative abundance values >99.1 %) at transcript level and all the active cyanobacterial diazotrophs distributed in the families Nostocaceae and Rivulariaceae. The most dominant active cyanobacterial genus was Cylindrospermum in all the samples. The rank abundance and community analyses demonstrated that most of the diazotrophic diversity originated from the "rare" species, and all the DNA-based diazotrophic libraries were richer and more diverse than their RNA-based counterparts in the revegetated sites. Significant differences in the diazotrophic community and their active population composition were observed among the four research sites. Samples from the 1981-revegetating site (predominated by cyanobacterial crusts) showed the highest nitrogenase activity, followed by samples from the naturally revegetating site (predominated by lichen crusts), the 1956-revegetating site (predominated by moss crusts), and the mobile dune site (without crusts). Collectively, our data highlight the importance of nitrogen fixation by the primary successional desert topsoil and suggest

  15. Virulence factor rtx in Legionella pneumophila, evidence suggesting it is a modular multifunctional protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelaz Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The repeats in toxin (Rtx are an important pathogenicity factor involved in host cells invasion of Legionella pneumophila and other pathogenic bacteria. Its role in escaping the host immune system and cytotoxic activity is well known. Its repeated motives and modularity make Rtx a multifunctional factor in pathogenicity. Results The comparative analysis of rtx gene among 6 strains of L. pneumophila showed modularity in their structures. Among compared genomes, the N-terminal region of the protein presents highly dissimilar repeats with functionally similar domains. On the contrary, the C-terminal region is maintained with a fashionable modular configuration, which gives support to its proposed role in adhesion and pore formation. Despite the variability of rtx among the considered strains, the flanking genes are maintained in synteny and similarity. Conclusion In contrast to the extracellular bacteria Vibrio cholerae, in which the rtx gene is highly conserved and flanking genes have lost synteny and similarity, the gene region coding for the Rtx toxin in the intracellular pathogen L. pneumophila shows a rapid evolution. Changes in the rtx could play a role in pathogenicity. The interplay of the Rtx toxin with host membranes might lead to the evolution of new variants that are able to escape host cell defences.

  16. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpells, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with [ 14 C]-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera

  17. NifH and NifD phylogenies: an evolutionary basis for understanding nitrogen fixation capabilities of methanotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Ricke, Peter; Liesack, Werner

    2004-05-01

    The ability to utilize dinitrogen as a nitrogen source is an important phenotypic trait in most currently known methanotrophic bacteria (MB). This trait is especially important for acidophilic MB, which inhabit acidic oligotrophic environments, highly depleted in available nitrogen compounds. Phylogenetically, acidophilic MB are most closely related to heterotrophic dinitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus BEIJERINCKIA: To further explore the phylogenetic linkage between these metabolically different organisms, the sequences of nifH and nifD gene fragments from acidophilic MB of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa, and from representatives of Beijerinckia, were determined. For reference, nifH and nifD sequences were also obtained from some type II MB of the alphaproteobacterial Methylosinus/Methylocystis group and from gammaproteobacterial type I MB. The trees constructed for the inferred amino acid sequences of nifH and nifD were highly congruent. The phylogenetic relationships among MB in the NifH and NifD trees also agreed well with the corresponding 16S rRNA-based phylogeny, except for two distinctive features. First, different methods used for phylogenetic analysis grouped the NifH and NifD sequences of strains of the gammaproteobacterial MB Methylococcus capsulatus within a clade mainly characterized by Alphaproteobacteria, including acidophilic MB and type II MB of the Methylosinus/Methylocystis group. From this and other genomic data from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, it is proposed that an ancient event of lateral gene transfer was responsible for this aberrant branching. Second, the identity values of NifH and NifD sequences between Methylocapsa acidiphila B2 and representatives of Beijerinckia were clearly higher (98.5 and 96.6 %, respectively) than would be expected from their 16S rRNA-based relationships. Possibly, these two bacteria originated from a common acidophilic dinitrogen-fixing ancestor, and were subject to similar evolutionary pressure

  18. ANALISIS AKTIVITAS NITROGENASE DAN GEN NIFH ISOLAT BAKTERI RHIZOSFER TANAMAN PADI DARI LAHAN SAWAH PESISIR JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ningsih Susilowati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenambatan nitrogen oleh bakteri rhizosfer dapat dimanfaatkan untuk menyiasati dampak salinitas pada tanah sawah pesisir. Kemampuan tersebut disebabkan oleh aktivitas nitrogenase yang disandikan gen nifH pada komponen II. Penelitian  ini bertujuan  menganalisis aktivitas nitrogenase pada kondisi salin dan mengidentifikasi gen nifH. Sebanyak 50 isolat bakteri rhizosfer asal tanah sawah pesisir daerah Eretan dan Patimban, Jawa Barat telah dianalisis. Lima isolat yang menunjukkan aktivitas nitrogenase pada kondisi salin adalah Er B1 3, Er B1 4, Er B1 9, Er B2 10, dan Ptb B1 4. Gen nifH kelima sampel diidentifikasi menggunakan PCR menghasilkan amplikon berukuran ~360 bp. Aktivitas nitrogenase tertinggi berdasarkan Analisis Reduksi Asetilen (ARA diperoleh pada isolat Er B2 10 yang memiliki kekerabatan terdekat dengan bakteri Providencia sp. Hasil yang diperoleh membuktikan bahwa beberapa bakteri asal sawah pesisir dapat menambat nitrogen pada kondisi salin.AbstractThe ability of nitrogen fixation by rhizosphere bacteria could be used to decrease salinity impact in coastal paddy field, due to nitrogenase capability, encoded by a nifH gene in component II. The objectives of this research are to analyze nitrogenase activity in saline condition and identify the presense of the nifH gene. A total of 50 isolates of the rhizosphere bacteria coastal from wetland areas of Eretan and Patimban, West Java, has been isolated and being analyzed. Among them, five isolates i.e. Er B1 3, ER B1 4, Er B1 9, Er B2 10 and Ptb B1 4, showed the nitrogenase activity under saline condition. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR of the nifH gene from those five samples resulted in the amplicon size of  ~360 bp. The highest activity of nitrogenase assessed by acetylene reduction assay (ARA was shown by Er B2 10 which closely related to bacteria of Providencia sp. The obtained result showed that several bacteria from coastal paddy field were able to conduct nitrogen

  19. Nitrogenase (nifH gene expression in diazotrophic cyanobacteria in the Tropical North Atlantic in response to nutrient amendments

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    Kendra A Turk-Kubo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tropical North Atlantic (TNAtl plays a critical role in the marine nitrogen cycle, as it supports high rates of biological nitrogen (N2 fixation, yet it is unclear whether this process is limited by the availability of iron (Fe, phosphate (P or is co-limited by both. In order to investigate the impact of nutrient limitation on the N2-fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs in the TNAtl, trace metal clean nutrient amendment experiments were conducted, and the expression of nitrogenase (nifH in cyanobacterial diazotrophs in response to the addition of Fe, P, or Fe+P was measured using quantitative PCR. To provide context, N2 fixation rates associated with the <10 μm community and diel nifH expression in natural cyanobacterial populations were measured. In the western TNAtl, nifH expression in Crocosphaera, Trichodesmium, and Richelia was stimulated by Fe and Fe+P additions, but not by P, implying that diazotrophs may be Fe-limited in this region. In the eastern TNAtl, nifH expression in unicellular cyanobacteria UCYN-A and Crocosphaera was stimulated by P, implying P-limitation. In equatorial waters, nifH expression in Trichodesmium was highest in Fe+P treatments, implying co-limitation in this region. Nutrient additions did not measurably stimulate N2 fixation rates in the <10 μm fraction in most of the experiments, even when upregulation of nifH expression was evident. These results demonstrate the utility of using gene expression to investigate the physiological state of natural populations of microorganisms, while underscoring the complexity of nutrient limitation on diazotrophy, and providing evidence that diazotroph populations are slow to respond to the addition of limiting nutrients and may be limited by different nutrients on basin-wide spatial scales. This has important implications for our current understanding of controls on N2 fixation in the TNAtl and may partially explain why it appears to be intermittently limited by Fe, P, or

  20. The structure of Plasmodium vivax phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein suggests a functional motif containing a left-handed helix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Tracy; Neely, Helen; Boni, Erica; Mueller, Natasha; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein from P. vivax, a homolog of Raf-kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), has been solved to a resolution of 1.3 Å. The inferred interaction surface near the anion-binding site is found to include a distinctive left-handed α-helix. The structure of a putative Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) homolog from the eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium vivax has been studied to a resolution of 1.3 Å using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se K edge. This protozoan protein is topologically similar to previously studied members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) sequence family, but exhibits a distinctive left-handed α-helical region at one side of the canonical phospholipid-binding site. Re-examination of previously determined PEBP structures suggests that the P. vivax protein and yeast carboxypeptidase Y inhibitor may represent a structurally distinct subfamily of the diverse PEBP-sequence family

  1. Wide range of interacting partners of pea Gβ subunit of G-proteins suggests its multiple functions in cell signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Deepak; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Tuteja, Narendra

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is a major concern especially in view of the increasing global population and food security. Plant scientists need to look for genetic tools whose appropriate usage can contribute to sustainable food availability. G-proteins have been identified as some of the potential genetic tools that could be useful for protecting plants from various stresses. Heterotrimeric G-proteins consisting of three subunits Gα, Gβ and Gγ are important components of a number of signalling pathways. Their structure and functions are already well studied in animals but their potential in plants is now gaining attention for their role in stress tolerance. Earlier we have reported that over expressing pea Gβ conferred heat tolerance in tobacco plants. Here we report the interacting partners (proteins) of Gβ subunit of Pisum sativum and their putative role in stress and development. Out of 90 transformants isolated from the yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) screening, seven were chosen for further investigation due to their recurrence in multiple experiments. These interacting partners were confirmed using β-galactosidase colony filter lift and ONPG (O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside) assays. These partners include thioredoxin H, histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein 5-like, pathogenesis-related protein, glucan endo-beta-1, 3-glucosidase (acidic isoform), glycine rich RNA binding protein, cold and drought-regulated protein (corA gene) and soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase 1. This study suggests the role of pea Gβ subunit in stress signal transduction and development pathways owing to its capability to interact with a wide range of proteins of multiple functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that the bornavirus glycoprotein is a class III viral fusion protein (γ penetrene

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    Garry Robert F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borna disease virus (BDV is the type member of the Bornaviridae, a family of viruses that induce often fatal neurological diseases in horses, sheep and other animals, and have been proposed to have roles in certain psychiatric diseases of humans. The BDV glycoprotein (G is an extensively glycosylated protein that migrates with an apparent molecular mass of 84,000 to 94,000 kilodaltons (kDa. BDV G is post-translationally cleaved by the cellular subtilisin-like protease furin into two subunits, a 41 kDa amino terminal protein GP1 and a 43 kDa carboxyl terminal protein GP2. Results Class III viral fusion proteins (VFP encoded by members of the Rhabdoviridae, Herpesviridae and Baculoviridae have an internal fusion domain comprised of beta sheets, other beta sheet domains, an extended alpha helical domain, a membrane proximal stem domain and a carboxyl terminal anchor. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that the structural/functional motifs that characterize class III VFP are located collinearly in BDV G. Structural models were established for BDV G based on the post-fusion structure of a prototypic class III VFP, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G. Conclusion These results suggest that G encoded by members of the Bornavirdae are class III VFPs (gamma-penetrenes.

  3. Identification of a multi-protein reductive dehalogenase complex in Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1 suggests a protein-dependent respiratory electron transport chain obviating quinone involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublik, Anja; Deobald, Darja; Hartwig, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), gel filtration and ultrafiltration an active dehalogenating protein complex with a molecular mass of 250–270 kDa was identified. The active subunit of reductive dehalogenase (RdhA) colocalised with a complex iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme (CISM) subunit (CbdbA195) and an iron-sulfur cluster...... of the dehalogenating complex prior to membrane solubilisation. Taken together, the identification of the respiratory dehalogenase protein complex and the absence of indications for quinone participation in the respiration suggest a quinone-independent protein-based respiratory electron transfer chain in D. mccartyi....

  4. Different redox sensitivity of endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation clients suggests a novel role for disulphide bonds in secretory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medraño-Fernandez, Iria; Fagioli, Claudio; Mezghrani, Alexandre; Otsu, Mieko; Sitia, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    To maintain proteostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), terminally misfolded secretory proteins must be recognized, partially unfolded, and dislocated to the cytosol for proteasomal destruction, in a complex process called ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Dislocation implies reduction of inter-chain disulphide bonds. When in its reduced form, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) can act not only as a reductase but also as an unfoldase, preparing substrates for dislocation. PDI oxidation by Ero1 favours substrate release and transport across the ER membrane. Here we addressed the redox dependency of ERAD and found that DTT stimulates the dislocation of proteins with DTT-resistant disulphide bonds (i.e., orphan Ig-μ chains) but stabilizes a ribophorin mutant (Ri332) devoid of them. DTT promotes the association of Ri332, but not of Ig-µ, with PDI. This discrepancy may suggest that disulphide bonds in cargo proteins can be utilized to oxidize PDI, hence facilitating substrate detachment and degradation also in the absence of Ero1. Accordingly, Ero1 silencing retards Ri332 degradation, but has little if any effect on Ig-µ. Thus, some disulphides can increase the stability and simultaneously favour quality control of secretory proteins.

  5. Differential representation of liver proteins in obese human subjects suggests novel biomarkers and promising targets for drug development in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Simonetta; Iannelli, Antonio; Sciarrillo, Rosaria; Picariello, Gianluca; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Addeo, Pietro

    2017-12-01

    The proteome of liver biopsies from human obese (O) subjects has been compared to those of nonobese (NO) subjects using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Differentially represented proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)-based peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and nanoflow-liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). Overall, 61 gene products common to all of the liver biopsies were identified within 65 spots, among which 25 ones were differently represented between O and NO subjects. In particular, over-representation of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, Δ(3,5)-Δ(2,4)dienoyl-CoA isomerase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase, fructose-biphosphate aldolase B, peroxiredoxin I, protein DJ-1, catalase, α- and β-hemoglobin subunits, 3-mercaptopyruvate S-transferase, calreticulin, aminoacylase 1, phenazine biosynthesis-like domain-containing protein and a form of fatty acid-binding protein, together with downrepresentation of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase A1, S-adenosylmethionine synthase 1A and a form of apolipoprotein A-I, was associated with the obesity condition. Some of these metabolic enzymes and antioxidant proteins have already been identified as putative diagnostic markers of liver dysfunction in animal models of steatosis or obesity, suggesting additional investigations on their role in these syndromes. Their differential representation in human liver was suggestive of their consideration as obesity human biomarkers and for the development of novel antiobesity drugs.

  6. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G protein β subunit suggests divergent mechanisms of effector activation between plant and animal G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, David; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, José Ramón

    2012-03-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are integral components of signal transduction in humans and other mammals and have been therefore extensively studied. However, while they are known to mediate many processes, much less is currently known about the effector pathways and molecular mechanisms used by these proteins to regulate effectors in plants. We designed a complementation strategy to study G protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana, particularly the mechanism of action of AGB1, the sole identified β subunit. We used biochemical and effector regulation data from human G protein studies to identify four potentially important residues for site-directed mutagenesis (T65, M111, D250 and W361 of AGB1). Each residue was individually mutated and the resulting mutated protein introduced in the agb1-2 mutant background under the control of the native AGB1 promoter. Interestingly, even though these mutations have been shown to have profound effects on effector signaling in humans, all the mutated subunits were able to restore thirteen of the fifteen Gβ-deficient phenotypes characterized in this study. Only one mutated protein, T65A was unable to complement the hypersensitivity to mannitol during germination observed in agb1 mutants; while only D250A failed to restore lateral root numbers in the agb1 mutant to wild-type levels. Our results suggest that the mechanisms used in mammalian G protein signaling are not well conserved in plant G protein signaling, and that either the effectors used by plant G proteins, or the mechanisms used to activate them, are at least partially divergent from the well-studied mammalian G proteins.

  7. Two-way communication between SecY and SecA suggests a Brownian ratchet mechanism for protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, William John; Corey, Robin Adam; Oatley, Peter; Sessions, Richard Barry; Baldwin, Steve A; Radford, Sheena E; Tuma, Roman; Collinson, Ian

    2016-05-16

    The essential process of protein secretion is achieved by the ubiquitous Sec machinery. In prokaryotes, the drive for translocation comes from ATP hydrolysis by the cytosolic motor-protein SecA, in concert with the proton motive force (PMF). However, the mechanism through which ATP hydrolysis by SecA is coupled to directional movement through SecYEG is unclear. Here, we combine all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single molecule FRET and biochemical assays. We show that ATP binding by SecA causes opening of the SecY-channel at long range, while substrates at the SecY-channel entrance feed back to regulate nucleotide exchange by SecA. This two-way communication suggests a new, unifying 'Brownian ratchet' mechanism, whereby ATP binding and hydrolysis bias the direction of polypeptide diffusion. The model represents a solution to the problem of transporting inherently variable substrates such as polypeptides, and may underlie mechanisms of other motors that translocate proteins and nucleic acids.

  8. Proteins Encoded in Genomic Regions Associated with Immune-Mediated Disease Physically Interact and Suggest Underlying Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Lage, Kasper; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Tatar, Diana; Benita, Yair

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed by these risk variants. It has previously been observed that different genes harboring causal mutations for the same Mendelian disease often physically interact. We sought to evaluate the degree to which this is true of genes within strongly associated loci in complex disease. Using sets of loci defined in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD) GWAS, we build protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks for genes within associated loci and find abundant physical interactions between protein products of associated genes. We apply multiple permutation approaches to show that these networks are more densely connected than chance expectation. To confirm biological relevance, we show that the components of the networks tend to be expressed in similar tissues relevant to the phenotypes in question, suggesting the network indicates common underlying processes perturbed by risk loci. Furthermore, we show that the RA and CD networks have predictive power by demonstrating that proteins in these networks, not encoded in the confirmed list of disease associated loci, are significantly enriched for association to the phenotypes in question in extended GWAS analysis. Finally, we test our method in 3 non-immune traits to assess its applicability to complex traits in general. We find that genes in loci associated to height and lipid levels assemble into significantly connected networks but did not detect excess connectivity among Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) loci beyond chance. Taken together, our results constitute evidence that, for many of the complex diseases studied here, common genetic associations implicate regions encoding proteins that physically interact in a preferential manner, in

  9. Interaction proteins of invertase and invertase inhibitor in cold-stored potato tubers suggested a protein complex underlying post-translational regulation of invertase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Xun; Ou, Yongbin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Huiling; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2013-12-01

    The activity of vacuolar invertase (VI) is vital to potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS). A post-translational regulation of VI activity has been proposed which involves invertase inhibitor (VIH), but the mechanism for the interaction between VI and VIH has not been fully understood. To identify the potential partners of VI and VIH, two cDNA libraries were respectively constructed from CIS-resistant wild potato species Solanum berthaultii and CIS-sensitive potato cultivar AC035-01 for the yeast two-hybrid analysis. The StvacINV1 (one of the potato VIs) and StInvInh2B (one of the potato VIHs), previously identified to be associated with potato CIS, were used as baits to screen the two libraries. Through positive selection and sequencing, 27 potential target proteins of StvacINV1 and eight of StInvInh2B were clarified. The Kunitz-type protein inhibitors were captured by StvacINV1 in both libraries and the interaction between them was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco cells, reinforcing a fundamental interaction between VI and VIH. Notably, a sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 was captured by both the baits, suggesting that a protein complex could be necessary for fine turning of the invertase activity. The target proteins clarified in present research provide a route to elucidate the mechanism by which the VI activity can be subtly modulated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Complementation of essential yeast GPI mannosyltransferase mutations suggests a novel specificity for certain Trypanosoma and Plasmodium PigB proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie K Cortes

    Full Text Available The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor is an essential glycolipid that tethers certain eukaryotic proteins to the cell surface. The core structure of the GPI anchor is remarkably well conserved across evolution and consists of NH2-CH2-CH2-PO4-6Manα1,2Manα1,6Manα1,4-GlcNα1,6-myo-inositol-PO4-lipid. The glycan portion of this structure may be modified with various side-branching sugars or other compounds that are heterogeneous and differ from organism to organism. One such modification is an α(1,2-linked fourth mannose (Man-IV that is side-branched to the third mannose (Man-III of the trimannosyl core. In fungi and mammals, addition of Man-III and Man-IV occurs by two distinct Family 22 α(1,2-mannosyltransferases, Gpi10/PigB and Smp3/PigZ, respectively. However, in the five protozoan parasite genomes we examined, no genes encoding Smp3/PigZ proteins were observed, despite reports of tetramannosyl-GPI structures (Man4-GPIs being produced by some parasites. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the Gpi10/PigB proteins produced by protozoan parasites have the ability to add both Man-III and Man-IV to GPI precursors. We used yeast genetics to test the in vivo specificity of Gpi10/PigB proteins from several Plasmodium and Trypanosoma species by examining their ability to restore viability to Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains harboring lethal defects in Man-III (gpi10Δ or Man-IV (smp3Δ addition to GPI precursor lipids. We demonstrate that genes encoding PigB enzymes from T. cruzi, T. congolense and P. falciparum are each capable of separately complementing essential gpi10Δ and smp3Δ mutations, while PIGB genes from T. vivax and T. brucei only complement gpi10Δ. Additionally, we show the ability of T. cruzi PIGB to robustly complement a gpi10Δ/smp3Δ double mutant. Our data suggest that certain Plasmodium and Trypanosoma PigB mannosyltransferases can transfer more than one mannose to GPI precursors in vivo, and suggest a novel

  11. Iron depletion affects nitrogenase activity and expression of nifH and nifA genes in Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosconi, Federico; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Platero, Raúl A; González, Cecilia; González, Marcela; Batista, Silvia; Gill, Paul R; Fabiano, Elena R

    2006-05-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium able to colonize the rhizosphere and the interior of several plants. As iron is a key element for nitrogen fixation, we examined the response of this microorganism to iron deficiency under nitrogen fixing conditions. We identified a H. seropedicae exbD gene that was induced in response to iron limitation and is involved in iron homeostasis. We found that an exbD mutant grown in iron-chelated medium is unable to fix nitrogen. Moreover, we provide evidence that expression of the nifH and nifA genes is iron dependent in a H. seropedicae genetic background.

  12. Pharmacological and protein profiling suggest venetoclax (ABT-199) as optimal partner with ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Gomez, Fabiola; Lamothe, Betty; Woyach, Jennifer A.; Wierda, William G.; Keating, Michael J.; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Gandhi, Varsha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical enzyme in the B-cell receptor pathway and is inhibited by ibrutinib due to covalent binding to the kinase domain. Though ibrutinib results in impressive clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), most patients achieve only partial remission due to residual disease. We performed a pharmacologic profiling of residual circulating CLL cells from patients receiving ibrutinib to identify optimal agents that could induce cell death of these lymphocytes. Experimental design Ex vivo serial samples of CLL cells from patients on ibrutinib were obtained prior and after (weeks 2, 4, and 12) the start of treatment. These cells were incubated with PI3K inhibitors (idelalisib or IPI-145), bendamustine, additional ibrutinib, or BCL-2 antagonists (ABT-737 or ABT-199) and cell death was measured. In vitro investigations complemented ex vivo studies. Immunoblots for BTK signaling pathway and antiapoptotic proteins were performed. Results The BCL-2 antagonists, especially ABT-199, induced high cell death during ex vivo incubations. In concert with the ex vivo data, in vitro combinations also resulted highly cytotoxicity. Serial samples of CLL cells obtained before and 2, 4, 12, or 36 weeks after the start of ibrutinib showed inhibition of BTK activity and sensitivity to ABTs. Among the three BCL-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins that are overexpressed in CLL, levels of MCL-1 and BCL-XL were decreased after ibrutinib while ABT-199 selectively antagonizes BCL-2. Conclusions Our biological and molecular results suggest that ibrutinib and ABT-199 combination should be tested clinically against CLL. PMID:25829398

  13. Pharmacological and Protein Profiling Suggests Venetoclax (ABT-199) as Optimal Partner with Ibrutinib in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Gomez, Fabiola; Lamothe, Betty; Woyach, Jennifer A; Wierda, William G; Keating, Michael J; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Gandhi, Varsha

    2015-08-15

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical enzyme in the B-cell receptor pathway and is inhibited by ibrutinib due to covalent binding to the kinase domain. Though ibrutinib results in impressive clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), most patients achieve only partial remission due to residual disease. We performed a pharmacologic profiling of residual circulating CLL cells from patients receiving ibrutinib to identify optimal agents that could induce cell death of these lymphocytes. Ex vivo serial samples of CLL cells from patients on ibrutinib were obtained prior and after (weeks 2, 4, and 12) the start of treatment. These cells were incubated with PI3K inhibitors (idelalisib or IPI-145), bendamustine, additional ibrutinib, or BCL-2 antagonists (ABT-737 or ABT-199), and cell death was measured. In vitro investigations complemented ex vivo studies. Immunoblots for BTK signaling pathway and antiapoptotic proteins were performed. The BCL-2 antagonists, especially ABT-199, induced high cell death during ex vivo incubations. In concert with the ex vivo data, in vitro combinations also resulted in high cytotoxicity. Serial samples of CLL cells obtained before and 2, 4, 12, or 36 weeks after the start of ibrutinib showed inhibition of BTK activity and sensitivity to ABTs. Among the three BCL-2 family antiapoptotic proteins that are overexpressed in CLL, levels of MCL-1 and BCL-XL were decreased after ibrutinib while ABT-199 selectively antagonizes BCL-2. Our biologic and molecular results suggest that ibrutinib and ABT-199 combination should be tested clinically against CLL. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Expression Patterns and Identified Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest That Cassava CBL-CIPK Signal Networks Function in Responses to Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chunyan; Wan, Shumin; Xia, Youquan; Ren, Ning; Zhou, Yang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2018-01-01

    Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL ( MeCBL ) and 26 CIPK ( MeCIPK ) genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBL s and CIPK s. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10 , and Na + /H + antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses.

  15. Genetic diversity of nifH gene sequences in Paenibacillus azotofixans strains and soil samples analyzed by denaturing gradiënt gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified gene fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosado, A.S.; Duarte, G.F.; Seldin, L.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The diversity of dinitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) fragments in Paenibacillus azotofixans strains was investigated by using molecular methods. The partial nifH gene sequences of eight P. azotofixans strains, as well as one strain each of the close relatives Paenibacillus durum, Paenibacillus

  16. Diverse mitotic functions of the cytoskeletal cross-linking protein Shortstop suggest a role in Dynein/Dynactin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Evan B; Johnston, Christopher A

    2017-09-15

    Proper assembly and orientation of the bipolar mitotic spindle is critical to the fidelity of cell division. Mitotic precision fundamentally contributes to cell fate specification, tissue development and homeostasis, and chromosome distribution within daughter cells. Defects in these events are thought to contribute to several human diseases. The underlying mechanisms that function in spindle morphogenesis and positioning remain incompletely defined, however. Here we describe diverse roles for the actin-microtubule cross-linker Shortstop (Shot) in mitotic spindle function in Drosophila Shot localizes to mitotic spindle poles, and its knockdown results in an unfocused spindle pole morphology and a disruption of proper spindle orientation. Loss of Shot also leads to chromosome congression defects, cell cycle progression delay, and defective chromosome segregation during anaphase. These mitotic errors trigger apoptosis in Drosophila epithelial tissue, and blocking this apoptotic response results in a marked induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker MMP-1. The actin-binding domain of Shot directly interacts with Actin-related protein-1 (Arp-1), a key component of the Dynein/Dynactin complex. Knockdown of Arp-1 phenocopies Shot loss universally, whereas chemical disruption of F-actin does so selectively. Our work highlights novel roles for Shot in mitosis and suggests a mechanism involving Dynein/Dynactin activation. © 2017 Dewey and Johnston. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Structural and Sequence Similarities of Hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum A Protein to Human Homolog Suggest Early Evolution and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Barve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA is a protein that binds to damaged DNA, verifies presence of a lesion, and recruits other proteins of the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway to the site. Though its homologs from yeast, Drosophila, humans, and so forth are well studied, XPA has not so far been reported from protozoa and lower animal phyla. Hydra is a fresh-water cnidarian with a remarkable capacity for regeneration and apparent lack of organismal ageing. Cnidarians are among the first metazoa with a defined body axis, tissue grade organisation, and nervous system. We report here for the first time presence of XPA gene in hydra. Putative protein sequence of hydra XPA contains nuclear localization signal and bears the zinc-finger motif. It contains two conserved Pfam domains and various characterized features of XPA proteins like regions for binding to excision repair cross-complementing protein-1 (ERCC1 and replication protein A 70 kDa subunit (RPA70 proteins. Hydra XPA shows a high degree of similarity with vertebrate homologs and clusters with deuterostomes in phylogenetic analysis. Homology modelling corroborates the very close similarity between hydra and human XPA. The protein thus most likely functions in hydra in the same manner as in other animals, indicating that it arose early in evolution and has been conserved across animal phyla.

  18. The structure of the hypothetical protein smu.1377c from Streptococcus mutans suggests a role in tRNA modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lanfen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from S. mutans, shows a similar fold to Sua5-YciO-YrdC-family proteins and indicates its functional role in tRNA modification. Members of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC protein family are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and possess a conserved α/β twisted open-sheet fold. The Escherichia coli protein YrdC has been shown to be involved in modification of tRNA. The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans, has been determined to 2.25 Å resolution. From structure analysis and comparison, it is shown that smu.1377c is a member of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC family and that it may play the same role as E. coli YrdC

  19. Expression Patterns and Identified Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest That Cassava CBL-CIPK Signal Networks Function in Responses to Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Mo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL (MeCBL and 26 CIPK (MeCIPK genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBLs and CIPKs. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10, and Na+/H+ antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses.

  20. Electrophoretic characterization of protein interactions suggesting limited feasibility of accelerated shelf-life testing of ultra-high temperature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Chandrapala, Jayani; Donkor, Osaana; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated shelf-life testing is applied to a variety of products to estimate keeping quality over a short period of time. The industry has not been successful in applying this approach to ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk because of chemical and physical changes in the milk proteins that take place during processing and storage. We investigated these protein changes, applying accelerated shelf-life principles to UHT milk samples with different fat levels and using native- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Samples of UHT skim and whole milk were stored at 20, 30, 40, and 50°C for 28d. Irrespective of fat content, UHT treatment had a similar effect on the electrophoretic patterns of milk proteins. At the start of testing, proteins were bonded mainly through disulfide and noncovalent interactions. However, storage at and above 30°C enhanced protein aggregation via covalent interactions. The extent of aggregation appeared to be influenced by fat content; whole milk contained more fat than skim milk, implying aggregation via melted or oxidized fat, or both. Based on reduction in loss in absolute quantity of individual proteins, covalent crosslinking in whole milk was facilitated mainly by products of lipid oxidation and increased access to caseins for crosslinking reactions. Maillard and dehydroalanine products were the main contributors involved in protein changes in skim milk. Protein crosslinking appeared to follow a different pathway at higher temperatures (≥40°C) than at lower temperatures, making it very difficult to extrapolate these changes to protein interactions at lower temperatures. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diversity of nifH gene pools in the rhizosphere of two cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) treated with contrasting levels of nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcia Reed Rodrigues; de Vos, Marjon; Carneiro, Newton Portilho; Marriel, Ivanildo Evódio; Paiva, Edilson; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-02-01

    The diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was assessed in the rhizospheres of two cultivars of sorghum (IS 5322-C and IPA 1011) sown in Cerrado soil amended with two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (12 and 120 kg ha(-1)). The nifH gene was amplified directly from DNA extracted from the rhizospheres, and the PCR products cloned and sequenced. Four clone libraries were generated from the nifH fragments and 245 sequences were obtained. Most of the clones (57%) were closely related to nifH genes of uncultured bacteria. NifH clones affiliated with Azohydromonas spp., Ideonella sp., Rhizobium etli and Bradyrhizobium sp. were found in all libraries. Sequences affiliated with Delftia tsuruhatensis were found in the rhizosphere of both cultivars sown with high levels of nitrogen, while clones affiliated with Methylocystis sp. were detected only in plants sown under low levels of nitrogen. Moreover, clones affiliated with Paenibacillus durus could be found in libraries from the cultivar IS 5322-C sown either in high or low amounts of fertilizer. This study showed that the amount of nitrogen used for fertilization is the overriding determinative factor that influenced the nitrogen-fixing community structures in sorghum rhizospheres cultivated in Cerrado soil.

  2. Diversity of nifH gene pools in the rhizosphere of two cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) treated with contrasting levels of nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, M.R.R.; Vos, de M.; Carneiro, N.P.; Marriel, I.E.; Paiva, E.; Seldin, L.

    2008-01-01

    The diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was assessed in the rhizospheres of two cultivars of sorghum (IS 5322-C and IPA 1011) sown in Cerrado soil amended with two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (12 and 120 kg ha(-1)). The nifH gene was amplified directly from DNA extracted from the rhizospheres,

  3. Metagenomic of Actinomycetes Based on 16S rRNA and nifH Genes in Soil and Roots of Four Indonesian Rice Cultivars Using PCR-DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyarudin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the metagenomic of actinomycetes based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA and bacterial nifH genes in soil and roots of four rice cultivars. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile based on 16S rRNA gene showed that the diversity of actinomycetes in roots was higher than soil samples. The profile also showed that the diversity of actinomycetes was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. The profile was partially sequenced and compared to GenBank database indicating their identity with closely related microbes. The blast results showed that 17 bands were closely related ranging from 93% to 100% of maximum identity with five genera of actinomycetes, which is Geodermatophilus, Actinokineospora, Actinoplanes, Streptomyces and Kocuria. Our study found that Streptomyces species in soil and roots of rice plants were more varied than other genera, with a dominance of Streptomyces alboniger and Streptomyces acidiscabies in almost all the samples. Bacterial community analyses based on nifH gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that diversity of bacteria in soils which have nifH gene was higher than that in rice plant roots. The profile also showed that the diversity of those bacteria was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. Five bands were closely related with nifH gene from uncultured bacterium clone J50, uncultured bacterium clone clod-38, and uncultured bacterium clone BG2.37 with maximum identity 99%, 98%, and 92%, respectively. The diversity analysis based on 16S rRNA gene differed from nifH gene and may not correlate with each other. The findings indicated the diversity of actinomycetes and several bacterial genomes analyzed here have an ability to fix nitrogen in soil and roots of rice plant.

  4. Mild trifunctional protein deficiency is associated with progressive neuropathy and myopathy and suggests a novel genotype-phenotype correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibdah, J. A.; Tein, I.; Dionisi-Vici, C.; Bennett, M. J.; IJlst, L.; Gibson, B.; Wanders, R. J.; Strauss, A. W.

    1998-01-01

    Human mitochondrial trifunctional protein (TFP) is a heterooctamer of four alpha- and four beta-subunits that catalyzes three steps in the beta-oxidation spiral of long-chain fatty acids. TFP deficiency causes a Reye-like syndrome, cardiomyopathy, or sudden, unexpected death. We delineated the

  5. Proteins Encoded in Genomic Regions Associated with Immune-Mediated Disease Physically Interact and Suggest Underlying Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed by these r......Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed...... in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD) GWAS, we build protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for genes within associated loci and find abundant physical interactions between protein products of associated genes. We apply multiple permutation approaches to show that these networks are more...... that the RA and CD networks have predictive power by demonstrating that proteins in these networks, not encoded in the confirmed list of disease associated loci, are significantly enriched for association to the phenotypes in question in extended GWAS analysis. Finally, we test our method in 3 non...

  6. Mild trifunctional protein deficiency is associated with progressive neuropathy and myopathy and suggests a novel genotype-phenotype correlation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibdah, J A; Tein, I; Dionisi-Vici, C; Bennett, M J; IJlst, L; Gibson, B; Wanders, R J; Strauss, A W

    1998-01-01

    Human mitochondrial trifunctional protein (TFP) is a heterooctamer of four alpha- and four beta-subunits that catalyzes three steps in the beta-oxidation spiral of long-chain fatty acids. TFP deficiency causes a Reye-like syndrome, cardiomyopathy, or sudden, unexpected death. We delineated the molecular basis for TFP deficiency in two patients with a unique phenotype characterized by chronic progressive polyneuropathy and myopathy without hepatic or cardiac involvement. Single-stranded confor...

  7. Hepatitis C virus inhibitor synergism suggests multistep interactions between heat-shock protein 90 and hepatitis C virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Naoko; Nomoto, Masataka; Hwang, Gi-Wook; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Kohara, Michinori; Wakita, Takaji; Naganuma, Akira; Kuge, Shusuke

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To address the effect of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors on the release of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a cell culture-derived HCV (JFH1/HCVcc) from Huh-7 cells was examined. METHODS: We quantified both the intracellular and extracellular (culture medium) levels of the components (RNA and core) of JFH-1/HCVcc. The intracellular HCV RNA and core levels were determined after the JFH1/HCVcc-infected Huh-7 cells were treated with radicicol for 36 h. The extracellular HCV RNA and core protein levels were determined from the medium of the last 24 h of radicicol treatment. To determine the possible role of the HSP90 inhibitor in HCV release, we examined the effect of a combined application of low doses of the HSP90 inhibitor radicicol and the RNA replication inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) or interferon. Finally, we statistically examined the combined effect of radicicol and CsA using the combination index (CI) and graphical representation proposed by Chou and Talalay. RESULTS: We found that the HSP90 inhibitors had greater inhibitory effects on the HCV RNA and core protein levels measured in the medium than inside the cells. This inhibitory effect was observed in the presence of a low level of a known RNA replication inhibitor (CsA or interferon-α). Treating the cells with a combination of radicicol and cyclosporin A for 24 h resulted in significant synergy (CI < 1) that affected the release of both the viral RNA and the core protein. CONCLUSION: In addition to having an inhibitory effect on RNA replication, HSP90 inhibitors may interfere with an HCV replication step that occurs after the synthesis of viral RNA, such as assembly and release. PMID:26925202

  8. Loss of Niemann-Pick C1 or C2 protein results in similar biochemical changes suggesting that these proteins function in a common lysosomal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali S Dixit

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the endolysosomal system. NPC disease results from a defect in either of two distinct cholesterol-binding proteins: a transmembrane protein, NPC1, and a small soluble protein, NPC2. NPC1 and NPC2 are thought to function closely in the export of lysosomal cholesterol with both proteins binding cholesterol in vitro but they may have unrelated lysosomal roles. To investigate this possibility, we compared biochemical consequences of the loss of either protein. Analyses of lysosome-enriched subcellular fractions from brain and liver revealed similar decreases in buoyant densities of lysosomes from NPC1 or NPC2 deficient mice compared to controls. The subcellular distribution of both proteins was similar and paralleled a lysosomal marker. In liver, absence of either NPC1 or NPC2 resulted in similar alterations in the carbohydrate processing of the lysosomal protease, tripeptidyl peptidase I. These results highlight biochemical alterations in the lysosomal system of the NPC-mutant mice that appear secondary to lipid storage. In addition, the similarity in biochemical phenotypes resulting from either NPC1 or NPC2 deficiency supports models in which the function of these two proteins within lysosomes are linked closely.

  9. Outer Membrane Protein A Conservation among Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates Suggests Its Potential as a Protective Antigen and Diagnostic Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Evans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus threatens one billion people in the Asia-Pacific area and cases have emerged outside this region. It is caused by infection with any of the multitude of strains of the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. A vaccine that affords heterologous protection and a commercially-available molecular diagnostic assay are lacking. Herein, we determined that the nucleotide and translated amino acid sequences of outer membrane protein A (OmpA are highly conserved among 51 O. tsutsugamushi isolates. Molecular modeling revealed the predicted tertiary structure of O. tsutsugamushi OmpA to be very similar to that of the phylogenetically-related pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, including the location of a helix that contains residues functionally essential for A. phagocytophilum infection. PCR primers were developed that amplified ompA DNA from all O. tsutsugamushi strains, but not from negative control bacteria. Using these primers in quantitative PCR enabled sensitive detection and quantitation of O. tsutsugamushi ompA DNA from organs and blood of mice that had been experimentally infected with the Karp or Gilliam strains. The high degree of OmpA conservation among O. tsutsugamushi strains evidences its potential to serve as a molecular diagnostic target and justifies its consideration as a candidate for developing a broadly-protective scrub typhus vaccine.

