WorldWideScience

Sample records for protein decreases expression

  1. CURCUMIN DECREASES SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) EXPRESSION IN BLADDER CANCER CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Jutooru, Indira; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Papineni, Sabitha; Smith, Roger; Li, Xiangrong; Safe, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Curcumin is the active component of tumeric, and this polyphenolic compound has been extensively investigated as an anticancer drug that modulates multiple pathways and genes. In this study, 10 – 25 µM curcumin inhibited 253JB-V and KU7 bladder cancer cell growth, and this was accompanied by induction of apoptosis and decreased expression of the proapoptotic protein survivin and the angiogenic proteins vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1). Since expression of...

  2. Hyperglycemia decreases expression of 14-3-3 proteins in an animal model of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong-Jun; Sung, Jin-Hee; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2016-07-28

    Diabetes is a severe metabolic disorder and a major risk factor for stroke. Stroke severity is worse in patients with diabetes compared to the non-diabetic population. The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved acidic proteins that are ubiquitously expressed in cells and tissues. These proteins are involved in many cellular processes including metabolic pathways, signal transduction, protein trafficking, protein synthesis, and cell cycle control. This study investigated 14-3-3 proteins expression in the cerebral cortex of animals with diabetes, cerebral ischemic injury and a combination of both diabetes and cerebral ischemic injury. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40mg/kg) in adult male rats. After 4 weeks of treatment, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed for the induction of focal cerebral ischemia and cerebral cortex tissue was collected 24h after MCAO. We confirmed that diabetes increases infarct volume following MCAO compared to non-diabetic animals. In diabetic animals with MCAO injury, reduction of 14-3-3 β/α, 14-3-3 ζ/δ, 14-3-3 γ, and 14-3-3 ε isoforms was detected. The expression of these proteins was significantly decreased in diabetic animals with MCAO injury compared to diabetic-only and MCAO-only animals. Moreover, Western blot analysis ascertained the decreased expression of 14-3-3 family proteins in diabetic animals with MCAO injury, including β/α, ζ/δ, γ, ε, τ, and η isoforms. These results show the changes of 14-3-3 proteins expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals with MCAO injury. Thus, these findings suggest that decreases in 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins under the presence of diabetes following MCAO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The expression of selenium-binding protein 1 is decreased in uterine leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quddus M Ruhul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium has been shown to inhibit cancer development and growth through the mediation of selenium-binding proteins. Decreased expression of selenium-binding protein 1 has been reported in cancers of the prostate, stomach, colon, and lungs. No information, however, is available concerning the roles of selenium-binding protein 1 in uterine leiomyoma. Methods Using Western Blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of selenium-binding protein 1 in uterine leiomyoma and normal myometrium in 20 patients who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine leiomyoma. Results and Discussion The patient age ranged from 34 to 58 years with a mean of 44.3 years. Proliferative endometrium was seen in 8 patients, secretory endometrium in 7 patients, and atrophic endometrium in 5 patients. Two patients showed solitary leiomyoma, and eighteen patients revealed 2 to 5 tumors. Tumor size ranged from 1 to 15.5 cm with a mean of 4.3 cm. Both Western Blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed a significant lower level of selenium-binding protein 1 in leiomyoma than in normal myometrium. Larger tumors had a tendency to show a lower level of selenium-binding protein 1 than smaller ones, but the difference did not reach a statistical significance. The expression of selenium-binding protein 1 was the same among patients with proliferative, secretory, and atrophic endometrium in either leiomyoma or normal myometrium. Also, we did not find a difference of selenium-binding protein 1 level between patients younger than 45 years and older patients in either leiomyoma or normal myometrium. Conclusions Decreased expression of selenium-binding protein 1 in uterine leiomyoma may indicate a role of the protein in tumorigenesis. Our findings may provide a basis for future studies concerning the molecular mechanisms of selenium-binding protein 1 in tumorigenesis as well as the possible use of selenium in prevention and treatment of uterine

  4. Decreased expression of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 in cold thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, C; Holzapfel, H-P; Paschke, R

    2005-02-01

    G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) have been shown to regulate the homologous desensitization of different G-protein coupled receptors. We have previously demonstrated that the expression of GRK 3 and 4 is increased in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HTNs) and that GRKs 2, 3, 5 and 6 are able to desensitize the TSHR in vitro. Since cold thyroid nodules (CTNs) and HTNs show different molecular and functional properties, different expression patterns of GRKs in these nodules can be expected. The comparison of GRK expression between CTNs and HTNs could give additional insight into the regulation mechanisms of these nodules. We therefore examined the expression of GRKs in CTNs and analyzed the differences to HTNs. The expression of the different GRKs in CTNs was measured by Western blot followed by chemiluminescence imaging. We found a decreased expression of GRK 2 in CTNs compared to their surrounding tissues and an increased expression of GRK 3 and 4 in CTNs, which is similar to HTNs. The decreased GRK 2 expression most likely results from reduced cAMP stimulation in CTNs. However, the increased GRK 3 and 4 expression in CTNs remains unclear and requires further investigations.

  5. Estrogen decreases tight junction protein ZO-1 expression in human primary gut tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zejun; Zhang, Lumin; Ding, Miao; Luo, Zhenwu; Yuan, Shao; Bansal, Meena B; Gilkeson, Gary; Lang, Ren; Jiang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Females have a higher prevalence of most autoimmune diseases; however, the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and estrogen receptor (ER)-α/β in human primary gut tissues by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and qPCR. The expression of ZO-1 and ER-β but not ER-α was present in both male and female gut tissues. There was no sex difference in ER-β expression, but ZO-1 expression was decreased in females compared to males. In vitro, estrogen treatment decreased ZO-1 mRNA and protein expression, ZO-1 promoter activity, IL-6 production, and NF-κB activation in human primary gut tissues or the Caco-2 cells, but increased the ER-β expression in Caco-2 cells. Consistently, plasma IL-6 levels in females were reduced relative to males in vivo. Our finding indicates that estrogen may play a role in gut tight junction expression and permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Schisandrin B protects PC12 cells by decreasing the expression of amyloid precursor protein and vacuolar protein sorting 35★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingmin; Mao, Shanping; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Baohui; Zhang, Qian; Pan, Gaofeng; Fu, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    PC12 cell injury was induced using 20 μM amyloid β-protein 25–35 to establish a model of Alzheimer's disease. The cells were then treated with 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays and Hoechst 33342 staining results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the survival rate of PC12 cells injured by amyloid β-protein 25–35 gradually increased and the rate of apoptosis gradually decreased. Reverse transcription-PCR, immunocytochemical staining and western blot results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the mRNA and protein expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein were gradually decreased. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein showed a consistent trend for change. These findings suggest that 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B antagonizes the cellular injury induced by amyloid β-protein 25–35 in a dose-dependent manner. This may be caused by decreasing the expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein. PMID:25745458

  7. Alcohol exposure decreases CREB binding protein expression and histone acetylation in the developing cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixiang Guo

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure affects 1 in 100 children making it the leading cause of mental retardation in the US. It has long been known that alcohol affects cerebellum development and function. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear.We demonstrate that CREB binding protein (CBP is widely expressed in granule and Purkinje neurons of the developing cerebellar cortex of naïve rats. We also show that exposure to ethanol during the 3(rd trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy reduces CBP levels. CBP is a histone acetyltransferase, a component of the epigenetic mechanism controlling neuronal gene expression. We further demonstrate that the acetylation of both histone H3 and H4 is reduced in the cerebellum of ethanol-treated rats.These findings indicate that ethanol exposure decreases the expression and function of CBP in the developing cerebellum. This effect of ethanol may be responsible for the motor coordination deficits that characterize fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  8. Bilirubin Decreases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Tosevska, Anela; Heiß, Elke H; Ladurner, Angela; Mölzer, Christine; Wallner, Marlies; Bulmer, Andrew; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2017-04-28

    Mild but chronically elevated circulating unconjugated bilirubin is associated with reduced total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, which is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to investigate whether unconjugated bilirubin influences macrophage cholesterol efflux, as a potential mechanism for the altered circulating lipoprotein concentrations observed in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages was assessed using plasma obtained from normo- and hyperbilirubinemic (Gilbert syndrome) humans (n=60 per group) or (heterozygote/homozygote Gunn) rats (n=20 per group) as an acceptor. Hyperbilirubinemic plasma from patients with Gilbert syndrome and Gunn rats induced significantly reduced cholesterol efflux compared with normobilirubinemic plasma. Unconjugated bilirubin (3-17.1 μmol/L) exogenously added to plasma- or apolipoprotein A1-supplemented media also decreased macrophage cholesterol efflux in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also showed reduced protein expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a transmembrane cholesterol transporter involved in apolipoprotein A1-mediated cholesterol efflux, in THP-1 macrophages treated with unconjugated bilirubin and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Furthermore, we demonstrated that bilirubin accelerates the degradation rate of the ABCA1 protein in THP-1 macrophages. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is decreased in the presence of plasma obtained from humans and rats with mild hyperbilirubinemia. A direct effect of unconjugated bilirubin on cholesterol efflux was demonstrated and is associated with decreased ABCA1 protein expression. These data improve our knowledge concerning bilirubin's impact on cholesterol transport and represent an important advancement in our understanding of bilirubin's role in cardiovascular disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on

  9. Activation of p44/42 in Human Natural Killer Cells Decreases Cell-surface Protein Expression: Relationship to Tributyltin-induced alterations of protein expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudimah, Fred D.; Abraha, Abraham; Wang, Xiaofei; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) activates the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), p44/42 in human natural killer (NK) cells. TBT also reduces NK cytotoxic function and decreases the expression of several NK-cell proteins. To understand the role that p44/42 activation plays in TBT-induced loss of NK cell function, we have investigated how selective activation of p44/42 by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) affects NK cells. Previously we showed that PMA caused losses of lytic function similar to those seen with TBT exposures. Here we examined activation of p44/42 in the regulation of NK-cell protein expression and how this regulation may explain the protein expression changes seen with TBT exposures. NK cells exposed to PMA were examined for levels of cell-surface proteins, granzyme mRNA, and perforin mRNA expression. The expression of CD11a, CD16, CD18, and CD56 were reduced, perforin mRNA levels were unchanged and granzyme mRNA levels were increased. To verify that activation of p44/42 was responsible for the alterations seen in CD11a, CD16, CD18, and CD56 with PMA, NK cells were treated with the p44/42 pathway inhibitor (PD98059) prior to PMA exposures. In the presence of PD98059, PMA caused no decreases in the expression of the cell-surface proteins. Results of these studies indicate that the activation of p44/42 may lead to the loss of NK cell cytotoxic function by decreasing the expression of CD11a, CD16, CD18, and CD56. Further, activation of p44/42 appears to be at least in part responsible for the TBT-induced decreases in expression of CD16, CD18, and CD56. PMID:20883105

  10. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 expression is decreased in human hypertensive nephrosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Clemens D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 is protective in different animal models of acute and chronic kidney disease. Its role in human kidneys, and in particular hypertensive nephrosclerosis, has thus far not been described. Methods BMP-7 mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR and localised by immunostaining in tissue samples from normal and nephrosclerotic human kidneys. The impact of angiotensin (AT-II and the AT-II receptor antagonist telmisartan on BMP-7 mRNA levels and phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8 (pSmad 1/5/8 expression was quantified in proximal tubular cells (HK-2. Functional characteristics of BMP-7 were evaluated by testing its influence on TGF-β induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, expression of TGF-β receptor type I (TGF-βRI and phosphorylated Smad 2 (pSmad 2 as well as on TNF-α induced apoptosis of proximal tubular cells. Results BMP-7 was predominantly found in the epithelia of the distal tubule and the collecting duct and was less abundant in proximal tubular cells. In sclerotic kidneys, BMP-7 was significantly decreased as demonstrated by real-time PCR and immunostaining. AT-II stimulation in HK-2 cells led to a significant decrease of BMP-7 and pSmad 1/5/8, which was partially ameliorated upon co-incubation with telmisartan. Only high concentrations of BMP-7 (100 ng/ml were able to reverse TNF-α-induced apoptosis and TGF-β-induced EMT in human proximal tubule cells possibly due to a decreased expression of TGF-βRI. In addition, BMP-7 was able to reverse TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad 2. Conclusions The findings suggest a protective role for BMP-7 by counteracting the TGF-β and TNF-α-induced negative effects. The reduced expression of BMP-7 in patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis may imply loss of protection and regenerative potential necessary to counter the disease.

  11. UV irradiation to mouse skin decreases hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic protein expression via HPA axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mira; Ban, Jae-Jun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2017-11-14

    The skin senses external environment, including ultraviolet light (UV). Hippocampus is a brain region that is responsible for memory and emotion. However, changes in hippocampus by UV irradiation to the skin have not been studied. In this study, after 2 weeks of UV irradiation to the mouse skin, we examined molecular changes related to cognitive functions in the hippocampus and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. UV exposure to the skin decreased doublecortin-positive immature neurons and synaptic proteins, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 A and postsynaptic density protein-95, in the hippocampus. Moreover, we observed that UV irradiation to the skin down-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and ERK signaling in the hippocampus, which are known to modulate neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. The cutaneous and central HPA axes were activated by UV, which resulted in significant increases in serum levels of corticosterone. Subsequently, UV irradiation to the skin activated the glucocorticoid-signaling pathway in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Interestingly, after 6 weeks of UV irradiation, mice showed depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test. Taken together, our data suggest that repeated UV exposure through the skin may negatively affect hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity along with HPA axis activation.

  12. Age-associated decrease in GDNF and its cognate receptor GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

    2016-06-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its cognate receptor (GFRα-1) are expressed in normal human skin. They are involved in murine hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling control. We hypothesize that 'GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin undergoes age-associated alterations. To test our hypothesis, the expression of these proteins was examined in human skin specimens obtained from 30 healthy individuals representing three age groups: children (5-18 years), adults (19-60 years) and the elderly (61-81 years). Immunofluorescent and light microscopic immunohistologic analyses were performed using tyramide signal amplification and avidin-biotin complex staining methods respectively. GDNF mRNA expression was examined by RT-PCR analysis. GDNF mRNA and protein as well as GFRα-1 protein expressions were detected in normal human skin. We found significantly reduced epidermal expression of these proteins with ageing. In the epidermis, the expression was strong in the skin of children and declined gradually with ageing, being moderate in adults and weak in the elderly. In children and adults, the expression of both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins was strongest in the stratum basale and decreased gradually towards the surface layers where it was completely absent in the stratum corneum. In the elderly, GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression was confined to the stratum basale. In the dermis, both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins had strong expressions in the fibroblasts, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles and blood vessels regardless of the age. Thus there is a decrease in epidermal GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in normal human skin with ageing. Our findings suggest that the consequences of this is that GFRα-1-mediated signalling is altered during the ageing process. The clinical and therapeutic ramifications of these observations mandate further investigations. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016

  13. Decreased expression of thyroid receptor-associated protein 220 in temporal lobe tissue of patients with refractory epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinmei; Wang Xuefeng; Xi Zhiqin; Gong Yun; Liu Fengying; Sun Jijun; Wu Yuan; Luan Guoming; Wang Yuping; Li Yunlin; Zhang Jianguo; Lu Yong; Li Hongwei

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: TRAP220 (thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein) functions as a coactivator for nuclear receptors and stimulates transcription by recruiting the TRAP mediator complex to hormone responsive promoter regions. Thus, TRAP220 enhances the function of thyroid/steroid hormone receptors such as thyroid hormone and oestrogen receptors. This study investigated the expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein level in epileptic brains comparing with human control. Methods: We examined the expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein levels in temporal lobes from patients with chronic pharmacoresistant epilepsy who have undergone surgery. Results: Expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein was shown to be decreased significantly in the temporal cortex of the patients with epilepsy. Conclusions: Our work showed that a decrease in TRAP220 mRNA and protein levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and may be associated with impairment of the brain caused by frequent seizures

  14. Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization decreases the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eduardo; Galeano, Pablo; Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco J; Rivera, Patricia; Serrano, Antonia; Alen, Francisco; Rubio, Leticia; Vargas, Antonio; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Decara, Juan; Bilbao, Ainhoa; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Suárez, Juan

    2016-03-01

    In the reward mesocorticolimbic circuits, the glutamatergic and endocannabinoid systems are implicated in neurobiological mechanisms underlying cocaine addiction. However, the involvement of both systems in the hippocampus, a critical region to process relational information relevant for encoding drug-associated memories, in cocaine-related behaviors remains unknown. In the present work, we studied whether the hippocampal gene/protein expression of relevant glutamate signaling components, including glutamate-synthesizing enzymes and metabotropic and ionotropic receptors, and the hippocampal gene/protein expression of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes were altered following acute and/or repeated cocaine administration resulting in conditioned locomotion and locomotor sensitization. Results showed that acute cocaine administration induced an overall down-regulation of glutamate-related gene expression and, specifically, a low phosphorylation level of GluA1. In contrast, locomotor sensitization to cocaine produced an up-regulation of several glutamate receptor-related genes and, specifically, an increased protein expression of the GluN1 receptor subunit. Regarding the endocannabinoid system, acute and repeated cocaine administration were associated with an increased gene/protein expression of CB1 receptors and a decreased gene/protein expression of the endocannabinoid-synthesis enzymes N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine D (NAPE-PLD) and diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα). These changes resulted in an overall decrease in endocannabinoid synthesis/degradation ratios, especially NAPE-PLD/fatty acid amide hydrolase and DAGLα/monoacylglycerol lipase, suggesting a reduced endocannabinoid production associated with a compensatory up-regulation of CB1 receptor. Overall, these findings suggest that repeated cocaine administration resulting in locomotor sensitization induces a down-regulation of the endocannabinoid signaling that could

  15. Form-deprivation myopia induces decreased expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, 5 in guinea pig sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the presence of various bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and their receptors in normal sclera of human, rat and guinea pigs, and to determine whether their expression changed with form-deprivation myopia (FDM in guinea pig sclera. METHODS: The expression of BMPs and BMP receptors were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Two-week-old guinea pigs were monocularly form-deprived with a translucent lens. After fourteen days induction of FDM, total RNA was isolated and subjected to RT-PCR to examine the changes of BMPs and BMP receptors in tissues from the posterior sclera. Western blotting analysis was used to investigate their changes in protein levels. RESULTS: Human sclera expressed mRNAs for BMP-2, -4, -5, -7, -RIA, -RIB and BMP-RII. Conversely, rat sclera only expressed mRNA for BMP-7 and BMP-RIB, while the expression of BMPs and BMP receptors in guinea pigs were similar to that of humans. Human sclera also expresses BMP-2, -4, -5,-7 in protein level. Fourteen days after the induction of myopia, significant decreased expressions for BMP-2 and BMP-5 in the posterior sclera of FDM-affected eyes (PCONCLUSION: Various BMPs were expressed in human and guinea pig sclera. In the posterior sclera, expressions of BMP-2 and BMP-5 significantly decreased in FDM eyes. This finding indicates that various BMPs as components of the scleral cytokines regulating tissue homeostasis and provide evidence that alterations in the expression of BMP-2 and BMP-5 are associated with sclera remodeling during myopia induction.

  16. Scutellaria barbata attenuates diabetic retinopathy by preventing retinal inflammation and the decreased expression of tight junction protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Yu Mei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the attenuation of ethanol extract of Herba Scutellaria barbata (SE against diabetic retinopathy (DR and its engaged mechanism. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were orally given with SE (100, 200 mg/kg for 1mo at 1mo after STZ injection. Blood-retinal barrier (BRB breakdown was detected by using Evans blue permeation assay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect mRNA and protein expression. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect serum contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β. RESULTS: SE (100, 200 mg/kg reversed the breakdown of BRB in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The decreased expression of retinal claudin-1 and claudin-19, which are both tight junction (TJ proteins, was reversed by SE. SE decreased the increased serum contents and retinal mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. SE also decreased the increased retinal expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. SE reduced the increased phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB p65 and its subsequent nuclear translocation in retinas from STZ-induced diabetic mice. Results of Western blot and retinal immunofluorescence staining of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1 demonstrated that SE abrogated the activation of microglia cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: SE attenuates the development of DR by inhibiting retinal inflammation and restoring the decreased expression of TJ proteins including claudin-1 and claudin-19.

  17. Decreased expression of extracellular matrix proteins and trophic factors in the amygdala complex of depressed mice after chronic immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Soonwoong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amygdala plays an essential role in controlling emotional behaviors and has numerous connections to other brain regions. The functional role of the amygdala has been highlighted by various studies of stress-induced behavioral changes. Here we investigated gene expression changes in the amygdala in the chronic immobilization stress (CIS-induced depression model. Results Eight genes were decreased in the amygdala of CIS mice, including genes for neurotrophic factors and extracellular matrix proteins. Among these, osteoglycin, fibromodulin, insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (Igfbp2 were further analyzed for histological expression changes. The expression of osteoglycin and fibromodulin simultaneously decreased in the medial, basolateral, and central amygdala regions. However, Igf2 and Igfbp2 decreased specifically in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Interestingly, this decrease was found only in the amygdala of mice showing higher immobility, but not in mice displaying lower immobility, although the CIS regimen was the same for both groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the responsiveness of the amygdala may play a role in the sensitivity of CIS-induced behavioral changes in mice.

  18. PTEN-induction in U251 glioma cells decreases the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Randy J.; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Pollak, Michael

    2005-01-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene whose loss of function is observed in ∼40-50% of human cancers. Although insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) was classically described as a growth inhibitor, multiple recent reports have shown an association of overexpression and/or high serum levels of IGFBP-2 with poor prognosis of several malignancies, including gliomas. Using an inducible PTEN expression system in the PTEN-null glioma cell line U251, we demonstrate that PTEN-induction is associated with reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and a substantial reduction of the high levels of IGFBP-2 expression. The PTEN-induced decrease in IGFBP-2 expression could be mimicked with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, indicating that the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN is responsible for the observed effect. However, the rapamycin analog CCI-779 did not affect IGFBP-2 expression, suggesting that the PTEN-induced decrease in IGFBP-2 expression is not attributable to decreased mTOR signalling. Recombinant human IGFBP-2 was unable to rescue U251-PTEN cells from the antiproliferative effects of PTEN, and IGFBP-2 siRNA did not affect the IGF-dependent or -independent growth of this cell line. These results suggest that the clinical data linking IGFBP-2 expression to poor prognosis may arise, at least in part, because high levels of IGFBP-2 expression correlate with loss of function of PTEN, which is well known to lead to aggressive behavior of gliomas. Our results motivate translational research regarding the relationship between IGFBP-2 expression and loss of function of PTEN

  19. The Expression of the Zonula Adhaerens Protein PLEKHA7 Is Strongly Decreased in High Grade Ductal and Lobular Breast Carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Tille

    Full Text Available PLEKHA7 is a junctional protein, which participates in a complex that stabilizes E-cadherin at the zonula adhaerens. Since E-cadherin is involved in epithelial morphogenesis, signaling, and tumor progression, we explored PLEKHA7 expression in cancer. PLEKHA7 expression was assessed in invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas of the breast by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR. PLEKHA7 was detected at epithelial junctions of normal mammary ducts and lobules, and of tubular and micropapillary structures within G1 and G2 ductal carcinomas. At these junctions, the localization of PLEKHA7 was along the circumferential belt (zonula adhaerens, and only partially overlapping with that of E-cadherin, p120ctn and ZO-1, as shown previously in rodent tissues. PLEKHA7 immunolabeling was strongly decreased in G3 ductal carcinomas and undetectable in lobular carcinomas. PLEKHA7 mRNA was detected in both ductal and lobular carcinomas, with no observed correlation between mRNA levels and tumor type or grade. In summary, PLEKHA7 is a junctional marker of epithelial cells within tubular structures both in normal breast tissue and ductal carcinomas, and since PLEKHA7 protein but not mRNA expression is strongly decreased or lost in high grade ductal carcinomas and in lobular carcinomas, loss of PLEKHA7 is a newly characterized feature of these carcinomas.

  20. Valproic acid exposure decreases Cbp/p300 protein expression and histone acetyltransferase activity in P19 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamparter, Christina L. [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Graduate Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Winn, Louise M., E-mail: winnl@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Graduate Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    The teratogenicity of the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is well established and its inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) is proposed as an initiating factor. Recently, VPA-mediated HDAC inhibition was demonstrated to involve transcriptional downregulation of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which was proposed to compensate for the increased acetylation resulting from HDAC inhibition. Cbp and p300 are HATs required for embryonic development and deficiencies in either are associated with congenital malformations and embryolethality. The objective of the present study was to characterize Cbp/p300 following VPA exposure in P19 cells. Consistent with previous studies, exposure to 5 mM VPA over 24 h induced a moderate decrease in Cbp/p300 mRNA, which preceded a strong decrease in total cellular protein mediated by ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Nuclear Cbp/p300 protein was also decreased following VPA exposure, although to a lesser extent. Total cellular and nuclear p300 HAT activity was reduced proportionately to p300 protein levels, however while total cellular HAT activity also decreased, nuclear HAT activity was unaffected. Using the Cbp/p300 HAT inhibitor C646, we demonstrated that HAT inhibition similarly affected many of the same endpoints as VPA, including increased reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 cleavage, the latter of which could be attenuated by pre-treatment with the antioxidant catalase. C646 exposure also decreased NF-κB/p65 protein, which was not due to reduced mRNA and was not attenuated with catalase pre-treatment. This study provides support for an adaptive HAT response following VPA exposure and suggests that reduced Cbp/p300 HAT activity could contribute to VPA-mediated alterations. - Highlights: • VPA exposure in vitro downregulates Cbp/p300 mRNA and induces protein degradation. • Cbp/p300 histone acetyltransferase activity is similarly reduced with VPA exposure. • Inhibition of Cbp/p300 acetyltransferase activity

  1. Decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein-1 (IGFBP-rP1) in radiation-induced mouse hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teishima, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    2002-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein-1 (IGFBP-rP1) is a member of the IGFBP family, which was called IGFBP-7 or mac25 previously. Decreased expression of IGFBP-rP1 has been shown in breast cancer and prostatic cancer, and tumor suppressive effects of IGFBP-rP1 have been reported in prostatic cancer and osteosarcoma cell lines. In the present study, we investigated whether expression levels of IGFBP-rP1 were related to the development and the growth of radiation-induced hepatomas of B6C3F1 mice. In northern blot analysis, decreased expressions of IGFBP-rP1 gene were shown in radiation-induced mouse hepatomas compared to normal livers. In hepatoma cell lines established from these hepatomas, decreased expressions of IGFBP-rP1 were strongly related to the grade of anchorage-independent growth. In cell lines which were transfected with IGFBP-rP1cDNA, the doubling time of cell growth was increased, and the number and the size of colony formation in soft agar culture were decreased. In tumor formation assay by injecting these cells to B6C3F1 mice subcutaneously, the volume of tumors were decreased. Furthermore, the decreased expression of IGFBP-rP1 gene was observed in human hepatomas by northern blot analysis. These results may suggest that the suppression of IGFBP-rP1 is related to development and progression of mouse and human hepatomas. (author)

  2. Exhaustive Training Increases Uncoupling Protein 2 Expression and Decreases Bcl-2/Bax Ratio in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effects of oxidative stress due to exhaustive training on uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 and Bcl-2/Bax in rat skeletal muscles. A total of 18 Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (CON, the trained control group (TC, and the exhaustive trained group (ET. Malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, xanthine oxidase (XOD, ATPase, UCP2, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in red gastrocnemius muscles were measured. Exhaustive training induced ROS increase in red gastrocnemius muscles, which led to a decrease in the cell antiapoptotic ability (Bcl-2/Bax ratio. An increase in UCP2 expression can reduce ROS production and affect mitochondrial energy production. Thus, oxidative stress plays a significant role in overtraining.

  3. Acidosis Decreases c-Myc Oncogene Expression in Human Lymphoma Cells: A Role for the Proton-Sensing G Protein-Coupled Receptor TDAG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acidosis is a biochemical hallmark of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we report that acute acidosis decreases c-Myc oncogene expression in U937 human lymphoma cells. The level of c-Myc transcripts, but not mRNA or protein stability, contributes to c-Myc protein reduction under acidosis. The pH-sensing receptor TDAG8 (GPR65 is involved in acidosis-induced c-Myc downregulation. TDAG8 is expressed in U937 lymphoma cells, and the overexpression or knockdown of TDAG8 further decreases or partially rescues c-Myc expression, respectively. Acidic pH alone is insufficient to reduce c-Myc expression, as it does not decrease c-Myc in H1299 lung cancer cells expressing very low levels of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Instead, c-Myc is slightly increased by acidosis in H1299 cells, but this increase is completely inhibited by ectopic overexpression of TDAG8. Interestingly, TDAG8 expression is decreased by more than 50% in human lymphoma samples in comparison to non-tumorous lymph nodes and spleens, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor function of TDAG8 in lymphoma. Collectively, our results identify a novel mechanism of c-Myc regulation by acidosis in the tumor microenvironment and indicate that modulation of TDAG8 and related pH-sensing receptor pathways may be exploited as a new approach to inhibit Myc expression.

  4. Decreased expression of cytochrome P450 protein in non-malignant colonic tissue of patients with colonic adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Bode, C.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in epithelial cells lining the alimentary tract play an important role in both the elimination and activation of (pro-)carcinogens. To estimate the role of cytochrome P450 in carcinogenesis of the colon, expression patterns and protein levels of four...... representative CYPs (CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) were determined in colon mucosa of normal and adenomatous colonic tissue of patients with adenomas and disease-free controls. METHODS: Expression of CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 in colon mucosa of normal and adenomatous colonic tissue of patients...... with adenoma and disease-free controls was determined by RT-PCR. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. RESULTS: With the exception of CYP3A5, expression of CYP mRNA was similar among groups and tissues (e.g. normal colon mucosa and adenoma). CYP3A5 mRNA expression was significantly...

  5. Curcumin decreases the expression of Pokemon by suppressing the binding activity of the Sp1 protein in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiajun; Meng, Xianfeng; Gao, Xudong; Tan, Guangxuan

    2010-03-01

    Pokemon, which stands for POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor, can regulate expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Curcumin, a natural and non-toxic yellow compound, has capacity for antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies shows it is a potential inhibitor of cell proliferation in a variety of tumour cells. To investigate whether curcumin can regulate the expression of Pokemon, a series of experiments were carried out. Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that curcumin could decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter. Western blot analysis suggested that curcumin could significantly decrease the expression of the Pokemon. Overexpression of Sp1 could enhance the activity of the Pokemon promoter, whereas knockdown of Sp1 could decrease its activity. More important, we also found that curcumin could decrease the expression of the Pokemon by suppressing the stimulation of the Sp1 protein. Therefore, curcumin is a potential reagent for tumour therapy which may target Pokemon.

  6. Decreased expression of heat shock proteins may lead to compromised wound healing in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanhaiya; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Mohan, Gyanendra; Chaturvedi, Sunanda; Singh, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are inducible stress proteins expressed in cells exposed to stress. HSPs promote wound healing by recruitment of dermal fibroblasts to the site of injury and bring about protein homeostasis. Diabetic wounds are hard to heal and inadequate HSPs may be important contributors in the etiology of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). To analyze the differential expression of HSPs and their downstream molecules in human diabetic wounds compared to control wounds. Expressional levels of HSP27, HSP47 and HSP70 and their downstream molecules like TLR4, p38-MAPK were seen in biopsies from 101 human diabetic wounds compared to 8 control subjects without diabetes using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Our study suggested a significant down regulation of HSP70, HSP47 and HSP27 (p value=diabetic wounds. Our study demonstrates that the down regulation of HSPs in diabetic wounds is associated with wound healing impairment in T2DM subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The expression of the new epididymal luminal protein of PDZ domain containing 1 is decreased in asthenozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Juan Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermatozoa are not mature until they transit the epididymis where they acquire motility and the ability to fertilize an egg through sequential modifications. The epididymis has three functional regions, caput, corpus, and cauda, and the luminal proteins of the epididymis play important roles in the above modifications. However, the proteins with differential enrichment between the caput and cauda are still largely unknown. To reveal the functions of the caput and cauda during sperm maturation, luminal proteins from caput and cauda of mice were analyzed by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. Overall, 128 differentially enriched proteins were found, of which 46 were caput enriched and 82 were cauda enriched. Bioinformatic analysis showed that lipid metabolism was active in the caput; while anion- and cation-binding activity and phosphorus and organophosphate metabolism were active in the cauda. A new epididymal luminal protein, the caput-enriched PDZ domain containing 1 (Pdzk1, also named Na+/H+ exchange regulatory cofactor 3 (NHERF3, which plays a critical role in cholesterol metabolism and carnitine transport, was found in the lipid metabolism. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses showed that Pdzk1 was expressed in the epididymis but not in the testis, and localized at the middle piece of the sperm tail. Pdzk1 protein level was also reduced in the spermatozoa in case of asthenozoospermic patients compared with that in normozoospermic men, suggesting that Pdzk1 may participate in sperm maturation regulation and may be associated with male infertility. These results may provide new insights into the mechanisms of sperm maturation and male infertility.

  8. Co-ordinate decrease in the expression of the mitochondrial genome and nuclear genes for mitochondrial proteins in the lactation-induced mitochondrial hypotrophy of rat brown fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, I; Giralt, M; Viñas, O; Iglesias, R; Mampel, T; Villarroya, F

    1995-01-01

    The relative abundance of the mitochondrial-encoded mRNAs for cytochrome c oxidase subunit II and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I was lower in brown adipose tissue (BAT) from lactating rats than in virgin controls. This decrease was in parallel with a significant decrease in mitochondrial 16 S rRNA levels and in the relative content of mitochondrial DNA in the tissue. BAT from lactating rats showed lowered mRNA expression of the nuclear-encoded genes for the mitochondrial uncoupling protein, subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase and the adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms ANT1 and ANT2, whereas mRNA levels for the ATP synthase beta-subunit were unchanged. However, the relative content of this last protein was lower in BAT mitochondria from lactating rats than in virgin controls. It is concluded that lactation-induced mitochondrial hypotrophy in BAT is associated with a co-ordinate decrease in the expression of the mitochondrial genome and nuclear genes for mitochondrial proteins. This decrease is caused by regulatory events acting at different levels, including pre- and post-transcriptional regulation. BAT appears to be a useful model with which to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the co-ordination of the expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes during mitochondrial biogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8948428

  9. Decreased decorin expression in the tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Guven, Hayrettin; Ponten, Fredrik; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, synthesized and deposited by fibroblasts in the stroma where it binds to collagen I. It sequesters several growth factors and antagonizes numerous members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. In experimental murine systems, it acted as a potent tumor suppressor. Examining the Human Protein Atlas online database of immunostained tissue samples we have surveyed decorin expression in silico in several different tumor types, comparing them with corresponding normal tissues. We found that decorin is abundantly secreted and deposited in normal connective tissue but its expression is consistently decreased in the tumor microenvironment. We developed a software to quantitate the difference in expression. The presence of two closely related proteoglycans in the newly formed tumor stroma indicated that the decreased decorin expression was not caused by the delay in proteoglycan deposition in the newly formed connective tissue surrounding the tumor

  10. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qiu

    Full Text Available Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24, nitrogen balance (n = 6, and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6 were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1 was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption.

  11. Inhibition of Cholesterol Synthesis in HepG2 Cells by GINST-Decreasing HMG-CoA Reductase Expression Via AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joon-Seung; Sung, Jong Hwan; Lee, Seung Kwon

    2017-11-01

    GINST, a hydrolyzed ginseng extract, has been reported to have antidiabetic effects and to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Hypercholesterolemia is caused by diet or genetic factors and can lead to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine whether GINST and the ginsenoside metabolite, IH-901 (compound K), reduce cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells and the signal transduction pathways involved. Concentrations of cholesterol were measured by using an enzymatic method. Expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBPα), GAPDH, and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) were measured using western blot. Total cholesterol concentration decreased after GINST treatment for 24 and 48 h. Expression of HMGCR decreased more with GINST than with the inhibitors, U18666A and atorvastatin, after 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of AMPKα increased 2.5x by GINST after 360 min of treatment, and phosphorylation of Akt decreased after 120 and 360 min. We separated compound K from GINST extracts flash chromatography. Compound K decreased cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells at 24 and 48 h. Therefore, we conclude that GINST inhibits cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells by decreasing HMGCR expression via AMPKα activation. GINST, a hydrolyzed ginseng extract, can inhibit cholesterol synthesis in liver cells via activation of AMPKα. IH-901 (compound K), which is the main component with bioactivity in GINST, also has anticholesterol effects. Thus, we suggest that GINST can be used to reduce hypercholesterolemia. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Decreased A20 mRNA and protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with type 2 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liqing; Zhang, Dongmei; Jiang, Youzhao; Deng, Wuquan; Wu, Qi'nan; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Bing

    2014-12-01

    A20 is a negative regulator of nuclear factor kappa B activation and the central gatekeeper in inflammation and immunity. While its role in type 1 diabetes has been widely studied, its expression level in immune cells from type 2 diabetes (T2D) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA) patients remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify whether the expression of A20 is altered in patients with T2D or LADA. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were utilized to determine the expression of A20 mRNA and protein respectively in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with T2D (n=36) or LADA (n=17) and sex- and age-matched healthy controls (n=34). The mRNA and protein expression of A20 in PBMCs from T2D and LADA patients was significantly decreased compared with healthy controls (P1 year since diagnosis) (P<0.05). Our results suggest that decreased expression of A20 in PBMCs may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes, and targeting A20 may offer a potential therapeutic tool in the treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lichen planus remission is associated with a decrease of human herpes virus type 7 protein expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Henry J. C.; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Picavet, Daisy; Cornelissen, Marion

    2007-01-01

    The cause of lichen planus is still unknown. Previously we showed human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) DNA and proteins in lesional lichen planus skin, and significantly less in non-lesional lichen planus, psoriasis or healthy skin. Remarkably, lesional lichen planus skin was infiltrated with plasmacytoid

  14. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease the Protein Expression of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase via Oxidative Stress-Induced P38 Kinase in Rat Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Morino, Katsutaro; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Tawa, Masashi; Kondo, Keiko; Sekine, Osamu; Imamura, Takeshi; Okamura, Tomio; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-06-24

    N -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve endothelial function. The arachidonic acid-derived metabolites (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)) are part of the endothelial hyperpolarization factor and are vasodilators independent of nitric oxide. However, little is known regarding the regulation of EET concentration by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in blood vessels. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control or fish oil diet for 3 weeks. Compared with the control, the fish oil diet improved acetylcholine-induced vasodilation and reduced the protein expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key EET metabolic enzyme, in aortic strips. Both DHA and EPA suppressed sEH protein expression in rat aorta endothelial cells (RAECs). Furthermore, the concentration of 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE), a lipid peroxidation product of n -3 PUFAs, increased in n -3 PUFA-treated RAECs. In addition, 4-HHE treatment suppressed sEH expression in RAECs, suggesting that 4-HHE (derived from n -3 PUFAs) is involved in this phenomenon. The suppression of sEH was attenuated by the p38 kinase inhibitor (SB203580) and by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. In conclusion, sEH expression decreased after n -3 PUFAs treatment, potentially through oxidative stress and p38 kinase. Mild oxidative stress induced by n -3 PUFAs may contribute to their cardio-protective effect.

  15. Non-cytotoxic Concentration of Cisplatin Decreases Neuroplasticity-Related Proteins and Neurite Outgrowth Without Affecting the Expression of NGF in PC12 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rafaela Scalco; Dos Santos, Neife Aparecida Guinaim; Martins, Nádia Maria; Fernandes, Laís Silva; Dos Santos, Antonio Cardozo

    2016-11-01

    Cisplatin is the most effective and neurotoxic platinum chemotherapeutic agent. It induces a peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal axonal degeneration that might progress to degeneration of cell bodies and apoptosis. Most symptoms occur nearby distal axonal branches and axonal degeneration might induce peripheral neuropathy regardless neuronal apoptosis. The toxic mechanism of cisplatin has been mainly associated with DNA damage, but cisplatin might also affect neurite outgrowth. Nevertheless, the neurotoxic mechanism of cisplatin remains unclear. We investigated the early effects of cisplatin on axonal plasticity by using non-cytotoxic concentrations of cisplatin and PC12 cells as a model of neurite outgrowth and differentiation. PC12 cells express NGF-receptors (trkA) and respond to NGF by forming neurites, branches and synaptic vesicles. For comparison, we used a neuronal model (SH-SY5Y cells) that does not express trkA nor responds to NGF. Cisplatin did not change NGF expression in PC12 cells and decreased neurite outgrowth in both models, suggesting a NGF/trkA independent mechanism. It also reduced axonal growth (GAP-43) and synaptic (synapsin I and synaptophysin) proteins in PC12 cells, without inducing mitochondrial damage or apoptosis. Therefore, cisplatin might affect axonal plasticity before DNA damage, NGF/trkA down-regulation, mitochondrial damage or neuronal apoptosis. This is the first study to show that neuroplasticity-related proteins might be early targets of the neurotoxic action of cisplatin and their role on cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy should be investigated in vivo.

  16. Daikenchuto, a Kampo medicine, regulates intestinal fibrosis associated with decreasing expression of heat shock protein 47 and collagen content in a rat colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ken; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Natsuko; Hirai, Yasuko; Mizushima, Katsura; Horie, Ryusuke; Fukumoto, Kohei; Yamada, Shinya; Harusato, Akihito; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Yoshida, Naohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Wakabayashi, Naoki; Yagi, Nobuaki; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 47 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal fibrosis. Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, has been reported to ameliorate intestinal inflammation. The aims of this study were to determine time-course profiles of several parameters of fibrosis in a rat model, to confirm the HSP47-expressing cells in the colon, and finally to evaluate DKT's effects on intestinal fibrosis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats weighing 200 g using an enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). HSP47 localization was determined by immunohistochemistry. Colonic inflammation and fibrosis were assessed by macroscopic, histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. Colonic mRNA expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), HSP47, and collagen type I were assessed by real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DKT was administered orally once a day from 8 to 14 d after TNBS administration. The colon was removed on the 15th day. HSP47 immunoreactivity was coexpressed with α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells located in the subepithelial space. Intracolonic administration of TNBS resulted in grossly visible ulcers. Colonic inflammation persisted for 6 weeks, and fibrosis persisted for 4 weeks after cessation of TNBS treatment. The expression levels of mRNA and proteins for TGF-β1, HSP47, and collagen I were elevated in colonic mucosa treated with TNBS. These fibrosis markers indicated that DKT treatment significantly inhibited TNBS-induced fibrosis. These findings suggest that DKT reduces intestinal fibrosis associated with decreasing expression of HSP47 and collagen content in the intestine.

  17. Bamboo vinegar decreases inflammatory mediator expression and NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation and protein kinase C-α/δ activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Lung Ho

    Full Text Available Bamboo vinegar (BV, a natural liquid derived from the condensation produced during bamboo charcoal production, has been used in agriculture and as a food additive, but its application to immune modulation has not been reported. Here, we demonstrated that BV has anti-inflammatory activities both in vitro and in vivo. BV reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide levels in, and interleukin-6 secretion by, lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages without affecting tumor necrosis factor-α secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. The mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of BV involved decreased reactive oxygen species production and protein kinase C-α/δ activation. Furthermore, creosol (2-methoxy-4-methylphenol was indentified as the major anti-inflammatory compound in BV. Impaired cytokine expression and NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome activation was seen in mice treated with creosol. These findings provide insights into how BV regulates inflammation and suggest that it may be a new source for the development of anti-inflammatory agents or a healthy supplement for preventing and ameliorating inflammation- and NLRP3 inflammasome-related diseases, including metabolic syndrome.

  18. Piperlongumine decreases cell proliferation and the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins by inhibiting Akt pathway in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Sil; Jeong, Chang Hee; Petriello, Michael C; Seo, Han Geuk; Yoo, Hyunjin; Hong, Kwonho; Han, Sung Gu

    2018-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PL) is an alkaloid of a pepper plant found in Southeast Asia. PL is known to induce selective toxicity towards a variety of cancer cell types. To explore the possible anti-lung cancer effects of PL, A549 cells were treated with PL (0-40 μM) for 24 h. Alterations in the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), CDK6 and retinoblastoma (Rb)) and intracellular signaling molecules (extracellular signal receptor-activated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, p38 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)) were examined in cells following treatment of PL using Western blot analysis. Results showed that proliferation of cells were significantly decreased by PL in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results demonstrated increased number of cells in G1 phase in PL (40 μM)-treated group. Reactive oxygen species was significantly increased in cells treated with PL at 20-40 μM. The expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and p-Rb were markedly decreased in cells treated with PL at 40 μM. Treatment of cells with PL suppressed phosphorylation of Akt but increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment of PL significantly decreased nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in cells. These results suggest that PL possesses antiproliferative properties in A549 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced beta-adrenergic receptor activation decreases G-protein expression and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase activity in porcine heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Ping, P; Gelzer-Bell, R; Roth, D A; Kiel, D; Insel, P A; Hammond, H K

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether beta-adrenergic receptor agonist activation influences guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein (G-protein) expression and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase activity in the heart, we examined the effects of chronic beta 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist treatment (bisoprolol, 0.2 mg/kg per d i.v., 35 d) on components of the myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor-G-protein-adenylyl cyclase pathway in porcine myocardium. Three novel alterations in cardiac adrenergic signaling as...

  20. Expression of FK506 binding protein 65 (FKBP65) is decreased in epithelial ovarian cancer cells compared to benign tumor cells and to ovarian epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Rudi; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Orntoft, Torben Falck

    2011-01-01

    to be followed by a strongly increased risk of ovarian cysts. We performed the present study to reveal how FKBP65 is expressed in the ovary and in ovarian tumors and to see if this expression might be related to ovarian tumor development, a relationship we have found in colorectal cancer. Biopsies from...... prospectively collected samples from ovaries and benign, borderline, and invasive ovarian tumors were analyzed for expression of FKBP65 by immunohistochemistry. The expression was compared to survival and several clinicopathological parameters. FKBP65 is strongly expressed in ovarian epithelium and in benign...... ovarian tumor cells. In the ovary, a positive staining was also found in endothelial cells of blood vessels. In non-invasive and in invasive malignant tumor cells, a decreased staining was observed, which was not correlated to stage, histology, or survival. A significant inversed correlation to expression...

  1. Chimeric bispecific OC/TR monoclonal antibody mediates lysis of tumor cells expressing the folate-binding protein (MOv18) and displays decreased immunogenicity in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, R. M.; Warnaar, S. O.; Sanborn, D.; Lamers, C. H.; Bolhuis, R. L.; Litvinov, S. V.; Zurawski, V. R.; Coney, L. R.

    1997-01-01

    The bispecific OC/TR monoclonal antibody (mAb) cross-links the CD3 molecule on T cells with the human folate-binding protein (FBP), which is highly expressed on nonmucinous ovarian carcinomas. Clinical trials of patients with ovarian carcinoma with the OC/TR mAb have shown some complete and partial

  2. Induction of polyploidy by nuclear fusion mechanism upon decreased expression of the nuclear envelope protein LAP2β in the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shoshan, Shirley Oren; Simon, Amos J; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Shaklai, Sigal; Paz-Yaacov, Nurit; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Trakhtenbrot, Luba

    2014-01-28

    Polyploidy has been recognized for many years as an important hallmark of cancer cells. Polyploid cells can arise through cell fusion, endoreplication and abortive cell cycle. The inner nuclear membrane protein LAP2β plays key roles in nuclear envelope breakdown and reassembly during mitosis, initiation of replication and transcriptional repression. Here we studied the function of LAP2β in the maintenance of cell ploidy state, a role which has not yet been assigned to this protein. By knocking down the expression of LAP2β, using both viral and non-viral RNAi approaches in osteosarcoma derived U2OS cells, we detected enlarged nuclear size, nearly doubling of DNA content and chromosomal duplications, as analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and spectral karyotyping methodologies. Spectral karyotyping analyses revealed that near-hexaploid karyotypes of LAP2β knocked down cells consisted of not only seven duplicated chromosomal markers, as could be anticipated by genome duplication mechanism, but also of four single chromosomal markers. Furthermore, spectral karyotyping analysis revealed that both of two near-triploid U2OS sub-clones contained the seven markers that were duplicated in LAP2β knocked down cells, whereas the four single chromosomal markers were detected only in one of them. Gene expression profiling of LAP2β knocked down cells revealed that up to a third of the genes exhibiting significant changes in their expression are involved in cancer progression. Our results suggest that nuclear fusion mechanism underlies the polyploidization induction upon LAP2β reduced expression. Our study implies on a novel role of LAP2β in the maintenance of cell ploidy status. LAP2β depleted U2OS cells can serve as a model to investigate polyploidy and aneuploidy formation by nuclear fusion mechanism and its involvement in cancerogenesis.

  3. Increased expression of protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha) and decreased PKA-regulated genes in chronic intermittent alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Lutjens, Robert; van der Stap, Lena D; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2007-03-23

    Intermittent models of alcohol exposure that mimic human patterns of alcohol consumption produce profound physiological and biochemical changes and induce rapid increases in alcohol self-administration. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate gene expression changes during chronic intermittent alcohol exposure in three brain regions that receive mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic projections and that are believed to be involved in alcohol's reinforcing actions: the medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala. An independent replication of the experiment was used for RT-PCR validation of the microarray results. The protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha, Pkia), a member of the endogenous PKI family implicated in reducing nuclear PKA activity, was found to be increased in all three regions tested. Conversely, we observed a downregulation of the expression of several PKA-regulated transcripts in one or more of the brain regions studied, including the activity and neurotransmitter-regulated early gene (Ania) - 1, -3, -7, -8, the transcription factors Egr1 and NGFI-B (Nr4a1) and the neuropeptide NPY. Reduced expression of PKA-regulated genes in mesocorticolimbic projection areas may have motivational significance in the rapid increase in alcohol self-administration induced by intermittent alcohol exposure.

  4. High glucose suppresses human islet insulin biosynthesis by inducing miR-133a leading to decreased polypyrimidine tract binding protein-expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikard G Fred

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged periods of high glucose exposure results in human islet dysfunction in vitro. The underlying mechanisms behind this effect of high glucose are, however, unknown. The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB is required for stabilization of insulin mRNA and the PTB mRNA 3'-UTR contains binding sites for the microRNA molecules miR-133a, miR-124a and miR-146. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether high glucose increased the levels of these three miRNAs in association with lower PTB levels and lower insulin biosynthesis rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human islets were cultured for 24 hours in the presence of low (5.6 mM or high glucose (20 mM. Islets were also exposed to sodium palmitate or the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IFN-gamma, since saturated free fatty acids and cytokines also cause islet dysfunction. RNA was then isolated for real-time RT-PCR analysis of miR-133a, miR-124a, miR-146, insulin mRNA and PTB mRNA contents. Insulin biosynthesis rates were determined by radioactive labeling and immunoprecipitation. Synthetic miR-133a precursor and inhibitor were delivered to dispersed islet cells by lipofection, and PTB was analyzed by immunoblotting following culture at low or high glucose. Culture in high glucose resulted in increased islet contents of miR-133a and reduced contents of miR-146. Cytokines increased the contents of miR-146. The insulin and PTB mRNA contents were unaffected by high glucose. However, both PTB protein levels and insulin biosynthesis rates were decreased in response to high glucose. The miR-133a inhibitor prevented the high glucose-induced decrease in PTB and insulin biosynthesis, and the miR-133a precursor decreased PTB levels and insulin biosynthesis similarly to high glucose. CONCLUSION: Prolonged high-glucose exposure down-regulates PTB levels and insulin biosynthesis rates in human islets by increasing miR-133a levels. We propose that this mechanism

  5. Benazepril hydrochloride improves diabetic nephropathy and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyu; Feng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Xuebin; Sun, Wenqiang; Yu, Kebo

    2017-10-04

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of benazepril hydrochloride (BH) on proteinuria and ANGPTL-4 expression in a diabetic nephropathy (DN) rat model. A total of 72 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC), DN group and BH treatment (BH) groups. The DN model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Weight, glucose, proteinuria, biochemical indicators and the kidney weight index were examined at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. In addition, ANGPTL-4 protein and mRNA expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, respectively. Relationships between ANGPTL-4 and biochemical indicators were investigated using Spearman analysis. Weight was significantly lower but glucose levels were significantly higher in both the DN and BH groups than in the NC group (P Benazepril hydrochloride improves DN and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

  6. Decreased Expression of DREAM Promotes the Degeneration of Retinal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, Shravan; Cheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic mechanisms that promote the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following the activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are unclear. In this study, we have investigated the role of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) in NMDA-mediated degeneration of the retina. NMDA, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and MK801 were injected into the vitreous humor of C57BL/6 mice. At 12, 24, and 48 hours after injection, expression of DREAM in the retina was determined by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA). Apoptotic death of cells in the retina was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferace dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Degeneration of RGCs in cross sections and in whole mount retinas was determined by using antibodies against Tuj1 and Brn3a respectively. Degeneration of amacrine cells and bipolar cells was determined by using antibodies against calretinin and protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha respectively. DREAM was expressed constitutively in RGCs, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, as well as in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). NMDA promoted a progressive decrease in DREAM levels in all three cell types over time, and at 48 h after NMDA-treatment very low DREAM levels were evident in the IPL only. DREAM expression in retinal nuclear proteins was decreased progressively after NMDA-treatment, and correlated with its decreased binding to the c-fos-DRE oligonucleotides. A decrease in DREAM expression correlated significantly with apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells and bipolar cells. Treatment of eyes with NMDA antagonist MK801, restored DREAM expression to almost normal levels in the retina, and significantly decreased NMDA-mediated apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells, and bipolar cells. Results presented in this study show for the first time that down-regulation of DREAM promotes the degeneration of RGCs, amacrine cells, and

  7. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  8. Cigarette smoke decreases mitochondrial porin expression and steroidogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Mahuya; Whittal, Randy M.; Gairola, C. Gary; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2008-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the movement of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane for steroidogenesis. Here, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on steroidogenesis using adrenal mitochondria isolated from mice chronically exposed to CS. Steroidogenesis was decreased approximately 78% in CS-exposed mitochondria, as measured by synthesis of the steroid hormone precursor pregnenolone. This effect was accompanied by decreased mitochondrial import of 35 S-StAR. Further characterization of the imported 35 S-StAR by native gradient PAGE revealed the presence of a high molecular weight complex in both control and CS-exposed groups. Following density gradient fractionation of 35 S-StAR that had been extracted from control mitochondria, precursor StAR could be found in fractions 2-6 and smaller-sized StAR complexes in fractions 6-13. In the CS-exposed group, the appearance of precursor shifted from fraction 1-6 and the smaller complexes in fractions 6-9 disappeared. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the 35 S-StAR-associated protein complex was composed of several resident matrix proteins as well as the OMM resident, VDAC. VDAC expression was greatly reduced by CS, and blockage of VDAC with Koenig's polyanion decreased pregnenolone synthesis in isolated mitochondria. Taken together, these results suggest that VDAC may participate in steroidogenesis by promoting StAR interaction with the OMM and that CS may inhibit steroidogenesis by reducing VDAC-StAR interactions

  9. High glucose suppresses human islet insulin biosynthesis by inducing miR-133a leading to decreased polypyrimidine tract binding protein-expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fred, Rikard G; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus H; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prolonged periods of high glucose exposure results in human islet dysfunction in vitro. The underlying mechanisms behind this effect of high glucose are, however, unknown. The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is required for stabilization of insulin mRNA and the PTB mRNA 3......'-UTR contains binding sites for the microRNA molecules miR-133a, miR-124a and miR-146. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether high glucose increased the levels of these three miRNAs in association with lower PTB levels and lower insulin biosynthesis rates. METHODOLOGY...... for real-time RT-PCR analysis of miR-133a, miR-124a, miR-146, insulin mRNA and PTB mRNA contents. Insulin biosynthesis rates were determined by radioactive labeling and immunoprecipitation. Synthetic miR-133a precursor and inhibitor were delivered to dispersed islet cells by lipofection, and PTB...