  10. Sialotranscriptomics of Rhipicephalus zambeziensis reveals intricate expression profiles of secretory proteins and suggests tight temporal transcriptional regulation during blood-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Minique Hilda; de Klerk, Daniel; Pienaar, Ronel; Rees, D Jasper G; Mans, Ben J

    2017-08-10

    Ticks secrete a diverse mixture of secretory proteins into the host to evade its immune response and facilitate blood-feeding, making secretory proteins attractive targets for the production of recombinant anti-tick vaccines. The largely neglected tick species, Rhipicephalus zambeziensis, is an efficient vector of Theileria parva in southern Africa but its available sequence information is limited. Next generation sequencing has advanced sequence availability for ticks in recent years and has assisted the characterisation of secretory proteins. This study focused on the de novo assembly and annotation of the salivary gland transcriptome of R. zambeziensis and the temporal expression of secretory protein transcripts in female and male ticks, before the onset of feeding and during early and late feeding. The sialotranscriptome of R. zambeziensis yielded 23,631 transcripts from which 13,584 non-redundant proteins were predicted. Eighty-six percent of these contained a predicted start and stop codon and were estimated to be putatively full-length proteins. A fifth (2569) of the predicted proteins were annotated as putative secretory proteins and explained 52% of the expression in the transcriptome. Expression analyses revealed that 2832 transcripts were differentially expressed among feeding time points and 1209 between the tick sexes. The expression analyses further indicated that 57% of the annotated secretory protein transcripts were differentially expressed. Dynamic expression profiles of secretory protein transcripts were observed during feeding of female ticks. Whereby a number of transcripts were upregulated during early feeding, presumably for feeding site establishment and then during late feeding, 52% of these were downregulated, indicating that transcripts were required at specific feeding stages. This suggested that secretory proteins are under stringent transcriptional regulation that fine-tunes their expression in salivary glands during feeding. No open

  11. Fusion protein gene nucleotide sequence similarities, shared antigenic sites and phylogenetic analysis suggest that phocid distemper virus 2 and canine distemper virus belong to the same virus entity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); R.W.J. van der Heijden (Roger); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); M.J.H. Kenter (Marcel); C. Örvell; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide sequencing of the fusion protein (F) gene of phocid distemper virus-2 (PDV-2), recently isolated from Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica), revealed an open reading frame (nucleotides 84 to 2075) with two potential in-frame ATG translation initiation codons. We suggest that the

  12. Structural mapping of the coiled-coil domain of a bacterial condensin and comparative analyses across all domains of life suggest conserved features of SMC proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Vincent M; Stanage, Tyler H; Mims, Alexandra; Norden, Ian S; Oakley, Martha G

    2015-06-01

    The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins form the cores of multisubunit complexes that are required for the segregation and global organization of chromosomes in all domains of life. These proteins share a common domain structure in which N- and C- terminal regions pack against one another to form a globular ATPase domain. This "head" domain is connected to a central, globular, "hinge" or dimerization domain by a long, antiparallel coiled coil. To date, most efforts for structural characterization of SMC proteins have focused on the globular domains. Recently, however, we developed a method to map interstrand interactions in the 50-nm coiled-coil domain of MukB, the divergent SMC protein found in γ-proteobacteria. Here, we apply that technique to map the structure of the Bacillus subtilis SMC (BsSMC) coiled-coil domain. We find that, in contrast to the relatively complicated coiled-coil domain of MukB, the BsSMC domain is nearly continuous, with only two detectable coiled-coil interruptions. Near the middle of the domain is a break in coiled-coil structure in which there are three more residues on the C-terminal strand than on the N-terminal strand. Close to the head domain, there is a second break with a significantly longer insertion on the same strand. These results provide an experience base that allows an informed interpretation of the output of coiled-coil prediction algorithms for this family of proteins. A comparison of such predictions suggests that these coiled-coil deviations are highly conserved across SMC types in a wide variety of organisms, including humans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Three-dimensional models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins Rv1555, Rv1554 and their docking analyses with sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil drugs, suggest interference with quinol binding likely to affect protein's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Pallabini; Bala Divya, M; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Guruprasad, Kunchur

    2018-04-18

    Earlier based on bioinformatics analyses, we had predicted the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) proteins; Rv1555 and Rv1554, among the potential new tuberculosis drug targets. According to the 'TB-drugome' the Rv1555 protein is 'druggable' with sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra) drugs. In the present work, we intended to understand via computer modeling studies, how the above drugs are likely to inhibit the M.tb protein's function. The three-dimensional computer models for M.tb proteins; Rv1555 and Rv1554 constructed on the template of equivalent membrane anchor subunits of the homologous E.coli quinol fumarate reductase respiratory protein complex, followed by drug docking analyses, suggested that the binding of above drugs interferes with quinol binding sites. Also, we experimentally observed the in-vitro growth inhibition of E.coli bacteria containing the homologous M.tb protein sequences with sildenafil and tadalafil drugs. The predicted binding sites of the drugs is likely to affect the above M.tb proteins function as quinol binding is known to be essential for electron transfer function during anaerobic respiration in the homologous E.coli protein complex. Therefore, sildenafil and related drugs currently used in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction targeting the human phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme may be evaluated for their plausible role as repurposed drugs to treat human tuberculosis.

  14. Subcellular localization analysis of the closely related Fps/Fes and Fer protein-tyrosine kinases suggests a distinct role for Fps/Fes in vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirngibl, R; Schulze, D; Mirski, S E; Cole, S P; Greer, P A

    2001-05-15

    The subcellular localizations of the Fps/Fes and closely related Fer cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases were studied using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions and confocal fluorescence microscopy. In contrast to previous reports, neither kinase localized to the nucleus. Fer was diffusely cytoplasmic throughout the cell cycle. Fps/Fes also displayed a diffuse cytoplasmic localization, but in addition it showed distinct accumulations in cytoplasmic vesicles as well as in a perinuclear region consistent with the Golgi. This localization was very similar to that of TGN38, a known marker of the trans Golgi. The localization of Fps/Fes and TGN38 were both perturbed by brefeldin A, a fungal metabolite that disrupts the Golgi apparatus. Fps/Fes was also found to colocalize to various extents with several Rab proteins, which are members of the monomeric G-protein superfamily involved in vesicular transport between specific subcellular compartments. Using Rabs that are involved in endocytosis (Rab5B and Rab7) or exocytosis (Rab1A and Rab3A), we showed that Fps/Fes is localized in both pathways. These results suggest that Fps/Fes may play a general role in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Functional divergence outlines the evolution of novel protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... identified a number of vital amino acid sites which contribute to predicted functional diversity. We have ... Taking this into account, in this study we looked into the possibility of ... to the structure of NifH protein and solubility accessibility of ..... ment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties.

  16. The N54-αs Mutant Has Decreased Affinity for βγ and Suggests a Mechanism for Coupling Heterotrimeric G Protein Nucleotide Exchange with Subunit Dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleator, John H; Wells, Christopher A; Dingus, Jane; Kurtz, David T; Hildebrandt, John D

    2018-05-01

    Ser54 of G s α binds guanine nucleotide and Mg 2+ as part of a conserved sequence motif in GTP binding proteins. Mutating the homologous residue in small and heterotrimeric G proteins generates dominant-negative proteins, but by protein-specific mechanisms. For α i/o , this results from persistent binding of α to βγ , whereas for small GTP binding proteins and α s this results from persistent binding to guanine nucleotide exchange factor or receptor. This work examined the role of βγ interactions in mediating the properties of the Ser54-like mutants of G α subunits. Unexpectedly, WT- α s or N54- α s coexpressed with α 1B -adrenergic receptor in human embryonic kidney 293 cells decreased receptor stimulation of IP3 production by a cAMP-independent mechanism, but WT- α s was more effective than the mutant. One explanation for this result would be that α s , like Ser47 α i/o , blocks receptor activation by sequestering βγ ; implying that N54- α S has reduced affinity for βγ since it was less effective at blocking IP3 production. This possibility was more directly supported by the observation that WT- α s was more effective than the mutant in inhibiting βγ activation of phospholipase C β 2. Further, in vitro synthesized N54- α s bound biotinylated- βγ with lower apparent affinity than did WT- α s The Cys54 mutation also decreased βγ binding but less effectively than N54- α s Substitution of the conserved Ser in α o with Cys or Asn increased βγ binding, with the Cys mutant being more effective. This suggests that Ser54 of α s is involved in coupling changes in nucleotide binding with altered subunit interactions, and has important implications for how receptors activate G proteins. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Immunolocalization of keratin-associated beta-proteins (beta-keratins) in pad lamellae of geckos suggest that glycine-cysteine-rich proteins contribute to their flexibility and adhesiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2013-03-01

    The epidermis of digital pads in geckos comprises superficial microornamentation from the oberhautchen layer that form long setae allowing these lizards to climb vertical surfaces. The beta-layer is reduced in pad lamellae but persists up to the apical free margin. Setae are made of different proteins including keratin-associated beta-proteins, formerly indicated as beta-keratins. In order to identify specific setal proteins the present ultrastructural study on geckos pad lamellae analyzes the immunolocalization of three beta-proteins previously found in the epidermis and adhesive setae of the green anolis. A protein rich in glycine but poor in cysteine (HgG5-like) is absent or masked in gecko pad lamellae. Another protein rich in glycine and cysteine (HgGC3-like) is weakly present in setae, oberhautchen and beta-layer. A glycine and cysteine medium rich beta-protein (HgGC10-like) is present in the lower part of the beta-layer but is absent in the oberhautchen, setae, and mesos layer. The latter two proteins may form intermolecular bonds that contribute to the flexibility of the corneous material sustaining the setae. The pliable alpha-layer present beneath the thin beta-layer and in the hinge region of the pad lamellae also contains HgGC10-like proteins. Based on the possibility that some HgGC3-like or other cys-rich beta-proteins are charged in the setae it is suggested that their charges influence the mechanism of adhesion increasing the induction of dipoles on the substrate and enhancing attractive van der Waals forces. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, amoA and nifH bacterial genes during assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karis N.; Neilson, Julia W.; Root, Robert A.; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings in semiarid regions are highly susceptible to erosion and are sources of dust pollution and potential avenues of human exposure to toxic metals. One constraint to revegetation of tailings by phytostabilization is the absence of microbial communities critical for biogeochemical cycling of plant nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific genes as in situ indicators of biological soil response during phytoremediation. The abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, nifH, and amoA were monitored during a nine month phytostabilization study using buffalo grass and quailbush grown in compost-amended, metalliferous tailings. The compost amendment provided a greater than 5-log increase in bacterial abundance, and survival of this compost-inoculum was more stable in planted treatments. Despite increased abundance, the activity of the introduced community was low, and significant increases were not detected until six and nine months in quailbush, and unplanted compost and buffalo grass treatments, respectively. In addition, increased abundances of nitrogen-fixation (nifH) and ammonia-oxidizing (amoA) genes were observed in rhizospheres of buffalo grass and quailbush, respectively. Thus, plant establishment facilitated the short term stabilization of introduced bacterial biomass and supported the growth of two key nitrogen-cycling populations in compost-amended tailings. PMID:25495940

  19. Abundance and Activity of 16S rRNA, AmoA and NifH Bacterial Genes During Assisted Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karis N; Neilson, Julia W; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2015-01-01

    Mine tailings in semiarid regions are highly susceptible to erosion and are sources of dust pollution and potential avenues of human exposure to toxic metals. One constraint to revegetation of tailings by phytostabilization is the absence of microbial communities critical for biogeochemical cycling of plant nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific genes as in situ indicators of biological soil response during phytoremediation. The abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, nifH, and amoA were monitored during a nine month phytostabilization study using buffalo grass and quailbush grown in compost-amended, metalliferous tailings. The compost amendment provided a greater than 5-log increase in bacterial abundance, and survival of this compost-inoculum was more stable in planted treatments. Despite increased abundance, the activity of the introduced community was low, and significant increases were not detected until six and nine months in quailbush, and unplanted compost and buffalo grass treatments, respectively. In addition, increased abundances of nitrogen-fixation (nifH) and ammonia-oxidizing (amoA) genes were observed in rhizospheres of buffalo grass and quailbush, respectively. Thus, plant establishment facilitated the short term stabilization of introduced bacterial biomass and supported the growth of two key nitrogen-cycling populations in compost-amended tailings.

  20. Presence of a mitochondrial-type 70-kDa heat shock protein in Trichomonas vaginalis suggests a very early mitochondrial endosymbiosis in eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germot, Agnès; Philippe, Hervé; Le Guyader, Hervé

    1996-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based mainly on ribosomal RNA, show that three amitochondriate protist lineages, diplomonads, microsporidia, and trichomonads, emerge consistently at the base of the eukaryotic tree before groups having mitochondria. This suggests that these groups could have diverged before the mitochondrial endosymbiosis. Nevertheless, since all these organisms live in anaerobic environments, the absence of mitochondria might be due to secondary loss, as demonstrated for the later emerging eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica. We have now isolated from Trichomonas vaginalis a gene encoding a chaperone protein (HSP70) that in other lineages is addressed to the mitochondrial compartment. The phylogenetic reconstruction unambiguously located this HSP70 within a large set of mitochondrial sequences, itself a sister-group of α-purple bacteria. In addition, the T. vaginalis protein exhibits the GDAWV sequence signature, so far exclusively found in mitochondrial HSP70 and in proteobacterial dnaK. Thus mitochondrial endosymbiosis could have occurred earlier than previously assumed. The trichomonad double membrane-bounded organelles, the hydrogenosomes, could have evolved from mitochondria. PMID:8962101

  1. Presence of a mitochondrial-type 70-kDa heat shock protein in Trichomonas vaginalis suggests a very early mitochondrial endosymbiosis in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germot, A; Philippe, H; Le Guyader, H

    1996-12-10

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based mainly on ribosomal RNA, show that three amitochondriate protist lineages, diplomonads, microsporidia, and trichomonads, emerge consistently at the base of the eukaryotic tree before groups having mitochondria. This suggests that these groups could have diverged before the mitochondrial endosymbiosis. Nevertheless, since all these organisms live in anaerobic environments, the absence of mitochondria might be due to secondary loss, as demonstrated for the later emerging eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica. We have now isolated from Trichomonas vaginalis a gene encoding a chaperone protein (HSP70) that in other lineages is addressed to the mitochondrial compartment. The phylogenetic reconstruction unambiguously located this HSP70 within a large set of mitochondrial sequences, itself a sister-group of alpha-purple bacteria. In addition, the T. vaginalis protein exhibits the GDAWV sequence signature, so far exclusively found in mitochondrial HSP70 and in proteobacterial dnaK. Thus mitochondrial endosymbiosis could have occurred earlier than previously assumed. The trichomonad double membrane-bounded organelles, the hydrogenosomes, could have evolved from mitochondria.

  2. Cholesterol-induced conformational changes in the sterol-sensing domain of the Scap protein suggest feedback mechanism to control cholesterol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yansong; Zhou, Yulian; Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S; Radhakrishnan, Arun

    2017-05-26

    Scap is a polytopic protein of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes that transports sterol regulatory element-binding proteins to the Golgi complex for proteolytic activation. Cholesterol accumulation in ER membranes prevents Scap transport and decreases cholesterol synthesis. Previously, we provided evidence that cholesterol inhibition is initiated when cholesterol binds to loop 1 of Scap, which projects into the ER lumen. Within cells, this binding causes loop 1 to dissociate from loop 7, another luminal Scap loop. However, we have been unable to demonstrate this dissociation when we added cholesterol to isolated complexes of loops 1 and 7. We therefore speculated that the dissociation requires a conformational change in the intervening polytopic sequence separating loops 1 and 7. Here we demonstrate such a change using a protease protection assay in sealed membrane vesicles. In the absence of cholesterol, trypsin or proteinase K cleaved cytosolic loop 4, generating a protected fragment that we visualized with a monoclonal antibody against loop 1. When cholesterol was added to these membranes, cleavage in loop 4 was abolished. Because loop 4 is part of the so-called sterol-sensing domain separating loops 1 and 7, these results support the hypothesis that cholesterol binding to loop 1 alters the conformation of the sterol-sensing domain. They also suggest that this conformational change helps transmit the cholesterol signal from loop 1 to loop 7, thereby allowing separation of the loops and facilitating the feedback inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. These insights suggest a new structural model for cholesterol-mediated regulation of Scap activity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Different roles suggested by sex-biased expression and pheromone binding affinity among three pheromone binding proteins in the pink rice borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Yan; Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Liu, Nai-Yong; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-07-01

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to bind and transport hydrophobic sex pheromone molecules across the aqueous sensillar lymph to specific pheromone receptors on the dendritic membrane of olfactory neurons. A maximum of 3 PBP genes have been consistently identified in noctuid species, and each of them shares high identity with its counterparts in other species within the family. The functionality differences of the 3 proteins are poorly understood. In the present study, 3 PBP cDNAs (SinfPBP1, 2, 3) were identified from the pink rice borer, Sesamia inferens, for the first time. The quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the 3 PBPs displayed similar temporal but very different sex related expression profiles. Expression of SinfPBP1 and SinfPBP2 were highly and moderately male biased, respectively, while SinfPBP3 was slightly female biased, as SinfPBPs were expressed at very different levels (PBP1>PBP2≫PBP3) in male antennae, but at similar levels in female antennae. Furthermore, the 3 SinfPBPs displayed different ligand binding profiles in fluorescence competitive binding assays. SinfPBP1 exhibited high and similar binding affinities to all 3 sex pheromone components (Ki=0.72-1.60 μM), while SinfPBP2 showed selective binding to the alcohol and aldehyde components (Ki=0.78-1.71 μM), and SinfPBP3 showed no obvious binding to the 3 sex pheromone components. The results suggest that SinfPBP1 plays a major role in the reception of female sex pheromones in S. inferens, while SinfPBP3 plays a least role (if any) and SinfPBP2 functions as a recognizer of alcohol and aldehyde components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Binding of influenza A virus NS1 protein to the inter-SH2 domain of p85 suggests a novel mechanism for phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Benjamin G; Batty, Ian H; Downes, C Peter; Randall, Richard E

    2008-01-18

    Influenza A virus NS1 protein stimulates host-cell phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling by binding to the p85beta regulatory subunit of PI3K. Here, in an attempt to establish a mechanism for this activation, we report further on the functional interaction between NS1 and p85beta. Complex formation was found to be independent of NS1 RNA binding activity and is mediated by the C-terminal effector domain of NS1. Intriguingly, the primary direct binding site for NS1 on p85beta is the inter-SH2 domain, a coiled-coil structure that acts as a scaffold for the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3K. In vitro kinase activity assays, together with protein binding competition studies, reveal that NS1 does not displace p110 from the inter-SH2 domain, and indicate that NS1 can form an active heterotrimeric complex with PI3K. In addition, it was established that residues at the C terminus of the inter-SH2 domain are essential for mediating the interaction between p85beta and NS1. Equivalent residues in p85alpha have previously been implicated in the basal inhibition of p110. However, such p85alpha residues were unable to substitute for those in p85beta with regards NS1 binding. Overall, these data suggest a model by which NS1 activates PI3K catalytic activity by masking a normal regulatory element specific to the p85beta inter-SH2 domain.

  5. Impairment of different protein domains causes variable clinical presentation within Pitt-Hopkins syndrome and suggests intragenic molecular syndromology of TCF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedeschi, Maria Francesca; Marangi, Giuseppe; Calvello, Maria Rosaria; Ricciardi, Stefania; Leone, Francesca Pia Chiara; Baccarin, Marco; Guerneri, Silvana; Orteschi, Daniela; Murdolo, Marina; Lattante, Serena; Frangella, Silvia; Keena, Beth; Harr, Margaret H; Zackai, Elaine; Zollino, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability and a distinctive facial gestalt. It is caused by haploinsufficiency of the TCF4 gene. The TCF4 protein has different functional domains, with the NLS (nuclear localization signal) domain coded by exons 7-8 and the bHLH (basic Helix-Loop-Helix) domain coded by exon 18. Several alternatively spliced TCF4 variants have been described, allowing for translation of variable protein isoforms. Typical PTHS patients have impairment of at least the bHLH domain. To which extent impairment of the remaining domains contributes to the final phenotype is not clear. There is recent evidence that certain loss-of-function variants disrupting TCF4 are associated with mild ID, but not with typical PTHS. We describe a frameshift-causing partial gene deletion encompassing exons 4-6 of TCF4 in an adult patient with mild ID and nonspecific facial dysmorphisms but without the typical features of PTHS, and a c.520C > T nonsense variant within exon 8 in a child presenting with a severe phenotype largely mimicking PTHS, but lacking the typical facial dysmorphism. Investigation on mRNA, along with literature review, led us to suggest a preliminary phenotypic map of loss-of-function variants affecting TCF4. An intragenic phenotypic map of loss-of-function variants in TCF4 is suggested here for the first time: variants within exons 1-4 and exons 4-6 give rise to a recurrent phenotype with mild ID not in the spectrum of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (biallelic preservation of both the NLS and bHLH domains); variants within exons 7-8 cause a severe phenotype resembling PTHS but in absence of the typical facial dysmorphism (impairment limited to the NLS domain); variants within exons 9-19 cause typical Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (impairment of at least the bHLH domain). Understanding the TCF4 molecular syndromology can allow for proper nosology in the current era of whole genomic investigations. Copyright

  6. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolova Svetla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP, in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only, serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases.

  7. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2016-07-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. © 2016 The Authors. BioEssays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin‐converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen‐Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J.; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R.; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E.; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole‐body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3‐55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. PMID:27347560

  9. The Structure of the Neurotoxin- Associated Protein HA33/A from Clostridium botulinum Suggests a Reoccurring Beta-Trefoil Fold in the Progenitor Toxin Complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arndt, Joseph W; Gu, Jenny; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Hanson, Michael A; Lebeda, Frank L; Stevens, Raymond C

    2004-01-01

    The hemagglutinating protein HA33 from Clostridium botulinum is associated with the large botulinum neurotoxin secreted complexes and is critical in toxin protection, internalization, and possibly activation...

  10. Structure of the Z Ring-associated Protein, ZapD, Bound to the C-terminal Domain of the Tubulin-like Protein, FtsZ, Suggests Mechanism of Z Ring Stabilization through FtsZ Cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Maria A; Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Zeng, Wenjie; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2017-03-03

    Cell division in most bacteria is mediated by the tubulin-like FtsZ protein, which polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner to form the cytokinetic Z ring. A diverse repertoire of FtsZ-binding proteins affects FtsZ localization and polymerization to ensure correct Z ring formation. Many of these proteins bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) of FtsZ, which serves as a hub for FtsZ regulation. FtsZ ring-associated proteins, ZapA-D (Zaps), are important FtsZ regulatory proteins that stabilize FtsZ assembly and enhance Z ring formation by increasing lateral assembly of FtsZ protofilaments, which then form the Z ring. There are no structures of a Zap protein bound to FtsZ; therefore, how these proteins affect FtsZ polymerization has been unclear. Recent data showed ZapD binds specifically to the FtsZ CTD. Thus, to obtain insight into the ZapD-CTD interaction and how it may mediate FtsZ protofilament assembly, we determined the Escherichia coli ZapD-FtsZ CTD structure to 2.67 Å resolution. The structure shows that the CTD docks within a hydrophobic cleft in the ZapD helical domain and adopts an unusual structure composed of two turns of helix separated by a proline kink. FtsZ CTD residue Phe-377 inserts into the ZapD pocket, anchoring the CTD in place and permitting hydrophobic contacts between FtsZ residues Ile-374, Pro-375, and Leu-378 with ZapD residues Leu-74, Trp-77, Leu-91, and Leu-174. The structural findings were supported by mutagenesis coupled with biochemical and in vivo studies. The combined data suggest that ZapD acts as a molecular cross-linking reagent between FtsZ protofilaments to enhance FtsZ assembly. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Linking carbon and nitrogen cycling: Environmental transcription of mmoX, pmoA, and nifH by methane oxidizing Proteobacteria in a Sub-Arctic palsa peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Susanne; Svenning, Mette M.

    2013-04-01

    Sub-Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are currently affected by climate change which causes degradation of stored organic carbon and emissions of greenhouse gases from microbial processes. Methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) mitigate methane emissions and perform an important function in the soil-atmosphere interaction. In this study we investigated presence and environmental transcription of functional genes of MOB along the degradation of permafrost in a Sub-Arctic palsa peatland using molecular approaches. The acidic and oligotrophic peatland hosts a small number of active MOB among a seemingly specialized community. The methanotrophic community displayed a broad functional potential by transcribing genes for key enzymes involved in both carbon and nitrogen metabolisms including particulate and soluble methane monoogygenase (pMMO and sMMO) as well as nitrogenase. Transcription of mmoX that encodes for a subunit of the sMMO suggests an ecological importance of sMMO with a broad substrate range in this peatland. In situ transcripts of mmoX were tracked mainly to Methylocella related Beijerinckiaceae, and to relatives of Methylomonas while Methylocystis constituting the dominant group which utilizes pMMO. These results address interesting questions concerning in-situ substrate preferences of MOB, and the general importance of species that lack a pMMO for mitigating methane emissions. The importance of MOB for the nitrogen budget in this low pH, nitrogen limited habitat was identified by nifH transcripts of native methanotrophs. Hence, methane oxidizing Proteobacteria show an extended functional repertoire and importance for the biogeochemical cycling in this dynamic ecosystem of degrading permafrost.

  12. Analysis of antisense expression by whole genome tiling microarrays and siRNAs suggests mis-annotation of Arabidopsis orphan protein-coding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey R Richardson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs and trans-acting small-interfering RNAs (tasi-RNAs are small (20-22 nt long RNAs (smRNAs generated from hairpin secondary structures or antisense transcripts, respectively, that regulate gene expression by Watson-Crick pairing to a target mRNA and altering expression by mechanisms related to RNA interference. The high sequence homology of plant miRNAs to their targets has been the mainstay of miRNA prediction algorithms, which are limited in their predictive power for other kingdoms because miRNA complementarity is less conserved yet transitive processes (production of antisense smRNAs are active in eukaryotes. We hypothesize that antisense transcription and associated smRNAs are biomarkers which can be computationally modeled for gene discovery.We explored rice (Oryza sativa sense and antisense gene expression in publicly available whole genome tiling array transcriptome data and sequenced smRNA libraries (as well as C. elegans and found evidence of transitivity of MIRNA genes similar to that found in Arabidopsis. Statistical analysis of antisense transcript abundances, presence of antisense ESTs, and association with smRNAs suggests several hundred Arabidopsis 'orphan' hypothetical genes are non-coding RNAs. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found novel Arabidopsis homologues of some MIRNA genes on the antisense strand of previously annotated protein-coding genes. A Support Vector Machine (SVM was applied using thermodynamic energy of binding plus novel expression features of sense/antisense transcription topology and siRNA abundances to build a prediction model of miRNA targets. The SVM when trained on targets could predict the "ancient" (deeply conserved class of validated Arabidopsis MIRNA genes with an accuracy of 84%, and 76% for "new" rapidly-evolving MIRNA genes.Antisense and smRNA expression features and computational methods may identify novel MIRNA genes and other non-coding RNAs in plants and potentially other

  13. Origin and spread of photosynthesis based upon conserved sequence features in key bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S

    2012-11-01

    The origin of photosynthesis and how this capability has spread to other bacterial phyla remain important unresolved questions. I describe here a number of conserved signature indels (CSIs) in key proteins involved in bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) biosynthesis that provide important insights in these regards. The proteins BchL and BchX, which are essential for Bchl biosynthesis, are derived by gene duplication in a common ancestor of all phototrophs. More ancient gene duplication gave rise to the BchX-BchL proteins and the NifH protein of the nitrogenase complex. The sequence alignment of NifH-BchX-BchL proteins contain two CSIs that are uniquely shared by all NifH and BchX homologs, but not by any BchL homologs. These CSIs and phylogenetic analysis of NifH-BchX-BchL protein sequences strongly suggest that the BchX homologs are ancestral to BchL and that the Bchl-based anoxygenic photosynthesis originated prior to the chlorophyll (Chl)-based photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Another CSI in the BchX-BchL sequence alignment that is uniquely shared by all BchX homologs and the BchL sequences from Heliobacteriaceae, but absent in all other BchL homologs, suggests that the BchL homologs from Heliobacteriaceae are primitive in comparison to all other photosynthetic lineages. Several other identified CSIs in the BchN homologs are commonly shared by all proteobacterial homologs and a clade consisting of the marine unicellular Cyanobacteria (Clade C). These CSIs in conjunction with the results of phylogenetic analyses and pair-wise sequence similarity on the BchL, BchN, and BchB proteins, where the homologs from Clade C Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria exhibited close relationship, provide strong evidence that these two groups have incurred lateral gene transfers. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses and several CSIs in the BchL-N-B proteins that are uniquely shared by all Chlorobi and Chloroflexi homologs provide evidence that the genes for these proteins have also been

  14. 2D DIGE Does Not Reveal all: A Scotopic Report Suggests Differential Expression of a Single "Calponin Family Member" Protein for Tetany of Sphincters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Using 2D differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS), a recent report by Rattan and Ali (2015) compared proteome expression between tonically contracted sphincteric smooth muscles of the internal anal sphincter (IAS), in comparison to the adjacent rectum [rectal smooth muscles (RSM)] that contracts in a phasic fashion. The study showed the differential expression of a single 23 kDa protein SM22, which was 1.87 fold, overexpressed in RSM in comparison to IAS. Earlier studies have shown differences in expression of different proteins like Rho-associated protein kinase II, myosin light chain kinase, myosin phosphatase, and protein kinase C between IAS and RSM. The currently employed methods, despite its high-throughput potential, failed to identify these well-characterized differences between phasic and tonic muscles. This calls into question the fidelity and validatory potential of the otherwise powerful technology of 2D DIGE/MS. These discrepancies, when redressed in future studies, will evolve this recent report as an important baseline study of "sphincter proteome." Proteomics techniques are currently underutilized in examining pathophysiology of hypertensive/hypotensive disorders involving gastrointestinal sphincters, including achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), spastic pylorus, seen during diabetes or chronic chemotherapy, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and recto-anal incontinence. Global proteome mapping may provide instant snapshot of the complete repertoire of differential proteins, thus expediting to identify the molecular pathology of gastrointestinal motility disorders currently labeled "idiopathic" and facilitating practice of precision medicine.

  15. Chemical-genetic profile analysis in yeast suggests that a previously uncharacterized open reading frame, YBR261C, affects protein synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eroukova Veronika

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional genomics has received considerable attention in the post-genomic era, as it aims to identify function(s for different genes. One way to study gene function is to investigate the alterations in the responses of deletion mutants to different stimuli. Here we investigate the genetic profile of yeast non-essential gene deletion array (yGDA, ~4700 strains for increased sensitivity to paromomycin, which targets the process of protein synthesis. Results As expected, our analysis indicated that the majority of deletion strains (134 with increased sensitivity to paromomycin, are involved in protein biosynthesis. The remaining strains can be divided into smaller functional categories: metabolism (45, cellular component biogenesis and organization (28, DNA maintenance (21, transport (20, others (38 and unknown (39. These may represent minor cellular target sites (side-effects for paromomycin. They may also represent novel links to protein synthesis. One of these strains carries a deletion for a previously uncharacterized ORF, YBR261C, that we term TAE1 for Translation Associated Element 1. Our focused follow-up experiments indicated that deletion of TAE1 alters the ribosomal profile of the mutant cells. Also, gene deletion strain for TAE1 has defects in both translation efficiency and fidelity. Miniaturized synthetic genetic array analysis further indicates that TAE1 genetically interacts with 16 ribosomal protein genes. Phenotypic suppression analysis using TAE1 overexpression also links TAE1 to protein synthesis. Conclusion We show that a previously uncharacterized ORF, YBR261C, affects the process of protein synthesis and reaffirm that large-scale genetic profile analysis can be a useful tool to study novel gene function(s.

  16. Chemical-genetic profile analysis in yeast suggests that a previously uncharacterized open reading frame, YBR261C, affects protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Md; Eroukova, Veronika; Jessulat, Matthew; Xu, Jianhua; Golshani, Ashkan

    2008-12-03

    Functional genomics has received considerable attention in the post-genomic era, as it aims to identify function(s) for different genes. One way to study gene function is to investigate the alterations in the responses of deletion mutants to different stimuli. Here we investigate the genetic profile of yeast non-essential gene deletion array (yGDA, approximately 4700 strains) for increased sensitivity to paromomycin, which targets the process of protein synthesis. As expected, our analysis indicated that the majority of deletion strains (134) with increased sensitivity to paromomycin, are involved in protein biosynthesis. The remaining strains can be divided into smaller functional categories: metabolism (45), cellular component biogenesis and organization (28), DNA maintenance (21), transport (20), others (38) and unknown (39). These may represent minor cellular target sites (side-effects) for paromomycin. They may also represent novel links to protein synthesis. One of these strains carries a deletion for a previously uncharacterized ORF, YBR261C, that we term TAE1 for Translation Associated Element 1. Our focused follow-up experiments indicated that deletion of TAE1 alters the ribosomal profile of the mutant cells. Also, gene deletion strain for TAE1 has defects in both translation efficiency and fidelity. Miniaturized synthetic genetic array analysis further indicates that TAE1 genetically interacts with 16 ribosomal protein genes. Phenotypic suppression analysis using TAE1 overexpression also links TAE1 to protein synthesis. We show that a previously uncharacterized ORF, YBR261C, affects the process of protein synthesis and reaffirm that large-scale genetic profile analysis can be a useful tool to study novel gene function(s).

  17. In silico peptide-binding predictions of passerine MHC class I reveal similarities across distantly related species, suggesting convergence on the level of protein function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Follin, Elna; Karlsson, Maria; Lundegaard, Claus

    2013-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes found in the vertebrate genome, and they encode proteins that play an essential role in the adaptive immune response. Many songbirds (passerines) have been shown to have a large number of transcribed MHC class I genes...

  18. In Silico Post Genome-Wide Association Studies Analysis of C-Reactive Protein Loci Suggests an Important Role for Interferons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaez, Ahmad; Jansen, Rick; Prins, Bram P.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have successfully identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). An important limitation of GWASs is that the identified variants merely flag the nearby genomic region and do not

  19. In Silico Post Genome-Wide Association Studies Analysis of C-Reactive Protein Loci Suggests an Important Role for Interferons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaez, A.; Jansen, R.; Prins, B.P.; Hottenga, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Nolte, I.M.; Snieder, H.; Alizadeh, BZ

    2015-01-01

    Background - Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have successfully identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). An important limitation of GWASs is that the identified variants merely flag the nearby genomic region and do not

  20. A Letter to the Editor: Using C-reactive protein to suggest an alternative explanation of the findings of Simanek et al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    , Zacho J, Friberg J, Jensen GB, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Benn M (2010) Does elevated C-reactive protein increase atrial fibrillation risk? A Mendelian randomization of 47,000 individuals from the general population. J Am Coll Cardiol 56: 789-795. S0735-1097(10)02305-3 [pii];10.1016/j.jacc.2010.02.066 [doi]. 9....... Timpson NJ, Lawlor DA, Harbord RM, Gaunt TR, Day IN, Palmer LJ, Hattersley AT, Ebrahim S, Lowe GD, Rumley A, Davey SG (2005) C-reactive protein and its role in metabolic syndrome: mendelian randomisation study. Lancet 366: 1954-1959. S0140-6736(05)67786-0 [pii];10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67786-0 [doi]. 10...

  1. In silico peptide-binding predictions of passerine MHC class I reveal similarities across distantly related species, suggesting convergence on the level of protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Elna; Karlsson, Maria; Lundegaard, Claus; Nielsen, Morten; Wallin, Stefan; Paulsson, Kajsa; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes found in the vertebrate genome, and they encode proteins that play an essential role in the adaptive immune response. Many songbirds (passerines) have been shown to have a large number of transcribed MHC class I genes compared to most mammals. To elucidate the reason for this large number of genes, we compared 14 MHC class I alleles (α1-α3 domains), from great reed warbler, house sparrow and tree sparrow, via phylogenetic analysis, homology modelling and in silico peptide-binding predictions to investigate their functional and genetic relationships. We found more pronounced clustering of the MHC class I allomorphs (allele specific proteins) in regards to their function (peptide-binding specificities) compared to their genetic relationships (amino acid sequences), indicating that the high number of alleles is of functional significance. The MHC class I allomorphs from house sparrow and tree sparrow, species that diverged 10 million years ago (MYA), had overlapping peptide-binding specificities, and these similarities across species were also confirmed in phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences. Notably, there were also overlapping peptide-binding specificities in the allomorphs from house sparrow and great reed warbler, although these species diverged 30 MYA. This overlap was not found in a tree based on amino acid sequences. Our interpretation is that convergent evolution on the level of the protein function, possibly driven by selection from shared pathogens, has resulted in allomorphs with similar peptide-binding repertoires, although trans-species evolution in combination with gene conversion cannot be ruled out.

  2. The structure of lactoferrin-binding protein B from Neisseria meningitidis suggests roles in iron acquisition and neutralization of host defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Cory L.; Arutyunova, Elena; Lemieux, M. Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved a range of mechanisms to acquire iron from the host during infection. Several Gram-negative pathogens including members of the genera Neisseria and Moraxella have evolved two-component systems that can extract iron from the host glycoproteins lactoferrin and transferrin. The homologous iron-transport systems consist of a membrane-bound transporter and an accessory lipoprotein. While the mechanism behind iron acquisition from transferrin is well understood, relatively little is known regarding how iron is extracted from lactoferrin. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (N-lobe) of the accessory lipoprotein lactoferrin-binding protein B (LbpB) from the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis is reported. The structure is highly homologous to the previously determined structures of the accessory lipoprotein transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB) and LbpB from the bovine pathogen Moraxella bovis. Docking the LbpB structure with lactoferrin reveals extensive binding interactions with the N1 subdomain of lactoferrin. The nature of the interaction precludes apolactoferrin from binding LbpB, ensuring the specificity of iron-loaded lactoferrin. The specificity of LbpB safeguards proper delivery of iron-bound lactoferrin to the transporter lactoferrin-binding protein A (LbpA). The structure also reveals a possible secondary role for LbpB in protecting the bacteria from host defences. Following proteolytic digestion of lactoferrin, a cationic peptide derived from the N-terminus is released. This peptide, called lactoferricin, exhibits potent antimicrobial effects. The docked model of LbpB with lactoferrin reveals that LbpB interacts extensively with the N-terminal lactoferricin region. This may provide a venue for preventing the production of the peptide by proteolysis, or directly sequestering the peptide, protecting the bacteria from the toxic effects of lactoferricin. PMID:25286931

  3. The long-term effects of a life-prolonging heat treatment on the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome suggest that heat shock proteins extend lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter; Loeschcke, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Heat-induced hormesis, i.e. the beneficial effect of mild heat-induced stress, increases the average lifespan of many organisms. This effect, which depends on the heat shock factor, decreases the log mortality rate weeks after the stress has ceased. To identify candidate genes that mediate......-treated flies. Several hsp70 probe sets were up-regulated 1.7–2-fold in the mildly stressed flies weeks after the last heat treatment (P shock protein, Hsp70, is reported to return to normal levels of expression shortly after heat stress. We...... conclude that the heat shock response, and Hsp70 in particular, may be central to the heat-induced increase in the average lifespan in flies that are exposed to mild heat stress early in life....

  4. The Bipolar Filaments Formed by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 SSB/Recombination Protein (ICP8) Suggest a Mechanism for DNA Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhov, A.M.; Simon, M.; Sen, A.; Yu, X.; Griffith, J. D.; Egelman, E. H.