  10. ERG protein expression over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Brasso, Klaus; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: We evaluated the consistency in ERG protein expression from diagnostic specimens through rebiopsies to radical prostatectomies in patients with clinically localised prostate cancer to investigate the validity of ERG status in biopsies. METHODS: ERG expression was assessed by immunohistochem......AIMS: We evaluated the consistency in ERG protein expression from diagnostic specimens through rebiopsies to radical prostatectomies in patients with clinically localised prostate cancer to investigate the validity of ERG status in biopsies. METHODS: ERG expression was assessed...

  11. Lithium-induced neuroprotection in stroke involves increased miR-124 expression, reduced RE1-silencing transcription factor abundance and decreased protein deubiquitination by GSK3β inhibition-independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeppner, Thorsten R; Kaltwasser, Britta; Sanchez-Mendoza, Eduardo H; Caglayan, Ahmet B; Bähr, Mathias; Hermann, Dirk M

    2017-03-01

    Lithium promotes acute poststroke neuronal survival, which includes mechanisms that are not limited to GSK3β inhibition. However, whether lithium induces long-term neuroprotection and enhanced brain remodeling is unclear. Therefore, mice were exposed to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and lithium (1 mg/kg bolus followed by 2 mg/kg/day over up to 7 days) was intraperitoneally administered starting 0-9 h after reperfusion onset. Delivery of lithium no later than 6 h reduced infarct volume on day 2 and decreased brain edema, leukocyte infiltration, and microglial activation, as shown by histochemistry and flow cytometry. Lithium-induced neuroprotection persisted throughout the observation period of 56 days and was associated with enhanced neurological recovery. Poststroke angioneurogenesis and axonal plasticity were also enhanced by lithium. On the molecular level, lithium increased miR-124 expression, reduced RE1-silencing transcription factor abundance, and decreased protein deubiquitination in cultivated cortical neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation and in brains of mice exposed to cerebral ischemia. Notably, this effect was not mimicked by pharmacological GSK3β inhibition. This study for the first time provides efficacy data for lithium in the postacute ischemic phase, reporting a novel mechanism of action, i.e. increased miR-124 expression facilitating REST degradation by which lithium promotes postischemic neuroplasticity and angiogenesis.

  12. Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Elaheh; Shirpoor, Alireza; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Association between chronic alcohol intake and cardiac abnormality is well known; however, the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. This study investigated the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) gene expression and monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels and histological changes in rat heart. It was also planned to find out whether Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rat heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated-ethanol (GETE) groups. After 6 weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in CaMKIIδtotal and isoforms δ2 and δ3 of CaMKIIδ gene expression as well as a significant decrease in the MAO levels in the ethanol group compared to that in the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed histological changes, such as fibrosis, heart muscle cells proliferation, myocyte hypertrophy, vacuolization, and focal lymphocytic infiltration. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated CaMKIIδtotal. In addition, compared to the ethanol group, isoforms gene expression changed and increased the reduced MAO levels and mitigated heart structural changes. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may, in part, be associated with Ca 2+ homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of CaMKIIδ gene and the decrease of MAO levels and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  13. Decreased expression of Kv7 channels in Hirchsprung's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Anne-Marie; Coyle, David; Puri, Prem

    2017-07-01

    Voltage-dependent K + channels (Kv channels) participate in electrical rhythmicity and smooth muscle responses and are regulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Kv channels also participate in the interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to neural inputs. The Kv family consists of 12 subfamilies, Kv1-Kv12, with five members of the Kv7 family identified to date: Kv7.1-Kv7.5. A recent study identified the potassium channel Kv7.5 as having a role in the excitability of ICC-IM in the mouse colon. We therefore designed this study to test the hypothesis that Kv7 channels are present in the normal human colon and are reduced in Hirschprung's disease (HSCR). HSCR tissue specimens were collected at the time of pull-through surgery (n=10), while normal control tissue specimens were obtained at the time of colostomy closure in patients with imperforate anus (n=10). Kv7.3-Kv7.5 immunohistochemistry was performed and visualized using confocal microscopy to assess their distribution. Western blot analysis was undertaken to determine Kv7.3-Kv7.5 protein quantification. Kv7.3 and Kv7.4-immunoreactivity was co-localized with neuron and ICC markers, while Kv7.5 was found to be expressed on both ICCs and SMCs. Western blot analysis revealed similar levels of Kv7.3 and Kv7.5 expression in the normal colon and HSCR colon, while Kv7.4 proteins were found to be markedly decreased in ganglionic specimens and decreased further in aganglionic specimens. A deficiency of Kv7.4 channels in the ganglionic and aganglionic bowel may place a role in colonic dysmotility in HSCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreased function of survival motor neuron protein impairs endocytic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Maria; Derdowski, Aaron; Kalloo, Geetika; Maginnis, Melissa S; O'Hern, Patrick; Bliska, Bryn; Sorkaç, Altar; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Cook, Steven J; Poulogiannis, George; Atwood, Walter J; Hall, David H; Hart, Anne C

    2016-07-26

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by depletion of the ubiquitously expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, with 1 in 40 Caucasians being heterozygous for a disease allele. SMN is critical for the assembly of numerous ribonucleoprotein complexes, yet it is still unclear how reduced SMN levels affect motor neuron function. Here, we examined the impact of SMN depletion in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that decreased function of the SMN ortholog SMN-1 perturbed endocytic pathways at motor neuron synapses and in other tissues. Diminished SMN-1 levels caused defects in C. elegans neuromuscular function, and smn-1 genetic interactions were consistent with an endocytic defect. Changes were observed in synaptic endocytic proteins when SMN-1 levels decreased. At the ultrastructural level, defects were observed in endosomal compartments, including significantly fewer docked synaptic vesicles. Finally, endocytosis-dependent infection by JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was reduced in human cells with decreased SMN levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that SMN depletion causes defects in endosomal trafficking that impair synaptic function, even in the absence of motor neuron cell death.

  15. Protein kinase C activation decreases cell surface expression of the GLT-1 subtype of glutamate transporter. Requirement of a carboxyl-terminal domain and partial dependence on serine 486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalandadze, Avtandil; Wu, Ying; Robinson, Michael B

    2002-11-29

    Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters are required for the clearance of extracellular glutamate and influence both physiological and pathological effects of this excitatory amino acid. In the present study, the effects of a protein kinase C (PKC) activator on the cell surface expression and activity of the GLT-1 subtype of glutamate transporter were examined in two model systems, primary co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes that endogenously express GLT-1 and C6 glioma cells transfected with GLT-1. In both systems, activation of PKC with phorbol ester caused a decrease in GLT-1 cell surface expression. This effect is opposite to the one observed for the EAAC1 subtype of glutamate transporter (Davis, K. E., Straff, D. J., Weinstein, E. A., Bannerman, P. G., Correale, D. M., Rothstein, J. D., and Robinson, M. B. (1998) J. Neurosci. 18, 2475-2485). Several recombinant chimeric proteins between GLT-1 and EAAC1 transporter subtypes were generated to identify domains required for the subtype-specific redistribution of GLT-1. We identified a carboxyl-terminal domain consisting of 43 amino acids (amino acids 475-517) that is required for PKC-induced GLT-1 redistribution. Mutation of a non-conserved serine residue at position 486 partially attenuated but did not completely abolish the PKC-dependent redistribution of GLT-1. Although we observed a phorbol ester-dependent incorporation of (32)P into immunoprecipitable GLT-1, mutation of serine 486 did not reduce this signal. We also found that chimeras containing the first 446 amino acids of GLT-1 were not functional unless amino acids 475-517 of GLT-1 were also present. These non-functional transporters were not as efficiently expressed on the cell surface and migrated to a smaller molecular weight, suggesting that a subtype-specific interaction is required for the formation of functional transporters. These studies demonstrate a novel effect of PKC on GLT-1 activity and define a unique carboxyl-terminal domain as an

  16. ApoER2 expression increases Aβ production while decreasing Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP endocytosis: Possible role in the partitioning of APP into lipid rafts and in the regulation of γ-secretase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Guojun

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The generation of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ through the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP is a central event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Recent studies highlight APP endocytosis and localization to lipid rafts as important events favoring amyloidogenic processing. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these events are poorly understood. ApoER2 is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R family exhibiting slow endocytosis rate and a significant association with lipid rafts. Despite the important neurophysiological roles described for ApoER2, little is known regarding how ApoER2 regulates APP trafficking and processing. Results Here, we demonstrate that ApoER2 physically interacts and co-localizes with APP. Remarkably, we found that ApoER2 increases cell surface APP levels and APP association with lipid rafts. The increase of cell surface APP requires the presence of ApoER2 cytoplasmic domain and is a result of decreased APP internalization rate. Unexpectedly, ApoER2 expression correlated with a significant increase in Aβ production and reduced levels of APP-CTFs. The increased Aβ production was dependent on the integrity of the NPxY endocytosis motif of ApoER2. We also found that expression of ApoER2 increased APP association with lipid rafts and increased γ-secretase activity, both of which might contribute to increased Aβ production. Conclusion These findings show that ApoER2 negatively affects APP internalization. However, ApoER2 expression stimulates Aβ production by shifting the proportion of APP from the non-rafts to the raft membrane domains, thereby promoting β-secretase and γ-secretase mediated amyloidogenic processing and also by incrementing the activity of γ-secretase.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Decreases Lipid Droplet Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles; Herker, Eva; Farese, Robert V.; Ott, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Steatosis is a frequent complication of hepatitis C virus infection. In mice, this condition is recapitulated by the expression of a single viral protein, the nucleocapsid core. Core localizes to the surface of lipid droplets (LDs) in infected liver cells through a process dependent on host diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), an enzyme that synthesizes triglycerides in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether DGAT1 also plays a role in core-induced steatosis is uncertain. Here, we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from DGAT1−/− mice are protected from core-induced steatosis, as are livers of DGAT1−/− mice expressing core, demonstrating that the steatosis is DGAT1-dependent. Surprisingly, core expression did not increase DGAT1 activity or triglyceride synthesis, thus excluding the possibility that core activates DGAT1 to cause steatosis. Instead, we find that DGAT1-dependent localization of core to LDs is a prerequisite for the steatogenic properties of the core. Using biochemical and immunofluorescence microscopy techniques, we show that the turnover of lipids in core-coated droplets is decreased, providing a physiological mechanism for core-induced steatosis. Our results support a bipartite model in which core first requires DGAT1 to gain access to LDs, and then LD-localized core interferes with triglyceride turnover, thus stabilizing lipid droplets and leading to steatosis. PMID:21984835

  18. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1...... induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca(2+)]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1...... overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE(-/-) mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway...

  19. Protein kinase Cα deletion causes hypotension and decreased vascular contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Brandi M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Szasz, Theodora; Molina, Patrick A; Chapman, Arlene B; Webb, R Clinton; Klein, Janet D; Hoover, Robert S

    2018-03-01

    Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) is a critical regulator of multiple cell signaling pathways including gene transcription, posttranslation modifications and activation/inhibition of many signaling kinases. In regards to the control of blood pressure, PKCα causes increased vascular smooth muscle contractility, while reducing cardiac contractility. In addition, PKCα has been shown to modulate nephron ion transport. However, the role of PKCα in modulating mean arterial pressure (MAP) has not been investigated. In this study, we used a whole animal PKCα knock out (PKC KO) to test the hypothesis that global PKCα deficiency would reduce MAP, by a reduction in vascular contractility. Radiotelemetry measurements of ambulatory blood pressure (day/night) were obtained for 18 h/day during both normal chow and high-salt (4%) diet feedings. PKCα mice had a reduced MAP, as compared with control, which was not normalized with high-salt diet (14 days). Metabolic cage studies were performed to determine urinary sodium excretion. PKC KO mice had a significantly lower diastolic, systolic and MAP as compared with control. No significant differences in urinary sodium excretion were observed between the PKC KO and control mice, whether fed normal chow or high-salt diet. Western blot analysis showed a compensatory increase in renal sodium chloride cotransporter expression. Both aorta and mesenteric vessels were removed for vascular reactivity studies. Aorta and mesenteric arteries from PKC KO mice had a reduced receptor-independent relaxation response, as compared with vessels from control. Vessels from PKC KO mice exhibited a decrease in maximal contraction, compared with controls. Together, these data suggest that global deletion of PKCα results in reduced MAP due to decreased vascular contractility.

  20. Decreased astroglial monocarboxylate transporter 4 expression in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bei; Niu, Le; Shen, Ming-Zhi; Gao, Lei; Wang, Chao; Li, Jie; Song, Li-Jia; Tao, Ye; Meng, Qiang; Yang, Qian-Li; Gao, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Hua

    2014-10-01

    Efflux of monocaroxylates like lactate, pyruvate, and ketone bodies from astrocytes through monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) supplies the local neuron population with metabolic intermediates to meet energy requirements under conditions of increased demand. Disruption of this astroglial-neuron metabolic coupling pathway may contribute to epileptogenesis. We measured MCT4 expression in temporal lobe epileptic foci excised from patients with intractable epilepsy and in rats injected with pilocarpine, an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Cortical MCT4 expression levels were significantly lower in TLE patients compared with controls, due at least partially to MCT4 promoter methylation. Expression of MCT4 also decreased progressively in pilocarpine-treated rats from 12 h to 14 days post-administration. Underexpression of MCT4 in cultured astrocytes induced by a short hairpin RNA promoted apoptosis. Knockdown of astrocyte MCT4 also suppressed excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) expression. Reduced MCT4 and EAAT1 expression by astrocytes may lead to neuronal hyperexcitability and epileptogenesis in the temporal lobe by reducing the supply of metabolic intermediates and by allowing accumulation of extracellular glutamate.

  1. Decreased inducibility of TNF expression in lipid-loaded macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallin Bengt

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis which can influence the inflammatory potential of macrophages. We studied the effects of lipid loading on the regulation of TNF expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results In macrophages incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL for 2 days, mRNA expression of TNF in cells stimulated with TNF decreased by 75%. In cell cultures stimulated over night with IL-1β, lipid loading decreased secretion of TNF into culture medium by 48%. These results suggest that lipid accumulation in macrophages makes them less responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Decreased basal activity and inducibility of transcription factor AP-1 was observed in lipid-loaded cells, suggesting a mechanism for the suppression of cytokine expression. NF-κB binding activity and inducibility were only marginally affected by ac-LDL. LDL and ac-LDL did not activate PPARγ. In contrast, oxidized LDL stimulated AP-1 and PPARγ but inhibited NF-κB, indicating that the effects of lipid loading with ac-LDL were not due to oxidation of lipids. Conclusions Accumulation of lipid, mainly cholesterol, results in down-regulation of TNF expression in macrophages. Since monocytes are known to be activated by cell adhesion, these results suggest that foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques may contribute less potently to an inflammatory reaction than newly arrived monocytes/macrophages.

  2. Decreased expression of fibulin-4 in aortic wall of aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huawei, P; Qian, C; Chuan, T; Lei, L; Laing, W; Wenlong, X; Wenzhi, L

    2014-02-01

    In this research, we will examine the expression of Fibulin-4 in aortic wall to find out its role in aortic dissection development. The samples of aortic wall were obtained from 10 patients operated for acute ascending aortic dissection and five patients for chronic ascending aortic dissection. Another 15 pieces of samples from patients who had coronary artery bypass were as controls. The aortic samples were stained with aldehyde magenta dyeing to evaluate the arrangement of elastic fibers. The Fibulin-4 protein and mRNA expression were both determined by Western blot and realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the control group, both in acute and chronic ascending aortic dissection, elastic fiber fragments increased and the expression of fibulin-4 protein significantly decreased (P= 0.045 < 0.05). The level of fibulin-4 mRNA decreased in acute ascending aortic dissection (P= 0.034 < 0.05), while it increased in chronic ascending aortic dissection (P=0.004 < 0.05). The increased amounts of elastic fiber fragments were negatively correlated with the expression of fibulin-4 mRNA in acute ascending aortic dissection. In conclusion, in aortic wall of ascending aortic dissection, the expression of fibulin-4 protein decreased and the expression of fibulin-4 mRNA was abnormal. Fibulin-4 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of aortic dissection.

  3. Megakaryocyte polyploidization is associated with decreased expression of polo-like kinase (PLK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, M; Roth, G J

    2006-09-01

    During differentiation, megakaryocytes (MK), the bone marrow precursors of circulating blood platelets, undergo polyploidization, repeated rounds of DNA replication without cell division. Mature normal MK may contain a DNA content of up to 128N, in contrast to normal diploid (2N) cells. The extent of polyploidy may influence the number of platelets produced by the MK. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating polyploidization could identify events involved in controlling both cell division and thrombopoiesis. We investigated the expression of several proteins involved in mitosis in cultured mouse MK, and tested the effect of expression on polyploidization. Western blot and immunofluorescent analyses were used to assess expression of cell cycle proteins in cultured MK. Populations of polyploidizing MK were separated on the basis of DNA content by flow cytometry. The gene encoding mouse polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) was introduced into MK by retroviral transduction, and its effects measured by flow cytometry. Polyploid mouse MK expressed lower levels of two proteins, p55CDC and PLK-1, whose activity is necessary for cell cycle progression and completion of mitosis. Comparison of sorted 2N/4N and polyploid MK indicated that PLK-1 expression was absent in polyploid MK, while expression of other cell cycle proteins was similar in both populations. Forced expression of PLK-1 during MK differentiation was associated with decreased polyploidization. These experiments suggest that PLK-1 is an important regulator of polyploidization in differentiating MK.

  4. Decreased FOXD3 Expression Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with High-Grade Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Du

    Full Text Available The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3 plays important roles in the development of neural crest and has been shown to suppress the development of various cancers. However, the expression and its potential biological roles of FOXD3 in high-grade gliomas (HGGs remain unknown.The mRNA and protein expression levels of FOXD3 were examined using real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting in 23 HGG and 13 normal brain samples, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to validate the expression FOXD3 protein in 184 HGG cases. The association between FOXD3 expression and the prognosis of HGG patients were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models. In addition, we further examined the effects of FOXD3 on the proliferation and serum starvation-induced apoptosis of glioma cells.In comparison to normal brain tissues, FOXD3 expression was significantly decreased in HGG tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Immunohistochemistry further validated the expression of FOXD3 in HGG tissues. Moreover, low FOXD3 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in HGG patients. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promoted glioma cell proliferation and inhibited serum starvation-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibited glioma cell proliferation and promoted serum starvation-induced apoptosis.Our results indicated that FOXD3 might serve as an independent prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for HGGs, which warrant further investigation.

  5. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  6. Bcl-2 protein expression is associated with p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, Shinichi; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Hideya; Nishizaki, Takashi; Higashi, Hidefumi; Era, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown that Bcl-2, which has been established as a key player in the control of apoptosis, plays a role in regulating the cell cycle and proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Bcl-2 and p27 protein expression, p53 protein expression and the proliferation activity as defined by the MIB-1 counts. The prognostic implication of Bcl-2 protein expression in relation to p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts for breast cancer was also evaluated. The immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 protein was evaluated in a series of 249 invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast, in which p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts had been determined previously. The Bcl-2 protein expression was found to be decreased in 105 (42%) cases. A decreased Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly correlated with a nuclear grade of III, a negative estrogen receptor, a decreased p27 protein expression, a positive p53 protein expression, positive MIB-1 counts and a positive HER2 protein expression. The incidence of a nuclear grade of III and positive MIB-1 counts increased as the number of abnormal findings of Bcl-2, p27 and p53 protein expressions increased. A univariate analysis indicated a decreased Bcl-2 protein expression to be significantly (p = 0.0089) associated with a worse disease free survival (DFS), while a multivariate analysis indicated the lymph node status and MIB-1 counts to be independently significant prognostic factors for the DFS. The Bcl-2 protein expression has a close correlation with p27 and p53 protein expressions and the proliferation activity determined by MIB-1 counts in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The prognostic value of Bcl-2 as well as p27 and p53 protein expressions was dependent on the proliferation activity in breast cancer

  7. Bcl-2 protein expression is associated with p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizaki Takashi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental studies have shown that Bcl-2, which has been established as a key player in the control of apoptosis, plays a role in regulating the cell cycle and proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Bcl-2 and p27 protein expression, p53 protein expression and the proliferation activity as defined by the MIB-1 counts. The prognostic implication of Bcl-2 protein expression in relation to p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts for breast cancer was also evaluated. Methods The immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 protein was evaluated in a series of 249 invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast, in which p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts had been determined previously. Results The Bcl-2 protein expression was found to be decreased in 105 (42% cases. A decreased Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly correlated with a nuclear grade of III, a negative estrogen receptor, a decreased p27 protein expression, a positive p53 protein expression, positive MIB-1 counts and a positive HER2 protein expression. The incidence of a nuclear grade of III and positive MIB-1 counts increased as the number of abnormal findings of Bcl-2, p27 and p53 protein expressions increased. A univariate analysis indicated a decreased Bcl-2 protein expression to be significantly (p = 0.0089 associated with a worse disease free survival (DFS, while a multivariate analysis indicated the lymph node status and MIB-1 counts to be independently significant prognostic factors for the DFS. Conclusion The Bcl-2 protein expression has a close correlation with p27 and p53 protein expressions and the proliferation activity determined by MIB-1 counts in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The prognostic value of Bcl-2 as well as p27 and p53 protein expressions was dependent on the proliferation activity in breast cancer.

  8. Protease-resistant prions selectively decrease Shadoo protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The central event in prion diseases is the conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C into PrP(Sc, a partially protease-resistant and infectious conformer. However, the mechanism by which PrP(Sc causes neuronal dysfunction remains poorly understood. Levels of Shadoo (Sho, a protein that resembles the flexibly disordered N-terminal domain of PrP(C, were found to be reduced in the brains of mice infected with the RML strain of prions [1], implying that Sho levels may reflect the presence of PrP(Sc in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined levels of Sho during prion infection using a variety of experimental systems. Sho protein levels were decreased in the brains of mice, hamsters, voles, and sheep infected with different natural and experimental prion strains. Furthermore, Sho levels were decreased in the brains of prion-infected, transgenic mice overexpressing Sho and in infected neuroblastoma cells. Time-course experiments revealed that Sho levels were inversely proportional to levels of protease-resistant PrP(Sc. Membrane anchoring and the N-terminal domain of PrP both influenced the inverse relationship between Sho and PrP(Sc. Although increased Sho levels had no discernible effect on prion replication in mice, we conclude that Sho is the first non-PrP marker specific for prion disease. Additional studies using this paradigm may provide insight into the cellular pathways and systems subverted by PrP(Sc during prion disease.

  9. Decreased expression of GST pi is correlated with a poor prognosis in human esophageal squamous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Junsheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferase pi (GST pi is a subgroup of GST family, which provides cellular protection against free radical and carcinogenic compounds due to its detoxifying function. Expression patterns of GST pi have been studied in several carcinomas and its down-regulation was implicated to be involved in malignant transformation in patients with Barrett's esophagus. However, neither the exact role of GST pi in the pathogenesis nor its prognostic impact in squamous esophageal carcinoma is fully characterized. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate GST pi expression on 153 archival squamous esophageal carcinoma specimens with a GST pi monoclonal antibody. Statistic analyses were performed to explore its association with clinicopathological factors and clinical outcome. Results The GST pi expression was greatly reduced in tissues of esophageal carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues and residual benign tissues. Absent of GST pi protein expression in cytoplasm, nuclear and cytoplasm/nucleus was found in 51%, 64.7% and 48% of all the carcinoma cases, respectively. GST pi deficiency in cytoplasm, nucleus and cytoplasm/nucleus was significantly correlated to poor differentiation (p p p p p = 0.004, respectively and cytoplasm/nucleus (p = 0.017 and p = 0.031, respectively. In univariate analysis, absent of GST pi protein expression in cytoplasm, nucleus and cytoplasm/nucleus was significantly associated with a shorter overall survival (p p p p Conclusions Our results show that GST pi expression is down regulated in the squamous esophageal carcinoma, and that the lack of GST pi expression is associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, deficiency of GST pi protein expression may be an important mechanism involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of the squamous esophageal carcinoma, and the underlying mechanisms leading to decreased GST pi expression deserve further investigation.

  10. Predictable tuning of protein expression in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Pedersen, Margit; Klausen, Michael Schantz

    2016-01-01

    We comprehensively assessed the contribution of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence to protein expression and used the data to develop EMOPEC (Empirical Model and Oligos for Protein Expression Changes; http://emopec.biosustain.dtu.dk). EMOPEC is a free tool that makes it possible to modulate the expressi...

  11. Peptides Interfering 3A Protein Dimerization Decrease FMDV Multiplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica González-Magaldi

    Full Text Available Nonstructural protein 3A is involved in relevant functions in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV replication. FMDV 3A can form homodimers and preservation of the two hydrophobic α-helices (α1 and α2 that stabilize the dimer interface is essential for virus replication. In this work, small peptides mimicking residues involved in the dimer interface were used to interfere with dimerization and thus gain insight on its biological function. The dimer interface peptides α1, α2 and that spanning the two hydrophobic α-helices, α12, impaired in vitro dimer formation of a peptide containing the two α-helices, this effect being higher with peptide α12. To assess the effect of dimer inhibition in cultured cells, the interfering peptides were N-terminally fused to a heptaarginine (R7 sequence to favor their intracellular translocation. Thus, when fused to R7, interference peptides (100 μM were able to inhibit dimerization of transiently expressed 3A, the higher inhibitions being found with peptides α1 and α12. The 3A dimerization impairment exerted by the peptides correlated with significant, specific reductions in the viral yield recovered from peptide-treated FMDV infected cells. In this case, α2 was the only peptide producing significant reductions at concentrations lower than 100 μM. Thus, dimer interface peptides constitute a tool to understand the structure-function relationship of this viral protein and point to 3A dimerization as a potential antiviral target.

  12. Reduced expression levels of PTEN are associated with decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yang; Zhang, Yanjun; Nan, Kejun; Liang, Xuan

    2017-05-01

    The clinical resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been linked to EGFR T790M resistance mutations or MET amplifications. Additional mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI drug resistance remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that icotinib significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate of HCC827 cells; the cellular mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were also significantly downregulated. To investigate the effect of PTEN expression levels on the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib, PTEN expression was silenced using a PTEN-specific small interfering RNA. The current study identified that the downregulation of PTEN expression levels may promote cellular proliferation in addition to decreasing the apoptosis of HCC827 cells, and may reduce the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. These results suggested that reduced PTEN expression levels were associated with the decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. Furthermore, PTEN expression levels may be a useful marker for predicting icotinib resistance and elucidating the resistance mechanisms underlying EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

  13. Decreased interleukin-20 expression in scleroderma skin contributes to cutaneous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Hideo; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Asano, Yoshihide; Trojanowska, Maria; Nakayama, Wakana; Inoue, Kuniko; Honda, Noritoshi; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Katsunari; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2014-06-01

    To clarify the role of interleukin-20 (IL-20) in the regulatory mechanism of extracellular matrix expression and to determine the contribution of IL-20 to the phenotype of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of collagen, Fli-1, IL-20, and IL-20 receptor (IL-20R) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array, immunoblotting, immunohistochemical staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and real-time PCR. PCR array revealed that IL-20 decreased gene expression of α2(I) collagen (0.03-fold), Smad3 (0.02-fold), and endoglin (0.05-fold) in cultured normal dermal fibroblasts. Fli-1 protein expression was induced by IL-20 (~2-fold). The inhibition of collagen by IL-20, the induction of Fli-1 by IL-20, and the reduction of Smad3 and endoglin by IL-20 were also observed in SSc fibroblasts. Serum IL-20 levels were reduced only slightly in SSc patients but were significantly decreased in patients with scleroderma spectrum disorders (the prodromal stage of SSc) compared with those in normal subjects (111.3 pg/ml versus 180.4 pg/ml; P value of IL-20 and IL-20R, their function and expression in vivo should be further studied. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 is decreased in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Yu Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the human kallikrein 7 (KLK7 is differentially regulated in a variety of tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 and KLK7 in our large collection of prostate samples. Between August 2000 and December 2012, 116 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer (PCa and 92 with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH were recruited into the study. Using immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot, kallikrein-related peptidase 7 expression in BPH and PCa tissues was determined at the mRNA and protein levels. The relationships between kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA expression and clinicopathological features were analyzed. A total of 64 of 92 (69.57% benign cases showed positive staining for KLK7 and 23 of 116 (19.83% malignant cases showed positive, the difference of KLK7 expression between PCa and BPH was statistically significant (P < 0.001. The expression level of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA was significantly decreased in PCa tissues compared with that in BPH tissues and normal prostate tissue. Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA exhibited different expression patterns in terms of localization depending on pathological category of PCa. Similarly, our western immunoblot analyses demonstrated that the protein expression levels of KLK7 was lower in PCa than in BPH tissues and normal prostate tissue. Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 and KLK7 expression are down-regulated in PCa and lower expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 closely correlates with higher Gleason score and higher prostate-specific antigen level.

  15. Decreased blood riboflavin levels are correlated with defective expression of RFT2 gene in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli, Maynur; Li, De-Sheng; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Kong, Bing; Du, Chen-Song; Wumar, Maimaitiaili; Mamtimin, Batur; Sheyhidin, Ilyar; Hasim, Ayshamgul

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between blood riboflavin levels and riboflavin transporter 2 (RFT2) gene expression in gastric carcinoma (GC) development. METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect blood riboflavin levels in patients with GC. Real-time fluorogenic quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of RFT2 mRNA and protein in samples from 60 GC patients consisting of both tumor and normal tissue. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the RFT2 mRNA levels was detected in GC samples compared with those in the normal mucous membrane (0.398 ± 0.149 vs 1.479 ± 0.587; P = 0.040). Tumors exhibited low RFT2 protein expression (75%, 16.7%, 8.3% and 0% for no RFT2 staining, weak staining, medium staining and strong staining, respectively), which was significantly lower than that in the normal mucous membrane (10%, 16.7%, 26.7% and 46.7% for no RFT2 staining, weak staining, medium staining and strong staining, respectively; P riboflavin levels were reverse correlated with development of GC (1.2000 ± 0.97 569 ng/mL in high tumor stage patients vs 2.5980 ± 1.31 129 ng/mL in low tumor stage patients; P riboflavin levels with defective expression of RFT2 protein was found in GC patients (χ2 = 2.619; P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Defective expression of RFT2 is associated with the development of GC and this may represent a mechanism underlying the decreased plasma riboflavin levels in GC. PMID:22791947

  16. Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. Alleviates Diabetic Retinopathy by Preventing Retinal Inflammation and Tight Junction Protein Decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zengyang; Gong, Chenyuan; Lu, Bin; Yang, Li; Sheng, Yuchen; Ji, Lili; Wang, Zhengtao

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to observe the alleviation of the ethanol extract of Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. (DC), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on DR and its engaged mechanism. After DC (30 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administrated, the breakdown of blood retinal barrier (BRB) in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats was attenuated by DC. Decreased retinal mRNA expression of tight junction proteins (including occludin and claudin-1) in diabetic rats was also reversed by DC. Western blot analysis and retinal immunofluorescence staining results further confirmed that DC reversed the decreased expression of occludin and claudin-1 proteins in diabetic rats. DC reduced the increased retinal mRNA expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin- (IL-) 6, and IL-1β in diabetic rats. In addition, DC alleviated the increased 1 and phosphorylated p65, IκB, and IκB kinase (IKK) in diabetic rats. DC also reduced the increased serum levels of TNFα, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12, IL-2, IL-3, and IL-10 in diabetic rats. Therefore, DC can alleviate DR by inhibiting retinal inflammation and preventing the decrease of tight junction proteins, such as occludin and claudin-1. PMID:25685822

  17. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  18. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with increased histone methyl transferase (G9a) and reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  19. Decreased expression of Sprouty2 in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a correlation with BDNF expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar Pillai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current theories on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia suggest altered brain plasticity such as decreased neural proliferation and migration, delayed myelination, and abnormal synaptic modeling, in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia. Though functional alterations in BDNF, which plays important role in neuroplasticity, are implicated in many abnormalities found in schizophrenia, the regulatory mechanism(s involved in the abnormal signaling of BDNF in schizophrenia is not clear. The present study investigated whether Sprouty2, a regulator of growth factor signaling, is abnormally expressed in schizophrenia, and is associated with the changes in BDNF mRNA in this disorder. The potential effect of antipsychotic drugs on Sprouty2 expression was tested in adult rats. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sprouty2 and BDNF gene expression were analyzed in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from the Stanley Array Collection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of RNA in 100 individuals (35 with schizophrenia, 31 with bipolar disorder, and 34 psychiatrically normal controls showed significantly decreased expression of Sprouty2 and BDNF in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Moreover, a significant correlation between these two genes existed in control, schizophrenia and bipolar subjects. Long-term treatment with antipsychotic drugs, haloperidol and olanzapine, showed differential effects on both Sprouty2 and BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the frontal cortex of rats. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrating decreased expression of Sprouty2 associated with changes in BDNF, suggest the possibility that these decreases are secondary to treatment rather than to factors that are significant in the disease process of either schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder. Further exploration of Sprouty2-related signal transduction pathways may be helpful to design novel treatment strategies for these disorders.

  20. Prenatal Protein Malnutrition Decreases KCNJ3 and 2DG Activity in Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, A.C.; Jakovcevski, M.; McGaughy, J.A.; Calderwood, S.K.; Mokler, D.J.; Rushmore, R.J.; Galler, J.R.; Akbarian, S.A.; Rosene, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal protein malnutrition (PPM) in rats causes enduring changes in brain and behavior including increased cognitive rigidity and decreased inhibitory control. A preliminary gene microarray screen of PPM rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) identified alterations in KCNJ3 (GIRK1/Kir3.1), a gene important for regulating neuronal excitability. Follow-up with polymerase chain reaction and Western blot showed decreased KCNJ3 expression in PFC, but not hippocampus or brainstem. To verify localization of the effect to the PFC, baseline regional brain activity was assessed with 14C-2-deoxyglucose. Results showed decreased activation in PFC but not hippocampus. Together these findings point to the unique vulnerability of the PFC to the nutritional insult during early brain development, with enduring effects in adulthood on KCNJ3 expression and baseline metabolic activity. PMID:25446346

  1. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  2. Effects of immunosuppressive treatment on protein expression in rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kędzierska K

    2014-09-01

    were observed between the group receiving cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids (CMG and the control group. In contrast, compared to the control group, animals receiving tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids (TMG exhibited higher expression of proteins responsible for renal drug metabolism and lower expression levels of cytoplasmic actin and the major urinary protein. In the TMG group, we observed higher expression of proteins responsible for drug metabolism and a decrease in the expression of respiratory chain enzymes (thioredoxin-2 and markers of distal renal tubular damage (heart fatty acid-binding protein compared to expression in the CMG group. The consequences of the reported changes in protein expression require further study. Keywords: Proteomics, drug effects, immunosuppression, rats

  3. Prominin-2 expression increases protrusions, decreases caveolae and inhibits Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Raman Deep, E-mail: Takhter.Ramandeep@mayo.edu; Schroeder, Andreas S.; Scheffer, Luana; Holicky, Eileen L.; Wheatley, Christine L.; Marks, David L., E-mail: Marks.david@mayo.edu; Pagano, Richard E.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Prominin-2 expression induced protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. •Prominin-2 expression decreased caveolae, caveolar endocytosis and increased pCav1. •Prominin-2 expression inhibited fluid phase endocytosis by inactivation of Cdc42. •These endocytic effects can be reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol. •Caveolin1 knockdown restored fluid phase endocytosis in Prominin2 expressing cells. -- Abstract: Background: Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are a subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. Aim: To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. Methods: Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. Results: Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent fluid phase endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. Conclusions: Prom2 protrusions primarily

  4. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. Protein expression dynamics observed in Experiment, Synchronous and. Asynchronous simulation. .... molecular basis for T cell suppression by IL-10: CD28-asso- ciated IL-10 receptor inhibits CD28 tyrosine ...

  5. ETS-1 oncoprotein expression is decreased in aggressive papillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So far, there is no reliable prognostic marker has been proved for detection of the tumor progression and recurrence. Objectives: To analyze the correlation between ETS-1 oncoprotein immunohistochemical expression and the different stages and grades of the primary papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary ...

  6. Decreased EGFR mRNA expression in response to antipsoriatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... pathogenesis of psoriasis, the objective of this study was to investigate the transcriptional effect of dithranol .... N.E. Fusenig, German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, ... RT-PCR analysis of EGFR expression in HaCaT cells treated with ... reliability. ... relationship to cancer risk and therapy response.

  7. Decreased expression of GST pi is correlated with a poor prognosis in human esophageal squamous carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhihui; He, Wei; Yang, Guanrui; Wang, Junsheng; Wang, Zhong; Nesland, Jahn M; Holm, Ruth; Suo, Zhenhe

    2010-01-01

    , deficiency of GST pi protein expression may be an important mechanism involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of the squamous esophageal carcinoma, and the underlying mechanisms leading to decreased GST pi expression deserve further investigation

  8. Silencing of the rotavirus NSP4 protein decreases the incidence of biliary atresia in murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexiong Feng

    Full Text Available Biliary atresia is a common disease in neonates which causes obstructive jaundice and progressive hepatic fibrosis. Our previous studies indicate that rotavirus infection is an initiator in the pathogenesis of experimental biliary atresia (BA through the induction of increased nuclear factor-kappaB and abnormal activation of the osteopontin inflammation pathway. In the setting of rotavirus infection, rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4 serves as an important immunogen, viral protein 7 (VP7 is necessary in rotavirus maturity and viral protein 4 (VP4 is a virulence determiner. The purpose of the current study is to clarify the roles of NSP4, VP7 and VP4 in the pathogenesis of experimental BA. Primary cultured extrahepatic biliary epithelia were infected with Rotavirus (mmu18006. Small interfering RNA targeting NSP4, VP7 or VP4 was transfected before rotavirus infection both in vitro and in vivo. We analyzed the incidence of BA, morphological change, morphogenesis of viral particles and viral mRNA and protein expression. The in vitro experiments showed NSP4 silencing decreased the levels of VP7 and VP4, reduced viral particles and decreased cytopathic effect. NSP4-positive cells had strongly positive expression of integrin subunit α2. Silencing of VP7 or VP4 partially decreased epithelial injury. Animal experiments indicated after NSP4 silencing, mouse pups had lower incidence of BA than after VP7 or VP4 silencing. However, 33.3% of VP4-silenced pups (N = 6 suffered BA and 50% of pups (N = 6 suffered biliary injury after VP7 silencing. Hepatic injury was decreased after NSP4 or VP4 silencing. Neither VP4 nor VP7 were detected in the biliary ducts after NSP4. All together, NSP4 silencing down-regulates VP7 and VP4, resulting in decreased incidence of BA.

  9. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Daishi; Nishida, Yoichiro; Nishina, Tomoko; Mogushi, Kaoru; Tajiri, Mio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ajioka, Itsuki; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa -/-) mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa -/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3); Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa -/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD. PMID:26637123

  10. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daishi Yui

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa-/- mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa-/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3; Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa-/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD.

  11. Decreased Rac1 Cardiac Expression in Nitrofen-Induced Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroki; Zimmer, Julia; Puri, Prem

    2018-02-01

     The high incidence of cardiac malformations in humans and animal models with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is well known. The hypoplasia of left heart is common among fetuses with CDH and has been identified as a poor prognostic factor. However, the precise mechanisms underlying cardiac maldevelopment in CDH are not fully understood. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) plays a key role in cardiomyocyte polarity and embryonic heart development. Deficiency of Rac1 is reported to impair elongation and cytoskeletal organization of cardiomyocytes, resulting in congenital cardiac defects. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that Rac1 expression is downregulated in the developing hearts of rats with nitrofen-induced CDH.  Following ethical approval (REC1103), time-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received nitrofen or vehicle on gestational day 9 (D9). Fetuses were sacrificed on D18 and D21 and divided into CDH and control (CTRL) ( n  = 6 for each group and time point). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, and confocal-immunofluorescence microscopy were performed to detect cardiac gene and protein expression of Rac1.  qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that Rac1 expression was significantly decreased in the CDH group compared with controls ( p  Rac1 cardiac expression was markedly decreased in the CDH group compared with controls.  Decreased cardiac Rac1 expression in the nitrofen-induced CDH suggests that Rac1 deficiency during morphogenesis may impair structural cardiac remodeling, resulting in congenital cardiac defects. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Neurotrophins expression is decreased in lungs of human infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hanlon LD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lynn D O'Hanlon, Sherry M Mabry, Ikechukwu I EkekezieChildren's Mercy Hospitals/University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USAObjectives: To evaluate neurotrophin (NT (nerve growth factor [NGF], NT-3, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] expression in autopsy lung tissues of human congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH infants versus that of infants that expired with: 1 "normal" lungs (controls; 2 chronic lung disease (CLD; and 3 pulmonary hypertension (PPHN.Hypothesis: NT expression will be significantly altered in CDH lung tissue compared with normal lung tissue and other neonatal lung diseases.Study design: Immunohistochemical studies for NT proteins NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 were applied to human autopsy neonatal lung tissue samples.Subject selection: The samples included a control group of 18 samples ranging from 23-week gestational age to term, a CDH group of 15 samples, a PPHN group of six samples, and a CLD group of 12 samples.Methodology: The tissue samples were studied, and four representative slide fields of alveoli/saccules and four of bronchioles were recorded from each sample. These slide fields were then graded (from 0 to 3 by three blinded observers for intensity of staining.Results: BDNF, NGF, and NT-3 immunostaining intensity scores were significantly decreased in the CDH lung tissue (n=15 compared with normal neonatal lung tissue (n=18 (P<0.001. The other neonatal pulmonary diseases that were studied, CLD and PPHN, were much less likely to be affected and were much more variable in their neurotrophin expression.Conclusion: NT expression is decreased in CDH lungs. The decreased expression of NT in CDH lung tissue may suggest they contribute to the abnormality in this condition.Keywords: nerve growth factor, NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, neurotrophin-3, NT-3, chronic lung disease, persistent pulmonary hypertension, lung

  13. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Shukla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS: Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS: Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1 expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  14. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  15. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy. PMID:29181307

  16. Neisseria meningitidis rifampicin resistant strains: analysis of protein differentially expressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schininà Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mutations have been described as responsible for rifampicin resistance in Neisseria meningitidis. However, the intriguing question on why these strains are so rare remains open. The aim of this study was to investigate the protein content and to identify differential expression in specific proteins in two rifampicin resistant and one susceptible meningococci using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE combined with mass spectrometry. Results In our experimental conditions, able to resolve soluble proteins with an isoelectric point between 4 and 7, twenty-three proteins have been found differentially expressed in the two resistant strains compared to the susceptible. Some of them, involved in the main metabolic pathways, showed an increased expression, mainly in the catabolism of pyruvate and in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. A decreased expression of proteins belonging to gene regulation and to those involved in the folding of polypeptides has also been observed. 2-DE analysis showed the presence of four proteins displaying a shift in their isoelectric point in both resistant strains, confirmed by the presence of amino acid changes in the sequence analysis, absent in the susceptible. Conclusions The analysis of differentially expressed proteins suggests that an intricate series of events occurs in N. meningitidis rifampicin resistant strains and the results here reported may be considered a starting point in understanding their decreased invasion capacity. In fact, they support the hypothesis that the presence of more than one protein differentially expressed, having a role in the metabolism of the meningococcus, influences its ability to infect and to spread in the population. Different reports have described and discussed how a drug resistant pathogen shows a high biological cost for survival and that may also explain why, for some pathogens, the rate of resistant organisms is relatively low considering the

  17. Decreased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 predicts an unfavorable prognosis in ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqing; Huang, Ruixia; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaoran; Yu, Dandan; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jianguo; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Trope, Claes G; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 (PDHA1) serves as a gate-keeper enzyme link between glycolysis and the mitochondrial citric acid cycle. The inhibition of PDHA1 in cancer cells can result in an increased Warburg effect and a more aggressive phenotype in cancer cells. This study was conducted to investigate the expression of PDHA1 in ovarian cancer and the correlation between PDHA1 expression and the prognosis of patients. The PDHA1 protein expression in 3 ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) and 248 surgically removed ovarian carcinoma samples was immunocytochemically examined. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlations between PDHA1 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients as well as the predictive value of PDHA1. The results showed the presence of variable expression of PDHA1 in the three ovarian cancer cell lines. Of the 248 ovarian cancer tissue specimens, 45 cases (18.1%) were negative in tumor cells for PDHA1, 162 cases (65.3%) displayed a low expression level, and 41 cases (16.5%) had a relatively high PDHA1 staining. The expression of PDHA1 was associated with the histological subtype ( P =0.004) and FIGO stage ( P =0.002). The median OS time in the PDHA1 negative group, low expression group and high expression group were 0.939 years, 1.443 years and 9.900 years, respectively. The median PFS time in the above three groups were 0.287 years, 0.586 years and 9.900 years, respectively. Furthermore, the high expression of PDHA1 in ovarian carcinoma cells was significantly associated with better OS and PFS by statistical analyses. Multivariate analyses showed that PDHA1 expression was also an independent prognostic factor for higher OS in ovarian cancer patients (HR=0.705, 95% CI 0.541-0.918, P =0.01). Our study indicated that the decreased expression of PDHA1 might be an independent prognostic factor in unfavorable outcomes.

  18. Valproic acid decreases urothelial cancer cell proliferation and induces thrombospondin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byler Timothy K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of bladder cancer recurrence is a central challenge in the management of this highly prevalent disease. The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (sodium valproate has anti-angiogenic properties and has been shown to decrease bladder cancer growth in model systems. We have previously shown reduced expression of thrombospondin-1 in a mouse model and in human bladder cancer relative to normal urothelium. We speculated that inhibition of angiogenesis by valproate might be mediated by this anti-angiogenic protein. Methods Bladder cancer cell lines UMUC3 and T24 were treated with valproate or another histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, in culture for a period of three days. Proliferation was assessed by alamar blue reduction. Gene expression was evaluated by reverse transcription of RNA and quantitative PCR. Results Proliferation assays showed treatment with valproate or vorinostat decreased proliferation in both cell lines. Histone deacetylase inhibition also increased relative expression of thrombospondin-1 up to 8 fold at 5 mM valproate. Conclusions Histone deacetylase inhibitors warrant further study for the prevention or treatment of bladder cancer.

  19. Insulin-induced decrease in protein phosphorylation in rat adipocytes not explained by decreased A-kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.J.; Greenberg, A.S.; Chang, M.K.; Londos, C.

    1987-01-01

    In isolated rat adipocytes, insulin inhibits lipolysis to a greater extent than would be predicted by the decrease in (-/+)cAMP activity ratio of cAMP-dependent protein kinase [A-kinase], from which it was speculated that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. They have examined the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins under conditions of varying A-kinase activities in the presence and absence of insulin. Protein phosphorylation was determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of extracts from 32 P-loaded cells; glycerol and A-kinase activity ratios were measured in the cytosolic extracts from control, non-radioactive cells. Increased protein phosphorylation in general occurred over the same range of A-kinase activity ratios, 0.1-0.3, associated with increased glycerol release. The insulin-induced decrease in lipolysis was associated with a decrease in the 32 P content of several proteins, an effect not explained by the modest reduction in A-kinase activity by insulin. This effect of insulin on protein phosphorylation was lost as the A-kinase activity ratios exceeded 0.5. The results suggest that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of those adipocyte proteins which are subject to phosphorylation by A-kinase

  20. Protein expression analysis of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui Yumiko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC development. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in protein expression between CRC and the surrounding nontumorous colonic tissues in the mice that received azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS using a proteomic analysis. Materials and Methods: Male ICR mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, followed by 2% (w/v DSS in their drinking water for seven days, starting one week after the AOM injection. Colonic adenocarcinoma developed after 20 weeks and a proteomics analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ultraflex TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was conducted in the cancerous and nontumorous tissue specimens. Results: The proteomic analysis revealed 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues in comparison to the nontumorous tissues. There were five markedly increased proteins (beta-tropomyosin, tropomyosin 1 alpha isoform b, S100 calcium binding protein A9, and an unknown protein and 16 markedly decreased proteins (Car1 proteins, selenium-binding protein 1, HMG-CoA synthase, thioredoxin 1, 1 Cys peroxiredoxin protein 2, Fcgbp protein, Cytochrome c oxidase, subunit Va, ETHE1 protein, and 7 unknown proteins. Conclusions: There were 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues of the mice that received AOM and DSS. Their functions include metabolism, the antioxidant system, oxidative stress, mucin production, and inflammation. These findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis and the establishment of novel therapies and preventative strategies to treat carcinogenesis in the inflamed colon.

  1. Parts Characterization for Tunable Protein Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Michael Schantz; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Flow-seq combines flexible genome engineering methods with flow cytometry-based cell sorting and deep DNA sequencing to enable comprehensive interrogation of genotype to phenotype relationships. One application is to study the effect of specific regulatory elements on protein expression. Construc......Flow-seq combines flexible genome engineering methods with flow cytometry-based cell sorting and deep DNA sequencing to enable comprehensive interrogation of genotype to phenotype relationships. One application is to study the effect of specific regulatory elements on protein expression...

  2. Circulating surfactant protein D is decreased in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Silje Vermedal; Voss, Anne; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Deficiencies of innate immune molecules like mannan binding lectin (MBL) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Surfactant protein D (SP-D) and MBL belong to the same family of innate immune molecules - the collectins, which share important...