    2009-02-20

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes a multifunctional protein, ICP8, which serves both as a single-strand binding protein and as a recombinase, catalyzing reactions involved in replication and recombination of the viral genome. In the presence of divalent ions and at low temperature, previous electron microscopic studies showed that ICP8 will form long left-handed helical filaments. Here, electron microscopic image reconstruction reveals that the filaments are bipolar, with an asymmetric unit containing two subunits of ICP8 that constitute a symmetrical dimer. This organization of the filament has been confirmed using scanning transmission electron microscopy. The pitch of the filaments is {approx} 250 {angstrom}, with {approx} 6.2 dimers per turn. Docking of a crystal structure of ICP8 into the reconstructed filament shows that the C-terminal domain of ICP8, attached to the body of the subunit by a flexible linker containing {approx} 10 residues, is packed into a pocket in the body of a neighboring subunit in the crystal in a similar manner as in the filament. However, the interactions between the large N-terminal domains are quite different in the filament from that observed in the crystal. A previously proposed model for ICP8 binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), based upon the crystal structure, leads to a model for a continuous strand of ssDNA near the filament axis. The bipolar nature of the ICP8 filaments means that a second strand of ssDNA would be running through this filament in the opposite orientation, and this provides a potential mechanism for how ICP8 anneals complementary ssDNA into double-stranded DNA, where each strand runs in opposite directions.

  5. Structure of an odorant-binding protein from the mosquito Aedes aegypti suggests a binding pocket covered by a pH-sensitive "Lid".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Ribeiro Leite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for the viruses that cause yellow fever, mostly in tropical regions of Africa and in parts of South America, and human dengue, which infects 100 million people yearly in the tropics and subtropics. A better understanding of the structural biology of olfactory proteins may pave the way for the development of environmentally-friendly mosquito attractants and repellents, which may ultimately contribute to reduction of mosquito biting and disease transmission. METHODOLOGY: Previously, we isolated and cloned a major, female-enriched odorant-binding protein (OBP from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, which was later inadvertently renamed AaegOBP39. We prepared recombinant samples of AaegOBP1 by using an expression system that allows proper formation of disulfide bridges and generates functional OBPs, which are indistinguishable from native OBPs. We crystallized AaegOBP1 and determined its three-dimensional structure at 1.85 A resolution by molecular replacement based on the structure of the malaria mosquito OBP, AgamOBP1, the only mosquito OBP structure known to date. CONCLUSION: The structure of AaegOBP1 ( = AaegOBP39 shares the common fold of insect OBPs with six alpha-helices knitted by three disulfide bonds. A long molecule of polyethylene glycol (PEG was built into the electron-density maps identified in a long tunnel formed by a crystallographic dimer of AaegOBP1. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that delipidated AaegOBP1 undergoes a pH-dependent conformational change, which may lead to release of odorant at low pH (as in the environment in the vicinity of odorant receptors. A C-terminal loop covers the binding cavity and this "lid" may be opened by disruption of an array of acid-labile hydrogen bonds thus explaining reduced or no binding affinity at low pH.

  6. Expression, purification, and functional analysis of the C-terminal domain of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rose A; Souza, Emanuel M; Geoffrey Yates, M; Steffens, M Berenice R; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S

    2003-02-01

    The Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA protein is responsible for nif gene expression. The C-terminal domain of the H. seropedicae NifA protein, fused to a His-Tag sequence (His-Tag-C-terminal), was over-expressed and purified by metal-affinity chromatography to yield a highly purified and active protein. Band-shift assays showed that the NifA His-Tag-C-terminal bound specifically to the H. seropedicae nifB promoter region in vitro. In vivo analysis showed that this protein inhibited the Central + C-terminal domains of NifA protein from activating the nifH promoter of K. pneumoniae in Escherichia coli, indicating that the protein must be bound to the NifA-binding site (UAS site) at the nifH promoter region to activate transcription. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  7. The abundance of functional genes, cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA, and bacterial community structure of intertidal soil from Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshri, Jitendra; Yousuf, Basit; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-06-01

    The Gulf of Cambay is a trumpet-shaped inlet of the Arabian Sea, located along the west coast of India and confronts a high tidal range with strong water currents. The region belongs to a semi-arid zone and saline alkaline intertidal soils are considered biologically extreme. The selected four soil types (S1-S4) were affected by salinity, alkalinity and sodicity. Soil salinity ranged from 20 to 126 dS/m, soil pH 8.6-10.0 with high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Abundance of the key functional genes like cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA involved in biogeochemical cycling were targeted using qPCR, which varied from (2.36 ± 0.03) × 10(4) to (2.87 ± 0.26) × 10(8), (1.18 ± 0.28) × 10(6) to (1.01 ± 0.26) × 10(9), (1.41 ± 0.21) × 10(6) to (1.29 ± 0.05) × 10(8) and (8.47 ± 0.23) × 10(4) to (1.73 ± 0.01) × 10(6) per gram dry weight, respectively. The microbial community structure revealed that soils S1 and S3 were dominated by phylum Firmicutes whereas S4 and S2 showed an abundance of Proteobacterial clones. These soils also represented Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria clones. Molecular phylogeny showed a significant variation in the bacterial community distribution among the intertidal soil types. A high number of novel taxonomic units were observed which makes the intertidal zone a unique reservoir of unidentified bacterial taxa that may be explored further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Release of Glycoprotein (GP1 from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Landa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC. Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43 kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, αmethyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD, suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1.

  9. VTVH-MCD study of the Delta nifB Delta nifZ MoFe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Marcia S; Rupnik, Kresimir; Broach, Robyn B; Hu, Yilin; Fay, Aaron W; Ribbe, Markus W; Hales, Brian J

    2009-04-08

    NifZ is a member of a series of proteins associated with the maturation of the nitrogenase MoFe protein. An MCD spectroscopic study was undertaken on the Delta nifB Delta nifZ MoFe protein generated in the absence of both NifZ and NifB (deletion of NifB generates an apo-MoFe protein lacking the FeMo cofactor). Results presented here show that, in the absence of NifZ, only one of the two P-clusters of the MoFe protein is matured to the ultimate [8Fe-7S] structure. The other P-cluster site in the protein contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster pair, representing a P-cluster precursor that is electronically identical to the analogous clusters observed in the Delta nifH MoFe protein. These results suggest that the MoFe protein is synthesized in a stepwise fashion where NifZ is specifically required for the formation of the second P-cluster.

  10. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  11. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  12. Rhizobia with 16S rRNA and nifH similar to Mesorhizobium huakuii but Novel recA, glnII, nodA and nodC genes are symbionts of New Zealand Carmichaelinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wee Tan

    Full Text Available New Zealand became geographically isolated about 80 million years ago and this separation gave rise to a unique native flora including four genera of legume, Carmichaelia, Clianthus and Montigena in the Carmichaelinae clade, tribe Galegeae, and Sophora, tribe Sophoreae, sub-family Papilionoideae. Ten bacterial strains isolated from NZ Carmichaelinae growing in natural ecosystems grouped close to the Mesorhizobium huakuii type strain in relation to their 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequences. However, the ten strains separated into four groups on the basis of their recA and glnII sequences: all groups were clearly distinct from all Mesorhizobium type strains. The ten strains separated into two groups on the basis of their nodA sequences but grouped closely together in relation to nodC sequences; all nodA and nodC sequences were novel. Seven strains selected and the M. huakuii type strain (isolated from Astragalus sinicus produced functional nodules on Carmichaelia spp., Clianthus puniceus and A. sinicus but did not nodulate two Sophora species. We conclude that rhizobia closely related to M. huakuii on the basis of 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequences, but with variable recA and glnII genes and novel nodA and nodC genes, are common symbionts of NZ Carmichaelinae.

  13. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  14. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Pedersen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    -keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian Pi...... PiT2 histidine, H502, and the human PiT1 glutamate, E70, - both conserved in eukaryotic PiT family members - are critical for Pi transport function. Noticeably, human PiT2 H502 is located in the C-terminal PiT family signature sequence, and human PiT1 E70 is located in ProDom domains characteristic....... Conclusions The results suggest that the overall structure of the Pi-transporting unit of the PiT family proteins has remained unchanged during evolution. Moreover, in combination, our studies of the gene structure of the human PiT1 and PiT2 genes (SLC20A1 and SLC20A2, respectively) and alignment of protein...

  15. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  16. The crystal structure of Erwinia amylovora AmyR, a member of the YbjN protein family, shows similarity to type III secretion chaperones but suggests different cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartho, Joseph D; Bellini, Dom; Wuerges, Jochen; Demitri, Nicola; Toccafondi, Mirco; Schmitt, Armin O; Zhao, Youfu; Walsh, Martin A; Benini, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    AmyR is a stress and virulence associated protein from the plant pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae species Erwinia amylovora, and is a functionally conserved ortholog of YbjN from Escherichia coli. The crystal structure of E. amylovora AmyR reveals a class I type III secretion chaperone-like fold, despite the lack of sequence similarity between these two classes of protein and lacking any evidence of a secretion-associated role. The results indicate that AmyR, and YbjN proteins in general, function through protein-protein interactions without any enzymatic action. The YbjN proteins of Enterobacteriaceae show remarkably low sequence similarity with other members of the YbjN protein family in Eubacteria, yet a high level of structural conservation is observed. Across the YbjN protein family sequence conservation is limited to residues stabilising the protein core and dimerization interface, while interacting regions are only conserved between closely related species. This study presents the first structure of a YbjN protein from Enterobacteriaceae, the most highly divergent and well-studied subgroup of YbjN proteins, and an in-depth sequence and structural analysis of this important but poorly understood protein family.

  17. The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method with the Use of l-[1-13C]Leucine Suggests a Higher than Currently Recommended Protein Requirement in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Salvarinova, Ramona; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2017-02-01

    Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth. We determined dietary protein requirements in children with phenylketonuria with the use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, with l-[1- 13 C]Leu as the indicator amino acid. Four children (2 males; 2 females) aged 9-18 y with phenylketonuria [mild hyperphenylalanemia (mHPA); 6-10 mg/dL (360-600 μmol/L)] were recruited to participate in ≥7 separate test protein intakes (range: 0.2-3.2 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ) with the IAAO protocol with the use of l-[1- 13 C]Leu followed by the collection of breath and urine samples over 8 h. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 times the resting energy expenditure. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on an egg protein pattern, except Phe and Leu, which were maintained at a constant across intakes. Protein requirement was determined with the use of a 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the rate of l-[1- 13 C]Leu tracer oxidation. The mean protein requirement was determined to be 1.85 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 (R 2 = 0.66; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.33). This result is substantially higher than the 2014 phenylketonuria recommendations (1.14-1.33 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ; based on 120-140% above the current RDA for age). To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly define a quantitative requirement for protein intake in children with mHPA and indicates that current protein recommendations in children with phenylketonuria may be insufficient. This

  18. RNA interference analyses suggest a transcript-specific regulatory role for mitochondrial RNA-binding proteins MRP1 and MRP2 in RNA editing and other RNA processing in Trypanosoma brucei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vondrusková, Eva; van den Burg, Janny; Zíková, Alena; Ernst, Nancy Lewis; Stuart, Kenneth; Benne, Rob; Lukes, Julius

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial RNA-binding proteins MRP1 and MRP2 occur in a heteromeric complex that appears to play a role in U-insertion/deletion editing in trypanosomes. Reduction in the levels of MRP1 (gBP21) and/or MRP2 (gBP25) mRNA by RNA interference in procyclic Trypanosoma brucei resulted in severe growth

  19. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  20. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Soaking suggests "alternative facts": Only co-crystallization discloses major ligand-induced interface rearrangements of a homodimeric tRNA-binding protein indicating a novel mode-of-inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Rainer Ehrmann

    Full Text Available For the efficient pathogenesis of Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, full functionality of tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT is mandatory. TGT performs post-transcriptional modifications of tRNAs in the anticodon loop taking impact on virulence development. This suggests TGT as a putative target for selective anti-shigellosis drug therapy. Since bacterial TGT is only functional as homodimer, its activity can be inhibited either by blocking its active site or by preventing dimerization. Recently, we discovered that in some crystal structures obtained by soaking the full conformational adaptation most likely induced in solution upon ligand binding is not displayed. Thus, soaked structures may be misleading and suggest irrelevant binding modes. Accordingly, we re-investigated these complexes by co-crystallization. The obtained structures revealed large conformational rearrangements not visible in the soaked complexes. They result from spatial perturbations in the ribose-34/phosphate-35 recognition pocket and, consequently, an extended loop-helix motif required to prevent access of water molecules into the dimer interface loses its geometric integrity. Thermodynamic profiles of ligand binding in solution indicate favorable entropic contributions to complex formation when large conformational adaptations in the dimer interface are involved. Native MS titration experiments reveal the extent to which the homodimer is destabilized in the presence of each inhibitor. Unexpectedly, one ligand causes a complete rearrangement of subunit packing within the homodimer, never observed in any other TGT crystal structure before. Likely, this novel twisted dimer is catalytically inactive and, therefore, suggests that stabilizing this non-productive subunit arrangement may be used as a further strategy for TGT inhibition.

  2. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  3. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  4. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  5. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  6. Intragenic complementation by the nifJ-coded protein of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, G; Zhu, J; Shah, V K; Shen, S C; Brill, W J

    1982-01-01

    A single mutation, nifC1005 (Jin et al. Sci. Sin. 23:108-118, 1980), located between nifH and nifJ in the nif cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae, genetically complemented mutations in each of the 17 known nif genes. This suggested that the mutation is located in a new nif gene. We showed by complementation analyses that only 3 of 12 nifJ mutations tested were complemented by nifC1005. Nitrogenase activity in cell extracts of the mutant with nifC1005 as well as NifJ- mutants was stimulated by th...

  7. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  8. The presence of five nifH-like sequences in Clostridium pasteurianum: sequence divergence and transcription properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, S Z; Chen, J S; Johnson, J L

    1988-01-01

    The nifH gene encodes the iron protein (component II) of the nitrogenase complex. We have previously shown the presence in Clostridium pasteurianum of two nifH-like sequences in addition to the nifH1 gene which codes for a protein identical to the isolated iron protein. In the present study, we report that there are at least five nifH-like sequences in C. pasteurianum. DNA sequencing data indicate that the six nifH (nifH1) and nifH-like (nifH2, nifH3, nifH4, nifH5 and nifH6) sequences are not...

  9. Nitrogenase gene amplicons from global marine surface waters are dominated by genes of non-cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Farnelid

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are thought to be the main N(2-fixing organisms (diazotrophs in marine pelagic waters, but recent molecular analyses indicate that non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs are also present and active. Existing data are, however, restricted geographically and by limited sequencing depths. Our analysis of 79,090 nitrogenase (nifH PCR amplicons encoding 7,468 unique proteins from surface samples (ten DNA samples and two RNA samples collected at ten marine locations world-wide provides the first in-depth survey of a functional bacterial gene and yield insights into the composition and diversity of the nifH gene pool in marine waters. Great divergence in nifH composition was observed between sites. Cyanobacteria-like genes were most frequent among amplicons from the warmest waters, but overall the data set was dominated by nifH sequences most closely related to non-cyanobacteria. Clusters related to Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Delta-Proteobacteria were most common and showed distinct geographic distributions. Sequences related to anaerobic bacteria (nifH Cluster III were generally rare, but preponderant in cold waters, especially in the Arctic. Although the two transcript samples were dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria, 42% of the identified non-cyanobacterial nifH clusters from the corresponding DNA samples were also detected in cDNA. The study indicates that non-cyanobacteria account for a substantial part of the nifH gene pool in marine surface waters and that these genes are at least occasionally expressed. The contribution of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs to the global N(2 fixation budget cannot be inferred from sequence data alone, but the prevalence of non-cyanobacterial nifH genes and transcripts suggest that these bacteria are ecologically significant.

  10. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  11. Serum levels of pancreatic stone protein (PSP/reg1A as an indicator of beta-cell apoptosis suggest an increased apoptosis rate in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A-MODY carriers from the third decade of life onward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacon Siobhan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-alpha (HNF1A result in the commonest type of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY. HNF1A-MODY carriers have reduced pancreatic beta cell mass, partially due to an increased rate of apoptosis. To date, it has not been possible to determine when apoptosis is occurring in HNF1A-MODY.We have recently demonstrated that beta cell apoptosis stimulates the expression of the pancreatic stone protein/regenerating (PSP/reg gene in surviving neighbour cells, and that PSP/reg1A protein is subsequently secreted from these cells. The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of PSP/reg1A are elevated during disease progression in HNF1A-MODY carriers, and whether it may provide information regarding the onset of beta-cell apoptosis. Methods We analysed serum PSP/reg1A levels and correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in subjects with HNF1A-MODY, glucokinase (GCK-MODY, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. A control group of normoglycaemic subjects was also analysed. Results PSP/reg1A serum levels were significantly elevated in HNF1A-MODY (n = 37 subjects compared to controls (n = 60 (median = 12.50 ng/ml, IQR = 10.61-17.87 ng/ml versus median = 10.72 ng/ml, IQR = 8.94-12.54 ng/ml, p = 0.0008. PSP/reg1A correlated negatively with insulin levels during OGTT, (rho = −0.40, p = 0.02. Interestingly we noted a significant positive correlation of PSP/reg1A with age of the HNF1A-MODY carriers (rho = 0.40 p = 0.02 with an age of 25 years separating carriers with low and high PSP/reg1A levels. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus also had elevated serum levels of PSP/reg1A compared to controls, however this was independent of the duration of diabetes. Conclusion Our data suggest that beta cell apoptosis contributes increasingly to the pathophysiology of HNF1A-MODY in patients 25 years and over

  12. Serum levels of pancreatic stone protein (PSP)/reg1A as an indicator of beta-cell apoptosis suggest an increased apoptosis rate in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A-MODY) carriers from the third decade of life onward

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bacon, Siobhan

    2012-07-18

    AbstractBackgroundMutations in the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-alpha (HNF1A) result in the commonest type of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). HNF1A-MODY carriers have reduced pancreatic beta cell mass, partially due to an increased rate of apoptosis. To date, it has not been possible to determine when apoptosis is occurring in HNF1A-MODY.We have recently demonstrated that beta cell apoptosis stimulates the expression of the pancreatic stone protein\\/regenerating (PSP\\/reg) gene in surviving neighbour cells, and that PSP\\/reg1A protein is subsequently secreted from these cells. The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of PSP\\/reg1A are elevated during disease progression in HNF1A-MODY carriers, and whether it may provide information regarding the onset of beta-cell apoptosis.MethodsWe analysed serum PSP\\/reg1A levels and correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in subjects with HNF1A-MODY, glucokinase (GCK-MODY), and type 1 diabetes mellitus. A control group of normoglycaemic subjects was also analysed.ResultsPSP\\/reg1A serum levels were significantly elevated in HNF1A-MODY (n = 37) subjects compared to controls (n = 60) (median = 12.50 ng\\/ml, IQR = 10.61-17.87 ng\\/ml versus median = 10.72 ng\\/ml, IQR = 8.94-12.54 ng\\/ml, p = 0.0008). PSP\\/reg1A correlated negatively with insulin levels during OGTT, (rho = −0.40, p = 0.02). Interestingly we noted a significant positive correlation of PSP\\/reg1A with age of the HNF1A-MODY carriers (rho = 0.40 p = 0.02) with an age of 25 years separating carriers with low and high PSP\\/reg1A levels. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus also had elevated serum levels of PSP\\/reg1A compared to controls, however this was independent of the duration of diabetes.ConclusionOur data suggest that beta cell apoptosis contributes increasingly to the pathophysiology of HNF1A-MODY in patients 25 years and

  13. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  14. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  15. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  16. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  17. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  19. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  20. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  1. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  2. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  3. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Wenqing; Sheu, Leslie; Liu, Jun; Smart, Brian; Petzold, Christopher J.; Hsieh, Tsung-yen; Pitcher, Austin; Keasling*, Jay D.; Bertozzi*, Carolyn R.

    2008-11-25

    Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cellsinternalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptoticcells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particlesfuse with various endosomal compartments through theaction of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. Inthis study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the membranefraction from latex bead-containing (LBC) phagosomes isolatedfrom macrophages. The profile, which comprised 546 proteins,suggests diverse functions of the phagosome and potential connectionsto secretory processes, toll-like receptor signaling, andautophagy. Many identified proteins were not previously knownto reside in the phagosome. We characterized several proteins inLBC phagosomes that change in abundance on induction of autophagy,a process that has been previously implicated in the hostdefense against microbial pathogens. These observations suggestcrosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis that may be relevantto the innate immune response of macrophages.

  4. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  5. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  6. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  7. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-01-01

    Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence ...

  8. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  11. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  12. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  13. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  14. Evidence Suggesting Absence of Mitochondrial DNA Methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechta, Mie; Ingerslev, Lars R; Fabre, Odile

    2017-01-01

    , 16S, ND5 and CYTB, suggesting that mtDNA supercoiled structure blocks the access to bisulfite conversion. Here, we identified an artifact of mtDNA bisulfite sequencing that can lead to an overestimation of mtDNA methylation levels. Our study supports that cytosine methylation is virtually absent...

  15. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  16. Do astrophysical measurements suggest massive neutrinos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the solar neutrino puzzle and suggest modification in the standard solar model. It has been observed that the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretically produced values can be removed by considering neutrinos to process non-zero mass. (author)

  17. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  18. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  19. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  20. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  1. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  2. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  3. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  4. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  5. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  6. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  7. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  8. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  9. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  10. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  11. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  12. The effect of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic suggestibility, and goal intentions on adherence to medical instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Claudia; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving; Meo, Maria; Santandrea, Maura

    2008-04-01

    The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a significant interaction between suggestibility and the effects of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion enhanced adherence among high suggestible participants but lowered it among low suggestibles.

  13. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter specific medium. We observed that they were present in both seasons. The phylogenetic tree revealed that our isolated Azotobacter spp. was distantly related ...

  14. Purification and binding analysis of the nitrogen fixation regulatory NifA protein from Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.P. Passaglia

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available NifA protein activates transcription of nitrogen fixation operons by the alternative sigma54 holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase. This protein binds to a well-defined upstream activator sequence (UAS located at the -200/-100 position of nif promoters with the consensus motif TGT-N10-ACA. NifA of Azospirillum brasilense was purified in the form of a glutathione-S-transferase (GST-NifA fusion protein and proteolytic release of GST yielded inactive and partially soluble NifA. However, the purified NifA was able to induce the production of specific anti-A. brasilense NifA-antiserum that recognized NifA from A. brasilense but not from K. pneumoniae. Both GST-NifA and NifA expressed from the E. coli tac promoter are able to activate transcription from the nifHDK promoter but only in an A. brasilense background. In order to investigate the mechanism that regulates NifA binding capacity we have used E. coli total protein extracts expressing A. brasilense nifA in mobility shift assays. DNA fragments carrying the two overlapping, wild-type or mutated UAS motifs present in the nifH promoter region revealed a retarded band of related size. These data show that the binding activity present in the C-terminal domain of A. brasilense NifA protein is still functional even in the presence of oxygen.

  15. FEM effective suggestion of guitar construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Dániel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis of the whole guitar construction was performed. The results of eigenfrequencies were obtained. Stress in strings affects not only static loading of material, but also shift of eigenfrequencies. From obtained natural frequencies for solved spectrum such frequencies were used which coincides with assumed ribs new positions of ribs were suggested. Other ribs which do not carry out the mechanical function were removed. Also static reaction was evaluated and new position of ribs was adjusted. For final model new eigenfrequencies were computed and compared with previous ones. Significant changes were revealed in low frequencies (bellow 400 Hz where fewer amounts of natural shapes were obtained. Approximately 50% were lost by adding of ribs. For chosen frequencies of equal temperament the harmonic analysis was performed. The analysis proved ability of oscillation for frequencies far of natural frequencies. The final model satisfies the requirement of minimization of static stress in material due to strings and allows very effective oscillation of top the guitar resonance board. In comparison with literature good agreement in amplitude size of front board and amount of modes in appropriate frequencies were achieved. Suggested model even offers higher amount of natural shapes in comparison with literature, namely in high frequencies. From additional comparison of eigenfrequencies and natural shapes the influence of ribs position on natural shapes was approved.

  16. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  17. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  18. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  19. Maxillectomy defects: a suggested classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, V I; Dosumu, O O; Olusanya, A A; Ikusika, O F

    2013-06-01

    The term "maxillectomy" has been used to describe a variety of surgical procedures for a spectrum of diseases involving a diverse anatomical site. Hence, classifications of maxillectomy defects have often made communication difficult. This article highlights this problem, emphasises the need for a uniform system of classification and suggests a classification system which is simple and comprehensive. Articles related to this subject, especially those with specified classifications of maxillary surgical defects were sourced from the internet through Google, Scopus and PubMed using the search terms maxillectomy defects classification. A manual search through available literature was also done. The review of the materials revealed many classifications and modifications of classifications from the descriptive, reconstructive and prosthodontic perspectives. No globally acceptable classification exists among practitioners involved in the management of diseases in the mid-facial region. There were over 14 classifications of maxillary defects found in the English literature. Attempts made to address the inadequacies of previous classifications have tended to result in cumbersome and relatively complex classifications. A single classification that is based on both surgical and prosthetic considerations is most desirable and is hereby proposed.

  20. Suggestion on Information Sharing for AP implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hye Won; Kim, Min Su; Koh, Byung Marn [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Under the Additional Protocol, States should provide the IAEA with expanded declarations of activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle and other nuclear activities, and with expanded access to the relevant information and sites to allow the IAEA to verify the completeness of these declarations. The AP to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on June 21{sup st}, 1999 and entered into force on February 19{sup th}, 2004. ROK submitted initial declarations in August 2004. Since then, ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15{sup th}. To achieve successful implementation, it is necessary to collect the information for each individual article in Article 2 of the AP and verify the declared information provided by facility operators. Therefore, the cooperation among the ministries and offices concerned is a prerequisite for successful implementation of AP. Unfortunately, the formal procedure for inter-organizational information sharing and cooperation is not established. This paper will briefly outline the AP declarations and suggest the information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations for effective and efficient implementation of AP. The State authority has responsibility for AP implementation and it should verify correctness and completeness of the information declared by facility operators before submitting the declarations. The close cooperation and information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations are indispensable to effective and efficient implementation of AP.

  1. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  2. Quantitative histological models suggest endothermy in plesiosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna V. Fleischle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plesiosaurs are marine reptiles that arose in the Late Triassic and survived to the Late Cretaceous. They have a unique and uniform bauplan and are known for their very long neck and hydrofoil-like flippers. Plesiosaurs are among the most successful vertebrate clades in Earth’s history. Based on bone mass decrease and cosmopolitan distribution, both of which affect lifestyle, indications of parental care, and oxygen isotope analyses, evidence for endothermy in plesiosaurs has accumulated. Recent bone histological investigations also provide evidence of fast growth and elevated metabolic rates. However, quantitative estimations of metabolic rates and bone growth rates in plesiosaurs have not been attempted before. Methods Phylogenetic eigenvector maps is a method for estimating trait values from a predictor variable while taking into account phylogenetic relationships. As predictor variable, this study employs vascular density, measured in bone histological sections of fossil eosauropterygians and extant comparative taxa. We quantified vascular density as primary osteon density, thus, the proportion of vascular area (including lamellar infillings of primary osteons to total bone area. Our response variables are bone growth rate (expressed as local bone apposition rate and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Results Our models reveal bone growth rates and RMRs for plesiosaurs that are in the range of birds, suggesting that plesiosaurs were endotherm. Even for basal eosauropterygians we estimate values in the range of mammals or higher. Discussion Our models are influenced by the availability of comparative data, which are lacking for large marine amniotes, potentially skewing our results. However, our statistically robust inference of fast growth and fast metabolism is in accordance with other evidence for plesiosaurian endothermy. Endothermy may explain the success of plesiosaurs consisting in their survival of the end-Triassic extinction

  3. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Suggestions for an updated fusion power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1976-02-01

    This document contains suggestions for a revised CTR Program strategy which should allow us to achieve equivalent goals while operating within the above constraints. The revised program is designed around three major facilities. The first is an upgrading of the present TFTR facility which will provide a demonstration of the generation of tens of megawatts electric equivalent originally envisioned for the 1985 EPR. The second device is the TTAP which will allow the integration and optimization of the plasma physics results obtained from the next generation of plasma physics experiments. The improvement in tokamak reactor operation resulting from this optimization of fusion plasma performance will enable an EPR to be designed which will produce several hundred megawatts of electric power by 1990. This will move the fusion program much closer to its goal of commercial fusion power by the turn of the century. In addition to this function the TTAP will serve as a prototype of the 1990 EPR system, thus making more certain the successful operation of this device. The third element of this revised program is an intense radiation damage facility which will provide the radiation damage information necessary for the EPR and subsequent fusion reactor facilities. The sum total of experience gained from reacting plasma experiments on TFTR, reactor grade plasma optimization and technological prototyping on TTAP, and end of life radiation damage results from the intense neutron facility will solve all of the presently foreseen problems associated with a tokamak fusion power reactor except those associated with the external nuclear systems. These external system problems such as tritium breeding and optimal power recovery can be developed in parallel on the 1990 EPR

  5. PAK4 crystal structures suggest unusual kinase conformational movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Eric Y; Ha, Byung Hak; Boggon, Titus J

    2018-02-01

    In order for protein kinases to exchange nucleotide they must open and close their catalytic cleft. These motions are associated with rotations of the N-lobe, predominantly around the 'hinge region'. We conducted an analysis of 28 crystal structures of the serine-threonine kinase, p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4), including three newly determined structures in complex with staurosporine, FRAX486, and fasudil (HA-1077). We find an unusual motion between the N-lobe and C-lobe of PAK4 that manifests as a partial unwinding of helix αC. Principal component analysis of the crystal structures rationalizes these movements into three major states, and analysis of the kinase hydrophobic spines indicates concerted movements that create an accessible back pocket cavity. The conformational changes that we observe for PAK4 differ from previous descriptions of kinase motions, and although we observe these differences in crystal structures there is the possibility that the movements observed may suggest a diversity of kinase conformational changes associated with regulation. Protein kinases are key signaling proteins, and are important drug targets, therefore understanding their regulation is important for both basic research and clinical points of view. In this study, we observe unusual conformational 'hinging' for protein kinases. Hinging, the opening and closing of the kinase sub-domains to allow nucleotide binding and release, is critical for proper kinase regulation and for targeted drug discovery. We determine new crystal structures of PAK4, an important Rho-effector kinase, and conduct analyses of these and previously determined structures. We find that PAK4 crystal structures can be classified into specific conformational groups, and that these groups are associated with previously unobserved hinging motions and an unusual conformation for the kinase hydrophobic core. Our findings therefore indicate that there may be a diversity of kinase hinging motions, and that these may

  6. The role of suggestibility in determinations of Miranda abilities: a study of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard; Harrison, Kimberly S; Rogstad, Jill E; LaFortune, Kathryn A; Hazelwood, Lisa L

    2010-02-01

    Traditionally, high levels of suggestibility have been widely assumed to be linked with diminished Miranda abilities, especially in relationship to the voluntariness of waivers. The current investigation examined suggestibility on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales in a multisite study of pretrial defendants. One important finding was the inapplicability of British norms to American jurisdictions. Moreover, suggestibility appeared unrelated to Miranda comprehension, reasoning, and detainees' perceptions of police coercion. In testing rival hypotheses, defendants with high compliance had significantly lower Miranda comprehension and ability to reason about exercising Miranda rights than their counterparts with low compliance. Implications of these findings to forensic practice are examined.

  7. Are Dysphoric Individuals More Suggestible or Less Suggestible Than Nondysphoric Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, Wendy L.; Morris, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Dysphoric individuals are shown to be susceptible to interrogative suggestion, whether in the form of leading questions or interrogative pressure. The association of a clinically relevant condition of dysphoria (depression) with relatively high levels of suggestibility was investigated in a college student population (N=139). Applicability to…

  8. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  9. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  11. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events.

  12. Mitochondrial introgression suggests extensive ancestral hybridization events among Saccharomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Arias, Armando; Orlić, Sandi; Belloch, Carmela; Pérez-Través, Laura; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

    2017-03-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic plastids and mitochondrial genomes is common, and plays an important role in organism evolution. In yeasts, recent mitochondrial HGT has been suggested between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. However, few strains have been explored given the lack of accurate mitochondrial genome annotations. Mitochondrial genome sequences are important to understand how frequent these introgressions occur, and their role in cytonuclear incompatibilities and fitness. Indeed, most of the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller genetic incompatibilities described in yeasts are driven by cytonuclear incompatibilities. We herein explored the mitochondrial inheritance of several worldwide distributed wild Saccharomyces species and their hybrids isolated from different sources and geographic origins. We demonstrated the existence of several recombination points in mitochondrial region COX2-ORF1, likely mediated by either the activity of the protein encoded by the ORF1 (F-SceIII) gene, a free-standing homing endonuclease, or mostly facilitated by A+T tandem repeats and regions of integration of GC clusters. These introgressions were shown to occur among strains of the same species and among strains of different species, which suggests a complex model of Saccharomyces evolution that involves several ancestral hybridization events in wild environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolutionary Analyses Suggest a Function of MxB Immunity Proteins Beyond Lentivirus Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S Mitchell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Viruses impose diverse and dynamic challenges on host defenses. Diversifying selection of codons and gene copy number variation are two hallmarks of genetic innovation in antiviral genes engaged in host-virus genetic conflicts. The myxovirus resistance (Mx genes encode interferon-inducible GTPases that constitute a major arm of the cell-autonomous defense against viral infection. Unlike the broad antiviral activity of MxA, primate MxB was recently shown to specifically inhibit lentiviruses including HIV-1. We carried out detailed evolutionary analyses to investigate whether genetic conflict with lentiviruses has shaped MxB evolution in primates. We found strong evidence for diversifying selection in the MxB N-terminal tail, which contains molecular determinants of MxB anti-lentivirus specificity. However, we found no overlap between previously-mapped residues that dictate lentiviral restriction and those that have evolved under diversifying selection. Instead, our findings are consistent with MxB having a long-standing and important role in the interferon response to viral infection against a broader range of pathogens than is currently appreciated. Despite its critical role in host innate immunity, we also uncovered multiple functional losses of MxB during mammalian evolution, either by pseudogenization or by gene conversion from MxA genes. Thus, although the majority of mammalian genomes encode two Mx genes, this apparent stasis masks the dramatic effects that recombination and diversifying selection have played in shaping the evolutionary history of Mx genes. Discrepancies between our study and previous publications highlight the need to account for recombination in analyses of positive selection, as well as the importance of using sequence datasets with appropriate depth of divergence. Our study also illustrates that evolutionary analyses of antiviral gene families are critical towards understanding molecular principles that govern host-virus interactions and species-specific susceptibility to viral infection.

  14. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  15. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters January 14, 2013 Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis Normal skin from a ... in mice suggests that lack of a certain protein may trigger atopic dermatitis, the most common type ...

  16. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai; Chen, Zonghai; Liu, Chengfei; Huang, He; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate

  17. Blue Emission in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sohini; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band struc...

  18. Is high hypnotic suggestibility necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S

    2008-04-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility is a trait-like, individual difference variable reflecting the general tendency to respond to hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions. Research with standardized measures of hypnotic suggestibility has demonstrated that there are substantial individual differences in this variable. Higher suggestibility has been found to be associated with greater relief from hypnotic pain interventions. Although individuals in the high suggestibility range show the strongest response to hypnotic analgesia, people of medium suggestibility, who represent approximately one third of the population, also have been found to obtain significant relief from hypnosis. Thus, high hypnotic suggestibility is not necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention. However, the available evidence does not support the efficacy of hypnotic pain interventions for people who fall in the low hypnotic suggestibility range. However, some studies suggest that these individuals may benefit from imaginative analgesia suggestions, or suggestions for pain reduction that are delivered while the person is not in hypnosis.

  19. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may

  20. The Effect of Memory Trace Strength on Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdek, Kathy; Roe, Chantal

    1995-01-01

    Examined the conditions under which children's memory is resistant to suggestibility versus vulnerable to suggestibility. Results suggest that children have more accurate memory for an event that occurred to them frequently, and that they are less vulnerable to suggestive influences such as biased interviewing procedures than they would be for an…

  1. In silico analysis suggests interaction between Ebola virus and the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko eVeljkovic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The worst Ebola virus (EV outbreak in history has hit Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea hardest and the trendlines in this crisis are grave, and now represents global public health threat concern. Limited therapeutic and/or prophylactic options which are available for humans suffering from Ebola virus disease (EVD further complicate situation. Previous studies suggested that the EV glycoprotein (GP is the main determinant causing structural damage of endothelial cells that triggers the hemorrhagic diathesis, but molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remains elusive. Using the informational spectrum method (ISM, a virtual spectroscopy method for analysis of the protein-protein interactions, the interaction of GP with endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM was investigated. Presented results of this in silico study suggest that Elastin Microfibril Interface Located Proteins (EMILINs are involved in interaction between GP and ECM. This finding could contribute to better understanding of EV/endothelium interaction and its role in pathogenesis, prevention and therapy of EVD.

  2. Genotype-Property Patient-Phenotype Relations Suggest that Proteome Exhaustion Can Cause Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2015-01-01

    Late-onset neurodegenerative diseases remain poorly understood as search continues for the perceived pathogenic protein species. Previously, variants in Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) causing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) were found to destabilize and reduce net charge, suggesting a pathogen...

  3. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  4. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  5. Correlates of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale in delinquent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Merckelbach, Harald

    2004-02-01

    Correlations between scores on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and a number of relevant personality characteristics, i.e., intelligence, memory, social inadequacy, social desirability, and fantasy proneness, were examined in a sample of 71 delinquent boys. Analysis showed that intelligence and memory were negatively related to suggestibility scores. That is, lower memory and intelligence were associated with higher suggestibility. No significant correlations were found between suggestibility and other personality characteristics.

  6. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  7. Clarification of the Memory Artefact in the Assessment of Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some…

  8. Proteomic analysis of the Arabidopsis nucleolus suggests novel nucleolar functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pendle, Alison F; Clark, Gillian P; Boon, Reinier

    2005-01-01

    The eukaryotic nucleolus is involved in ribosome biogenesis and a wide range of other RNA metabolism and cellular functions. An important step in the functional analysis of the nucleolus is to determine the complement of proteins of this nuclear compartment. Here, we describe the first proteomic ...

  9. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  10. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama

    Full Text Available Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion.

  11. Validity of a Test of Children's Suggestibility for Predicting Responses to Two Interview Situations Differing in Their Degree of Suggestiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnila, Katarina; Mahlberg, Nina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Niemi, Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relative contributions of internal and external sources of variation in children's suggestibility in interrogative situations. Found that internal sources of individual differences in suggestibility measured on a suggestibility test did influence children's answers during an interview, but that external sources or interview styles had…

  12. Metacognition of agency is reduced in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin B; Hedman, Love R A

    2017-11-01

    A disruption in the sense of agency is the primary phenomenological feature of response to hypnotic suggestions but its cognitive basis remains elusive. Here we tested the proposal that distorted volition during response to suggestions arises from poor metacognition pertaining to the sources of one's control. Highly suggestible and control participants completed a motor task in which performance was reduced through surreptitious manipulations of cursor lag and stimuli speed. Highly suggestible participants did not differ from controls in performance or metacognition of performance, but their sense of agency was less sensitive to cursor lag manipulations, suggesting reduced awareness that their control was being manipulated. These results indicate that highly suggestible individuals have aberrant metacognition of agency and may be a valuable population for studying distortions in the sense of agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mitarbeiteranreizsysteme und Innovationserfolg (Employee suggestion schemes and innovation success)

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Kraft, Kornelius

    2008-01-01

    "We discuss the determinants of a successful implementation of an employee suggestion scheme and other measures to stimulate innovation success. Subsequently the effects of the employee suggestion schemes are investigated empirically. We analyse the realisation of cost reductions and alternatively sales expansion due to quality improvements. It turns out that employee suggestion schemes have a positive effect on cost efficiency and sales growth. Delegation of decision authority reduces produc...

  14. Clarification of the memory artefact in the assessment of suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P

    2008-04-01

    The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some extent the fact that people with ID have poor recall of the story; however, there are discrepancies in this relationship. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a closer match between memory and suggestibility would be found using a measure of recognition memory rather than free recall. Three modifications to the procedure were presented to users of a learning disabilities day service. In all three experiments, a measure of forced-choice recognition memory was built into the suggestibility test. In experiments 1 and 2, the GSS was presented using either divided presentation (splitting the story into two halves, with memory and suggestibility tests after each half) or multiple presentation (the story was presented three times before presentation of the memory and suggestibility tests). Participants were tested twice, once with the standard version of the test and once with one of the modified versions. In experiment 3, an alternative suggestibility scale (ASS3) was created, based on real events in a learning disabilities day service. The ASS3 was presented to one group of participants who had been present at the events, and a second group who attended a different day service, to whom the events were unfamiliar. As observed previously, suggestibility was not closely related to free recall performance: recall was increased equally by all three manipulations, but they produced, respectively, no effect, a modest effect and a large effect on suggestibility. However, the effects on suggestibility were closely related to performance on the forced-choice recognition memory task: divided presentation of the GSS2 had no

  15. A parallel form of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to present a parallel form of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS, Form 1); (2) to study test-retest reliabilities of interrogative suggestibility. Three groups of subjects were administered the two suggestibility scales in a counterbalanced order. Group 1 (28 normal subjects) and Group 2 (32 'forensic' patients) completed both scales within the same testing session, whereas Group 3 (30 'forensic' patients) completed the two scales between one week and eight months apart. All the correlations were highly significant, giving support for high 'temporal consistency' of interrogative suggestibility.

  16. Treating ADHD With Suggestion: Neurofeedback and Placebo Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Robert T; Veissière, Samuel; Olson, Jay A; Raz, Amir

    2018-06-01

    We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD. Non-deceptive suggestion-based treatments, especially those drawing on accessories from neuroscience, may offer a safe complement and potential alternative to current standard of care for individuals with ADHD.

  17. Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology. Twenty-one low suggestible (LS), 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants were administered hypnotic suggestibility scales and completed measures of free recall, working memory capacity, imagery, fantasy-proneness, psychopathology, and exposure to stressful life events. HDHS participants were more responsive to positive and negative hallucination suggestions and experienced greater involuntariness during hypnotic responding. They also exhibited impaired working memory capacity, elevated pathological fantasy and dissociative symptomatology, and a greater incidence of exposure to stressful life events. In contrast, LDHS participants displayed superior object visual imagery. These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterised by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning.

  18. Protein folding and wring resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The polypeptide chain of a protein is shown to obey topological contraints which enable long range excitations in the form of wring modes of the protein backbone. Wring modes of proteins of specific lengths can therefore resonate with molecular modes present in the cell. It is suggested that prot......The polypeptide chain of a protein is shown to obey topological contraints which enable long range excitations in the form of wring modes of the protein backbone. Wring modes of proteins of specific lengths can therefore resonate with molecular modes present in the cell. It is suggested...... that protein folding takes place when the amplitude of a wring excitation becomes so large that it is energetically favorable to bend the protein backbone. The condition under which such structural transformations can occur is found, and it is shown that both cold and hot denaturation (the unfolding...

  19. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect in a non-hypnotic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion (i.e. not post-hypnotic suggestion) and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability spectrum. The results replicate previous findings showing that highs respond to the word blindness suggestion to a greater extent than lows but extend previous work by showing that the advantage for those higher on the hypnotizability spectrum occurs even in a non-hypnotic context. Negative attitudes about hypnosis may not explain the failure to observe similar effects of the word blindness suggestion in less hypnotizable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Critical Success Factors of Suggestions Systems. | Marx | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature study approach is followed to establish which factors contribute to the success and failure of various suggestion systems. It was found ... The value of the paper firstly, shows the importance of creativity and innovation within the organisation's own culture and the framework of a formal suggestion system. Secondly ...

  1. Manufacturer Suggested Retail Prices, Loss Aversion and Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabrizi, Simona; Lippert, Steffen; Puppe, Clemens; Rosenkranz, S.

    2016-01-01

    We study a model of vertical relations with imperfect retail competition in which a fraction of the consumers display reference-dependent demand with respect to the manufacturer’s suggested retail price. We demonstrate that in equilibrium the suggestion will either be undercut or complied with by

  2. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  3. Confidence Judgments in Children's and Adults' Event Recall and Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebers, Claudia M.

    2002-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of 8- and 10-year-olds' and adults' metacognitive monitoring and control processes for unbiased event recall tasks and suggestibility. Findings suggested strong tendencies to overestimate confidence regardless of age and question format. Children did not lack principal metacognitive competencies when questions…

  4. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  5. The Effects of Repeated Experience on Children's Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of suggestive questions on 3- to 5-year-olds' and 6- to 8-year-olds' recall of the final occurrence of repeated event. Found that relative to reports of children experiencing single occurrence, reports about fixed items of repeated events were less contaminated by false suggestions. Children's age and delay of interview were…

  6. Enhancement of suggestibility and imaginative ability with nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, M G; Brooks, G B

    2009-05-01

    Imaginative suggestibility, a trait closely related to hypnotic suggestibility, is modifiable under some circumstances. Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is commonly used for sedation in dentistry and is reported to be more effective when combined with appropriate suggestions. The aim of this study was to determine whether nitrous oxide inhalation alters imaginative suggestibility and imagery vividness. Thirty participants were tested twice in a within-subjects design, once during inhalation of 25% nitrous oxide and once during inhalation of air plus oxygen. Before the study, participants' expectancies regarding the effects of nitrous oxide were assessed. Participants were blinded to drug administration. During each session, participants were verbally administered detailed measures of imagination and suggestibility: the Sheehan-Betts Quality of Mental Imagery scale and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Form C, minus the hypnotic induction. Imaginative suggestibility and imaginative ability (imagery vividness) were both elevated in the nitrous oxide condition. This effect was unrelated to participants' expectations regarding the effects of the drug. Nitrous oxide increased imaginative suggestibility and imaginative ability. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed with respect to the effects of N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists and to other pharmacological effects upon suggestibility and imagination.

  7. Effects of Counselor Facilitative Level on Client Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Harry B.; Rowe, Wayne

    1977-01-01

    University students (N=48) were individually tested for suggestibility in one of three conditions. Results indicated subjects of higher rated experimenters would demonstrate more suggestibility than subjects of lower rated experimenters. Results did not indicate that subject interaction with lower rated experimenters would elicit less…

  8. A Temporal Discriminability Account of Children's Eyewitness Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Children's suggestibility is typically measured using a three-stage "event-misinformation-test" procedure. We examined whether suggestibility is influenced by the time delays imposed between these stages, and in particular whether the temporal discriminability of sources (event and misinformation) predicts performance. In a novel approach, the…

  9. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  10. Faecal analysis suggests generalist diets in three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overlap in other arthropod taxa ingested was low across species and seasons, suggesting an opportunistic component to their foraging behaviour. We distinguished plant matter in faecal samples of all species in all seasons, reflecting either voluntary or accidental ingestion. The results of this study suggest that the ...

  11. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1 classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2 categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3 perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  12. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  13. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The impact of hypnotic suggestibility in clinical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Schnur, Julie B; David, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility has been described as a powerful predictor of outcomes associated with hypnotic interventions. However, there have been no systematic approaches to quantifying this effect across the literature. This meta-analysis evaluates the magnitude of the effect of hypnotic suggestibility on hypnotic outcomes in clinical settings. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through July 2009. Thirty-four effects from 10 studies and 283 participants are reported. Results revealed a statistically significant overall effect size in the small to medium range (r = .24; 95% Confidence Interval = -0.28 to 0.75), indicating that greater hypnotic suggestibility led to greater effects of hypnosis interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility accounted for 6% of the variance in outcomes. Smaller sample size studies, use of the SHCS, and pediatric samples tended to result in larger effect sizes. The authors question the usefulness of assessing hypnotic suggestibility in clinical contexts.

  15. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  16. Proteins engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the - Departement d'Ingenierie et d'etudes de proteines (Deip) of the CEA more than seventy researchers are working hard to understand the function of proteins. For that they use the molecular labelling technique (F.M.)

  17. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reliable information about the safety of taking whey protein if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Milk allergy: If you are allergic to cow's milk, avoid using whey protein.

  18. Age and interviewer behavior as predictors of interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukala, Karolina; Polczyk, Romuald

    2014-05-01

    The main objective was to explore the influence of interviewer behavior-abrupt versus friendly-and the age of participants on interrogative suggestibility. The study involved 42 young adults and 50 elderly participants. The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale 2 was used. Data analysis involved a 2-factor between-subjects design (interviewer behavior × age) and mediation analysis. The scores of elderly participants were significantly lower than younger adults on memory indices and significantly higher on some suggestibility indexes. Some suggestibility indices in the abrupt experimental condition were higher than those in the friendly experimental condition. Elderly participants who were interviewed under the abrupt condition were more likely to change their answers after receiving negative feedback than younger adults. Memory quality was a mediator of the relationship between age and the tendency to yield to suggestive questions. Self-appraisal of memory was a mediator between both age and interviewer behavior and the tendency to change answers after negative feedback. Mechanisms of the relationship between age, interviewer behavior, and suggestibility are discussed on the basis of the mediational analyses. The findings suggest that a friendly manner should be adopted when interrogating witnesses.

  19. Structural and functional correlates of hypnotic depth and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, William Jonathan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Vannucci, Manila; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-02-28

    This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the correlation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) against the independent variables: depth of hypnosis, level of relaxation and hypnotic suggestibility. Functional networks identified with independent components analysis were regressed with the independent variables. Hypnotic depth ratings were positively correlated with GM volume in the frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with GM volume in the left temporal-occipital cortex. Relaxation ratings did not correlate significantly with GM volume and none of the independent variables correlated with regional WM volume measures. Self-reported deeper levels of hypnosis were associated with less connectivity within the anterior default mode network. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater GM volume in the medial frontal cortex and ACC, and lower connectivity in the DMN during hypnosis facilitate experiences of greater hypnotic depth. The patterns of results suggest that hypnotic depth and hypnotic suggestibility should not be considered synonyms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural and functional cerebral correlates of hypnotic suggestibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Huber

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural bases of hypnotic suggestibility, a cognitive trait referring to the tendency to respond to hypnotic suggestions. In the present magnetic resonance imaging study, we performed regression analyses to assess hypnotic suggestibility-related differences in local gray matter volume, using voxel-based morphometry, and in waking resting state functional connectivity of 10 resting state networks, in 37 healthy women. Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with gray matter volume in portions of the left superior and medial frontal gyri, roughly overlapping with the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, and negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula. In the functional connectivity analysis, hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with functional connectivity between medial posterior areas, including bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and both the lateral visual network and the left fronto-parietal network; a positive correlation was also found with functional connectivity between the executive-control network and a right postcentral/parietal area. In contrast, hypnotic suggestibility was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the right fronto-parietal network and the right lateral thalamus. These findings demonstrate for the first time a correlation between hypnotic suggestibility, the structural features of specific cortical regions, and the functional connectivity during the normal resting state of brain structures involved in imagery and self-monitoring activity.

  1. Structural and functional cerebral correlates of hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Alexa; Lui, Fausta; Duzzi, Davide; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the neural bases of hypnotic suggestibility, a cognitive trait referring to the tendency to respond to hypnotic suggestions. In the present magnetic resonance imaging study, we performed regression analyses to assess hypnotic suggestibility-related differences in local gray matter volume, using voxel-based morphometry, and in waking resting state functional connectivity of 10 resting state networks, in 37 healthy women. Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with gray matter volume in portions of the left superior and medial frontal gyri, roughly overlapping with the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, and negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula. In the functional connectivity analysis, hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with functional connectivity between medial posterior areas, including bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and both the lateral visual network and the left fronto-parietal network; a positive correlation was also found with functional connectivity between the executive-control network and a right postcentral/parietal area. In contrast, hypnotic suggestibility was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the right fronto-parietal network and the right lateral thalamus. These findings demonstrate for the first time a correlation between hypnotic suggestibility, the structural features of specific cortical regions, and the functional connectivity during the normal resting state of brain structures involved in imagery and self-monitoring activity.

  2. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  3. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  4. Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions. Discussion at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  5. Belief in the paranormal and suggestion in the seance room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma; Smith, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    In Experiment 1, participants took part in a fake seance. An actor suggested that a table was levitating when, in fact, it remained stationary. After the seance, approximately one third of participants incorrectly reported that the table had moved. Results also showed a significant relationship between the reported movement of the table and belief in the paranormal, with a greater percentage of believers than disbelievers, reporting that the table had moved. Experiment 2 varied whether the suggestion was consistent, or inconsistent, with participants' belief in the paranormal. Results again showed that believers were more susceptible to suggestion than disbelievers, but only when the suggestion was consistent with their belief in the paranormal. Approximately one fifth of participants believed that the fake seances contained genuine paranormal phenomena.

  6. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology...

  7. Suggested benchmarks for shape optimization for minimum stress concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    Shape optimization for minimum stress concentration is vital, important, and difficult. New formulations and numerical procedures imply the need for good benchmarks. The available analytical shape solutions rely on assumptions that are seldom satisfied, so here, we suggest alternative benchmarks...

  8. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  9. Using Neurolinguistic Programming: Some Suggestions for the Remedial Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of neurolinguistic programming techniques is suggested as a means of enhancing rapport with students. Mirroring, digital mirroring, analog mirroring, metaphors, knowing persons, and how these aid in presenting content are each discussed. (MNS)

  10. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  11. Bullous pemphigoid antigen localization suggests an intracellular association with hemidesmosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Weaver, A C; Couchman, J R

    1985-01-01

    immunofluorescent staining for BPA is linear at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) of skin and many other epithelial tissues. At higher magnification however, we observed a punctate staining pattern for BPA which was regular in appearance and suggested localization of BPA to discrete structures at the BMZ. Subsequent...... intracellularly both in vivo and in vitro. We suggest that BPA is not normally a lamina lucida component, but that it may form part of a linkage between the cytoskeleton and the basement membrane....

  12. Structures of SAS-6 suggest its organization in centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breugel, Mark; Hirono, Masafumi; Andreeva, Antonina; Yanagisawa, Haru-aki; Yamaguchi, Shoko; Nakazawa, Yuki; Morgner, Nina; Petrovich, Miriana; Ebong, Ima-Obong; Robinson, Carol V; Johnson, Christopher M; Veprintsev, Dmitry; Zuber, Benoît

    2011-03-04

    Centrioles are cylindrical, ninefold symmetrical structures with peripheral triplet microtubules strictly required to template cilia and flagella. The highly conserved protein SAS-6 constitutes the center of the cartwheel assembly that scaffolds centrioles early in their biogenesis. We determined the x-ray structure of the amino-terminal domain of SAS-6 from zebrafish, and we show that recombinant SAS-6 self-associates in vitro into assemblies that resemble cartwheel centers. Point mutations are consistent with the notion that centriole formation in vivo depends on the interactions that define the self-assemblies observed here. Thus, these interactions are probably essential to the structural organization of cartwheel centers.

  13. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  14. Interaction between plate make and protein in protein crystallisation screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein crystallisation screening involves the parallel testing of large numbers of candidate conditions with the aim of identifying conditions suitable as a starting point for the production of diffraction quality crystals. Generally, condition screening is performed in 96-well plates. While previous studies have examined the effects of protein construct, protein purity, or crystallisation condition ingredients on protein crystallisation, few have examined the effect of the crystallisation plate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a statistically rigorous examination of protein crystallisation, and evaluated interactions between crystallisation success and plate row/column, different plates of same make, different plate makes and different proteins. From our analysis of protein crystallisation, we found a significant interaction between plate make and the specific protein being crystallised. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Protein crystal structure determination is the principal method for determining protein structure but is limited by the need to produce crystals of the protein under study. Many important proteins are difficult to crystallize, so that identification of factors that assist crystallisation could open up the structure determination of these more challenging targets. Our findings suggest that protein crystallisation success may be improved by matching a protein with its optimal plate make.

  15. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  16. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br, E-mail: geice@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  18. Cloaked similarity between HIV-1 and SARS-CoV suggests an anti-SARS strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kliger Yossef

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a febrile respiratory illness. The disease has been etiologically linked to a novel coronavirus that has been named the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV, whose genome was recently sequenced. Since it is a member of the Coronaviridae, its spike protein (S2 is believed to play a central role in viral entry by facilitating fusion between the viral and host cell membranes. The protein responsible for viral-induced membrane fusion of HIV-1 (gp41 differs in length, and has no sequence homology with S2. Results Sequence analysis reveals that the two viral proteins share the sequence motifs that construct their active conformation. These include (1 an N-terminal leucine/isoleucine zipper-like sequence, and (2 a C-terminal heptad repeat located upstream of (3 an aromatic residue-rich region juxtaposed to the (4 transmembrane segment. Conclusions This study points to a similar mode of action for the two viral proteins, suggesting that anti-viral strategy that targets the viral-induced membrane fusion step can be adopted from HIV-1 to SARS-CoV. Recently the FDA approved Enfuvirtide, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal heptad repeat of HIV-1 gp41, as an anti-AIDS agent. Enfuvirtide and C34, another anti HIV-1 peptide, exert their inhibitory activity by binding to a leucine/isoleucine zipper-like sequence in gp41, thus inhibiting a conformational change of gp41 required for its activation. We suggest that peptides corresponding to the C-terminal heptad repeat of the S2 protein may serve as inhibitors for SARS-CoV entry.

  19. Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, L; Smith, T; Havsager, A M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield and to describe the spectrum of diagnosis encountered by evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 198 patients referred to a department of neurology...... with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy. The evaluation included nerve conduction studies with near-nerve technique, quantitative examination of temperature sensation, blood tests, chest x-rays, and skin biopsies as well as diagnostic tests for differential diagnoses. RESULTS: Polyneuropathy was found in 147......%), drugs (5%), connective tissue disease (3%), and a number of less frequent conditions. A previously undiagnosed condition was found in 30% of the patients with polyneuropathy. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy reveals a high fraction of patients with previously...

  20. Career Path Suggestion using String Matching and Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Akshay; P. Panda, Supriya

    2015-05-01

    High school and college graduates seemingly are often battling for the courses they should major in order to achieve their target career. In this paper, we worked on suggesting a career path to a graduate to reach his/her dream career given the current educational status. Firstly, we collected the career data of professionals and academicians from various career fields and compiled the data set by using the necessary information from the data. Further, this was used as the basis to suggest the most appropriate career path for the person given his/her current educational status. Decision trees and string matching algorithms were employed to suggest the appropriate career path for a person. Finally, an analysis of the result has been done directing to further improvements in the model.

  1. Exposure to suggestion and creation of false auditory memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, B; Nelson, E

    2000-02-01

    The experiment investigated the possibility of creating false auditory memory through exposure to suggestion. Research by Loftus and others has indicated that, through suggestion, false memories can be created. Participants viewed a short film and were given a 9-item questionnaire. Eight questions were used as filler while one question asked respondents to recall a phrase one character had said. Although the character actually said nothing, 23 of 30 respondents recalled having heard him speak and specifically recalled his words. This statistically significant result shows that auditory memories can also be created.

  2. Persistent Web References – Best Practices and New Suggestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Nyvang, Caroline; Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    In this paper, we suggest adjustments to best practices for persistent web referencing; adjustments that aim at preservation and long time accessibility of web referenced resources in general, but with focus on web references in web archives. Web referencing is highly relevant and crucial...... refer to archive URLs which depends on the web archives access implementations. A major part of the suggested adjustments is a new web reference standard for archived web references (called wPID), which is a supplement to the current practices. The purpose of the standard is to support general, global...

  3. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... to the ability of the landfill gas management to reduce the emission should be set up, and how criteria are developed for when the monitoring activities can be terminated. Monitoring procedures are suggested centred on a robust method for measuring the total methane emission from the site, and quantitative...

  4. Children's suggestibility research: Things to know before interviewing a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Courtney Hritz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children's testimony is often the only evidence of alleged abuse. Thus, the importance of conducting forensic interviews that are free from bias and misleading information is immense, as these could lead to false reports. In the current paper, we review unexpected findings in children's suggestibility that illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing between false and accurate reports. We explore situations in which a younger person's memory account may be more accurate than that of an adult, when a single suggestive interview may be as detrimental as multiple interviews, and when children can make inaccurate reports spontaneously. We conclude with recommendations for interviewers to decrease false reporting by both children and adults.

  5. Poxviral Ankyrin Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herbert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple repeats of the ankyrin motif (ANK are ubiquitous throughout the kingdoms of life but are absent from most viruses. The main exception to this is the poxvirus family, and specifically the chordopoxviruses, with ANK repeat proteins present in all but three species from separate genera. The poxviral ANK repeat proteins belong to distinct orthologue groups spread over different species, and align well with the phylogeny of their genera. This distribution throughout the chordopoxviruses indicates these proteins were present in an ancestral vertebrate poxvirus, and have since undergone numerous duplication events. Most poxviral ANK repeat proteins contain an unusual topology of multiple ANK motifs starting at the N-terminus with a C-terminal poxviral homologue of the cellular F-box enabling interaction with the cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. The subtle variations between ANK repeat proteins of individual poxviruses suggest an array of different substrates may be bound by these protein-protein interaction domains and, via the F-box, potentially directed to cellular ubiquitination pathways and possible degradation. Known interaction partners of several of these proteins indicate that the NF-κB coordinated anti-viral response is a key target, whilst some poxviral ANK repeat domains also have an F-box independent affect on viral host-range.

  6. CCHCR1 interacts with EDC4, suggesting its localization in P-bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Y.H.; Wong, C.C. [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Li, K.W. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chan, K.M. [School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Boukamp, P. [Division of Genetics of Skin Carcinogenesis, A110 German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Liu, W.K., E-mail: ken-liu@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China)

    2014-09-10

    Coiled‐coil alpha‐helical rod protein 1 (CCHCR1) is suggested as a candidate biomarker for psoriasis for more than a decade but its function remains poorly understood because of the inconsistent findings in the literature. CCHCR1 protein is suggested to be localized in the cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, or centrosome and to regulate various cellular functions, including steroidogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, and cytoskeleton organization. In this study, we attempted to find a consensus between these findings by identifying the interaction partners of CCHCR1 using co-immunoprecipiation with a stable cell line expressing EGFP-tagged CCHCR1. Out of more than 100 co-immunoprecipitants identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the enhancer of mRNA-decapping protein 4 (EDC4), which is a processing body (P-body) component, was particularly found to be the major interacting partner of CCHCR1. Confocal imaging confirmed the localization of CCHCR1 in P-bodies and its N-terminus is required for this subcellular localization, suggesting that CCHCR1 is a novel P-body component. As P-bodies are the site for mRNA metabolism, our findings provide a molecular basis for the function of CCHCR1, any disruption of which may affect the transcriptome of the cell, and causing abnormal cell functions. - Highlights: • We identified CCHCR1 as a novel P-body component. • We identified EDC4 as the major interacting partner of CCHCR1. • N-terminus of CCHCR1 protein is required for its P-bodies localization.

  7. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  8. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  9. Editor's Note Responding to suggestions from the research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Responding to suggestions from the research fellowship of the Institute of African Studies for a re-branding of the. Research Review, which began publication in the early 1960s soon after the establishment of the Institute, the old title has now been replaced with a new title — Contemporary Journal of African Studies. This is ...

  10. Small Business Management. Part I, A Suggested Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    In this curriculum guide on small business management, lessons (including specific course content and teaching suggestions) are developed around general traits and practices conducive to success in small businesses, loans and other sources of capital, budgeting and planning, recordkeeping, marketing and selling, advertising and sales promotion,…

  11. Some suggestions based on the instrumentation installation experience at RAPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, M.R.; Singh, S.; Jain, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Suggestions regarding installation of reactor instrumentation have been made based on the instrumentation installation experience at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant. It has been mentioned that the instrumentation installation work has to proceed simultaneously with that of the heavy equipment and piping errection work, to meet the commissioning target dates. (S.K.K.)

  12. Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male-limited evolution suggests no extant intralocus sexual conflict over the sexually dimorphic cuticular hydrocarbons of Drosophila melanogaster ... Spain; Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, Manauli PO 140 306, India; Department of Biology and Centre for ...

  13. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to

  14. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  15. RETAIL ORGANIZATION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAURO, RALPH N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A COURSE ON RETAIL ORGANIZATION IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) EVOLUTION OF RETAIL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, (2) ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES, (3) TYPICAL RETAIL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS, (4) ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANAYSIS, INCLUDING MERCHANDISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND…

  16. Suggestions for Improving Ugandan Higher Education to Produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every country invests in formal education to develop and empower its citizens with the capacity needed to practically work and transform their surrounding environmental resources into productive employment after graduation. The high and growing rate of graduate unemployment in Uganda suggests however, that most of ...

  17. An Instructional Method Suggestion: Conveying Stories through Origami (Storigami)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how to convey stories through origami and suggest its use in education with the help of pre-service elementary teachers' opinions. The participants of the study were 103 elementary teacher candidates from a state university in the 2014-2015 academic year. In this qualitative study, the data were collected…

  18. Omission, Suggestion, Completion : Film and the Imagination of the Spectator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian

    2018-01-01

    This article counters the widespread assumption that film is exclusively a medium of showing, presentation or appearing by emphasizing the importance of the viewer’s act of imagination. At the center of attention is the aesthetic principle of omission, suggestion, and completion in film – in other

  19. Suggestions for Working with Fat Children in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, Michael I.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses prejudice toward fat children and its effect on their lives; critiques prevailing efforts to control children's eating habits and weight. Suggestions and resource materials to enhance students' self-esteem and good health through self-acceptance and embracing the diversity of body types are presented. (EMK)

  20. Young Children's Understanding of Conflicting Mental Representation Predicts Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch-Ross, Melissa K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relation between developmental suggestibility effects and preschoolers' emerging ability to reason about conflicting mental representations. Subjects were 42 three- to five-year-olds. Found in the children significant initial encoding and ability to retrieve event details. Also found an integration between children's theory of mind…

  1. The Strategic Regulation of Children's Memory Performance and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebers, C.M.; Schneider, W.

    2005-01-01

    We report two empirical studies that investigated previously reported benefits of a high accuracy motivation, and thus a high threshold, for children's and adults' event recall and for their ability to resist false suggestions. In the studies, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds, as well as adults, were shown a brief video about an event and were later asked…

  2. Effects of Discrete Emotions on Young Children's Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Linda J.; Burgess, Stewart L.; Laney, Cara

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of sadness, anger, and happiness on 4- to 6-year-old children's memory and suggestibility concerning story events. In Experiment 1, children were presented with 3 interactive stories on a video monitor. The stories included protagonists who wanted to give the child a prize. After each story, the child…

  3. How Interviewers' Nonverbal Behaviors Can Affect Children's Perceptions and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-01-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g.,…

  4. Where to Look First for Suggestibility in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Peter A.; Siegal, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Investigated preschool children's suggestibility following exposure to biased information. Children heard a story followed the next day by either biased, unbiased, or no information. Found that children were able to identify the original story details six days later when the questions were phrased in an explicit manner that referred to the time of…

  5. The Effects of Prior Knowledge on Children's Memory and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elischberger, Holger B.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the…

  6. Explicit grammar teaching in EAL classrooms: Suggestions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the subject English Additional Language (EAL) to serve as a strong support subject in explicitly teaching learners the grammar of English is suggested as an interim solution to the effects of the non-implementation of the 1997 South African Language in Education Policy. To identify specific grammatical ...

  7. Suggestions for the Classical Shelves of a School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebourn, R., Comp.; Cleeve, Marigold, Comp.

    This bibliography is suggested for use by students and teachers of Latin, Greek and ancient civilizations. Entries are compiled under the headings of: (1) bibliographies and journals including booklists, periodicals, and books for teachers; (2) reference works in literature, mythology, history and antiquities, and language; (3) texts and…

  8. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  9. De-Problematizing 'GMOs': Suggestions for Communicating about Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Grunewald, Wim; De Jaeger, Geert

    2017-03-01

    The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  11. Barriers to Policy Change and a Suggested Path for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    China's one-child policy has been an unprecedented policy experiment in human history. Despite its significant achievements, the policy has induced equally significant potential problems. As problems of the one-child policy have been widely noticed and suggestions for adjustments are available, the leadership transition of China in 2012 and 2013…

  12. Coping with loneliness: what do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest

  13. A birth-death process suggested by a chain sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenin, R.B.; Parthasarathy, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a birth-death process whose birth and death rates are suggested by a chain sequence. We use an elegant transformation to find the transition probabilities in a simple closed form. We also find an explicit expression for time-dependent mean. We find parallel results in discrete time.

  14. Tuck in Your Shirt, You Squid: Suggestions in ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Janet; Carrell, Patricia L.

    1988-01-01

    An English discourse completion questionnaire consisting of 60 situations designed to elicit suggestions in English was administered to 28 native speakers of Chinese or Malay and to 12 native speakers of American English. Non-native speakers of English were more direct in their responses. Native and non-native speakers significantly differed in…

  15. Overview of the TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    into Washington on the metro to see the National Mall . The primary goal of this track is to develop evaluation methodologies for such systems. This...activities, restaurant, shopping , and nightlife). The number of venues in the top 50 suggestions from each category is determined by this probability

  16. Considerations about ISO 14001, and suggestions for the next revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2006-01-01

    . The standard is a process standard that leaves room for interpretation at company level as well as among lead auditors from certifying bodies. A case study is presented and shows lack of life cycle thinking in product development. The paper suggests changes of ISO 14001:2004 in order to include a clear product...

  17. Two suggestions to improve the utilization of ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    Two suggestions are outlined which are aimed at improving the efficiency of work in experimental areas by improving the information available to experimenters. The ideas relate to: (1) communications between the experimental hall and the data acquisition room; and (2) beam information via computer

  18. Genome-wide association studies of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis suggest candidate susceptibility genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swarkar; Gao, Xiaochong; Londono, Douglas; Devroy, Shonn E.; Mauldin, Kristen N.; Frankel, Jessica T.; Brandon, January M.; Zhang, Dongping; Li, Quan-Zhen; Dobbs, Matthew B.; Gurnett, Christina A.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Dormans, John P.; Herring, John A.; Gordon, Derek; Wise, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is an unexplained and common spinal deformity seen in otherwise healthy children. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood despite intensive investigation. Although genetic underpinnings are clear, replicated susceptibility loci that could provide insight into etiology have not been forthcoming. To address these issues, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ∼327 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 419 AIS families. We found strongest evidence of association with chromosome 3p26.3 SNPs in the proximity of the CHL1 gene (P protein related to Robo3. Mutations in the Robo3 protein cause horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), a rare disease marked by severe scoliosis. Other top associations in our GWAS were with SNPs in the DSCAM gene encoding an axon guidance protein in the same structural class with Chl1 and Robo3. We additionally found AIS associations with loci in CNTNAP2, supporting a previous study linking this gene with AIS. Cntnap2 is also of functional interest, as it interacts directly with L1 and Robo class proteins and participates in axon pathfinding. Our results suggest the relevance of axon guidance pathways in AIS susceptibility, although these findings require further study, particularly given the apparent genetic heterogeneity in this disease. PMID:21216876

  19. Life at extreme conditions: neutron scattering studies of biological molecules suggest that evolution selected dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccai, Joseph Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure or solvent environment for survival. The existence of such organisms poses a significant challenge in understanding the physical chemistry of their proteins, in view of the great sensitivity of protein structure and stability to the aqueous environment and to external conditions in general. Results of neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of proteins from extremophile organisms, in vitro as well as in vivo, indicated remarkably how adaptation to extreme conditions involves forces and fluctuation amplitudes that have been selected specifically, suggesting that evolutionary macromolecular selection proceeded via dynamics. The experiments were performed on a halophilic protein, and membrane adapted to high salt, a thermophilic enzyme adapted to high temperature and its mesophilic (adapted to 37 degC) homologue; and in vivo for psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria, adapted respectively to temperatures of 4 degC, 37 degC, 75 degC and 85 degC. Further work demonstrated the existence of a water component of exceptionally low mobility in an extreme halophile from the Dead Sea, which is not present in mesophile bacterial cells. (author)

  20. Communicating about nuclear events: Some suggestions to improve INES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermisch, Céline; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) and its use, both from an epistemic and an ethical perspective. As very few papers have been dedicated to this subject, our critical analysis is mainly based on the INES 2009 User's Manual and on technical information issued by different nuclear agencies. Our critical analysis leads to suggest several elements, which could contribute to the improvement of the INES scale and thereby to a better communication about nuclear events. First, we show that multiple criteria are used to assign an INES rating, which could lead to an insufficient differentiation between events. In order to avoid this issue, we suggest to clarify the criteria that are used to assess the level of the event. Then, we show that level 7 of the INES scale is ill-defined as it does not allow to properly take differences in severity between disasters into account. In this regard, we recommend to use an open scale instead. Moreover, we highlight the fact that INES is able to take into account neither events with long-term evolution nor events involving multiple initiators. In this respect, we suggest providing additional guidelines and reflecting about the data on which to rely, in order to assess an INES level. Furthermore, we reflect on who should be rating a nuclear event and we recommend that, for severe events, an independent and plural agency should be in charge. Finally, we show why INES appears to be insufficient for a global communication, and we suggest to complement the INES rating with additional information in parallel. -- Highlights: •We provide a critical analysis of the INES scale and suggestions to improve it. •The rating criteria should be clarified to allow differentiation between events. •An open scale should be used to differentiate between level-7 accidents. •Additional guidelines should be provided for complex and evolving events. •We provide suggestions to satisfy

  1. Mitochondrial genome analyses suggest multiple Trichuris species in humans, baboons, and pigs from different geographical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed B. F.; Andersen, Lee O.; Gasser, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris from françois' leaf monkey, suggesting multiple whipworm species circulating among non-human primates. The genetic and protein distances between pig Trichuris from Denmark and other regions were roughly 9% and 6%, respectively, while Chinese and Ugandan whipworms were more closely related......) suggesting that they represented different species. Trichuris from the olive baboon in US was genetically related to human Trichuris in China, while the other from the hamadryas baboon in Denmark was nearly identical to human Trichuris from Uganda. Baboon-derived Trichuris was genetically distinct from......BACKGROUND: The whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis are two parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs, respectively. Although whipworms in human and non-human primates historically have been referred to as T. trichiura, recent reports suggest that several Trichuris spp. are found...

  2. Suggestions for the Improvement of Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya was started in 1990 following the 1979 Three Mile Island and the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plants accidents. The main purpose was to measure the radioactivity of foodstuffs imported from oversees and to carry out environmental radiation monitoring of soil, rock, water and air sample to check for contamination. Through environmental radiation monitoring, the Food and Environmental Monitoring Section (FEM) of the Kenya Radiation Protection Board (RPB) works to protect the public and environment from hazards associated with ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper was to highlight suggestions for the improvement of environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya with respect to protecting the public and the environment against undue radiation risk by ensuring that potential exposures are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The suggestions for improvement will serve as a guideline for the strengthening of environmental radiation monitoring program in Kenya

  3. Communicating uncertainty: lessons learned and suggestions for climate change assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, A.; Dessai, S.

    2005-01-01

    Assessments of climate change face the task of making information about uncertainty accessible and useful to decision-makers. The literature in behavior economics provides many examples of how people make decisions under conditions of uncertainty relying on inappropriate heuristics, leading to inconsistent and counterproductive choices. Modern risk communication practices recommend a number of methods to overcome these hurdles, which have been recommended for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports. This paper evaluates the success of the most recent IPCC approach to uncertainty communication, based on a controlled survey of climate change experts. Evaluating the results from the survey, and from a similar survey recently conducted among university students, the paper suggests that the most recent IPCC approach leaves open the possibility for biased and inconsistent responses to the information. The paper concludes by suggesting ways to improve the approach for future IPCC assessment reports. (authors)

  4. DIPNECH: when to suggest this diagnosis on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassagnon, G.; Favelle, O.; Marchand-Adam, S.; De Muret, A.; Revel, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is an under-recognized disease characterized by proliferation of neuroendocrine cells in the bronchial wall. It is considered a pre-invasive lesion for lung carcinoid tumours and is found in 5.4% of patients undergoing surgical resection for lung carcinoid tumours. Other manifestations of DIPNECH include bronchial obstruction and formation of tumorlets. DIPNECH preferentially affects middle-aged women. Patients are either asymptomatic or present with long-standing dyspnoea due to obstructive syndrome that can be mistaken for asthma. At CT, mosaic attenuation with multiple small nodules is very suggestive of DIPNECH. The aim of this review is to describe DIPNECH-related CT features and correlate them with histology, in order to help radiologists suggest this diagnosis and distinguish DIPNECH from other causes of mosaic perfusion

  5. Prostitution advertisements suggest association of transvestism and masochism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, M; Blanchard, R

    1996-01-01

    Previous research and clinical observation have suggested that the sexual interest of many transvestites include involvement in sadomasochistic sexual acts. Through data gathered via prostitution advertisements in print media, we tested the hypothesis that prostitutes welcoming cross-dressing client would be primarily those describing themselves as dominant. The specialty of the prostitute was recorded by coding the advertisements for the presence or absence of the features of dominance, submissiveness, acceptance of cross-dressing clients, and whether the prostitute was a biological male presenting as a woman or quasi-woman. The findings showed that 20% of prostitutes describing themselves as dominant welcomed cross-dressing clients, whereas none of the other subgroups of prostitutes mentioned cross-dressing clients in their advertisements. These findings reinforce other lines of indirect evidence suggesting that, in heterosexual men, the presence of masochism increases the likelihood of transvestism, and vice versa.

  6. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  7. Inoculating against eyewitness suggestibility via interpolated verbatim vs. gist testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansky, Ainat; Tenenboim, Einat

    2011-01-01

    In real-life situations, eyewitnesses often have control over the level of generality in which they choose to report event information. In the present study, we adopted an early-intervention approach to investigate to what extent eyewitness memory may be inoculated against suggestibility, following two different levels of interpolated reporting: verbatim and gist. After viewing a target event, participants responded to interpolated questions that required reporting of target details at either the verbatim or the gist level. After 48 hr, both groups of participants were misled about half of the target details and were finally tested for verbatim memory of all the details. The findings were consistent with our predictions: Whereas verbatim testing was successful in completely inoculating against suggestibility, gist testing did not reduce it whatsoever. These findings are particularly interesting in light of the comparable testing effects found for these two modes of interpolated testing.

  8. Comparative secretome analysis suggests low plant cell wall degrading capacity in Frankia symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normand Philippe

    2008-01-01

    genomes, suggesting that plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation may not be crucial to root infection, or that this degradation varies among strains. We hypothesize that the relative lack of secreted polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in Frankia reflects a strategy used by these bacteria to avoid eliciting host defense responses. The esterases, lipases, and proteases found in the core Frankia secretome might facilitate hyphal penetration through the cell wall, release carbon sources, or modify chemical signals. The core secretome also includes extracellular solute-binding proteins and Frankia-specific hypothetical proteins that may enable the actinorhizal symbiosis.

  9. Suggested instructions for the completion of delivery commitment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the Delivery Commitment Schedule form contained in Appendix C of the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (the Standard Contract). In particular, the presentation describes some preliminary suggested instructions for completing the form in a manner that may aid the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS)

  10. Suggestions on the Development of Safety Culture Assessment Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kim, Woong Sik

    2006-01-01

    Several efforts have been made to assess safety culture of organization that operates nuclear power plants in Korea. The MOST and KINS played a major role to develop assessment methods and KHNP applied them to its NPPs. This paper explains the two methods developed by KINS briefly and presents the insights obtained from the two different applications. It concludes with some suggestions for safety culture assessment based on the insights

  11. Oncologic prevention and suggested working standards in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the ground of the available data, this paper presents the problem of malignant diseases in Central Serbia, and most common carcinogens. Division of carcinogens, cancerogenesis and natural history of disease, early detection of cancer and palliative management are explained. The role and capacities of primary health care doctors in treatment of patients with suspect malignant disease are presented. Authors are suggesting standards for medical tasks and contemporary principles in approach to patients with malignant diseases in everyday practice.

  12. Genetic theory – a suggested cupping therapy mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban , Tamer; Ravalia , Munir

    2017-01-01

    The Cupping Therapy mechanism of action is not clear. Cupping may increase local blood circulation, and may have an immunomodulation effect. Local and systemic effects of Cupping Therapy were reported. Genetic expression is a physiological process that regulates body functions. Genetic modulation is a reported acupuncture effect. In this article, the authors suggest genetic modulation theory as one of the possible mechanisms of action of cupping therapy.

  13. Suggestions on Strengthening Greening Construction of Ecological Residential Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Greening construction is an important part of the construction of ecological residential areas, but there exist some misunderstandings in greening construction of ecological residential districts at present. Based on the description of functions of green space in ecological residential areas, the summarization of principles of greening design, and the discussion of questions in greening construction of ecological residential districts, some suggestions as well as specific measures for strengt...