  3. Variation in Protein Intake Induces Variation in Spider Silk Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamires, Sean J.; Wu, Chun-Lin; Tso, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    Background It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. PMID:22363691

  4. Nedd4L expression is decreased in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to ovarian non-cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiuyun; Zhao, Jinghe; Cui, Manhua; Gi, Shuting; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiaole

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-like (Nedd4L) gene plays a role in the progression of various cancers. However, reports describing Nedd4L expression in ovarian cancer tissues are limited. A cohort (n = 117) of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded resected normal ovarian epithelial tissues (n = 10), benign ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 10), serous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 14), mucous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 11), and invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues (n = 72) were assessed for Nedd4L protein expression using immunohistochemistry. Nedd4L protein expression was significantly decreased in invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to non-cancer tissues (P < 0.05). Decreased Nedd4L protein expression correlated with clinical stage, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis and survival (P < 0.05). Nedd4L protein expression may be an independent prognostic marker of ovarian cancer development. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Differentially expressed proteins on postoperative 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialili Ainuer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objectives: Surgical repair of Achilles tendon (AT rupture should immediately be followed by active tendon mobilization. The optimal time as to when the mobilization should begin is important yet controversial. Early kinesitherapy leads to reduced rehabilitation period. However, an insight into the detailed mechanism of this process has not been gained. Proteomic technique can be used to separate and purify the proteins by differential expression profile which is related to the function of different proteins, but research in the area of proteomic analysis of AT 3 days after repair has not been studied so far. Methods: Forty-seven New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups. Group A (immobilization group, n=16 received postoperative cast immobilization; Group B (early motion group, n=16 received early active motion treatments immediately following the repair of AT rupture from tenotomy. Another 15 rabbits served as control group (Group C. The AT samples were prepared 3 days following the microsurgery. The proteins were separated employing twodimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE. PDQuest software version 8.0 was used to identify differentially expressed proteins, followed by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF and tandem mass spectrum analysis, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI protein database retrieval and then for bioinformatics analysis. Results: A mean of 446.33, 436.33 and 462.67 protein spots on Achilles tendon samples of 13 rabbits in Group A, 14 rabbits in Group B and 13 rabbits in Group C were successfully detected in the 2D-PAGE. There were 40, 36 and 79 unique proteins in Groups A, B and C respectively. Some differentially expressed proteins were enzyme with the gel, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. We successfully identified 9 and 11 different proteins in Groups A and B, such as GAPDH, phosphoglycerate kinase 1

  6. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, William W; Dridi, Sami; Shouse, Stephanie A; Wu, Hexirui; Hawley, Aubree; Lee, Sun-Ok; Gu, Xuan; Baum, Jamie I

    2017-06-08

    A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa) and lean control (Fa/fa) rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy) or moderate-protein (20% energy) diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8), lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10), obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8), and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10). At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake ( p diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression compared to O20 ( p protein kinase (AMPK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), protein kinase B (Akt) or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of latent membrane protein 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded NPC biopsies were evaluated in 23 Moroccan patients for the presence of LMP1 and p53 using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: No LMP1 expression was observed whereas 8 of 23 cases (34. 7%) had detectable p53 protein in the nuclei of tumor cells.

  8. Circulating surfactant protein D is decreased in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Silje Vermedal; Lindegaard, Hanne Merete; Sørensen, Grith Lykke

    2008-01-01

    Innate immune system abnormalities, e.g., mannan-binding lectin (MBL) genotype variants, have been demonstrated to modify the disease course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Surfactant protein D (SP-D) shares important structural and functional properties with MBL suggesting that SP-D may...... be an additional RA disease modifier. The Met11Thr polymorphism in the N-terminal part of SP-D is an important determinant for the SP-D serum level, but this polymorphism is also essential to the function and assembly into oligomers. We aimed to compare the serum levels of SP-D in a cohort of newly diagnosed...... untreated RA patients with healthy matched controls, and to investigate if there was an association to core measures of disease activity within the first year after disease onset. Secondly, we aimed to investigate whether the Met11Thr polymorphism was associated with RA. Serum SP-D was significantly lower...

  9. Prion protein-deficient mice exhibit decreased CD4 T and LTi cell numbers and impaired spleen structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soochan; Han, Sinsuk; Lee, Ye Eun; Jung, Woong-Jae; Lee, Hyung Soo; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein is expressed in almost all tissues, including the central nervous system and lymphoid tissues. To investigate the effects of the prion protein in lymphoid cells and spleen structure formation, we used prion protein-deficient (Prnp(0/0)) Zürich I mice generated by inactivation of the Prnp gene. Prnp(0/0) mice had decreased lymphocytes, in particular, CD4 T cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Decreased CD4 T cells resulted from impaired expression of CCL19 and CCL21 in the spleen rather than altered chemokine receptor CCR7 expression. Importantly, some of the white pulp regions in spleens from Prnp(0/0) mice displayed impaired T zone structure as a result of decreased LTi cell numbers and altered expression of the lymphoid tissue-organizing genes lymphotoxin-α and CXCR5, although expression of the lymphatic marker podoplanin and CXCL13 by stromal cells was not affected. In addition, CD3(-)CD4(+)IL-7Rα(+) LTi cells were rarely detected in impaired white pulp in spleens of these mice. These data suggest that the prion protein is required to form the splenic white pulp structure and for development of normal levels of CD4 T and LTi cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Decreased in Rat Kidney Following Fetal Exposure to a Maternal Low-Protein Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Engeham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein restriction in rat pregnancy is associated with impaired renal development and age-related loss of renal function in the resulting offspring. Pregnant rats were fed either control or low-protein (LP diets, and kidneys from their male offspring were collected at 4, 13, or 16 weeks of age. Mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiratory rates were decreased by a third in the LP exposed adults. The reduction in mitochondrial function was not explained by complex IV deficiency or altered expression of the complex I subunits that are typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Similarly, there was no evidence that LP-exposure resulted in greater oxidative damage to the kidney, differential expression of ATP synthetase β-subunit, and ATP-ADP translocase 1. mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 2 was increased in adult rats exposed to LP in utero, but there was no evidence of differential expression at the protein level. Exposure to maternal undernutrition is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in kidneys of adult rats. In the absence of gross disturbances in respiratory chain protein expression, programming of coupling efficiency may explain the long-term impact of the maternal diet.

  11. RNAi knockdown of Hop (Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein) decreases invasion via MMP-2 down regulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Naomi

    2011-07-28

    We previously identified Hop as over expressed in invasive pancreatic cancer cell lines and malignant tissues of pancreatic cancer patients, suggesting an important role for Hop in the biology of invasive pancreatic cancer. Hop is a co-chaperone protein that binds to both Hsp70\\/Hsp90. We hypothesised that by targeting Hop, signalling pathways modulating invasion and client protein stabilisation involving Hsp90-dependent complexes may be altered. In this study, we show that Hop knockdown by small interfering (si)RNA reduces the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, resulting in decreased expression of the downstream target gene, matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Hop in conditioned media co-immunoprecipitates with MMP-2, implicating a possible extracellular function for Hop. Knockdown of Hop expression also reduced expression levels of Hsp90 client proteins, HER2, Bcr-Abl, c-MET and v-Src. Furthermore, Hop is strongly expressed in high grade PanINs compared to lower PanIN grades, displaying differential localisation in invasive ductal pancreatic cancer, indicating that the localisation of Hop is an important factor in pancreatic tumours. Our data suggests that the attenuation of Hop expression inactivates key signal transduction proteins which may decrease the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells possibly through the modulation of Hsp90 activity. Therefore, targeting Hop in pancreatic cancer may constitute a viable strategy for targeted cancer therapy.

  12. Mast cells infiltration and decreased E-cadherin expression in ketamine-induced cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Increased mast cells in bladder wall and downregulated expression of E-cadherin junction protein in epithelial cells were probably associated with interstitial inflammation and fissures in mucosa. It implied that ketamine induced an interstitial cystitis.

  13. Daphnetin inhibits invasion and migration of LM8 murine osteosarcoma cells by decreasing RhoA and Cdc42 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hiroki [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, Seikou [Department of Pharmacognosy, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Chisaki, Yugo [Education and Research Center for Clinical Pharmacy, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Takada, Tetsuya [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Toda, Yuki [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Murata, Hiroaki [Department of Orthopedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Matsushita Memorial Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Itoh, Kazuyuki [Department of Biology, Osaka Medical Center of Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Yano, Yoshitaka [Education and Research Center for Clinical Pharmacy, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Takata, Kazuyuki [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Ashihara, Eishi, E-mail: ash@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-02-26

    Daphnetin, 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin, present in main constituents of Daphne odora var. marginatai, has multiple pharmacological activities including anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells. In this study, using a Transwell system, we showed that daphnetin inhibited invasion and migration of highly metastatic murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Following treatment by daphnetin, cells that penetrated the Transwell membrane were rounder than non-treated cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that daphnetin decreased the numbers of intracellular stress fibers and filopodia. Moreover, daphnetin treatment dramatically decreased the expression levels of RhoA and Cdc42. In summary, the dihydroxycoumarin derivative daphnetin inhibits the invasion and migration of LM8 cells, and therefore represents a promising agent for use against metastatic cancer. - Highlights: • Daphnetin, a coumarin-derivative, inhibited invasion and migration of LM8 cells. • Stress fibers and filopodia were decreased by daphnetin treatment. • Daphnetin decreased RhoA and Cdc42 protein expression.

  14. Daphnetin inhibits invasion and migration of LM8 murine osteosarcoma cells by decreasing RhoA and Cdc42 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hiroki; Nakamura, Seikou; Chisaki, Yugo; Takada, Tetsuya; Toda, Yuki; Murata, Hiroaki; Itoh, Kazuyuki; Yano, Yoshitaka; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi

    2016-01-01

    Daphnetin, 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin, present in main constituents of Daphne odora var. marginatai, has multiple pharmacological activities including anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells. In this study, using a Transwell system, we showed that daphnetin inhibited invasion and migration of highly metastatic murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Following treatment by daphnetin, cells that penetrated the Transwell membrane were rounder than non-treated cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that daphnetin decreased the numbers of intracellular stress fibers and filopodia. Moreover, daphnetin treatment dramatically decreased the expression levels of RhoA and Cdc42. In summary, the dihydroxycoumarin derivative daphnetin inhibits the invasion and migration of LM8 cells, and therefore represents a promising agent for use against metastatic cancer. - Highlights: • Daphnetin, a coumarin-derivative, inhibited invasion and migration of LM8 cells. • Stress fibers and filopodia were decreased by daphnetin treatment. • Daphnetin decreased RhoA and Cdc42 protein expression.

  15. Decreased Expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, NHE3, NBC1, AQP1 and OAT in Gentamicin-induced Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woo Kyun; Lee, JongUn; Park, Jeong Woo; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine whether there is an altered regulation of tubular transporters in gentamicin-induced nephropathy. Sprague-Dawley male rats (200~250 g) were subcutaneously injected with gentamicin (100 mg/kg per day) for 7 days, and the expression of tubular transporters was determined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein expression of OAT was also determined. Gentamicin-treated rats exhibited significantly decreased creatinine clearance along with increased plasma creatinine levels. Accordingly, the fractional excretion of sodium increased. Urine volume was increased, while urine osmolality and free water reabsorption were decreased. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, NHE3, NBC1, and AQP1 in the kidney of gentamicin-treated rats. The expression of OAT1 and OAT3 was also decreased. Gentamicin-induced nephropathy may at least in part be causally related with a decreased expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, NHE3, NBC1, AQP1 and OAT. PMID:19967075

  16. Increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators expression and decreased epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits expression in early abortion: findings from a mouse model and clinical cases of abortion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou

    Full Text Available The status of the maternal endometrium is vital in regulating humoral homeostasis and for ensuring embryo implantation. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTR and epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits (ENaC-α play an important role in female reproduction by maintaining humoral and cell homeostasis. However, it is not clear whether the expression levels of CFTR and ENaC-α in the decidual component during early pregnancy are related with early miscarriage. CBA×DBA/2 mouse mating has been widely accepted as a classical model of early miscarriage. The abortion rate associated with this mating was 33.33% in our study. The decidua of abortion-prone CBA female mice (DBA/2 mated had higher CFTR mRNA and protein expression and lower ENaC-α mRNA and protein expression, compared to normal pregnant CBA mice (BLAB/C mated. Furthermore, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression were observed in the uterine tissue from women with early miscarriage, as compared to those with successful pregnancy. In conclusion, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression in the decidua of early abortion may relate with failure of early pregnancy.

  17. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P protein synthesis (PS; P protein also decreased by 46% (P protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  18. Optimization of translation profiles enhances protein expression and solubility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Katrin Hess

    Full Text Available mRNA is translated with a non-uniform speed that actively coordinates co-translational folding of protein domains. Using structure-based homology we identified the structural domains in epoxide hydrolases (EHs and introduced slow-translating codons to delineate the translation of single domains. These changes in translation speed dramatically improved the solubility of two EHs of metagenomic origin in Escherichia coli. Conversely, the importance of transient attenuation for the folding, and consequently solubility, of EH was evidenced with a member of the EH family from Agrobacterium radiobacter, which partitions in the soluble fraction when expressed in E. coli. Synonymous substitutions of codons shaping the slow-transiting regions to fast-translating codons render this protein insoluble. Furthermore, we show that low protein yield can be enhanced by decreasing the free folding energy of the initial 5'-coding region, which can disrupt mRNA secondary structure and enhance ribosomal loading. This study provides direct experimental evidence that mRNA is not a mere messenger for translation of codons into amino acids but bears an additional layer of information for folding, solubility and expression level of the encoded protein. Furthermore, it provides a general frame on how to modulate and fine-tune gene expression of a target protein.

  19. SGLT2 Protein Expression Is Increased in Human Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxin X.; Levi, Jonathan; Luo, Yuhuan; Myakala, Komuraiah; Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Qiu, Liru; Wang, Dong; Peng, Yingqiong; Grenz, Almut; Lucia, Scott; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; D'Agati, Vivette D.; Koepsell, Hermann; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Rosenberg, Avi Z.; Levi, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    There is very limited human renal sodium gradient-dependent glucose transporter protein (SGLT2) mRNA and protein expression data reported in the literature. The first aim of this study was to determine SGLT2 mRNA and protein levels in human and animal models of diabetic nephropathy. We have found that the expression of SGLT2 mRNA and protein is increased in renal biopsies from human subjects with diabetic nephropathy. This is in contrast to db-db mice that had no changes in renal SGLT2 protein expression. Furthermore, the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on renal lipid content and inflammation is not known. The second aim of this study was to determine the potential mechanisms of beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibition in the progression of diabetic renal disease. We treated db/db mice with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor JNJ 39933673. We found that SGLT2 inhibition caused marked decreases in systolic blood pressure, kidney weight/body weight ratio, urinary albumin, and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances. SGLT2 inhibition prevented renal lipid accumulation via inhibition of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein-β, pyruvate kinase L, SCD-1, and DGAT1, key transcriptional factors and enzymes that mediate fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. SGLT2 inhibition also prevented inflammation via inhibition of CD68 macrophage accumulation and expression of p65, TLR4, MCP-1, and osteopontin. These effects were associated with reduced mesangial expansion, accumulation of the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin and type IV collagen, and loss of podocyte markers WT1 and synaptopodin, as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. In summary, our study showed that SGLT2 inhibition modulates renal lipid metabolism and inflammation and prevents the development of nephropathy in db/db mice. PMID:28196866

  20. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J.L. [Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Bal, Amanjit [Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Gill, Kiran Dip, E-mail: kdgill2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10 mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits–NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: • Aluminium decreases the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and nuclear encoded

  1. Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor (17-AAG) Induces Apoptosis and Decreases Cell Migration/Motility of Keloid Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, In Sik; Lee, Mi Hee; Rah, Dong Kyun; Lew, Dae Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul; Lee, Won Jai

    2015-07-01

    The regulation of apoptosis, proliferation, and migration of fibroblasts is altered in keloids. The 90-kDa heat shock protein (heat shock protein 90) is known to play a key role in such regulation. Therefore, the authors investigated whether the inhibition of heat shock protein 90 in keloid fibroblasts could induce apoptosis and attenuate keloid fibroblast proliferation and migration. The authors evaluated heat shock protein 90 expression in keloid tissues with immunohistochemistry. The authors used cell viability [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays and annexin V/propidium iodide staining for apoptosis, a wound healing model and cell tracking system to assess cell migration, and Akt Western blotting analysis in keloid fibroblasts after inhibition of heat shock protein 90 with 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG). The expression of heat shock protein 90 in keloid tissues was significantly increased compared with normal tissues. The 17-AAG-treated keloid fibroblasts showed significantly decreased proliferation, promotion of apoptosis, and decreased expression of Akt. Furthermore, a dose-dependent decrease in cell migration was noted after 17-AAG treatment of keloid fibroblasts. The 17-AAG-treated keloid fibroblasts had less directionality to the wound center and migrated a shorter distance. The authors confirmed that the inhibition of heat shock protein 90 in keloid fibroblasts could promote apoptosis and attenuate proliferation and migration of keloid fibroblasts. Therefore, the authors think that the inhibition of heat shock protein 90 is a key factor in the regulation of biological processes in keloids. With further preclinical study, the authors will be able to apply these results clinically for keloid treatment.

  2. Chronic unpredictable stress decreases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mouse ovaries: relationship to oocytes developmental potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Min; Hu, Mei-Hong; Tong, Xian-Hong; Han, Hui; Shen, Ni; Jin, Ren-Tao; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Gui-Xiang; He, Guo-Ping; Liu, Yu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn't affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress.

  3. Chronic unpredictable stress decreases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in mouse ovaries: relationship to oocytes developmental potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. METHODS: Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. RESULTS: Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn't affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. CONCLUSION: BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress.

  4. Effect of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) on Akt protein expression is more effective in head and neck cancer cell lineages that retain PTEN protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau C; Pontes, Hélder A R; de Souza, Lucas L; de Jesus, Adriana S; Joaquim, Andrea M C; Miyahara, Ligia A N; Fonseca, Felipe P; Pinto Junior, Décio S

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of Akt, PTEN, Mdm2 and p53 proteins in three different head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines (HN6, HN19 and HN30), all of them treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an inhibitor of Hsp90 protein. Immunofluorescence and western blot were performed in order to analyze the location and quantification, respectively, of proteins under the action 17-AAG and EGF. Treatment with EGF resulted in increased levels of Akt, PTEN and p53 in all cell lineages. The expression of Mdm2 was constant in HN30 and HN6 lineages, while in HN19 showed slightly decreased expression. Under the action 17-AAG, in HN6 and HN19, the expression of PTEN and p53 proteins was suppressed, while Akt and Mdm2 expression was reduced. Finally, in the HN30 cell lineage were absolute absence of expression of Akt, Mdm2 and p53 and decreased expression of PTEN. These data allow us to speculate on the particular utility of 17-AAG for HNSCC treatment through the inhibition of Akt protein expression, especially in the cases that retain the expression of PTEN protein. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Expression of uncoupling protein 1 in bovine muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Eldaim, M A; Hashimoto, O; Ohtsuki, H; Yamada, T; Murakami, M; Onda, K; Sato, R; Kanamori, Y; Qiao, Y; Tomonaga, S; Matsui, T; Funaba, M

    2016-12-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) is predominantly expressed in brown/beige adipocytes in mammals. Although myogenic cells have been suggested to commit to a brown adipocyte lineage through the induction of Prdm16 expression, Prdm16 is also expressed in skeletal muscle. Thus, we examined expression of Ucp1 in bovine myogenic cells. Considering that Ucp1 is a principle molecule that induces energy expenditure in brown/beige adipocytes, expression of Ucp1 is not preferable in beef cattle because of potential decrease in energy (fattening) efficiency. The RT-PCR analyses revealed the expression of Ucp1 in the skeletal muscle of cattle; expression levels were markedly lower than those in the brown fat of calves. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that Ucp1 surrounded muscle fibers, but not adipocytes residing in skeletal muscle. Myosatellite cells cultured in myogenic medium showed an increase in the expression levels of myogenic regulatory factors ( levels were greater in cells after myogenic culture for 12 d than in those after myogenic culture for 6 d ( bovine skeletal muscle, which suggests the necessity for further studies on Ucp1-mediated energy expenditure in bovine skeletal muscle.

  6. Glucagon Decreases IGF-1 Bioactivity in Humans, Independently of Insulin, by Modulating Its Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarem, Zeinab; Bumke-Vogt, Christiane; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Assefa, Biruhalem; Weickert, Martin O; Adamidou, Aikatarini; Bähr, Volker; Frystyk, Jan; Möhlig, Matthias; Spranger, Joachim; Lieske, Stefanie; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Arafat, Ayman M

    2017-09-01

    Depending on its lipolytic activity, glucagon plays a promising role in obesity treatment. Glucagon-induced growth hormone (GH) release can promote its effect on lipid metabolism, although the underlying mechanisms have not been well-defined. The present study highlights the glucagon effect on the GH/insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) axis in vivo and in vitro, taking into consideration insulin as a confounding factor. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated changes in GH, IGFBP, and IGF-1 bioactivity after intramuscular glucagon administration in 13 lean controls, 11 obese participants, and 13 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The effect of glucagon on the transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) translocation, the transcription of GH/IGF-1 system members, and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) was further investigated in vitro. Despite unchanged total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels, glucagon decreased IGF-1 bioactivity in all study groups by increasing IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. The reduction in IGF-1 bioactivity occurred before the glucagon-induced surge in GH. In contrast to the transient increase in circulating insulin in obese and lean participants, no change was observed in those with T1DM. In vitro, glucagon dose dependently induced a substantial nuclear translocation of FOXO1 in human osteosarcoma cells and tended to increase IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes, despite absent Akt phosphorylation. Our data point to the glucagon-induced decrease in bioactive IGF-1 levels as a mechanism through which glucagon induces GH secretion. This insulin-independent reduction is related to increased IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 levels, which are most likely mediated via activation of the FOXO/mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  7. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. French

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa and lean control (Fa/fa rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy or moderate-protein (20% energy diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8, lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10, obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8, and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10. At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p < 0.05 compared to O20. O40 rats had lower liver weight (p < 0.05 compared to O20. However, O40 rats had higher orexin (p < 0.05 levels compared to L20, L40 and O20. Rats in the L40 and O40 groups had less liver and muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ mRNA expression compared to O20 (p < 0.05, with no difference in 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1, protein kinase B (Akt or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  8. C-reactive protein inhibits survivin expression via Akt/mTOR pathway downregulation by PTEN expression in cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Seob Lee

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is one of the most important biomarkers for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that CRP affects cell cycle and inflammatory process in cardiac myocytes. Survivin is also involved in cardiac myocytes replication and apoptosis. Reduction of survivin expression is associated with less favorable cardiac remodeling in animal models. However, the effect of CRP on survivin expression and its cellular mechanism has not yet been studied. We demonstrated that treatment of CRP resulted in a significant decrease of survivin protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes. The upstream signaling proteins of survivin, such as Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, were also downregulated by CRP treatment. In addition, CRP increased the protein and mRNA levels of PTEN. The siRNA transfection or specific inhibitor treatment for PTEN restored the CRP-induced downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway and survivin protein expression. Moreover, pretreatment with a specific p53 inhibitor decreased the CRP-induced PTEN expression. ERK-specific inhibitor also blocked the p53 phosphorylation and PTEN expression induced by CRP. Our study provides a novel insight into CRP-induced downregulation of survivin protein expression in cardiac myocytes through mechanisms that involved in downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway by expression of PTEN.

  9. Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90 Expression and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Papadimitriou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hsp90 is an abundant protein in mammalian cells. It forms several discrete complexes, each containing distinct groups of co-chaperones that assist protein folding and refolding during stress, protein transport and degradation. It interacts with a variety of proteins that play key roles in breast neoplasia including estrogen receptors, tumor suppressor p53 protein, angiogenesis transcription factor HIF-1alpha, antiapoptotic kinase Akt, Raf-1 MAP kinase and a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases of the erbB family. Elevated Hsp90 expression has been documented in breast ductal carcinomas contributing to the proliferative activity of breast cancer cells; whilst a significantly decreased Hsp90 expression has been shown in infiltrative lobular carcinomas and lobular neoplasia. Hsp90 overexpression has been proposed as a component of a mechanism through which breast cancer cells become resistant to various stress stimuli. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of HSPs can provide therapeutic opportunities in the field of cancer treatment. 17-allylamino,17-demethoxygeldanamycin is the first Hsp90 inhibitor that has clinically been investigated in phase II trial, yielding promising results in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer, whilst other Hsp90 inhibitors (retaspimycin HCL, NVP-AUY922, NVP-BEP800, CNF2024/BIIB021, SNX-5422, STA-9090, etc. are currently under evaluation.

  10. Overexpression of an Outer Membrane Protein Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Carbapenems in Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Lin; Wang, Min-Cheng; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liu, Ming-Che; Hu, Rouh-Mei; Wu, Yue-Jin; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis isolates commonly have decreased susceptibility to imipenem. Previously, we found P. mirabilis hfq mutant was more resistant to imipenem and an outer membrane protein (OMP) could be involved. Therefore, we investigated the role of this OMP in carbapenem susceptibility. By SDS-PAGE we found this OMP (named ImpR) was increased in hfq mutant and LC-MS/MS revealed it to be the homologue of Salmonella YbfM, which is a porin for chitobiose and subject to MicM (a small RNA) regulation. We demonstrated that ImpR overexpression resulted in increased carbapenem MICs in the laboratory strain and clinical isolates. Chitobiose induced expression of chb (a chitobiose utilization operon). Real-time RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE were performed to elucidate the relationship of hfq, impR, chb and MicM in P. mirabilis. We found MicM RNA was decreased in hfq mutant and chbBC-intergenic region (chbBC-IGR) overexpression strain (chbIGRov), while impR mRNA was increased in hfq mutant, micM mutant and chbIGRov strain. In addition, mutation of hfq or micM and overexpression of chbBC-IGR increased ImpR protein level. Accordingly, chitobiose made wild-type have higher levels of ImpR protein and are more resistant to carbapenems. Hfq- and MicM-complemented strains restored wild-type MICs. Mutation of both impR and hfq eliminated the increase in carbapenem MICs observed in hfq mutant and ImpR-complementation of hfq/impR double mutant resulted in MICs as hfq mutant, indicating that the ImpR-dependent decreased carbapenem susceptibility of hfq mutant. These indicate MicM was antisense to impR mRNA and was negatively-regulated by chbBC-IGR. Together, overexpression of ImpR contributed to the decreased carbapenem susceptibility in P. mirabilis. PMID:25756370

  11. Differential Protein Expressions in Virus-Infected and Uninfected Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ding; Pengtao, Gong; Ju, Yang; Jianhua, Li; He, Li; Guocai, Zhang; Xichen, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Protozoan viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa. Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that could contain a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, T. vaginalis virus (TVV). However, there are few reports on the properties of the virus. To further determine variations in protein expression of T. vaginalis , we detected 2 strains of T. vaginalis ; the virus-infected (V + ) and uninfected (V - ) isolates to examine differentially expressed proteins upon TVV infection. Using a stable isotope N-terminal labeling strategy (iTRAQ) on soluble fractions to analyze proteomes, we identified 293 proteins, of which 50 were altered in V + compared with V - isolates. The results showed that the expression of 29 proteins was increased, and 21 proteins decreased in V + isolates. These differentially expressed proteins can be classified into 4 categories: ribosomal proteins, metabolic enzymes, heat shock proteins, and putative uncharacterized proteins. Quantitative PCR was used to detect 4 metabolic processes proteins: glycogen phosphorylase, malate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, which were differentially expressed in V + and V - isolates. Our findings suggest that mRNA levels of these genes were consistent with protein expression levels. This study was the first which analyzed protein expression variations upon TVV infection. These observations will provide a basis for future studies concerning the possible roles of these proteins in host-parasite interactions.

  12. Milk proteins interact with goat Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins and decrease their binding to sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Erika Bezerra; van Tilburg, Mauricio; Plante, Geneviève; de Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Moura, Arlindo A; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2016-11-01

    Seminal plasma Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins bind to sperm at ejaculation and promote capacitation. When in excess, however, BSP proteins damage the sperm membrane. It has been suggested that milk components of semen extenders associate with BSP proteins, potentially protecting sperm. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate if milk proteins interact with BSP proteins and reduce BSP binding to goat sperm. Using gel filtration chromatography, milk was incubated with goat seminal plasma proteins and loaded onto columns with and without calcium. Milk was also fractionated into parts containing mostly whey proteins or mostly caseins, incubated with seminal plasma proteins and subjected to gel filtration. Eluted fractions were evaluated by immunoblot using anti-goat BSP antibodies, confirming milk protein-BSP protein interactions. As determined by ELISA, milk proteins coated on polystyrene wells bound to increasing of goat BSP proteins. Far-western dot blots confirmed that BSP proteins bound to caseins and β-lactoglobulin in a concentration-dependent manner. Then, cauda epididymal sperm from five goats was incubated with seminal plasma; seminal plasma followed by milk; and milk followed by seminal plasma. Sperm membrane proteins were extracted and evaluated by immunoblotting. The pattern of BSP binding to sperm membrane proteins was reduced by 59.3 % when epididymal sperm were incubated with seminal plasma and then with skimmed milk (p  0.05). In conclusion, goat BSP proteins have an affinity for caseins and whey proteins. Milk reduces BSP binding to goat sperm, depending whether or not sperm had been previously exposed to seminal plasma. Such events may explain the protective effect of milk during goat sperm preservation.

  13. Nocodazole treatment decreases expression of pluripotency markers Nanog and Oct4 in human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallas, Ade; Pook, Martin; Maimets, Martti

    2011-01-01

    in the expression of transcription markers Nanog and Oct4 as well as SSEA-3 and SSEA-4 in human embryonic cells after their treatment with nocodazole. Multivariate permeabilised-cell flow cytometry was applied for characterising the expression of Nanog and Oct4 during different cell cycle phases. Among untreated h......ESC we detected Nanog-expressing cells, which also expressed Oct4, SSEA-3 and SSEA-4. We also found another population expressing SSEA-4, but without Nanog, Oct4 and SSEA-3 expression. Nocodazole treatment resulted in a decrease of cell population positive for all four markers Nanog, Oct4, SSEA-3, SSEA-4....... Nocodazole-mediated cell-cycle arrest was accompanied by higher rate of apoptosis and upregulation of p53. Twenty-four hours after the release from nocodazole block, the cell cycle of hESC normalised, but no increase in the expression of transcription markers Nanog and Oct4 was detected. In addition...

  14. Manipulating heat shock protein expression in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, J Keith; Roberts, Stephen M

    2005-02-01

    Upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) has been observed to impart resistance to a wide variety of physical and chemical insults. Elucidation of the role of Hsps in cellular defense processes depends, in part, on the ability to manipulate Hsp expression in laboratory animals. Simple methods of inducing whole body hyperthermia, such as warm water immersion or heating pad application, are effective in producing generalized expression of Hsps. Hsps can be upregulated locally with focused direct or indirect heating, such as with ultrasound or with laser or microwave radiation. Increased Hsp expression in response to toxic doses of xenobiotics has been commonly observed. Some pharmacologic agents are capable of altering Hsps more specifically by affecting processes involved in Hsp regulation. Gene manipulation offers the ability to selectively increase or decrease individual Hsps. Knockout mouse strains and Hsp-overexpressing transgenics have been used successfully to examine the role of specific Hsps in protection against hyperthermia, chemical insults, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Gene therapy approaches also offer the possibility of selective alteration of Hsp expression. Some methods of increasing Hsp expression have application in specialized areas of research, such cold response, myocardial protection from exercise, and responses to stressful or traumatic stimuli. Each method of manipulating Hsp expression in laboratory animals has advantages and disadvantages, and selection of the best method depends upon the experimental objectives (e.g., the alteration in Hsp expression needed, its timing, and its location) and resources available.

  15. Decreased expression of LATS1 is correlated with the progression and prognosis of glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Tianhai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LATS1 is a tumor suppressor genes implicated in the pathogenesis of certain types of tumors, but its role is not known in human glioma. Methods Using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, we detected the mRNA and protein expression of LATS1 in glioma. The effect of LATS1 on cell growth and invasion were investigated. Results We found that mRNA and protein of LATS1 expression is significantly downregulated in glioma compared with normal control brain tissues. Furthermore, reduced LATS1 expression was markedly negatively correlated with WHO grade and KPS (p Conclusion These results indicate that LATS1 is an important candidate tumor suppressor and its downregulated expression may contribute to glioma progression.

  16. Intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed in developing meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yay, A; Ozdamar, S; Canoz, O; Baran, M; Tucer, B; Sonmez, M F

    2014-01-01

    Nestin is a type VI intermediate filament protein known as a marker for progenitor cells that can be mostly found in tissues during the embryonic and fetal periods. In our study, we aimed to determine the expression of nestin in meninges covering the brain tissue at different developmental stages and in the new born. In this study 10 human fetuses in different development stages between developmental weeks 9-34 and a newborn brain tissue were used. Fetuses in paraffin section were stained with H+E and nestin immunohistochemical staining protocol was performed. In this study, in the human meninges intense nestin expression was detected as early as in the 9th week of development. Intensity of this expression gradually decreased in later stages of development and nestin expression still persisted in a small population of newborn meningeal cells. In the present study, nestin positive cells gradually diminished in the developing and maturing meninges during the fetal period. This probably depends on initiation of a decrease in nestin expression and replacement with other tissue-specific intermediate filaments while the differentiation process continues. These differences can make significant contributions to the investigation and diagnosis of various pathological disorders (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 36).

  17. Decreased expression of Beclin 1 correlates closely with Bcl-xL expression and poor prognosis of ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Xin Lin

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that autophagy-related Beclin 1 plays a critical role in the regulation of tumor development and/or progression, but its prognostic significance and relationship with Bcl-xL expression in ovarian carcinoma are unclear.In the present study, the methods of Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC were utilized to investigate the expression status of Beclin 1 and Bcl-xL in fresh ovarian tissues and paraffin-embedded epithelial ovarian tumor tissues. Decreased expression of Beclin 1 was examined by IHC in 8.3% of normal ovaries, in 15.4% of cystadenomas, in 20.0% of borderline tumors, and in 55.6% of ovarian carcinomas, respectively. In ovarian carcinomas, decreased expression of Beclin 1 was correlated closely with ascending histological grade, later pT/pN/pM status and/or advanced clinical stage (P<0.05. In univariate survival analysis, a highly significant association between low-expressed Beclin 1 and shortened patient survival was evaluated in ovarian carcinoma patients (P<0.01, and Beclin 1 expression was an independent prognostic factor as evidenced by multivariate analysis (P = 0.013. In addition, decreased expression of Beclin 1 was inversely correlated with altered expression of Bcl-xL in ovarian carcinoma cohort, and combined analysis further showed that the low Beclin 1/high Bcl-xL group had the lowest survival rate.Our findings suggest that Beclin 1 expression, as examined by IHC, could be served as an additional tool in identifying ovarian carcinoma patients at risk of tumor progression, and predicting patient survival in ovarian carcinomas with increased expression of Bcl-xL.

  18. Low-Concentration Tributyltin Decreases GluR2 Expression via Nuclear Respiratory Factor-1 Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Keishi; Aoki, Kaori; Takishita, Tomoko; Miyara, Masatsugu; Sakamoto, Shuichiro; Sanoh, Seigo; Kimura, Tomoki; Kanda, Yasunari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro

    2017-08-11

    Tributyltin (TBT), which has been widely used as an antifouling agent in paints, is a common environmental pollutant. Although the toxicity of high-dose TBT has been extensively reported, the effects of low concentrations of TBT are relatively less well studied. We have previously reported that low-concentration TBT decreases α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 ( GluR2 ) expression in cortical neurons and enhances neuronal vulnerability to glutamate. However, the mechanism of this TBT-induced GluR2 decrease remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of TBT on the activity of transcription factors that control GluR2 expression. Exposure of primary cortical neurons to 20 nM TBT for 3 h to 9 days resulted in a decrease in GluR2 mRNA expression. Moreover, TBT inhibited the DNA binding activity of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a transcription factor that positively regulates the GluR2 . This result indicates that TBT inhibits the activity of NRF-1 and subsequently decreases GluR2 expression. In addition, 20 nM TBT decreased the expression of genes such as cytochrome c, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) 4, and COX 6c, which are downstream of NRF-1. Our results suggest that NRF-1 inhibition is an important molecular action of the neurotoxicity induced by low-concentration TBT.

  19. Low-Concentration Tributyltin Decreases GluR2 Expression via Nuclear Respiratory Factor-1 Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Keishi; Aoki, Kaori; Takishita, Tomoko; Miyara, Masatsugu; Sakamoto, Shuichiro; Sanoh, Seigo; Kimura, Tomoki; Kanda, Yasunari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), which has been widely used as an antifouling agent in paints, is a common environmental pollutant. Although the toxicity of high-dose TBT has been extensively reported, the effects of low concentrations of TBT are relatively less well studied. We have previously reported that low-concentration TBT decreases α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) expression in cortical neurons and enhances neuronal vulnerability to glutamate. However, the mechanism of this TBT-induced GluR2 decrease remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of TBT on the activity of transcription factors that control GluR2 expression. Exposure of primary cortical neurons to 20 nM TBT for 3 h to 9 days resulted in a decrease in GluR2 mRNA expression. Moreover, TBT inhibited the DNA binding activity of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a transcription factor that positively regulates the GluR2. This result indicates that TBT inhibits the activity of NRF-1 and subsequently decreases GluR2 expression. In addition, 20 nM TBT decreased the expression of genes such as cytochrome c, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) 4, and COX 6c, which are downstream of NRF-1. Our results suggest that NRF-1 inhibition is an important molecular action of the neurotoxicity induced by low-concentration TBT. PMID:28800112

  20. Protein phosphatases decrease their activity during capacitation: a new requirement for this event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janetti R Signorelli

    Full Text Available There are few reports on the role of protein phosphatases during capacitation. Here, we report on the role of PP2B, PP1, and PP2A during human sperm capacitation. Motile sperm were resuspended in non-capacitating medium (NCM, Tyrode's medium, albumin- and bicarbonate-free or in reconstituted medium (RCM, NCM plus 2.6% albumin/25 mM bicarbonate. The presence of the phosphatases was evaluated by western blotting and the subcellular localization by indirect immunofluorescence. The function of these phosphatases was analyzed by incubating the sperm with specific inhibitors: okadaic acid, I2, endothall, and deltamethrin. Different aliquots were incubated in the following media: 1 NCM; 2 NCM plus inhibitors; 3 RCM; and 4 RCM plus inhibitors. The percent capacitated sperm and phosphatase activities were evaluated using the chlortetracycline assay and a phosphatase assay kit, respectively. The results confirm the presence of PP2B and PP1 in human sperm. We also report the presence of PP2A, specifically, the catalytic subunit and the regulatory subunits PR65 and B. PP2B and PP2A were present in the tail, neck, and postacrosomal region, and PP1 was present in the postacrosomal region, neck, middle, and principal piece of human sperm. Treatment with phosphatase inhibitors rapidly (≤1 min increased the percent of sperm depicting the pattern B, reaching a maximum of ∼40% that was maintained throughout incubation; after 3 h, the percent of capacitated sperm was similar to that of the control. The enzymatic activity of the phosphatases decreased during capacitation without changes in their expression. The pattern of phosphorylation on threonine residues showed a sharp increase upon treatment with the inhibitors. In conclusion, human sperm express PP1, PP2B, and PP2A, and the activity of these phosphatases decreases during capacitation. This decline in phosphatase activities and the subsequent increase in threonine phosphorylation may be an important

  1. Cigarette smoking decreases global microRNA expression in human alveolar macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel W Graff

    Full Text Available Human alveolar macrophages are critical components of the innate immune system. Cigarette smoking-induced changes in alveolar macrophage gene expression are linked to reduced resistance to pulmonary infections and to the development of emphysema/COPD. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs could control, in part, the unique messenger RNA (mRNA expression profiles found in alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers. Activation of macrophages with different stimuli in vitro leads to a diverse range of M1 (inflammatory and M2 (anti-inflammatory polarized phenotypes that are thought to mimic activated macrophages in distinct tissue environments. Microarray mRNA data indicated that smoking promoted an "inverse" M1 mRNA expression program, defined by decreased expression of M1-induced transcripts and increased expression of M1-repressed transcripts with few changes in M2-regulated transcripts. RT-PCR arrays identified altered expression of many miRNAs in alveolar macrophages of smokers and a decrease in global miRNA abundance. Stratification of human subjects suggested that the magnitude of the global decrease in miRNA abundance was associated with smoking history. We found that many of the miRNAs with reduced expression in alveolar macrophages of smokers were predicted to target mRNAs upregulated in alveolar macrophages of smokers. For example, miR-452 is predicted to target the transcript encoding MMP12, an important effector of smoking-related diseases. Experimental antagonism of miR-452 in differentiated monocytic cells resulted in increased expression of MMP12. The comprehensive mRNA and miRNA expression profiles described here provide insight into gene expression regulation that may underlie the adverse effects cigarette smoking has on alveolar macrophages.

  2. Nickel decreases cellular iron level and converts cytosolic aconitase to iron-regulatory protein 1 in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haobin; Davidson, Todd; Singleton, Steven; Garrick, Michael D.; Costa, Max

    2005-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are well-established carcinogens and are known to initiate a hypoxic response in cells via the stabilization and transactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). This change may be the consequence of nickel's interference with the function of several Fe(II)-dependent enzymes. In this study, the effects of soluble nickel exposure on cellular iron homeostasis were investigated. Nickel treatment decreased both mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase) activity in A549 cells. Cytosolic aconitase was converted to iron-regulatory protein 1, a form critical for the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. The increased activity of iron-regulatory protein 1 after nickel exposure stabilized and increased transferrin receptor (Tfr) mRNA and antagonized the iron-induced ferritin light chain protein synthesis. The decrease of aconitase activity after nickel treatment reflected neither direct interference with aconitase function nor obstruction of [4Fe-4S] cluster reconstitution by nickel. Exposure of A549 cells to soluble nickel decreased total cellular iron by about 40%, a decrease that likely caused the observed decrease in aconitase activity and the increase of iron-regulatory protein 1 activity. Iron treatment reversed the effect of nickel on cytosolic aconitase and iron-regulatory protein 1. To assess the mechanism for the observed effects, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over expressing divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) were compared to A549 cells expressing only endogenous transporters for inhibition of iron uptake by nickel. The inhibition data suggest that nickel can enter via DMT1 and compete with iron for entry into the cell. This disturbance of cellular iron homeostasis by nickel may have a great impact on the ability of the cell to regulate a variety of cell functions, as well as create a state of hypoxia in cells under normal oxygen tension. These effects may be very important in how nickel exerts phenotypic

  3. Complement factor H deficiency results in decreased neuroretinal expression of Cd59a in aged mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Williams, Jennifer; Juel, Helene Bæk

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The complement system is closely linked to the pathogenesis of AMD. Several complement genes are expressed in RPE, and complement proteins accumulate in drusen. Further, a common variant of complement factor H (CFH) confers increased risk of developing AMD. Because the mechanisms by which...

  4. Minoxidil specifically decreases the expression of lysine hydroxylase in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, T; Heikkinen, J; Kivirikko, K I; Myllylä, R

    1992-01-01

    The levels of lysine hydroxylase protein and the levels of the mRNAs for lysine hydroxylase and the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase were measured in cultured human skin fibroblasts treated with 1 mM-minoxidil. The data demonstrate that minoxidil decreases the amount of lysine hydroxylase protein, this being due to a decrease in the level of lysine hydroxylase mRNA. The effect of minoxidil appears to be highly specific, as no changes were observed in the amounts of mRNAs for the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1314568

  5. Recombinant Expression Screening of P. aeruginosa Bacterial Inner Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Constance J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmembrane proteins (TM proteins make up 25% of all proteins and play key roles in many diseases and normal physiological processes. However, much less is known about their structures and molecular mechanisms than for soluble proteins. Problems in expression, solubilization, purification, and crystallization cause bottlenecks in the characterization of TM proteins. This project addressed the need for improved methods for obtaining sufficient amounts of TM proteins for determining their structures and molecular mechanisms. Results Plasmid clones were obtained that encode eighty-seven transmembrane proteins with varying physical characteristics, for example, the number of predicted transmembrane helices, molecular weight, and grand average hydrophobicity (GRAVY. All the target proteins were from P. aeruginosa, a gram negative bacterial opportunistic pathogen that causes serious lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis. The relative expression levels of the transmembrane proteins were measured under several culture growth conditions. The use of E. coli strains, a T7 promoter, and a 6-histidine C-terminal affinity tag resulted in the expression of 61 out of 87 test proteins (70%. In this study, proteins with a higher grand average hydrophobicity and more transmembrane helices were expressed less well than less hydrophobic proteins with fewer transmembrane helices. Conclusions In this study, factors related to overall hydrophobicity and the number of predicted transmembrane helices correlated with the relative expression levels of the target proteins. Identifying physical characteristics that correlate with protein expression might aid in selecting the "low hanging fruit", or proteins that can be expressed to sufficient levels using an E. coli expression system. The use of other expression strategies or host species might be needed for sufficient levels of expression of transmembrane proteins with other physical

  6. Aversive odorant causing appetite decrease downregulates tyrosine decarboxylase gene expression in the olfactory receptor neuron of the blowfly, Phormia regina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2012-01-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, exposure to d-limonene for 5 days during feeding inhibits proboscis extension reflex behavior due to decreasing tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. TA is synthesized by tyrosine decarboxylase (Tdc) and catalyzed into octopamine (OA) by TA ß-hydroxylase (Tbh). To address the mechanisms of TA titer regulation in the blowfly, we cloned Tdc and Tbh cDNAs from P. regina (PregTdc and PregTbh). The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high identity to those of the corresponding proteins from Drosophila melanogaster at the amino acid level. PregTdc was expressed in the antenna, labellum, and tarsus whereas PregTbh was expressed in the head, indicating that TA is mainly synthesized in the sensory organs whereas OA is primarily synthesized in the brain. d-Limonene exposure significantly decreased PregTdc expression in the antenna but not in the labellum and the tarsus, indicating that PregTdc expressed in the antenna is responsible for decreasing TA titer. PregTdc-like immunoreactive material was localized in the thin-walled sensillum. In contrast, the OA/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR) was localized to the thick-walled sensillum. The results indicated that d-limonene inhibits PregTdc expression in the olfactory receptor neurons in the thin-walled sensilla, likely resulting in reduced TA levels in the receptor neurons in the antenna. TA may be transferred from the receptor neuron to the specific synaptic junction in the antennal lobe of the brain through the projection neurons and play a role in conveying the aversive odorant information to the projection and local neurons.

  7. CXCL10 Decreases GP73 Expression in Hepatoma Cells at the Early Stage of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Golgi protein 73 (GP73, which is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, has recently been identified as a novel serum marker for HCC diagnosis. Several reports also noted the increased levels of GP73 expression in chronic liver disease in patients with acute hepatitis of various etiologies, chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and alcoholic liver disease. The molecular mechanisms of GP73 expression in HCV related liver disease still need to be determined. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of HCV infection on GP73 expression. GP73 was highly expressed in Huh7, Hep3B, 293T and HUVEC cells, and was low-expressed in HepG2 cells. HCV infection led to down-regulation of GP73 in Huh7 and HepG2/CD81 cells at the early stage of infection. CXCL10 decreased GP73 expression in Huh7 and HepG2 cells. Up-regulation of GP73 was noted in hepatocytes with cytopathic effect at advanced stage of HCV infection, and further research is needed to determine the unknown factors affecting GP73 expression. In conclusion, our study provided additional evidence for the roles of GP73 in liver disease.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Tributyltin Decreases GluR2 Expression in the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Keishi; Saiki, Takashi; Umeda, Kanae; Miyara, Masatsugu; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a common environmental contaminant, is widely used as an antifouling agent in paint. We previously reported that exposure of primary cortical neurons to TBT in vitro decreased the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) expression and subsequently increased neuronal vulnerability to glutamate. Therefore, to identify whether GluR2 expression also decreases after TBT exposure in vivo, we evaluated the changes in GluR2 expression in the mouse brain after prenatal or postnatal exposure to 10 and 25 ppm TBT through pellet diets. Although the mean feed intake and body weight did not decrease in TBT-exposed mice compared with that in control mice, GluR2 expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus decreased after TBT exposure during the prenatal period. These results indicate that a decrease in neuronal GluR2 may be involved in TBT-induced neurotoxicity, especially during the fetal period.

  9. Neurofilament protein synthesis in DRG neurons decreases more after peripheral axotomy than after central axotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, S.G.; Lasek, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cytoskeletal protein synthesis was studied in DRG neurons after transecting either their peripheral or their central branch axons. Specifically, the axons were transected 5-10 mm from the lumbar-5 ganglion on one side of the animal; the DRGs from the transected side and contralateral control side were labeled with radiolabeled amino acids in vitro; radiolabeled proteins were separated by 2-dimensional (2D) PAGE; and the amounts of radiolabel in certain proteins of the experimental and control ganglia were quantified and compared. We focused on the neurofilament proteins because they are neuron-specific. If either the peripheral or central axons were cut, the amounts of radiolabeled neurofilament protein synthesized by the DRG neurons decreased between 1 and 10 d after transection. Neurofilament protein labeling decreased more after transection of the peripheral axons than after transection of the central axons. In contrast to axonal transections, sham operations or heat shock did not decrease the radiolabeling of the neurofilament proteins, and these procedures also affected the labeling of actin, tubulin, and the heat-shock proteins differently from transection. These results and others indicate that axonal transection leads to specific changes in the synthesis of cytoskeletal proteins of DRG neurons, and that these changes differ from those produced by stress to the animal or ganglia. Studies of the changes in neurofilament protein synthesis from 1 to 40 d after axonal transection indicate that the amounts of radiolabeled neurofilament protein synthesis were decreased during axonal elongation, but that they returned toward control levels when the axons reached cells that stopped elongation

  10. Soy compared with milk protein in a Western diet changes fecal microbiota and decreases hepatic steatosis in obese OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Schuster, Colin M; Phillips, Kathryn E; Meers, Grace M; Chintapalli, Sree V; Wankhade, Umesh D; Shankar, Kartik; Butteiger, Dustie N; Krul, Elaine S; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2017-08-01

    Soy protein is effective at preventing hepatic steatosis; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that soy vs. dairy protein-based diet would alter microbiota and attenuate hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. Male OLETF rats were randomized to "Western" diets containing milk protein isolate (MPI), soy protein isolate (SPI) or 50:50 MPI/SPI (MS) (n=9-10/group; 21% kcal protein) for 16 weeks. SPI attenuated (Pcontent, and hepatic 16:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-7 PUFA concentrations) (Pbacterial 16S rRNA analysis revealed SPI-intake elicited increases (P<.05) in Lactobacillus and decreases (P<.05) in Blautia and Lachnospiraceae suggesting decreases in fecal secondary bile acids in SPI rats. SPI and MS exhibited greater (P<.05) hepatic Fxr, Fgfr4, Hnf4a, HmgCoA reductase and synthase mRNA expression compared with MPI. Overall, dietary SPI compared with MPI decreased hepatic steatosis and diacylglycerols, changed microbiota populations and altered bile acid signaling and cholesterol homeostasis in a rodent model of obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in chlamydomonas chloroplast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2010-03-16

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery or proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  12. Decreased NOS1 expression in the anterior cingulate cortex in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Shang-Feng; Qi, Xin-Rui; Zhao, Juan; Balesar, Rawien; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucially involved in the pathogenesis of depression. A key role of nitric oxide (NO) has also been proposed. We aimed to determine the NO content in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the expression of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, that is,

  13. Decreased insulin secretion in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijun; Ho, Eric; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yechoor, Vijay; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy leads to reduced plasma insulin levels in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Glucose is the primary insulin secretagogue, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells contributes to compensation for insulin resistance and maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma insulin levels in pregnant rats fed LP diet are reduced due to disrupted GSIS of pancreatic islets. We first confirmed reduced plasma insulin levels, then investigated in vivo insulin secretion by glucose tolerance test and ex vivo GSIS of pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose at different doses, and KCl, glibenclamide, and L-arginine. Main findings include (1) plasma insulin levels were unaltered on day 10, but significantly reduced on days 14-22 of pregnancy in rats fed LP diet compared to those of control (CT) rats; (2) insulin sensitivity was unchanged, but glucose intolerance was more severe in pregnant rats fed LP diet; (3) GSIS in pancreatic islets was lower in LP rats compared to CT rats in the presence of glucose, KCl, and glibenclamide, and the response to L-arginine was abolished in LP rats; and (4) the total insulin content in pancreatic islets and expression of Ins2 were reduced in LP rats, but expression of Gcg was unaltered. These studies demonstrate that decreased GSIS in beta cells of LP rats contributes to reduced plasma insulin levels, which may lead to placental and fetal growth restriction and programs hypertension and other metabolic diseases in offspring. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Decreased Expression of Semaphorin3A/Neuropilin-1 Signaling Axis in Apical Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apical periodontitis (AP is a chronic infection of endodontic origin accompanied with bone destruction around the apical region. Semaphorin3A (Sema3A and neuropilin-1 (Nrp1 are regarded as a pair of immune regulators in bone metabolism. In this study, we firstly investigated the expression pattern of Sema3A/Nrp1 in apical periodontitis and its correlation with bone destruction. Using rat animal model, we analysed the level of mandibular bone destruction and the expression of Sema3A/Nrp1 on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after pulp exposure. In addition, clinical samples from apical periodontitis patients were obtained to analyse the expression of Sema3A/Nrp1. These results indicated that the bone destruction level expanded from days 7 to 35. The number of positive cells and level of mRNA expression of Sema3A/Nrp1 were significantly decreased from days 7 to 35, with a negative correlation with bone destruction. Moreover, expression of Sema3A/Nrp1 in the AP group was reduced compared to the control group of clinical samples. In conclusion, decreased expression of Sema3A/Nrp1 was observed in periapical lesions and is potentially involved in the bone resorption of the periapical area, suggesting that Sema3A/Nrp1 may contribute to the pathological development of apical periodontitis.

  15. Decreased Hsp90 expression in infiltrative lobular carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagouri, Flora; Patsouris, Effstratios; Zografos, George; Sergentanis, Theodoros; Nonni, Afrodite; Papadimitriou, Christos; Pazaiti, Anastasia; Michalopoulos, Nikolaos V; Safioleas, Panagiotis; Lazaris, Andreas; Theodoropoulos, George

    2010-01-01

    Elevated Hsp90 expression has been documented in breast ductal carcinomas, whereas decreased Hsp90 expression has been reported in precursor lobular lesions. This study aims to assess Hsp90 expression in infiltrative lobular carcinomas of the breast. Tissue specimens were taken from 32 patients with infiltrative lobular carcinoma. Immunohistochemical assessment of Hsp90 was performed both in the lesion and the adjacent normal breast ducts and lobules; the latter serving as control. Concerning Hsp90 assessment: i) the percentage of positive cells and ii) the intensity were separately analyzed. Subsequently, the Allred score was adopted and calculated. The intensity was treated as an ordinal variable-score (0: negative, low: 1, moderate: 2, high: 3). Statistical analysis followed. All infiltrative lobular carcinoma foci mainly presented with a positive cytoplasmic immunoreaction for Hsp90. Compared to the adjacent normal ducts and lobules, infiltrative lobular carcinoma exhibited a statistically significant decrease in Hsp90 expression, both in terms of Hsp90 positive cells (%) and Allred score (74.2 ± 11.2 vs. 59.1 ± 14.2 p = 0.0001; 7.00 ± 0.95 vs. 6.22 ± 1.01, p = 0.007, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test). Concerning the intensity of Hsp90 immunostaining only a marginal decrease was noted (2.16 ± 0.68 vs. 1.84 ± 0.63, p = 0.087, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test). ILC lesions seem to exhibit decreased Hsp90 expression, a finding contrary to what might have been expected, given that high Hsp90 expression is a trait of invasive ductal carcinomas

  16. Decreased Hsp90 expression in infiltrative lobular carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagouri Flora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated Hsp90 expression has been documented in breast ductal carcinomas, whereas decreased Hsp90 expression has been reported in precursor lobular lesions. This study aims to assess Hsp90 expression in infiltrative lobular carcinomas of the breast. Methods Tissue specimens were taken from 32 patients with infiltrative lobular carcinoma. Immunohistochemical assessment of Hsp90 was performed both in the lesion and the adjacent normal breast ducts and lobules; the latter serving as control. Concerning Hsp90 assessment: i the percentage of positive cells and ii the intensity were separately analyzed. Subsequently, the Allred score was adopted and calculated. The intensity was treated as an ordinal variable-score (0: negative, low: 1, moderate: 2, high: 3. Statistical analysis followed. Results All infiltrative lobular carcinoma foci mainly presented with a positive cytoplasmic immunoreaction for Hsp90. Compared to the adjacent normal ducts and lobules, infiltrative lobular carcinoma exhibited a statistically significant decrease in Hsp90 expression, both in terms of Hsp90 positive cells (% and Allred score (74.2 ± 11.2 vs. 59.1 ± 14.2 p = 0.0001; 7.00 ± 0.95 vs. 6.22 ± 1.01, p = 0.007, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Concerning the intensity of Hsp90 immunostaining only a marginal decrease was noted (2.16 ± 0.68 vs. 1.84 ± 0.63, p = 0.087, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Conclusion ILC lesions seem to exhibit decreased Hsp90 expression, a finding contrary to what might have been expected, given that high Hsp90 expression is a trait of invasive ductal carcinomas.

  17. Increased Protein Stability and Decreased Protein Turnover in the Caenorhabditis elegans Ins/IGF-1 daf-2 Mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depuydt, Geert; Shanmugam, Nilesh; Rasulova, Madina; Dhondt, Ineke; Braeckman, Bart P

    2016-12-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, cellular proteostasis is likely essential for longevity. Autophagy has been shown to be essential for lifespan extension of daf-2 insulin/IGF mutants. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that daf-2 mutants achieve this phenotype by increasing protein turnover. However, such a mechanism would exert a substantial energy cost. By using classical 35 S pulse-chase labeling, we observed that protein synthesis and degradation rates are decreased in young adults of the daf-2 insulin/IGF mutants. Although reduction of protein turnover may be energetically favorable, it may lead to accumulation and aggregation of damaged proteins. As this has been shown not to be the case in daf-2 mutants, another mechanism must exist to maintain proteostasis in this strain. We observed that proteins isolated from daf-2 mutants are more soluble in acidic conditions due to increased levels of trehalose. This suggests that trehalose may decrease the potential for protein aggregation and increases proteostasis in the daf-2 mutants. We postulate that daf-2 mutants save energy by decreasing protein turnover rates and instead stabilize their proteome by trehalose. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea decreases central nervous system-derived proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yo-El S; Finn, Mary Beth; Sutphen, Courtney L; Herries, Elizabeth M; Jerome, Gina M; Ladenson, Jack H; Crimmins, Daniel L; Fagan, Anne M; Holtzman, David M

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that one mechanism underlying the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease is OSA leading to decreased slow wave activity (SWA), increased synaptic activity, decreased glymphatic clearance, and increased amyloid-β. Polysomnography and lumbar puncture were performed in OSA and control groups. SWA negatively correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β-40 among controls and was decreased in the OSA group. Unexpectedly, amyloid-β-40 was decreased in the OSA group. Other neuronally derived proteins, but not total protein, were also decreased in the OSA group, suggesting that OSA may affect the interaction between interstitial and cerebrospinal fluid. Ann Neurol 2016;80:154-159. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  19. Differential protein expression in alligator leukocytes in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Mark; Kinney, Clint; Sanders, Paige

    2009-12-01

    Blood was collected from three juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) before, and again 24h after, injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The leukocytes were collected from both samples, and the proteins were extracted. Each group of proteins was labeled with a different fluorescent dye and the differences in protein expression were analyzed by two dimensional differential in-gel expressions (2D-DIGE). The proteins which appeared to be increased or decreased by treatment with LPS were selected and analyzed by MALDI-TOF to determine mass and LC-MS/MS to acquire the partial protein sequences. The peptide sequences were compared to the NCBI protein sequence database to determine homology with other sequences from other species. Several proteins of interest appeared to be increased upon LPS stimulation. Proteins with homology to human transgelin-2, fish glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, amphibian α-enolase, alligator lactate dehydrogenase, fish ubiquitin-activating enzyme, and fungal β-tubulin were also increased after LPS injection. Proteins with homology to fish vimentin 4, murine heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, and avian calreticulin were found to be decreased in response to LPS. In addition, five proteins, four of which were up-regulated (827, 560, 512, and 650%) and one that exhibited repressed expression (307%), did not show homology to any protein in the database, and thus may represent newly discovered proteins. We are using this biochemical approach to isolate and characterize alligator proteins with potential relevant immune function.

  20. The predictive nature of transcript expression levels on protein expression in adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2017-04-24

    Next generation sequencing methods are the gold standard for evaluating expression of the transcriptome. When determining the biological implications of such studies, the assumption is often made that transcript expression levels correspond to protein levels in a meaningful way. However, the strength of the overall correlation between transcript and protein expression is inconsistent, particularly in brain samples. Following high-throughput transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) and proteomic (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) analyses of adult human brain samples, we compared the correlation in the expression of transcripts and proteins that support various biological processes, molecular functions, and that are located in different areas of the cell. Although most categories of transcripts have extremely weak predictive value for the expression of their associated proteins (R 2 values of < 10%), transcripts coding for protein kinases and membrane-associated proteins, including those that are part of receptors or ion transporters, are among those that are most predictive of downstream protein expression levels. The predictive value of transcript expression for corresponding proteins is variable in human brain samples, reflecting the complex regulation of protein expression. However, we found that transcriptomic analyses are appropriate for assessing the expression levels of certain classes of proteins, including those that modify proteins, such as kinases and phosphatases, regulate metabolic and synaptic activity, or are associated with a cellular membrane. These findings can be used to guide the interpretation of gene expression results from primate brain samples.

  1. Laxative effect of repeated Daiokanzoto is attributable to decrease in aquaporin-3 expression in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Risako; Yamamura, Miho; Matsunaga, Yukari; Kimura, Hiroshi; Minami, Moe; Kato, Saki; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Daiokanzoto (DKT) exerts its laxative effect via colonic inflammation caused by sennoside A in Daio (rhubarb). Previously, we showed that the laxative effect of sennoside A is related to decreased aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expression in mucosal epithelial cells due to colonic inflammation. We also found that a combination of glycyrrhizin, an ingredient in Kanzo (glycyrrhiza), and sennoside A attenuates the inflammatory response induced by sennoside A and reduces its laxative effect. These findings indicate that DKT may be a long-term treatment for chronic constipation, but there is no evidence supporting this hypothesis. In this study, we analyzed the laxative effect of repeated DKT administration, focusing on AQP3 expression in the colon. After rats were treated for 7 days, decreased AQP3 expression and the onset of diarrhea were observed in the DKT group, but were not seen in the Daio group either. Although the relative abundance of gut microbiota after repeated DKT administration was similar to that after control treatment, Daio reduced Lactobacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Bacteroidaceae levels and markedly increased Lachnospiraceae levels. In this study, we show that DKT has a sustained laxative effect, even upon repeated use, probably because it maintains decreased AQP3 expression and gut microbiota homeostasis. This outcome therefore indicates that DKT can be used as a long-term treatment for chronic constipation.

  2. Decreased Expression of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Ocular Behcet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaokui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is involved in immune responses. AhR is activated following interaction with its ligands, such as 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ and 2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE. In this study, we investigated the role of AhR activation by its endogenous ligands in the pathogenesis of ocular Behcet’s disease (BD. The expression of AhR was significantly decreased in active BD patients as compared to inactive BD patients and normal controls. Both FICZ and ITE inhibited Th1 and Th17 polarization and induced the expression of IL-22 by PBMCs and by CD4+T cells in active BD patients and normal controls. Stimulation of purified CD4+T cells with FICZ or ITE caused a decreased expression of RORC, IL-17, IL-23R, and CCR6 and an increased phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5. The present study suggests that a decreased AhR expression is associated with disease activity in BD patients. The activation of AhR by either FICZ or ITE was able to inhibit Th1 and Th17 cell polarization. Further studies are needed to investigate whether modulation of AhR might be used in the treatment of BD.

  3. Decreased expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in ocular Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaokui; Ye, Zi; Kijlstra, Aize; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Peizeng

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is involved in immune responses. AhR is activated following interaction with its ligands, such as 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). In this study, we investigated the role of AhR activation by its endogenous ligands in the pathogenesis of ocular Behcet's disease (BD). The expression of AhR was significantly decreased in active BD patients as compared to inactive BD patients and normal controls. Both FICZ and ITE inhibited Th1 and Th17 polarization and induced the expression of IL-22 by PBMCs and by CD4(+)T cells in active BD patients and normal controls. Stimulation of purified CD4(+)T cells with FICZ or ITE caused a decreased expression of RORC, IL-17, IL-23R, and CCR6 and an increased phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5. The present study suggests that a decreased AhR expression is associated with disease activity in BD patients. The activation of AhR by either FICZ or ITE was able to inhibit Th1 and Th17 cell polarization. Further studies are needed to investigate whether modulation of AhR might be used in the treatment of BD.

  4. Is there any relationship between decreased AgNOR protein synthesis and human hair loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroz, R; Tasdemir, S; Dogan, H

    2012-11-01

    Argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region associated proteins (AgNORs) play roles in cell proliferation and a variety of diseases. We attempted to determine whether decreased NOR protein synthesis causes human hair loss. We studied 21 healthy males who suffered hair loss on the frontal/vertex portion of the head. Hair root cells from normal and hair loss sites were stained for AgNOR. One hundred nuclei per site were evaluated and the AgNOR number and NORa/TNa proportions of individual cells were determined using a computer program. The cells from normal sites had significantly higher AgNOR counts than those from hair loss sites. Also, the cells from the normal sites had significantly higher NORa/TNa than cells from the hair loss sites. In the normal sites, the cells demonstrated more NOR protein synthesis than cells in hair loss sites. Therefore, decreased NOR protein synthesis appears to be related to hair loss in humans.

  5. Decreased SAP expression in T cells from patients with SLE contributes to early signaling abnormalities and reduced IL-2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampetsou, Maria P.; Comte, Denis; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Terhorst, Cox; Kyttaris, Vasileios C.; Tsokos, George C.

    2016-01-01

    T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) display a number of functions including increased early signaling events following engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR). Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family (SLAMF) cell surface receptors and the X-chromosome-defined signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) adaptor are important in the development of several immunocyte lineages and modulating immune response. Here we present evidence that SAP protein levels are decreased in T cells and in their main subsets isolated from 32 women and 3 men with SLE independently of disease activity. In SLE T cells the SAP protein is also subject to increased degradation by a caspase-3. Forced expression of SAP in SLE T cells simultaneously heightened IL-2 production, calcium (Ca2+) responses and tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Exposure of normal T cells to SLE serum IgG, known to contain anti-CD3/TCR antibodies, resulted in SAP downregulation. We conclude that SLE T cells display reduced levels of the adaptor protein SAP probably as a result of continuous T cell activation and degradation by caspase-3. Restoration of SAP levels in SLE T cells corrects the overexcitable lupus T cell phenotype. PMID:27183584

  6. Efficient protein production method for NMR using soluble protein tags with cold shock expression vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kokoro; Kojima, Chojiro

    2010-01-01

    The E. coli protein expression system is one of the most useful methods employed for NMR sample preparation. However, the production of some recombinant proteins in E. coli is often hampered by difficulties such as low expression level and low solubility. To address these problems, a modified cold-shock expression system containing a glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag, the pCold-GST system, was investigated. The pCold-GST system successfully expressed 9 out of 10 proteins that otherwise could not be expressed using a conventional E. coli expression system. Here, we applied the pCold-GST system to 84 proteins and 78 proteins were successfully expressed in the soluble fraction. Three other cold-shock expression systems containing a maltose binding protein tag (pCold-MBP), protein G B1 domain tag (pCold-GB1) or thioredoxin tag (pCold-Trx) were also developed to improve the yield. Additionally, we show that a C-terminal proline tag, which is invisible in 1 H- 15 N HSQC spectra, inhibits protein degradation and increases the final yield of unstable proteins. The purified proteins were amenable to NMR analyses. These data suggest that pCold expression systems combined with soluble protein tags can be utilized to improve the expression and purification of various proteins for NMR analysis.

  7. Efficient protein production method for NMR using soluble protein tags with cold shock expression vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kokoro [Fujifilm Corporation, Analysis Technology Center (Japan); Kojima, Chojiro, E-mail: kojima@protein.osaka-u.ac.j [Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Graduate School of Biological Sciences (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The E. coli protein expression system is one of the most useful methods employed for NMR sample preparation. However, the production of some recombinant proteins in E. coli is often hampered by difficulties such as low expression level and low solubility. To address these problems, a modified cold-shock expression system containing a glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag, the pCold-GST system, was investigated. The pCold-GST system successfully expressed 9 out of 10 proteins that otherwise could not be expressed using a conventional E. coli expression system. Here, we applied the pCold-GST system to 84 proteins and 78 proteins were successfully expressed in the soluble fraction. Three other cold-shock expression systems containing a maltose binding protein tag (pCold-MBP), protein G B1 domain tag (pCold-GB1) or thioredoxin tag (pCold-Trx) were also developed to improve the yield. Additionally, we show that a C-terminal proline tag, which is invisible in {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N HSQC spectra, inhibits protein degradation and increases the final yield of unstable proteins. The purified proteins were amenable to NMR analyses. These data suggest that pCold expression systems combined with soluble protein tags can be utilized to improve the expression and purification of various proteins for NMR analysis.

  8. Expression of HSF2 decreases in mitosis to enable stress-inducible transcription and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsing, Alexandra N.; Aspelin, Camilla; Björk, Johanna K.; Bergman, Heidi A.; Himanen, Samu V.; Kallio, Marko J.; Roos-Mattjus, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Unless mitigated, external and physiological stresses are detrimental for cells, especially in mitosis, resulting in chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy, or apoptosis. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) maintain protein homeostasis and promote cell survival. Hsps are transcriptionally regulated by heat shock factors (HSFs). Of these, HSF1 is the master regulator and HSF2 modulates Hsp expression by interacting with HSF1. Due to global inhibition of transcription in mitosis, including HSF1-mediated expression of Hsps, mitotic cells are highly vulnerable to stress. Here, we show that cells can counteract transcriptional silencing and protect themselves against proteotoxicity in mitosis. We found that the condensed chromatin of HSF2-deficient cells is accessible for HSF1 and RNA polymerase II, allowing stress-inducible Hsp expression. Consequently, HSF2-deficient cells exposed to acute stress display diminished mitotic errors and have a survival advantage. We also show that HSF2 expression declines during mitosis in several but not all human cell lines, which corresponds to the Hsp70 induction and protection against stress-induced mitotic abnormalities and apoptosis. PMID:25202032

  9. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leifheit Erica C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. Methods MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA, anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Results Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376 secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. Conclusions This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma.

  10. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L; Leifheit, Erica C; Vera, Pedro L

    2004-01-01

    The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA), anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense) on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376) secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma

  11. Hydrostatic pressure decreases membrane fluidity and lipid desaturase expression in chondrocyte progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Kevin; Uchiyama, Hiroki; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2014-01-22

    Membrane biomechanical properties are critical in modulating nutrient and metabolite exchange as well as signal transduction. Biological membranes are predominantly composed of lipids, cholesterol and proteins, and their fluidity is tightly regulated by cholesterol and lipid desaturases. To determine whether such membrane fluidity regulation occurred in mammalian cells under pressure, we investigated the effects of pressure on membrane lipid order of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells and desaturase gene expression. Hydrostatic pressure linearly increased membrane lipid packing and simultaneously repressed lipid desaturase gene expression. We also showed that cholesterol mimicked and cholesterol depletion reversed those effects, suggesting that desaturase gene expression was controlled by the membrane physical state itself. This study demonstrates a new effect of hydrostatic pressure on mammalian cells and may help to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in hydrostatic pressure sensing in chondrocytes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lifespan decrease in a Caenorhabditis elegans mutant lacking TRX-1, a thioredoxin expressed in ASJ sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Fierro González, Juan Carlos; Gahmon, Gabriele; Burghoorn, Jan; Navas, Plácido; Swoboda, Peter

    2006-01-23

    Thioredoxins are a class of small proteins that play a key role in regulating many cellular redox processes. We report here the characterization of the first member of the thioredoxin family in metazoans that is mainly associated with neurons. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene B0228.5 encodes a thioredoxin (TRX-1) that is expressed in ASJ ciliated sensory neurons, and to some extent also in the posterior-most intestinal cells. TRX-1 is active at reducing protein disulfides in the presence of a heterologous thioredoxin reductase. A mutant worm strain carrying a null allele of the trx-1 gene displays a reproducible decrease in both mean and maximum lifespan when compared to wild-type. The identification and characterization of TRX-1 paves the way to use C. elegans as an in vivo model to study the role of thioredoxins in lifespan and nervous system physiology and pathology.

  13. Trps1 deficiency inhibits the morphogenesis of secondary hair follicles via decreased Noggin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yujing [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan Wen Hua Xi Road 44, Jinan 250012 (China); Nakanishi, Masako; Sato, Fuyuki; Oikawa, Kosuke [First Department of Pathology, Wakayama Medical University School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Muragaki, Yasuteru, E-mail: ymuragak@wakayama-med.ac.jp [First Department of Pathology, Wakayama Medical University School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Zhou, Gengyin, E-mail: zhougy@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan Wen Hua Xi Road 44, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • The number of secondary hair follicles is reduced by half in Trps1 KO embryonic skin compared to wild-type skin. • Noggin expression is significantly decreased and BMP signaling is promoted in Trps1 KO embryonic skin. • Treatment with a Noggin or BMP inhibitor rescued the decreased number of hair follicles in Trps1 KO skin graft cultures. • Cell proliferation and apoptosis of the epidermis were normalized by Noggin treatment. - Abstract: A representative phenotype of patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is sparse hair. To understand the developmental defects of these patient’s hair follicles, we analyzed the development of hair follicles histologically and biochemically using Trps1 deficient (KO) mice. First, we compared the numbers of primary hair follicles in wild-type (WT) and KO embryos at different developmental stages. No differences were observed in the E14.5 skins of WT and KO mice. However, at later time points, KO fetal skin failed to properly develop secondary hair follicles, and the number of secondary hair follicles present in E18.5 KO skin was approximately half compared to that of WT skin. Sonic hedgehog expression was significantly decreased in E17.5 KO skin, whereas no changes were observed in Eda/Edar expression in E14.5 or E17.5 skins. In addition, Noggin expression was significantly decreased in E14.5 and E17.5 KO skin compared to WT skin. In parallel with the suppression of Noggin expression, BMP signaling was promoted in the epidermal cells of KO skins compared to WT skins as determined by immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated Smad1/5/8. The reduced number of secondary hair follicles was restored in skin graft cultures treated with a Noggin and BMP inhibitor. Furthermore, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis in KO skin was rescued by Noggin treatment. Taken together, we conclude that hair follicle development in Trps1 KO embryos is impaired directly or indirectly by decreased Noggin

  14. Trps1 deficiency inhibits the morphogenesis of secondary hair follicles via decreased Noggin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yujing; Nakanishi, Masako; Sato, Fuyuki; Oikawa, Kosuke; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Zhou, Gengyin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The number of secondary hair follicles is reduced by half in Trps1 KO embryonic skin compared to wild-type skin. • Noggin expression is significantly decreased and BMP signaling is promoted in Trps1 KO embryonic skin. • Treatment with a Noggin or BMP inhibitor rescued the decreased number of hair follicles in Trps1 KO skin graft cultures. • Cell proliferation and apoptosis of the epidermis were normalized by Noggin treatment. - Abstract: A representative phenotype of patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is sparse hair. To understand the developmental defects of these patient’s hair follicles, we analyzed the development of hair follicles histologically and biochemically using Trps1 deficient (KO) mice. First, we compared the numbers of primary hair follicles in wild-type (WT) and KO embryos at different developmental stages. No differences were observed in the E14.5 skins of WT and KO mice. However, at later time points, KO fetal skin failed to properly develop secondary hair follicles, and the number of secondary hair follicles present in E18.5 KO skin was approximately half compared to that of WT skin. Sonic hedgehog expression was significantly decreased in E17.5 KO skin, whereas no changes were observed in Eda/Edar expression in E14.5 or E17.5 skins. In addition, Noggin expression was significantly decreased in E14.5 and E17.5 KO skin compared to WT skin. In parallel with the suppression of Noggin expression, BMP signaling was promoted in the epidermal cells of KO skins compared to WT skins as determined by immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated Smad1/5/8. The reduced number of secondary hair follicles was restored in skin graft cultures treated with a Noggin and BMP inhibitor. Furthermore, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis in KO skin was rescued by Noggin treatment. Taken together, we conclude that hair follicle development in Trps1 KO embryos is impaired directly or indirectly by decreased Noggin

  15. Decreased expression level of BER genes in Alzheimer's disease patients is not derivative of their DNA methylation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinska, Agnieszka; Sitarek, Przemysław; Toma, Monika; Czarny, Piotr; Synowiec, Ewelina; Krupa, Renata; Wigner, Paulina; Bialek, Katarzyna; Kwiatkowski, Dominik; Korycinska, Anna; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Szemraj, Janusz; Galecki, Piotr; Sliwinski, Tomasz

    2017-10-03

    Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease can be caused by accumulation of oxidative DNA damage resulting from altered expression of genes involved in the base excision repair system (BER). Promoter methylation can affect the profile of BER genes expression. Decreased expression of BER genes was observed in the brains of AD patients. The aim of our study was to compare the expression and methylation profiles of six genes coding for proteins involved in BER, namely: hOGG1, APE1, MUTYH, NEIL1, PARP1 and XRCC1, in the peripheral blood cells of AD patients and healthy volunteers. The study consisted of 100 persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease according to DSM-IV criteria, and 110 healthy volunteers. DNA and total RNA were isolated from venous blood cells. Promoter methylation profiles were obtained by High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis of bisulfide converted DNA samples. Real-time PCR with TaqMan probes was employed for gene expression analysis. APE1, hOGG1, MUTYH, PARP1 and NEIL1 were significantly (pgenes. The methylation status of promoters is not associated with downregulation of BER genes. Our results show that downregulation of BER genes detected in peripheral blood samples could reflect the changes occurring in the brain of patients with AD, and may be a useful biomarker of this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Administration of growth hormone in selectively protein-deprived rats decreases BMD and bone strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Patrick; Brennan, Tara C; Mekraldi, Samia; Aubert, Michel L; Rizzoli, René

    2010-06-01

    Isocaloric protein undernutrition is associated with decreased bone mass and decreased bone strength, together with lower IGF-I levels. It remains unclear whether administration of growth hormone (GH) corrects these alterations in bone metabolism. Six-month-old female rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 2.5% or 15% casein for 2 weeks. Bovine growth hormone (bGH, 0.5 or 2.5mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle was then administered as subcutaneous injections, twice daily, to rats on either diet for 4 weeks. At the proximal tibia, analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), maximal load and histomorphometry were performed. In addition, urinary deoxypyridinoline, plasma osteocalcin and IGF-I concentrations were measured. Weight was monitored weekly. bGH caused a dose-dependent increase in plasma IGF-I regardless of the dietary protein content. However, bGH dose-dependently decreased BMD and bone strength in rats fed the low-protein diet. There was no significant effect of bGH on BMD in rats fed the normal protein diet within this short-term treatment period, however bone formation as detected by histomorphometry was improved in this group but not the low-protein group. Osteoclast surface was increased in the low-protein bGH-treated animals only. Changes in bone turnover markers were detectable under both normal and low-protein diets. These results emphasize the major importance of dietary protein intake in the bone response to short-term GH administration, and highlight the need for further investigation into the effects of GH treatment in patients with reduced protein intake. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Decreased expression of the ARID1A gene is associated with poor prognosis in primary gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-dan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ARID1A gene encodes adenine-thymine (AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A, which participates in chromatin remodeling. ARID1A has been showed to function as a tumor suppressor in various cancer types. In the current study, we investigated the expression and prognosis value of ARID1A in primary gastric cancer. Meanwhile, the biological role of ARID1A was further investigated using cell model in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of ARID1A gene in primary gastric cancer pathogenesis, real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to examine the ARID1A expression in paired cancerous and noncancerous tissues. Results revealed decreased ARID1A mRNA (P = 0.0029 and protein (P = 0.0015 expression in most tumor-bearing tissues compared with the matched adjacent non-tumor tissues, and in gastric cancer cell lines. To further investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic roles of ARID1A expression, we performed immunohistochemical analyses of the 224 paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissue blocks. Data revealed that the loss of ARID1A expression was significantly correlated with T stage (P = 0.001 and grade (P = 0.006. Consistent with these results, we found that loss of ARID1A expression was significantly correlated with poor survival in gastric cancer patients (P = 0.003. Cox regression analyses showed that ARID1A expression was an independent predictor of overall survival (P = 0.029. Furthermore, the functions of ARID1A in the proliferation and colony formation of gastric cell lines were analyzed by transfecting cells with full-length ARID1A expression vector or siRNA targeting ARID1A. Restoring ARID1A expression in gastric cancer cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation. Silencing ARID1A expression in gastric epithelial cell line significantly enhanced cell growth rate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that ARID1A may play an important role

  18. Expression of a novel stress-inducible protein, sestrin 2, in rat glomerular parietal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamatani, Hiroko; Sakairi, Toru; Takahashi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuharu; Maeshima, Akito; Ohse, Takamoto; Pippin, Jeffery W.; Shankland, Stuart J.; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Sestrin 2, initially identified as a p53 target protein, accumulates in cells exposed to stress and inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. In normal rat kidneys, sestrin 2 was selectively expressed in parietal epithelial cells (PECs), identified by the marker protein gene product 9.5. In adriamycin nephropathy, sestrin 2 expression decreased in PECs on day 14, together with increased expression of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (P-S6RP), a downstream target of mTOR. Sestrin 2 expression was markedly decreased on day 42, coinciding with glomerulosclerosis and severe periglomerular fibrosis. In puromycin aminonucleoside nephropathy, decreased sestrin 2 expression, increased P-S6RP expression, and periglomerular fibrosis were observed on day 9, when massive proteinuria developed. These changes were transient and nearly normalized by day 28. In crescentic glomerulonephritis, sestrin 2 expression was not detected in cellular crescents, whereas P-S6RP increased. In conditionally immortalized cultured PECs, the forced downregulation of sestrin 2 by short hairpin RNA resulted in increased expression of P-S6RP and increased apoptosis. These data suggest that sestrin 2 is involved in PEC homeostasis by regulating the activity of mTOR. In addition, sestrin 2 could be a novel marker of PECs, and decreased expression of sestrin 2 might be a marker of PEC injury. PMID:25056347

  19. Ligand Binding Domain Protein in Tetracycline-Inducible Expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate tetracycline-inducible expression system for producing clinically usable, highquality liver X receptor ligand-binding domain recombinant protein. Methods: In this study, we have expressed and purified the recombinant liver X receptor β-ligand binding domain proteins in E. coli using a tetracycline ...

  20. Low-Concentration Tributyltin Decreases GluR2 Expression via Nuclear Respiratory Factor-1 Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Keishi; Aoki, Kaori; Takishita, Tomoko; Miyara, Masatsugu; Sakamoto, Shuichiro; Sanoh, Seigo; Kimura, Tomoki; Kanda, Yasunari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), which has been widely used as an antifouling agent in paints, is a common environmental pollutant. Although the toxicity of high-dose TBT has been extensively reported, the effects of low concentrations of TBT are relatively less well studied. We have previously reported that low-concentration TBT decreases ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) expression in cortical neurons and enhances neuronal vulnerability ...

  1. Curcumin-mediated decrease in the expression of nucleolar organizer regions in cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinska, Anna; Adamczyk, Jagoda; Pajak, Justyna; Stoklosa, Sylwia; Kubis, Barbara; Pastuszek, Paulina; Slota, Ewa; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin, the major yellow-orange pigment of turmeric derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is a highly pleiotropic molecule with the potential to modulate inflammation, oxidative stress, cell survival, cell secretion, homeostasis and proliferation. Curcumin, at relatively high concentrations, was repeatedly reported to be a potent inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells and thus considered a promising anticancer agent. In the present paper, the effects of low concentrations of curcumin on human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells were studied. We found curcumin-mediated decrease in the cell number and viability, and increase in apoptotic events and superoxide level. In contrast to previously shown curcumin cytotoxicity toward different cervical cancer lines, we observed toxic effects when even as low as 1 μM concentration of curcumin was used. Curcumin was not genotoxic to HeLa cells. Because argyrophilic nucleolar protein (AgNOR protein) expression is elevated in malignant cells compared to normal cells reflecting the rapidity of cancer cell proliferation, we evaluated curcumin-associated changes in size (area) and number of silver deposits. We showed curcumin-induced decrease in AgNOR protein pools, which may be mediated by global DNA hypermethylation observed after low concentration curcumin treatment. In summary, we have shown for the first time that curcumin at low micromolar range may be effective against HeLa cells, which may have implications for curcumin-based treatment of cervical cancer in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Amino acid repletion does not decrease muscle protein catabolism during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Dominic S C; Adeniyi, Oladipo; Dominic, Elizabeth A; Boivin, Michel A; McClelland, Sandra; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Morgan, Nancy; Gonzales, Lawrence; Wolfe, Robert; Ferrando, Arny

    2007-06-01

    Intradialytic protein catabolism is attributed to loss of amino acids in the dialysate. We investigated the effect of amino acid infusion during hemodialysis (HD) on muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport kinetics by using stable isotopes of phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine in eight patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Subjects were studied at baseline (pre-HD), 2 h of HD without amino acid infusion (HD-O), and 2 h of HD with amino acid infusion (HD+AA). Amino acid depletion during HD-O augmented the outward transport of amino acids from muscle into the vein. Increased delivery of amino acids to the leg during HD+AA facilitated the transport of amino acids from the artery into the intracellular compartment. Increase in muscle protein breakdown was more than the increase in synthesis during HD-O (46.7 vs. 22.3%, P HD-O compared with pre-HD (-33.7 +/- 1.5 vs. -6.0 +/- 2.3, P acids, the net balance (-16.9 +/- 1.8) did not switch from net release to net uptake. HD+AA induced a proportional increase in muscle protein synthesis and catabolism. Branched chain amino acid catabolism increased significantly from baseline during HD-O and did not decrease during HD+AA. Protein synthesis efficiency, the fraction of amino acid in the intracellular pool that is utilized for muscle protein synthesis decreased from 42.1% pre-HD to 33.7 and 32.6% during HD-O and HD+AA, respectively (P acid repletion during HD increased muscle protein synthesis but did not decrease muscle protein breakdown.

  3. Experimental Hyperthyroidism Decreases Gene Expression and Serum Levels of Adipokines in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Azevedo Melo Luvizotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Main Methods. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C—fed with commercial chow ad libitum—and obese (OB—fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T3/100 BW (OT. The T3 dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. Results. T3 treatment was effective, increasing fT3 levels and decreasing fT4 and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T3 promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Conclusions. Our results suggest that T3 modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T3 and adipokines in obesity.

  4. Experimental hyperthyroidism decreases gene expression and serum levels of adipokines in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Olímpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the influence of hyperthyroidism on the gene expression and serum concentration of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in obese animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C)-fed with commercial chow ad libitum-and obese (OB)-fed with a hypercaloric diet. After group characterization, the OB rats continued receiving a hypercaloric diet and were randomized into two groups: obese animals (OB) and obese with 25 μg triiodothyronine (T(3))/100 BW (OT). The T(3) dose was administered every day for the last 2 weeks of the study. After 30 weeks the animals were euthanized. Samples of blood and adipose tissue were collected for biochemical and hormonal analyses as well as gene expression of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. T(3) treatment was effective, increasing fT(3) levels and decreasing fT(4) and TSH serum concentration. Administration of T(3) promotes weight loss, decreases all fat deposits, and diminishes serum levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin by reducing their gene expression. Our results suggest that T(3) modulate serum and gene expression levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in experimental model of obesity, providing new insights regarding the relationship between T(3) and adipokines in obesity.

  5. Decreased liver triglyceride content in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during gestation and lactation: role of hepatic triglyceride utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Browne, Veron; Mendez-Garcia, Claudia; Yablonski, Elizabeth; Pontiggia, Laura; D'Mello, Anil P

    2015-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that protein restriction throughout gestation and lactation reduces liver triglyceride content in adult rat offspring. However, the mechanisms mediating the decrease in liver triglyceride content are not understood. The aim of the current study was to use a new group of pregnant animals and their offspring and determine the contribution of increased triglyceride utilization via the hepatic fatty-acid oxidation and triglyceride secretory pathways to the reduction in liver triglyceride content. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a low protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were weaned onto laboratory chow on day 28 and killed on day 65. Liver triglyceride content was reduced in male, but not female, low-protein offspring, both in the fed and fasted states. The reduction was accompanied by a trend towards higher liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a activity, suggesting increased fatty-acid transport into the mitochondrial matrix. However, medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity within the mitochondrial matrix, expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, and plasma levels of β-hydroxybutyrate were similar between low protein and control offspring, indicating a lack of change in fatty-acid oxidation. Hepatic triglyceride secretion, assessed by blocking peripheral triglyceride utilization and measuring serum triglyceride accumulation rate, and the activity of microsomal transfer protein, were similar between low protein and control offspring. Because enhanced triglyceride utilization is not a significant contributor, the decrease in liver triglyceride content in male low-protein offspring is likely due to alterations in liver fatty-acid transport or triglyceride biosynthesis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in response to Pb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response to Pb, a total of 76 proteins, out of the 95 differentially expressed proteins, were subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS Of these, 46 identities were identified by PMF and 19 identities were identified by microsequencing. Basic metabolisms such as photosynthesis, photorespiration and protein biosynthesis in C. roseus ...

  7. Decrease in PSCA expression caused by Helicobacter pylori infection may promote progression to severe gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Osamu; Tanikawa, Chizu; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Watanabe, Hidenobu; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Sakitani, Kosuke; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Kubo, Michiaki; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Seto, Yasuyuki; Matsuda, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    SNP rs2294008 in Prostate Stem Cell Antigen (PSCA) and decreased PSCA expression are associated with gastric cancer. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of rs2294008 and PSCA expression in the gastritis-gastric cancer carcinogenic pathway. We conducted a case-control association study of H. pylori-infected gastritis and gastric cancer. rs2294008 was associated with the progression to chronic active gastritis (P = 9.4 × 10–5; odds ratio = 3.88, TT + TC vs CC genotype), but not with H. pylori infection per se nor with the progression from active gastritis to gastric cancer. We also assessed the association of rs2294008 with PSCA mRNA expression in the gastric mucosa at various disease stages and found that rs2294008 was associated with PSCA expression (P = 1.3 × 10–12). H. pylori infection (P = 5.1 × 10–8) and eradication therapy (P gastritis compared with mild gastritis only among T allele carriers. Our findings revealed the regulation of PSCA expression by host genetic variation and bacterial infection might contribute to gastritis progression after H. pylori infection. PMID:29423095

  8. Nucleic acid programmable protein array a just-in-time multiplexed protein expression and purification platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Systematic study of proteins requires the availability of thousands of proteins in functional format. However, traditional recombinant protein expression and purification methods have many drawbacks for such study at the proteome level. We have developed an innovative in situ protein expression and capture system, namely NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array), where C-terminal tagged proteins are expressed using an in vitro expression system and efficiently captured/purified by antitag antibodies coprinted at each spot. The NAPPA technology presented in this chapter enable researchers to produce and display fresh proteins just in time in a multiplexed high-throughput fashion and utilize them for various downstream biochemical researches of interest. This platform could revolutionize the field of functional proteomics with it ability to produce thousands of spatially separated proteins in high density with narrow dynamic rand of protein concentrations, reproducibly and functionally. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolution, diversification and expression of KNOX proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The KNOX (KNOTTED1-like homeobox transcription factors play a pivotal role in leaf and meristem development. The majority of these proteins are characterized by the KNOX1, KNOX2, ELK and homeobox domains whereas the proteins of the KNATM family contain only the KNOX domains. We carried out an extensive inventory of these proteins and here report on a total of 394 KNOX proteins from 48 species. The land plant proteins fall into two classes (I and II as previously shown where the class I family seems to be most closely related to the green algae homologs. The KNATM proteins are restricted to Eudicots and some species have multiple paralogs of this protein. Certain plants are characterized by a significant increase in the number of KNOX paralogs; one example is Glycine max. Through the analysis of public gene expression data we show that the class II proteins of this plant have a relatively broad expression specificity as compared to class I proteins, consistent with previous studies of other plants. In G. max, class I protein are mainly distributed in axis tissues and KNATM paralogs are overall poorly expressed; highest expression is in the early plumular axis. Overall, analysis of gene expression in G. max demonstrates clearly that the expansion in gene number is associated with functional diversification.

  10. The 3' region of Human Papillomavirus type 16 early mRNAs decrease expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, J.; Rosenstierne, M.W.; Kristiansen, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Background: High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infects mucosal surfaces and HR-HPV infection is required for development of cervical cancer. Accordingly, enforced expression of the early HR-HPV proteins can induce immortalisation of human cells. In most cervical cancers and cervical cancer...... cell lines the HR-HPV double stranded DNA genome has been integrated into the host cell genome. Methods: We have used a retroviral GUS reporter system to generate pools of stably transfected HaCaT and SiHa cells. The HPV-16 early sequences that are deleted upon integration of the HPV-16 genome...

  11. Decreased expression of vitamin D receptors in neointimal lesions following coronary artery angioplasty in atherosclerotic swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav K Gupta

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, play a key role in the pathogenesis of occlusive vascular diseases. Activation of vitamin D receptors (VDR elicits both growth-inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the expression of TNF-α and VDR in post-angioplasty coronary artery neointimal lesions of hypercholesterolemic swine and examined the effect of vitamin D deficiency on the development of coronary restenosis. We also examined the effect of calcitriol on cell proliferation and effect of TNF-α on VDR activity and expression in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (PCASMCs in-vitro.Expression of VDR and TNF-α and the effect of vitamin D deficiency in post-angioplasty coronary arteries were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry. Cell proliferation was examined by thymidine and BrdU incorporation assays in cultured PCASMCs. Effect of TNF-α-stimulation on the activity and expression of VDR was analyzed by luciferase assay, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. In-vivo, morphometric analysis of the tissues revealed typical lesions with significant neointimal proliferation. Histological evaluation showed expression of smooth muscle α-actin and significantly increased expression of TNF-α in neointimal lesions. Interestingly, there was significantly decreased expression of VDR in PCASMCs of neointimal region compared to normal media. Indeed, post-balloon angioplasty restenosis was significantly higher in vitamin D-deficient hypercholesterolemic swine compared to vitamin D-sufficient group. In-vitro, calcitriol inhibited both serum- and PDGF-BB-induced proliferation in PCASMCs and TNF-α-stimulation significantly decreased the expression and activity of VDR in PCASMCs.These data suggest that significant downregulation of VDR in proliferating smooth muscle cells in neointimal lesions could be due to atherogenic cytokines, including TNF-α. Vitamin D deficiency potentiates the development of coronary

  12. Promoter Hypermethylation and Decreased Expression of Syncytin-1 in Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinsheng Lu

    Full Text Available Syncytin-1 is a member of human endogenous retroviral W gene family (HERVW1. Known to be expressed in human placental trophoblast, syncytin-1 protein mediates the fusion of cytotrophoblasts for the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts, the terminally differentiated form of trophoblast lineage. In addition, in vitro studies indicate that syncytin-1 possessed nonfusogenic functions such as those for immune suppression, cell cycle regulation and anti-apoptotic activities. Overexpression of syncytin-1 has been observed in various malignant tissues including breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers. It was reported that syncytin-1 gene expression is associated with dynamic changes of DNA hypomethylation in the 5' LTR. In this study, applying the real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry methods, we demonstrate a constitutive expression of syncytin-1 in normal pancreas tissues as well as normal tissues adjacent to cancer lesions. Moreover, a reduced expression is found in the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues. The expression levels of syncytin-1 are not correlated with the stage, historical grade and gender, but inversely correlated with patients' age. Furthermore, COBRA and bisulfite sequencing results indicated that the lower expression of syncytin-1 is correlated with the hypermethylation of two CpG dinucleotides in the 5' LTR of syncytin-1 gene. The nonfusogenic function of syncytin-1 in normal pancreas as well as its role(s in the pathogenesis and progression of pancreatic cancers remains to be investigated. Identification of the two CpG dinucleotides around transcription start site as key epigenetic elements has provided valuable information for further studies on the epigenetic regulation of syncytin-1 in pancreatic cancer cells.

  13. Major cancer protein amplifies global gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists may have discovered why a protein called MYC can provoke a variety of cancers. Like many proteins associated with cancer, MYC helps regulate cell growth. A new study carried out by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and colleagues

  14. Cocoa Enriched Diets Enhance Expression of Phosphatases and Decrease Expression of Inflammatory Molecules in Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Ryan J.; Durham, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of trigeminal nerves and release of neuropeptides that promote inflammation are implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. The overall response of trigeminal nerves to peripheral inflammatory stimuli involves a balance between enzymes that promote inflammation, kinases, and those that restore homeostasis, phosphatases. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of a cocoa-enriched diet on the expression of key inflammatory proteins in trigeminal ganglion neurons under basal and inflammatory conditions. Rats were fed a control diet or an isocaloric diet enriched in cocoa for 14 days prior to an injection of noxious stimuli to cause acute or chronic excitation of trigeminal neurons. In animals fed a cocoa-enriched diet, basal levels of the mitogen-activated kinase (MAP) phosphatases MKP-1 and MKP-3 were elevated in neurons. Importantly, the stimulatory effects of acute or chronic peripheral inflammation on neuronal expression of the MAPK p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) were significantly repressed in response to cocoa. Similarly, dietary cocoa significantly suppressed basal neuronal expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as well as stimulated levels of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), proteins implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine and TMJ disorders. To our knowledge, this is first evidence that a dietary supplement can cause upregulation of MKP, and that cocoa can prevent inflammatory responses in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that cocoa contains biologically active compounds that would be beneficial in the treatment of migraine and TMJ disorders. PMID:20138852

  15. Decreased expression of endogenous feline leukemia virus in cat lymphomas: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krunic, Milica; Ertl, Reinhard; Hagen, Benedikt; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; von Haeseler, Arndt; Klein, Dieter

    2015-04-10

    Cats infected with exogenous feline leukemia virus (exFeLV) have a higher chance of lymphoma development than uninfected cats. Furthermore, an increased exFeLV transcription has been detected in lymphomas compared to non-malignant tissues. The possible mechanisms of lymphoma development by exFeLV are insertional mutagenesis or persistent stimulation of host immune cells by viral antigens, bringing them at risk for malignant transformation. Vaccination of cats against exFeLV has in recent years decreased the overall infection rate in most countries. Nevertheless, an increasing number of lymphomas have been diagnosed among exFeLV-negative cats. Endogenous feline leukemia virus (enFeLV) is another retrovirus for which transcription has been observed in cat lymphomas. EnFeLV provirus elements are present in the germline of various cat species and share a high sequence similarity with exFeLV but, due to mutations, are incapable of producing infectious viral particles. However, recombination between exFeLV and enFeLV could produce infectious particles. We examined the FeLV expression in cats that have developed malignant lymphomas and discussed the possible mechanisms that could have induced malignant transformation. For expression analysis we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) and for validation reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). First, we showed that there was no expression of exFeLV in all samples, which eliminates the possibility of recombination between exFeLV and enFeLV. Next, we analyzed the difference in expression of three enFeLV genes between control and lymphoma samples. Our analysis showed an average of 3.40-fold decreased viral expression for the three genes in lymphoma compared to control samples. The results were confirmed by RT-qPCR. There is a decreased expression of enFeLV genes in lymphomas versus control samples, which contradicts previous observations for the exFeLV. Our results suggest that a persistent stimulation of host

  16. Missense mutation Lys18Asn in dystrophin that triggers X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy decreases protein stability, increases protein unfolding, and perturbs protein structure, but does not affect protein function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder M Singh

    Full Text Available Genetic mutations in a vital muscle protein dystrophin trigger X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLDCM. However, disease mechanisms at the fundamental protein level are not understood. Such molecular knowledge is essential for developing therapies for XLDCM. Our main objective is to understand the effect of disease-causing mutations on the structure and function of dystrophin. This study is on a missense mutation K18N. The K18N mutation occurs in the N-terminal actin binding domain (N-ABD. We created and expressed the wild-type (WT N-ABD and its K18N mutant, and purified to homogeneity. Reversible folding experiments demonstrated that both mutant and WT did not aggregate upon refolding. Mutation did not affect the protein's overall secondary structure, as indicated by no changes in circular dichroism of the protein. However, the mutant is thermodynamically less stable than the WT (denaturant melts, and unfolds faster than the WT (stopped-flow kinetics. Despite having global secondary structure similar to that of the WT, mutant showed significant local structural changes at many amino acids when compared with the WT (heteronuclear NMR experiments. These structural changes indicate that the effect of mutation is propagated over long distances in the protein structure. Contrary to these structural and stability changes, the mutant had no significant effect on the actin-binding function as evident from co-sedimentation and depolymerization assays. These results summarize that the K18N mutation decreases thermodynamic stability, accelerates unfolding, perturbs protein structure, but does not affect the function. Therefore, K18N is a stability defect rather than a functional defect. Decrease in stability and increase in unfolding decrease the net population of dystrophin molecules available for function, which might trigger XLDCM. Consistently, XLDCM patients have decreased levels of dystrophin in cardiac muscle.

  17. Rhythmic expression of DEC2 protein in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fuyuki; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Katsumi; Kato, Yukio; Zhang, Yanping

    2016-06-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor DEC2 (bHLHE41/Sharp1) is one of the clock genes that show a circadian rhythm in various tissues. DEC2 regulates differentiation, sleep length, tumor cell invasion and apoptosis. Although studies have been conducted on the rhythmic expression of DEC2 mRNA in various tissues, the precise molecular mechanism of DEC2 expression is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined whether DEC2 protein had a rhythmic expression. Western blot analysis for DEC2 protein revealed a rhythmic expression in mouse liver, lung and muscle and in MCF-7 and U2OS cells. In addition, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity (phosphorylation of AMPK) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibited a rhythmic expression under the condition of medium change or glucose-depleted medium. However, the rhythmic expression of DEC2 in MEF gradually decreased in time under these conditions. The medium change affected the levels of DEC2 protein and phosphorylation of AMPK. In addition, the levels of DEC2 protein showed a rhythmic expression in vivo and in MCF-7 and U2OS cells. The results showed that the phosphorylation of AMPK immunoreactivity was strongly detected in the liver and lung of DEC2 knockout mice compared with that of wild-type mice. These results may provide new insights into rhythmic expression and the regulation between DEC2 protein and AMPK activity.

  18. Protein Expression Analyses at the Single Cell Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masae Ohno

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma of molecular biology explains how genetic information is converted into its end product, proteins, which are responsible for the phenotypic state of the cell. Along with the protein type, the phenotypic state depends on the protein copy number. Therefore, quantification of the protein expression in a single cell is critical for quantitative characterization of the phenotypic states. Protein expression is typically a dynamic and stochastic phenomenon that cannot be well described by standard experimental methods. As an alternative, fluorescence imaging is being explored for the study of protein expression, because of its high sensitivity and high throughput. Here we review key recent progresses in fluorescence imaging-based methods and discuss their application to proteome analysis at the single cell level.

  19. Decreased Siglec-9 Expression on Natural Killer Cell Subset Associated With Persistent HBV Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Siglec-9 is an MHC-independent inhibitory receptor selectively expressed on CD56dim NK cells. Its role in infection diseases has not been investigated yet. Here, we studied the potential regulatory roles of NK Siglec-9 in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB infection. Flow cytometry evaluated the expression of Siglec-9 and other receptors on peripheral NK cells. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect Siglec-9 ligands on liver biopsy tissues and cultured hepatocyte cell lines. Siglec-9 blocking assay was carried out and cytokine synthesis and CD107a degranulation was detected by flow cytometry. Compared to healthy donors, CHB patients had decreased Siglec-9+ NK cells, which reversely correlated with serum hepatitis B e antigen and HBV DNA titer. Siglec-9 expression on NK cells from patients achieving sustained virological response recovered to the level of normal donors. Neutralization of Siglec-9 restored cytokine synthesis and degranulation of NK cells from CHB patients. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased expression of Siglec-9 ligands in liver biopsy tissues from CHB patients and in hepatocyte cell lines infected with HBV or stimulated with inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 or TGF-β. These findings identify Siglec-9 as a negative regulator for NK cells contributing to HBV persistence and the intervention of Siglec-9 signaling might be of potentially translational significance.

  20. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of leptospiral outer membrane protein expression in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Miranda; Cordwell, Stuart J; Bulach, Dieter M; Adler, Ben

    2009-12-08

    . interrogans to adapt to conditions encountered in the host and to cause disease. Our results suggest down-regulation of protein expression in response to temperature, and decreased expression of outer membrane proteins may facilitate minimal interaction with host immune mechanisms.