  14. Analysis of existing risk assessments, and list of suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Heimsch, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this project was to analyse risk assessments made at CERN and extracting some crucial information about the different methodologies used, profiles of people who make the risk assessments, and gathering information of whether the risk matrix was used and if the acceptable level of risk was defined. Second step of the project was to trigger discussion inside HSE about risk assessment by suggesting a risk matrix and a risk assessment template.

  15. Transit pipelines suggest a tendency to produce conflict and disagreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    2009-01-01

    Any reading to the history of transit pipeline suggests a tendency to produce conflict and disagreement, often resulting to the cessation of throughput, sometimes for a short period and sometimes for longer. That bad political relation between neighbours have certain a role, but very important is the economic nature of the transit terms, tariff and off take terms. What might be done to improve this record in the future and make transit pipeline less vulnerable and troublesome? [it

  16. Recommendations and Suggestions of the IRRS Mission in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Act on Radiological and Nuclear Safety, Director General of the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety (SORNS) is obliged to conduct self-assessment of the national legislative framework and of the competent authorities and to provide for international audit of important segments of the national legislative framework and competent authorities with the purpose of continuous improvement of radiological and nuclear safety. SORNS as a state administration body competent for activities pertaining to radiological and nuclear safety, submitted in April 2013 the request to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to conduct an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. SORNS conducted a self-assessment in preparation for the mission and prepared a preliminary action plan. The results of SORNS self-assessment and supporting documentation were provided to the IRRS review team as advance reference material for the mission. IRRS mission took place in Zagreb from 7 to 17 Jun 2015. The IRRS team carried out the review in the following areas: responsibilities and functions of the government; the global nuclear safety regime; responsibilities and functions of the regulatory body; the management system of the regulatory body; the activities of the regulatory body including authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement processes; development and content of regulations and guides; emergency preparedness and response; occupational radiation protection, patient protection, public and environmental exposure control, waste management and decommissioning. The IRRS team identified a number of recommendations and suggestions where improvements in the area of radiological and nuclear safety are necessary or desirable. Those recommendations and suggestions were translated and approved by the Government in the form of the Governmental conclusion. This conclusion presents the action plan for the SORNS and other governmental bodies and

  17. Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ran

    2014-01-01

    The research “Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China” was commissioned by Home Original Chicken Co. Ltd, which is the biggest Chinese fast-food restaurant chain in Anhui Province. The theory needed in the research was marketing mix strategies. Marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. The marketing strategies contain product decisions (including individual products decisions, product line decisions, product mix decisions), price decisions (contai...

  18. Collider shot setup for Run 2 observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annala, J.; Joshel, B.

    1996-01-01

    This note is intended to provoke discussion on Collider Run II shot setup. We hope this is a start of activities that will converge on a functional description of what is needed for shot setups in Collider Run II. We will draw on observations of the present shot setup to raise questions and make suggestions for the next Collider run. It is assumed that the reader has some familiarity with the Collider operational issues. Shot setup is defined to be the time between the end of a store and the time the Main Control Room declares colliding beams. This is the time between Tevatron clock events SCE and SCB. This definition does not consider the time experiments use to turn on their detectors. This analysis was suggested by David Finley. The operational scenarios for Run II will require higher levels of reliability and speed for shot setup. See Appendix I and II. For example, we estimate that a loss of 3 pb -1 /week (with 8 hour stores) will occur if shot setups take 90 minutes instead of 30 minutes. In other words: If you do 12 shots for one week and accept an added delay of one minute in each shot, you will loose more than 60 nb -1 for that week alone (based on a normal shot setup of 30 minutes). These demands should lead us to be much more pedantic about all the factors that affect shot setups. Shot setup will be viewed as a distinct process that is composed of several inter- dependent 'components': procedures, hardware, controls, and sociology. These components don't directly align with the different Accelerator Division departments, but are topical groupings of the needed accelerator functions. Defining these components, and categorizing our suggestions within them, are part of the goal of this document. Of course, some suggestions span several of these components

  19. Suggestions for English Culture Teaching in High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Hongjuan

    2016-01-01

    With the implementation of the new High School English Curriculum Standards, more and more people have realized the importance of English culture teaching. To realize the goals of English teaching, teachers should cultivate students' culture awareness and develop their intercultural communicative competence. But in the actual teaching, culture teaching did not get real implementation. So the author puts forwards some suggestions for English culture teaching in high school.

  20. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    effectiveness of the proposed method. 1 Introduction TREC 1014 Contextual Suggestion Track gives researchers the chance to test their methods on providing...each category. Information including the name, average rating, address, business hour, all ratings and the associated text reviews of the candidate...Annals of Statistics , 29:1189–1232, 2000. 5. K. Ganesan, C. Zhai, and J. Han. Opinosis: a graph-based approach to abstractive summarization of highly

  1. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  2. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  3. Women's Suggestions for Improving Midwifery Care in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Carien I; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Wiegers, Therese A; de Cock, T Paul; Hutton, Eileen K

    2015-12-01

    The experience of the care a woman receives during pregnancy and childbirth has an immediate and long-lasting effect on her well being. The involvement of patients and clients in health care has increased over the last decades. The Dutch maternity care system offers an excellent opportunity to explore and involve women's suggestions for the improvement of midwifery care in the current maternity care model. This qualitative study is part of the "DELIVER" study. Clients were recruited from 20 midwifery practices. Purposive sampling was used to select the practices. The clients received up to three questionnaires, in which they could respond to the question; "Do you have any suggestions on how your midwife could improve his/her provision of care?" The answers were analyzed with a qualitative thematic content analysis, using the software program MAXQDA. Altogether, 3,499 answers were provided. One overarching concept emerged: clients' desire for individualized care. Within this concept, suggestions could be clustered around 1) provider characteristics: interpersonal skills, communication, and competence, and 2) service characteristics: content and quantity of care, guidance and support, continuity of care provider, continuity of care, information, and coordination of care. Informed by the suggestions of women, care to women and their families could be improved by the following: 1) more continuity of the care provider during the prenatal, natal, and postnatal periods, 2) more information and information specifically tailored for the person, 3) client-centered communication, and 4) a personal approach with 5) enough time spent per client. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pedunculated Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Suggested by Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Ren, Weidong; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is an extremely rare malignancy. It is usually found after it grows large enough to occupy almost the entire lumen of the pulmonary artery and causes serious clinical symptoms. Thus, it is usually difficult to distinguish PAS from pulmonary thromboembolism based on imaging examinations. Few case reports had shown the attachment of PAS to pulmonary artery, a key characteristic for diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of PAS. In this case, we found a PAS, which did not cause local obstruction and some tumor emboli, which obstructed the branches of the pulmonary arteries and caused pulmonary hypertension and clinical symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a part of the tumor attached to the intima of the main pulmonary artery with a peduncle and had obvious mobility, which was suggestive of PAS and differentiated it from the pulmonary thromboembolism. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a pedunculated PAS suggested by TTE. Combined with pulmonary artery computed tomography angiography, the diagnosis of PAS is strongly suggested before the operation. This case indicates that TTE could reveal the attachment and mobility of PAS in the main pulmonary and may provide useful information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PAS, especially a pedunculated PAS. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Tarantism in Spain in the eighteen century: latrodectism and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Corral, I; Corral-Corral, C

    2016-10-16

    Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782. Spanish doctors described appropriately the clinical effects, identical to those produced by the bite of the spider black widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), which was at that time identified as a tarantula. The cases reported by Francisco Xavier Cid cured with the involuntary dance triggered by the tarantella, as was described in Italy since the sixteenth century. Our interpretation is that this curative effect of dance in Spain was induced by suggestion. In Spanish patients there were no behavioral disturbances, periodic recurrences or collective involvement as those reported by Italian authors, which suggest an hysterical phenomenon, probably a continuation of the dancing mania of the Middle Age. Tarantism reported in Spain in the eighteenth century includes two different phenomena: the systemic symptoms produced by the tarantula bite, which is actually latrodectism, and the curative effect of the tarantella, explained by suggestion. The psychiatric disturbances, with a hysterical nature, falsely associated to the tarantula bite, observed in Italy, were not present among the Spanish cases of tarantism in the eighteenth century.

  6. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos S. Efraimidis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to offer high quality personalized POI (point of interest recommendations. To protect user privacy, we apply a privacy by design approach within all of the steps of creating Pythia. The outcome is a system that comprises important architectural and operational innovations. The system is designed to process sensitive personal data, such as location traces, browsing history and web searches (query logs, to automatically infer user preferences and build corresponding POI-based user profiles. These profiles are then used by a contextual suggestion engine to anticipate user choices and make POI recommendations for tourists. Privacy leaks are minimized by implementing an important part of the system functionality at the user side, either as a mobile app or as a client-side web application, and by taking additional precautions, like data generalization, wherever necessary. As a proof of concept, we present a prototype that implements the aforementioned mechanisms on the Android platform accompanied with certain web applications. Even though the current prototype focuses only on location data, the results from the evaluation of the contextual suggestion algorithms and the user experience feedback from volunteers who used the prototype are very positive.

  7. Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Drucilla J

    2013-06-01

    The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest ligand's binding to nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Long; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Li, Zheng-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2012-01-01

    The research on the binding process of ligand to pyrazinamidase (PncA) is crucial for elucidating the inherent relationship between resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and PncA's activity. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods were performed to investigate the unbinding process of nicotinamide (NAM) from two PncA enzymes, which is the reverse of the corresponding binding process. The calculated potential of mean force (PMF) based on the steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations sheds light on an optimal binding/unbinding pathway of the ligand. The comparative analyses between two PncAs clearly exhibit the consistency of the binding/unbinding pathway in the two enzymes, implying the universality of the pathway in all kinds of PncAs. Several important residues dominating the pathway were also determined by the calculation of interaction energies. The structural change of the proteins induced by NAM's unbinding or binding shows the great extent interior motion in some homologous region adjacent to the active sites of the two PncAs. The structure comparison substantiates that this region should be very important for the ligand's binding in all PncAs. Additionally, MD simulations also show that the coordination position of the ligand is displaced by one water molecule in the unliganded enzymes. These results could provide the more penetrating understanding of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis and be helpful for the development of new antituberculosis drugs.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest ligand's binding to nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Long Zhang

    Full Text Available The research on the binding process of ligand to pyrazinamidase (PncA is crucial for elucidating the inherent relationship between resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and PncA's activity. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD simulation methods were performed to investigate the unbinding process of nicotinamide (NAM from two PncA enzymes, which is the reverse of the corresponding binding process. The calculated potential of mean force (PMF based on the steered molecular dynamics (SMD simulations sheds light on an optimal binding/unbinding pathway of the ligand. The comparative analyses between two PncAs clearly exhibit the consistency of the binding/unbinding pathway in the two enzymes, implying the universality of the pathway in all kinds of PncAs. Several important residues dominating the pathway were also determined by the calculation of interaction energies. The structural change of the proteins induced by NAM's unbinding or binding shows the great extent interior motion in some homologous region adjacent to the active sites of the two PncAs. The structure comparison substantiates that this region should be very important for the ligand's binding in all PncAs. Additionally, MD simulations also show that the coordination position of the ligand is displaced by one water molecule in the unliganded enzymes. These results could provide the more penetrating understanding of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis and be helpful for the development of new antituberculosis drugs.

  10. Quantitative analysis of TALE-DNA interactions suggests polarity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, Joshua F; Bhakta, Mital S; Kim, Moon-Soo; Ovadia, Robert; Habrian, Chris H; Zykovich, Artem; Yu, Abigail; Lockwood, Sarah H; Morbitzer, Robert; Elsäesser, Janett; Lahaye, Thomas; Segal, David J; Baldwin, Enoch P

    2013-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. We present here a systematic assessment of TALE DNA recognition, using quantitative electrophoretic mobility shift assays and reporter gene activation assays. Within TALE proteins, tandem 34-amino acid repeats recognize one base pair each and direct sequence-specific DNA binding through repeat variable di-residues (RVDs). We found that RVD choice can affect affinity by four orders of magnitude, with the relative RVD contribution in the order NG > HD ≈ NN > NI > NK. The NN repeat preferred the base G over A, whereas the NK repeat bound G with 10(3)-fold lower affinity. We compared AvrBs3, a naturally occurring TALE that recognizes its target using some atypical RVD-base combinations, with a designed TALE that precisely matches 'standard' RVDs with the target bases. This comparison revealed unexpected differences in sensitivity to substitutions of the invariant 5'-T. Another surprising observation was that base mismatches at the 5' end of the target site had more disruptive effects on affinity than those at the 3' end, particularly in designed TALEs. These results provide evidence that TALE-DNA recognition exhibits a hitherto un-described polarity effect, in which the N-terminal repeats contribute more to affinity than C-terminal ones.

  11. Protein politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Marike

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of the program of the interdisciplinary research group Profetas (protein foods, environment, technology and society). Profetas consists of technological, environmental and socio-economic research projects on protein food systems which result in the development of scenarios and

  12. Protein adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  13. Making academic research more relevant: A few suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Panda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic research in the domain of management scholarship, though steeped in scientific and methodological rigour, is generally found to be of little relevance to practice. The authors of this paper have revisited the rigour-relevance debate in light of recent developments and with special reference to the management research scenario in India. The central thesis of the argument is that the gulf between rigour and relevance needs to be bridged to make academic research more relevant to business organizations and practitioners. They have offered some suggestions to enhance the relevance of academic research to practice.

  14. Accomplishments and future suggestions of 2012 seoul nuclear security summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae San [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The second Seoul Nuclear Security Summit was held in Seoul, March 26{approx}27, 2012. It was a very big political event for nuclear security. National and International organization leaders had a time to discuss in depth issues about nuclear security; nuclear terrorism, illicit trafficking of nuclear /radiological materials, sabotages for nuclear facilities, etc. Why did many national leaders still take part in the second nuclear security summit compared to Washington summit and what is the importance of nuclear security? This paper will be the answer from those questions and handle the background, outcomes and future tasks of nuclear security summit. And suggestions for the next summits were considered in the conclusion part.

  15. A suggestion for multidisciplinarity: the fluorescence phenomenon observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Roberto Pimentel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary approaches involving daily phenomena are valuable teaching tools to stimulate reflections in order to comprehend that scientific knowledge is developed in a collective process, as well as to understand the importance that scientific research cannot be done in a unique area of knowledge for the full understanding of any phenomenon. We suggest the fluorescence phenomenon observation in some materials, objects and living organisms so that students realize the interaction between Physics, Chemistry and Biology, generally regarded as not correlated disciplines.

  16. Partnership-Based Health Care: Suggestions for Effective Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddie M Potter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Societal transformation often starts with one visionary and a compelling idea. However, if there are no followers, the idea quickly becomes marginalized. It “takes a village” to build a movement, and the more system layers that can be addressed, the more likely the transformation will take hold. This article describes the framework for creating the necessary changes for partnership-based health care. It also makes suggestions for ensuring successful application of partnership-based systems change. This article is for all readers seeking to apply partnership principles in their own fields of influence.

  17. Credit risk identification and suggestions of electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuan; Wang, Haichao; Chen, Zhongyuan; Hao, Yuxing; Jiang, Hailong; Qian, Hanhan; Wang, Meibao

    2018-03-01

    The power industry has a long history of credit problems, and the power industry has credit problems such as power users defaulting on electricity bills before the new electricity reform. With the reform of the power system, the credit problems in the power industry will be more complicated. How to effectively avoid the risk factors existing in the course of market operation and how to safeguard the fairness and standardization of market operation is an urgent problem to be solved. This paper first describes the credit risk in power market, and analyzes the components of credit risk identification in power market, puts forward suggestions on power market risk management.

  18. Concerning the mass of the suggested sixth satellite of Uranus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigmann, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of the strength of resonances arising from the known satellites of Uranus in the vicinity of the α and γ rings, with the strengths of probable resonances at the β and delta rings, suggest that the β and delta rings might be associated with an undiscovered satellite of mass approximately 0.4 mass of Miranda. This satellite is predicted to be a 17 to 18 mag object moving in a near-circular orbit, of low inclination to the plane of the rings, at a distance of 105 221 km from Uranus. (author)

  19. Accomplishments and future suggestions of 2012 seoul nuclear security summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae San

    2012-01-01

    The second Seoul Nuclear Security Summit was held in Seoul, March 26∼27, 2012. It was a very big political event for nuclear security. National and International organization leaders had a time to discuss in depth issues about nuclear security; nuclear terrorism, illicit trafficking of nuclear /radiological materials, sabotages for nuclear facilities, etc. Why did many national leaders still take part in the second nuclear security summit compared to Washington summit and what is the importance of nuclear security? This paper will be the answer from those questions and handle the background, outcomes and future tasks of nuclear security summit. And suggestions for the next summits were considered in the conclusion part

  20. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-09-29

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  1. A new dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year

  2. Suggestions on technical guide of implantation of radioactive seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongmin; Huang Gang; Lv Zhongwei; Liu Jianjun; Chen Kemin; Chen Yongde

    2009-01-01

    Implantation of radioactive seeds is an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of imaging technique and the use of treatment planning system (TPS) it has been more and more employed in clinical settings. The technique has been widely practiced in various malignant tumors, such as prostate cancer, lung caner, pancreatic cancer, hepatocarcinoma, etc. In order to standardize the clinical application of this technology, the authors propose some suggestions concerning the management of radioactive seeds, the indications and contraindications as well as the method of operation as a technical guidance. (authors)

  3. Suggestions on technical guide of implantation of radioactive seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhongmin, Wang; Gang, Huang; Zhongwei, Lv; Jianjun, Liu [Department of Radiology, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai (China); Kemin, Chen; Yongde, Chen

    2009-09-15

    Implantation of radioactive seeds is an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of imaging technique and the use of treatment planning system (TPS) it has been more and more employed in clinical settings. The technique has been widely practiced in various malignant tumors, such as prostate cancer, lung caner, pancreatic cancer, hepatocarcinoma, etc. In order to standardize the clinical application of this technology, the authors propose some suggestions concerning the management of radioactive seeds, the indications and contraindications as well as the method of operation as a technical guidance. (authors)

  4. Evolutionary reprograming of protein-protein interaction specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva, Eyal; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2015-10-22

    Using mutation libraries and deep sequencing, Aakre et al. study the evolution of protein-protein interactions using a toxin-antitoxin model. The results indicate probable trajectories via "intermediate" proteins that are promiscuous, thus avoiding transitions via non-interactions. These results extend observations about other biological interactions and enzyme evolution, suggesting broadly general principles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14......-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) versus patients with monosymptomatic onset who progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate results against data found in a complete literature review. Methods: A total of 66 patients with MS and/or ON from...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased concentration of tau...

  6. Suggested PAZ Size of Pressurized Light Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Jeong, Seung Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, preliminary calculation results to suggest PAZ size are presented. PSA methodology and RASCAL code were used to calculate PAZ size. Suggested radius of PAZ from the preliminary calculation results is between 0.8 and 4.8 km. These results were calculated with simple assumptions and only considered technical aspect, such as fission product release characteristics and radioactive material dispersion in environment. The actual boundaries of PAZ need to be defined by site specific information, such as local landmarks and population distribution. The results in this study can be used as base information to stakeholders and decision makers who are response in arrangement of emergency preparedness. The goals of the protective actions during nuclear accident are to prevent the occurrence of severe deterministic effects and keep the dose below the level at which protective actions and other response actions are justified to reduce the risk of stochastic effects. To meet these goals, off-site emergency zones for taking urgent protective action have to be identified in advance, i.e. during emergency preparedness phase. Especially Precautionary Action Zone (PAZ) is defined by the international requirement as the area within which arrangements should be made to implement precautionary urgent protective actions before or shortly after a major release with the aim of preventing or reducing the occurrence of severe deterministic effect. However, PAZ is not introduced in domestic emergency preparedness system.

  7. Educating Providers in Return-to-Play Suggested Guidelines Postconcussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bires, Angela Macci; Leonard, Amanda L; Thurber, Brandon

    As the awareness of concussions increases, it is imperative to be able to evaluate, diagnose, and treat concussed individuals properly to prevent further complications or death. The primary purpose of this study was to compare a provider's current awareness and comfort level as it relates to the return-to-play guidelines for concussions. A secondary aim was to evaluate current protocols that are in use and determine whether they coincide with the suggested guidelines. An educational intervention was implemented to assess the knowledge and confidence of health care providers. The study design was a quantitative, convenient sample, pretest/posttest questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to participants who were nurse practitioners prior to an educational PowerPoint presentation. At 8 weeks, the posttest was administered. Approximately 19% of individuals were not aware of a graded return-to-play protocols. The findings suggest that the educational intervention increased their confidence levels in making a diagnosis of a concussion, in assessing danger signs, and in understanding when to refer to a specialist. Additional supporting evidence from this study indicates that the educational intervention allowed the participants to achieve a greater comfort level in finding appropriate resources for them and their patients.

  8. Five suggestions for future medical education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B; Meng, Kwang Ho

    2014-09-01

    This study is to investigate the historical characteristics of medical education and healthcare environment in Korea and to suggest the desirable direction for future medical education. We draw a consensus through the literature analysis and several debates from the eight experts of medical education. There are several historical characteristics of medical education: medical education as vocational education and training, as a higher education, rapid growth of new medical schools, change to the medical education system, curriculum development, reinforcement of medical humanities, improvement of teaching and evaluation methods, validation of the national health personnel licensing examination, accreditation system for quality assurance, and establishment of specialized medical education division. The changes of health care environment in medical education are development of medical technologies, changes in the structures of the population and diseases, growth of information and communication technology, consumer-centered society, and increased intervention by the third party stakeholder. We propose five suggestions to be made to improve future medical education. They are plan for outcome and competency-based medical education, connection between the undergraduate and graduate medical education, reinforcement of continuous quality improvement of medical education, reorganization of the medical education system and construction of leadership of "academic medicine."

  9. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents’ Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80–90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child’s and the parent’s view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents’ experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents’ suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2–16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people’s lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child’s suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  10. Eyewitness recall and suggestibility in individuals with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D; Henry, L

    2016-12-01

    Many criminal justice professionals perceive the eyewitness skills of individuals with intellectual disabilities to be weaker than those of typically developing (TD) individuals. Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common genetic causes of intellectual disabilities, yet there is no research addressing eyewitness skills in this population. This study examined the eyewitness recall and suggestibility of young people with DS. Young people with DS and mental age-matched TD children viewed a video of a non-violent petty crime and were subsequently asked to freely recall the event before being asked general and specific questions incorporating both misleading and non-leading prompts. Compared with mental age-matched TD individuals, young people with DS produced as much information, were just as accurate and were no more suggestible. The eyewitness memory skills of young people with DS are comparable to those of mental age-matched TD children. The implications of these findings for the forensic context and eyewitness memory are discussed. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. On Suggestibility and Placebo: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Michael; Sheiner, Eli O; Olson, Jay A; Thériault, Rémi; Raz, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Identifying what makes some people respond well to placebos remains a major challenge. Here, we attempt to replicate an earlier study in which we found a relationship between hypnotic suggestibility and subjective ratings of relaxation following the ingestion of a placebo sedative (Sheiner, Lifshitz, & Raz, 2016). To assess the reliability of this effect, we tested 34 participants using a similar design. Participants ingested a placebo capsule in one of two conditions: (1) relaxation, wherein we described the capsule as a herbal sedative, or (2) control, wherein we described the capsule as inert. To index placebo response, we collected measures of blood pressure and heart rate, as well as self-report ratings of relaxation and drowsiness. Despite using a similar experimental design as in our earlier study, we were unable to replicate the correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and placebo response. Furthermore, whereas in our former experiment we observed a change in subjective ratings of relaxation but no change in physiological measures, here we found that heart rate dropped in the relaxation condition while subjective ratings remained unchanged. Even within a consistent context of relaxation, therefore, our present results indicate that placebos may induce effects that are fickle, tenuous, and unreliable. Although we had low statistical power, our findings tentatively accord with the notion that placebo response likely involves a complex, multifaceted interaction between traits, expectancies, and contexts.

  12. Landform elevation suggests ecohydrologic footprints in subsurface geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. C.; Watts, D.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Heffernan, J. B.; Martin, J. B.; Murray, A.; Osborne, T.; Cohen, M. J.; Kobziar, L. N.

    2012-12-01

    Many landscapes exhibit patterns in their arrangement of biota, or in their surface geomorphology as a result of biotic activity. Examples occur around the globe and include northern peatlands, Sahelian savannas, and shallow marine reefs. Such self-organized patterning is strongly suggestive of coupled, reciprocal feedbacks (i.e. locally positive, and distally negative) among biota and their environment. Much research on patterned landscapes has concerned emergent biogeomorphologic surfaces such as those found in peatlands, or the influence of biota on soil formation or transport. Our research concerns ecohydrologic feedbacks hypothesized to produce patterned occurrence of depressions in a subtropical limestone karst landscape. Our findings show strong evidence of self-organized patterning, in the form of overdispersed dissolution basins. Distributions of randomized bedrock elevation measurements on the landscape are bimodal, with means clustered about either higher- or lower-elevation modes. Measurements on the thin mantle of soil overlying this landscape, however, display reduced bimodality and mode separation. These observations indicate abiotic processes in diametric opposition to the biogenic forces which may be responsible for generating landscape pattern. Correlograms show higher spatial autocorrelation among soil measurements compared to bedrock measurements, and measurements of soil-layer thickness show high negative correlation with bedrock elevation. Our results are consistent with predictions of direct ecohydrologic feedbacks that would produce patterned "footprints" directly on bedrock, and of abiotic processes operating to obfuscate this pattern. The study suggests new steps to identify biogeochemical mechanisms for landscape patterning: an "ecological drill" by which plant communities modify geology.

  13. Autolysis: a plausible finding suggestive of long ESD procedure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Yong Sik; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Chae, Yang-Seok

    2012-04-01

    Autolysis is the enzymatic digestion of cells by the action of its own enzymes, and it mostly occurs in dying or dead cells. It has previously been suggested that prolonged procedure time could lead to autolytic changes from the periphery of the endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens. Recently, the authors have experienced a case of autolysis; due to the presence of ulcer, fibrosis, and frequent bleeding from the cut surface, it took 6 hours to complete the resection. More than halfway through the resection; bluish purple discoloration of the part of the dissected flap where the dissection was initiated was noticed. Histologic examination of this site showed diffuse distortion of epithelial lining and cellular architectures along with loss of cell components, compatible with autolysis. Because autolysis could theoretically pose a potential problem regarding the evaluation of resection margin, endoscopists and pathologists should communicate with each other for a reliable pathologic decision.

  14. Friend suggestion in social network based on user log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviya, R.; Vanitha, M.; Sumaiya Thaseen, I.; Mangaiyarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    Simple friend recommendation algorithms such as similarity, popularity and social aspects is the basic requirement to be explored to methodically form high-performance social friend recommendation. Suggestion of friends is followed. No tags of character were followed. In the proposed system, we use an algorithm for network correlation-based social friend recommendation (NC-based SFR).It includes user activities like where one lives and works. A new friend recommendation method, based on network correlation, by considering the effect of different social roles. To model the correlation between different networks, we develop a method that aligns these networks through important feature selection. We consider by preserving the network structure for a more better recommendations so that it significantly improves the accuracy for better friend-recommendation.

  15. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2008-01-01

    modulated gene expressions. In addition, gene expressions in both children and adults were investigated for associations with micronuclei frequencies. Both analysis approaches returned considerably more genes or gene groups and pathways that significantly differed between children from both regions than......Differences in biological responses to exposure to hazardous airborne substances between children and adults have been reported, suggesting children to be more susceptible. Aim of this study was to improve our understanding of differences in susceptibility in cancer risk associated with air...... pollution by comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of children and their parents. Gene expression analysis was performed in blood from children and parents living in two different regions in the Czech Republic with different levels of air pollution. Data were analyzed by two...

  16. A review of cyberbullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad Foody

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of cyberbullying are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature because of their implications for child and adolescent development. In particular, cyberbullying victimisation has been associated with similar negative consequences to traditional or face-to-face bullying such as lower academic achievement, anxiety, and sometimes even suicide. Research has also started to emerge investigating the impact of such incidences on the life of adults. The literature in this area has been steadily growing over the last decade and this review highlights the current situation in terms of relevant features and the psychological impact on victims. The selection process consisted of a comprehensive search that was conducted in January 2015 in the following databases: PsychInfo, ERIC, Web of Science and Medline. A total of 19 papers were included. We conclude with suggestions for online psychological treatment for victims and bullies as a means of coping with the distress caused from cyberbullying experiences.

  17. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Crisis Phones - Suicide Prevention Versus Suggestion/Contagion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There has been no systematic work on the short- or long-term impact of the installation of crisis phones on suicides from bridges. The present study addresses this issue. Data refer to 219 suicides from 1954 through 2013 on the Skyway Bridge in St. Petersburg, Florida. Six crisis phones with signs were installed in July 1999. In the first decade after installation, the phones were used by 27 suicidal persons and credited with preventing 26 or 2.6 suicides a year. However, the net suicide count increased from 48 in the 13 years before installation of phones to 106 the following 13 years or by 4.5 additional suicides/year (t =3.512, p < .001). Although the phones prevented some suicides, there was a net increase after installation. The findings are interpreted with reference to suggestion/contagion effects including the emergence of a controversial bridge suicide blog.

  19. School satisfaction and social relations: Swedish schoolchildren's improvement suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Louise; Haraldsson, Katarina; Hagquist, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to explore schoolchildren's views on how to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Improvement suggestions were collected from school children aged 10-12 years with the help of a feedback model developed for the purpose. Qualitative content analysis was used. Two categories emerged from the analysis: 'psychosocial climate', which included the subcategories 'adults' roles and responsibilities' and 'classmates' norms and values'; 'influence', which included the subcategories 'changes in the physical environment' and 'flexible learning'. The categories are seen as important to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Examining children's opinions is requested and promoted by the UN convention on the Rights of the Child. The findings contribute to the field by showing how school satisfaction and social relations might be improved, if the child perspective is considered in the planning of health promotion activities in school.

  20. Selective mutism: an update and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Samantha; Beidel, Deborah C

    2011-08-01

    Speculation continues regarding the accurate classification of selective mutism and potential etiologic factors. Current research has shed some light on several factors that may predispose some children to this disorder, but conclusions are difficult to draw due to reliance on subjective measures, few comparison groups, and/or limited theoretical grounding. This article provides an update on recent efforts to elucidate the etiologic pathways of selective mutism and on the current debate regarding its strong overlap with anxiety disorders, most notably social phobia. An additional attempt is made to examine findings based on a developmental perspective that accounts for multiple pathways, context, and the developmental stage of the child. Emotion regulation theory is offered as a potential factor in why some children may be more vulnerable to the etiologic factors described. Suggestions for future research are offered based on this integration of information.

  1. Police practices and perceptions regarding juvenile interrogation and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica R; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2007-01-01

    Recent media coverage has highlighted cases in which young suspects were wrongly convicted because they provided interrogation-induced false confessions. Although youth may be more highly suggestible and easily influenced by authority than adults, police are trained to use the same psychologically coercive and deceptive tactics with youth as with adults. This investigation is the first standard documentation of the reported interrogation practices of law enforcement and police beliefs about the reliability of these techniques and their knowledge of child development. Participants were 332 law enforcement officers who completed surveys about interrogation procedures and developmental issues pertaining to youth. Results indicated that, while police acknowledge some developmental differences between youth and adults, there were indications that (1) how police perceive youth in general and how they perceive and treat them in the interrogation context may be contradictory and (2) their general view is that youth can be dealt with in the same manner as adults. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A United States forensic sample for the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, I Bruce; Lally, Stephen J; Sexton, James E

    2012-01-01

    The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (GSS) is a valuable test to use as part of a comprehensive assessment of psychological and interrogative factors relevant to a defendant's vulnerability to giving a false or involuntary confession. One limitation of the test is that the manual only provides information for samples from Iceland and Great Britain. This report describes the results of 334 individuals in the United States, who were administered the tests as part of an evaluation to assess confession-related issues in a forensic context (i.e., capacity to waive Miranda rights or vulnerability in providing a false or involuntary confession). This forensic sample includes both juveniles and adults. Results are consistent with Gudjonsson's British and Icelandic samples, in which the Yield 1 score is more affected by intellectual and cognitive variables, but Shift and, to a lesser extent, Yield 2 scores are more related to emotional and personality characteristics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Study suggests Arctic sea ice loss not irreversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The Arctic has been losing sea ice as Earth's climate warms, and some studies have suggested that the Arctic could reach a tipping point, beyond which ice would not recover even if global temperatures cooled down again. However, a new study by Armour et al. that uses a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean global climate model found no evidence of such irreversibility. In their simulations, the researchers increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels until Arctic sea ice disappeared year-round and then watched what happened as global temperatures were then decreased. They found that sea ice steadily recovered as global temperatures dropped. An implication of this result is that future sea ice loss will occur only as long as global temperatures continue to rise. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048739, 2011)

  4. MOOCs for Teacher Professional Development: Reflections and Suggested Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Teacher Professional Development (TPD has become a major policy priority within education systems worldwide. But keeping teachers professionally up-to-date and providing them professional development opportunities on continuing basis is a big challenge. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs can be a cost and resource effective means to complement the traditional methods of professional development of teachers. This optimism is based on the assumption that use of MOOCs will facilitate mass training of teachers as per their convenience and ease. The other assumption is that being MOOCs-based training, it will be easy to adapt it to different cultures and languages. Considering these assumptions, this concept paper which is based on reviews of different reports, documents and research papers - discusses the challenges of TPD, reflects upon promises of using MOOCs for TPD; details initiatives and experiences of using MOOCs for TPD; and suggests actions for promoting the use of MOOCs for TPD.

  5. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae: target species and suggestions for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauzet Mariana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae, including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State and the southeast (SE Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.. We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis and lane snapper (L. synagris, are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  6. An hypnotic suggestion: review of hypnosis for clinical emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2014-04-01

    Hypnosis has been used in medicine for nearly 250 years. Yet, emergency clinicians rarely use it in emergency departments or prehospital settings. This review describes hypnosis, its historical use in medicine, several neurophysiologic studies of the procedure, its uses and potential uses in emergency care, and a simple technique for inducing hypnosis. It also discusses reasons why the technique has not been widely adopted, and suggests methods of increasing its use in emergency care, including some potential research areas. A limited number of clinical studies and case reports suggest that hypnosis may be effective in a wide variety of conditions applicable to emergency medical care. These include providing analgesia for existing pain (e.g., fractures, burns, and lacerations), providing analgesia and sedation for painful procedures (e.g., needle sticks, laceration repair, and fracture and joint reductions), reducing acute anxiety, increasing children's cooperation for procedures, facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of acute psychiatric conditions, and providing analgesia and anxiolysis for obstetric/gynecologic problems. Although it is safe, fast, and cost-effective, emergency clinicians rarely use hypnosis. This is due, in part, to the myths surrounding hypnosis and its association with alternative-complementary medicine. Genuine barriers to its increased clinical use include a lack of assured effectiveness and a lack of training and training requirements. Based on the results of further research, hypnosis could become a powerful and safe nonpharmacologic addition to the emergency clinician's armamentarium, with the potential to enhance patient care in emergency medicine, prehospital care, and remote medical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-03-16

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  8. Metagenomics and the protein universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godzik, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Metagenomics sequencing projects have dramatically increased our knowledge of the protein universe and provided over one-half of currently known protein sequences; they have also introduced a much broader phylogenetic diversity into the protein databases. The full analysis of metagenomic datasets is only beginning, but it has already led to the discovery of thousands of new protein families, likely representing novel functions specific to given environments. At the same time, a deeper analysis of such novel families, including experimental structure determination of some representatives, suggests that most of them represent distant homologs of already characterized protein families, and thus most of the protein diversity present in the new environments are due to functional divergence of the known protein families rather than the emergence of new ones. PMID:21497084

  9. Some suggestions for the DSM-5 schizotypal personality disorder construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2012-05-01

    This study relates to the schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proposal of the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by investigating the construct validity of SPD as defined by DSM-IV in a large sample of patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs (N = 2619), assessed by structured diagnostic interviews and the Longitudinal, Expert All Data standard. We investigated factor structure and psychometric properties of the SPD criteria, as well as co-occurrence patterns between SPD and other PDs. Thirty-six patients were diagnosed with SPD and 513 patients (21%) endorsed at least 2 schizotypal criteria. We found that 2 factors were specific for SPD, a cognitive-perceptual factor (ideas of reference, magical thinking, and unusual perceptual experiences) and an oddness factor (odd thinking and speech, constricted affect, and odd appearance or behavior). The criteria belonging to these factors had appropriate psychometric properties. The criteria of the cognitive-perceptual factor were more strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (PD) than with the other PDs. We did not find support for a consistent factor that reflected interpersonal problems. The criteria that used to be part of this factor (suspiciousness, lack of friends or confidants, and excessive social anxiety) performed poorly as specific SPD criteria. SPD was more strongly associated with antisocial PD and paranoid PD than with the other PDs. We suggest that ideas of reference should be included explicitly under the schizotypal facet of cognitive dysregulation in DSM-5, with less emphasis on the social phobic aspects of this feature. Furthermore, there should be more emphasis on the cognitive aspects of suspiciousness in SPD, and it should be considered to split up the affectivity criterion into constricted affect and inappropriate affect, with the latter type of affect being the expression of problems with

  10. Suggestion, persuasion and work: Psychotherapies in communist Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    This article traces what recent research and primary sources tell us about psychotherapy in Communist Europe, and how it survived both underground and above the surface. In particular, I will elaborate on the psychotherapeutic techniques that were popular across the different countries and language cultures of the Soviet sphere, with a particular focus upon the Cold War period. This article examines the literature on the mixed fortunes of psychoanalysis and group therapies in the region. More specifically, it focuses upon the therapeutic modalities such as work therapy, suggestion and rational therapy, which gained particular popularity in the Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The latter two approaches had striking similarities with parallel developments in behavioural and cognitive therapies in the West. In part, this was because clinicians on both sides of the 'iron curtain' drew upon shared European traditions from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Nevertheless, this article argues that in the Soviet sphere, those promoting these approaches appropriated socialist thought as a source of inspiration and justification, or at the very least, as a convenient political shield.

  11. Trophic signatures of seabirds suggest shifts in oceanic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Tyler O.; Hyrenbach, K. David; Hagemann, Molly E.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level–based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher–trophic level to lower–trophic level prey. No species increased their trophic position. Given species prey preferences, Bayesian diet reconstructions suggest a shift from fishes to squids, a result consistent with both catch reports and ecosystem models. Machine learning models further reveal that trophic position trends have a complex set of drivers including climate, commercial fisheries, and ecomorphology. Our results show that multiple species of fish-consuming seabirds may track the complex changes occurring in marine ecosystems. PMID:29457134

  12. Outcomes and Suggestions of the Nuclear Security Summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae San; Jung, Myung Tak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Through The third Nuclear Security Summit (NSS), the measurement for the nuclear security has become more strengthening and participating countries could recognize the importance of nuclear security than before. From the NSS sessions, the leaders of participating countries and international organizations (IAEA, UN, EU and INTERPOL) had an in-depth discussion about the seriousness of the nuclear terrorism, the urgency issues for strengthening the nuclear security, etc. What issues was discussed in NSS processes since 2010 and which facts become more important than ever for nuclear security? The purpose of this paper is to provide the substantive outcomes from the 1st to 3rd NSS and suggestions for consolidating the next NSS. The summit process has helped strengthen the nuclear security measures. In the following two years before 4th NSS, there will be various follow-up activities for making an effort to implementing national commitments, joint statement, continuous outreach with IAEA/UN and agreed measures in Hague. It should produce the substantial measures for enhancing the nuclear security that are aimed to the each country. And preemptively, it is necessary to understand the each nuclear security level by using the concrete questionnaire sheets substitute for the national progress report.