  1. Decreased adrenoceptor stimulation in heart failure rats reduces NGF expression by cardiac parasympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib; Smith, Peter G

    2014-04-01

    Postganglionic cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves are physically proximate in atrial cardiac tissue allowing reciprocal inhibition of neurotransmitter release, depending on demands from central cardiovascular centers or reflex pathways. Parasympathetic cardiac ganglion (CG) neurons synthesize and release the sympathetic neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), which may serve to maintain these close connections. In this study we investigated whether NGF synthesis by CG neurons is altered in heart failure, and whether norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons promotes NGF synthesis. NGF and proNGF immunoreactivity in CG neurons in heart failure rats following chronic coronary artery ligation was investigated. NGF immunoreactivity was decreased significantly in heart failure rats compared to sham-operated animals, whereas proNGF expression was unchanged. Changes in neurochemistry of CG neurons included attenuated expression of the cholinergic marker vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and increased expression of the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. To further investigate norepinephrine's role in promoting NGF synthesis, we cultured CG neurons treated with adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. An 82% increase in NGF mRNA levels was detected after 1h of isoproterenol (β-AR agonist) treatment, which increased an additional 22% at 24h. Antagonist treatment blocked isoproterenol-induced increases in NGF transcripts. In contrast, the α-AR agonist phenylephrine did not alter NGF mRNA expression. These results are consistent with β-AR mediated maintenance of NGF synthesis in CG neurons. In heart failure, a decrease in NGF synthesis by CG neurons may potentially contribute to reduced connections with adjacent sympathetic nerves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Decreased expression of LamB and Odp1 complex is crucial for antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang-min; Yang, Man-jun; Li, Hui; Wang, Chao; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2014-02-26

    We previously revealed a negative regulation of LamB in chlortetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli strain. In the present study, we first showed that the negative regulation, which was characterized by decreased abundance of LamB with elevated growth of its gene-deleted mutant in medium with antibiotics, was a general response in resistance to different classes of antibiotics using 2-DE based proteomics or/and genetically gene-deletion mutant of LamB. Then, we revealed the interaction of LamB and Odp1 which catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO2, and found the decrease of the complex in antibiotic-resistant strains with a minimum inhibitory concentration dose-dependent manner. Further spectrofluorometry assay indicated that LamB served as a porin to influx an antibiotic. Finally, we showed that the decreased expression of LamB and Odp1 was detected in almost of all 34 multidrug-resistant strains, which suggested that LamB and Odp1 were biomarkers for identification of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. Our results indicated that the interaction of an outer membrane protein with an energy metabolic enzyme constructed an efficient pathway to resist antibiotics. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Our data indicate that the negative regulation by LamB is widely detected in antibiotic-resistant E. coli. LamB serves as a porin to influx an antibiotic and is interacted with Odp1. The complex decreases in antibiotic-resistant strains with a MIC dose-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that interaction of outer membrane protein with energy metabolic enzyme constructs an efficient pathway to resist antibiotics and provides novel insights into the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ACAT1 deletion in murine macrophages associated with cytotoxicity and decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Annabelle; Ashen, M. Dominique; Chen, Edward S.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to some published studies of murine macrophages, we previously showed that ACAT inhibitors appeared to be anti-atherogenic in primary human macrophages in that they decreased foam cell formation without inducing cytotoxicity. Herein, we examined foam cell formation and cytotoxicity in murine ACAT1 knockout (KO) macrophages in an attempt to resolve the discrepancies. Elicited peritoneal macrophages from normal C57BL6 and ACAT1 KO mice were incubated with DMEM containing acetylated LDL (acLDL, 100 μg protein/ml) for 48 h. Cells became cholesterol enriched and there were no differences in the total cholesterol mass. Esterified cholesterol mass was lower in ACAT1 KO foam cells compared to normal macrophages (p 14 C]adenine from macrophages, was approximately 2-fold greater in ACAT1 KO macrophages as compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.0001), and this was independent of cholesterol enrichment. cDNA microarray analysis showed that ACAT1 KO macrophages expressed substantially less collagen type 3A1 (26-fold), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. Total collagen content was also significantly reduced (57%) in lung homogenates isolated from ACAT1 KO mice (p < 0.02). Thus, ACAT1 KO macrophages show biochemical changes consistent with increased cytotoxicity and also a novel association with decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

  4. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility is associated with decreased Hira expression in male Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are obligate endosymbiotic bacteria that infect numerous species of arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia can induce several reproductive phenotypes in their insect hosts including feminization, male-killing, parthenogenesis and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI. CI is the most common phenotype and occurs when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females resulting in no or very low numbers of viable offspring. However, matings between males and females infected with the same strain of Wolbachia result in viable progeny. Despite substantial scientific effort, the molecular mechanisms underlying CI are currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression studies were undertaken in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans which display differential levels of CI using quantitative RT-PCR. We show that Hira expression is correlated with the induction of CI and occurs in a sex-specific manner. Hira expression is significantly lower in males which induce strong CI when compared to males inducing no CI or Wolbachia-uninfected males. A reduction in Hira expression is also observed in 1-day-old males that induce stronger CI compared to 5-day-old males that induce weak or no CI. In addition, Hira mutated D. melanogaster males mated to uninfected females result in significantly decreased hatch rates comparing with uninfected crosses. Interestingly, wMel-infected females may rescue the hatch rates. An obvious CI phenotype with chromatin bridges are observed in the early embryo resulting from Hira mutant fertilization, which strongly mimics the defects associated with CI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest Wolbachia-induced CI in Drosophila occurs due to a reduction in Hira expression in Wolbachia-infected males leading to detrimental effects on sperm fertility resulting in embryo lethality. These results may help determine the underlying mechanism of CI and provide further insight in to the important role

  5. VEGF receptor expression decreases during lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia induced by nitrofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sbragia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in pulmonary vessels have been described in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH and may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension; however, how the expression of VEGF receptors changes during fetal lung development in CDH is not understood. The aim of this study was to compare morphological evolution with expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1 and VEGFR2 (Flk-1, in pseudoglandular, canalicular, and saccular stages of lung development in normal rat fetuses and in fetuses with CDH. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n=20 fetuses each of four different gestational days (GD 18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5: external control (EC, exposed to olive oil (OO, exposed to 100 mg nitrofen, by gavage, without CDH (N-, and exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH on GD 9.5 (term=22 days. The morphological variables studied were: body weight (BW, total lung weight (TLW, left lung weight, TLW/BW ratio, total lung volume, and left lung volume. The histometric variables studied were: left lung parenchymal area density and left lung parenchymal volume. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression were determined by Western blotting. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. CDH frequency was 37% (80/216. All the morphological and histometric variables were reduced in the N- and CDH groups compared with the controls, and reductions were more pronounced in the CDH group (P<0.05 and more evident on GD 20.5 and GD 21.5. Similar results were observed for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. We conclude that N- and CDH fetuses showed primary pulmonary hypoplasia, with a decrease in VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression.

  6. VEGF receptor expression decreases during lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia induced by nitrofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbragia, L. [Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nassr, A.C.C. [Departamento de Hidrobiologia do Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Hidrobiologia do Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, F.L.L. [Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Schmidt, A.F. [Pediatrics House Office, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA, Pediatrics House Office, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zuliani, C.C. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Garcia, P.V. [Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gallindo, R.M. [Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Pereira, L.A.V. [Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in pulmonary vessels have been described in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension; however, how the expression of VEGF receptors changes during fetal lung development in CDH is not understood. The aim of this study was to compare morphological evolution with expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1), in pseudoglandular, canalicular, and saccular stages of lung development in normal rat fetuses and in fetuses with CDH. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n=20 fetuses each) of four different gestational days (GD) 18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5: external control (EC), exposed to olive oil (OO), exposed to 100 mg nitrofen, by gavage, without CDH (N-), and exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH) on GD 9.5 (term=22 days). The morphological variables studied were: body weight (BW), total lung weight (TLW), left lung weight, TLW/BW ratio, total lung volume, and left lung volume. The histometric variables studied were: left lung parenchymal area density and left lung parenchymal volume. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression were determined by Western blotting. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. CDH frequency was 37% (80/216). All the morphological and histometric variables were reduced in the N- and CDH groups compared with the controls, and reductions were more pronounced in the CDH group (P<0.05) and more evident on GD 20.5 and GD 21.5. Similar results were observed for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. We conclude that N- and CDH fetuses showed primary pulmonary hypoplasia, with a decrease in VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression.

  7. VEGF receptor expression decreases during lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia induced by nitrofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbragia, L.; Nassr, A.C.C.; Gonçalves, F.L.L.; Schmidt, A.F.; Zuliani, C.C.; Garcia, P.V.; Gallindo, R.M.; Pereira, L.A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in pulmonary vessels have been described in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension; however, how the expression of VEGF receptors changes during fetal lung development in CDH is not understood. The aim of this study was to compare morphological evolution with expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1), in pseudoglandular, canalicular, and saccular stages of lung development in normal rat fetuses and in fetuses with CDH. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n=20 fetuses each) of four different gestational days (GD) 18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5: external control (EC), exposed to olive oil (OO), exposed to 100 mg nitrofen, by gavage, without CDH (N-), and exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH) on GD 9.5 (term=22 days). The morphological variables studied were: body weight (BW), total lung weight (TLW), left lung weight, TLW/BW ratio, total lung volume, and left lung volume. The histometric variables studied were: left lung parenchymal area density and left lung parenchymal volume. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression were determined by Western blotting. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. CDH frequency was 37% (80/216). All the morphological and histometric variables were reduced in the N- and CDH groups compared with the controls, and reductions were more pronounced in the CDH group (P<0.05) and more evident on GD 20.5 and GD 21.5. Similar results were observed for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. We conclude that N- and CDH fetuses showed primary pulmonary hypoplasia, with a decrease in VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression

  8. Human Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 Protein Avoids Histidine Residues To Decrease pH Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yehong; Zhu, Yuzhen; Zou, Yu; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Qingwen

    2017-01-26

    pH is highly regulated in mammalian central nervous systems. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) can interact with numerous target proteins. Compared to that in the NCS-1 protein of Caenorhabditis elegans, evolution has avoided the placement of histidine residues at positions 102 and 83 in the NCS-1 protein of humans and Xenopus laevis, possibly to decrease the conformational sensitivity to pH gradients in synaptic processes. We used all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of amino acid substitutions between species on human NCS-1 by substituting Arg102 and Ser83 for histidine at neutral (R102H and S83H) and acidic pHs (R102H p and S83H p ). Our cumulative 5 μs simulations revealed that the R102H mutation slightly increases the structural flexibility of loop L2 and the R102H p mutation decreases protein stability. Community network analysis illustrates that the R102H and S83H mutations weaken the interdomain and strengthen the intradomain communications. Secondary structure contents in the S83H and S83H p mutants are similar to those in the wild type, whereas the global structural stabilities and salt-bridge probabilities decrease. This study highlights the conformational dynamics effects of the R102H and S83H mutations on the local structural flexibility and global stability of NCS-1, whereas protonated histidine decreases the stability of NCS-1. Thus, histidines at positions 102 and 83 may not be compatible with the function of NCS-1 whether in the neutral or protonated state.

  9. Heterotopic cardiac transplantation decreases the capacity for rat myocardial protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, I.; Samarel, A.M.; Welikson, R.; Hong, C.

    1991-01-01

    Heterotopic cardiac isografts are vascularly perfused hearts that maintain structural and functional integrity for prolonged periods of time. When placed in an infrarenal location, the heart is hemodynamically unloaded and undergoes negative growth, leading to cardiac atrophy. At 7 and 14 days after transplantation, the transplanted heart was decreased in size compared with the in situ heart (p less than 0.001). To assess the possible mechanism(s) to account for this reduction in size we studied in vivo rates of total left ventricular (LV) protein synthesis, total LV RNA content, and 18S ribosomal RNA content by nucleic acid hybridization. The LV protein synthetic rate was 4.7 and 5.3 mg/day in the in situ heart and was significantly decreased to 2.9 and 2.7 mg/day in the transplanted hearts at 7 and 14 days, respectively. LV RNA content of the transplant declined to 53% and 48% of the in situ value at 7 and 14 days, respectively. Hybridization studies revealed that LV 18S ribosomal subunit content was reduced proportionately to total RNA in the heterotopic hearts. As a result of these changes, there was no significant difference in the efficiency of total LV protein synthesis between the in situ and transplanted hearts. The present studies demonstrate that the hemodynamic unloading and cardiac atrophy that is characteristic of heterotopic cardiac transplantation is accompanied by a decrease in LV total RNA content and 18S RNA, resulting in a decreased capacity for myocardial protein synthesis

  10. Green Tea Polyphenols Decrease Strecker Aldehydes and Bind to Proteins in Lactose-Hydrolyzed UHT Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Therese; Rauh, Valentin; Danielsen, Bente P; Poojary, Mahesha M; Waehrens, Sandra S; Bredie, Wender L P; Sørensen, John; Petersen, Mikael A; Ray, Colin A; Lund, Marianne N

    2017-12-06

    The effect of epigallocatechin gallate enriched green tea extract (GTE) on flavor, Maillard reactions and protein modifications in lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) ultrahigh temperature (UHT) processed milk was examined during storage at 40 °C for up to 42 days. Addition of GTE inhibited the formation of Strecker aldehydes by up to 95% compared to control milk, and the effect was similar when GTE was added either before or after UHT treatment. Release of free amino acids, caused by proteolysis, during storage was also decreased in GTE-added milk either before or after UHT treatment compared to control milk. Binding of polyphenols to milk proteins was observed in both fresh and stored milk samples. The inhibition of Strecker aldehyde formation by GTE may be explained by two different mechanisms; inhibition of proteolysis during storage by GTE or binding of amino acids and proteins to the GTE polyphenols.

  11. Reduced incorporation of the influenza B virus BM2 protein in virus particles decreases infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, David; Zuercher, Thomas; Barclay, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    BM2 is the fourth integral membrane protein encoded by the influenza B virus genome. It is synthesized late in infection and transported to the plasma membrane from where it is subsequently incorporated into progeny virus particles. It has recently been reported that BM2 has ion channel activity and may be the functional homologue of the influenza A virus M2 protein acting as an ion channel involved in viral entry. Using a reverse genetic approach it was not possible to recover virus which lacked BM2. A recombinant influenza B virus was generated in which the BM2 AUG initiation codon was mutated to GUG. This decreased the efficiency of translation of BM2 protein such that progeny virions contained only 1/8 the amount of BM2 seen in wild-type virus. The reduction in BM2 incorporation resulted in a reduction in infectivity although there was no concomitant decrease in the numbers of virions released from the infected cells. These data imply that the incorporation of sufficient BM2 protein into influenza B virions is required for infectivity of the virus particles

  12. The food contaminant deoxynivalenol, decreases intestinal barrier permeability and reduces claudin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinton, Philippe; Nougayrede, Jean-Philippe; Del Rio, Juan-Carlos; Moreno, Carolina; Marin, Daniela E.; Ferrier, Laurent; Bracarense, Ana-Paula; Kolf-Clauw, Martine; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2009-01-01

    'The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier against food contaminants as well as the first target for these toxicants. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereals and causes various toxicological effects. Through consumption of contaminated cereals and cereal products, human and pigs are exposed to this mycotoxin. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we investigated the effects of DON on the intestinal epithelium. We demonstrated that, in intestinal epithelial cell lines from porcine (IPEC-1) or human (Caco-2) origin, DON decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increases in a time and dose-dependent manner the paracellular permeability to 4 kDa dextran and to pathogenic Escherichia coli across intestinal cell monolayers. In pig explants treated with DON, we also observed an increased permeability of intestinal tissue. These alterations of barrier function were associated with a specific reduction in the expression of claudins, which was also seen in vivo in the jejunum of piglets exposed to DON-contaminated feed. In conclusion, DON alters claudin expression and decreases the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium. Considering that high levels of DON may be present in food or feed, consumption of DON-contaminated food/feed may induce intestinal damage and has consequences for human and animal health.

  13. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase administration in newborns decreases systemic inflammatory cytokine expression in a neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentea, Rebecca M; Liedel, Jennifer L; Fredrich, Katherine; Welak, Scott R; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Oldham, Keith T; Simpson, Pippa M; Gourlay, David M

    2012-10-01

    Supplementation of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), an endogenous protein expressed in the intestines, decreases the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)-associated intestinal injury and permeability. We hypothesized that IAP administration is protective in a dose-dependent manner of the inflammatory response in a neonatal rat model. Pre- and full-term newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were sacrificed on day of life 3. Control pups were vaginally delivered and dam fed. Preterm pups were delivered via cesarean section and exposed to intermittent hypoxia and formula feeds containing lipopolysaccharide (NEC) with and without IAP. Three different standardized doses were administered to a group of pups treated with 40, 4, and 0.4U/kg of bovine IAP (NEC+IAP40, IAP4, or IAP0.4U). Reverse transcription-real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α on liver and lung tissues and serum cytokine analysis for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were performed. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, expressed as mean±standard error of the mean and P≤0.05 considered significant. Levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α increased significantly in NEC versus control, returning to control levels with increasing doses of supplemental enteral IAP. Hepatic and pulmonary TNF-α and iNOS messenger ribonucleic acid expressions increased in NEC, and the remaining elevated despite IAP supplementation. Proinflammatory cytokine expression is increased systemically with intestinal NEC injury. Administration of IAP significantly reduces systemic proinflammatory cytokine expression in a dose-dependent manner. Early supplemental enteral IAP may reduce NEC-related injury and be useful for reducing effects caused by a proinflammatory cascade. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hyperglycemia decreases preoxiredoxin-2 expression in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Phil-Ok

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and is also associated with worsened outcomes following a stroke. Peroxiredoxin-2 exerts potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. In the present study, we identified altered peroxiredoxin-2 expression in an ischemic stroke model under hyperglycemic conditions. Adult male rats were administrated streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection to induce diabetes. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced surgically 4 weeks after streptozotocin treatment and cerebral cortex tissues were isolated 24 hours after MCAO. Peroxiredoxin-2 expression was evaluated in the cerebral cortex of MCAO-operated animals using a proteomics approach, and was found to be decreased. In addition, the reduction in peroxiredoxin-2 levels was more severe in cerebral ischemia with diabetes compared to animals without diabetes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed the significantly reduced peroxiredoxin-2 expression in MCAO-operated animals under hyperglycemic conditions. It is an accepted fact that peroxiredoxin-2 has antioxidative activity against ischemic injury. Thus, the findings of this study suggest that a more severe reduction in peroxiredoxin-2 under hyperglycemic conditions leads to worsened brain damage during cerebral ischemia with diabetes.

  15. Heterologous Protein Expression by Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villatoro-Hernández, J.; Kuipers, O.P.; Saucedo-Cárdenas, O.; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, R.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Lactococcus lactis as a safe and efficient cell factory to produce heterologous proteins of medical interest. The relevance of the use of this lactic acid bacterium (LAB) is that it is a noncolonizing, nonpathogenic microorganism that can be delivered in vivo at a

  16. Genome-wide screens for expressed hypothetical proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2012-01-01

    A hypothetical protein (HP) is defined as a protein that is predicted to be expressed from an open reading frame, but for which there is no experimental evidence of translation. HPs constitute a substantial fraction of proteomes of human as well as of other organisms. With the general belief that...... that the majority of HPs are the product of pseudogenes, it is essential to have a tool with the ability of pinpointing the minority of HPs with a high probability of being expressed....

  17. Silencing the expression of connexin 43 decreases inflammation and joint destruction in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Shinji; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Takahashi, Kenji A; Honjo, Kuniaki; Terauchi, Ryu; Inoue, Hiroaki; Oda, Ryo; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) effected on inflammatory conditions in rat fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and on rat model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expression of Cx43 in rat FLS stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of small-interfering RNA targeting Cx43 (siCx43) on pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The therapeutic and side effects of siCx43 in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were examined by in vivo electroporation method. LPS markedly enhanced Cx43 gene expression in rat FLS, with transfection of siCx43 suppressing the over-expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the chemokine. Treatment of CIA rats with siCx43 significantly ameliorated paw swelling, and significantly reduced histological arthritis scores and radiographic scores. In histological appearance of rat ankle joints, siCx43 treatment significantly decreased the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive (osteoclast-like) cells. These findings indicated that siCx43 had anti-inflammatory effects in rat FLS and efficiently inhibited the development of CIA. Cx43 may play an important role in the pathophysiology of RA, and may be a potential target molecule for novel RA therapies. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  18. Protein expression of saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to uranium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Fuminori; Nankawa, Takuya; Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki; Francis, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Protein expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the medium containing 238 U (VI) and 233 U (VI) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae of BY4743 was grown in yeast nitrogen base medium containing glucose and glycerol 2-phosphate and 238 U of 0, 2.0, and 5.0 x 10 -4 M or 233 U of 2.5 x 10 -6 M (radioactivity was higher by 350 times than 2.0 x 10 -4 M 238 U) and 5.0 x 10 -6 M for 112 h at 30 degC. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was monitored by measuring OD 600 at 112 h after the inoculation. Uranium concentrations in the media also were measured by radiometry using a liquid scintillation counter. The growths of the yeast grown in the above media were in the following order: control>2.5 x 10 -6 M 233 U>2.0 x 10 -4 M 238 U>5.0 x 10 -6 M 233 U>5.0 x 10 -4 M 238 U. This result indicated that not only radiological but also chemical effect of U reduced the growth of the yeast. The concentrations of U in the medium containing 238 U or 233 U decreased, suggesting U accumulation by the yeast cells. The 2-D gel electrophoresis analysis showed the appearance of several spots after exposure to 238 U or to 233 U but not in the control containing no uranium. These results show that the yeast cells exposed to U express several specific proteins. (author)

  19. Recombinant Brucella abortus gene expressing immunogenic protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, J.E.; Tabatabai, L.B.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes a synthetic recombinant DNA molecule containing a DNA sequence. It comprises a gene of Brucella abortus encoding an immunogenic protein having a molecular weight of approximately 31,000 daltons as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, the protein having an isoelectric point around 4.9, and containing a twenty-five amino acid sequence from its amino terminal end consisting of Gln-Ala-Pro-Thr-Phe-Phe-Arg-Ile-Gly-Thr-Gly-Gly-Thr-Ala-Gly-Thr-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-Ile-Gly-Gly-Leu-Ile-Ala, wherein Gln, Ala, Pro, Thr, Phe, Arg, Ile, Gly, Tyr, and Leu, respectively, represent glutamine, alanine, proline, threonine, phenylalanine, arginine, isolecuine, glycine, tyrosine, and leucine.

  20. Improved means and methods for expressing recombinant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Berend; Martinez Linares, Daniel; Gul, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of genetic engineering and the production of recombinant proteins in microbial host cells. Provided is a method for enhanced expression of a recombinant protein of interest in a microbial host cell, comprising providing a microbial host cell wherein the function of

  1. Overexpression of human sperm protein 17 increases migration and decreases the chemosensitivity of human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fang-qiu; Han, Yan-ling; Liu, Qun; Wu, Bo; Huang, Wen-bin; Zeng, Su-yun

    2009-01-01

    Most deaths from ovarian cancer are due to metastases that are resistant to conventional therapies. But the factors that regulate the metastatic process and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer are poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the aberrant expression of human sperm protein 17 (HSp17) in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells and tried to analyze its influences on the cell behaviors like migration and chemoresistance. Immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry were used to identify HSp17 in paraffin embedded ovarian malignant tumor specimens and peritoneal metastatic malignant cells. Then we examined the effect of HSp17 overexpression on the proliferation, migration, and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer cells to carboplatin and cisplatin in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line, HO8910. We found that HSp17 was aberrantly expressed in 43% (30/70) of the patients with primary epithelial ovarian carcinomas, and in all of the metastatic cancer cells of ascites from 8 patients. The Sp17 expression was also detected in the metastatic lesions the same as in ovarian lesions. None of the 7 non-epithelial tumors primarily developed in the ovaries was immunopositive for HSp17. Overexpression of HSp17 increased the migration but decreased the chemosensitivity of ovarian carcinoma cells to carboplatin and cisplatin. HSp17 is aberrantly expressed in a significant proportion of epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Our results strongly suggest that HSp17 plays a role in metastatic disease and resistance of epithelial ovarian carcinoma to chemotherapy

  2. Evaluation of post-acrosomal sheath WW domain binding protein expression in spermatozoa from infertile men with varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Ghazavi-Khorasgani

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Expression of PAWP as a protein involved in spermatogenesis and fertilization process, has decreased in infertile men with varicocele. In addition, sperm DNA integrity was disrupted in these individuals that can be considered as a main etiology of infertility.

  3. Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) in Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) was expressed by transformed cells of Escherichia coli DH5-α grown in LB/amp broth at 37oC, for 8 h and 24 h. To evaluate the effectiveness of different parameters to improve the expression of GFPuv by E. coli, four variable culturing conditions were set up for assays by ...

  4. Force via integrins but not E-cadherin decreases Oct3/4 expression in embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, Yuhei [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01, Aramaki-aoba, Aoba-ward, Sendai City (Japan); Poh, Yeh-Chuin; Chowdhury, Farhan; Wu, Douglas C. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Tanaka, Tetsuya S. [Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sato, Masaaki [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01, Aramaki-aoba, Aoba-ward, Sendai City (Japan); Wang, Ning, E-mail: nwangrw@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force via integrins or cadherins induces similar cell stiffening responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force via integrins but not cadherins induces cell spreading. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force via integrins but not cadherins induces differentiation of embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that mechanical factors play a critical role in fate decisions of stem cells. Recently we have demonstrated that a local force applied via Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides coated magnetic beads to mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells increases cell spreading and cell stiffness and decreases Oct3/4 (Pou5f1) gene expression. However, it is not clear whether the effects of the applied stress on these functions of ES cells can be extended to natural extracellular matrix proteins or cell-cell adhesion molecules. Here we show that a local cyclic shear force applied via fibronectin or laminin to integrin receptors increased cell spreading and stiffness, downregulated Oct3/4 gene expression, and decreased cell proliferation rate. In contrast, the same cyclic force applied via cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin (Cdh1) had no effects on cell spreading, Oct3/4 gene expression, and the self-renewal of mouse ES cells, but induced significant cell stiffening. Our findings demonstrate that biological responses of ES cells to force applied via integrins are different from those to force via E-cadherin, suggesting that mechanical forces might play different roles in different force transduction pathways to shape early embryogenesis.

  5. TGF-β1 downregulates StAR expression and decreases progesterone production through Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lanlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Leung, Peter C K; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2014-11-01

    Regulation of progesterone production in granulosa cells is important for normal reproductive functions. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is recognized as the key regulatory protein involved in the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis. TGF-β1 protein is detected in human follicular fluid, and TGF-β1 and its receptors are expressed in human granulosa cells. However, the functional role of TGF-β1 in the regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells. SVOG cells are human granulosa cells that were obtained from women undergoing in vitro fertilization and immortalized with SV40 large T antigen. SVOG cells were used to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production at an academic research center. Levels of mRNA and protein were examined by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. The accumulation levels of progesterone were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TGF-β1 treatment downregulated StAR expression and decreased progesterone production. The suppressive effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production were abolished by the inhibition of TGF-β type I receptor. In addition, treatment with TGF-β1 activated the Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. The inhibition of the Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the TGF-β1-induced downregulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. TGF-β1 downregulated StAR expression and decreased progesterone production by activating the Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa cells.

  6. The proteome response to amyloid protein expression in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A Gomes

    Full Text Available Protein misfolding disorders such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and transthyretin amyloidosis are characterized by the formation of protein amyloid deposits. Although the nature and location of the aggregated proteins varies between different diseases, they all share similar molecular pathways of protein unfolding, aggregation and amyloid deposition. Most effects of these proteins are likely to occur at the proteome level, a virtually unexplored reality. To investigate the effects of an amyloid protein expression on the cellular proteome, we created a yeast expression system using human transthyretin (TTR as a model amyloidogenic protein. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a living test tube, to express native TTR (non-amyloidogenic and the amyloidogenic TTR variant L55P, the later forming aggregates when expressed in yeast. Differential proteome changes were quantitatively analyzed by 2D-differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE. We show that the expression of the amyloidogenic TTR-L55P causes a metabolic shift towards energy production, increased superoxide dismutase expression as well as of several molecular chaperones involved in protein refolding. Among these chaperones, members of the HSP70 family and the peptidyl-prolyl-cis-trans isomerase (PPIase were identified. The latter is highly relevant considering that it was previously found to be a TTR interacting partner in the plasma of ATTR patients but not in healthy or asymptomatic subjects. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO expression is also increased. Our findings suggest that refolding and degradation pathways are activated, causing an increased demand of energetic resources, thus the metabolic shift. Additionally, oxidative stress appears to be a consequence of the amyloidogenic process, posing an enhanced threat to cell survival.

  7. Dwarfism in homozygous Agc1CreERT mice is associated with decreased expression of aggrecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Harunur; Chen, Haiyan; Hassan, Quamarul; Javed, Amjad

    2017-10-01

    Aggrecan (Acan), a large proteoglycan is abundantly expressed in cartilage tissue. Disruption of Acan gene causes dwarfism and perinatal lethality of homozygous mice. Because of sustained expression of Acan in the growth plate and articular cartilage, Agc Cre model has been developed for the regulated ablation of target gene in chondrocytes. In this model, the IRES-CreERT-Neo-pgk transgene is knocked-in the 3'UTR of the Acan gene. We consistently noticed variable weight and size among the Agc Cre littermates, prompting us to examine the cause of this phenotype. Wild-type, Cre-heterozygous (Agc +/Cre ), and Cre-homozygous (Agc Cre/Cre ) littermates were indistinguishable at birth. However, by 1-month, Agc Cre/Cre mice showed a significant reduction in body weight (18-27%) and body length (19-22%). Low body weight and dwarfism was sustained through adulthood and occurred in both genders. Compared with wild-type and Agc +/Cre littermates, long bones and vertebrae were shorter in Agc Cre/Cre mice. Histological analysis of Agc Cre/Cre mice revealed a significant reduction in the length of the growth plate and the thickness of articular cartilage. The amount of proteoglycan deposited in the cartilage of Agc Cre/Cre mice was nearly half of the WT littermates. Analysis of gene expression indicates impaired differentiation of chondrocyte in hyaline cartilage of Agc Cre/Cre mice. Notably, both Acan mRNA and protein was reduced by 50% in Agc Cre/Cre mice. A strong correlation was noted between the level of Acan mRNA and the body length. Importantly, Agc +/Cre mice showed no overt skeletal phenotype. Thus to avoid misinterpretation of data, only the Agc +/Cre mice should be used for conditional deletion of a target gene in the cartilage tissue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J L; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kgb.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits-NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013.

  9. Radiation-induced progressive decreasing in the expression of reverse transcriptase gene of hEST2 and telomerase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hanneng; Chen Wenying; Xiong Sidong

    2000-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that adds heximeric repeats called telomeres to the growing ends of chromosomal DNA. Telomerase activity is present in a vast majority of tumors but is repressed in most normal tissues. Human telomerase catalytic subunit gene (hEST2) reverse transcriptase (RT) segment was cloned by PCR according to the sequence published in GeneBank. PCR was used to investigate the expression of the hEST2 RT segment in diverse tumors as well as in various normal tissues. Results indicated that hEST2 RT segment was detectable in tumor cells lines but not in normal cells and tissues. In order to identify the relationship between telomerase and the biological effect of radiation injury, HeLa cells, KB cells and A431 cells were employed to measure the change in telomerase activity after 60 Co-ray irradiation at RNA level and protein level. Quantitative PCR determined that expression of hEST2 RT segment that encodes seven motifs of the human telomeras decreased with increasing dosage of radiation. In addition, a PCR-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol was used to assay telomerase activity after exposure to radiation. The results strongly support the experiments we had made: Telomerase activity decreases with increasing dosage of radiation. We conclude that detection of the hEST2 RT segment by Northern blotting is a new method for detecting telomerase activity. Furthermore, radiation can cause a dose-dependent decrease in telomerase activity. The effect of radiation on telomerase is one possible reason for the death of cancer cells after irradiation. (author)

  10. Decreased serum protein associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis shedding in German Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, K; Erhardt, G; Soschinka, A; Brandt, H R

    2014-04-19

    Using well established metabolic parameters, this study aimed to substantiate differences in protein and energy metabolism between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) positive and negative dairy cows tested by faecal culture. A total of 227 MAP-positive and 239 MAP-negative German Holstein cows kept in 13 MAP-positive dairy herds were selected for metabolic testing. The serum concentrations of total protein (TP), bilirubin, cholesterol and betahydroxybutyrate were measured as well as the activities of Glutamate-Dehydrogenase (GLDH) and Aspartate-Aminotransferase. MAP-positive cows were characterised by a decreased mean TP (66.5 g/l) compared to the MAP-negative controls (73.2 g/l). Mean log10 GLDH activities tended to be higher in MAP-positive than MAP-negative cows. Concerning TP, there was a significant interaction between MAP status and farm. Within four farms, the difference between MAP-positive and MAP-negative animals differed significantly, while in the other farms this difference was not significant. It is concluded that a decreased TP and an increased GLDH indicate alterations in protein metabolism. These findings suggest an enhanced liver cell turnover in MAP-positive cows. The results contribute to an understanding of the metabolic alterations in MAP-positive dairy cows.

  11. The clinical expression of hereditary protein C and protein S deficiency: : a relation to clinical thrombotic risk-factors and to levels of protein C and protein S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkens, C. M. A.; van der Meer, J.; Hillege, J. L.; Bom, V. J. J.; Halie, M. R.; van der Schaaf, W.

    We investigated 103 first-degree relatives of 13 unrelated protein C or protein S deficient patients to assess the role of additional thrombotic risk factors and of protein C and protein S levels in the clinical expression of hereditary protein C and protein S deficiency. Fifty-seven relatives were

  12. Decreased expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and complexin II mRNAs in schizophrenia: further evidence for a synaptic pathology affecting glutamate neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, S L; Harrison, P J

    2005-03-01

    Synaptic protein gene expression is altered in schizophrenia. In the hippocampal formation there may be particular involvement of glutamatergic neurons and their synapses, but overall the profile remains unclear. In this in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) study, we examined four informative synaptic protein transcripts: vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2, complexin I, and complexin II, in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DPFC), superior temporal cortex (STC), and hippocampal formation, in 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 18 controls. In these areas, VGLUT1 and complexin II are expressed primarily by excitatory neurons, whereas complexin I is mainly expressed by inhibitory neurons. In schizophrenia, VGLUT1 mRNA was decreased in hippocampal formation and DPFC, complexin II mRNA was reduced in DPFC and STC, and complexin I mRNA decreased in STC. Hippocampal VGLUT1 mRNA declined with age selectively in the schizophrenia group. VGLUT2 mRNA was not quantifiable due to its low level. The data provide additional evidence for a synaptic pathology in schizophrenia, in terms of a reduced expression of three synaptic protein genes. In the hippocampus, the loss of VGLUT1 mRNA supports data indicating that glutamatergic presynaptic deficits are prominent, whereas the pattern of results in temporal and frontal cortex suggests broadly similar changes may affect inhibitory and excitatory neurons. The impairment of synaptic transmission implied by the synaptic protein reductions may contribute to the dysfunction of cortical neural circuits that characterises the disorder.

  13. Hypoxic-induced stress protein expression in rat cardiac myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.; Geoghegan, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Mammalian stress proteins can be induced in cells and tissues exposed to a variety of conditions including hyperthermia and diminished O 2 supply. The authors have previously shown that the expression of three stress proteins (71, 85, and 95 kDa) was induced in cardiac tissue from mice exposed to hypoxic conditions. The expression of mRNAs coding for the 85 and 95 kDa proteins increase with time of exposure to hypoxia, while the mRNA coding for the 71 kDa protein is transiently induced. The authors extended these studies to investigate the expression of stress proteins in isolated rat cardiac myocytes. Freshly prepared myocytes were exposed to control, hypoxic, anoxic, or heat-shock environments for up to 16 h. The proteins were then labeled for 6 hours with [ 35 S]methionine. Analysis of the solubilized proteins by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography showed that there was a 6-fold increase in synthesis of the 85 kDa protein upon exposure to hypoxia but not heat-shock conditions. The 71 kDa protein was present at high levels in both control and treated myocyte protein preparations, and presumably had been induced during the isolation procedure. Total RNA isolated from intact rat heart and isolated myocytes was compared by cell-free translation analysis and showed induction of RNAs coding for several stress proteins in the myocyte preparation. The induced proteins at 85 and 95 kDa have molecular weights similar to reported cell stress and/or glucose-regulated proteins

  14. Decreased expression of microRNA-29 family in leiomyoma contributes to increased major fibrillar collagen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Erica E; Steinberg, Marissa L; Parker, J Brandon; Wu, Ju; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Bulun, Serdar E

    2016-09-01

    To determine the expression and function of the microRNA-29 family (miRNA-29a, miRNA-29b, miRNA-29c) in human leiomyoma and myometrium. Basic science experimental design. Academic medical center. Women undergoing surgery for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Overexpression and knockdown of miRNA-29a, miRNA-29b, and miRNA-29c in primary leiomyoma and myometrial cells. [1] Expression of the miRNA-29 family members in vivo in leiomyoma versus myometrium; [2] Major fibrillar collagen (I, II, III) expression in leiomyoma and myometrial cells with manipulation of miRNA-29 species. Members of the miRNA-29 family (29a, 29b, 29c) are all down-regulated in leiomyoma versus myometrium in vivo. The expression of the miRNA-29 family can be successfully modulated in primary leiomyoma and myometrial cells. Overexpression of the miRNA-29 family in leiomyoma cells results in down-regulation of the major fibrillar collagens. Down-regulation of the miRNA-29 species in myometrium results in an increase in collagen type III deposition. The miRNA-29 family is consistently down-regulated in leiomyoma compared to matched myometrial tissue. This down-regulation contributes to the increased collagen seen in leiomyomas versus myometrium. When miRNA-29 members are overexpressed in leiomyoma cells, protein levels of all of the major fibrillar collagens decrease. The miRNA-29 members are potential therapeutic targets in this highly prevalent condition. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A new human NHERF1 mutation decreases renal phosphate transporter NPT2a expression by a PTH-independent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Courbebaisse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1 binds to the main renal phosphate transporter NPT2a and to the parathyroid hormone (PTH receptor. We have recently identified mutations in NHERF1 that decrease renal phosphate reabsorption by increasing PTH-induced cAMP production in the renal proximal tubule. METHODS: We compared relevant parameters of phosphate homeostasis in a patient with a previously undescribed mutation in NHERF1 and in control subjects. We expressed the mutant NHERF1 protein in Xenopus Oocytes and in cultured cells to study its effects on phosphate transport and PTH-induced cAMP production. RESULTS: We identified in a patient with inappropriate renal phosphate reabsorption a previously unidentified mutation (E68A located in the PDZ1 domain of NHERF1.We report the consequences of this mutation on NHERF1 function. E68A mutation did not modify cAMP production in the patient. PTH-induced cAMP synthesis and PKC activity were not altered by E68A mutation in renal cells in culture. In contrast to wild-type NHERF1, expression of the E68A mutant in Xenopus oocytes and in human cells failed to increase phosphate transport. Pull down experiments showed that E68A mutant did not interact with NPT2a, which robustly interacted with wild type NHERF1 and previously identified mutants. Biotinylation studies revealed that E68A mutant was unable to increase cell surface expression of NPT2a. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the PDZ1 domain is critical for NHERF1-NPT2a interaction in humans and for the control of NPT2a expression at the plasma membrane. Thus we have identified a new mechanism of renal phosphate loss and shown that different mutations in NHERF1 can alter renal phosphate reabsorption via distinct mechanisms.

  16. Beneficial Influence of Short-Term Germination on Decreasing Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Sun, Xiulan; Ma, Zhezhe; Cui, Yan; Du, Chao; Xia, Xiuhua; Qian, He

    2016-01-01

    Most allergenic storage proteins in peanuts are degraded during seed germination. By altering this natural physiological process, it might be possible to reduce peanut protein allergenicity. However, little is known about the change in allergenic proteins and their corresponding immunocreactivity, and the effects of major environmental conditions on their allergenicity during germination. In this study, the influence of different germination conditions (temperature and light) on the degradation of Ara h1 and allergenicity changes of peanut seeds was evaluated by ELISA and Western blotting. The results showed that the 40- and 65-kDa proteins in peanut seeds degraded rapidly during the time course, beginning at 60 (at 25 °C) and 108 h (at 20 °C), and the corresponding immunocreactivity of Ara h1 decreased approximately one-third after 5 to 7 d of germination. Compared with the cotyledons, the embryonic axes had a higher proportion of Ara h1, which was then degraded relatively faster during germination, resulting in a significant reduction in its allergenicity. Although a higher temperature improved the seed germination rate, it affected sprout quality (as did light); therefore, 25 °C and dark surroundings were suitable conditions under which peanut sprouts were processed; neither factor significantly affected the allergenicity of Ara h1. These results provided a theoretical basis for studies using biological methods to reduce peanut allergenicity. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. UNBS5162, a Novel Naphthalimide That Decreases CXCL Chemokine Expression in Experimental Prostate Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Mijatovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Several naphthalimides have been evaluated clinically as potential anticancer agents. UNBS3157, a naphthalimide that belongs to the same class as amonafide, was designed to avoid the specific activating metabolism that induces amonafide’s hematotoxicity. The current study shows that UNBS3157 rapidly and irreversibly hydrolyzes to UNBS5162 without generating amonafide. In vivo UNBS5162 after repeat administration significantly increased survival in orthotopic human prostate cancer models. Results obtained by the National Cancer Institute (NCI using UNBS3157 and UNBS5162 against the NCI 60 cell line panel did not show a correlation with any other compound present in the NCI database, including amonafide, thereby suggesting a unique mechanism of action for these two novel naphthalimides. Affymetrix genome-wide microarray analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that in vitro exposure of PC-3 cells to UNBS5162 (1 μM for 5 successive days dramatically decreased the expression of the proangiogenic CXCL chemokines. Histopathology additionally revealed antiangiogenic properties in vivo for UNBS5162 in the orthotopic PC-3 model. In conclusion, the present study reveals UNBS5162 to be a pan-antagonist of CXCL chemokine expression, with the compound displaying antitumor effects in experimental models of human refractory prostate cancer when administered alone and found to enhance the activity of taxol when coadministered with the taxoid.

  18. Intracerebroventricular C75 decreases meal frequency and reduces AgRP gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aja, Susan; Bi, Sheng; Knipp, Susan B; McFadden, Jill M; Ronnett, Gabriele V; Kuhajda, Francis P; Moran, Timothy H

    2006-07-01

    3-Carboxy-4-alkyl-2-methylenebutyrolactone (C75), an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase and stimulator of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, reduces food intake and body weight in rodents when given systemically or centrally. Intracellular molecular mechanisms involving changes in cellular energy status are proposed to initiate the feeding and body weight reductions. However, effectors that lie downstream of these initial steps are not yet fully identified. Present experiments characterize the time courses of hypophagia and weight loss after single injections of C75 into the lateral cerebroventicle in rats and go on to identify specific meal pattern changes and coinciding alterations in gene expression for feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides. C75 reduced chow intake and body weight dose dependently. Although the principal effects occurred on the first day, weight losses relative to vehicle control were maintained over multiple days. C75 did not affect generalized locomotor activity. C75 began to reduce feeding after a 6-h delay. The hypophagia was due primarily to decreased meal number during 6-12 h without a significant effect on meal size, suggesting that central C75 reduced the drive to initiate meals. C75 prevented the anticipated hypophagia-induced increases in mRNA for AgRP in the arcuate nucleus at 22 h and at 6 h when C75 begins to suppress feeding. Overall, the data suggest that gene expression changes leading to altered melanocortin signaling are important for the hypophagic response to intracerebroventricular C75.

  19. Urothelial dysfunction and sensory protein expressions in patients with urological or systemic diseases and hypersensitive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueih-Ling Ong

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Patients with OAB or HSB showed increased urothelial inflammation and lower barrier protein expression. Increased M3/β3-AR or M2/β3-AR in the urothelium was associated with OAB, whereas decreased M3/β3-AR or M2/β3-AR was associated with poor voiding efficiency and large PVR in LUTD.

  20. Differential Protein Expression in Congenital and Acquired Cholesteatomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Shin

    Full Text Available Congenital cholesteatomas are epithelial lesions that present as an epithelial pearl behind an intact eardrum. Congenital and acquired cholesteatomas progress quite differently from each other and progress patterns can provide clues about the unique origin and pathogenesis of the abnormality. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms by which cholesteatomas develop remain unknown. In this study, key proteins that directly affect cholesteatoma pathogenesis are investigated with proteomics and immunohistochemistry. Congenital cholesteatoma matrices and retroauricular skin were harvested during surgery in 4 patients diagnosed with a congenital cholesteatoma. Tissue was also harvested from the retraction pocket in an additional 2 patients during middle ear surgery. We performed 2-dimensional (2D electrophoresis to detect and analyze spots that are expressed only in congenital cholesteatoma and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS to separate proteins by molecular weight. Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. The image analysis of 2D electrophoresis showed that 4 congenital cholesteatoma samples had very similar protein expression patterns and that 127 spots were exclusively expressed in congenital cholesteatomas. Of these 127 spots, 10 major spots revealed the presence of titin, forkhead transcription activator homolog (FKH 5-3, plectin 1, keratin 10, and leucine zipper protein 5 by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Immunohistochemical staining showed that FKH 5-3 and titin were expressed in congenital cholesteatoma matrices, but not in acquired cholesteatomas. Our study shows that protein expression patterns are completely different in congenital cholesteatomas, acquired cholesteatomas, and skin. Moreover, non-epithelial proteins, including FKH 5-3 and titin, were unexpectedly expressed in congenital cholesteatoma tissue. Our data indicates that congenital cholesteatoma origins

  1. Selective Loss of Podoplanin Protein Expression Accompanies Proteinuria and Precedes Alterations in Podocyte Morphology in a Spontaneous Proteinuric Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Klaas; Eikmans, Michael; Wehland, Markus; Baelde, Hans; Ijpelaar, Daphne; Kreutz, Reinhold; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; de Heer, Emile; Bruijn, Jan Anthonie

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate changes during the development of proteinuria, podocyte morphology and protein expression were evaluated in spontaneously proteinuric, Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl SS) rats. Dahl SS rats on a low-salt diet were compared with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at age 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks. Blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, urinary albumin excretion, and podocyte morphology were evaluated. In addition, the expression of 11 podocyte-related proteins was determined by analyzing protein and mRNA levels. In Dahl SS rats, proteinuria became evident around week 5, increasing thereafter. SHR rats remained non-proteinuric. Dahl SS rats showed widespread foot process effacement at 10 weeks. At ≤8 weeks, expression and distribution of the podocyte proteins was similar between the two strains, except for the protein podoplanin. At 4 weeks, podoplanin began decreasing in the glomeruli of Dahl SS rats in a focal and segmental fashion. Podoplanin loss increased progressively and correlated with albuminuria (r = 0.8, P < 0.001). Double labeling experiments revealed increased expression of the podocyte stress marker desmin in glomerular areas where podoplanin was lost. Dahl SS rats did not show podoplanin gene mutations or decreased mRNA expression. Thus, podocyte morphology and the expression and distribution of most podocyte-specific proteins were normal in young Dahl SS rats, despite marked proteinuria. Our study suggests that decreased expression of podoplanin plays a role in the decrease of glomerular permselectivity. PMID:18599604

  2. Changes in HSP gene and protein expression in natural scrapie with brain damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsp) perform cytoprotective functions such as apoptosis regulation and inflammatory response control. These proteins can also be secreted to the extracellular medium, acting as inflammatory mediators, and their chaperone activity permits correct folding of proteins and avoids the aggregation of anomalous isoforms. Several studies have proposed the implication of Hsp in prion diseases. We analysed the gene expression and protein distribution of different members of the Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 families in the central nervous system of sheep naturally infected with scrapie. Different expression profiles were observed in the areas analysed. Whereas changes in transcript levels were not observed in the cerebellum or medulla oblongata, a significant decrease in HSP27 and HSP90 was detected in the prefrontal cortex. In contrast, HSP73 was over-expressed in diencephalons of scrapie animals. Western blotting did not reveal significant differences in Hsp90 and Hsp70 protein expression between scrapie and control animals. Expression rates identified by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were compared with the extent of classical scrapie lesions using stepwise regression. Changes in Hsp gene and protein expression were associated with prion protein deposition, gliosis and spongiosis rather than with apoptosis. Finally, immunohistochemistry revealed intense Hsp70 and Hsp90 immunolabelling in Purkinje cells of scrapie sheep. In contrast, controls displayed little or no staining in these cells. The observed differences in gene expression and protein distribution suggest that the heat shock proteins analysed play a role in the natural form of the disease. PMID:21314976

  3. Changes in HSP gene and protein expression in natural scrapie with brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat shock proteins (Hsp perform cytoprotective functions such as apoptosis regulation and inflammatory response control. These proteins can also be secreted to the extracellular medium, acting as inflammatory mediators, and their chaperone activity permits correct folding of proteins and avoids the aggregation of anomalous isoforms. Several studies have proposed the implication of Hsp in prion diseases. We analysed the gene expression and protein distribution of different members of the Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 families in the central nervous system of sheep naturally infected with scrapie. Different expression profiles were observed in the areas analysed. Whereas changes in transcript levels were not observed in the cerebellum or medulla oblongata, a significant decrease in HSP27 and HSP90 was detected in the prefrontal cortex. In contrast, HSP73 was over-expressed in diencephalons of scrapie animals. Western blotting did not reveal significant differences in Hsp90 and Hsp70 protein expression between scrapie and control animals. Expression rates identified by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were compared with the extent of classical scrapie lesions using stepwise regression. Changes in Hsp gene and protein expression were associated with prion protein deposition, gliosis and spongiosis rather than with apoptosis. Finally, immunohistochemistry revealed intense Hsp70 and Hsp90 immunolabelling in Purkinje cells of scrapie sheep. In contrast, controls displayed little or no staining in these cells. The observed differences in gene expression and protein distribution suggest that the heat shock proteins analysed play a role in the natural form of the disease.

  4. Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor Decreases Collagen Synthesis of Keloid Fibroblasts and Attenuates the Extracellular Matrix on the Keloid Spheroid Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Jai; Lee, Ju Hee; Ahn, Hyo Min; Song, Seung Yong; Kim, Yong Oock; Lew, Dae Hyun; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2015-09-01

    The 90-kDa heat-shock protein (heat-shock protein 90) is an abundant cytosolic chaperone, and inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 by 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) compromises transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-mediated transcriptional responses by enhancing TGF-β receptor I and II degradation, thus preventing Smad2/3 activation. In this study, the authors evaluated whether heat-shock protein 90 regulates TGF-β signaling in the pathogenesis and treatment of keloids. Keloid fibroblasts were treated with 17-AAG (10 μM), and mRNA levels of collagen types I and III were determined by real-time reverse- transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Also, secreted TGF-β1 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of 17-AAG on protein levels of Smad2/3 complex was determined by Western blot analysis. In addition, in 17-AAG-treated keloid spheroids, the collagen deposition and expression of major extracellular matrix proteins were investigated by means of Masson trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry. The authors found that heat-shock protein 90 is overexpressed in human keloid tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue, and 17-AAG decreased mRNA levels of type I collagen, secreted TGF-ß1, and Smad2/3 complex protein expression in keloid fibroblasts. Masson trichrome staining revealed that collagen deposition was decreased in 17-AAG-treated keloid spheroids, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that expression of collagen types I and III, elastin, and fibronectin was markedly decreased in 17-AAG-treated keloid spheroids. These results suggest that the antifibrotic action of heat-shock protein 90 inhibitors such as 17-AAG may have therapeutic effects on keloids.

  5. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application...... TGFβ/contact disruption-provoked Nox4 protein and mRNA expression, Nox4 promoter activation, and reactive oxygen species production. Mutation of the CC(A/T)6GG box eliminates the synergistic activation of the Nox4 promoter. Jasplakinolide-induced actin polymerization synergizes with TGFβ to facilitate...... MRTF-dependent Nox4 mRNA expression/promoter activation. Moreover, MRTF inhibition prevents Nox4 expression during TGFβ-induced fibroblast-myofibroblast transition as well. Although necessary, MRTF is insufficient; Nox4 expression also requires TGFβ-activated Smad3 and TAZ/YAP, two contact...

  6. Mild Moxibustion Decreases the Expression of Prokineticin 2 and Prokineticin Receptor 2 in the Colon and Spinal Cord of Rats with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cili Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proven that prokineticin 2 (PK2 and its receptor PKR2 play an important role in hyperalgesia, while mild moxibustion can relieve visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of mild moxibustion on the expression of PK2 and PKR2 in colon and spinal cord in IBS rat model, which was induced by colorectal distension using inflatable balloons. After mild moxibustion treatment, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR scores were assessed by colorectal distension; protein and mRNA expression of PK2 and PKR2 in rat colon and spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence quantitative PCR. Compared with normal rats, the AWR scores of rats and the expressions of PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in colon and spinal cord tissue were significantly increased in the model group; compared with the model group, the AWR scores of rats and the expressions of PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in colon and spinal cord tissue were significantly decreased in the mild moxibustion group. These findings suggest that the analgesia effect of mild moxibustion may be associated with the reduction of the abnormally increased expression of the PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in the colon and spinal cord.

  7. Decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression in a human retinal pigment epithelium cell line cultured under hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Takeyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous reports have described a decrease in retinal temperature and clinical improvement of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD after vitrectomy. We hypothesized that the retinal temperature decrease after vitrectomy plays a part in the suppression of wet AMD development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the temperature dependence of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and in vitro angiogen-esis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. RESULTS: We cultured ARPE-19 cells at 37, 35, 33 and 31°C and measured the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-A splicing variants, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF. We performed an in vitro tube formation assay. The dehydrogenase activity was also evaluated at each temperature. Expression of VEGF-A significantly decreased with decreased temperature while PEDF expression did not. VEGF165 expression and in vitro angiogenesis also were temperature dependent. The dehydrogenase activity significantly decreased as the culture temperature decreased. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cultured under hypothermia that decreased cellular metabolism also had decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression, creating an anti-angiogenic environment. This mechanism may be associated with a beneficial effect after vitrectomy in patients with wet AMD.

  8. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ERK PROTEIN IN HUMAN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀梅; 李柏林; 宋敏; 宋继谒

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of ERK and p-ERK protein in human breast cancer and their corresponding tissue, to assess the significance of ERK signal pathway in tumorigenesis and progression of breast carcinoma. Methods: 40 breast cancer cases were used in S-P immunohistochemistry technique and Western Blot study. Results: The expression of ERK1, ERK2, and p- ERK protein levels increased remarkably in breast cancer tissues in comparison to normal tissues (P<0.01). The expression was upregulated by 1.32-, 1.53-and 4.27-fold, respectively. The overexpressions of ERK1, ERK2, and p- ERK proteins were obviously correlated with clinical stage of breast cancer. Protein levels of ERK and p-ERK were higher in stage III patients than in stage I and stage II patients (P<0.05). These proteins were strongly related with axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer, but not correlated with histopathological type and status of ER and PR of breast cancer. Expression of ERK1, and ERK2, protein showed a positive linear correlation. Conclusion: ERK signal transduction pathway is a key factor during human breast tumorigenesis and breast cancer progression.