  13. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Melin, Amanda D; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  14. Outcomes and Suggestions of the Nuclear Security Summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae San; Jung, Myung Tak

    2014-01-01

    Through The third Nuclear Security Summit (NSS), the measurement for the nuclear security has become more strengthening and participating countries could recognize the importance of nuclear security than before. From the NSS sessions, the leaders of participating countries and international organizations (IAEA, UN, EU and INTERPOL) had an in-depth discussion about the seriousness of the nuclear terrorism, the urgency issues for strengthening the nuclear security, etc. What issues was discussed in NSS processes since 2010 and which facts become more important than ever for nuclear security? The purpose of this paper is to provide the substantive outcomes from the 1st to 3rd NSS and suggestions for consolidating the next NSS. The summit process has helped strengthen the nuclear security measures. In the following two years before 4th NSS, there will be various follow-up activities for making an effort to implementing national commitments, joint statement, continuous outreach with IAEA/UN and agreed measures in Hague. It should produce the substantial measures for enhancing the nuclear security that are aimed to the each country. And preemptively, it is necessary to understand the each nuclear security level by using the concrete questionnaire sheets substitute for the national progress report

  15. Suggestion for improvement of PET quality control tests in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda C.L.; Magalhaes, Cinthia M.S.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays nuclear medicine has a considerable importance among the other medical specialties. This medical specialty utilizes high-tech equipment for imaging in the diagnosis, obtaining information on the clinical functionality of organs and systems of the human body through the use of radioisotopes . In view of the importance of guaranteeing the image quality in SPECT and PET systems, enabling patients not repeat exams due to lack of quality control of equipment used in nuclear medicine, this paper aims to present a possible suggestion to update the quality control tests needed for quality assurance of nuclear medicine services. They were considered the requirements of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) in Brazil. The minimum requirements to be defined for inclusion of quality control tests on PET in the standard CNEN are extremely important because they will guide the evaluation of PET systems, determining the quality control tests to be performed. And those tests for PET will be a regulatory requirement by the CNEN and ANVISA. As the National Health Surveillance Agency has already publication of RDC 38 with recommendations for services of nuclear medicine. This study will continue with evaluation of PET systems and presenting the tests of quality control with additional objects and simulators to ensure safety in PET systems have not standardized in nuclear medicine services in Brazil. (author)

  16. Failures and suggestions in Earthquake forecasting and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Seismologists have had poor success in earthquake prediction. However, wide ranging observations from earlier great earthquakes show that precursory data can exist. In particular, two aspects seem promising. In agreement with simple physical modeling, b-values decrease in highly loaded fault zones for years before failure. Potentially more usefully, in high stress regions, breakdown of dilatant patches leading to failure can yield expelled water-related observations. The volume increase (dilatancy) caused by high shear stresses decreases the pore pressure. Eventually, water flows back in restoring the pore pressure, promoting failure and expelling the extra water. Of course, in a generally stressed region there may be many small patches that fail, such as observed before the 1975 Haicheng earthquake. Only a few days before the major event will most of the dilatancy breakdown occur in the fault zone itself such as for the Tangshan, 1976 destructive event. Observations of 'water release' effects have been observed before the 1923 great Kanto earthquake, the 1984 Yamasaki event, the 1975 Haicheng and the 1976 Tangshan earthquakes and also the 1995 Kobe earthquake. While there are obvious difficulties in water release observations, not least because there is currently no observational network anywhere, historical data does suggest some promise if we broaden our approach to this difficult subject.

  17. Modelling of Arabidopsis LAX3 expression suggests auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Péret, Benjamin; Porco, Silvana; Sairanen, Ilkka; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm; King, John

    2015-02-07

    Emergence of new lateral roots from within the primary root in Arabidopsis has been shown to be regulated by the phytohormone auxin, via the expression of the auxin influx carrier LAX3, mediated by the ARF7/19 IAA14 signalling module (Swarup et al., 2008). A single cell model of the LAX3 and IAA14 auxin response was formulated and used to demonstrate that hysteresis and bistability may explain the experimentally observed 'all-or-nothing' LAX3 spatial expression pattern in cortical cells containing a gradient of auxin concentrations. The model was tested further by using a parameter fitting algorithm to match model output with qRT-PCR mRNA expression data following exogenous auxin treatment. It was found that the model is able to show good agreement with the data, but only when the exogenous auxin signal is degraded over time, at a rate higher than that measured in the experimental medium, suggesting the triggering of an endogenous auxin homeostasis mechanism. Testing the model over a more physiologically relevant range of extracellular auxin shows bistability and hysteresis still occur when using the optimised parameters, providing the rate of LAX3 active auxin transport is sufficiently high relative to passive diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Basal Ganglia Calcification with Tetanic Seizure Suggest Mitochondrial Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Enzelsberger, Barbara; Bastowansky, Adam

    2017-04-09

    BACKGROUND Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is a rare sporadic or hereditary central nervous system (CNS) abnormality, characterized by symmetric or asymmetric calcification of the basal ganglia. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 65-year-old Gypsy female who was admitted for a tetanic seizure, and who had a history of polyneuropathy, restless-leg syndrome, retinopathy, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, osteoporosis with consecutive hyperkyphosis, cervicalgia, lumbalgia, struma nodosa requiring thyroidectomy and consecutive hypothyroidism, adipositas, resection of a vocal chord polyp, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, atheromatosis of the aorta, peripheral artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, steatosis hepatis, mild renal insufficiency, long-term hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, impingement syndrome, spondylarthrosis of the lumbar spine, and hysterectomy. History and clinical presentation suggested a mitochondrial defect which also manifested as hypoparathyroidism or Fanconi syndrome resulting in BGC. After substitution of calcium, no further tetanic seizures occurred. CONCLUSIONS Patients with BGC should be investigated for a mitochondrial disorder. A mitochondrial disorder may also manifest as tetanic seizure.

  19. The advances in radiation processing technology and some suggestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Wei Genshuan; Ha Hongfei

    1992-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been made great advances in the last decade especially in the developed countries. According to the conservative evaluation, the total sales of radiation processing products approached about 2-3 billion U.S. dollar in 1981, there after, the processing capacity at least doubles. Now, the intensities of 60 Co in use for radiation processing are (5.55-7.40) x 10 18 Bq and there are about 600 sets of electron accelerators for radiation processing. The total sales of radiation processing products are supposed to be over 10 billion U.S. dollar in 1989. However, there are only several fields commercialized. In great scale, such as radiation crosslinked heat shrinkable materials, radiation crosslinked electric cables and wires, and radiation sterilization of medical articles. In China, the radiation processing technology has been developed rapidly in the past years, but the processing capacity is still lower in comparing with developed countries. We suggest that much attention should be devoted to the training of the workers, technicians and managers. The basic theoretical and new technological researches are the keys for developing radiation processing technology at high speed in our country

  20. Discrepancy detection in the retrieval-enhanced suggestibility paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Brendon Jerome; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2018-04-01

    Retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) refers to the finding that immediately recalling the details of a witnessed event can increase susceptibility to later misinformation. In three experiments, we sought to gain a deeper understanding of the role that retrieval plays in the RES paradigm. Consistent with past research, initial testing did increase susceptibility to misinformation - but only for those who failed to detect discrepancies between the original event and the post-event misinformation. In all three experiments, subjects who retrospectively detected discrepancies in the post-event narratives were more resistant to misinformation than those who did not. In Experiments 2 and 3, having subjects concurrently assess the consistency of the misinformation narratives negated the RES effect. Interestingly, in Experiments 2 and 3, subjects who had retrieval practice and detected discrepancies were more likely to endorse misinformation than control subjects who detected discrepancies. These results call attention to limiting conditions of the RES effect and highlight the complex relationship between retrieval practice, discrepancy detection, and misinformation endorsement.

  1. Child witnesses: a study of memory and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattagliano, I; Berlingerio, I; Lisi, A; Carabellese, F; Catanesi, R

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of various factors on the ability of primary school children (aged 6-9 years) to refer an event that occurred during their life. The factors analyzed were: the time since the event occurred; the role the child had in the event; the type of questions asked to elicit the account. The results of this research indicate that 52.4% of 6-year old children are able to describe the main elements of the event if they are allowed to give a free account. Asking direct questions does not improve the quality of the narrative. By contrast, in 9-year-old children the quantity of data collected is improved if direct questions are asked. A role as a participant in the event improves the quality of the child's evidence but only in the group of children aged 9, whereas in younger children the difference is not significant. At the age of 9, the child's resistance to leading questions is already quite good (40.7%), whereas children of 6 are much more suggestible. The Authors conclude this work by making some reflections on the possible use of these findings in Law Courts, and on the need for a highly specific training of experts involved in the task of collecting evidence from young children.

  2. Maritime health: a review with suggestions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Kavanagh, Bill; Kay, Alison

    2012-01-01

    International maritime health has largely developed within the sphere of occupational health services and international health problems. We reviewed publications in the journal International Maritime Health from 2000 to 2010 to establish the coverage of the journal and the scope of research in maritime health. We identified six thematic categories: healthcare access, delivery and integration; telehealth; non-communicable diseases and physical health problems; communicable diseases; psychological functioning and health; and safety-related issues. We describe the research within these themes and report on their publication prominence. We also analyse the research in terms of its geographical focus, the population groups addressed and the research methodologies used. We suggest a broadening of maritime research to include randomised controlled trials, longitudinal studies and more qualitative research; more research addressing the context for non-European seafarers; and research on seafarers spouses and family supports and obligations. We also recommend more research on psychosocial and cultural issues and on telehealth, as well as the development of a stronger systems perspective for promoting maritime health.

  3. Unsaturated and Saturated Permeabilities of Fiber Reinforcement: Critics and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hae ePARK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, permeability measurement results show a strong scattering according to the measurement method, the type of test fluid and the fluid injection condition, even though permeability is regarded as a unique property of porous medium. In particular, the discrepancy between the unsaturated and saturated permeabilities for the same fabric has been widely reported. In the literature, relative permeability has been adopted to model the unsaturated flow. This approach has some limits in the modeling of double-scale porosity medium. We address this issue of permeability measurement by rigorously examining the mass conservation condition. Finally, we identify that the pressure gradient is non-linear with positive curvature in the unsaturated flow and a misinterpretation of pressure gradient is the main reason for the difference between the saturated and unsaturated permeabilities of the same fiber reinforcement. We propose to use a fixed value of permeability and to modify the mass conservation equation if there are air voids which are entrapped inside the fiber tow. Finally, we also suggest some guidelines and future perspectives to obtain more consistent permeability measurement results.

  4. Elegy as a film genre. Adaptation — inspiration — suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Koschany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that this is article is concerned to answer is how the position of the film elegy can be best formally established — with its artistic representations, as well as its functioning in the genology of the genre. An attempt to provide definitive answers that emerge from interdisciplinary, film and literary discourse brings a number of substantial threads. Firstly, there is, indeed, no theoretical description of the elegy as a film genre, though the very name does appear in many titles. Secondly, it seems that a juxtaposition of available examples of film ad-aptations of elegies does not lead to any consistent conclusion, since, apart from the suggestion proposed by the author, they are different in terms of formal and thematic elements involved. Thirdly, any attempt at a genological profiling has to, somehow, refer to a more or less fixed literary genre and the relevant theory behind it. In a most general way, one can state, albeit with a number of reservations, that the elegiac film is characterized by a distinguishable style, often simply called the elegiac style, and the theme, very broadly associated with time and the theme of passing.

  5. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  6. Wheat yield vulnerability: relation to rainfall and suggestions for adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Tafoughalti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production is of paramount importance in the region of Meknes, which is mainly produced under rainfed conditions. It is the dominant cereal, the greater proportion being the soft type. During the past few decades, rainfall flaws have caused a number of cases of droughts. These flaws have seriously affecting wheat production. The main objective of this study is the assessment of rainfall variability at monthly, seasonal and annual scales and to determine their impact on wheat yields. To reduce this impact we suggested some mechanisms of adaptation. We used monthly rainfall records for three decades and wheat yields records of fifteen years. Rainfall variability is assessed utilizing the precipitation concentration index and the variation coefficient. The association between wheat yields and cumulative rainfall amounts of different scales was calculated based on a regression model to evaluate the impact of rainfall on wheat yields. Data analysis shown moderate seasonal and irregular annual rainfall distribution. Yields fluctuated from 210 to 4500 Kg/ha with 52% of coefficient of variation. The correlation results shows that soft wheat and hard wheat are strongly correlated with the period of January to March than with the whole growing-season. While they are adversely correlated with the mid-spring. This investigation concluded that synchronizing appropriate adaptation with the period of January to March was crucial to achieving success yield of wheat.

  7. Two suggestions to ''improve the utilization of ISABELLE''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    Two suggestions are outlined which are aimed at improving the efficiency of work in experimental areas by improving the information available to experimenters. A very good communication system would make work as efficient as possible during times when the beam is off. Here are some ideas: (1) it should be a dedicated system that is always on or can be turned on from either position, and it should be impossible for the two ends to be on different channels; (2) tv is desirable so each individual can watch what the other is doing to avoid confusion; (3) slave CRT units would be desirable so both can watch a given waveform or other test signal; and (4) it should also be possible to monitor key voltages from either location. It seems reasonable that beam information would be stored in one or more files on a disc in the on-line computer system. Each experimenter's computer could then get whatever information was desired. Handling the information by computer is straightforward, and more or less standard systems for data-base management should be applicable. Having satisfactory sensors to monitor the information that is needed seems like more of a problem, but they are required in any case

  8. Pre-hospital Obstacles in Thrombolytic Therapy and Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Tekin Güveli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic stroke is frequently encountered in emergency neurology clinics. Especially when administered within 3 hours of symptom onset, thrombolytic therapy is important in reducing ischemic injury and neurological disability. In this study, we aimed to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics according to application time, to identify situations which pose an obstacle to thrombolytic therapy and to review the thrombolytic therapy results in patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: The patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke were evaluated and their age, gender, complaints, risk factors, previous history of stroke, with whom they live, how they arrived at the hospital and their application time information were recorded. Those who were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset were assessed as early, those admitted after 3 hours were assessed as late admission. Then the rate of thrombolytic therapy, final results and the clinical status in early admission patients and the reasons for delay in late admission patients were discussed. RESULTS: Among 361 acute ischemic stroke patients, the mean age was 66±14,1. 111 patients were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset, 246 patients were admitted after three hours. Patients arriving to emergency room with 112 Ambulance Service were admitted earlier than those brought in by family, and this difference was statistically significant. The most common causes of time loss in late admissions were the patients being referred from other centers and the unawareness of family about the importance of the disease. There were 13 patients treated with thrombolytic therapy, and complications occurred in one patient. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Thrombolytic therapy is important in acute ischemic stroke for suitable patients.Our study suggested that the most important factors in spreading of performing the thrombolytic therapy are informing the public about

  9. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian L. Moritz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans, which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the prevailing view that the fovea is a functional adaptation to diurnal color vision. The foveae of nocturnal taxa, such as tarsiers, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise has been central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether the fovea of tarsiers is a functionless anachronism or a nocturnal adaptation remains open. To address this question, we focused on the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius and scops owls (Otus, two taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence and competition. This prediction can be tested with an analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in tissues, which integrate dietary information. As predicted, the isotopic niches of Tarsius and Otus overlapped. In both Borneo and the Philippines, the δ13C values were indistinguishable, whereas the δ15N values of Otus were marginally higher than those of Tarsius. Our results indicate that both diets consisted mainly of ground-dwelling prey and raise the possibility of some resource partitioning. Taken together, our isotopic analysis supports a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  10. Policy Implications and Suggestions on Administrative Measures of Urban Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. V.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, C.; Yoon, J. H.; Chae, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency and intensity of floods are increasing worldwide as recent climate change progresses gradually. Flood management should be policy-oriented in urban municipalities due to the characteristics of urban areas with a lot of damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prepare a flood susceptibility map by using data mining model and make a policy suggestion on administrative measures of urban flood. Therefore, we constructed a spatial database by collecting relevant factors including the topography, geology, soil and land use data of the representative city, Seoul, the capital city of Korea. Flood susceptibility map was constructed by applying the data mining models of random forest and boosted tree model to input data and existing flooded area data in 2010. The susceptibility map has been validated using the 2011 flood area data which was not used for training. The predictor importance value of each factor to the results was calculated in this process. The distance from the water, DEM and geology showed a high predictor importance value which means to be a high priority for flood preparation policy. As a result of receiver operating characteristic (ROC), random forest model showed 78.78% and 79.18% accuracy of regression and classification and boosted tree model showed 77.55% and 77.26% accuracy of regression and classification, respectively. The results show that the flood susceptibility maps can be applied to flood prevention and management, and it also can help determine the priority areas for flood mitigation policy by providing useful information to policy makers.

  11. Morphologic Features Suggestive of Endometriosis in Nondiagnostic Peritoneal Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Beth T; Mittal, Khush

    2015-11-01

    Endometriosis is a common disorder that causes significant morbidity from dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and subfertility. Establishment of a definitive diagnosis has important therapeutic implications; however, only approximately 50% of biopsies of laparoscopically suspicious areas provide a diagnosis of endometriosis. Histologic criteria for diagnosis require the presence of endometrial glands or endometrial-type stroma. We hypothesize that other frequently present, but nondiagnostic, histologic features of endometriosis suggest its presence in patients with nondiagnostic peritoneal biopsies. We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic study of morphologic and immunohistochemical features that may improve the histologic diagnosis of endometriosis on laparoscopic peritoneal biopsies. We compared diagnostic (n=88) and nondiagnostic (n=54) peritoneal biopsies from pathologically confirmed endometriosis cases with negative peritoneal biopsies (n=84) from early-stage gynecologic cancer cases. Statistical analysis utilized the Fisher exact test. Multiple morphologic features were significantly increased in nondiagnostic biopsies from patients with endometriosis in comparison with those from negative controls, including foamy macrophages (P=0.0001) and submesothelial stromal clusters (SSCs) (P=0.0008). SSCs ranged from subtle aggregates of spindle cells to nodules of whorled spindle cells with small vessels and extravasated red blood cells resembling stromal endometriosis. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that ER and CD10-positive SSCs were present in a greater proportion of both nondiagnostic and diagnostic peritoneal biopsies and at a greater number of lesions per biopsy. The overall histologic detection rate of peritoneal biopsies for endometriosis was 62.0%, and inclusion of SSCs with or without foamy macrophages in the diagnostic criteria appreciably increased this rate to between 72.5% and 76.8%. We describe SSCs, which appear to be an early or less developed

  12. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eHartmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  13. Partners in Science: A Suggested Framework for Inclusive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Public participation in scientific research, also known as citizen science, is effective on many levels: it produces sound, publishable science and data, helps participants gain scientific knowledge and learn about the methods and practices of modern science, and can help communities advance their own priorities. Unfortunately, the demographics of citizen science programs do not reflect the demographics of the US; in general people of color and less affluent members of society are under-represented. To understand the reasons for this disparity, it is useful to look to the broader research about participation in science in a variety of informal and formal settings. From this research, the causes for unequal participation in science can be grouped into three broad categories: accessibility challenges, cultural differences, and a gap between scientific goals and community priorities. Many of these challenges are addressed in working with communities to develop an integrated program of scientific research, education, and community action that addresses community priorities and invites community participation at every stage of the process from defining the question to applying the results. In the spectrum of ways to engage the public in scientific research, this approach of "co-creation" is the most intensive. This talk will explore several examples of co-creation of science, including collaborations with tribal communities around climate change adaptation, work in the Louisiana Delta concerning land loss, and the link between weather and disease in Africa. We will articulate some of the challenges of working this intensively with communities, and suggest a general framework for guiding this kind of work with communities. This model of intensive collaboration at every stage is a promising one for adding to the diversity of citizen science efforts. It also provides a powerful strategy for science more generally, and may help us diversify our field, ensure the use and

  14. Protein Charge and Mass Contribute to the Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Protein-Protein Interactions in a Minimal Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Wang, Hong; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2013-01-01

    We constructed and simulated a ‘minimal proteome’ model using Langevin dynamics. It contains 206 essential protein types which were compiled from the literature. For comparison, we generated six proteomes with randomized concentrations. We found that the net charges and molecular weights of the proteins in the minimal genome are not random. The net charge of a protein decreases linearly with molecular weight, with small proteins being mostly positively charged and large proteins negatively charged. The protein copy numbers in the minimal genome have the tendency to maximize the number of protein-protein interactions in the network. Negatively charged proteins which tend to have larger sizes can provide large collision cross-section allowing them to interact with other proteins; on the other hand, the smaller positively charged proteins could have higher diffusion speed and are more likely to collide with other proteins. Proteomes with random charge/mass populations form less stable clusters than those with experimental protein copy numbers. Our study suggests that ‘proper’ populations of negatively and positively charged proteins are important for maintaining a protein-protein interaction network in a proteome. It is interesting to note that the minimal genome model based on the charge and mass of E. Coli may have a larger protein-protein interaction network than that based on the lower organism M. pneumoniae. PMID:23420643

  15. Phylostratigraphic tracking of cancer genes suggests a link to the emergence of multicellularity in metazoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domazet-Lošo Tomislav

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylostratigraphy is a method used to correlate the evolutionary origin of founder genes (that is, functional founder protein domains of gene families with particular macroevolutionary transitions. It is based on a model of genome evolution that suggests that the origin of complex phenotypic innovations will be accompanied by the emergence of such founder genes, the descendants of which can still be traced in extant organisms. The origin of multicellularity can be considered to be a macroevolutionary transition, for which new gene functions would have been required. Cancer should be tightly connected to multicellular life since it can be viewed as a malfunction of interaction between cells in a multicellular organism. A phylostratigraphic tracking of the origin of cancer genes should, therefore, also provide insights into the origin of multicellularity. Results We find two strong peaks of the emergence of cancer related protein domains, one at the time of the origin of the first cell and the other around the time of the evolution of the multicellular metazoan organisms. These peaks correlate with two major classes of cancer genes, the 'caretakers', which are involved in general functions that support genome stability and the 'gatekeepers', which are involved in cellular signalling and growth processes. Interestingly, this phylogenetic succession mirrors the ontogenetic succession of tumour progression, where mutations in caretakers are thought to precede mutations in gatekeepers. Conclusions A link between multicellularity and formation of cancer has often been predicted. However, this has not so far been explicitly tested. Although we find that a significant number of protein domains involved in cancer predate the origin of multicellularity, the second peak of cancer protein domain emergence is, indeed, connected to a phylogenetic level where multicellular animals have emerged. The fact that we can find a strong and

  16. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  17. Suggestions on the development strategy of shale gas in China

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    Dazhong Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the aspects of shale gas resource condition, main exploration and development progress, important breakthrough in key technologies and equipment, this paper systematically summarized and analyzed current situation of shale gas development in China and pointed out five big challenges such as misunderstandings, lower implementation degree and higher economic uncertainty of shale gas resource, and still no breakthrough in exploration and development core technologies and equipment for shale gas buried depth more than 3500 m, higher cost and other non-technical factors that restrict the development pace. Aiming at the above challenges, we put forward five suggestions to promote the shale gas development in China: (1 Make strategies and set goals according to our national conditions and exploration and development stages. That is, make sure to realize shale gas annual production of 20 × 109 m3, and strives to reach 30 × 109 m3. (2 Attach importance to the research of accumulation and enrichment geological theory and exploration & development key engineering technologies for lower production and lower pressure marine shale gas reservoir, and at the same time orderly promote the construction of non-marine shale gas exploration & development demonstration areas. (3 The government should introduce further policies and set special innovation funds to support the companies to carry out research and development of related technologies and equipment, especially to strengthen the research and development of technology, equipment and process for shale gas bellow 3500 m in order to achieve breakthrough in deep shale gas. (4 Continue to promote the geological theory, innovation in technology and management, and strengthen cost control on drilling, fracturing and the whole process in order to realize efficient, economic and scale development of China's shale gas. (5 Reform the mining rights management system, establish information platform of shale

  18. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  19. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    were never explicitly mentioned in permits, but in practice a ratio of 1:1 (often measured as area or length was usually applied. The compensation measures typically consisted in recreating the same kind of natural asset that was affected, in a location close to the damaged area. In the two cases specially studied, the road and railway planning processes were not properly adjusted to integrate compensation issues, resulting in unnecessary bureaucracy and insufficient co-ordination between different projects, such as between the environmental-impact assessment process and the compensation process or between closely related sub-projects in the same region. To meet the EU’s goal of no net loss of biodiversity, we suggest that policy requirements should be made stricter and that incentives for voluntary compensation should be created. In line with the goals of Swedish national transport policy and the European Landscape Convention, account should be taken of social and cultural aspects, and there should be a shift from a narrow focus on individual projects to a broader planning approach, since this would allow compensation measures to be taken where they can deliver the greatest environmental benefits.

  20. Over-expression of SOB5 suggests the involvement of a novel plant protein in cytokinin-mediated development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, J.; Wrage, E.L.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Malbeck, Jiří; Neff, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2006), s. 834-848 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/04/0549 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : SOB5 * SOFL * cytokinin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 6.565, year: 2006

  1. Immunoreactivities to three circadian clock proteins in two ground crickets suggest interspecific diversity of the circadian clock structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shao, Q. M.; Sehadová, H.; Ichihara, N.; Sehnal, František; Takeda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2006), s. 118-131 ISSN 0748-7304 Grant - others:Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) JSPS 99L01205; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) ID No. P 04197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : circadian rhythm * photoperiodic clock * cryptochrome (CRY) Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.633, year: 2006

  2. Mitochondrial nucleoid interacting proteins support mitochondrial protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Cooper, H M; Reyes, A; Di Re, M; Sembongi, H; Litwin, T R; Gao, J; Neuman, K C; Fearnley, I M; Spinazzola, A; Walker, J E; Holt, I J

    2012-07-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomes and translation factors co-purify with mitochondrial nucleoids of human cells, based on affinity protein purification of tagged mitochondrial DNA binding proteins. Among the most frequently identified proteins were ATAD3 and prohibitin, which have been identified previously as nucleoid components, using a variety of methods. Both proteins are demonstrated to be required for mitochondrial protein synthesis in human cultured cells, and the major binding partner of ATAD3 is the mitochondrial ribosome. Altered ATAD3 expression also perturbs mtDNA maintenance and replication. These findings suggest an intimate association between nucleoids and the machinery of protein synthesis in mitochondria. ATAD3 and prohibitin are tightly associated with the mitochondrial membranes and so we propose that they support nucleic acid complexes at the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

  3. Different protein-protein interface patterns predicted by different machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Yongxiao; Yin, Jianxin; Gong, Xinqi

    2017-11-22

    Different types of protein-protein interactions make different protein-protein interface patterns. Different machine learning methods are suitable to deal with different types of data. Then, is it the same situation that different interface patterns are preferred for prediction by different machine learning methods? Here, four different machine learning methods were employed to predict protein-protein interface residue pairs on different interface patterns. The performances of the methods for different types of proteins are different, which suggest that different machine learning methods tend to predict different protein-protein interface patterns. We made use of ANOVA and variable selection to prove our result. Our proposed methods taking advantages of different single methods also got a good prediction result compared to single methods. In addition to the prediction of protein-protein interactions, this idea can be extended to other research areas such as protein structure prediction and design.

  4. Bioinformatic Prediction of WSSV-Host Protein-Protein Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WSSV is one of the most dangerous pathogens in shrimp aquaculture. However, the molecular mechanism of how WSSV interacts with shrimp is still not very clear. In the present study, bioinformatic approaches were used to predict interactions between proteins from WSSV and shrimp. The genome data of WSSV (NC_003225.1 and the constructed transcriptome data of F. chinensis were used to screen potentially interacting proteins by searching in protein interaction databases, including STRING, Reactome, and DIP. Forty-four pairs of proteins were suggested to have interactions between WSSV and the shrimp. Gene ontology analysis revealed that 6 pairs of these interacting proteins were classified into “extracellular region” or “receptor complex” GO-terms. KEGG pathway analysis showed that they were involved in the “ECM-receptor interaction pathway.” In the 6 pairs of interacting proteins, an envelope protein called “collagen-like protein” (WSSV-CLP encoded by an early virus gene “wsv001” in WSSV interacted with 6 deduced proteins from the shrimp, including three integrin alpha (ITGA, two integrin beta (ITGB, and one syndecan (SDC. Sequence analysis on WSSV-CLP, ITGA, ITGB, and SDC revealed that they possessed the sequence features for protein-protein interactions. This study might provide new insights into the interaction mechanisms between WSSV and shrimp.

  5. Bioinformatics and moonlighting proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eHernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking or moonlighting is the capability of some proteins to execute two or more biochemical functions. Usually, moonlighting proteins are experimentally revealed by serendipity. For this reason, it would be helpful that Bioinformatics could predict this multifunctionality, especially because of the large amounts of sequences from genome projects. In the present work, we analyse and describe several approaches that use sequences, structures, interactomics and current bioinformatics algorithms and programs to try to overcome this problem. Among these approaches are: a remote homology searches using Psi-Blast, b detection of functional motifs and domains, c analysis of data from protein-protein interaction databases (PPIs, d match the query protein sequence to 3D databases (i.e., algorithms as PISITE, e mutation correlation analysis between amino acids by algorithms as MISTIC. Programs designed to identify functional motif/domains detect mainly the canonical function but usually fail in the detection of the moonlighting one, Pfam and ProDom being the best methods. Remote homology search by Psi-Blast combined with data from interactomics databases (PPIs have the best performance. Structural information and mutation correlation analysis can help us to map the functional sites. Mutation correlation analysis can only be used in very specific situations –it requires the existence of multialigned family protein sequences - but can suggest how the evolutionary process of second function acquisition took place. The multitasking protein database MultitaskProtDB (http://wallace.uab.es/multitask/, previously published by our group, has been used as a benchmark for the all of the analyses.

  6. Protein nanoparticles for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Estrada, L P; Champion, J A

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic proteins can face substantial challenges to their activity, requiring protein modification or use of a delivery vehicle. Nanoparticles can significantly enhance delivery of encapsulated cargo, but traditional small molecule carriers have some limitations in their use for protein delivery. Nanoparticles made from protein have been proposed as alternative carriers and have benefits specific to therapeutic protein delivery. This review describes protein nanoparticles made by self-assembly, including protein cages, protein polymers, and charged or amphipathic peptides, and by desolvation. It presents particle fabrication and delivery characterization for a variety of therapeutic and model proteins, as well as comparison of the features of different protein nanoparticles.

  7. Convergent Substitutions in a Sodium Channel Suggest Multiple Origins of Toxin Resistance in Poison Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, Rebecca D; Santos, Juan C; O'Connell, Lauren A; Zakon, Harold H; Cannatella, David C

    2016-04-01

    Complex phenotypes typically have a correspondingly multifaceted genetic component. However, the genotype-phenotype association between chemical defense and resistance is often simple: genetic changes in the binding site of a toxin alter how it affects its target. Some toxic organisms, such as poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae), have defensive alkaloids that disrupt the function of ion channels, proteins that are crucial for nerve and muscle activity. Using protein-docking models, we predict that three major classes of poison frog alkaloids (histrionicotoxins, pumiliotoxins, and batrachotoxins) bind to similar sites in the highly conserved inner pore of the muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.4. We predict that poison frogs are somewhat resistant to these compounds because they have six types of amino acid replacements in the Nav1.4 inner pore that are absent in all other frogs except for a distantly related alkaloid-defended frog from Madagascar, Mantella aurantiaca. Protein-docking models and comparative phylogenetics support the role of these replacements in alkaloid resistance. Taking into account the four independent origins of chemical defense in Dendrobatidae, phylogenetic patterns of the amino acid replacements suggest that 1) alkaloid resistance in Nav1.4 evolved independently at least seven times in these frogs, 2) variation in resistance-conferring replacements is likely a result of differences in alkaloid exposure across species, and 3) functional constraint shapes the evolution of the Nav1.4 inner pore. Our study is the first to demonstrate the genetic basis of autoresistance in frogs with alkaloid defenses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Progesterone receptor expression during prostate cancer progression suggests a role of this receptor in stromal cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Yang, Ou; Fazli, Ladan; Rennie, Paul S; Gleave, Martin E; Dong, Xuesen

    2015-07-01

    The progesterone receptor, like the androgen receptor, belongs to the steroid receptor superfamily. Our previous studies have reported that the PR is expressed specifically in prostate stroma. PR inhibits proliferation of, and regulates cytokine secretion by stromal cells. However, PR protein expression in cancer-associated stroma during prostate cancer progression has not been profiled. Since the phenotypes of prostate stromal cells change dynamically as tumors progress, whether the PR plays a role in regulating stromal cell differentiation needs to be investigated. Immunohistochemistry assays measured PR protein levels on human prostate tissue microarrays containing 367 tissue cores from benign prostate, prostate tumors with different Gleason scores, tumors under various durations of castration therapy, and tumors at the castration-resistant stage. Immunoblotting assays determined whether PR regulated the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin, and fibroblast specific protein (FSP) in human prostate stromal cells. PR protein levels decreased in cancer-associated stroma when compared with that in benign prostate stroma. This reduction in PR expression was not correlated with Gleason scores. PR protein levels were elevated by castration therapy, but reduced to pre-castration levels when tumors progressed to the castration-resistant stage. Enhanced PR expression in human prostate stromal cells increased α-SMA, but decreased vimentin and FSP protein levels ligand-independently. These results suggest that PR plays an active role in regulating stromal cell phenotypes during prostate cancer progression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Diversity of diazotrophic gut inhabitants of pikas (Ochotonidae) revealed by PCR-DGGE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilova, A K; Kravchenko, I K

    2014-01-01

    Diazotrophic gut symbionts are considered to act as nitrogen providers for their hosts, as was shown for various termite species. Although the diet of lagomorphs, like pikas or rabbits, is very poor in nitrogen and energy, their fecal matter contains 30-40% of protein. Since our hypothesis was that pikas maintained a diazotrophic consortium in their gastrointestinal tract, we conducted the first investigation of microbial diversity in pika guts. We obtained gut samples from animals of several Ochotona species, O. hyperborea (Northern pika), O. mantchurica (Manchurian pika), and O. dauurica (Daurian pika), in order to retrieve and compare the nitrogen-fixing communities of different pika species. The age and gender of the animals were taken into consideration. We amplified 320-bp long fragments of the nifH gene using the DNA extracted directly from the colon and cecum samples of pika's gut, resolved them by DGGE, and performed phylogenetic reconstruction of 51 sequences obtained from excised bands. No significant difference was detected between the nitrogen-fixing gut inhabitants of different pika species. NifH sequences fell into two clusters. The first cluster contained the sequences affiliated with NifH Cluster I (Zehr et al., 2003) with similarity to Sphingomonas sp., Bradyrhizobium sp., and various uncultured bacteria from soil and rhizosphere. Sequences from the second group were related to Treponema sp., Fibrobacter succinogenes, and uncultured clones from the guts of various termites and belonged to NifH Cluster III. We suggest that diazotrophic organisms from the second cluster are genuine endosymbionts of pikas and provide nitrogen for further synthesis processes thus allowing these animals not to be short of protein.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that electrostatic funnel directs binding of Tamiflu to influenza N1 neuraminidases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly Le

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oseltamivir (Tamiflu is currently the frontline antiviral drug employed to fight the flu virus in infected individuals by inhibiting neuraminidase, a flu protein responsible for the release of newly synthesized virions. However, oseltamivir resistance has become a critical problem due to rapid mutation of the flu virus. Unfortunately, how mutations actually confer drug resistance is not well understood. In this study, we employ molecular dynamics (MD and steered molecular dynamics (SMD simulations, as well as graphics processing unit (GPU-accelerated electrostatic mapping, to uncover the mechanism behind point mutation induced oseltamivir-resistance in both H5N1 "avian" and H1N1pdm "swine" flu N1-subtype neuraminidases. The simulations reveal an electrostatic binding funnel that plays a key role in directing oseltamivir into and out of its binding site on N1 neuraminidase. The binding pathway for oseltamivir suggests how mutations disrupt drug binding and how new drugs may circumvent the resistance mechanisms.

  11. Auxin apical control of the auxin polar transport and its oscillation - a suggested cellular transduction mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Wodzicki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed hypothesis concerns the transduction of auxin molecular signals arriving from the apoplast at the plasma membrane or recognized by the proteineous receptors of the responding cell, to the concentration gradients oscillating in the supracellular space, associated usually with the specific plant growth and differentiation. Acting as an agonist from outside the target cell auxin stimulates in this cell: (1 the liberation of auxin from the cytosolic pool of its conjugates directly into the basipetal efflux; (2 the synthesis of new auxin which restores the cytosolic reserve of auxin conjugates. The functioning of such a system may be effective in a series of processes initiated by the changing concentration of cytosolic calcium. The hypothesis suggests a molecular mechanism for the development and effective operation of the morphogenetic field in the supracellular space of the plant body, such as the field resulting from auxin waves discovered in cambium.

  12. A nutrition and conditioning intervention for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: observations and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Bodybuilding is full of myths and practices that are contrary to the scientific literature, which can lead to health problems. Adopting a scientifically designed approach is very important, as it may help bodybuilders to achieve better results while preserving their health. However, I have some criticism regarding some practices adopted in the referred article as ad libitum ingestion of sugar-free cordial and flavored tea and the performance of the exercise in fasted state, as it seems to bring no benefit and have some potential problems. Some suggestion are made in order to preserve FFM, like changing training split and exercise selection; increasing carbohydrate ingestion and decreasing protein intake; changing the resistance training stimuli and reducing the volume of aerobic exercises and increase its intensity.

  13. Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    Years of meticulous curation of scientific literature and increasingly reliable computational predictions have resulted in creation of vast databases of protein interaction data. Over the years, these repositories have become a basic framework in which experiments are analyzed and new directions...

  14. Characterisation of cell death inducing Phytophthora capsici CRN effectors suggests diverse activities in the host nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco eStam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant-Microbe interactions are complex associations that feature recognition of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns by the plant immune system and dampening of subsequent responses by pathogen encoded secreted effectors. With large effector repertoires now identified in a range of sequenced microbial genomes, much attention centres on understanding their roles in immunity or disease. These studies not only allow identification of pathogen virulence factors and strategies, they also provide an important molecular toolset suited for studying immunity in plants. The Phytophthora intracellular effector repertoire encodes a large class of proteins that translocate into host cells and exclusively target the host nucleus. Recent functional studies have implicated the CRN protein family as an important class of diverse effectors that target distinct subnuclear compartments and modify host cell signalling. Here, we characterised three necrosis inducing CRNs and show that there are differences in the levels of cell death. We show that only expression of CRN20_624 has an additive effect on PAMP induced cell death but not AVR3a induced ETI. Given their distinctive phenotypes, we assessed localisation of each CRN with a set of nuclear markers and found clear differences in CRN subnuclear distribution patterns. These assays also revealed that expression of CRN83_152 leads to a distinct change in nuclear chromatin organisation, suggesting a distinct series of events that leads to cell death upon over-expression. Taken together, our results suggest diverse functions carried by CRN C-termini, which can be exploited to identify novel processes that take place in the host nucleus and are required for immunity or susceptibility.

  15. Enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation was found to be a universal law in protein unfolding based on over 3 000 experimental data. Water molecular reorganization accompanying the protein unfolding was suggested as the origin of the enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding. It is indicated that the enthalpy-entropy compensation constitutes the physical foundation that satisfies the biological need of the small free energy changes in protein unfolding, without the sacrifice of the bio-diversity of proteins. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory proposed herein also provides valuable insights into the Privalov's puzzle of enthalpy and entropy convergence in protein unfolding.

  16. Zebrafish models of BAG3 myofibrillar myopathy suggest a toxic gain of function leading to BAG3 insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Oorschot, Viola; Vaz, Raquel; Ramm, Georg; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in the co-chaperone Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) can cause myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), a childhood-onset progressive muscle disease, characterized by the formation of protein aggregates and myofibrillar disintegration. In contrast to other MFM-causing proteins, BAG3 has no direct structural role, but regulates autophagy and the degradation of misfolded proteins. To investigate the mechanism of disease in BAG3-related MFM, we expressed wild-type BAG3 or the dominant MFM-causing BAG3 (BAG3(P209L)) in zebrafish. Expression of the mutant protein results in the formation of aggregates that contain wild-type BAG3. Through the stimulation and inhibition of autophagy, we tested the prevailing hypothesis that impaired autophagic function is responsible for the formation of protein aggregates. Contrary to the existing theory, our studies reveal that inhibition of autophagy is not sufficient to induce protein aggregation. Expression of the mutant protein, however, did not induce myofibrillar disintegration and we therefore examined the effect of knocking down Bag3 function. Loss of Bag3 resulted in myofibrillar disintegration, but not in the formation of protein aggregates. Remarkably, BAG3(P209L) is able to rescue the myofibrillar disintegration phenotype, further demonstrating that its function is not impaired. Together, our knockdown and overexpression experiments identify a mechanism whereby BAG3(P209L) aggregates form, gradually reducing the pool of available BAG3, which eventually results in BAG3 insufficiency and myofibrillar disintegration. This mechanism is consistent with the childhood onset and progressive nature of MFM and suggests that reducing aggregation through enhanced degradation or inhibition of nucleation would be an effective therapy for this disease.