  9. Genome engineering for improved recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, Shubhashree; Sharma, Ashish K; Mukherjee, Krishna J

    2014-12-19

    A metabolic engineering perspective which views recombinant protein expression as a multistep pathway allows us to move beyond vector design and identify the downstream rate limiting steps in expression. In E.coli these are typically at the translational level and the supply of precursors in the form of energy, amino acids and nucleotides. Further recombinant protein production triggers a global cellular stress response which feedback inhibits both growth and product formation. Countering this requires a system level analysis followed by a rational host cell engineering to sustain expression for longer time periods. Another strategy to increase protein yields could be to divert the metabolic flux away from biomass formation and towards recombinant protein production. This would require a growth stoppage mechanism which does not affect the metabolic activity of the cell or the transcriptional or translational efficiencies. Finally cells have to be designed for efficient export to prevent buildup of proteins inside the cytoplasm and also simplify downstream processing. The rational and the high throughput strategies that can be used for the construction of such improved host cell platforms for recombinant protein expression is the focus of this review.

  10. BAX protein expression and clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Y T; Lee, S; Niloff, E; Weisman, C; Strobel, T; Cannistra, S A

    1998-08-01

    Expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX sensitizes ovarian cancer cell lines to paclitaxel in vitro by enhancing the pathway of programmed cell death. The present study was performed to determine the relationship between BAX expression and clinical outcome in 45 patients with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer. BAX protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and its relationship with clinical outcome was determined. Assessment of BAX mRNA transcript levels and mutational analysis of the BAX coding region were also performed. BAX protein was expressed at high levels (defined as > or = 50% of tumor cells positive) in tumor tissue from 60% of newly diagnosed patients. All patients whose tumors expressed high levels of BAX achieved a complete response (CR) to first-line chemotherapy that contained paclitaxel plus a platinum analogue, compared with 57% of patients in the low-BAX group (P = .036). After a median follow-up of 1.9 years, the median disease-free survival (DFS) of patients in the high-BAX group has not been reached, compared with a median DFS of 1.1 years for low-BAX expressors (P = .0061). BAX retained independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis when corrected for stage and histology. BAX mRNA transcripts were easily detected in samples with low BAX protein expression, and no BAX mutations were identified. The correlation between high BAX levels and improved clinical outcome suggests that an intact apoptotic pathway is an important determinant of chemoresponsiveness in ovarian cancer patients who receive paclitaxel.

  11. Nonuniform Internal Structure of Fibrin Fibers: Protein Density and Bond Density Strongly Decrease with Increasing Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major structural component of a blood clot is a meshwork of fibrin fibers. It has long been thought that the internal structure of fibrin fibers is homogeneous; that is, the protein density and the bond density between protofibrils are uniform and do not depend on fiber diameter. We performed experiments to investigate the internal structure of fibrin fibers. We formed fibrin fibers with fluorescently labeled fibrinogen and determined the light intensity of a fiber, I, as a function of fiber diameter, D. The intensity and, thus, the total number of fibrin molecules in a cross-section scaled as D1.4. This means that the protein density (fibrin per cross-sectional area, ρp, is not homogeneous but instead strongly decreases with fiber diameter as D-0.6. Thinner fibers are denser than thicker fibers. We also determined Young’s modulus, Y, as a function of fiber diameter. Y decreased strongly with increasing D; Y scaled as D-1.5. This implies that the bond density, ρb, also scales as D-1.5. Thinner fibers are stiffer than thicker fibers. Our data suggest that fibrin fibers have a dense, well-connected core and a sparse, loosely connected periphery. In contrast, electrospun fibrinogen fibers, used as a control, have a homogeneous cross-section.

  12. Alpha-1 antitrypsin protein and gene therapies decrease autoimmunity and delay arthritis development in mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Mark A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT is a multi-functional protein that has anti-inflammatory and tissue protective properties. We previously reported that human AAT (hAAT gene therapy prevented autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and suppressed arthritis development in combination with doxycycline in mice. In the present study we investigated the feasibility of hAAT monotherapy for the treatment of chronic arthritis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA, a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods DBA/1 mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen (bCII to induce arthritis. These mice were pretreated either with hAAT protein or with recombinant adeno-associated virus vector expressing hAAT (rAAV-hAAT. Control groups received saline injections. Arthritis development was evaluated by prevalence of arthritis and arthritic index. Serum levels of B-cell activating factor of the TNF-α family (BAFF, antibodies against both bovine (bCII and mouse collagen II (mCII were tested by ELISA. Results Human AAT protein therapy as well as recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV8-mediated hAAT gene therapy significantly delayed onset and ameliorated disease development of arthritis in CIA mouse model. Importantly, hAAT therapies significantly reduced serum levels of BAFF and autoantibodies against bCII and mCII, suggesting that the effects are mediated via B-cells, at least partially. Conclusion These results present a new drug for arthritis therapy. Human AAT protein and gene therapies are able to ameliorate and delay arthritis development and reduce autoimmunity, indicating promising potential of these therapies as a new treatment strategy for RA.

  13. Cellular responses to the expression of unstable secretory proteins in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shiro, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mizuki; Onozaki, Yasumichi; Mizutani, Osamu; Kakizono, Dararat; Ichinose, Sakurako; Shintani, Tomoko; Gomi, Katsuya; Shintani, Takahiro

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are often used as cell factories for recombinant protein production because of their ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. However, even using strong transcriptional promoters, yields of nonfungal proteins are generally much lower than those of fungal proteins. Recent analyses revealed that expression of certain nonfungal secretory proteins induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting that they are recognized as proteins with folding defects in filamentous fungi. More recently, however, even highly expressed endogenous secretory proteins were found to evoke the UPR. These findings raise the question of whether the unfolded or misfolded state of proteins is selectively recognized by quality control mechanisms in filamentous fungi. In this study, a fungal secretory protein (1,2-α-D-mannosidase; MsdS) with a mutation that decreases its thermostability was expressed at different levels in Aspergillus oryzae. We found that, at moderate expression levels, wild-type MsdS was secreted to the medium, while the mutant was not. In the strain with a deletion for the hrdA gene, which is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway, mutant MsdS had specifically increased levels in the intracellular fraction but was not secreted. When overexpressed, the mutant protein was secreted to the medium to a similar extent as the wild-type protein; however, the mutant underwent hyperglycosylation and induced the UPR. Deletion of α-amylase (the most abundant secretory protein in A. oryzae) alleviated the UPR induction by mutant MsdS overexpression. These findings suggest that misfolded MsdS and unfolded species of α-amylase might act synergistically for UPR induction.

  14. Reduced expression of exocytotic proteins caused by anti-cholinesterase pesticides in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Pérez-Legaspi

    Full Text Available AbstractThe organophosphate and carbamate pesticides methyl-parathion and carbaryl have a common action mechanism: they inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses. However, they can alter the expression of exocytotic membrane proteins (SNARE, by modifying release of neurotransmitters and other substances. This study evaluated the adverse effects of the pesticides methyl-parathion and carbaryl on expression of SNARE proteins: Syntaxin-1, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 in freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Protein expression of these three proteins was analyzed before and after exposure to these two pesticides by Western Blot. The expression of Syntaxin-1, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 proteins in B. calyciflorussignificantly decreases with increasing concentration of either pesticides. This suggests that organophosphates and carbamates have adverse effects on expression of membrane proteins of exocytosis by altering the recognition, docking and fusion of presynaptic and vesicular membranes involved in exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Our results demonstrate that the neurotoxic effect of anticholinesterase pesticides influences the interaction of syntaxins and SNAP-25 and the proper assembly of the SNARE complex.

  15. Abnormal expression of leiomyoma cytoskeletal proteins involved in cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ura, Blendi; Scrimin, Federica; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Athanasakis, Emmanouil; Aloisio, Michelangelo; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are monoclonal tumors. Several factors are involved in the neoplastic transformation of the myometrium. In our study we focused on dysregulated cytoskeletal proteins in the leiomyoma as compared to the myometrium. Paired tissue samples of ten leiomyomas and adjacent myometria were obtained and analyzed by two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Mass spectrometry was used for protein identification, and western blotting for 2-DE data validation. The values of ten cytoskeletal proteins were found to be significantly different: eight proteins were upregulated in the leiomyoma and two proteins were downregulated. Three of the upregulated proteins (myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9, four and a half LIM domains protein 1 and LIM and SH3 domain protein 1) are involved in cell migration, while downregulated protein transgelin is involved in replicative senescence. Myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 (MYL9) was further validated by western blotting because it is considered to be a cell migration marker in several cancers and could play a key role in leiomyoma development. Our data demonstrate significant alterations in the expression of cytoskeletal proteins involved in leiomyoma growth. A better understanding of the involvement of cytoskeletal proteins in leiomyoma pathogenesis may contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of new pharmacological approaches.

  16. Maternal hypoxia increases the activity of MMPs and decreases the expression of TIMPs in the brain of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wenni; Chen, Wanqiu; Ostrowski, Robert P; Ma, Qingyi; Souvenir, Rhonda; Zhang, Lubo; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2010-02-15

    A recent study has shown that increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) has detrimental effect on the brain after neonatal hypoxia. The present study determined the effect of maternal hypoxia on neuronal survivability and the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, as well as the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) in the brain of neonatal rats. Pregnant rats were exposed to 10.5% oxygen for 6 days from the gestation day 15 to day 21. Pups were sacrificed at day 0, 4, 7, 14, and 21 after birth. Body weight and brain weight of the pups were measured at each time point. The activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the protein abundance of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were determined by zymography and Western blotting, respectively. The tissue distribution of MMPs was examined by immunofluorescence staining. The neuronal death was detected by Nissl staining. Maternal hypoxia caused significant decreases in body and brain size, increased activity of MMP-2 at day 0, and increased MMP-9 at day 0 and 4. The increased activity of the MMPs was accompanied by an overall tendency towards a reduced expression of TIMPs at all ages with the significance observed for TIMPs at day 0, 4, and 7. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an increased expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 in the hippocampus at day 0 and 4. Nissl staining revealed significant cell death in the hippocampus at day 0, 4, and 7. Functional tests showed worse neurobehavioral outcomes in the hypoxic animals.

  17. Inhibition of HIF-1α decreases expression of pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiuhua; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Hongxia; Li, Chuanbao; Ding, Jianguang

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs, i.e. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in retinal tissues are likely involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this report, we particularly examined contributions of hypoxia inducible factor subtype 1α (HIF-1α) to the expression of PICs and their receptors in diabetic retina. Streptozotocin (STZ) was systemically injected to induce hyperglycaemia in rats. ELISA and Western blot analysis were employed to determine the levels of HIF-1α and PICs as well as PIC receptors in retinal tissues of control rats and STZ rats. The levels of retinal HIF-1α were significantly increased in STZ rats 4-10 weeks after induction of hyperglycaemia as compared with control animals. With increasing HIF-1α retinal PICs including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, their respective receptors, namely IL-1R, IL-6R and TNFR1, were also elevated in STZ rats. Moreover, inhibition of HIF-1α by injection of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MET) significantly decreased the amplified expression IL-6, TNF-α, IL-6R and TNFR1 in diabetic retina, but did not modify IL-1β pathway. In addition, we examined protein expression of Caspase-3 indicating cell apoptosis in the retina of STZ rats after infusing 2-MET, demonstrating that 2-MET attenuated an increase in Caspase-3 evoked by STZ. Hypoxia inducible factor subtype 1α (HIF-1α) activated in diabetic retina is likely to play a role in regulating pathophysiological process via IL-6 and TNF-α mechanism. This has pharmacological implications to target specific HIF-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α signalling pathway for dysfunction and vulnerability related to DR. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fragile X mental retardation protein expression in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail J Renoux

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The FMR1 protein product, FMRP, is an mRNA binding protein associated with translational inhibition of target transcripts. One FMRP target is the amyloid precursor protein (APP mRNA, and APP levels are elevated in Fmr1 KO mice. Given that elevated APP protein expression can elicit Alzheimer’s disease (AD in patients and model systems, we evaluated whether FMRP expression might be altered in Alzheimer’s autopsy brain samples and mouse models compared to controls. In a double transgenic mouse model of AD (APP/PS1, we found no difference in FMRP expression in aged AD model mice compared to littermate controls. FMRP expression was also similar in AD and control patient frontal cortex and cerebellum samples. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is an age related neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded CGG repeats in the 5’UTR of the FMR1 gene. Patients experience cognitive impairment and dementia in addition to motor symptoms. In parallel studies, we measured FMRP expression in cortex and cerebellum from three FXTAS patients and found reduced expression compared to both controls and Alzheimer’s patient brains, consistent with animal models. We also find increased APP levels in cerebellar, but not cortical, samples of FXTAS patients compared to controls. Taken together, these data suggest that a decrease in FMRP expression is unlikely to be a primary contributor to Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis.

  19. Effect of Dietary Protein Level on the Expression of Proteins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Young Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Tian, Zhimei; Deng, Dun; Cui, Yiyan; Qiu, Yueqin

    2018-05-02

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of protein level on proteins expression in the gastrointestinal tract of young pigs. Eighteen piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were weaned at 28 days of age and randomly assigned to three diets with 20%, 17%, and 14% CP level, and four essential amino acids, Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, in three diets met the requirements of weaned piglets. The experimental period lasted 45 days. Compared with the control (20% CP level), the average daily feed intake, the average daily gain, and gain feed ratio of the 17% CP group did not decrease ( P > 0.05), but those of 14% CP group decreased ( P protein digestion and absorption, lipid or carbon digestion and absorption, etc. were up-regulated in 17% CP group, while most of them were down-regulated in 14% CP group. Amino acids metabolism of gastric, pancreatic secretion of duodenum or steroid hormone biosynthesis of jejunum was down-regulated in the 17% CP group, but the lipid metabolism was up-regulated in the 14% CP group. Six proteins were selected for identification by Western-blot, and their changes had the same trend as the proteomics results. The protein level decreased from 20% to 17%, the growth performance was not affected, while the nutrient digestion and absorption or the immune function were improved, which implied that 17% protein level maybe benefit for nutrients absorption of pigs.

  20. High-level transient expression of recombinant protein in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Lawrence D; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Ewing, Nicholas N; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2005-09-30

    Transient expression following agroinfiltration of plant tissue was investigated as a system for producing recombinant protein. As a model system, Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was vacuum infiltrated into lettuce leaf disks. Infiltration with a suspension of 10(9) colony forming units/mL followed by incubation for 72 h at 22 degrees C in continuous darkness produced a maximum of 0.16% GUS protein based on dry tissue or 1.1% GUS protein based on total soluble protein. This compares favorably to expression levels for commercially manufactured GUS protein from transgenic corn seeds. A. tumefaciens culture medium pH between 5.6 and 7.0 and surfactant concentrations lettuce to produce GUS protein more rapidly, but final levels did not exceed the GUS production in leaves incubated in continuous darkness after 72 h at 22 degrees C. The kinetics of GUS expression during incubation in continuous light and dark were represented well using a logistic model, with rate constants of 0.30 and 0.29/h, respectively. To semi-quantitatively measure the GUS expression in large numbers of leaf disks, a photometric enhancement of the standard histochemical staining method was developed. A linear relationship with an R2 value of 0.90 was determined between log10 (% leaf darkness) versus log10 (GUS activity). Although variability in expression level was observed, agroinfiltration appears to be a promising technology that could potentially be scaled up to produce high-value recombinant proteins in planta. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  1. Regenerating human muscle fibres express GLUT3 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Schrøder, H D

    2002-01-01

    The presence of the GLUT3 glucose transporter protein in human muscle cells is a matter of debate. The present study was designed to establish whether GLUT3 is expressed in mature human skeletal muscle fibres and, if so, whether its expression changes under different conditions, such as metabolic...... muscle fibres, nor did metabolic stress, training or de- and re-innervation induce GLUT3 expression, while a few GLUT3 expressing fibres were seen in some cases of polymyositis. In contrast, GLUT4 was expressed in all investigated muscle fibres. GLUT3 immunoreactivity was found in perineural...... and endoneural cells, indicating that GLUT3 is important for glucose transport into nerves through the perineurium. Taken together, these data suggest that GLUT3 expression is restricted to regenerating muscle fibres and nerves in adult human muscle. Although the significance of GLUT3 in adult human muscle...

  2. Kiss-1/GPR54 protein expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaoiconomou, Eleni; Lymperi, Maria; Petraki, Constantina; Philippou, Anastassios; Msaouel, Pavlos; Michalopoulou, Fani; Kafiri, Georgia; Vassilakos, George; Zografos, Georgios; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the Kiss-1 gene countervails the metastatic aptitude of several cancer cell lines and solid-tumor neoplasias. However, there still remains ambiguity regarding its role in breast cancer and literature has arisen asserting that Kiss-1 expression may be linked to an aggressive phenotype and malignant progression. Herein, we investigated the protein expression of Kiss-1 and its receptor GPR54 in breast cancer tissues compared to non-cancerous mammary tissues. Paraffin-fixed cancer tissues from 43 women with resected breast adenocarcinomas and 11 specimens derived from women suffering from fibrocystic disease, serving as controls, were immunostained with Kiss-1 and GPR54 antibodies. Kiss-1 and GPR54 protein expression levels were significantly higher in breast cancer compared to fibrocystic tissues (pbreast cancer and fibrocystic disease specimens. Kiss-1/GPR54 expression was found to be significantly higher in breast cancer compared to non-malignant mammary tissues.

  3. Increased methylation and decreased expression of homeobox genes TLX1, HOXA10 and DLX5 in human placenta are associated with trophoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Boris; Fournier, Thierry; Harris, Lynda K; James, Joanna; Roberts, Claire T; Yong, Hannah E J; Kalionis, Bill; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Ebeling, Peter R; Wallace, Euan M; Saffery, Richard; Murthi, Padma

    2017-07-03

    Homeobox genes regulate embryonic and placental development, and are widely expressed in the human placenta, but their regulatory control by DNA methylation is unclear. DNA methylation analysis was performed on human placentae from first, second and third trimesters to determine methylation patterns of homeobox gene promoters across gestation. Most homeobox genes were hypo-methylated throughout gestation, suggesting that DNA methylation is not the primary mechanism involved in regulating HOX genes expression in the placenta. Nevertheless, several genes showed variable methylation patterns across gestation, with a general trend towards an increase in methylation over gestation. Three genes (TLX1, HOXA10 and DLX5) showed inverse gains of methylation with decreasing mRNA expression throughout pregnancy, supporting a role for DNA methylation in their regulation. Proteins encoded by these genes were primarily localised to the syncytiotrophoblast layer, and showed decreased expression later in gestation. siRNA mediated downregulation of DLX5, TLX1 and HOXA10 in primary term villous cytotrophoblast resulted in decreased proliferation and increased expression of differentiation markers, including ERVW-1. Our data suggest that loss of DLX5, TLX1 and HOXA10 expression in late gestation is required for proper placental differentiation and function.

  4. Bcl-2 Protein Expression in Egyptian Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shakankiry, N.; El-Sayed, Gh.M.M.; El-Maghraby, Sh.; Moneer, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The primary cause of treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the emergence of both resistant disease and early relapse. The bcl-2 gene encodes a 26-kDa protein that promotes cell survival by blocking programmed cell death (apoptosis). In the present study, bcl-2 protein expression was evaluated in newly diagnosed AML patients and correlated with the induction of remission and overall survival (OS), in an attempt to define patients who might benefit from modified therapeutic strategies. Patients and methods: Pretreatment cellular bcl-2 protein expression was measured in bone marrow samples obtained from 68 patients of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and 10 healthy controls by western blotting. Results: The mean bcl-2 protein expression was significantly higher in patients (0.68610.592) compared to controls (0.313±0.016) (p=0.002). The overall survival for patients with mean bcl-2 expression of less, and more than or equal to 0.315, was 67% and 56%, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups 0»=0.86). Conclusion: Even though we did not observe a significant difference in overall survival between patients with high and low levels of bcl-2, modulation of this protein might still be considered as an option for enhancing the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy.

  5. Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 protein in salivary glands: potential involvement in the diabetes-induced decrease in salivary flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Silva, R; Freitas, H S; Lamers, M L; Okamoto, M M; Santos, M F; Machado, U F

    2009-03-01

    Oral health complications in diabetes include decreased salivary secretion. The SLC5A1 gene encodes the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 protein, which not only transports glucose, but also acts as a water channel. Since SLC5A1 expression is altered in kidneys of diabetic subjects, we hypothesize that it could also be altered in salivary glands, contributing to diabetic dysfunction. The present study shows a diabetes-induced decrease (p salivary secretion, which was accompanied by enhanced (p diabetic rats revealed that SGLT1 protein expression increased in the luminal membrane of ductal cells, which can stimulate water reabsorption from primary saliva. Furthermore, SGLT1 protein was reduced in myoepithelial cells of the parotid from diabetic animals, and that, by reducing cellular contractile activity, might also be related to reduced salivary flux. Six-day insulin-treated diabetic rats reversed all alterations. In conclusion, diabetes increases SLC5A1 gene expression in salivary glands, increasing the SGLT1 protein content in the luminal membrane of ductal cells, which, by increasing water reabsorption, might explain the diabetes-induced decrease in salivary secretion.

  6. Mechanism of effect of ionizing radiation on bcl-2 protein expression and apoptosis in mouse thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiamei; Chen Aijun; Chen Dong; Liu Shuzheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of effect of ionizing radiation in varied doses of X-rays on bcl-2 express and apoptosis in mouse thymus. Methods: Immunohistochemistry, image analysis and transmission electron microscope were used in the study. Results: The expression of bcl-2 protein was limited within thymic medulla, decreased with 2 Gy, however, increased with 0.075 Gy after whole-body irradiation. Some typical apoptotic cells were found in thymic cortex after 2 Gy irradiation. The apoptotic cells decreased and mitotic metaphase increased after 0.075 Gy irradiation. Conclusion: The mechanism of effect of ionizing radiation on apoptosis of thymus was related with the expression of bcl-2 proteins

  7. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Narayanan, A. Sampath; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Reyes-Gasga, Jose; Molina-Guarneros, Juan; Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia; Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis; Chavarria, Ivet Gil; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Arzate, Higinio

    2007-01-01

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation

  8. Expression of G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs in lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuller Hildegard M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the β-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1 in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. Methods GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU assay. Results GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six small cell lung cancer (SCLC cell lines, and either GIRK2, 3 or 4 mRNA expression was detected in all six SCLC cell lines. Treatment of NCI-H69 with β2-adrenergic antagonist ICI 118,551 (100 μM daily for seven days led to slight decreases of GIRK1 mRNA expression levels. Treatment of NCI-H69 with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (10 μM decreased growth rates in these cells. The GIRK inhibitor U50488H (2 μM also inhibited proliferation, and this decrease was potentiated by isoproterenol. In the SCLC cell lines that demonstrated GIRK1 mRNA expression, we also saw GIRK1 protein expression. We feel these may be important regulatory pathways since no expression of mRNA of the GIRK channels (1 & 2 was found in hamster pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, a suggested cell of origin for SCLC, nor was GIRK1 or 2 expression found in human small airway epithelial cells. GIRK (1,2,3,4 mRNA expression was also seen in A549 adenocarcinoma and NCI-H727 carcinoid cell lines. GIRK1 mRNA expression was not found in tissue samples from adenocarcinoma or squamous cancer patients, nor was it found in NCI-H322 or NCI-H441 adenocarcinoma cell lines. GIRK (1,3,4 mRNA expression was seen in three squamous cell lines, GIRK2 was only expressed in one squamous cell line. However, GIRK1 protein

  9. Dietary beet pulp decreases taurine status in dogs fed low protein diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Suk Ko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that large dogs who are fed lamb and rice diets are at increased risk to develop taurine-deficiency-induced dilated cardiomyopathy. Since dogs obligatorily conjugate bile acids (BA with taurine, we determined whether rice bran (RB or other fibers (cellulose; CL, beet pulp; BP would affect BA excretion and/or the taurine status of dogs. Results Eighteen medium/large mixed-breed dogs were given purified diets containing CL, BP, or RB for 12 weeks. Taurine concentrations in plasma and whole blood were significantly decreased at week 12. The BP group, compared to the CL or RB groups, showed significantly lower taurine concentrations in plasma (6.5 ± 0.5 vs 20.4 ± 3.9 and 13.1 ± 2.0 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.01, mean ± SEM and in whole blood (79 ± 10 vs 143 ± 14 and 127 ± 14 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.01, lower apparent protein digestibility (81.9 ± 0.6 vs 88.8 ± 0.6 and 88.1 ± 1.2 %, respectively, P < 0.01, and higher BA excretions (5.6 ± 0.1 vs 3.4 ± 0.5 and 3.4 ± 0.4 μmol/g feces, respectively, P < 0.05 at week 12. Conclusions These results do not support the hypothesis that RB is likely to be a primary cause of lamb meal and rice diets, increasing the risk of taurine deficiency in large dogs. However these indicate that BP may contribute to a decrease taurine status in dogs by increasing excretion of fecal BA and decreasing protein digestibility, thus decreasing the bioavailability of sulfur amino acids, the precursors of taurine.

  10. Expression of β-catenin protein in hepatocellular carcinoma and its relationship with alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ya-Jun; Huang, Tao; Yu, Hong-Lu; Zhang, Li; He, Qian-Jin; Xiong, Zhi-Fan; Peng, Hua

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the expression of β-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and its relationship with α-fetoprotein (AFP) in HCC. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of β-catenin in normal liver tissues (n=10), liver cirrhosis tissues (n=20), and primary HCC tissues (n=60). The relationship between β-catenin expression and clinical parameters of HCC was investigated. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin in the liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 transfected with a plasmid encoding AFP, and also the mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin were measured in the liver cancer cell line Huh7 before and after the transfection with AFP shRNA plasmids. The results showed that β-catenin was only expressed on the cell membrane in normal liver tissues. Its localization to the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells was observed in a small proportion of cirrhotic tissues or adjacent HCC tissues, and such ectopic expression of β-catenin was predominant in HCC tissues. The abnormal expression of β-catenin was correlated with serum AFP levels, cancer cell differentiation and vascular invasion (P<0.05). Additionally, the increased expression of AFP resulted in the upregulation of β-catenin mRNA and protein levels, while knockdown of AFP with AFP shRNA led to significantly decreased β-catenin mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05). It was suggested that the abnormal expression of β-catenin is implicated in hepatic carcinogenesis and development. AFP can lead to increased expression of β-catenin, which may account for the poor prognosis of AFP-associated HCC patients.

  11. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 compromise the sinonasal epithelial barrier and perturb intercellular junction protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah K; Laury, Adrienne M; Katz, Elizabeth H; Den Beste, Kyle A; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-05-01

    Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a "leaky" epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins, thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n = 6) and 68.6% (n = 8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n = 9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n = 9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n = 9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n = 9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. IL-4 and IL-13 Compromise the Sinonasal Epithelial Barrier and Perturb Intercellular Junction Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah K.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Katz, Elizabeth H.; Den Beste, Kyle A.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a “leaky” epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Methods Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. Results IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n=6) and 68.6% (n=8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein JAM-A expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or ZO-1 with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Conclusion Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. PMID:24510479

  13. Lack of tau proteins rescues neuronal cell death and decreases amyloidogenic processing of APP in APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Karelle; Ando, Kunie; Laporte, Vincent; Dedecker, Robert; Suain, Valérie; Authelet, Michèle; Héraud, Céline; Pierrot, Nathalie; Yilmaz, Zehra; Octave, Jean-Noël; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    Lack of tau expression has been reported to protect against excitotoxicity and to prevent memory deficits in mice expressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) identified in familial Alzheimer disease. In APP mice, mutant presenilin 1 (PS1) enhances generation of Aβ42 and inhibits cell survival pathways. It is unknown whether the deficient phenotype induced by concomitant expression of mutant PS1 is rescued by absence of tau. In this study, we have analyzed the effect of tau deletion in mice expressing mutant APP and PS1. Although APP/PS1/tau(+/+) mice had a reduced survival, developed spatial memory deficits at 6 months and motor impairments at 12 months, these deficits were rescued in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Neuronal loss and synaptic loss in APP/PS1/tau(+/+) mice were rescued in the APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. The amyloid plaque burden was decreased by roughly 50% in the cortex and the spinal cord of the APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. The levels of soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42, and the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio were reduced in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Levels of phosphorylated APP, of β-C-terminal fragments (CTFs), and of β-secretase 1 (BACE1) were also reduced, suggesting that β-secretase cleavage of APP was reduced in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Our results indicate that tau deletion had a protective effect against amyloid induced toxicity even in the presence of mutant PS1 and reduced the production of Aβ. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sarcopenia in older mice is characterized by a decreased anabolic response to a protein meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Miriam; Nagel, Jolanda; Dijk, Francina J; Salles, Jerôme; Verlaan, Sjors; Walrand, Stephane; van Norren, Klaske; Luiking, Yvette

    Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, a progressive decline of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality and muscle function. Reduced sensitivity of older muscles to respond to anabolic stimuli, i.e. anabolic resistance, is part of the underlying mechanisms. Although, muscle parameters have been studied in mice of various ages/strains; the aim was to study if mice display similar deteriorating processes as human ageing. Therefore, 10,16,21 and 25 months-old C57BL6/6J male mice were studied to measure parameters of sarcopenia and factors contributing to its pathophysiology, with the aim of characterizing sarcopenia in old mice. Muscle mass of the hind limb was lower in 25 as compared to 10 month-old mice. A significant decrease in physical daily activity, muscle grip strength and ex vivo muscle maximal force production was observed in 25 compared to 10 month-old mice. The muscle anabolic response to a single protein meal showed increased muscle protein synthesis in young, but not in old mice, indicative to anabolic resistance. However, by increasing the protein content in meals, anabolic resistance could be overcome, similar as in human elderly. Additionally, aged mice showed higher fasted insulin and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (=marker oxidative stress). This study shows clear characteristics of sarcopenia that coincide with anabolic resistance, insulin resistance and oxidative stress in 25 month-old C57/BL6 male mice, similar to human ageing. Furthermore, similar decline in muscle mass, strength and function was observed in this aged-mice-model. These observations offer potential for the future to explore in old mice the effects of interventions targeting sarcopenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Macrocyclic peptides decrease c-Myc protein levels and reduce prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Hanold, Laura E; Thayele Purayil, Hamsa; Gisemba, Solomon A; Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Aldrich, Jane V

    2017-08-03

    The oncoprotein c-Myc is often overexpressed in cancer cells, and the stability of this protein has major significance in deciding the fate of a cell. Thus, targeting c-Myc levels is an attractive approach for developing therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. In this study, we report the anti-cancer activity of the macrocyclic peptides [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-D-Trp]) and the natural product CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-Trp]). [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 reduced c-Myc protein levels in prostate cancer cells and decreased cell proliferation with IC 50 values ranging from 2.0 to 16 µM in multiple PC cell lines. [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 induced early and late apoptosis in PC-3 cells following 48 hours treatment, and growth arrest in the G2 cell cycle phase following both 24 and 48 hours treatment. Down regulation of c-Myc in PC-3 cells resulted in loss of sensitivity to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment, while overexpression of c-Myc in HEK-293 cells imparted sensitivity of these cells to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment. This macrocyclic tetrapeptide also regulated PP2A by reducing the levels of its phosphorylated form which regulates the stability of cellular c-Myc protein. Thus [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 represents a new lead compound for the potential development of an effective treatment of prostate cancer.

  16. Major vault protein/lung resistance-related protein (MVP/LRP) expression in nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsutomu; Hankins, Gerald R; Helm, Gregory A

    2002-01-01

    Lung resistance-related protein (LRP) was identified as the major vault protein (MVP), the main component of multimeric vault particles. It functions as a transport-associated protein that can be associated with multidrug resistance. In previous studies, expression of MVP/LRP has been documented in tumors of various types. In general, good correlations have been reported for expression of MVP/LRP and decreased sensitivity to chemotherapy and poor prognosis. MVP/LRP expression has been documented in glioblastomas, but its expression in nervous system tumors in general has not been well characterized. Immunohistochemistry using anti-human MVP/LRP antibody (LRP-56) was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue from 69 primary central nervous system tumors. Expression of MVP/LRP was observed in 81.2% (56/69) of primary nervous system tumors, including astrocytomas (11/13), oligodendrogliomas (1/2), oligoastrocytomas (5/5), ependymoma (1/1), meningiomas (35/45), schwannomas (2/2), and neurofibroma (1/1). Various degrees and distributions of immunoreactivity to MVP/ LRP were observed. Neither the presence nor the degree of immunoreactivity to MVP/LRP showed any correlation with either tumor grade or the presence of brain invasion.

  17. Clofazimine modulates the expression of lipid metabolism proteins in Mycobacterium leprae-infected macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degang, Yang; Akama, Takeshi; Hara, Takeshi; Tanigawa, Kazunari; Ishido, Yuko; Gidoh, Masaichi; Makino, Masahiko; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) lives and replicates within macrophages in a foamy, lipid-laden phagosome. The lipids provide essential nutrition for the mycobacteria, and M. leprae infection modulates expression of important host proteins related to lipid metabolism. Thus, M. leprae infection increases the expression of adipophilin/adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and decreases hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), facilitating the accumulation and maintenance of lipid-rich environments suitable for the intracellular survival of M. leprae. HSL levels are not detectable in skin smear specimens taken from leprosy patients, but re-appear shortly after multidrug therapy (MDT). This study examined the effect of MDT components on host lipid metabolism in vitro, and the outcome of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine treatment on ADRP and HSL expression in THP-1 cells. Clofazimine attenuated the mRNA and protein levels of ADRP in M. leprae-infected cells, while those of HSL were increased. Rifampicin and dapsone did not show any significant effects on ADRP and HSL expression levels. A transient increase of interferon (IFN)-β and IFN-γ mRNA was also observed in cells infected with M. leprae and treated with clofazimine. Lipid droplets accumulated by M. leprae-infection were significantly decreased 48 h after clofazimine treatment. Such effects were not evident in cells without M. leprae infection. In clinical samples, ADRP expression was decreased and HSL expression was increased after treatment. These results suggest that clofazimine modulates lipid metabolism in M. leprae-infected macrophages by modulating the expression of ADRP and HSL. It also induces IFN production in M. leprae-infected cells. The resultant decrease in lipid accumulation, increase in lipolysis, and activation of innate immunity may be some of the key actions of clofazimine.

  18. Different Cells Make Different Proteins: A Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Tissue-Specific Protein Expression in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguren, Izaskun; Villamarín, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    All the cells of higher organisms have the same DNA but not the same proteins. Each type of specialised cell that forms a tissue has its own pattern of gene expression and, consequently, it contains a particular set of proteins that determine its function. Here, we describe a laboratory exercise addressed to undergraduate students that aims to…

  19. Cloning and expression analysis of a blue copperbinding protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adifferentially expressed fragment EST145 was isolated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Using EST145 as the probe, a blue copper-binding protein gene designated as DvBCB was screened from Dasypyrum villosum cDNA Library. The DvBCB gene was 845 bp in length with an open reading frame ...

  20. Lipid transfer proteins from fruit: cloning, expression and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Leeuwen, W. Astrid; Budde, Ilona Kleine; Cornelissen, Jessica; Bulder, Ingrid; Rafalska, Ilona; Besolí, Noèlia Telléz; Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Asero, Riccardo; Fernandez Rivas, Montserrat; Rivas, Montserrat Fernandez; Gonzalez Mancebo, Eloina; Mancebo, Eloina Gonzalez; van Ree, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are stable, potentially life-threatening allergens in fruits and many other vegetable foods. The aim of this study was to clone and express recombinant apple LTP (Mal d 3), as has previously been done for peach LTP (Pru p 3) and set up quantitative tests for

  1. Heterogeneity of proteins expressed by Brazilian Sporothrix schenckii isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Do Amaral, Cristiane Candida; Sasaki, Alexandre; Godoy, Patrício Martinez; De Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2009-12-01

    The profiles of proteins present in the exoantigens of Brazilian Sporothrix schenckii isolates were studied and compared by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Thirteen isolates from five different regions of Brazil (1,000 to 2,000 km apart) and ten from a more limited region (200 to 400 km apart within the state of São Paulo) were cultured in Sabouraud, M199 and minimum (MM) media. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the expression of proteins, which varied according to the medium and the isolate, were observed. Fractions with the same MW but varying in intensity were detected, as well as fractions present in 1 isolate but absent in others. Dendrograms were constructed and isolates grouped based on the fractions obtained, irrespective of the intensity. The results showed that Brazilian S. schenckii isolates express different protein profiles, a feature also present in isolates from a more restricted region. The exoantigens were found to have a maximum of 15 protein fractions, ranging in MW from 19-220 KDaltons depending on the medium used for the cultures. These data show the great heterogeneity of Brazilian S. schenckii protein expression.

  2. The E4 protein; structure, function and patterns of expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorbar, John, E-mail: jdoorba@nimr.mrc.ac.uk

    2013-10-15

    The papillomavirus E4 open reading frame (ORF) is contained within the E2 ORF, with the primary E4 gene-product (E1{sup ∧}E4) being translated from a spliced mRNA that includes the E1 initiation codon and adjacent sequences. E4 is located centrally within the E2 gene, in a region that encodes the E2 protein′s flexible hinge domain. Although a number of minor E4 transcripts have been reported, it is the product of the abundant E1{sup ∧}E4 mRNA that has been most extensively analysed. During the papillomavirus life cycle, the E1{sup ∧}E4 gene products generally become detectable at the onset of vegetative viral genome amplification as the late stages of infection begin. E4 contributes to genome amplification success and virus synthesis, with its high level of expression suggesting additional roles in virus release and/or transmission. In general, E4 is easily visualised in biopsy material by immunostaining, and can be detected in lesions caused by diverse papillomavirus types, including those of dogs, rabbits and cattle as well as humans. The E4 protein can serve as a biomarker of active virus infection, and in the case of high-risk human types also disease severity. In some cutaneous lesions, E4 can be expressed at higher levels than the virion coat proteins, and can account for as much as 30% of total lesional protein content. The E4 proteins of the Beta, Gamma and Mu HPV types assemble into distinctive cytoplasmic, and sometimes nuclear, inclusion granules. In general, the E4 proteins are expressed before L2 and L1, with their structure and function being modified, first by kinases as the infected cell progresses through the S and G2 cell cycle phases, but also by proteases as the cell exits the cell cycle and undergoes true terminal differentiation. The kinases that regulate E4 also affect other viral proteins simultaneously, and include protein kinase A, Cyclin-dependent kinase, members of the MAP Kinase family and protein kinase C. For HPV16 E1{sup

  3. Developmental expression of Drosophila Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome family proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mesa, Evelyn; Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Rosales-Nieves, Alicia E.; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WASP) family proteins participate in many cellular processes involving rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. To the date, four WASP subfamily members have been described in Drosophila: Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy. Wash, WASp, and SCAR are essential during early Drosophila development where they function in orchestrating cytoplasmic events including membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. A mutant for Whamy has not yet been reported. Results We generated monoclonal antibodies that are specific to Drosophila Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy, and use these to describe their spatial and temporal localization patterns. Consistent with the importance of WASP family proteins in flies, we find that Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy are dynamically expressed throughout oogenesis and embryogenesis. For example, we find that Wash accumulates at the oocyte cortex. WASp is highly expressed in the PNS, while SCAR is the most abundantly expressed in the CNS. Whamy exhibits an asymmetric subcellular localization that overlaps with mitochondria and is highly expressed in muscle. Conclusion All four WASP family members show specific expression patterns, some of which reflect their previously known roles and others revealing new potential functions. The monoclonal antibodies developed offer valuable new tools to investigate how WASP family proteins regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. PMID:22275148

  4. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walchli John

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. Results In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38α, viral polymerase (HCV NS5B, and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. Conclusion The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  5. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Abraham

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP. AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies.

  6. Decreased expression of RNA interference machinery, Dicer and Drosha, is associated with poor outcome in ovarian cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, William M.; Lin, Yvonne G.; Han, Liz Y.; Kamat, Aparna A.; Spannuth, Whitney A.; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Urbauer, Diana; Pennacchio, Len A.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Zeidan, Alexandra; Wang, Hua; Mueller, Peter; Lenburg, Marc E.; Gray, Joe W.; Mok, Samuel; Birrer, Michael J.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L.; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Sood, Anil K.

    2008-05-06

    The clinical and functional significance of RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, Dicer and Drosha, in ovarian cancer is not known and was examined. Dicer and Drosha expression was measured in ovarian cancer cell lines (n=8) and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer specimens (n=111) and correlated with clinical outcome. Validation was performed with previously published cohorts of ovarian, breast, and lung cancer patients. Anti-Galectin-3 siRNA and shRNA transfections were used for in vitro functional studies. Dicer and Drosha mRNA and protein levels were decreased in 37% to 63% of ovarian cancer cell lines and in 60% and 51% of human ovarian cancer specimens, respectively. Low Dicer was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (p=0.007), and low Drosha with suboptimal surgical cytoreduction (p=0.02). Tumors with both high Dicer and Drosha were associated with increased median patient survival (>11 years vs. 2.66 years for other groups; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, high Dicer (HR=0.48; p=0.02), high-grade histology (HR=2.46; p=0.03), and poor chemoresponse (HR=3.95; p<0.001) were identified as independent predictors of disease-specific survival. Findings of poor clinical outcome with low Dicer expression were validated in separate cohorts of cancer patients. Galectin-3 silencing with siRNA transfection was superior to shRNA in cell lines with low Dicer (78-95% vs. 4-8% compared to non-targeting sequences), and similar in cell lines with high Dicer. Our findings demonstrate the clinical and functional impact of RNAi machinery alterations in ovarian carcinoma and support the use of siRNA constructs that do not require endogenous Dicer and Drosha for therapeutic applications.

  7. Lignans isolated from Campylotropis hirtella (Franch.) Schindl. decreased prostate specific antigen and androgen receptor expression in LNCaP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Ying; Wang, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Nai-Li; Ling, Ming-Tat; Wong, Yong-Chuan; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2008-08-27

    Accumulating epidemiological data suggest that Asian men have lower incidences of prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) compared with American and European populations and may have benefited from their higher intake of phytoestrogens in their diet. However, how these phytochemicals affect prostatic diseases is still unclear. In this study, we isolated six lignans from a plant, Campylotropis hirtella (Franch.) Schindl., which has been used as a folk medicine for treatment of BPH in China, through bioassay guided fractionation. They were dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (C1), 4-[(-6-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-3-yl)methyl]-5-methoxybenzene-1,3-diol (C2), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-beta-O-4'-coniferyl ether (C3), threo-guaiacylglycerol-beta-O-4'-coniferyl ether (C4), secoisolariciresinol (C5), and prupaside (C6), where C2 was identified as a new lignan analog. Their IC50 values for inhibition of prostate specific antigen (PSA) secretion were 19, 45, 110, 128, 137, and 186 microM, respectively, from C1 to C6 in LNCaP cells. Further study showed that C1-5 down-regulated cellular PSA expression and C1-4 also decreased androgen receptor (AR) expression in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, we investigated the proapoptotic effect of C1 on LNCaP cells. The active forms of caspase 3 associated with the specific proteolysis of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were detected, and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down-regulated after the treatment with C1. These results collectively indicated that these lignans may have chemopreventive or therapeutic actions for prostate cancer through suppressing AR signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis.

  8. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of leptospiral outer membrane protein expression in response to temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lo

    shift in L. interrogans. The results thus provide an insight into the mechanisms used by L. interrogans to adapt to conditions encountered in the host and to cause disease. Our results suggest down-regulation of protein expression in response to temperature, and decreased expression of outer membrane proteins may facilitate minimal interaction with host immune mechanisms.

  9. Expression, Delivery and Function of Insecticidal Proteins Expressed by Recombinant Baculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Bonning, Bryony C.; Harrison, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

  10. Roles of HMGA proteins in cancer: Expression, pathways, and redundancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancotti V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the High Mobility Group A (HMGA proteins, their participation in cancer signalling pathways, and their redundant functions have been reviewed in seven types of cancer: breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, ovarian, thyroid, and brain. The analysis of cell lines and tumours revealed an elevated level of their expression in all fully transformed cancer systems, which represents a step of the main cancer signalling pathways. In breast, colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a master inducer of cell transformation in which are deeply involved HMG A1 and A2 proteins. On the other hand, IL-6/Stat3 pathway is responsible for cancer transformation in breast, lung, and prostate. The expression of HMGA1 in lung and ovarian cancers is due to an active PI3K/Akt pathway. The let-7 family of microRNA represses the expression of HMGA showing specificity by its different forms: the let-7b form is able to inhibit both proteins A1 and A2, the last also inhibited by a, c, d, and g forms. Moreover, both proteins are down-regulated by the repressor couple p53/microRNA-34a. The protein A1 and A2 participate to the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition cooperating with the three couples of factors Twist1/2, Snai1/2, and Zeb1/2. Through a combination of pathways, there is the simultaneous presence of high levels of both A1 and A2 together with the expression of other factors: a high co-operating efficiency is reached that supplies the tumour cells with properties of self-renewal, resistance, and invasiveness.

  11. Hypoxia and hypoxia mimetics decrease aquaporin 5 (AQP5 expression through both hypoxia inducible factor-1α and proteasome-mediated pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitesh D Kawedia

    Full Text Available The alveolar epithelium plays a central role in gas exchange and fluid transport, and is therefore critical for normal lung function. Since the bulk of water flux across this epithelium depends on the membrane water channel Aquaporin 5 (AQP5, we asked whether hypoxia had any effect on AQP5 expression. We show that hypoxia causes a significant (70% decrease in AQP5 expression in the lungs of mice exposed to hypoxia. Hypoxia and the hypoxia mimetic, cobalt, also caused similar decreases in AQP5 mRNA and protein expression in the mouse lung epithelial cell line MLE-12. The action of hypoxia and cobalt on AQP5 transcription was demonstrated by directly quantifying heternonuclear RNA by real-time PCR. Dominant negative mutants of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF-1α and HIF-1α siRNA blocked the action of cobalt, showing that HIF-1α is a key component in this mechanism. The proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin or proteasome inhibitor-III completely abolished the effect of hypoxia and cobalt both at the protein and mRNA level indicating that the proteasome pathway is probably involved not only for the stability of HIF-1α protein, but for the stability of unidentified transcription factors that regulate AQP5 transcription. These studies reveal a potentially important physiological mechanism linking hypoxic stress and membrane water channels.

  12. Hypoxia and Hypoxia Mimetics Decrease Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) Expression through Both Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α and Proteasome-Mediated Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawedia, Jitesh D.; Yang, Fan; Sartor, Maureen A.; Gozal, David; Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria; Menon, Anil G.

    2013-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium plays a central role in gas exchange and fluid transport, and is therefore critical for normal lung function. Since the bulk of water flux across this epithelium depends on the membrane water channel Aquaporin 5 (AQP5), we asked whether hypoxia had any effect on AQP5 expression. We show that hypoxia causes a significant (70%) decrease in AQP5 expression in the lungs of mice exposed to hypoxia. Hypoxia and the hypoxia mimetic, cobalt, also caused similar decreases in AQP5 mRNA and protein expression in the mouse lung epithelial cell line MLE-12. The action of hypoxia and cobalt on AQP5 transcription was demonstrated by directly quantifying heternonuclear RNA by real-time PCR. Dominant negative mutants of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF-1α) and HIF-1α siRNA blocked the action of cobalt, showing that HIF-1α is a key component in this mechanism. The proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin or proteasome inhibitor-III completely abolished the effect of hypoxia and cobalt both at the protein and mRNA level indicating that the proteasome pathway is probably involved not only for the stability of HIF-1α protein, but for the stability of unidentified transcription factors that regulate AQP5 transcription. These studies reveal a potentially important physiological mechanism linking hypoxic stress and membrane water channels. PMID:23469202

  13. Differential expression patterns of metastasis suppressor proteins in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Onder; Yulug, Isik G; Vargel, Ibrahim; Cavusoglu, Tarik; Karabulut, Ayse A; Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer

    2015-08-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are common malignant skin tumors. Despite having a significant invasion capacity, they metastasize only rarely. Our aim in this study was to detect the expression patterns of the NM23-H1, NDRG1, E-cadherin, RHOGDI2, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 metastasis suppressor proteins in BCCs. A total of 96 BCC and 10 normal skin samples were included for the immunohistochemical study. Eleven frozen BCC samples were also studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect the gene expression profile. NM23-H1 was strongly and diffusely expressed in all types of BCC. Significant cytoplasmic expression of NDRG1 and E-cadherin was also detected. However, AKAP12 and CD82/KAI1 expression was significantly decreased. The expressions of the other proteins were somewhere between the two extremes. Similarly, qRT-PCR analysis showed down-regulation of AKAP12 and up-regulation of NM23-H1 and NDRG1 in BCC. Morphologically aggressive BCCs showed significantly higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression scores and lower CD82/KAI1 scores than non-aggressive BCCs. The relatively preserved levels of NM23-H1, NDRG1, and E-cadherin proteins may have a positive effect on the non-metastasizing features of these tumors. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Central administration of insulin-like growth factor-I decreases depressive-like behavior and brain cytokine expression in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Exogenous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I has anti-depressant properties in rodent models of depression. However, nothing is known about the anti-depressant properties of IGF-I during inflammation, nor have mechanisms by which IGF-I alters behavior following activation of the innate immune system been clarified. We hypothesized that central IGF-I would diminish depressive-like behavior on a background of an inflammatory response and that it would do so by inducing expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) while decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the brain. IGF-I (1,000 ng) was administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) to CD-1 mice. Mice were subsequently given lipopolysaccharide i.c.v. (LPS, 10 ng). Sickness and depressive-like behaviors were assessed followed by analysis of brain steady state mRNA expression. Central LPS elicited typical transient signs of sickness of mice, including body weight loss, reduced feed intake and decreased social exploration toward a novel juvenile. Similarly, LPS increased time of immobility in the tail suspension test (TST). Pretreatment with IGF-I or antidepressants significantly decreased duration of immobility in the TST in both the absence and presence of LPS. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-depressant action of IGF-I, we quantified steady-state mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators in whole brain using real-time RT-PCR. LPS increased, whereas IGF-I decreased, expression of inflammatory markers interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-(TNF)α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Moreover, IGF-I increased expression of BDNF. These results indicate that IGF-I down regulates glial activation and induces expression of an endogenous growth factor that shares anti-depressant activity. These actions of IGF-I parallel its ability to diminish depressive-like behavior. PMID:21306618

  15. Decreased activity of neutrophils in the presence of diferuloylmethane (curcumin) involves protein kinase C inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancinová, Viera; Perecko, Tomás; Nosál, Radomír; Kostálová, Daniela; Bauerová, Katarína; Drábiková, Katarína

    2009-06-10

    Diferuloylmethane (curcumin) has been shown to act beneficially in arthritis, particularly through downregulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines and collagenase as well as through the modulated activities of T lymphocytes and macrophages. In this study its impact on activated neutrophils was investigated both in vitro and in experimental arthritis. Formation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils was recorded on the basis of luminol- or isoluminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Phosphorylation of neutrophil protein kinases C alpha and beta II was assessed by Western blotting, using phosphospecific antibodies. Adjuvant arthritis was induced in Lewis rats by heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum. Diferuloylmethane or methotrexate was administered over a period of 28 days after arthritis induction. Under in vitro conditions, diferuloylmethane (1-100 microM) reduced dose-dependently oxidant formation both at extra- and intracellular level and it effectively reduced protein kinase C activation. Adjuvant arthritis was accompanied by an increased number of neutrophils in blood and by a more pronounced spontaneous as well as PMA (phorbol myristate acetate) stimulated chemiluminescence. Whereas the arthritis-related alterations in neutrophil count and in spontaneous chemiluminescence were not modified by diferuloylmethane, the increased reactivity of neutrophils to PMA was less evident in diferuloylmethane-treated animals. The effects of diferuloylmethane were comparable with those of methotrexate. Diferuloylmethane was found to be a potent inhibitor of neutrophil functions both in vitro and in experimental arthritis. As neutrophils are considered to be cells with the greatest capacity to inflict damage within diseased joints, the observed effects could represent a further mechanism involved in the antirheumatic activity of diferuloylmethane.

  16. Perinatal exposure to BDE-99 causes decreased protein levels of cyclin D1 via GSK3β activation and increased ROS production in rat pup livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jordi; Mulero, Miquel; Domingo, Jose L; Sanchez, Domènec J

    2014-02-01

    We here examined the potential liver toxicity in rat pups from dams exposed during the gestational and lactation periods to 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99). Dams were exposed to 0, 1, and 2mg/kg/day of BDE-99 from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 21. When the pups were weaning, the liver from 1 pup of each litter was excised to evaluate oxidative stress markers and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. To determine whether thyroid hormone (TH) was disrupted, the protein and mRNA expressions of several TH receptor (TR) isoforms, as well as the protein levels of cyclin D1 and the phosphorylated protein kinases Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), were evaluated. Perinatal exposure to BDE-99 produced decreased levels of cyclin D1 in rat pup livers. A decrease in the active form of Akt and an increase in the active form of GSK3β were observed. The decreased Akt pathway may be due to a potential disruption of the nongenomic actions of TH by BDE-99 and its metabolites. This possible TH disruption was noted as a decrease in TR isoforms expression. By contrast, we observed an upregulation of CYP2B1 gene expression, which is correlated with an increase in reactive oxygen species production. This outcome indicates activation of the nuclear constitutive androstane receptor, which could induce the expression of other enzymes capable of metabolizing TH. The present findings support the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to PBDEs, at levels found in humans, may have serious implications for metabolic processes in rat pup livers.

  17. Neonatal manipulation of oxytocin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in gene expression of growth factors in two developmental stages of the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jan; Lestanova, Zuzana; Strbak, Vladimir; Havranek, Tomas; Bacova, Zuzana

    2014-10-01

    Oxytocin production and secretion is important for early development of the brain. Long-term consequences of manipulation of oxytocin system might include changes in markers of brain plasticity - cytoskeletal proteins and neurotrophins. The aim of the present study was (1) to determine whether neonatal oxytocin administration affects gene expression of nestin, microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain of two developmental stages of rat and (2) to evaluate whether neonatal oxytocin administration protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation. Neonatal oxytocin did not prevent a decrease of body weight in the LPS treated animals. Oxytocin significantly increased gene expression of BDNF in the right hippocampus in 21-day and 2-month old rats of both sexes. Gene expression of NGF and MAP-2 significantly increased in males treated with oxytocin. Both, growth factors and intermediate filament-nestin mRNA levels, were reduced in females exposed to LPS. Oxytocin treatment prevented a decrease in the gene expression of only growth factors. In conclusion, neonatal manipulation of oxytocin has developmental and sex-dependent effect on markers of brain plasticity. These results also indicate, that oxytocin may be protective against inflammation particularly in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inflammatory Adipokines Decrease Expression of Two High Molecular Weight Isoforms of Tropomyosin Similar to the Change in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Savill

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and cancer are increased in Type 2 diabetes. TPM1 and TPM4 genes encode proteins associated with cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. High (HMW and low (LMW molecular weight isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 are altered in several cancer cells and the 3'UTR of TPM1 mRNA is tumour suppressive. Leukocytes influence cardiovascular and neoplastic disease by immunosurveillance for cancer and by chronic inflammation in Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim was to determine changes in expression of isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 genes in leukocytes from Type 2 diabetic patients and to use the leukocyte cell line THP1 to identify possible mediators of changes in the patients. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR. In diabetes, expression of HMW isoforms from TPM1 were markedly decreased (0.55 v 1.00; p = 0.019 but HMW isoforms from TPM4 were not significantly different (0.76 v 1.00; p = 0.205. Within individual variance in expression of HMW isoforms was very high. The change in expression in HMW isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 was replicated in THP1 cells treated with 1 ng/ml TNFα (0.10 and 0.12 v 1.00 respectively or 10 ng/ml IL-1α (0.17 and 0.14 v 1.00 respectively. Increased insulin or glucose concentrations had no substantial effects on TPM1 or TPM4 expression. Decreased TPM1 mRNA resulted in decreases in HMW protein levels. Expression of HMW isoforms from TPM1 is decreased in Type 2 diabetes. This is probably due to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1α in Type 2 diabetes. Lower levels of TPM1 mRNA reduce tumour suppression and could contribute to increased cancer risk in Type 2 diabetes. Decreased HMW tropomyosin isoforms are associated with cancer. Decreased HMW isoforms give rise to cells that are more plastic, motile, invasive and prone to dedifferentiation resulting in leukocytes that are more invasive but less functionally effective.

  19. Decreased surface expression of the δ subunit of the GABAA receptor contributes to reduced tonic inhibition in dentate granule cells in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nianhui; Peng, Zechun; Tong, Xiaoping; Lindemeyer, A Kerstin; Cetina, Yliana; Huang, Christine S; Olsen, Richard W; Otis, Thomas S; Houser, Carolyn R

    2017-11-01

    While numerous changes in the GABA system have been identified in models of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), alterations in subunits of the GABA A receptors (GABA A Rs) that mediate tonic inhibition are particularly intriguing. Considering the key role of tonic inhibition in controlling neuronal excitability, reduced tonic inhibition could contribute to FXS-associated disorders such as hyperactivity, hypersensitivity, and increased seizure susceptibility. The current study has focused on the expression and function of the δ subunit of the GABA A R, a major subunit involved in tonic inhibition, in granule cells of the dentate gyrus in the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model of FXS. Electrophysiological studies of dentate granule cells revealed a marked, nearly four-fold, decrease in tonic inhibition in the Fmr1 KO mice, as well as reduced effects of two δ subunit-preferring pharmacological agents, THIP and DS2, supporting the suggestion that δ subunit-containing GABA A Rs are compromised in the Fmr1 KO mice. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a small but statistically significant decrease in δ subunit labeling in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus in Fmr1 KO mice compared to wildtype (WT) littermates. The discrepancy between the large deficits in GABA-mediated tonic inhibition in granule cells in the Fmr1 KO mice and only modest reductions in immunolabeling of the δ subunit led to studies of surface expression of the δ subunit. Cross-linking experiments followed by Western blot analysis demonstrated a small, non-significant decrease in total δ subunit protein in the hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice, but a four-fold decrease in surface expression of the δ subunit in these mice. No significant changes were observed in total or surface expression of the α4 subunit protein, a major partner of the δ subunit in the forebrain. Postembedding immunogold labeling for the δ subunit demonstrated a large, three-fold, decrease in the number of symmetric synapses with

  20. Chronic intermittent hypoxia from pedo-stage decreases glucose transporter 4 expression in adipose tissue and causes insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Cao, Zhao-long; Han, Fang; Gao, Zhan-cheng; He, Quan-ying

    2010-02-20

    The persistence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms after tonsil and/or adenoid (T&A) surgery are common in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis that disturbances of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in intraabdominal adipose tissue caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) from the pedo-period could facilitate the appearance of periphery insulin resistance in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We tested the hypothesis that the changes of GLUTs in adipose tissue may be one of the reasons for persistent SDB among clinical OSA children after T&A surgery. Thirty 21-day-old SD rats were randomly divided into a CIH group, a chronic continuous hypoxia (CCH) group, and a normal oxygen group (control group) and exposed for 40 days. The changes of weight, fasting blood glucose and fasting blood insulin levels were measured. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp techniques were used to measure insulin resistance in each animal. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to measure GLUT mRNA and proteins in intraabdominal adipose tissue. Additional intraabdomial white adipose tissue (WAT) was also processed into paraffin sections and directly observed for GLUTs1-4 expression. When compared with control group, CIH increased blood fasting insulin levels, (245.07 +/- 53.89) pg/ml vs. (168.63 +/- 38.70) pg/ml, P = 0.038, and decreased the mean glucose infusion rate (GIR), (7.25 +/- 1.29) mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) vs. (13.34 +/- 1.54) mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001. GLUT-4 mRNA and protein expression was significantly reduced after CIH compared with CCH or normal oxygen rats, 0.002 +/- 0.002 vs. 0.039 +/- 0.009, P < 0.001; 0.642 +/- 0.073 vs. 1.000 +/- 0.103, P = 0.035. CIH in young rats could induce insulin resistance via adverse effects on glycometabolism. These findings emphasize the importance of early detection and treatment of insulin insensitivity in obese childhood OSA.

  1. Dietary acidification enhances phosphorus digestibility but decreases H+/K+-ATPase expression in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shozo H; Roy, Prabir K; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2006-10-01

    Oxynticopeptic cells of fish stomach are thought to secrete less acid than the specialized parietal cells of mammalian stomach. Gastric acidity, however, has not been directly compared between fish and mammals. We therefore fed rainbow trout and rats the same meal, and found that the lowest postprandial pH of trout stomach was 2.7, which was only transiently sustained for 1 h, whereas that of rat stomach was 1.3, which was sustained for 3 h. Postprandial pH of the small intestine was slightly higher in trout (approximately 8.0) than in rats (approximately 7.6), but pH of the large intestine was similar (approximately 8.0). Addition of acids to fish feeds, in an attempt to aid the weak acidity of fish stomach, has been known to improve phosphorus digestibility, but its physiological effect on fish stomach is not known. Exogenous acids did improve phosphorus digestibility but also decreased steady-state mRNA expression of trout H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP4A, the proton pump) as well as Na(+)/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC), and had no effect on gastrin-like mRNA and somastostatin (SST) mRNA abundance. Gastrin-like mRNA and SST-2 mRNA were equally distributed between corpus and antrum. ATP4A mRNA and NBC mRNA were in the corpus, whereas SST-1 mRNA was in the antrum. Trout gastrin-like EST had modest homology to halibut and pufferfish gastrin, whereas trout ATP4A mRNA had > or = 95% amino acid homology with mammalian, Xenopus and flounder ATP4A. Although ATP4A seems highly conserved among vertebrates, gastric acidity is much less in trout than in rats, explaining the low digestibility of bone phosphorus, abundant in fish diets. Dietary acidification does not reduce acidity enough to markedly improve phosphorus digestibility, perhaps because exogenous acids may inhibit endogenous acid production.

  2. Expression, purification, and DNA-binding activity of the Herbaspirillum seropedicae RecX protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Carolina W; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Yates, M Geoffrey; Chubatsu, Leda S; Steffens, Maria Berenice R

    2004-06-01

    The Herbaspirillum seropedicae RecX protein participates in the SOS response: a process in which the RecA protein plays a central role. The RecX protein of the H. seropedicae, fused to a His-tag sequence (RecX His-tagged), was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by metal-affinity chromatography to yield a highly purified and active protein. DNA band-shift assays showed that the RecX His-tagged protein bound to both circular and linear double-stranded DNA and also to circular single-stranded DNA. The apparent affinity of RecX for DNA decreased in the presence of Mg(2+) ions. The ability of RecX to bind DNA may be relevant to its function in the SOS response.

  3. Inhibition of interleukin-6 decreases atrogene expression and ameliorates tail suspension-induced skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabe, Mitsutaka; Ota, Hidetaka; Iijima, Katsuya; Eto, Masato; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Akishita, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine. Whether systemic IL-6 affects atrogene expression and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is unclear. Methods Tail-suspended mice were used as a disuse-induced muscle atrophy model. We administered anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and vitamin D to the mice and examined the effects on atrogene expression and muscle atrophy. Results Serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the mice. Inhibition of IL-6 receptor suppressed muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) expression and prevented muscle atrophy. HMB and vitamin D inhibited the serum IL-6 surge, downregulated the expression of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 in the soleus muscle, and ameliorated atrophy in the mice. Conclusion Systemic IL-6 affects MuRF1 expression and disuse-induced muscle atrophy. PMID:29351340

  4. Inhibition of interleukin-6 decreases atrogene expression and ameliorates tail suspension-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutaka Yakabe

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is an inflammatory cytokine. Whether systemic IL-6 affects atrogene expression and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is unclear.Tail-suspended mice were used as a disuse-induced muscle atrophy model. We administered anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB and vitamin D to the mice and examined the effects on atrogene expression and muscle atrophy.Serum IL-6 levels were elevated in the mice. Inhibition of IL-6 receptor suppressed muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 expression and prevented muscle atrophy. HMB and vitamin D inhibited the serum IL-6 surge, downregulated the expression of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 in the soleus muscle, and ameliorated atrophy in the mice.Systemic IL-6 affects MuRF1 expression and disuse-induced muscle atrophy.

  5. Cloning and expression analysis of a blue copper- binding protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... decreased to constitutive level at 72 h after inoculation in resistant Gh21 line ... lignification of cell wall or scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during powdery mildew attack ... or other ions in plants (Lin and Wu, 1994), whose .... nutrient-uptake and copper accumulation in protein of copper-tolerant.

  6. Novel leukocyte protein, Trojan, differentially expressed during thymocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Petar; Motobu, Maki; Salmi, Jussi; Uchida, Tatsuya; Vainio, Olli

    2010-04-01

    "Trojan" is a novel cell surface protein, discovered from chicken embryonic thymocytes on the purpose to identify molecules involved in T cell differentiation. The molecule is predicted as a type I transmembrane protein having a Sushi and two fibronectin type III domains and a pair of intracellular phosphorylation sites. Its transcript expression is specific for lymphoid tissues and the presence of the protein on the surface of recirculating lymphocytes and macrophages was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. In thymus, about half of the double negative (CD4(-) CD8(-)) and CD8 single positive and the majority of CD4 single positive cells express Trojan with a relatively high intensity. However, only a minority of the double positive (CD4(+) CD8(+)) cells are positive for Trojan. This expression pattern, similar to that of some proteins with anti-apoptotic and function, like IL-7Ralpha, makes Trojan an attractive candidate of having an anti-apoptotic role. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nociceptive DRG neurons express muscle lim protein upon axonal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Evgeny; Andreadaki, Anastasia; Gobrecht, Philipp; Bosse, Frank; Fischer, Dietmar

    2017-04-04

    Muscle lim protein (MLP) has long been regarded as a cytosolic and nuclear muscular protein. Here, we show that MLP is also expressed in a subpopulation of adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in response to axonal injury, while the protein was not detectable in naïve cells. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis of L4/L5 DRG revealed ~3% of MLP-positive neurons 2 days after complete sciatic nerve crush and maximum ~10% after 4-14 days. Similarly, in mixed cultures from cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral DRG ~6% of neurons were MLP-positive after 2 days and maximal 17% after 3 days. In both, histological sections and cell cultures, the protein was detected in the cytosol and axons of small diameter cells, while the nucleus remained devoid. Moreover, the vast majority could not be assigned to any of the well characterized canonical DRG subpopulations at 7 days after nerve injury. However, further analysis in cell culture revealed that the largest population of MLP expressing cells originated from non-peptidergic IB4-positive nociceptive neurons, which lose their ability to bind the lectin upon axotomy. Thus, MLP is mostly expressed in a subset of axotomized nociceptive neurons and can be used as a novel marker for this population of cells.

  8. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  9. Decreased expression of connective tissue growth factor in non-small cell lung cancer is associated with clinicopathological variables and can be restored by epigenetic modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Hanna; Gałęcki, Bartłomiej; Jarmołowska-Jurczyszyn, Donata; Kluk, Andrzej; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies indicated undisputed contribution of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the development of many cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the functional role and regulation of CTGF expression during tumorigenesis remain elusive. Our goal was to determine CTGF transcript and protein levels in tumoral and matched control tissues from 98 NSCLC patients, to correlate the results with clinicopathological features and to investigate whether the CTGF expression can be epigenetically regulated in NSCLC. We used quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to evaluate CTGF expression in lung cancerous and histopathologically unchanged tissues. We tested the impact of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-dAzaC) and trichostatin A (TSA) on CTGF transcript and protein levels in NSCLC cells (A549, Calu-1). DNA methylation status of the CTGF regulatory region was evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. The influence of 5-dAzaC and TSA on NSCLC cells viability and proliferation was monitored by the trypan blue assay. We found significantly decreased levels of CTGF mRNA and protein (both p cancerous tissues of NSCLC patients. Down-regulation of CTGF occurred regardless of gender in all histological subtypes of NSCLC. Moreover, we showed that 5-dAzaC and TSA were able to restore CTGF mRNA and protein contents in NSCLC cells. However, no methylation within CTGF regulatory region was detected. Both compounds significantly reduced NSCLC cells proliferation. Decreased expression of CTGF is a common feature in NSCLC; however, it can be restored by the chromatin-modifying agents such as 5-dAzaC or TSA and consequently restrain cancer development.

  10. Stimulation of Protein Expression Through the Harmonic Resonance of Frequency-Specific Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ibrahim Y; Gulbahar, Burak A

    2016-12-01

    The use of specific frequencies for specific individual amino acids may increase the potential energy of protein molecules in the medium [1]. The resonance would also increase the movement of particles in the cytosol, increasing the collisions necessary for the conduction of protein expression. The clash of two waves that share frequencies will exhibit an increase in energy through an increase in amplitude [2]. The increase in energy would in turn increase the number of collisions forming the tRNA-amino acid, increasing the amino acid acquiry for ribosomes to improve intracellular efficiency in gene expression. To test the hypothesis, Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) in transformated BL-21 strains of E. coli and p53 protein of MCF-7 were examined after exposure to sounds of specific frequencies. Through the exposure of the experimental systems to a sequence of sounds that match the frequencies of specific amino acids, the levels of RFP exhibition respective to the control groups in the bacterial medium increased two-fold in terms of RFU. The experiments that targeted the p53 protein with the 'music' showed a decrease in the cell prevalence in the MCF-7 type breast cancer cells by 28%, by decreasing the speed of tumour formation. Exposure to 'music' that was designed through assigning a musical note for every single one of the twenty unique amino acids, produced both an analytical and a visible shift in protein synthesis, making it as potential tool for reducing procedural time uptake.

  11. Comparative temporospatial expression profiling of murine amelotin protein during amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi-Ganss, Eszter; Nakayama, Yohei; Iwasaki, Kengo; Nakano, Yukiko; Stolf, Daiana; McKee, Marc D; Ganss, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Tooth enamel is formed in a typical biomineralization process under the guidance of specific organic components. Amelotin (AMTN) is a recently identified, secreted protein that is transcribed predominantly during the maturation stage of enamel formation, but its protein expression profile throughout amelogenesis has not been described in detail. The main objective of this study was to define the spatiotemporal expression profile of AMTN during tooth development in comparison with other known enamel proteins. A peptide antibody against AMTN was raised in rabbits, affinity purified and used for immunohistochemical analyses on sagittal and transverse paraffin sections of decalcified mouse hemimandibles. The localization of AMTN was compared to that of known enamel proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin, enamelin, odontogenic ameloblast-associated/amyloid in Pindborg tumors and kallikrein 4. Three-dimensional images of AMTN localization in molars at selected ages were reconstructed from serial stained sections, and transmission electron microscopy was used for ultrastructural localization of AMTN. AMTN was detected in ameloblasts of molars in a transient fashion, declining at the time of tooth eruption. Prominent expression in maturation stage ameloblasts of the continuously erupting incisor persisted into adulthood. In contrast, amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin were predominantly found during the early secretory stage, while odontogenic ameloblast-associated/amyloid in Pindborg tumors and kallikrein 4 expression in maturation stage ameloblasts paralleled that of AMTN. Secreted AMTN was detected at the interface between ameloblasts and the mineralized enamel. Recombinant AMTN protein did not mediate cell attachment in vitro. These results suggest a primary role for AMTN in the late stages of enamel mineralization. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Development of a simple measurement method for GluR2 protein expression as an index of neuronal vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Sugiyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro estimating strategies for potential neurotoxicity are required to screen multiple substances. In a previous study, we showed that exposure to low-concentrations of some chemicals, such as organotin, decreased the expression of GluR2 protein, which is a subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA-type glutamate receptors, and led to neuronal vulnerability. This result suggested that GluR2 decreases as an index of neuronal cell sensitivity and vulnerability to various toxic insults. Accordingly, we developed a versatile method that is a large scale determination of GluR2 protein expression in the presence of environmental chemicals by means of AlphaLISA technology. Various analytical conditions were optimized, and then GluR2 protein amount was measured by the method using AlphaLISA. The GluR2 amounts were strongly correlated with that of measured by western blotting, which is currently used to determine GluR2 expression. An ideal standard curve could be written with the authentic GluR2 protein from 0 ng to 100 ng. Subsequently, twenty environmental chemicals were screened and nitenpyram was identified as a chemical which lead to decrease in GluR2 protein expression. This assay may provide a tool for detecting neurotoxic chemicals according to decreases in GluR2 protein expression.

  13. A comparative study of cell cycle mediator protein expression patterns in anaplastic and papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Juanita J; Crist, Henry S; Durvesh, Saima; Bruggeman, Richard D; Goldenberg, David

    2012-07-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely aggressive and rapidly fatal neoplasm. The aim of this study was to identify a limited cell cycle associated protein expression pattern unique to ATC and to correlate that pattern with clinical outcome. This represents one of the largest tissue micro-array projects comparing the cell cycle protein expression data of ATC to other well-differentiated tumors in the literature. Tissue microarrays were created from 21 patients with ATC and an age and gender matched cohort of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1, cyclin E, p53, p21, p16, aurora kinase A, opioid growth factor (OGF), OGF-receptor, thyroglobulin and Ki-67 was evaluated in a semi-quantitative fashion. Differences in protein expression between the cohorts were evaluated using chi-square tests with Bonferroni adjustments. Survival time and presence of metastasis at presentation were collected. The ATC cohort showed a statistically significant decrease (p cycle with aberrant expression of multiple protein markers suggesting increased proliferative activity and loss of control of cell cycle progression to G₁ phase. These findings support the assertion that ATC may represent the furthest end of a continuum of thyroid carcinoma dedifferentiation.

  14. Differentially expressed genes in iron-induced prion protein conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Eun-hee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) to the protease-resistant isoform is the key event in chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Increased iron in prion-related disease has been observed due to the prion protein-ferritin complex. Additionally, the accumulation and conversion of recombinant PrP (rPrP) is specifically derived from Fe(III) but not Fe(II). Fe(III)-mediated PK-resistant PrP (PrP res ) conversion occurs within a complex cellular environment rather than via direct contact between rPrP and Fe(III). In this study, differentially expressed genes correlated with prion degeneration by Fe(III) were identified using Affymetrix microarrays. Following Fe(III) treatment, 97 genes were differentially expressed, including 85 upregulated genes and 12 downregulated genes (≥1.5-fold change in expression). However, Fe(II) treatment produced moderate alterations in gene expression without inducing dramatic alterations in gene expression profiles. Moreover, functional grouping of identified genes indicated that the differentially regulated genes were highly associated with cell growth, cell maintenance, and intra- and extracellular transport. These findings showed that Fe(III) may influence the expression of genes involved in PrP folding by redox mechanisms. The identification of genes with altered expression patterns in neural cells may provide insights into PrP conversion mechanisms during the development and progression of prion-related diseases. - Highlights: • Differential genes correlated with prion degeneration by Fe(III) were identified. • Genes were identified in cell proliferation and intra- and extracellular transport. • In PrP degeneration, redox related genes were suggested. • Cbr2, Rsad2, Slc40a1, Amph and Mvd were expressed significantly.

  15. Monitoring the effects of toxic chemicals on protein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giometti, C.S.; Taylor, J.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with computer-assisted image and data analysis was used to monitor protein populations for both qualitative and quantitative changes induced by exposure to chemicals. For mutagenesis studies designed to screen for heritable mutations, a computer-assisted search of the optical density data from 2DE patterns was used to look for (a) new protein spots, (b) missing protein spots and/or (c) altered expression of normal protein spots. Using this approach, 320 mice were screened for mutations induced by treatment of sires with 150 mg/kg body weight of ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and four different mutations were identified. Protein patterns from 105 offspring from untreated male mice (controls) and 369 offspring from irradiated male mice (3 Gy gamma) were also screened. No heritable mutations were found in those data sets, however. In addition, protein changes were observed in livers of animals exposed to the hepatocellular peroxisomal proliferation agents (and carcinogens) Wy-14,643 and DEHP. The de novo synthesis of a new protein by these agents was demonstrated and quantitated

  16. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assenberg, René [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Delmas, Olivier [UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15 (France); Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J. [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Bourhy, Hervé [UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15 (France); Grimes, Jonathan M., E-mail: jonathan@strubi.ox.ac.uk [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress.

  17. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.; Bourhy, Hervé; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6 1 22 or P6 5 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress

  18. Ku proteins function as corepressors to regulate farnesoid X receptor-mediated gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masae; Kunimoto, Masaaki; Nishizuka, Makoto; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates the expression of genes involved in enterohepatic circulation and the metabolism of bile acids. Based on functional analyses, nuclear receptors are divided into regions A-F. To explore the cofactors interacting with FXR, we performed a pull-down assay using GST-fused to the N-terminal A/B region and the C region, which are required for the ligand-independent transactivation and DNA-binding, respectively, of FXR, and nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), Ku80, and Ku70 as FXR associated factors. These proteins are known to have an important role in DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. DNA-PKcs mainly interacted with the A/B region of FXR, whereas the Ku proteins interacted with the C region and with the D region (hinge region). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the Ku proteins associated with FXR on the bile salt export pump (BSEP) promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Ku proteins decreased the promoter activity and expression of BSEP gene mediated by FXR. These results suggest that the Ku proteins function as corepressors for FXR.

  19. Heterogeneity mapping of protein expression in tumors using quantitative immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faratian, Dana; Christiansen, Jason; Gustavson, Mark; Jones, Christine; Scott, Christopher; Um, InHwa; Harrison, David J

    2011-10-25

    Morphologic heterogeneity within an individual tumor is well-recognized by histopathologists in surgical practice. While this often takes the form of areas of distinct differentiation into recognized histological subtypes, or different pathological grade, often there are more subtle differences in phenotype which defy accurate classification (Figure 1). Ultimately, since morphology is dictated by the underlying molecular phenotype, areas with visible differences are likely to be accompanied by differences in the expression of proteins which orchestrate cellular function and behavior, and therefore, appearance. The significance of visible and invisible (molecular) heterogeneity for prognosis is unknown, but recent evidence suggests that, at least at the genetic level, heterogeneity exists in the primary tumor(1,2), and some of these sub-clones give rise to metastatic (and therefore lethal) disease. Moreover, some proteins are measured as biomarkers because they are the targets of therapy (for instance ER and HER2 for tamoxifen and trastuzumab (Herceptin), respectively). If these proteins show variable expression within a tumor then therapeutic responses may also be variable. The widely used histopathologic scoring schemes for immunohistochemistry either ignore, or numerically homogenize the quantification of protein expression. Similarly, in destructive techniques, where the tumor samples are homogenized (such as gene expression profiling), quantitative information can be elucidated, but spatial information is lost. Genetic heterogeneity mapping approaches in pancreatic cancer have relied either on generation of a single cell suspension(3), or on macrodissection(4). A recent study has used quantum dots in order to map morphologic and molecular heterogeneity in prostate cancer tissue(5), providing proof of principle that morphology and molecular mapping is feasible, but falling short of quantifying the heterogeneity. Since immunohistochemistry is, at best, only semi

  20. Decreased expression of serum and microvascular vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in meningococcal sepsis*.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, M. van der; Baerveldt, E.M.; Miedema, A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Hazelzet, J.A.; Emonts, M.; Groot, R. de; Prens, E.P.; Vught, A.J. van; Jansen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the skin microvessel expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and serum-soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 levels in children with meningococcal sepsis. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Two tertiary academic children hospital PICUs.

  1. SIRT3 Expression Decreases with Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Rat Cortical Neurons during Early Brain Injury Induced by Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin3 (SIRT3 is an important protein deacetylase which predominantly presents in mitochondria and exhibits broad bioactivities including regulating energy metabolism and counteracting inflammatory effect. Since inflammatory cascade was proved to be critical for pathological damage following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, we investigated the overall expression and cell-specific distribution of SIRT3 in the cerebral cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats with experimental SAH induced by internal carotid perforation. Results suggested that SIRT3 was expressed abundantly in neurons and endothelia but rarely in gliocytes in normal cerebral cortex. After experimental SAH, mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT3 decreased significantly as early as 8 hours and dropped to the minimum value at 24 h after SAH. By contrast, SOD2 expression increased slowly as early as 12 hours after experimental SAH, rose up sharply at the following 12 hours, and then was maintained at a higher level. In conclusion, attenuated SIRT3 expression in cortical neurons was associated closely with enhanced reactive oxygen species generation and cellular apoptosis, implying that SIRT3 might play an important neuroprotective role during early brain injury following SAH.

  2. Human trabecular meshwork cells express BMP antagonist mRNAs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Vidales, Tara; Fitzgerald, Ashley M; Clark, Abbot F

    2016-06-01

    Glaucoma patients have elevated aqueous humor and trabecular meshwork (TM) levels of transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2). TGF-β2 has been associated with increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition (i.e. fibronectin), which is attributed to the increased resistance of aqueous humor outflow through the TM. We have previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 selectively counteracts the profibrotic effect of TGF-β2 with respect to ECM synthesis in the TM, and this action is reversed by the BMP antagonist gremlin. Thus, the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways antagonize each other's antifibrotic and profibrotic roles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cultured human TM cells: (a) express other BMP antagonists including noggin, chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, Smurf1 and 2, and (b) whether expression of these proteins is regulated by exogenous TGF-β2 treatment. Primary human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells were grown to confluency and treated with TGF-β2 (5 ng/ml) for 24 or 48 h in serum-free medium. Untreated cell served as controls. qPCR and Western immunoblots (WB) determined that human TM cells expressed mRNAs and proteins for the BMP antagonist proteins: noggin, chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, and Smurf1/2. Exogenous TGF-β2 decreased chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, and Smurf1 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, TGF-β2 increased secreted noggin and Smurf2 mRNA and protein levels. BMP antagonist members are expressed in the human TM. These molecules may be involved in the normal function of the TM as well as TM pathogenesis. Altered expression of BMP antagonist members may lead to functional changes in the human TM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein Expression Profiling of Giant Cell Tumors of Bone Treated with Denosumab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Mukaihara

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB are locally aggressive osteolytic bone tumors. Recently, some clinical trials have shown that denosumab is a novel and effective therapeutic option for aggressive and recurrent GCTB. This study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of denosumab. Comparative proteomic analyses were performed using GCTB samples which were taken before and after denosumab treatment. Each expression profile was analyzed using the software program to further understand the affected biological network. One of identified proteins was further evaluated by gelatin zymography and an immunohistochemical analysis. We identified 13 consistently upregulated proteins and 19 consistently downregulated proteins in the pre- and post-denosumab samples. Using these profiles, the software program identified molecular interactions between the differentially expressed proteins that were indirectly involved in the RANK/RANKL pathway and in several non-canonical subpathways including the Matrix metalloproteinase pathway. The data analysis also suggested that the identified proteins play a critical functional role in the osteolytic process of GCTB. Among the most downregulated proteins, the activity of MMP-9 was significantly decreased in the denosumab-treated samples, although the residual stromal cells were found to express MMP-9 by an immunohistochemical analysis. The expression level of MMP-9 in the primary GCTB samples was not correlated with any clinicopathological factors, including patient outcomes. Although the replacement of tumors by fibro-osseous tissue or the diminishment of osteoclast-like giant cells have been shown as therapeutic effects of denosumab, the residual tumor after denosumab treatment, which is composed of only stromal cells, might be capable of causing bone destruction; thus the therapeutic application of denosumab would be still necessary for these lesions. We believe that the

  4. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins: tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ulamec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The interchanged stromal-epithelial relations and altered expression profiles of various extracellular matrix (ECM proteins creates a suitable microenvironment for cancer development and growth. We support the opinion that remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM plays an important role in the cancer progression. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ECM proteins tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: Glands and surrounding stroma were analyzed in randomly selected specimens from 52 patients with prostate cancer and 28 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP. To evaluate the intensity of tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 expression the percentage of positively immunostained stromal cells was examined.Results: Compared to BPH, stroma of prostatic adenocarcinoma showed statistically significant increase in tenascin-C expression (p<0.001, predominantly around neoplastic glands, while fibronectin (p=0.001 and galectin-3 (p<0.001 expression in the same area was decreased.Conclusions: Our study confirms changes in the expression of ECM proteins of prostate cancer which may have important role in the cancer development.

  5. A new essential protein discovery method based on the integration of protein-protein interaction and gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of essential proteins is always a challenging task since it requires experimental approaches that are time-consuming and laborious. With the advances in high throughput technologies, a large number of protein-protein interactions are available, which have produced unprecedented opportunities for detecting proteins' essentialities from the network level. There have been a series of computational approaches proposed for predicting essential proteins based on network topologies. However, the network topology-based centrality measures are very sensitive to the robustness of network. Therefore, a new robust essential protein discovery method would be of great value. Results In this paper, we propose a new centrality measure, named PeC, based on the integration of protein-protein interaction and gene expression data. The performance of PeC is validated based on the protein-protein interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experimental results show that the predicted precision of PeC clearly exceeds that of the other fifteen previously proposed centrality measures: Degree Centrality (DC, Betweenness Centrality (BC, Closeness Centrality (CC, Subgraph Centrality (SC, Eigenvector Centrality (EC, Information Centrality (IC, Bottle Neck (BN, Density of Maximum Neighborhood Component (DMNC, Local Average Connectivity-based method (LAC, Sum of ECC (SoECC, Range-Limited Centrality (RL, L-index (LI, Leader Rank (LR, Normalized α-Centrality (NC, and Moduland-Centrality (MC. Especially, the improvement of PeC over the classic centrality measures (BC, CC, SC, EC, and BN is more than 50% when predicting no more than 500 proteins. Conclusions We demonstrate that the integration of protein-protein interaction network and gene expression data can help improve the precision of predicting essential proteins. The new centrality measure, PeC, is an effective essential protein discovery method.

  6. The inhibition of LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted and microbially dechlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls is associated with a decreased expression of cyclin D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithwick, L. Ashley; Quensen, John F.; Smith, Andrew; Kurtz, David T.; London, Lucille; Morris, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Immunological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been demonstrated in our laboratories with the preferential inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted PCB congeners. An investigation of the mechanism behind this immunotoxicity revealed an interruption in the progression of murine lymphocytes from G 0 /G 1 into S phase by Aroclor 1242 and the di-ortho-substituted congener, 2,2'-chlorobiphenyl (CB), whereas, a non-ortho-substituted congener, 4,4'-CB, did not affect cell cycle progression. This interruption of cell cycle progression by 2,2'-CB and Aroclor 1242 was associated with a decreased expression of the cell cycle regulatory protein, cyclin D2, while expression was not affected by exposure to the non-ortho-substituted 4,4'-CB. These results suggest the preferential inhibition of LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted congeners is a result of a decreased expression of cyclin D2, which leads to an interruption in cell cycle progression. In addition, PCB mixtures with an increased percentage of chlorines in the ortho position following an environmentally occurring degradation process inhibited LPS-induced proliferation, interrupted cell cycle progression, and decreased cyclin D2 expression. This study provides evidence for a mechanism of action of the immunological effects of ortho-substituted individual congeners as well as environmentally relevant mixtures enriched in congeners with this substitution pattern

  7. Characterization and Oral Delivery of Proinsulin-Transferrin Fusion Protein Expressed Using ExpressTec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinsulin-transferrin fusion protein (ProINS-Tf has been designed and successfully expressed from the mammalian HEK293 cells (HEK-ProINS-Tf. It was found that HEK-ProINS-Tf could be converted into an activated form in the liver. Furthermore, HEK-ProINS-Tf was demonstrated as an extra-long acting insulin analogue with liver-specific insulin action in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice. However, due to the low production yield from transfected HEK293 cells, there are other interesting features, including the oral bioavailability, which have not been fully explored and characterized. To improve the protein production yield, an alternative protein expression system, ExpressTec using transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L., was used. The intact and active rice-derived ProINS-Tf (ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf was successfully expressed from the transgenic rice expression system. Our results suggested that, although the insulin-like bioactivity of ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf was slightly lower in vitro, its potency of in vivo blood glucose control was considerably stronger than that of HEK-ProINS-Tf. The oral delivery studies in type 1 diabetic mice demonstrated a prolonged control of blood glucose to near-normal levels after oral administration of ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf. Results in this report suggest that ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf is a promising insulin analog with advantages including low cost, prolonged and liver targeting effects, and most importantly, oral bioactivity.

  8. Interference with PSMB4 Expression Exerts an Anti-Tumor Effect by Decreasing the Invasion and Proliferation of Human Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Glioblastoma (GBM is a malignant brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Proteasome subunit beta type-4 (PSMB4 is an essential subunit that contributes to the assembly of the 20S proteasome complex. However, the role of PSMB4 in glioblastomas remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PSMB4 in GBM tumor progression. Methods: We first analyzed the PSMB4 protein and mRNA expression in 80 clinical brain specimens and 77 datasets from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database. Next, we inhibited the PSMB4 expression by siRNA in cellular and animal models to explore PSMB4’s underlying mechanisms. The cell survival after siPSMB4 transfection was assayed by MTT assay. Annexin V and propidium iodide staining was used to monitor the apoptosis by flow cytometric analysis. Moreover, the migration and invasion were evaluated by wound healing and Transwell assays. The expression of migration-related and invasion-related proteins after PSMB4 inhibition was detected by Western blotting. In addition, an orthotropic xenograft mouse model was used to assay the effect of PSMB4 knockdown in the in vivo study. Results: Basis on the results of bioinformatics study, glioma patients with higher PSMB4 expression had a shorter survival time than those with lower PSMB4 expression. The staining of clinical brain tissues showed elevated PSMB4 expression in GBM tissues compared with normal brain tissues. The PSMB4 inhibition decreased proliferation, migration and invasion abilities in human GBM cells. Downregulated PSMB4 resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro. In an orthotropic xenograft mouse model, the glioma tumors progression was reduced when PSMB4 was down-regulated. The decreased PSMB4 enhanced the anti-tumor effect of temozolomide (TMZ on tumor growth. In addition, the absence of PSMB4 decreased the expression of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase and

  9. MiRNA-21 Expression Decreases from Primary Tumors to Liver Metastases in Colorectal Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Feiersinger

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death in colorectal cancer patients. Expression of certain miRNAs in the primary tumors has been shown to be associated with progression of colorectal cancer and the initiation of metastasis. In this study, we compared miRNA expression in primary colorectal cancer and corresponding liver metastases in order to get an idea of the oncogenic importance of the miRNAs in established metastases.We analyzed the expression of miRNA-21, miRNA-31 and miRNA-373 in corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue samples of primary colorectal cancer, liver metastasis and healthy tissues of 29 patients by quantitative real-time PCR.All three miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in the primary tumor tissues as compared to healthy colon mucosa of the respective patients (p < 0.01. MiRNA-21 and miRNA-31 were also higher expressed in liver metastases as compared to healthy liver tissues (p < 0.01. No significant difference of expression of miRNA-31 and miRNA-373 was observed between primary tumors and metastases. Of note, miRNA-21 expression was significantly reduced in liver metastases as compared to the primary colorectal tumors (p < 0.01.In the context of previous studies demonstrating increased miRNA-21 expression in metastatic primary tumors, our findings raise the question whether miRNA-21 might be involved in the initiation but not in the perpetuation and growth of metastases.

  10. Enteral intestinal alkaline phosphatase administration in newborns decreases iNOS expression in a neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentea, Rebecca M; Liedel, Jennifer L; Fredrich, Katherine; Pritchard, Kirkwood; Oldham, Keith T; Simpson, Pippa M; Gourlay, David M

    2013-01-01

    To determine if intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) decreases intestinal injury resulting from experimentally induced necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that IAP administration prevents the initial development of NEC related intestinal inflammation. Pre- and full-term newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were sacrificed on day 1 of life. Pre-term pups were exposed to intermittent hypoxia and formula containing LPS to induce NEC. Select NEC pups were given 40, 4 or 0.4 units/kg of bovine IAP (NEC+IAP40u, IAP4u or IAP0.4u) enterally, once daily. Ileal sections were evaluated by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for IAP, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA and immunofluorescence for 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). Experimentally induced NEC decreased IAP mRNA expression by 66% (p ≤ 0.001). IAP supplementation increased IAP mRNA expression to control. Supplemental enteral IAP decreased nitrosative stress as measured by iNOS mRNA expression and 3-NT staining in the NEC stressed pups (p ≤ 0.01), as well as decreased intestinal TNF-α mRNA expression. In addition, IAP decreased LSP translocation into the serum in the treated pups. We conclude that enterally administered IAP prevents NEC-related intestinal injury and inflammation. Enteral IAP may prove a useful strategy in the prevention of NEC in preterm neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cooperative working of bacterial chromosome replication proteins generated by a reconstituted protein expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kei; Katayama, Tsutomu; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.

    2013-01-01

    Replication of all living cells relies on the multirounds flow of the central dogma. Especially, expression of DNA replication proteins is a key step to circulate the processes of the central dogma. Here we achieved the entire sequential transcription–translation–replication process by autonomous expression of chromosomal DNA replication machineries from a reconstituted transcription–translation system (PURE system). We found that low temperature is essential to express a complex protein, DNA polymerase III, in a single tube using the PURE system. Addition of the 13 genes, encoding initiator, DNA helicase, helicase loader, RNA primase and DNA polymerase III to the PURE system gave rise to a DNA replication system by a coupling manner. An artificial genetic circuit demonstrated that the DNA produced as a result of the replication is able to provide genetic information for proteins, indicating the in vitro central dogma can sequentially undergo two rounds. PMID:23737447

  12. Interleukin-6 markedly decreases skeletal muscle protein turnover and increases nonmuscle amino acid utilization in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit; Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: IL-6 is a key modulator of immune function and suggested to be involved in skeletal muscle wasting as seen in sepsis. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the role of IL-6 in human in vivo systemic and skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism and protein turnover. SUBJECTS AND METHODS...... synthesis was more suppressed than breakdown, causing a small increase in net muscle protein breakdown. Furthermore, rhIL-6 decreased arterial amino acid concentration with 20-40%, despite the increase net release from muscle. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that IL-6 profoundly alters amino acid turnover....... A substantial decrease in plasma amino acids was observed with a concomitant 50% decrease in muscle protein turnover, however, modest increase in net muscle degradation. We hypothesize that the profound reduction in muscle protein turnover and modest increase in net degradation are primarily caused...

  13. Disruption of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in macrophages decreases chemokine gene expression and atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ai, Ding; Jiang, Hongfeng; Westerterp, Marit; Murphy, Andrew J.; Wang, Mi; Ganda, Anjali; Abramowicz, Sandra; Welch, Carrie; Almazan, Felicidad; Zhu, Yi; Miller, Yury I.; Tall, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor, rapamycin, has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, even while increasing plasma low-density lipoprotein levels. This suggests an antiatherogenic effect possibly mediated by the modulation of inflammatory responses in atherosclerotic plaques.

  14. Roles of silkworm endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in the secretion of recombinant proteins expressed by baculovirus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Saki; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhiqing; Shirai, Shintaro; Mon, Hiroaki; Morokuma, Daisuke; Lee, Jae Man

    2015-11-01

    Baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is widely used for production of recombinant eukaryotic proteins in insect larvae or cultured cells. BEVS has advantages over bacterial expression system in producing post-translationally modified secreted proteins. However, for some unknown reason, it is very difficult for insects to secrete sufficiently for certain proteins of interest. To understand the reasons why insect cells fail to secrete some kinds of recombinant proteins, we here employed three mammalian proteins as targets, EPO, HGF, and Wnt3A, with different secretion levels in BEVS and investigated their mRNA transcriptions from the viral genome, subcellular localizations, and interactions with silkworm ER chaperones. Moreover, we observed that no significantly influence on the secretion amounts of all three proteins when depleting or overexpressing most endogenous ER chaperone genes in cultured silkworm cells. However, among all detected ER chaperones, the depletion of BiP severely decreased the recombinant protein secretion in BEVS, indicating the possible central role of Bip in silkworm secretion pathway.

  15. Expression of a fatty acid-binding protein in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, H.

    1991-06-01

    The unicellular eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transformed with a plasmid containing a cDNA fragment encoding bovine heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP C ) under the control of the inducible yeast GAL10 promoter, expressed FABP during growth on galactose. The maximum level of immunoreactive FABP, identical in size and isoelectric point to native protein, was reached after approximately 16 hours of induction. In contrast, transcription of the gene was induced within half an hour. Both, protein and mRNA were unstable and degraded within 1 h after repression of transcription. Analysis of subcellular fractions showed that FABP was exclusively associated with the cytosol. FABP expressed in yeast cells was functional as was demonstrated by its capacity to bind long chain fatty acids in an in vitro assay. Growth of all transformants on galactose as the carbon source showed no phenotype at temperatures up to 37 deg C, but the growth of FABP-expressing cells at 37 deg C was significantly retarded. Among the biochemical effects of FABP expression on lipid metabolism is a marked reduction of chain elongation and desaturation of exogenously added 14 C-palmitic acid. This effect is most pronounced in triacylglycerols and phospholipids when cells grow at 30 deg C and 37 deg C, respectively. In an in vitro assay determining the desaturation of palmitoyl CoA by microsomal membranes cytosol with or without exo- or endogenous FABP showed the same stimulation of the reaction. The desaturation of exogenously added 14 C-stearic acid, the pattern of unlabelled fatty acids (saturated vs. unsaturated) and the distribution of exogenously added radioactive fatty acids (palmitic, stearic or oleic acid) among lipid classes was not significantly affected. Using high concentrations (1 mM) the uptake of fatty acids was first stimulated and then inhibited when FABP was expressed. (author)

  16. TOX3 (TNRC9) Over Expression in Bladder Cancer Cells Decreases Cellular Proliferation and Triggers an Interferon-Like Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Mansilla Castaño, Francisco; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human TOX3 (TOX high mobility group box family member 3) regulates Ca2+ dependent transcription in neurons and has been associated with breast cancer susceptibility. Aim of the study was to investigate the expression of TOX3 in bladder cancer tissue samples and to identify genes...... urothelium. Microarray expression profiling of human bladder cancer cells over expressing TOX3 followed by Pathway analysis showed that TOX3 Overexpression mainly affected the Interferon Signaling Pathway. TOX3 up regulation induced the expression of several genes with a gamma interferon activation site (GAS......), e.g. STAT1. In vitro functional studies showed that TOX3 was able to bind to the GAS-sequence located at the STAT1 promoter. siRNA mediated knockdown of TOX3 in RT4 bladder cancer cells decreased STAT1 expression suggesting a direct impact of TOX3 on STAT1. Immunoprecipitation of TOX3 over...

  17. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in vitamin B 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Varshney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin is a water-soluble vitamin generally synthesized by microorganisms. Mammals cannot synthesize this vitamin but have evolved processes for absorption, transport and cellular uptake of this vitamin. Only about 30% of vitamin B 12 , which is bound to the protein transcobalamin (TC (Holo-TC [HoloTC] enters into the cell and hence is referred to as the biologically active form of vitamin B 12 . Vitamin B 12 deficiency leads to several complex disorders, including neurological disorders and anemia. We had earlier shown that vitamin B 12 deficiency is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD in Indian population. In the current study, using a proteomics approach we identified proteins that are differentially expressed in the plasma of individuals with low HoloTC levels. Materials and Methods: We used isobaric-tagging method of relative and absolute quantitation to identify proteins that are differently expressed in individuals with low HoloTC levels when compared to those with normal HoloTC level. Results: In two replicate isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation experiments several proteins involved in lipid metabolism, blood coagulation, cholesterol metabolic process, and lipoprotein metabolic process were found to be altered in individuals having low HoloTC levels. Conclusions: Our study indicates that low HoloTc levels could be a risk factor in the development of CAD.

  19. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in the sperm fibrous sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albani Elena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm protein 17 (Sp17 is a highly conserved mammalian protein characterized in rabbit, mouse, monkey, baboon, macaque, human testis and spermatozoa. mRNA encoding Sp17 has been detected in a range of murine and human somatic tissues. It was also recognized in two myeloma cell lines and in neoplastic cells from patients with multiple myeloma and ovarian carcinoma. These data all indicate that Sp17 is widely distributed in humans, expressed not only in germinal cells and in a variety of somatic tissues, but also in neoplastic cells of unrelated origin. Methods Sp17 expression was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy on spermatozoa. Results Here, we demonstrate the ultrastructural localization of human Sp17 throughout the spermatozoa flagellar fibrous sheath, and its presence in spermatozoa during in vitro states from their ejaculation to the oocyte fertilization. Conclusion These findings suggest a possible role of Sp17 in regulating sperm maturation, capacitation, acrosomal reaction and interactions with the oocyte zona pellucida during the fertilization process. Further, the high degree of sequence conservation throughout its N-terminal half, and the presence of an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP-binding motif within this region, suggest that Sp17 might play a regulatory role in a protein kinase A-independent AKAP complex in both germinal and somatic cells.

  20. Homer1a protein expression in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Stefan L; Llenos, Ida C; Miller, Christine L; Dulay, Jeannette R; Haybaeck, Johannes; Weis, Serge

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, there was growing interest in postsynaptic density proteins in the central nervous system. Of the most important candidates of this specialized region are proteins belonging to the Homer protein family. This family of scaffolding proteins is suspected to participate in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. The present study aims to compare Homer1a expression in the hippocampus and cingulate gyrus of patients with major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze changes of Homer1a protein expression in the hippocampal formation and the cingulate gyrus from the respective disease groups. Glial cells of the cingulate gyrus gray matter showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls. The same results were seen when comparing cingulate gyrus gray matter glial cells in bipolar disorder with major depression. Stratum oriens glial cells of the hippocampus showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls and major depression. Stratum lacunosum glial cells showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to major depression. In stratum oriens interneurons Homer1a levels were increased in all disease groups when compared to controls. Stratum lucidum axons showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls. Our data demonstrate altered Homer1a levels in specific brain regions and cell types of patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. These findings support the role of Homer proteins as interesting candidates in neuropsychiatric pathophysiology and treatment.

  1. Complement inhibitory proteins expression in placentas of thrombophilic women Complement inhibitory proteins expression in placentas of thrombophilic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Krzysztof Wirstlein

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling complement activation appear to exert a protective effect on pregnancy. This is
    particularly important in women with thrombophilia. The aim of this study was to determine the transcript and
    protein levels of complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP in the
    placentas of women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia. Also, we assessed immunohistochemistry staining
    of inhibitors of the complement cascade, DAF and MCP proteins, in the placentas of thrombophilic women.
    Placentas were collected from eight women with inherited thrombophilia and ten with acquired thrombophilia.
    The levels of DAF and MCP transcripts were evaluated by qPCR, the protein level was evaluated by Western
    blot. We observed a higher transcript (p < 0.05 and protein (p < 0.001 levels of DAF and MCP in the placentas
    of thrombophilic women than in the control group. DAF and MCP were localized on villous syncytiotrophoblast
    membranes, but the assessment of staining in all groups did not differ. The observed higher expression level of
    proteins that control activation of complement control proteins is only seemingly contradictory to the changes
    observed for example in the antiphospholipid syndrome. However, given the hitherto known biochemical changes
    associated with thrombophilia, a mechanism in which increased expression of DAF and MCP in the placentas is
    an effect of proinflammatory cytokines, which accompanies thrombophilia, is probable.Factors controlling complement activation appear to exert a protective effect on pregnancy. This is
    particularly important in women with thrombophilia. The aim of this study was to determine the transcript and
    protein levels of complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP in the
    placentas of women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia. Also, we assessed immunohistochemistry

  2. Abscisic Acid (ABA) Regulation of Arabidopsis SR Protein Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Tiago M. D.; Carvalho, Raquel F.; Richardson, Dale N.; Duque, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

  3. Unique expression of cytoskeletal proteins in human soft palate muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Farhan; Berggren, Diana; Holmlund, Thorbjörn; Levring Jäghagen, Eva; Stål, Per

    2016-03-01

    The human oropharyngeal muscles have a unique anatomy with diverse and intricate functions. To investigate if this specialization is also reflected in the cytoarchitecture of muscle fibers, intermediate filament proteins and the dystrophin-associated protein complex have been analyzed in two human palate muscles, musculus uvula (UV) and musculus palatopharyngeus (PP), with immunohistochenmical and morphological techniques. Human limb muscles were used as reference. The findings show that the soft palate muscle fibers have a cytoskeletal architecture that differs from the limb muscles. While all limb muscles showed immunoreaction for a panel of antibodies directed against different domains of cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin, a subpopulation of palate muscle fibers lacked or had a faint immunoreaction for desmin (UV 11.7% and PP 9.8%) and the C-terminal of the dystrophin molecule (UV 4.2% and PP 6.4%). The vast majority of these fibers expressed slow contractile protein myosin heavy chain I. Furthermore, an unusual staining pattern was also observed in these fibers for β-dystroglycan, caveolin-3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS, which are all membrane-linking proteins associated with the dystrophin C-terminus. While the immunoreaction for nNOS was generally weak or absent, β-dystroglycan and caveolin-3 showed a stronger immunostaining. The absence or a low expression of cytoskeletal proteins otherwise considered ubiquitous and important for integration and contraction of muscle cells indicate a unique cytoarchitecture designed to meet the intricate demands of the upper airway muscles. It can be concluded that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the human soft palate appears to have special biomechanical properties, and their unique cytoarchitecture must be taken into account while assessing function and pathology in oropharyngeal muscles. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  4. Decreased expression of natriuretic peptides associated with lipid accumulation in cardiac ventricle of obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E.D.; Nielsen, J.M.; Bisgaard, L.S.

    2010-01-01

    % (P depression of ANP mRNA expression in cultured HL-1 atrial myocytes. The data suggest that obesity and altered cardiac lipid metabolism are associated with reduced production of ANP and BNP in the cardiac ventricles in the setting of normal as well as impaired cardiac function....