  17. The structure of Haemophilus influenzae prephenate dehydrogenase suggests unique features of bifunctional TyrA enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Carlton, Dennis; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of the prephenate dehydrogenase component of the bifunctional H. influenzae TyrA reveals unique structural differences between bifunctional and monofunctional TyrA enzymes. Chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase from Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20 is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate and the NAD(P) + -dependent oxidative decarboxylation of prephenate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in tyrosine biosynthesis. The crystal structure of the prephenate dehydrogenase component (HinfPDH) of the TyrA protein from H. influenzae Rd KW20 in complex with the inhibitor tyrosine and cofactor NAD + has been determined to 2.0 Å resolution. HinfPDH is a dimeric enzyme, with each monomer consisting of an N-terminal α/β dinucleotide-binding domain and a C-terminal α-helical dimerization domain. The structure reveals key active-site residues at the domain interface, including His200, Arg297 and Ser179 that are involved in catalysis and/or ligand binding and are highly conserved in TyrA proteins from all three kingdoms of life. Tyrosine is bound directly at the catalytic site, suggesting that it is a competitive inhibitor of HinfPDH. Comparisons with its structural homologues reveal important differences around the active site, including the absence of an α–β motif in HinfPDH that is present in other TyrA proteins, such as Synechocystis sp. arogenate dehydrogenase. Residues from this motif are involved in discrimination between NADP + and NAD + . The loop between β5 and β6 in the N-terminal domain is much shorter in HinfPDH and an extra helix is present at the C-terminus. Furthermore, HinfPDH adopts a more closed conformation compared with TyrA proteins that do not have tyrosine bound. This conformational change brings the substrate, cofactor and active-site residues into close proximity for catalysis. An ionic network consisting of Arg297 (a key residue for tyrosine binding), a water molecule, Asp206 (from

  18. Ferritin gene organization: differences between plants and animals suggest possible kingdom-specific selective constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, D; Wei, J; Briat, J; Theil, E C

    1996-03-01

    Ferritin, a protein widespread in nature, concentrates iron approximately 10(11)-10(12)-fold above the solubility within a spherical shell of 24 subunits; it derives in plants and animals from a common ancestor (based on sequence) but displays a cytoplasmic location in animals compared to the plastid in contemporary plants. Ferritin gene regulation in plants and animals is altered by development, hormones, and excess iron; iron signals target DNA in plants but mRNA in animals. Evolution has thus conserved the two end points of ferritin gene expression, the physiological signals and the protein structure, while allowing some divergence of the genetic mechanisms. Comparison of ferritin gene organization in plants and animals, made possible by the cloning of a dicot (soybean) ferritin gene presented here and the recent cloning of two monocot (maize) ferritin genes, shows evolutionary divergence in ferritin gene organization between plants and animals but conservation among plants or among animals; divergence in the genetic mechanism for iron regulation is reflected by the absence in all three plant genes of the IRE, a highly conserved, noncoding sequence in vertebrate animal ferritin mRNA. In plant ferritin genes, the number of introns (n = 7) is higher than in animals (n = 3). Second, no intron positions are conserved when ferritin genes of plants and animals are compared, although all ferritin gene introns are in the coding region; within kingdoms, the intron positions in ferritin genes are conserved. Finally, secondary protein structure has no apparent relationship to intron/exon boundaries in plant ferritin genes, whereas in animal ferritin genes the correspondence is high. The structural differences in introns/exons among phylogenetically related ferritin coding sequences and the high conservation of the gene structure within plant or animal kingdoms of the gene structure within plant or animal kingdoms suggest that kingdom-specific functional constraints may

  19. Intricate knots in proteins: Function and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Virnau

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Our investigation of knotted structures in the Protein Data Bank reveals the most complicated knot discovered to date. We suggest that the occurrence of this knot in a human ubiquitin hydrolase might be related to the role of the enzyme in protein degradation. While knots are usually preserved among homologues, we also identify an exception in a transcarbamylase. This allows us to exemplify the function of knots in proteins and to suggest how they may have been created.

  20. Prion Protein and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eGasperini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein (PrPC has been widely investigated ever since its conformational isoform, the prion (or PrPSc, was identified as the etiological agent of prion disorders. The high homology shared by the PrPC-encoding gene among mammals, its high turnover rate and expression in every tissue strongly suggest that PrPC may possess key physiological functions. Therefore, defining PrPC roles, properties and fate in the physiology of mammalian cells would be fundamental to understand its pathological involvement in prion diseases. Since the incidence of these neurodegenerative disorders is enhanced in aging, understanding PrPC functions in this life phase may be of crucial importance. Indeed, a large body of evidence suggests that PrPC plays a neuroprotective and antioxidant role. Moreover, it has been suggested that PrPC is involved in Alzheimer disease, another neurodegenerative pathology that develops predominantly in the aging population. In prion diseases, PrPC function is likely lost upon protein aggregation occurring in the course of the disease. Additionally, the aging process may alter PrPC biochemical properties, thus influencing its propensity to convert into PrPSc. Both phenomena may contribute to the disease development and progression. In Alzheimer disease, PrPC has a controversial role because its presence seems to mediate β-amyloid toxicity, while its down-regulation correlates with neuronal death. The role of PrPC in aging has been investigated from different perspectives, often leading to contrasting results. The putative protein functions in aging have been studied in relation to memory, behavior and myelin maintenance. In aging mice, PrPC changes in subcellular localization and post-translational modifications have been explored in an attempt to relate them to different protein roles and propensity to convert into PrPSc. Here we provide an overview of the most relevant studies attempting to delineate PrPC functions and

  1. Protein folding and the organization of the protein topology universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen,, Kresten; Røgen, Peter; Paci, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    residues and, in addition, that the topology of the transition state is closer to that of the native state than to that of any other fold in the protein universe. Here, we review the evidence for these conclusions and suggest a molecular mechanism that rationalizes these findings by presenting a view...... of protein folds that is based on the topological features of the polypeptide backbone, rather than the conventional view that depends on the arrangement of different types of secondary-structure elements. By linking the folding process to the organization of the protein structure universe, we propose...

  2. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burles, Kristin; Irwin, Chad R.; Burton, Robyn-Lee; Schriewer, Jill; Evans, David H.; Buller, R. Mark; Barry, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus

  3. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burles, Kristin; Irwin, Chad R.; Burton, Robyn-Lee [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada); Schriewer, Jill [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Evans, David H. [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada); Buller, R. Mark [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Barry, Michele, E-mail: michele.barry@ualberta.ca [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus.

  4. Striatal proteomic analysis suggests that first L-dopa dose equates to chronic exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Scholz

    Full Text Available L-3,4-dihydroxypheylalanine (L-dopa-induced dyskinesia represent a debilitating complication of therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD that result from a progressive sensitization through repeated L-dopa exposures. The MPTP macaque model was used to study the proteome in dopamine-depleted striatum with and without subsequent acute and chronic L-dopa treatment using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. The present data suggest that the dopamine-depleted striatum is so sensitive to de novo L-dopa treatment that the first ever administration alone would be able (i to induce rapid post-translational modification-based proteomic changes that are specific to this first exposure and (ii, possibly, lead to irreversible protein level changes that would be not further modified by chronic L-dopa treatment. The apparent equivalence between first and chronic L-dopa administration suggests that priming would be the direct consequence of dopamine loss, the first L-dopa administrations only exacerbating the sensitization process but not inducing it.

  5. Aquaporin Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Virginia Roche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are tetrameric membrane-bound channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes. In eukaryotes, they are frequently regulated by gating or trafficking, allowing for the cell to control membrane permeability in a specific manner. Protein–protein interactions play crucial roles in both regulatory processes and also mediate alternative functions such as cell adhesion. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about aquaporin protein–protein interactions; dividing the interactions into three types: (1 interactions between aquaporin tetramers; (2 interactions between aquaporin monomers within a tetramer (hetero-tetramerization; and (3 transient interactions with regulatory proteins. We particularly focus on the structural aspects of the interactions, discussing the small differences within a conserved overall fold that allow for aquaporins to be differentially regulated in an organism-, tissue- and trigger-specific manner. A deep knowledge about these differences is needed to fully understand aquaporin function and regulation in many physiological processes, and may enable design of compounds targeting specific aquaporins for treatment of human disease.

  6. Modeling of glycerol-3-phosphate transporter suggests a potential 'tilt' mechanism involved in its function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigelny, Igor F; Greenberg, Jerry; Kouznetsova, Valentina; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2008-10-01

    Many major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters have similar 12-transmembrane alpha-helical topologies with two six-helix halves connected by a long loop. In humans, these transporters participate in key physiological processes and are also, as in the case of members of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family, of pharmaceutical interest. Recently, crystal structures of two bacterial representatives of the MFS family--the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter (GlpT) and lac-permease (LacY)--have been solved and, because of assumptions regarding the high structural conservation of this family, there is hope that the results can be applied to mammalian transporters as well. Based on crystallography, it has been suggested that a major conformational "switching" mechanism accounts for ligand transport by MFS proteins. This conformational switch would then allow periodic changes in the overall transporter configuration, resulting in its cyclic opening to the periplasm or cytoplasm. Following this lead, we have modeled a possible "switch" mechanism in GlpT, using the concept of rotation of protein domains as in the DynDom program17 and membranephilic constraints predicted by the MAPAS program.(23) We found that the minima of energies of intersubunit interactions support two alternate positions consistent with their transport properties. Thus, for GlpT, a "tilt" of 9 degrees -10 degrees rotation had the most favorable energetics of electrostatic interaction between the two halves of the transporter; moreover, this confirmation was sufficient to suggest transport of the ligand across the membrane. We conducted steered molecular dynamics simulations of the GlpT-ligand system to explore how glycerol-3-phosphate would be handled by the "tilted" structure, and obtained results generally consistent with experimental mutagenesis data. While biochemical data remain most consistent with a single-site alternating access model, our results raise the possibility that, while the

  7. Posttranslational modification of Klebsiella pneumoniae flavodoxin by covalent attachment of coenzyme A, shown by sup 31 P NMR and electrospray mass spectrometry, prevents electron transfer from the nifJ protein to nitrogenase. A possible new regulatory mechanism for biological nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorneley, R.N.F.; Ashby, G.A.; Drummond, M.H.; Eady, R.R.; Huff, S.; Macdonald, C.J. (Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)); Abell, C.; Schneier, A. (Univ. Chemical Lab., Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1992-02-04

    A strain of Escherichia coli (71-18) that produces ca. 15% of its soluble cytoplasmic protein as a flavodoxin, the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifF gene product, has been constructed. The flavodoxin was purified using FPLC and resolved into two forms, designated KpFldI and KpFldII, which were shown to have identical N-terminal amino acid sequences (30 residues) in agreement with that predicted by the K. pneumoniae nifF DNA sequence. {sup 31}P NMR, electrospray mass spectrometry, UV-visible spectra, and thiol group estimations showed that the single cysteine residue (position 68) of KpFldI is posttranslationally modified in KpFldII by the covalent, mixed disulfide, attachment of coenzyme A. KpFldII was inactive as an electron carrier between the K. pneumoniae nifJ product (a pyruvate-flavodoxin oxidoreductase) and K. pneumoniae nifH product (the Fe-protein of nitrogenase). This novel posttranslational modification of a flavodoxin is discussed in terms of the regulation of nitrogenase activity in vivo in response to the level of dissolved O{sub 2} and the carbon status of diazotrophic cultures.

  8. Protein immobilization strategies for protein biochips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusmini, F.; Rusmini, Federica; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, protein biochips have emerged as promising proteomic and diagnostic tools for obtaining information about protein functions and interactions. Important technological innovations have been made. However, considerable development is still required, especially regarding protein

  9. Protein degradation and protein synthesis in long-term memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Jarome

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term memory (LTM formation requires transient changes in the activity of intracellular signaling cascades that are thought to regulate new gene transcription and de novo protein synthesis in the brain. Consistent with this, protein synthesis inhibitors impair LTM for a variety of behavioral tasks when infused into the brain around the time of training or following memory retrieval, suggesting that protein synthesis is a critical step in LTM storage in the brain. However, evidence suggests that protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system may also be a critical regulator of LTM formation and stability following retrieval. This requirement for increased protein degradation has been shown in the same brain regions in which protein synthesis is required for LTM storage. Additionally, increases in the phosphorylation of proteins involved in translational control parallel increases in protein polyubiquitination and the increased demand for protein degradation is regulated by intracellular signaling molecules thought to regulate protein synthesis during LTM formation. In some cases inhibiting proteasome activity can rescue memory impairments that result from pharmacological blockade of protein synthesis, suggesting that protein degradation may control the requirement for protein synthesis during the memory storage process. Results such as these suggest that protein degradation and synthesis are both critical for LTM formation and may interact to properly consolidate and store memories in the brain. Here, we review the evidence implicating protein synthesis and degradation in LTM storage and highlight the areas of overlap between these two opposing processes. We also discuss evidence suggesting these two processes may interact to properly form and store memories. LTM storage likely requires a coordinated regulation between protein degradation and synthesis at multiple sites in the mammalian brain.

  10. Mathematical modeling of sustainable synaptogenesis by repetitive stimuli suggests signaling mechanisms in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Takizawa

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of long-term synaptic maintenance are a key component to understanding the mechanism of long-term memory. From biological experiments, a hypothesis arose that repetitive stimuli with appropriate intervals are essential to maintain new synapses for periods of longer than a few days. We successfully reproduce the time-course of relative numbers of synapses with our mathematical model in the same conditions as biological experiments, which used Adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp-isomer (Sp-cAMPS as external stimuli. We also reproduce synaptic maintenance responsiveness to intervals of Sp-cAMPS treatment accompanied by PKA activation. The model suggests a possible mechanism of sustainable synaptogenesis which consists of two steps. First, the signal transduction from an external stimulus triggers the synthesis of a new signaling protein. Second, the new signaling protein is required for the next signal transduction with the same stimuli. As a result, the network component is modified from the first network, and a different signal is transferred which triggers the synthesis of another new signaling molecule. We refer to this hypothetical mechanism as network succession. We build our model on the basis of two hypotheses: (1 a multi-step network succession induces downregulation of SSH and COFILIN gene expression, which triggers the production of stable F-actin; (2 the formation of a complex of stable F-actin with Drebrin at PSD is the critical mechanism to achieve long-term synaptic maintenance. Our simulation shows that a three-step network succession is sufficient to reproduce sustainable synapses for a period longer than 14 days. When we change the network structure to a single step network, the model fails to follow the exact condition of repetitive signals to reproduce a sufficient number of synapses. Another advantage of the three-step network succession is that this system indicates a greater tolerance of parameter

  11. Functional assignment to JEV proteins using SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Das, Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Identification of different protein functions facilitates a mechanistic understanding of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection and opens novel means for drug development. Support vector machines (SVM), useful for predicting the functional class of distantly related proteins, is employed to ascribe a possible functional class to Japanese encephalitis virus protein. Our study from SVMProt and available JE virus sequences suggests that structural and nonstructural proteins of JEV genome possibly belong to diverse protein functions, are expected to occur in the life cycle of JE virus. Protein functions common to both structural and non-structural proteins are iron-binding, metal-binding, lipid-binding, copper-binding, transmembrane, outer membrane, channels/Pores - Pore-forming toxins (proteins and peptides) group of proteins. Non-structural proteins perform functions like actin binding, zinc-binding, calcium-binding, hydrolases, Carbon-Oxygen Lyases, P-type ATPase, proteins belonging to major facilitator family (MFS), secreting main terminal branch (MTB) family, phosphotransfer-driven group translocators and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family group of proteins. Whereas structural proteins besides belonging to same structural group of proteins (capsid, structural, envelope), they also perform functions like nuclear receptor, antibiotic resistance, RNA-binding, DNA-binding, magnesium-binding, isomerase (intra-molecular), oxidoreductase and participate in type II (general) secretory pathway (IISP).

  12. Protein-protein interactions within late pre-40S ribosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody G Campbell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome assembly in eukaryotic organisms requires more than 200 assembly factors to facilitate and coordinate rRNA transcription, processing, and folding with the binding of the ribosomal proteins. Many of these assembly factors bind and dissociate at defined times giving rise to discrete assembly intermediates, some of which have been partially characterized with regards to their protein and RNA composition. Here, we have analyzed the protein-protein interactions between the seven assembly factors bound to late cytoplasmic pre-40S ribosomes using recombinant proteins in binding assays. Our data show that these factors form two modules: one comprising Enp1 and the export adaptor Ltv1 near the beak structure, and the second comprising the kinase Rio2, the nuclease Nob1, and a regulatory RNA binding protein Dim2/Pno1 on the front of the head. The GTPase-like Tsr1 and the universally conserved methylase Dim1 are also peripherally connected to this second module. Additionally, in an effort to further define the locations for these essential proteins, we have analyzed the interactions between these assembly factors and six ribosomal proteins: Rps0, Rps3, Rps5, Rps14, Rps15 and Rps29. Together, these results and previous RNA-protein crosslinking data allow us to propose a model for the binding sites of these seven assembly factors. Furthermore, our data show that the essential kinase Rio2 is located at the center of the pre-ribosomal particle and interacts, directly or indirectly, with every other assembly factor, as well as three ribosomal proteins required for cytoplasmic 40S maturation. These data suggest that Rio2 could play a central role in regulating cytoplasmic maturation steps.

  13. Prediction of heterodimeric protein complexes from weighted protein-protein interaction networks using novel features and kernel functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiying Ruan

    Full Text Available Since many proteins express their functional activity by interacting with other proteins and forming protein complexes, it is very useful to identify sets of proteins that form complexes. For that purpose, many prediction methods for protein complexes from protein-protein interactions have been developed such as MCL, MCODE, RNSC, PCP, RRW, and NWE. These methods have dealt with only complexes with size of more than three because the methods often are based on some density of subgraphs. However, heterodimeric protein complexes that consist of two distinct proteins occupy a large part according to several comprehensive databases of known complexes. In this paper, we propose several feature space mappings from protein-protein interaction data, in which each interaction is weighted based on reliability. Furthermore, we make use of prior knowledge on protein domains to develop feature space mappings, domain composition kernel and its combination kernel with our proposed features. We perform ten-fold cross-validation computational experiments. These results suggest that our proposed kernel considerably outperforms the naive Bayes-based method, which is the best existing method for predicting heterodimeric protein complexes.

  14. QTL analysis of frost damage in pea suggests different mechanisms involved in frost tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Anthony; Houtin, Hervé; Rond, Céline; Marget, Pascal; Jacquin, Françoise; Boucherot, Karen; Huart, Myriam; Rivière, Nathalie; Boutet, Gilles; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Burstin, Judith

    2014-06-01

    Avoidance mechanisms and intrinsic resistance are complementary strategies to improve winter frost tolerance and yield potential in field pea. The development of the winter pea crop represents a major challenge to expand plant protein production in temperate areas. Breeding winter cultivars requires the combination of freezing tolerance as well as high seed productivity and quality. In this context, we investigated the genetic determinism of winter frost tolerance and assessed its genetic relationship with yield and developmental traits. Using a newly identified source of frost resistance, we developed a population of recombinant inbred lines and evaluated it in six environments in Dijon and Clermont-Ferrand between 2005 and 2010. We developed a genetic map comprising 679 markers distributed over seven linkage groups and covering 947.1 cM. One hundred sixty-one quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining 9-71 % of the phenotypic variation were detected across the six environments for all traits measured. Two clusters of QTL mapped on the linkage groups III and one cluster on LGVI reveal the genetic links between phenology, morphology, yield-related traits and frost tolerance in winter pea. QTL clusters on LGIII highlighted major developmental gene loci (Hr and Le) and the QTL cluster on LGVI explained up to 71 % of the winter frost damage variation. This suggests that a specific architecture and flowering ideotype defines frost tolerance in winter pea. However, two consistent frost tolerance QTL on LGV were independent of phenology and morphology traits, showing that different protective mechanisms are involved in frost tolerance. Finally, these results suggest that frost tolerance can be bred independently to seed productivity and quality.

  15. Evidence suggesting digenic inheritance of Waardenburg syndrome type II with ocular albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Pei-Wen; Spector, Elaine; McGregor, Tracy L

    2009-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a series of auditory-pigmentary disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. In most patients, WS2 results from mutations in the MITF gene. MITF encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that activates transcription of tyrosinase and other melanocyte proteins. The clinical presentation of WS is highly variable, and we believe that Tietz syndrome and WS2 with ocular albinism (OA) are likely two variations of WS2 due to the presence of modifiers. One family with a molecular diagnosis of WS2 co-segregating with OA has previously been reported. A digenic mutation mechanism including both a MITF mutation and the TYR(R402Q) hypomorphic allele was proposed to be the cause of OA in this family. Here, we present a second WS2 family with OA and provide evidence suggesting the TYR(R402Q) allele does not cause OA in this family. We hypothesize the presence of a novel OCA3 mutation together with the MITF del p.R217 mutation account for the OA phenotype in this family. Since MITF is a transcription factor for pigmentation genes, a mutation in MITF plus a heterozygous mutation in OCA3 together provide an adverse effect crossing a quantitative threshold; therefore, WS2 with OA occurs. We have hypothesized previously that the clinical spectrum and mutation mechanism of OCA depend on the pigmentation threshold of an affected individual. This unique family has provided further evidence supporting this hypothesis. We suggest that by studying OCA patients alongside WS patients with various pigmentation profiles we can facilitate further understanding of the pigmentation pathway.

  16. The genome of Paenibacillus sabinae T27 provides insight into evolution, organization and functional elucidation of nif and nif-like genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Deng, Zhiping; Liu, Zhanzhi; Yan, Yongliang; Wang, Tianshu; Xie, Jianbo; Lin, Min; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Sanfeng

    2014-08-27

    Most biological nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by the molybdenum nitrogenase. This enzyme is a complex which contains the MoFe protein encoded by nifDK and the Fe protein encoded by nifH. In addition to nifHDK, nifHDK-like genes were found in some Archaea and Firmicutes, but their function is unclear. We sequenced the genome of Paenibacillus sabinae T27. A total of 4,793 open reading frames were predicted from its 5.27 Mb genome. The genome of P. sabinae T27 contains fifteen nitrogen fixation (nif) genes, including three nifH, one nifD, one nifK, four nifB, two nifE, two nifN, one nifX and one nifV. Of the 15 nif genes, eight nif genes (nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX and nifV) and two non-nif genes (orf1 and hesA) form a complete nif gene cluster. In addition to the nif genes, there are nitrogenase-like genes, including two nifH-like genes and five pairs of nifDK-like genes. IS elements on the flanking regions of nif and nif-like genes imply that these genes might have been obtained by horizontal gene transfer. Phylogenies of the concatenated 8 nif gene (nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX and nifV) products suggest that P. sabinae T27 is closely related to Frankia. RT-PCR analysis showed that the complete nif gene cluster is organized as an operon. We demonstrated that the complete nif gene cluster under the control of σ70-dependent promoter enabled Escherichia coli JM109 to fix nitrogen. Also, here for the first time we demonstrated that unlike nif genes, the transcriptions of nifHDK-like genes were not regulated by ammonium and oxygen, and nifH-like or nifD-like gene could not restore the nitrogenase activity of Klebsiella pneumonia nifH- and nifD- mutant strains, respectively, suggesting that nifHDK-like genes were not involved in nitrogen fixation. Our data and analysis reveal the contents and distribution of nif and nif-like genes and contribute to the study of evolutionary history of nitrogen fixation in Paenibacillus. For the first time we

  17. Modulation of type I immediate and type IV delayed immunoreactivity using direct suggestion and guided imagery during hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, R; Bjerring, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    1989-11-01

    Cutaneous reactivity against histamine skin prick test (Type I) and purified tuberculin protein derivative (Mantoux reaction, Type IV) was studied in eight volunteers under hypnosis. Types I and IV immunoreactivity were modulated by direct suggestion (Type I) and guided imagery (Type IV). The volunteers were highly susceptible subjects, selected by means of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. When the volunteers underwent hypnotic suggestion to decrease the cutaneous reaction to histamine prick test, a significant (P less than 0.02) reduction of the flare reaction (area of erythema) was observed compared with control histamine skin prick tests. The wheal reaction did not respond to hypnotic suggestion. Neither wheal nor flare reaction could be increased in size by hypnotic suggestion compared with control histamine skin prick tests. A hypnotic suggestion of increasing the Type IV reaction on one arm and decreasing the reaction on the other revealed a significant difference in both erythema size (P less than 0.02) and palpable induration (P less than 0.01). In two cases the reactions were monitored by laser doppler blood flowmetry and skin thickness measurement by ultrasound. The difference between the suggested increased and decreased reaction was 19% for the laser doppler bloodflow (in favor of the augmented side), and 44% for the dermal infiltrate thickness. This study objectively supports the numerous uncontrolled case reports of modulation of immunoreactivity in allergic diseases involving both Type I and Type IV skin reactions following hypnotic suggestions.

  18. Drug screen in patient cells suggests quinacrine to be repositioned for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, A; Österroos, A; Hassan, S; Gullbo, J; Rickardson, L; Jarvius, M; Nygren, P; Fryknäs, M; Höglund, M; Larsson, R

    2015-01-01

    To find drugs suitable for repositioning for use against leukemia, samples from patients with chronic lymphocytic, acute myeloid and lymphocytic leukemias as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were tested in response to 1266 compounds from the LOPAC 1280 library (Sigma). Twenty-five compounds were defined as hits with activity in all leukemia subgroups (<50% cell survival compared with control) at 10 μM drug concentration. Only one of these compounds, quinacrine, showed low activity in normal PBMCs and was therefore selected for further preclinical evaluation. Mining the NCI-60 and the NextBio databases demonstrated leukemia sensitivity and the ability of quinacrine to reverse myeloid leukemia gene expression. Mechanistic exploration was performed using the NextBio bioinformatic software using gene expression analysis of drug exposed acute myeloid leukemia cultures (HL-60) in the database. Analysis of gene enrichment and drug correlations revealed strong connections to ribosomal biogenesis nucleoli and translation initiation. The highest drug–drug correlation was to ellipticine, a known RNA polymerase I inhibitor. These results were validated by additional gene expression analysis performed in-house. Quinacrine induced early inhibition of protein synthesis supporting these predictions. The results suggest that quinacrine have repositioning potential for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia by targeting of ribosomal biogenesis

  19. Metabolic signature of sun exposed skin suggests catabolic pathway overweighs anabolic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Randhawa

    Full Text Available Skin chronically exposed to sun results in phenotypic changes referred as photoaging. This aspect of aging has been studied extensively through genomic and proteomic tools. Metabolites, the end product are generated as a result of biochemical reactions are often studied as a culmination of complex interplay of gene and protein expression. In this study, we focused exclusively on the metabolome to study effects from sun-exposed and sun-protected skin sites from 25 human subjects. We generated a highly accurate metabolomic signature for the skin that is exposed to sun. Biochemical pathway analysis from this data set showed that sun-exposed skin resides under high oxidative stress and the chains of reactions to produce these metabolites are inclined toward catabolism rather than anabolism. These catabolic activities persuade the skin cells to generate metabolites through the salvage pathway instead of de novo synthesis pathways. Metabolomic profile suggests catabolic pathways and reactive oxygen species operate in a feed forward fashion to alter the biology of sun exposed skin.

  20. Direct Evidence of Egestion and Salivation of Xylella fastidiosa Suggests Sharpshooters Can Be "Flying Syringes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it is propagative but noncirculative, adhering to and multiplying on the cuticular lining of the anterior foregut. Any inoculation mechanism for X. fastidiosa must explain how bacterial cells exit the vector's stylets via the food canal and directly enter the plant. A combined egestion-salivation mechanism has been proposed to explain these unique features. Egestion is the putative outward flow of fluid from the foregut via hypothesized bidirectional pumping of the cibarium. The present study traced green fluorescent protein-expressing X. fastidiosa or fluorescent nanoparticles acquired from artificial diets by glassy-winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis, as they were egested into simultaneously secreted saliva. X. fastidiosa or nanoparticles were shown to mix with gelling saliva to form fluorescent deposits and salivary sheaths on artificial diets, providing the first direct, conclusive evidence of egestion by any hemipteran insect. Therefore, the present results strongly support an egestion-salivation mechanism of X. fastidiosa inoculation. Results also support that a column of fluid is transiently held in the foregut without being swallowed. Evidence also supports (but does not definitively prove) that bacteria were suspended in the column of fluid during the vector's transit from diet to diet, and were egested with the held fluid. Thus, we hypothesize that sharpshooters could be true "flying syringes," especially when inoculation occurs very soon after uptake of bacteria, suggesting the new paradigm of a nonpersistent X. fastidiosa transmission mechanism.

  1. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is pathologically similar to pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma: suggestions of similar background and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Sato, Yasunori

    2014-07-01

    Routine experiences suggest that cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) show different clinicopathological behaviors along the biliary tree, and hilar CCA apparently resembles pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Herein, the backgrounds for these similarities were reviewed. While all cases of PDAC, hilar CCA, intrahepatic CCA (ICCA) and CCA components of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHC-CCA) were adenocarcinomas, micropapillary patterns and columnar carcinoma cells were common in PDAC and hilar CCA, and trabecular components and cuboidal carcinoma cells were common in ICCA and CCA components of cHC-CCA. Anterior gradient protein-2 and S100P were frequently expressed in perihilar CCA and PDAC, while neural cell adhesion molecule and luminal epithelial membrane antigen were common in CCA components of c-HC-CCA. Pdx1 and Hes1 were frequently and markedly expressed aberrantly in PDAC and perihilar CCA, although their expression was rare and mild in CCA components in cHC-CCA and ICCA. Hilar CCA showed a similar postoperative prognosis to PDAC but differed from ICCA and cHC-CCA. Taken together, hilar CCA may differ from ICCA and CCA components of cHC-CCA but have a similar development to PDAC. These similarities may be explained by the unique anatomical, embryological and reactive nature of the pancreatobiliary tract. Further studies of these intractable malignancies are warranted. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  2. Using Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups in Genetic Association Studies and Suggested Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurumluoglu, A Mesut; Baird, Denis; Richardson, Tom G; Timpson, Nicholas J; Rodriguez, Santiago

    2018-01-22

    Y-chromosomal (Y-DNA) haplogroups are more widely used in population genetics than in genetic epidemiology, although associations between Y-DNA haplogroups and several traits, including cardiometabolic traits, have been reported. In apparently homogeneous populations defined by principal component analyses, there is still Y-DNA haplogroup variation which will result from population history. Therefore, hidden stratification and/or differential phenotypic effects by Y-DNA haplogroups could exist. To test this, we hypothesised that stratifying individuals according to their Y-DNA haplogroups before testing for associations between autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes will yield difference in association. For proof of concept, we derived Y-DNA haplogroups from 6537 males from two epidemiological cohorts, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) ( n = 5080; 816 Y-DNA SNPs) and the 1958 Birth Cohort ( n = 1457; 1849 Y-DNA SNPs), and studied the robust associations between 32 SNPs and body mass index (BMI), including SNPs in or near Fat Mass and Obesity-associated protein ( FTO ) which yield the strongest effects. Overall, no association was replicated in both cohorts when Y-DNA haplogroups were considered and this suggests that, for BMI at least, there is little evidence of differences in phenotype or SNP association by Y-DNA structure. Further studies using other traits, phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS), other haplogroups and/or autosomal SNPs are required to test the generalisability and utility of this approach.

  3. Boric acid inhibits embryonic histone deacetylases: A suggested mechanism to explain boric acid-related teratogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Renzo, Francesca; Cappelletti, Graziella; Broccia, Maria L.; Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) control gene expression by changing histonic as well as non histonic protein conformation. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are considered to be among the most promising drugs for epigenetic treatment for cancer. Recently a strict relationship between histone hyperacetylation in specific tissues of mouse embryos exposed to two HDACi (valproic acid and trichostatin A) and specific axial skeleton malformations has been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to verify if boric acid (BA), that induces in rodents malformations similar to those valproic acid and trichostatin A-related, acts through similar mechanisms: HDAC inhibition and histone hyperacetylation. Pregnant mice were treated intraperitoneally with a teratogenic dose of BA (1000 mg/kg, day 8 of gestation). Western blot analysis and immunostaining were performed with anti hyperacetylated histone 4 (H4) antibody on embryos explanted 1, 3 or 4 h after treatment and revealed H4 hyperacetylation at the level of somites. HDAC enzyme assay was performed on embryonic nuclear extracts. A significant HDAC inhibition activity (compatible with a mixed type partial inhibition mechanism) was evident with BA. Kinetic analyses indicate that BA modifies substrate affinity by a factor α = 0.51 and maximum velocity by a factor β = 0.70. This work provides the first evidence for HDAC inhibition by BA and suggests such a molecular mechanism for the induction of BA-related malformations

  4. Can Natural Proteins Designed with ‘Inverted’ Peptide Sequences Adopt Native-Like Protein Folds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Settu; Guruprasad, Kunchur

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a systematic computational analysis on a representative dataset of proteins of known three-dimensional structure, in order to evaluate whether it would possible to ‘swap’ certain short peptide sequences in naturally occurring proteins with their corresponding ‘inverted’ peptides and generate ‘artificial’ proteins that are predicted to retain native-like protein fold. The analysis of 3,967 representative proteins from the Protein Data Bank revealed 102,677 unique identical inverted peptide sequence pairs that vary in sequence length between 5–12 and 18 amino acid residues. Our analysis illustrates with examples that such ‘artificial’ proteins may be generated by identifying peptides with ‘similar structural environment’ and by using comparative protein modeling and validation studies. Our analysis suggests that natural proteins may be tolerant to accommodating such peptides. PMID:25210740

  5. Effects of ionizing radiations on proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, M. le; Foresta, B. de; Viel, A.; Thauvette, L.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

    1990-01-01

    We have reinvestigated the use of ionizing radiations to measure the molecular mass of water-soluble or membrane proteins. Exposure of purified standard proteins to increasing doses of ionizing radiation causes progressive fragmentation of the native protein into defined peptide patterns. The coloured band corresponding to the intact protein was measured on the SDS gel as a function of dose to determine the dose (D 37.t ) corresponding to 37% of the initial amount of unfragmented protein deposited on the gel. This led to a calibration curve and the known molecular mass of the standard proteins. However, we have to conclude that this method is useless to determine the state of aggregation of a protein, since, for all the oligomers tested, the best fit was obtained by using the protomeric molecular mass, suggesting that there is no energy transfer between protomers. Furthermore, SDS greatly increases the fragmentation rate of proteins, which suggests additional calibration problems for membrane proteins in detergent or in the lipid bilayer. The main drawback of the technique is that some proteins behaved anomalously, leading to very large errors in the apparent target size as compared with true molecular mass. It is thus unreliable to apply the radiation method for absolute molecular-mass determination. We then focused on the novel finding that discrete fragmentation of proteins occurs at preferential sites, and this was studied with aspartate transcarbamylase. (author)

  6. The E5 Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaio, Daniel; Petti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The E5 proteins are short transmembrane proteins encoded by many animal and human papillomaviruses. These proteins display transforming activity in cultured cells and animals, and they presumably also play a role in the productive virus life cycle. The E5 proteins are thought to act by modulating the activity of cellular proteins. Here, we describe the biological activities of the best-studied E5 proteins and discuss the evidence implicating specific protein targets and pathways in mediating ...

  7. Protein Misfolding and Human Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Bross, Peter Gerd; Vang, Søren

    2006-01-01

    phenylketonuria, Parkinson's disease, α-1-antitrypsin deficiency, familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Despite the differences, an emerging paradigm suggests that the cellular effects of protein misfolding provide a common framework that may contribute...

  8. Neutron protein crystallography in JAERI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    results have clearly suggested that hydrogen atoms and water molecules around ... resolution (from 1.5 Å to 2.0 Å) structural analyses of several proteins. .... system like PDB is not sufficient to study hydrogen-related studies such as hydrogen.

  9. Noncoding RNAs in protein clearance pathways: implications in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several studies from model organisms suggest upregulation of pathways that clear this toxic protein may provide .... part of UPS have been genetically linked to neurodegener- ... tionally modified or any other misfolded protein are poten-.

  10. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  11. Mutation of the mouse Syce1 gene disrupts synapsis and suggests a link between synaptonemal complex structural components and DNA repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Bolcun-Filas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the synaptonemal complex is a structure required to complete crossover recombination. Although suggested by cytological work, in vivo links between the structural proteins of the synaptonemal complex and the proteins of the recombination process have not previously been made. The central element of the synaptonemal complex is traversed by DNA at sites of recombination and presents a logical place to look for interactions between these components. There are four known central element proteins, three of which have previously been mutated. Here, we complete the set by creating a null mutation in the Syce1 gene in mouse. The resulting disruption of synapsis in these animals has allowed us to demonstrate a biochemical interaction between the structural protein SYCE2 and the repair protein RAD51. In normal meiosis, this interaction may be responsible for promoting homologous synapsis from sites of recombination.

  12. Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Onofrio David J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called Prescriptive Information (PI. PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms.

  13. Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, David J; Abel, David L; Johnson, Donald E

    2012-03-14

    The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called prescriptive information (PI). PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms.

  14. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm, is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. Conclusion We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  15. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-10

    Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm), is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  16. Two Chimeric Regulators of G-protein Signaling (RGS) Proteins Differentially Modulate Soybean Heterotrimeric G-protein Cycle*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Westfall, Corey S.; Laborde, John P.; Bisht, Naveen C.; Jez, Joseph M.; Pandey, Sona

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins and the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins, which accelerate the inherent GTPase activity of Gα proteins, are common in animals and encoded by large gene families; however, in plants G-protein signaling is thought to be more limited in scope. For example, Arabidopsis thaliana contains one Gα, one Gβ, three Gγ, and one RGS protein. Recent examination of the Glycine max (soybean) genome reveals a larger set of G-protein-related genes and raises the possibility of more intricate G-protein networks than previously observed in plants. Stopped-flow analysis of GTP-binding and GDP/GTP exchange for the four soybean Gα proteins (GmGα1–4) reveals differences in their kinetic properties. The soybean genome encodes two chimeric RGS proteins with an N-terminal seven transmembrane domain and a C-terminal RGS box. Both GmRGS interact with each of the four GmGα and regulate their GTPase activity. The GTPase-accelerating activities of GmRGS1 and -2 differ for each GmGα, suggesting more than one possible rate of the G-protein cycle initiated by each of the Gα proteins. The differential effects of GmRGS1 and GmRGS2 on GmGα1–4 result from a single valine versus alanine difference. The emerging picture suggests complex regulation of the G-protein cycle in soybean and in other plants with expanded G-protein networks. PMID:22474294

  17. Proteomic screening for amyloid proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton A Nizhnikov

    Full Text Available Despite extensive study, progress in elucidation of biological functions of amyloids and their role in pathology is largely restrained due to the lack of universal and reliable biochemical methods for their discovery. All biochemical methods developed so far allowed only identification of glutamine/asparagine-rich amyloid-forming proteins or proteins comprising amyloids that form large deposits. In this article we present a proteomic approach which may enable identification of a broad range of amyloid-forming proteins independently of specific features of their sequences or levels of expression. This approach is based on the isolation of protein fractions enriched with amyloid aggregates via sedimentation by ultracentrifugation in the presence of strong ionic detergents, such as sarkosyl or SDS. Sedimented proteins are then separated either by 2D difference gel electrophoresis or by SDS-PAGE, if they are insoluble in the buffer used for 2D difference gel electrophoresis, after which they are identified by mass-spectrometry. We validated this approach by detection of known yeast prions and mammalian proteins with established capacity for amyloid formation and also revealed yeast proteins forming detergent-insoluble aggregates in the presence of human huntingtin with expanded polyglutamine domain. Notably, with one exception, all these proteins contained glutamine/asparagine-rich stretches suggesting that their aggregates arose due to polymerization cross-seeding by human huntingtin. Importantly, though the approach was developed in a yeast model, it can easily be applied to any organism thus representing an efficient and universal tool for screening for amyloid proteins.

  18. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  19. Introduction to protein blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Protein blotting is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins following electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer.

  20. A Comparative Proteome Profile of Female Mouse Gonads Suggests a Tight Link between the Electron Transport Chain and Meiosis Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cong; Li, Mingrui; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yueshuai; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Bo; Teng, Hui; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a unique property of germ cells and is critical for sexual reproduction. Leaving mitosis and entering meiosis is a key step in germ cell development. Several inducers or intrinsic genes are known to be important for meiotic initiation, but the regulation of meiotic initiation, especially at the protein level, is still not well understood. We constructed a comparative proteome profile of female mouse fetal gonads at specific time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), spanning a critical window for initiation of meiosis in female germ cells. We identified 3666 proteins, of which 473 were differentially expressed. Further bioinformatics analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins were enriched in the mitochondria, especially in the electron transport chain and, notably, 9 proteins in electron transport chain Complex I were differentially expressed. We disrupted the mitochondrial electron transport chain function by adding the complex I inhibitor, rotenone to 11.5 days post coitum female gonads cultured in vitro. This treatment resulted in a decreased proportion of meiotic germ cells, as assessed by staining for histone γH2AX. Rotenone treatment also caused decreased ATP levels, increased reactive oxygen species levels and failure of the germ cells to undergo premeiotic DNA replication. These effects were partially rescued by adding Coenzyme Q10. Taken together, our results suggested that a functional electron transport chain is important for meiosis initiation. Our characterization of the quantitative proteome of female gonads provides an inventory of proteins, useful for understanding the mechanisms of meiosis initiation and female fertility. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Fibronectin phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Sumi; Sugiyama, Yayoi; Imada, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The presence of membrane-associated, extracellular protein kinase (ecto-protein kinase) and its substrate proteins was examined with serum-free cultures of Swiss 3T3 fibroblast. When cells were incubated with [γ- 32 ]ATP for 10 min at 37 degree C, four proteins with apparent molecular weights between 150 and 220 kDa were prominently phosphorylated. These proteins were also radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase catalyzed iodination and were sensitive to mild tryptic digestion, suggesting that they localized on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Phosphorylation of extracellular proteins with [γ- 32 P]ATP in intact cell culture is consistent with the existence of ecto-protein kinase. Anti-fibronectin antibody immunoprecipitated one of the phosphoproteins which comigrated with a monomer and a dimer form of fibronectin under reducing and nonreducing conditions of electrophoresis, respectively. The protein had affinity for gelatin as demonstrated by retention with gelatin-conjugated agarose. This protein substrate of ecto-protein kinase was thus concluded to be fibronectin. The sites of phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase were compared with those of intracellularly phosphorylated fibronectin by the analysis of radiolabeled amino acids and peptides. Ecto-protein kinase phosphorylated fibronectin at serine and threonine residues which were distinct from the sites of intracellular fibronectin phosphorylation

  2. Controlling the shape of membrane protein polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A.

    2017-03-01

    Membrane proteins and lipids can self-assemble into membrane protein polyhedral nanoparticles (MPPNs). MPPNs have a closed spherical surface and a polyhedral protein arrangement, and may offer a new route for structure determination of membrane proteins and targeted drug delivery. We develop here a general analytic model of how MPPN self-assembly depends on bilayer-protein interactions and lipid bilayer mechanical properties. We find that the bilayer-protein hydrophobic thickness mismatch is a key molecular control parameter for MPPN shape that can be used to bias MPPN self-assembly towards highly symmetric and uniform MPPN shapes. Our results suggest strategies for optimizing MPPN shape for structural studies of membrane proteins and targeted drug delivery.

  3. Our interests in protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    protein interactions. Evolution of P-P partnerships. Evolution of P-P structures. Evolutionary dynamics of P-P interactions. Dynamics of P-P interaction network. Host-pathogen interactions. CryoEM mapping of gigantic protein assemblies.

  4. Regulation of IGF binding protein proteolysis by pregnancy-associated plasma protein-ARegulation of IGF binding protein proteolysis by pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaidamauskas, Ervinas

    During his PhD studies, Ervinas Gaidamauskas researched the proteins pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and its homologue PAPP-A2 in vitro. As suggested by its name, PAPP-A plays an important role in pregnancy and fetal development. Additionally, recent studies indicate a newly...

  5. Computed tomography in severe protein energy malnutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Househam, K C; de Villiers, J F

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography of the brain was performed on eight children aged 1 to 4 years with severe protein energy malnutrition. Clinical features typical of kwashiorkor were present in all the children studied. Severe cerebral atrophy or brain shrinkage according to standard radiological criteria was present in every case. The findings of this study suggest considerable cerebral insult associated with severe protein energy malnutrition.

  6. Application of the ex-Gaussian function to the effect of the word blindness suggestion on Stroop task performance suggests no word blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Andrew Parris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to apply the ex-Gaussian function to data reported by Parris et al. (2012 given its utility in studies involving the Stroop task. Parris et al. showed an effect of the word blindness suggestion when Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI was 500ms but not when it was 3500ms. Analysis revealed that: 1 The effect of the suggestion on interference is observed in µ, supporting converging evidence indicating the suggestion operates over response competition mechanisms; and, 2 Contrary to Parris et al., an effect of the suggestion was observed in µ when RSI was 3500ms. The reanalysis of the data from Parris et al. (2012 supports the utility of ex-Gaussian analysis in revealing effects that might otherwise be thought of as absent. We suggest that word reading itself is not suppressed by the suggestion but instead that response conflict is dealt with more effectively.

  7. Evolution of protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evolution of protein-protein interactions · Our interests in protein-protein interactions · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20.

  8. A method for investigating protein-protein interactions related to Salmonella typhimurium pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Saiful M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Liang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yoon, Hyunjin [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Ansong, Charles [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rommereim, Leah M. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Norbeck, Angela D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Auberry, Kenneth J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moore, R. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Joshua N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heffron, Fred [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-02-10

    We successfully modified an existing method to investigate protein-protein interactions in the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella typhimurium (STM). This method includes i) addition of a histidine-biotin-histidine tag to the bait proteins via recombinant DNA techniques; ii) in vivo cross-linking with formaldehyde; iii) tandem affinity purification of bait proteins under fully denaturing conditions; and iv) identification of the proteins cross-linked to the bait proteins by liquid-chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass-spectrometry. In vivo cross-linking stabilized protein interactions permitted the subsequent two-step purification step conducted under denaturing conditions. The two-step purification greatly reduced nonspecific binding of non-cross-linked proteins to bait proteins. Two different negative controls were employed to reduce false-positive identification. In an initial demonstration of this approach, we tagged three selected STM proteins- HimD, PduB and PhoP- with known binding partners that ranged from stable (e.g., HimD) to transient (i.e., PhoP). Distinct sets of interacting proteins were identified with each bait protein, including the known binding partners such as HimA for HimD, as well as anticipated and unexpected binding partners. Our results suggest that novel protein-protein interactions may be critical to pathogenesis by Salmonella typhimurium. .

  9. Extensive in silico analysis of Mimivirus coded Rab GTPase homolog suggests a possible role in virion membrane biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrutraj eZade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rab GTPases are the key regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. Many viruses and intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved to hijack the host Rab GTPase functions, mainly through activators and effector proteins, for their benefit. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV is one of the largest viruses and belongs to the monophyletic clade of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV. The inner membrane lining is integral to the APMV virion structure. APMV assembly involves extensive host membrane modifications, like vesicle budding and fusion, leading to the formation of a membrane sheet that is incorporated into the virion. Intriguingly, APMV and all group I members of the Mimiviridae family code for a putative Rab GTPase protein. APMV is the first reported virus to code for a Rab GTPase (encoded by R214 gene. Our thorough in silico analysis of the subfamily specific (SF region of Mimiviridae Rab GTPase sequences suggests that they are related to Rab5, a member of the group II Rab GTPases, of lower eukaryotes. Because of their high divergence from the existing three isoforms, A, B and C of the Rab5-family, we suggest that Mimiviridae Rabs constitute a new isoform, Rab5D. Phylogenetic analysis indicated probable horizontal acquisition from a lower eukaryotic ancestor followed by selection and divergence. Furthermore, interaction network analysis suggests that vps34 (a Class III P13K homolog, coded by APMV L615, Atg-8 and dynamin (host proteins are recruited by APMV Rab GTPase during capsid assembly. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that APMV Rab plays a role in the acquisition of inner membrane during virion assembly.

  10. Elevated risks for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and blood disorders in Ashkenazi schizophrenic pedigrees suggest new candidate genes in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, A.B. [Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)

    1994-09-15

    Among relatives of Ashkenazi schizophrenic probands the rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 3/1,000, compared to expected population rates of approximately 2/100,000. Relative risk of bleeding disorders, including hematologic cancers, was increased more than three-fold compared to controls. Co-occurrence of motor neuron disease and blood dyscrasias, accompanied by psychosis, has long been recognized. A virally-mediated autoimmune pathogenesis has been proposed. However, the familial co-occurrence of these three disease entities raises the possibility that the disease constellation be considered as a manifestation of a common underlying genetic defect. Such expansion of the spectrum of affectation might enhance the power of both candidate gene and linkage studies. Based on these findings, the loci suggested as candidate regions in schizophrenia include a potential hot spot on chromosome 21q21-q22, involving the superoxide dismutase and amyloid precursor protein genes. Alternatively, genes on other chromosomes involved in the expression, transcription, or regulation of these genes, or associated with the illnesses of high frequency in these pedigrees are suggested. Candidates include the choroid plexus transport protein, transthyretin at 18q11.2-q12.1; the t(14;18)(q22;21) characterizing B-cell lymphoma-2, the most common form of hematologic cancer; and the 14q24 locus of early onset Alzheimer`s disease, c-Fos, transforming growth factor beta 3, and heat shock protein A2. Expression of hematologic cancers and the suggested candidate genes are known to involve retinoid pathways, and retinoid disregulation has been proposed as a cause of schizophrenia. 67 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with [ 3 H-methyl]-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile [ 3 H]methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the [ 3 H]methyl group

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α activation induces hepatic steatosis, suggesting an adverse effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome. Antihyperlipidemic drugs are recommended as part of the treatment for NAFLD patients. Although fibrates activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, leading to the reduction of serum triglyceride levels, the effects of these drugs on NAFLD remain controversial. Clinical studies have reported that PPARα activation does not improve hepatic steatosis. In the present study, we focused on exploring the effect and mechanism of PPARα activation on hepatic triglyceride accumulation and hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice, Pparα-null mice and HepG2 cells were treated with fenofibrate, one of the most commonly used fibrate drugs. Both low and high doses of fenofibrate were administered. Hepatic steatosis was detected through oil red O staining and electron microscopy. Notably, in fenofibrate-treated mice, the serum triglyceride levels were reduced and the hepatic triglyceride content was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Oil red O staining of liver sections demonstrated that fenofibrate-fed mice accumulated abundant neutral lipids. Fenofibrate also increased the intracellular triglyceride content in HepG2 cells. The expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c and the key genes associated with lipogenesis were increased in fenofibrate-treated mouse livers and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the effect was strongly impaired in Pparα-null mice treated with fenofibrate. Fenofibrate treatment induced mature SREBP-1c expression via the direct binding of PPARα to the DR1 motif of the SREBP-1c gene. Taken together, these findings indicate the molecular mechanism by which PPARα activation increases liver triglyceride accumulation and suggest an

  13. Metabolomics analysis and modeling suggest a lysophosphocholines-PAF receptor interaction in fibromyalgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Caboni

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain, and difficult to diagnose and treat. We analyzed the plasma metabolic profile of patients with FMS by using a metabolomics approach combining Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time Of Flight/Mass Spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS with multivariate statistical analysis, aiming to discriminate patients and controls. LC-Q-TOF/MS analysis of plasma (FMS patients: n = 22 and controls: n = 21 identified many lipid compounds, mainly lysophosphocholines (lysoPCs, phosphocholines and ceramides. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to identify the discriminating metabolites. A protein docking and molecular dynamic (MD study was then performed, using the most discriminating lysoPCs, to validate the binding to Platelet Activating Factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, PAF Receptor (PAFr. Discriminating metabolites between FMS patients and controls were identified as 1-tetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [PC(14:0/0:0] and 1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [PC(16:0/0:0]. MD and docking indicate that the ligands investigated have similar potentialities to activate the PAFr receptor. The application of a metabolomic approach discriminated FMS patients from controls, with an over-representation of PC(14:0/0:0 and PC(16:0/0:0 compounds in the metabolic profiles. These results and the modeling of metabolite-PAFr interaction, allowed us to hypothesize that lipids oxidative fragmentation might generate lysoPCs in abundance, that in turn will act as PAF-like bioactivators. Overall results suggest disease biomarkers and potential therapeutical targets for FMS.

  14. In silico docking of forchlorfenuron (FCF to septins suggests that FCF interferes with GTP binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Angelis

    Full Text Available Septins are GTP-binding proteins that form cytoskeleton-like filaments, which are essential for many functions in eukaryotic organisms. Small molecule compounds that disrupt septin filament assembly are valuable tools for dissecting septin functions with high temporal control. To date, forchlorfenuron (FCF is the only compound known to affect septin assembly and functions. FCF dampens the dynamics of septin assembly inducing the formation of enlarged stable polymers, but the underlying mechanism of action is unknown. To investigate how FCF binds and affects septins, we performed in silico simulations of FCF docking to all available crystal structures of septins. Docking of FCF with SEPT2 and SEPT3 indicated that FCF interacts preferentially with the nucleotide-binding pockets of septins. Strikingly, FCF is predicted to form hydrogen bonds with residues involved in GDP-binding, mimicking nucleotide binding. FCF docking with the structure of SEPT2-GppNHp, a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, and SEPT7 showed that FCF may assume two alternative non-overlapping conformations deeply into and on the outer side of the nucleotide-binding pocket. Surprisingly, FCF was predicted to interact with the P-loop Walker A motif GxxxxGKS/T, which binds the phosphates of GTP, and the GTP specificity motif AKAD, which interacts with the guanine base of GTP, and highly conserved amino acids including a threonine, which is critical for GTP hydrolysis. Thus, in silico FCF exhibits a conserved mechanism of binding, interacting with septin signature motifs and residues involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. Taken together, our results suggest that FCF stabilizes septins by locking them into a conformation that mimics a nucleotide-bound state, preventing further GTP binding and hydrolysis. Overall, this study provides the first insight into how FCF may bind and stabilize septins, and offers a blueprint for the rational design of FCF derivatives that could target septins with

  15. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  16. Protein-losing enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  17. "Boom" and "Bust" cycles in virus growth suggest multiple selective forces in influenza a evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquart Mary E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus evolution in humans is driven at least in part by mutations allowing the virus to escape antibody neutralization. Little is known about the evolution of influenza in birds, a major reservoir of influenza A. Methods Neutralizing polyclonal antiserum was raised in chicken against reassortant influenza virus, CalX, bearing the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA of A/California/7/2004 [H3N2]. CalX was serially passaged in the presence of anti-CalX polyclonal IgY to derive viruses capable of growth in the presence of antibody. Results Polyclonal chicken antibody neutralized both HA activity and infection by CalX, but had no effect on a strain bearing an earlier human H3 and an irrelevant neuraminidase (A/Memphis/71-Bellamy/42 [H3N1]. Surprisingly, most of the antibody-resistant viruses were still at least partially sensitive to neutralization of HA activity and viral infection. Although mutant HA genes bearing changes that might affect antibody neutralization were identified, the vast majority of HA sequences obtained were identical to wild type, and no individual mutant sequence was found in more than one passage, suggesting that those mutations that were observed did not confer sufficient selective advantage to come to dominate the population. Different passages yielded infectious foci of varying size and plaques of varying size and morphology. Yields of infectious virus and relative frequency of different morphologies changed markedly from passage to passage. Sequences of bulk, uncloned PCR products from antibody-resistant passages indicated changes in the PB2 and PA proteins with respect to the wild type virus. Conclusions Each antibody-selected passage consisted of a variety of different cocirculating populations, rather than pure populations of virus able to escape antibody by changes in antibody epitopes. The ability to escape antibody is apparently due to changes in genes encoding the viral

  18. Oligomeric protein structure networks: insights into protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda KV

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein association is essential for a variety of cellular processes and hence a large number of investigations are being carried out to understand the principles of protein-protein interactions. In this study, oligomeric protein structures are viewed from a network perspective to obtain new insights into protein association. Structure graphs of proteins have been constructed from a non-redundant set of protein oligomer crystal structures by considering amino acid residues as nodes and the edges are based on the strength of the non-covalent interactions between the residues. The analysis of such networks has been carried out in terms of amino acid clusters and hubs (highly connected residues with special emphasis to protein interfaces. Results A variety of interactions such as hydrogen bond, salt bridges, aromatic and hydrophobic interactions, which occur at the interfaces are identified in a consolidated manner as amino acid clusters at the interface, from this study. Moreover, the characterization of the highly connected hub-forming residues at the interfaces and their comparison with the hubs from the non-interface regions and the non-hubs in the interface regions show that there is a predominance of charged interactions at the interfaces. Further, strong and weak interfaces are identified on the basis of the interaction strength between amino acid residues and the sizes of the interface clusters, which also show that many protein interfaces are stronger than their monomeric protein cores. The interface strengths evaluated based on the interface clusters and hubs also correlate well with experimentally determined dissociation constants for known complexes. Finally, the interface hubs identified using the present method correlate very well with experimentally determined hotspots in the interfaces of protein complexes obtained from the Alanine Scanning Energetics database (ASEdb. A few predictions of interface hot

  19. Characterization of membrane association of Rinderpest virus matrix protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhashri, R.; Shaila, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Paramyxovirus matrix protein is believed to play a crucial role in the assembly and maturation of the virus particle by bringing the major viral components together at the budding site in the host cell. The membrane association capability of many enveloped virus matrix proteins has been characterized to be their intrinsic property. In this work, we have characterized the membrane association of Rinderpest virus matrix (M) protein. The M protein of Rinderpest virus when expressed in the absence of other viral proteins is present both in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. When expressed as GFP fusion protein, the M protein gets localized into plasma membrane protrusions. High salt and alkaline conditions resulted in partial dissociation of M protein from cell membrane. Thus, M protein behaves like an integral membrane protein although its primary structure suggests it to be a peripheral membrane protein

  20. Nitrogenase gene amplicons from global marine surface waters are dominated by genes of non-cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farnelid, Hanna; Andersson, Anders F.; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    analysis of 79,090 nitrogenase (nifH) PCR amplicons encoding 7,468 unique proteins from surface samples (ten DNA samples and two RNA samples) collected at ten marine locations world-wide provides the first in-depth survey of a functional bacterial gene and yield insights into the composition and diversity...... by unicellular cyanobacteria, 42% of the identified non-cyanobacterial nifH clusters from the corresponding DNA samples were also detected in cDNA. The study indicates that non-cyanobacteria account for a substantial part of the nifH gene pool in marine surface waters and that these genes are at least...

  1. Protein surface shielding agents in protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hašek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization process can be controlled by protein surface shielding agents blocking undesirable competitive adhesion modes during non-equilibrium processes of deposition of protein molecules on the surface of growing crystalline blocks. The hypothesis is based on a number of experimental proofs from diffraction experiments and also retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. The molecules adhering temporarily on the surface of protein molecules change the propensity of protein molecules to deposit on the crystal surface in a definite position and orientation. The concepts of competitive adhesion modes and protein surface shielding agents acting on the surface of molecules in a non-equilibrium process of protein crystallization provide a useful platform for the control of crystallization. The desirable goal, i.e. a transient preference of a single dominating adhesion mode between protein molecules during crystallization, leads to uniform deposition of proteins in a crystal. This condition is the most important factor for diffraction quality and thus also for the accuracy of protein structure determination. The presented hypothesis is a generalization of the experimentally well proven behaviour of hydrophilic polymers on the surface of protein molecules of other compounds

  2. Atomic structures of fibrillar segments of hIAPP suggest tightly mated β-sheets are important for cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krotee, Pascal [Department of Biological Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; UCLA-DOE Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Rodriguez, Jose A. [Department of Biological Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; UCLA-DOE Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Sawaya, Michael R. [Department of Biological Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; UCLA-DOE Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Cascio, Duilio [Department of Biological Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; UCLA-DOE Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Reyes, Francis E. [Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, United States; Shi, Dan [Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, United States; Hattne, Johan [Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, United States; Nannenga, Brent L. [Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, United States; Oskarsson, Marie E. [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Philipp, Stephan [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, United States; Griner, Sarah [Department of Biological Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; UCLA-DOE Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Jiang, Lin [Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Brain Research Institute (BRI), University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Glabe, Charles G. [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, United States; Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Experimental Biochemistry Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Westermark, Gunilla T. [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Gonen, Tamir [Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, United States; Eisenberg, David S. [Department of Biological Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States; UCLA-DOE Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States

    2017-01-03

    hIAPP fibrils are associated with Type-II Diabetes, but the link of hIAPP structure to islet cell death remains elusive. Here we observe that hIAPP fibrils are cytotoxic to cultured pancreatic β-cells, leading us to determine the structure and cytotoxicity of protein segments composing the amyloid spine of hIAPP. Using the cryoEM method MicroED, we discover that one segment, 19–29 S20G, forms pairs of β-sheets mated by a dry interface that share structural features with and are similarly cytotoxic to full-length hIAPP fibrils. In contrast, a second segment, 15–25 WT, forms non-toxic labile β-sheets. These segments possess different structures and cytotoxic effects, however, both can seed full-length hIAPP, and cause hIAPP to take on the cytotoxic and structural features of that segment. These results suggest that protein segment structures represent polymorphs of their parent protein and that segment 19–29 S20G may serve as a model for the toxic spine of hIAPP.

  3. The genome of the xerotolerant mold Wallemia sebi reveals adaptations to osmotic stress and suggests cryptic sexual reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajabeen, Padamsee; Kumas, T. K. Arun; Riley, Robert; Binder, Manfred; Boyd, Alex; Calvo, Ann M.; Furukawa, Kentaro; Hesse, Cedar; Hohmann, Stefan; James, Tim Y.; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Miller, Kari; Shantappa, Sourabha; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.; McLaughlin, David J.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Aime, Mary C.

    2011-09-03

    Wallemia (Wallemiales, Wallemiomycetes) is a genus of xerophilic Fungi of uncertain phylogenetic position within Basidiomycota. Most commonly found as food contaminants, species of Wallemia have also been isolated from hypersaline environments. The ability to tolerate environments with reduced water activity is rare in Basidiomycota. We sequenced the genome of W. sebi in order to understand its adaptations for surviving in osmotically challenging environments, and we performed phylogenomic and ultrastructural analyses to address its systematic placement and reproductive biology. W. sebi has a compact genome (9.8 Mb), with few repeats and the largest fraction of genes with functional domains compared with other Basidiomycota. We applied several approaches to searching for osmotic stress-related proteins. In silico analyses identied 93 putative osmotic stress proteins; homology searches showed the HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol) pathway to be mostly conserved. Despite the seemingly reduced genome, several gene family expansions and a high number of transporters (549) were found that also provide clues to the ability of W. sebito colonize harsh environments. Phylogenetic analyses of a 71-protein dataset support the position of Wallemia as the earliest diverging lineage of Agaricomycotina, which is conrmed by septal pore ultrastructure that shows the septal pore apparatus as a variant of the Tremella-type. Mating type gene homologs were idented although we found no evidence of meiosis during conidiogenesis, suggesting there may be aspects of the life cycle of W. sebi that remain cryptic

  4. Proteomic analysis of mature soybean seeds from the Chernobyl area suggests plant adaptation to the contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Rashydov, Namik M; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Mátel, L'ubomír; Salaj, Terézia; Pret'ová, Anna; Hajduch, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The explosion in one of the four reactors of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, Chernobyl) caused the worst nuclear environmental disaster ever seen. Currently, 23 years after the accident, the soil in the close vicinity of CNPP is still significantly contaminated with long-living radioisotopes, such as (137)Cs. Despite this contamination, the plants growing in Chernobyl area were able to adapt to the radioactivity, and survive. The aim of this study was to investigate plant adaptation mechanisms toward permanently increased level of radiation using a quantitative high-throughput proteomics approach. Soybeans of a local variety (Soniachna) were sown in contaminated and control fields in the Chernobyl region. Mature seeds were harvested and the extracted proteins were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In total, 9.2% of 698 quantified protein spots on 2-D gel were found to be differentially expressed with a p-value Chernobyl soil conditions was proposed. Our results suggest that adaptation toward heavy metal stress, protection against radiation damage, and mobilization of seed storage proteins are involved in plant adaptation mechanism to radioactivity in the Chernobyl region.

  5. Protein S is protective in pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urawa, M; Kobayashi, T; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, C N; Fujimoto, H; Toda, M; Roeen, Z; Hinneh, J A; Yasuma, T; Takei, Y; Taguchi, O; Gabazza, E C

    2016-08-01

    epithelial cells in vitro. Conclusions These observations suggest clinical relevance and a protective role of protein S in pulmonary fibrosis. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  6. Protein intake in renal and hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Patrice M

    2011-03-01

    The kidney and the liver play a central role in protein metabolism. Synthesis of albumin and other proteins occurs mainly in the liver, whereas protein breakdown and excretion are handled through an intricate interaction between these two organ systems. Thus, disease states of either the liver and/or the kidney invariably result in clinically relevant disturbances of protein metabolism. Conversely, metabolic processes regulated by these two organs are directly affected by dietary protein intake. Of particular importance in this respect is the maintenance of acid/base homeostasis. Finally, both the amount and composition of ingested proteins have a direct impact on renal function, especially in a state of diseased kidneys. Consequently, dietary protein intake is of paramount importance in patients with chronic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. Limitation of ingested protein, particularly from animal sources, is crucial in order to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease and impaired renal function. In contrast, patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, have an increased protein demand. The syndrome of "protein-energy malnutrition" is a relevant factor for morbidity and mortality in this population and requires early detection and vigorous treatment. Protein intake in patients with cirrhosis of the liver should not be diminished as has been earlier suggested but rather increased to 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day, in order to prevent protein malnutrition. Moderate restriction depending on protein tolerance (0.5 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day), with the possible addition of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), has been recommended only in patients with advanced hepatic encephalopathy. Proteins of plant origin are theoretically superior to animal proteins.

  7. Mitochondrial protein acetylation mediates nutrient sensing of mitochondrial protein synthesis and mitonuclear protein balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Antonella; Hofer, Annette; Tundo, Federica; Wenz, Tina

    2014-11-01

    Changes in nutrient supply require global metabolic reprogramming to optimize the utilization of the nutrients. Mitochondria as a central component of the cellular metabolism play a key role in this adaptive process. Since mitochondria harbor their own genome, which encodes essential enzymes, mitochondrial protein synthesis is a determinant of metabolic adaptation. While regulation of cytoplasmic protein synthesis in response to metabolic challenges has been studied in great detail, mechanisms which adapt mitochondrial translation in response to metabolic challenges remain elusive. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial acetylation status controlled by Sirt3 and its proposed opponent GCN5L1 is an important regulator of the metabolic adaptation of mitochondrial translation. Moreover, both proteins modulate regulators of cytoplasmic protein synthesis as well as the mitonuclear protein balance making Sirt3 and GCN5L1 key players in synchronizing mitochondrial and cytoplasmic translation. Our results thereby highlight regulation of mitochondrial translation as a novel component in the cellular nutrient sensing scheme and identify mitochondrial acetylation as a new regulatory principle for the metabolic competence of mitochondrial protein synthesis. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Multiple-Localization and Hub Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Motonori; Gonja, Hideki; Koike, Ryotaro; Fukuchi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamental for all biological phenomena, and protein-protein interaction networks provide a global view of the interactions. The hub proteins, with many interaction partners, play vital roles in the networks. We investigated the subcellular localizations of proteins in the human network, and found that the ones localized in multiple subcellular compartments, especially the nucleus/cytoplasm proteins (NCP), the cytoplasm/cell membrane proteins (CMP), and the nucleus/cytoplasm/cell membrane proteins (NCMP), tend to be hubs. Examinations of keywords suggested that among NCP, those related to post-translational modifications and transcription functions are the major contributors to the large number of interactions. These types of proteins are characterized by a multi-domain architecture and intrinsic disorder. A survey of the typical hub proteins with prominent numbers of interaction partners in the type revealed that most are either transcription factors or co-regulators involved in signaling pathways. They translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, triggered by the phosphorylation and/or ubiquitination of intrinsically disordered regions. Among CMP and NCMP, the contributors to the numerous interactions are related to either kinase or ubiquitin ligase activity. Many of them reside on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane, and act as the upstream regulators of signaling pathways. Overall, these hub proteins function to transfer external signals to the nucleus, through the cell membrane and the cytoplasm. Our analysis suggests that multiple-localization is a crucial concept to characterize groups of hub proteins and their biological functions in cellular information processing. PMID:27285823

  9. Stabilization of Proteins and Noncovalent Protein Complexes during Electrospray Ionization by Amino Acid Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Lu, Haiyan; Chingin, Konstantin; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-07-21

    Ionization of proteins and noncovalent protein complexes with minimal disturbance to their native structure presents a great challenge for biological mass spectrometry (MS). In living organisms, the native structure of intracellular proteins is commonly stabilized by solute amino acids (AAs) accumulated in cells at very high concentrations. Inspired by nature, we hypothesized that AAs could also pose a stabilizing effect on the native structure of proteins and noncovalent protein complexes during ionization. To test this hypothesis, here we explored MS response for various protein complexes upon the addition of free AAs at mM concentrations into the electrospray ionization (ESI) solution. Thermal activation of ESI droplets in the MS inlet capillary was employed as a model destabilizing factor during ionization. Our results indicate that certain AAs, in particular proline (Pro), pose considerable positive effect on the stability of noncovalent protein complexes in ESI-MS without affecting the signal intensity of protein ions and original protein-ligand equilibrium, even when added at the 20 mM concentration. The data suggest that the degree of protein stabilization is primarily determined by the osmolytic and ampholytic characteristics of AA solutes. The highest stability and visibility of noncovalent protein complexes in ESI-MS are achieved using AA additives with neutral isoelectric point, moderate proton affinity, and unfavorable interaction with the native protein state. Overall, our results indicate that the simple addition of free amino acids into the working solution can notably improve the stability and accuracy of protein analysis by native ESI-MS.

  10. Defective Proteasome Delivery of Polyubiquitinated Proteins by Ubiquilin-2 Proteins Containing ALS Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Chang

    Full Text Available Ubiquilin proteins facilitate delivery of ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome for degradation. Interest in the proteins has been heightened by the discovery that gene mutations in UBQLN2 cause dominant inheritance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. However, the mechanisms by which the mutations cause ALS are not known. Here we report on the underlying defect of ubiquilin-2 proteins containing ALS-linked mutations in affecting proteasome-mediated degradation. We found that overexpression of ubiquilin-2 proteins containing any one of five different ALS mutations slow degradation of Myc, a prototypic proteasome substrate. Examination of coprecipitating proteins indicated that the mutant proteins are generally capable of binding polyubiquitinated proteins, but defective in binding the proteasome. GST-pulldown studies revealed that many of the mutants bind weaker to the S5a subunit of the proteasome, compared with wild type (WT ubiquilin-2 protein. The results suggest the mutant proteins are unable to deliver their captured cargo to the proteasome for degradation, which presumably leads to toxicity. Quantification of cell death is consistent with this idea. Measurement of protein turnover further indicated the mutant proteins have longer half-lives than WT ubiquilin-2. Our studies provide novel insight into the mechanism by which ALS-linked mutations in UBQLN2 interfere with protein degradation.

  11. Exploring protein dynamics space: the dynasome as the missing link between protein structure and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Hensen

    Full Text Available Proteins are usually described and classified according to amino acid sequence, structure or function. Here, we develop a minimally biased scheme to compare and classify proteins according to their internal mobility patterns. This approach is based on the notion that proteins not only fold into recurring structural motifs but might also be carrying out only a limited set of recurring mobility motifs. The complete set of these patterns, which we tentatively call the dynasome, spans a multi-dimensional space with axes, the dynasome descriptors, characterizing different aspects of protein dynamics. The unique dynamic fingerprint of each protein is represented as a vector in the dynasome space. The difference between any two vectors, consequently, gives a reliable measure of the difference between the corresponding protein dynamics. We characterize the properties of the dynasome by comparing the dynamics fingerprints obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of 112 proteins but our approach is, in principle, not restricted to any specific source of data of protein dynamics. We conclude that: 1. the dynasome consists of a continuum of proteins, rather than well separated classes. 2. For the majority of proteins we observe strong correlations between structure and dynamics. 3. Proteins with similar function carry out similar dynamics, which suggests a new method to improve protein function annotation based on protein dynamics.

  12. A Library of Plasmodium vivax Recombinant Merozoite Proteins Reveals New Vaccine Candidates and Protein-Protein Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jessica B.; Sharma, Sumana; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Wright, Gavin J.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Rayner, Julian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A vaccine targeting Plasmodium vivax will be an essential component of any comprehensive malaria elimination program, but major gaps in our understanding of P. vivax biology, including the protein-protein interactions that mediate merozoite invasion of reticulocytes, hinder the search for candidate antigens. Only one ligand-receptor interaction has been identified, that between P. vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) and the erythrocyte Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC), and strain-specific immune responses to PvDBP make it a complex vaccine target. To broaden the repertoire of potential P. vivax merozoite-stage vaccine targets, we exploited a recent breakthrough in expressing full-length ectodomains of Plasmodium proteins in a functionally-active form in mammalian cells and initiated a large-scale study of P. vivax merozoite proteins that are potentially involved in reticulocyte binding and invasion. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected 39 P. vivax proteins that are predicted to localize to the merozoite surface or invasive secretory organelles, some of which show homology to P. falciparum vaccine candidates. Of these, we were able to express 37 full-length protein ectodomains in a mammalian expression system, which has been previously used to express P. falciparum invasion ligands such as PfRH5. To establish whether the expressed proteins were correctly folded, we assessed whether they were recognized by antibodies from Cambodian patients with acute vivax malaria. IgG from these samples showed at least a two-fold change in reactivity over naïve controls in 27 of 34 antigens tested, and the majority showed heat-labile IgG immunoreactivity, suggesting the presence of conformation-sensitive epitopes and native tertiary protein structures. Using a method specifically designed to detect low-affinity, extracellular protein-protein interactions, we confirmed a predicted interaction between P. vivax 6-cysteine proteins P12 and P41, further

  13. Discrete response patterns in the upper range of hypnotic suggestibility: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair

    2015-05-01

    High hypnotic suggestibility is a heterogeneous condition and there is accumulating evidence that highly suggestible individuals may be comprised of discrete subtypes with dissimilar cognitive and phenomenological profiles. This study applied latent profile analysis to response patterns on a diverse battery of difficult hypnotic suggestions in a sample of individuals in the upper range of hypnotic suggestibility. Comparisons among models indicated that a four-class model was optimal. One class was comprised of very highly suggestible (virtuoso) participants, two classes included highly suggestible participants who were alternately more responsive to inhibitory cognitive suggestions or posthypnotic amnesia suggestions, and the fourth class consisted primarily of medium suggestible participants. These results indicate that there are discrete response profiles in high hypnotic suggestibility. They further provide a number of insights regarding the optimization of hypnotic suggestibility measurement and have implications for the instrumental use of hypnosis for the modeling of different psychological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 by hepatitis C virus core protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, HT; Pham, Long; Kim, JW

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular proteins for its own propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assays using the HCV core protein as a probe. Of ~9,000 host proteins immobilized in a microarray...... inducers. Binding of HCV core to MAPKAPK3 was confirmed by in vitro pulldown assay and further verified by coimmunoprecipitation assay. HCV core protein interacted with MAPKAPK3 through amino acid residues 41 to 75 of core and the N-terminal half of kinase domain of MAPKAPK3. In addition, both RNA...... increased HCV IRES-mediated translation and MAPKAPK3-dependent HCV IRES activity was further increased by core protein. These data suggest that HCV core may modulate MAPKAPK3 to facilitate its own propagation....

  15. Ethylene and protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, D J

    1973-01-01

    Ethylene reduces the rate of expansion growth of cells and it is suggestive that the rate of expansion is controlled at least in part by the synthesis of hydroxyproline rich glycopeptides that are secreted with other polysaccharide material through the plasmalemma into the cell wall, thereby enhancing the thickness of the cell wall and also rendering it poorly extensible. In combination, auxin would appear to counteract the effect of ethylene in this respect, for although auxin enhances the synthesis of protein and the content in the cell walls, as well as causing some increase in wall thickness, it reduces the amount of hydroxyproline reaching the wall. Such effects may be instrumental in enhancing wall plasticity, the rate of expansion and the final cell size. These results indicate that ethylene and auxin together afford a dual regulatory system exerted through a control of a specific part of the protein synthetic pathway, the products of which regulate the rate of expansion, and the potential for expansion, of the plant cell wall. 38 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

  16. Bioactive proteins from pipefishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rethna Priya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen antimicrobial potence of some pipefish species collected from Tuticorin coastal environment. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of pipefishes in methanol extract was investigated against 10 bacterial and 10 fungal human pathogenic strains. Results: Among the tested strains, in Centriscus scutatus, pipefish showed maximum zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholerae (8 mm and minimum in the sample of Hippichthys cyanospilos against Klebseilla pneumoniae (2 mm. In positive control, maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in Vibrio cholerae (9 mm and minimum in Klebseilla pneumoniae, and Salmonella paratyphi (5 mm. Chemical investigation indicated the presence of peptides as evidenced by ninhydrin positive spots on thin layer chromatography and presence of peptide. In SDS PAGE, in Centriscus scutatus, four bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 25.8-75 kDa. In Hippichthys cyanospilos, five bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 20.5-78 kDa. The result of FT-IR spectrum revealed that the pipe fishes extracts compriseed to have peptide derivatives as their predominant chemical groups. Conclusions: It can be conclude that this present investigation suggests the tested pipe fishes will be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds.

  17. Bioactive proteins from pipefishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rethna Priya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen antimicrobial potence of some pipefish species collected from Tuticorin coastal environment. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of pipefishes in methanol extract was investigated against 10 bacterial and 10 fungal human pathogenic strains. Results: Among the tested strains, in Centriscus scutatus, pipefish showed maximum zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholerae (8 mm and minimum in the sample of Hippichthys cyanospilos against Klebseilla pneumoniae (2 mm. In positive control, maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in Vibrio cholerae (9 mm and minimum in Klebseilla pneumoniae, and Salmonella paratyphi (5 mm. Chemical investigation indicated the presence of peptides as evidenced by ninhydrin positive spots on thin layer chromatography and presence of peptide. In SDS PAGE, in Centriscus scutatus, four bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 25.8-75 kDa. In Hippichthys cyanospilos, five bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 20.5-78 kDa. The result of FT-IR spectrum revealed that the pipe fishes extracts compriseed to have peptide derivatives as their predominant chemical groups. Conclusions: It can be conclude that this present investigation suggests the tested pipe fishes will be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds.

  18. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  19. Protein Structure Prediction by Protein Threading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhijie; Cai, Liming; Xu, Dong

    The seminal work of Bowie, Lüthy, and Eisenberg (Bowie et al., 1991) on "the inverse protein folding problem" laid the foundation of protein structure prediction by protein threading. By using simple measures for fitness of different amino acid types to local structural environments defined in terms of solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure, the authors derived a simple and yet profoundly novel approach to assessing if a protein sequence fits well with a given protein structural fold. Their follow-up work (Elofsson et al., 1996; Fischer and Eisenberg, 1996; Fischer et al., 1996a,b) and the work by Jones, Taylor, and Thornton (Jones et al., 1992) on protein fold recognition led to the development of a new brand of powerful tools for protein structure prediction, which we now term "protein threading." These computational tools have played a key role in extending the utility of all the experimentally solved structures by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), providing structural models and functional predictions for many of the proteins encoded in the hundreds of genomes that have been sequenced up to now.

  20. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is