  5. [Expressions of neuropathic pain-related proteins in the spinal cord dorsal horn in rats with bilateral chronic constriction injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Le; Li, Xu; Wang, Hai-tang; Yu, Xue-rong; Huang, Yu-guang

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the pain-related behavioral changes in rats with bilateral chronic constriction injury(bCCI)and identify the expressions of neuropathic pain-related proteins. The bCCI models were established by ligating the sciatic nerves in female Sprague Dawley rats. Both mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hyperalgesia were evaluated through electronic von Frey and acetone method. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was applied to characterize the differentially expressed proteins. Both mechanical withdrawal threshold and cold hyperalgesia threshold decreased significantly on the postoperative day 7 and 14, when compared with na ve or sham rats(P <0.05). Twenty five differentially expressed proteins associated with bilateral CCI were discovered, with eighteen of them were upregulated and seven of them downregulated. The bCCT rats have remarkably decreased mechanical and cold hyperalgesia thresholds. Twenty five neuropathic pain-related proteins are found in the spinal cord dorsal horn.

  6. Transcript and protein expression profile of PF11_0394, a Plasmodium falciparum protein expressed in salivary gland sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlarman Maggie S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a significant problem around the world today, thus there is still a need for new control methods to be developed. Because the sporozoite displays dual infectivity for both the mosquito salivary glands and vertebrate host tissue, it is a good target for vaccine development. Methods The P. falciparum gene, PF11_0394, was chosen as a candidate for study due to its potential role in the invasion of host tissues. This gene, which was selected using a data mining approach from PlasmoDB, is expressed both at the transcriptional and protein levels in sporozoites and likely encodes a putative surface protein. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and green fluorescent protein (GFP-trafficking studies, a transcript and protein expression profile of PF11_0394 was determined. Results The PF11_0394 protein has orthologs in other Plasmodium species and Apicomplexans, but none outside of the group Apicomplexa. PF11_0394 transcript was found to be present during both the sporozoite and erythrocytic stages of the parasite life cycle, but no transcript was detected during axenic exoerythrocytic stages. Despite the presence of transcript throughout several life cycle stages, the PF11_0394 protein was only detected in salivary gland sporozoites. Conclusions PF11_0394 appears to be a protein uniquely detected in salivary gland sporozoites. Even though a specific function of PF11_0394 has not been determined in P. falciparum biology, it could be another candidate for a new vaccine.

  7. Excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress and decreased neuroplasticity-associated proteins in prefrontal cortex of obese rats and the regulatory effects of aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Liu, Bei Bei; Cai, Ming; Li, Jing Jing; Lou, Shu-Jie

    2018-04-06

    Studies have shown high fat diet induced obesity may cause cognition impairment and down-regulation of neuroplasticity-associated proteins, while aerobic exercise could improve that damage. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been reported to play a key role in regulating neuroplasticity-associated proteins expression, folding and post-translational modification in hippocampus of obese rodent models, however, the effects of ERS on neuroplasticity-associated proteins and possible underlying mechanisms in prefrontal cortex are not fully clear. In order to clarify changes of neuroplasticity-associated proteins and ERS in the prefrontal cortex of obese rats, male SD rats were fed on high fat diet for 8 weeks to establish the obese model. Then, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise treadmill intervention was arranged for the obese rats. Results showed that high fat diet induced obesity caused hyperlipidemia, and significantly promoted FATP1 expression in the prefrontal cortex, meanwhile, we found up-regulation of GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, caspase-12, CHOP, and Bax/Bcl-2, reflecting the activation of ERS and ERS-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, reduced BDNF and SYN was found in obese rats. However, FATP1, GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, caspase-12, CHOP, and Bax/Bcl-2 expressions were obviously reversed by aerobic exercise intervention. These results suggested that dietary obesity could induce Prefrontal ERS in SD rats and excessive ERS may play a critical role in decreasing the levels of neuroplasticity-associated proteins. Moreover, aerobic exercise could relieve ERS, thus promoted the expression of neuroplasticity-associated proteins. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Decreased triadin and increased calstabin2 expression in Great Danes with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, M A; Chittur, S V; Reynolds, C A

    2009-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common cardiac disease of Great Dane dogs, yet very little is known about the underlying molecular abnormalities that contribute to disease. Discover a set of genes that are differentially expressed in Great Dane dogs with DCM as a way to identify candidate genes for further study as well as to better understand the molecular abnormalities that underlie the disease. Three Great Dane dogs with end-stage DCM and 3 large breed control dogs. Prospective study. Transcriptional activity of 42,869 canine DNA sequences was determined with a canine-specific oligonucleotide microarray. Genome expression patterns of left ventricular tissue samples from affected Great Dane dogs were evaluated by measuring the relative amount of complementary RNA hybridization to the microarray probes and comparing it with expression from large breed dogs with noncardiac disease. Three hundred and twenty-three transcripts were differentially expressed (> or = 2-fold change). The transcript with the greatest degree of upregulation (+61.3-fold) was calstabin2 (FKBP12.6), whereas the transcript with the greatest degree of downregulation (-9.07-fold) was triadin. Calstabin2 and triadin are both regulatory components of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and are critical to normal intracellular Ca2+ release and excitation-contraction coupling. Great Dane dogs with DCM demonstrate abnormal calstabin2 and triadin expression. These changes likely affect Ca2+ flux within cardiac cells and may contribute to the pathophysiology of disease. Microarray-based analysis identifies calstabin2, triadin, and RyR2 function as targets of future study.

  9. Direct inhibition of RNAse T2 expression by the HTLV-1 viral protein Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakowski, Nicholas; Han, Hongjin; Lemasson, Isabelle

    2011-08-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is one of the primary diseases caused by Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The virally-encoded Tax protein is believed to initiate early events in the development of this disease, as it is able to promote immortalization of T-cells and transformation of other cell types. These processes may be aided by the ability of the viral protein to directly deregulate expression of specific cellular genes through interactions with numerous transcriptional regulators. To identify gene promoters where Tax is localized, we isolated Tax-DNA complexes from an HTLV-1-infected T-cell line through a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and used the DNA to probe a CpG island microarray. A site within the RNASET2 gene was found to be occupied by Tax. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed this result, and transient expression of Tax in uninfected cells led to the recruitment of the viral protein to the promoter. This event correlated with a decrease in the level of RNase T2 mRNA and protein, suggesting that Tax represses expression of this gene. Loss of RNase T2 expression occurs in certain hematological malignancies and other forms of cancer, and RNase T2 was recently reported to function as a tumor suppressor. Consequently, a reduction in the level of RNase T2 by Tax may play a role in ATL development.

  10. Direct Inhibition of RNAse T2 Expression by the HTLV-1 Viral Protein Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Lemasson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL is one of the primary diseases caused by Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection. The virally-encoded Tax protein is believed to initiate early events in the development of this disease, as it is able to promote immortalization of T-cells and transformation of other cell types. These processes may be aided by the ability of the viral protein to directly deregulate expression of specific cellular genes through interactions with numerous transcriptional regulators. To identify gene promoters where Tax is localized, we isolated Tax-DNA complexes from an HTLV-1-infected T-cell line through a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay and used the DNA to probe a CpG island microarray. A site within the RNASET2 gene was found to be occupied by Tax. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed this result, and transient expression of Tax in uninfected cells led to the recruitment of the viral protein to the promoter. This event correlated with a decrease in the level of RNase T2 mRNA and protein, suggesting that Tax represses expression of this gene. Loss of RNase T2 expression occurs in certain hematological malignancies and other forms of cancer, and RNase T2 was recently reported to function as a tumor suppressor. Consequently, a reduction in the level of RNase T2 by Tax may play a role in ATL development.

  11. An inducible expression system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in slow growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leotta, Lisa; Spratt, Joanne M; Kong, Carlyn U; Triccas, James A

    2015-09-01

    A novel protein expression vector utilising the inducible hspX promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed and evaluated in this study. High-level induction of three mycobacterial antigens, comprising up to 9% of bacterial sonicate, was demonstrated in recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG when grown under low-oxygen tension, which serves to enhance hspX promoter activity. Recombinant proteins were efficiently purified from bacterial lysates in a soluble form by virtue of a C-terminal 6-histidine tag. Purification of the immunodominant M. tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using this system resulted in a recombinant protein that stimulated significant IFN-γ release from Ag85B-reactive T cells generated after vaccination of mice with an Ag85B-expressing vaccine. Further, the M. tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) protein purified from recombinant BCG displayed strong enzymatic activity in recombinant form. This study demonstrated that high levels of native-like recombinant mycobacterial proteins can be produced in mycobacterial hosts, and this may aid the analysis of mycobacterial protein function and the development of new treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ubiquinol decreases monocytic expression and DNA methylation of the pro-inflammatory chemokine ligand 2 gene in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coenzyme Q10 is an essential cofactor in the respiratory chain and serves in its reduced form, ubiquinol, as a potent antioxidant. Studies in vitro and in vivo provide evidence that ubiquinol reduces inflammatory processes via gene expression. Here we investigate the putative link between expression and DNA methylation of ubiquinol sensitive genes in monocytes obtained from human volunteers supplemented with 150 mg/ day ubiquinol for 14 days. Findings Ubiquinol decreases the expression of the pro-inflammatory chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 2 gene (CXCL2 more than 10-fold. Bisulfite-/ MALDI-TOF-based analysis of regulatory regions of the CXCL2 gene identified six adjacent CpG islands which showed a 3.4-fold decrease of methylation status after ubiquinol supplementation. This effect seems to be rather gene specific, because ubiquinol reduced the expression of two other pro-inflammatory genes (PMAIP1, MMD without changing the methylation pattern of the respective gene. Conclusion In conclusion, ubiquinol decreases monocytic expression and DNA methylation of the pro-inflammatory CXCL2 gene in humans. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN26780329.

  13. Expression of the sFLT1 gene in cord blood cells is associated to maternal arsenic exposure and decreased birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remy, Sylvie; Govarts, Eva; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    that birth weight decreased with 47 g (95% CI: 16-78 g) for an interquartile range increase of 0.99 μg/L arsenic. The model was adjusted for child's sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, and parity. Higher arsenic concentrations and reduced birth weight were positively associated...... with changes in expression of the sFLT1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) gene in cord blood cells in girls. The protein product of sFLT1 is a scavenger of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the extracellular environment and plays a key role in the inhibition of placental angiogenesis. In terms...

  14. Reduced expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinases in schizophrenia but not in schizoaffective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, ER; Ahmed, MR; Gurevich, VV; Benovic, JL; Gurevich, EV

    2011-01-01

    Alterations of multiple G protein-mediated signaling pathways are detected in schizophrenia. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and arrestins terminate signaling by G protein-coupled receptors exerting powerful influence on receptor functions. Modifications of arrestin and/or GRKs expression may contribute to schizophrenia pathology. Cortical expression of arrestins and GRKs was measured postmortem in control and subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Additionally, arrestin/GRK expression was determined in elderly patients with schizophrenia and age-matched control. Patients with schizophrenia, but not schizoaffective disorder, displayed reduced concentration of arrestin and GRK mRNAs and GRK3 protein. Arrestins and GRK significantly decreased with age. In elderly patients, GRK6 was reduced, with other GRKs and arrestins unchanged. Reduced cortical concentration of GRKs in schizophrenia (resembling that in aging) may result in altered G protein-dependent signaling, thus contributing to prefrontal deficits in schizophrenia. The data suggest distinct molecular mechanisms underlying schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. PMID:21784156

  15. Cloning, periplasmic expression, purification and structural characterization of human ribosomal protein L10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Larissa Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The ribosomal protein L10 (RP L10) is a strong candidate to be included in the class of tumor suppressor proteins. This protein, also denominated as QM, is known to participate in the binding of ribosomal subunits 60S and 40S and the translation of mRNAs. It has a molecular weight that varies between 24 and 26 kDa and an isoelectric point of (pI) 10.5. The sequence of the protein QM is highly conserved in mammals, plants, invertebrates, insects and yeast which indicates its critical functions in a cell. As a tumor suppressor, RP L10 has been studied in strains of Wilm's tumor (WT-1) and tumor cells in the stomach, where was observed a decrease in the amount of its mRNA. More recently, the RP L10 was found in low amounts in the early stages of prostate adenoma and showed some mutation in ovarian cancer, what indicates its role as a suppressor protein in the development of these diseases. It has also been described that this protein interacts with c-Jun and c-Yes inhibiting growth factors and consequently, cell division. This work has an important role on the establishment of soluble expression of QM to give base information for further studies on expression that aim to evaluate the specific regions where it acts binding the 60S and 40S ribosomal subunits and translation, as well as its binding to proto-oncogenes. The cDNA for QM protein was amplified by PCR and cloned into periplasmic expression vector p3SN8. The QM protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) in the region of cytoplasm and periplasm, the best condition was obtained from the expression of the recombinant plasmid QM p1813 Q M at 25 degree C or 30 degree C, the soluble protein was obtained with small amounts of contaminants. The assays of secondary structure showed that the QM protein is predominantly alpha-helix, but when it loses the folding, this condition changes and the protein is replaced by β- sheet feature. (author)

  16. Hepatic nuclear sterol regulatory binding element protein 2 abundance is decreased and that of ABCG5 increased in male hamsters fed plant sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Scott V; Rideout, Todd C; Jones, Peter J H

    2010-07-01

    The effect of dietary plant sterols on cholesterol homeostasis has been well characterized in the intestine, but how plant sterols affect lipid metabolism in other lipid-rich tissues is not known. Changes in hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in response to high dietary intakes of plant sterols were determined in male golden Syrian hamsters fed hypercholesterolemia-inducing diets with and without 2% plant sterols (wt:wt; Reducol, Forbes Meditech) for 28 d. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations, cholesterol biosynthesis and absorption, and changes in the expression of sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2) and liver X receptor-beta (LXRbeta) and their target genes were measured. Plant sterol feeding reduced plasma total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol concentrations 43% (P 6-fold (P = 0.029) and >2-fold (P sterol-fed hamsters compared with controls. Plant sterol feeding also increased fractional cholesterol synthesis >2-fold (P sterol feeding increased hepatic protein expression of cytosolic (inactive) SREBP2, decreased nuclear (active) SREBP2, and tended to increase LXRbeta (P = 0.06) and ATP binding cassette transporter G5, indicating a differential modulation of the expression of proteins central to cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, high-dose plant sterol feeding of hamsters changes hepatic protein abundance in favor of cholesterol excretion despite lower hepatic cholesterol concentrations and higher cholesterol fractional synthesis.

  17. Developmental expression of a cell surface protein involved in sea urchin skeleton formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farach, M.C.; Valdizan, M.; Park, H.R.; Decker, G.L.; Lennarz, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously used a monoclonal antibody (1223) to identify a 130 Kd cell surface protein involved in skeleton formation is sea urchin embryos. In the current study the authors have examined the expression of the 1223 antigen over the course of development of embryos of two species, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus pictus. The 130 Kd protein is detected in S. purp eggs on immunoblots. Labeling with [ 3 H] leucine and immunoaffinity chromatography show that it also is synthesized shortly after fertilization. Immunofluroescence reveals that at this early stage the 1223 antigen is uniformly distributed on all of the cells. Synthesis decreases to a minimum by the time of hatching (18 h), as does the total amount of antigen present in the embryo. A second period of synthesis commences at the mesenchyme blastula stage, when the spicule-forming primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) have appeared. During this later stage, synthesis and cell surface expression are restricted to the PMCs. In contrast to S. purp., in L. pictus the 130 Kd protein does not appear until the PMCs are formed. Hybrid embryos demonstrate a pattern of expression of the maternal species. These results suggest that early expression of 1223 antigen in S. purp. is due to utilization of maternal transcripts present in the egg. In both species later expression in PMCs appears to be the result of cell-type specific synthesis, perhaps encoded by embryonic transcripts

  18. Perinatal phencyclidine administration decreases the density of cortical interneurons and increases the expression of neuregulin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonjić, Nevena V; Jakovcevski, Igor; Bumbaširević, Vladimir; Petronijević, Nataša D

    2013-06-01

    Perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) administration in rat blocks the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and causes symptoms reminiscent of schizophrenia in human. A growing body of evidence suggests that alterations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneuron neurotransmission may be associated with schizophrenia. Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a trophic factor important for neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, and wiring of GABA circuits. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of perinatal PCP administration on the projection and local circuit neurons and NRG-1 expression in the cortex and hippocampus. Rats were treated on postnatal day 2 (P2), P6, P9, and P12 with either PCP (10 mg/kg) or saline. Morphological studies and determination of NRG-1 expression were performed at P70. We demonstrate reduced densities of principal neurons in the CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) subregions of the hippocampus and a reduction of major interneuronal populations in all cortical and hippocampal regions studied in PCP-treated rats compared with controls. For the first time, we show the reduced density of reelin- and somatostatin-positive cells in the cortex and hippocampus of animals perinatally treated with PCP. Furthermore, an increase in the numbers of perisomatic inhibitory terminals around the principal cells was observed in the motor cortex and DG. We also show that perinatal PCP administration leads to an increased NRG-1 expression in the cortex and hippocampus. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that perinatal PCP administration increases NRG-1 expression and reduces the number of projecting and local circuit neurons, revealing complex consequences of NMDAR blockade.

  19. Minnelide Inhibits Androgen Dependent, Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer Growth by Decreasing Expression of Androgen Receptor Full Length and Splice Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isharwal, Sumit; Modi, Shrey; Arora, Nivedita; Uhlrich, Charles; Giri, Bhuwan; Barlass, Usman; Soubra, Ayman; Chugh, Rohit; Dehm, Scott M; Dudeja, Vikas; Saluja, Ashok; Banerjee, Sulagna; Konety, Badrinath

    2017-05-01

    With almost 30,000 deaths per year, prostate cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) has been the corner stone of prostate cancer treatment for decades. However, despite an initial response of prostate cancer to ADT, this eventually fails and the tumors recur, resulting in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC). Triptolide, a diterpene triepoxide, has been tested for its anti-tumor properties in a number of cancers for over a decade. Owing to its poor solubility in aqueous medium, its clinical application had been limited. To circumvent this problem, we have synthesized a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, Minnelide, that is currently being evaluated in a Phase 1 clinical trial against gastrointestinal tumors. In the current study, we assessed the therapeutic potential of Minnelide and its active compound triptolide against androgen dependent prostate cancer both in vitro as well as in vivo. Cell viability was measured by a MTT based assay after treating prostate cancer cells with multiple doses of triptolide. Apoptotic cell death was measured using a caspase 3/7 activity. Androgen Receptor (AR) promoter-binding activity was evaluated by using luciferase reporter assay. For evaluating the effect in vivo, 22Rv1 cells were implanted subcutaneously in animals, following which, treatment was started with 0.21 mg/kg Minnelide. Our study showed that treatment with triptolide induced apoptotic cell death in CRPC cells. Triptolide treatment inhibited AR transcriptional activity and decreased the expression of AR and its splice variants both at the mRNA and the protein level. Our studies show that triptolide inhibits nuclear translocation of Sp1, resulting in its decreased transcriptional activity leading to downregulation of AR and its splice variants in prostate cancer cells. In vivo, Minnelide (0.21 mg/kg) regressed subcutaneous tumors derived from CRPC 22RV1 at our study endpoint. Our animal

  20. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5′ regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  1. Enhancement of cell wall protein SRPP expression during emergent root hair development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Takada, Natsuki; Sato, Ryosuke; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2017-10-03

    SRPP is a protein expressed in seeds and root hairs and is significantly induced in root hairs under phosphate (Pi)-deficient conditions. Root hairs in the knockout mutant srpp-1 display defects, i.e., suppression of cell growth and cell death. Here, we analyzed the expression profile of SRPP during cell elongation of root hairs and compared the transcript levels in several mutants with short root hairs. The mRNA level was increased in wild-type plants and decreased in mutants with short root hairs. Induction of SRPP expression by Pi starvation occurred one or two days later than induction of Pi-deficient sensitive genes, such as PHT1 and PHF1. These results indicate that the expression of SRPP is coordinated with root hair elongation. We hypothesize that SRPP is essential for structural robustness of the cell walls of root hairs.

  2. Expression of livin protein in lung cancer and its relation with the expression of pro-caspase3 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongru LI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Livin is a novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP, recent studies showed it overexpresses in a variety of carcinomas including lung cancer and contributes much to the cancerous development. The objective of this study is to explore the expression of livin in tissues of lung cancer and its relationshipwith histological types, chemotherapy, Lymph node metastasis and to study its correlation with the expression of pro-caspase3 as well. Methods Expressions of Livin and caspase3 were detected by Western blot assay in lung cancer tissues as well as in controls. Results Livin was expressed in 15 of 27 lung cancer, significantly more than those in lung para-cancerous (1/5 or benign disease lung tissues (2/12 (P 0.05. Conclusion Livin are differently expressed in different histological types of lung cancer; High levels of livin expression do not relate to chemotherapy, lymph node metastasis (P >0.05. The levels of livin tends to be positively associated with those of accordingly pro-caspase3, it is presumed that livin could bind pro-caspase3 and suppress its activation.

  3. Dietary Lecithin Decreases Skeletal Muscle COL1A1 and COL3A1 Gene Expression in Finisher Gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Akit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin on skeletal muscle gene expression of collagen precursors and enzymes involved in collagen synthesis and degradation. Finisher gilts with an average start weight of 55.9 ± 2.22 kg were fed diets containing either 0, 4, 20 or 80 g/kg soybean lecithin prior to harvest for six weeks and the rectus abdominis muscle gene expression profile was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Lecithin treatment down-regulated Type I (α1 procollagen (COL1A1 and Type III (α1 procollagen (COL3A1 mRNA expression ( p < 0.05, respectively, indicating a decrease in the precursors for collagen synthesis. The α-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H mRNA expression also tended to be down-regulated ( p = 0.056, indicating a decrease in collagen synthesis. Decreased matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 mRNA expression may reflect a positive regulatory response to the reduced collagen synthesis in muscle from the pigs fed lecithin ( p = 0.035. Lecithin had no effect on tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13 and lysyl oxidase mRNA expression. In conclusion, lecithin down-regulated COL1A1 and COL3A1 as well as tended to down-regulate α-subunit P4H expression. However, determination of muscle collagen content and solubility are required to support the gene functions.

  4. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants via salicylic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Meng-Meng; Yang, Dong-Yue; Zhu, Shao-Bo; Ma, Na-Na; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of SA, which resulted in significant physiological and gene expression changes in transgenic tobacco plants, leading to the decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco. NAC family, the largest transcription factors in plants, responses to different environmental stimuli. Here, we isolated a typical NAC transcription factor (SlJA2) from tomato and got transgenic tobacco with SlJA2 over-expression. Expression of SlJA2 was induced by heat stress (42 °C), chilling stress (4 °C), drought stress, osmotic stress, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of salicylic acid by regulating expression of salicylic acid degradation gene under heat stress. Compared to WT plants, stomatal apertures and water loss increased in transgenic plants, and the damage of photosynthetic apparatus and chlorophyll breakdown were more serious in transgenic plants under heat stress. Meanwhile, more H 2 O 2 and O 2 ·- were accumulated transgenic plants and proline synthesis was restricted, which resulted in more serious oxidative damage compared to WT. qRT-PCR analysis showed that over-expression of SlJA2 could down-regulate genes involved in reactive oxygen species scavenging, proline biosynthesis, and response to heat stress. All the above results indicated that SlJA2 may be a negative regulator responded to plant's heat tolerance. Thus, this study provides new insight into roles of NAC family member in plant response to abiotic stress.

  5. The expression of cytoskeleton regulatory protein Mena in colorectal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzu, Simona; Jung, I; Prantner, I; Ember, I; Pávai, Z; Mezei, T

    2008-01-01

    The actin regulatory proteins Ena/VASP (Enabled/Vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein) family is involved in the control of cell motility and adhesion. They are important in the actin-dependent processes where dynamic actin reorganization it is necessary. The deregulation of actin cycle could have an important role in the cells' malignant transformation, tumor invasion or metastasis. Recently studies revealed that the human orthologue of murine Mena is modulated during the breast carcinogenesis. In our study, we tried to observe the immunohistochemical expression of mammalian Ena (Mena) in the colorectal polyps and carcinomas. We analyzed 10 adenomatous polyps (five with dysplasia) and 36 adenocarcinomas. We used the indirect immunoperoxidase staining. BD Biosciences have provided the Mena antibody. We observed that Mena was not expressed in the normal colorectal mucosa neither in polyps without dysplasia, but its expression was very high in polyps with high dysplasia. In colorectal carcinomas, Mena marked the tumoral cells in 80% of cases. In 25% of positive cases, the intensity was 3+, in 60% 2+ and in the other 15% 1+. The Mena intensity was higher in the microsatellite stable tumors (MSS) and was correlated with vascular invasion, with intensity of angiogenesis marked with CD31 and CD105 and with c-erbB-2 and p53 expression. This is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in colorectal lesions.

  6. Quantitative analysis of differentially expressed saliva proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nawei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Feng, Shan; Wang, Qingtao; Malamud, Daniel; Deng, Haiteng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A high-throughput method for profiling and quantification of the differentially expressed proteins in saliva samples was developed. ► Identified that DMBT1, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9 and alpha defensin were up-regulated in saliva from HIV-1 seropositive patients. ► Established analytical strategies are translatable to the clinical setting. -- Abstract: In the present study, we have established a new methodology to analyze saliva proteins from HIV-1-seropositive patients before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and seronegative controls. A total of 593 and 601 proteins were identified in the pooled saliva samples from 5 HIV-1 subjects and 5 controls, respectively. Forty-one proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed salivary proteins showed an increase of antimicrobial proteins and decrease of protease inhibitors upon HIV-1 infection. To validate some of these differentially expressed proteins, a high-throughput quantitation method was established to determine concentrations of 10 salivary proteins in 40 individual saliva samples from 20 seropositive patients before HAART and 20 seronegative subjects. This method was based on limited protein separation within the zone of the stacking gel of the 1D SDS PAGE and using isotope-coded synthetic peptides as internal standards. The results demonstrated that a combination of protein profiling and targeted quantitation is an efficient method to identify and validate differentially expressed salivary proteins. Expression levels of members of the calcium-binding S100 protein family and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein (DMBT1) were up-regulated while that of Mucin 5B was down-regulated in HIV-1 seropositive saliva samples, which may provide new perspectives for monitoring HIV-infection and understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 infectivity

  7. Quantitative analysis of differentially expressed saliva proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Nawei; Zhang, Zhenyu [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Feng, Shan [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Qingtao [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Malamud, Daniel [NYU College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Deng, Haiteng, E-mail: dht@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-24

    Highlights: ► A high-throughput method for profiling and quantification of the differentially expressed proteins in saliva samples was developed. ► Identified that DMBT1, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9 and alpha defensin were up-regulated in saliva from HIV-1 seropositive patients. ► Established analytical strategies are translatable to the clinical setting. -- Abstract: In the present study, we have established a new methodology to analyze saliva proteins from HIV-1-seropositive patients before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and seronegative controls. A total of 593 and 601 proteins were identified in the pooled saliva samples from 5 HIV-1 subjects and 5 controls, respectively. Forty-one proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed salivary proteins showed an increase of antimicrobial proteins and decrease of protease inhibitors upon HIV-1 infection. To validate some of these differentially expressed proteins, a high-throughput quantitation method was established to determine concentrations of 10 salivary proteins in 40 individual saliva samples from 20 seropositive patients before HAART and 20 seronegative subjects. This method was based on limited protein separation within the zone of the stacking gel of the 1D SDS PAGE and using isotope-coded synthetic peptides as internal standards. The results demonstrated that a combination of protein profiling and targeted quantitation is an efficient method to identify and validate differentially expressed salivary proteins. Expression levels of members of the calcium-binding S100 protein family and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein (DMBT1) were up-regulated while that of Mucin 5B was down-regulated in HIV-1 seropositive saliva samples, which may provide new perspectives for monitoring HIV-infection and understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 infectivity.

  8. Prion protein expression regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miranda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular prion protein (PRNP is a glycoprotein involved in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. Although the physiological function of PRNP is largely unknown, its key role in prion infection has been extensively documented. This study examines the functionality of PRNP during the course of embryoid body (EB differentiation in mouse Prnp-null (KO and WT embryonic stem cell (ESC lines. The first feature observed was a new population of EBs that only appeared in the KO line after 5 days of differentiation. These EBs were characterized by their expression of several primordial germ cell (PGC markers until Day 13. In a comparative mRNA expression analysis of genes playing an important developmental role during ESC differentiation to EBs, Prnp was found to participate in the transcription of a key pluripotency marker such as Nanog. A clear switching off of this gene on Day 5 was observed in the KO line as opposed to the WT line, in which maximum Prnp and Nanog mRNA levels appeared at this time. Using a specific antibody against PRNP to block PRNP pathways, reduced Nanog expression was confirmed in the WT line. In addition, antibody-mediated inhibition of ITGB5 (integrin αvβ5 in the KO line rescued the low expression of Nanog on Day 5, suggesting the regulation of Nanog transcription by Prnp via this Itgb5. mRNA expression analysis of the PRNP-related proteins PRND (Doppel and SPRN (Shadoo, whose PRNP function is known to be redundant, revealed their incapacity to compensate for the absence of PRNP during early ESC differentiation. Our findings provide strong evidence for a relationship between Prnp and several key pluripotency genes and attribute Prnp a crucial role in regulating self-renewal/differentiation status of ESC, confirming the participation of PRNP during early embryogenesis.

  9. Weak Organic Acids Decrease Borrelia burgdorferi Cytoplasmic pH, Eliciting an Acid Stress Response and Impacting RpoN- and RpoS-Dependent Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Dulebohn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria. These include putative coupled proton/cation exchangers, a putative Na+/H+ antiporter, a neutralizing buffer transporter, an amino acid deaminase and a proton exporting vacuolar-type VoV1 ATPase. Data presented in this report suggested that the acid stress response triggered the expression of RpoN- and RpoS-dependent genes including important virulence factors such as outer surface protein C (OspC, BBA66, and some BosR (Borreliaoxidative stress regulator-dependent genes. Because the expression of virulence factors, like OspC, are so tightly connected by RpoS to general cellular stress responses and cell physiology, it is difficult to separate transmission-promoting conditions in what is clearly a multifactorial and complex regulatory web.

  10. Perspective-taking: decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and in-group favoritism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, A D; Moskowitz, G B

    2000-04-01

    Using 3 experiments, the authors explored the role of perspective-taking in debiasing social thought. In the 1st 2 experiments, perspective-taking was contrasted with stereotype suppression as a possible strategy for achieving stereotype control. In Experiment 1, perspective-taking decreased stereotypic biases on both a conscious and a nonconscious task. In Experiment 2, perspective-taking led to both decreased stereotyping and increased overlap between representations of the self and representations of the elderly, suggesting activation and application of the self-concept in judgments of the elderly. In Experiment 3, perspective-taking reduced evidence of in-group bias in the minimal group paradigm by increasing evaluations of the out-group. The role of self-other overlap in producing prosocial outcomes and the separation of the conscious, explicit effects from the nonconscious, implicit effects of perspective-taking are discussed.

  11. Acute Heat Stress Changes Protein Expression in the Testes of a Broiler-Type Strain of Taiwan Country Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chan, Hong-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2018-03-19

    Heat stress leads to decreased fertility in roosters. This study investigated the global protein expression in response to acute heat stress in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens (TCCs). Twelve 45-week-old roosters were randomly allocated to the control group maintained at 25°C, and three groups subjected to acute heat stress at 38°C for 4 h, with 0, 2, and 6 h of recovery, respectively. Testis samples were collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, apoptosis assay, and protein analysis. The results revealed 101 protein spots that differed significantly from the control following exposure to acute heat stress. The proteins that were differentially expressed participated mainly in protein metabolism and other metabolic processes, responses to stimuli, apoptosis, cellular organization, and spermatogenesis. Proteins that negatively regulate apoptosis were downregulated and proteins involved in autophagy and major heat shock proteins (HSP90α, HSPA5, and HSPA8) were upregulated in the testes of heat-stressed chickens. In conclusion, acute heat stress causes a change in protein expression in the testes of broiler-type B strain TCCs and may thus impair cell morphology, spermatogenesis, and apoptosis. The expression of heat shock proteins increased to attenuate the testicular injury induced by acute heat stress.

  12. Functional modules by relating protein interaction networks and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Sabine; Mewes, H W

    2003-11-01

    Genes and proteins are organized on the basis of their particular mutual relations or according to their interactions in cellular and genetic networks. These include metabolic or signaling pathways and protein interaction, regulatory or co-expression networks. Integrating the information from the different types of networks may lead to the notion of a functional network and functional modules. To find these modules, we propose a new technique which is based on collective, multi-body correlations in a genetic network. We calculated the correlation strength of a group of genes (e.g. in the co-expression network) which were identified as members of a module in a different network (e.g. in the protein interaction network) and estimated the probability that this correlation strength was found by chance. Groups of genes with a significant correlation strength in different networks have a high probability that they perform the same function. Here, we propose evaluating the multi-body correlations by applying the superparamagnetic approach. We compare our method to the presently applied mean Pearson correlations and show that our method is more sensitive in revealing functional relationships.

  13. Retrieval under stress decreases the long-term expression of a human declarative memory via reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrosa, Pablo Nicolás Fernández; Ojea, Alejandro; Ojea, Ignacio; Molina, Victor Alejandro; Zorrilla-Zubilete, María Aurelia; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    Acute stress impairs memory retrieval of several types of memories. An increase in glucocorticoids, several minutes after stressful events, is described as essential to the impairing retrieval-effects of stressors. Moreover, memory retrieval under stress can have long-term consequences. Through what process does the reactivated memory under stress, despite the disrupting retrieval effects, modify long-term memories? The reconsolidation hypothesis proposes that a previously consolidated memory reactivated by a reminder enters a vulnerability phase (labilization) during which it is transiently sensitive to modulation, followed by a re-stabilization phase. However, previous studies show that the expression of memories during reminder sessions is not a condition to trigger the reconsolidation process since unexpressed memories can be reactivated and labilized. Here we evaluate whether it is possible to reactivate-labilize a memory under the impairing-effects of a mild stressor. We used a paradigm of human declarative memory whose reminder structure allows us to differentiate between a reactivated-labile memory state and a reactivated but non-labile state. Subjects memorized a list of five cue-syllables associated with their respective response-syllables. Seventy-two hours later, results showed that the retrieval of the paired-associate memory was impaired when tested 20min after a mild stressor (cold pressor stress (CPS)) administration, coincident with cortisol levels increase. Then, we investigated the long-term effects of CPS administration prior to the reminder session. Under conditions where the reminder initiates the reconsolidation process, CPS impaired the long-term memory expression tested 24h later. In contrast, CPS did not show effects when administered before a reminder session that does not trigger reconsolidation. Results showed that memory reactivation-labilization occurs even when retrieval was impaired. Memory reactivation under stress could hinder

  14. Structural basis for decreased induction of class IB PI3-kinases expression by MIF inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Abhay Kumar [Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis MO USA; Pantouris, Georgios [Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven CT USA; Borosch, Sebastian [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen Germany; Rojanasthien, Siripong [Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis MO USA; Cho, Thomas Yoonsang [Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis MO USA

    2016-09-13

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a master regulator of proinflammatory cytokines and plays pathological roles when not properly regulated in rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, atherosclerosis, asthma and cancer. Unlike canonical cytokines, MIF has vestigial keto-enol tautomerase activity. Most of the current MIF inhibitors were screened for the inhibition of this enzymatic activity. However, only some of the enzymatic inhibitors inhibit receptor-mediated biological functions of MIF, such as cell recruitment, through an unknown molecular mechanism. The goal of this study was to understand the molecular basis underlying the pharmacological inhibition of biological functions of MIF. Here, we demonstrate how the structural changes caused upon inhibitor binding translate into the alteration of MIF-induced downstream signalling. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor activates phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) that play a pivotal role in immune cell recruitment in health and disease. There are several different PI3K isoforms, but little is known about how they respond to MIF. We demonstrate that MIF up-regulates the expression of Class IB PI3Ks in leucocytes. We also demonstrate that MIF tautomerase active site inhibitors down-regulate the expression of Class IB PI3Ks as well as leucocyte recruitment in vitro and in vivo. Finally, based on our MIF:inhibitor complex crystal structures, we hypothesize that the reduction in Class IB PI3K expression occurs because of the displacement of Pro1 towards the second loop of MIF upon inhibitor binding, which results in increased flexibility of the loop 2 and sub-optimal MIF binding to its receptors. These results will provide molecular insights for fine-tuning the biological functions of MIF.

  15. Increased expression of argininosuccinate synthetase protein predicts poor prognosis in human gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAN, YAN-SHEN; HSU, HUI-PING; LAI, MING-DERG; YEN, MENG-CHI; LUO, YI-PEY; CHEN, YI-LING

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1, also known as ASS) has been found in cancer cells and is involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of ASS expression in human gastric cancer and to determine the possible correlations between ASS expression and clinicopathological findings. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissues to determine whether ASS was expressed in 11 of 11 specimens from patients with gastric cancer. The protein was localized primarily to the cytoplasm of cancer cells and normal epithelium. In the Oncomine cancer microarray database, expression of the ASS gene was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues. To investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic roles of ASS expression, we performed western blot analysis of 35 matched specimens of gastric adenocarcinomas and normal tissue obtained from patients treated at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. The ratio of relative ASS expression (expressed as the ASS/β-actin ratio) in tumor tissues to that in normal tissues was correlated with large tumor size (P=0.007) and with the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system (P=0.031). Patients whose cancer had increased the relative expression of ASS were positive for perineural invasion and had poor recurrence-free survival. In summary, ASS expression in gastric cancer was associated with a poor prognosis. Further study of mechanisms to silence the ASS gene or decrease the enzymatic activity of ASS protein has the potential to provide new treatments for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:25333458

  16. Characterization of canine mitochondrial protein expression in natural and induced forms of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rosana; Solter, Philip F; Sisson, D David; Oyama, Mark A; Prosek, Robert

    2006-06-01

    To map canine mitochondrial proteins and identify qualitative and quantitative differences in heart mitochondrial protein expression between healthy dogs and dogs with naturally occurring and induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Left ventricle samples were obtained from 7 healthy dogs, 7 Doberman Pinschers with naturally occurring DCM, and 7 dogs with induced DCM. Fresh and frozen mitochondrial fractions were isolated from the left ventricular free wall and analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Protein spots that increased or decreased in density by >or= 2-fold between groups were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or quadrupole selecting, quadrupole collision cell, time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Within narrow pH gradients of control canine heart mitochondrial samples, a total of 1,528 protein spots were revealed. Forty subunits of heart mitochondrial proteins that differ significantly from control tissues were altered in tissue specimens from dogs with naturally occurring and induced forms of DCM. The most affected heart mitochondrial proteins in both groups were those of oxidative phosphorylation (55%). Upregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase was suggestive of heart oxidative injury in tissue specimens from dogs with both forms of DCM. Evidence of apoptosis was associated with overexpression of the heart mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel-2 protein and endonuclease G in tissue specimens from dogs with induced DCM. Alterations of heart mitochondrial proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction were more prevalent in tissue specimens from dogs with induced or naturally occurring DCM, compared with those of control dogs.

  17. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N.

    2006-01-01

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function

  18. HPV16 E6 regulates annexin 1 (ANXA1) protein expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas [Department of Biology, Institute of Bioscience, Language and Exact Science, São Paulo State University, São Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil); Sichero, Laura [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Centre for Translational Research in Oncology, Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP), São Paulo (Brazil); Boccardo, Enrique [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo., São Paulo (Brazil); Villa, Luisa Lina [Department of Radiology and Oncology, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Rahal, Paula, E-mail: rahalp@yahoo.com.br [Department of Biology, Institute of Bioscience, Language and Exact Science, São Paulo State University, São Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a substrate for E6AP mediated ubiquitylation. It has been hypothesized that HPV 16 E6 protein redirects E6AP away from ANXA1, increasing its stability and possibly contributing to viral pathogenesis. We analyzed ANXA1 expression in HPV-positive and negative cervical carcinoma-derived cells, in cells expressing HPV-16 oncogenes and in cells transduced with shRNA targeting E6AP. We observed that ANXA1 protein expression increased in HPV-16-positive tumor cells, in keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E6wt (wild-type) or E6/E7 and C33 cells expressing HPV-16 E6wt. ANXA1 protein expression decreased in cells transfected with E6 Dicer-substrate RNAs (DsiRNA) and C33 cells cotransduced with HPV-16 E6wt and E6AP shRNA. Moreover, colony number and proliferation rate decreased in HPV16-positive cells transduced with ANXA1 shRNA. We observed that in cells infected with HPV16, the E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1. We suggest that ANXA1 may play a role in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • ANXA1 upregulation requires the presence of E6 and E6AP and is dependent on E6 integrity. • E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1 in cells infected with HPV16. • ANXA1 plays a role in cell proliferation in HPV-positive cervical cells.

  19. HPV16 E6 regulates annexin 1 (ANXA1) protein expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Sichero, Laura; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa Lina; Rahal, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a substrate for E6AP mediated ubiquitylation. It has been hypothesized that HPV 16 E6 protein redirects E6AP away from ANXA1, increasing its stability and possibly contributing to viral pathogenesis. We analyzed ANXA1 expression in HPV-positive and negative cervical carcinoma-derived cells, in cells expressing HPV-16 oncogenes and in cells transduced with shRNA targeting E6AP. We observed that ANXA1 protein expression increased in HPV-16-positive tumor cells, in keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E6wt (wild-type) or E6/E7 and C33 cells expressing HPV-16 E6wt. ANXA1 protein expression decreased in cells transfected with E6 Dicer-substrate RNAs (DsiRNA) and C33 cells cotransduced with HPV-16 E6wt and E6AP shRNA. Moreover, colony number and proliferation rate decreased in HPV16-positive cells transduced with ANXA1 shRNA. We observed that in cells infected with HPV16, the E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1. We suggest that ANXA1 may play a role in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • ANXA1 upregulation requires the presence of E6 and E6AP and is dependent on E6 integrity. • E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1 in cells infected with HPV16. • ANXA1 plays a role in cell proliferation in HPV-positive cervical cells.

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → FMDV L pro inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-α1/β mRNA expression. → L pro inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-α1/β promoter. → L pro significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. → L pro inhibits IFN-α1/β promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. → The ability to process eIF-4G of L pro is not necessary to inhibit IFN-α1/β activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L pro ) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-β (IFN-β) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-α1/β expression caused by L pro was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-α/β. Furthermore, overexpression of L pro significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L pro mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L pro is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-α1/β promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-κB, L pro also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: shaoboxiao@yahoo.com [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  2. Decreased calcium pump expression in human erythrocytes is connected to a minor haplotype in the ATP2B4 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámbó, Boglárka; Várady, György; Padányi, Rita; Szabó, Edit; Németh, Adrienn; Langó, Tamás; Enyedi, Ágnes; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2017-07-01

    Plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPases are key calcium exporter proteins in most tissues, and PMCA4b is the main calcium transporter in the human red blood cells (RBCs). In order to assess the expression level of PMCA4b, we have developed a flow cytometry and specific antibody binding method to quantitatively detect this protein in the erythrocyte membrane. Interestingly, we found several healthy volunteers showing significantly reduced expression of RBC-PMCA4b. Western blot analysis of isolated RBC membranes confirmed this observation, and indicated that there are no compensatory alterations in other PMCA isoforms. In addition, reduced PMCA4b levels correlated with a lower calcium extrusion capacity in these erythrocytes. When exploring the potential genetic background of the reduced PMCA4b levels, we found no missense mutations in the ATP2B4 coding regions, while a formerly unrecognized minor haplotype in the predicted second promoter region closely correlated with lower erythrocyte PMCA4b protein levels. In recent GWA studies, SNPs in this ATP2B4 haplotype have been linked to reduced mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC), and to protection against malaria infection. Our data suggest that an altered regulation of gene expression is responsible for the reduced RBC-PMCA4b levels that is probably linked to the development of human disease-related phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. TRPM8 axonal expression is decreased in painful human teeth with irreversible pulpitis and cold hyperalgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Lisa T.; Perry, Griffin M.; Hargreaves, Kenneth. M.; Henry, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Pulpitis pain may be triggered by a cold stimulus, yet the cellular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. One possible mechanism involves the direct activation of cold-responsive thermoreceptors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible role of the TRPM8 thermoreceptor in cold-mediated noxious pulpal pain mechanisms by comparing expression patterns in pulpal nerves from healthy control molars to cold-sensitive painful molars with irreversible pulpitis. Samples were identically processed with the indirect immunofluorescence method and images obtained with confocal microscopy. The immunofluorescence intensity and area occupied by TRPM8 within N52/PGP9.5 identified nerve fibers were quantified. Results showed that relative to normal samples, TRPM8 nerve area expression was significantly less in the cold-sensitive painful samples (34.9% vs. 8%, p<0.03), but with no significant difference in immunofluorescence intensity between the two groups. These results suggest that TRPM8 is most likely not involved in cold-mediated noxious pulpal pain mechanisms. PMID:17889683

  4. A method for the radiohalogenation of proteins resulting in decreased thyroid uptake of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutsky, M.R.; Narula, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE). Adequate removal of unreacted ATE from [ 125 I]ATE was necessary for optimal protein radioiodination. Labelling efficiencies of greater than 60% could be obtained after a 20 min incubation of goat IgG with [ 125 I]ATE at 4 0 C. Paired-label experiments with goat IgG labeled with 125 I using ATE and 131 I using Iodogen demonstrated that use of the ATE reagent for protein labeling significantly reduced (P < 0.005) the thyroid uptake of radioiodine. (author)

  5. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein decreases high-density lipoprotein and severely aggravates atherosclerosis in APOE*3-Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, M.; Hoogt, C.C. van der; Haan, W. de; Offerman, E.H.; Dallinga-Thie, G.M.; Jukema, J.W.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in the development of atherosclerosis is still undergoing debate. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of human CETP expression on atherosclerosis in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice with a humanized lipoprotein profile. METHODS AND RESULTS -

  6. Decreased PARP and procaspase-2 protein levels are associated with cellular drug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Holleman (Amy); M.L. den Boer (Monique); K.M. Kazemier (Karin); H.B. Beverloo (Berna); A.R.M. von Bergh (Anne); G.E. Janka-Schaub (Gritta); R. Pieters (Rob)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractDrug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with impaired ability to induce apoptosis. To elucidate causes of apoptotic defects, we studied the protein expression of Apaf-1, procaspases-2, -3, -6, -7,

  7. Decreased SAP Expression in T Cells from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Contributes to Early Signaling Abnormalities and Reduced IL-2 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampetsou, Maria P; Comte, Denis; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Terhorst, Cox; Kyttaris, Vasileios C; Tsokos, George C

    2016-06-15

    T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) display a number of abnormalities, including increased early signaling events following engagement of the TCR. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family cell surface receptors and the X-chromosome-defined signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) adaptor are important in the development of several immunocyte lineages and modulating the immune response. We present evidence that SAP protein levels are decreased in T cells and in their main subsets isolated from 32 women and three men with SLE, independent of disease activity. In SLE T cells, SAP protein is also subject to increased degradation by caspase-3. Forced expression of SAP in SLE T cells normalized IL-2 production, calcium (Ca(2+)) responses, and tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Exposure of normal T cells to SLE serum IgG, known to contain anti-CD3/TCR Abs, resulted in SAP downregulation. We conclude that SLE T cells display reduced levels of the adaptor protein SAP, probably as a result of continuous T cell activation and degradation by caspase-3. Restoration of SAP levels in SLE T cells corrects the overexcitable lupus T cell phenotype. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Hypoxia-induced decrease of UCP3 gene expression in rat heart parallels metabolic gene switching but fails to affect mitochondrial respiratory coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essop, M Faadiel; Razeghi, Peter; McLeod, Chris; Young, Martin E; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Sack, Michael N

    2004-02-06

    Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) are postulated to contribute to antioxidant defense, nutrient partitioning, and energy efficiency in the heart. To distinguish isotype function in response to metabolic stress we measured cardiac mitochondrial function and cardiac UCP gene expression following chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Isolated mitochondrial O(2) consumption and ATP synthesis rate were reduced but respiratory coupling was unchanged compared to normoxic groups. Concurrently, left ventricular UCP3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased with hypoxia (pheart as opposed to uncoupling of mitochondria. Moreover, the divergent hypoxia-induced regulation of UCP2 and UCP3 supports distinct mitochondrial regulatory functions of these inner mitochondrial membrane proteins in the heart in response to metabolic stress.

  9. Expression and Production of SH2 Domain Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bernard A; Ogiue-Ikeda, Mari; Machida, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    The Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain lies at the heart of phosphotyrosine signaling, coordinating signaling events downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), adaptors, and scaffolds. Over a hundred SH2 domains are present in mammals, each having a unique specificity which determines its interactions with multiple binding partners. One of the essential tools necessary for studying and determining the role of SH2 domains in phosphotyrosine signaling is a set of soluble recombinant SH2 proteins. Here we describe methods, based on a broad experience with purification of all SH2 domains, for the production of SH2 domain proteins needed for proteomic and biochemical-based studies such as peptide arrays, mass-spectrometry, protein microarrays, reverse-phase microarrays, and high-throughput fluorescence polarization (HTP-FP). We describe stepwise protocols for expression and purification of SH2 domains using GST or poly His-tags, two widely adopted affinity tags. In addition, we address alternative approaches, challenges, and validation studies for assessing protein quality and provide general characteristics of purified human SH2 domains.

  10. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.; Bourhy, Hervé; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6122 or P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress. PMID:18391421

  11. Aspirin-mediated acetylation of haemoglobin increases in presence of high glucose concentration and decreases protein glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Finamore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycation represents the first stage in the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin was shown to prevent sugars reacting with proteins, but the exact mechanism of this interaction was not well defined. We performed a quantitative analysis to calculate the levels of acetylation and glycation of haemoglobin, among others red blood cell (RBC proteins, using a label free approach. After glucose incubation, increases in the acetylation levels were seen for several haemoglobin subunits, while a parallel decrease of their glycation levels was observed after aspirin incubation. These results suggest that, a mutual influence between these two modifications, occur at protein level.

  12. Cobalt chloride decreases fibroblast growth factor-21 expression dependent on oxidative stress but not hypoxia-inducible factor in Caco-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanlong [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Wang, Chunhong [Second Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Wang, Yuhua [College of Food Science and Engineering, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun (China); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Ma, Zhenhua [First Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Xiao, Jian [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); McClain, Craig [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Robley Rex Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Li, Xiaokun [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Feng, Wenke, E-mail: wenke.feng@louisville.edu [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a potential metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on metabolic diseases. FGF21 is mainly expressed in the liver, but is also found in other tissues including the intestine, which expresses β-klotho abundantly. The intestine is a unique organ that operates in a physiologically hypoxic environment, and is responsible for the fat absorption processes including triglyceride breakdown, re-synthesis and absorption into the portal circulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and the chemical hypoxia inducer, cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}), on FGF21 expression in Caco-2 cells and the consequence of fat accumulation. Physical hypoxia (1% oxygen) and CoCl{sub 2} treatment decreased both FGF21 mRNA and secreted protein levels. Gene silence and inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIFα) did not affect the reduction of FGF21 mRNA and protein levels by hypoxia. However, CoCl{sub 2} administration caused a significant increase in oxidative stress. The addition of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) suppressed CoCl{sub 2}-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and completely negated CoCl{sub 2}-induced FGF21 loss. mRNA stability analysis demonstrated that the CoCl{sub 2} administration caused a remarkable reduction in FGF21 mRNA stability. Furthermore, CoCl{sub 2} increased intracellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation, along with a reduction in mRNA levels of lipid lipase, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and an increase of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and stearoyl-coenzyme A (SCD1). Addition of both NAC and recombinant FGF21 significantly attenuated the CoCl{sub 2}-induced TG accumulation. In conclusion, the decrease of FGF21 in Caco-2 cells by chemical hypoxia is independent of HIFα, but dependent on an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism. The regulation of FGF21 by hypoxia may contribute to intestinal lipid metabolism and

  13. Cobalt chloride decreases fibroblast growth factor-21 expression dependent on oxidative stress but not hypoxia-inducible factor in Caco-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanlong; Wang, Chunhong; Wang, Yuhua; Ma, Zhenhua; Xiao, Jian; McClain, Craig; Li, Xiaokun; Feng, Wenke

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a potential metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on metabolic diseases. FGF21 is mainly expressed in the liver, but is also found in other tissues including the intestine, which expresses β-klotho abundantly. The intestine is a unique organ that operates in a physiologically hypoxic environment, and is responsible for the fat absorption processes including triglyceride breakdown, re-synthesis and absorption into the portal circulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and the chemical hypoxia inducer, cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ), on FGF21 expression in Caco-2 cells and the consequence of fat accumulation. Physical hypoxia (1% oxygen) and CoCl 2 treatment decreased both FGF21 mRNA and secreted protein levels. Gene silence and inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIFα) did not affect the reduction of FGF21 mRNA and protein levels by hypoxia. However, CoCl 2 administration caused a significant increase in oxidative stress. The addition of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) suppressed CoCl 2 -induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and completely negated CoCl 2 -induced FGF21 loss. mRNA stability analysis demonstrated that the CoCl 2 administration caused a remarkable reduction in FGF21 mRNA stability. Furthermore, CoCl 2 increased intracellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation, along with a reduction in mRNA levels of lipid lipase, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and an increase of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and stearoyl-coenzyme A (SCD1). Addition of both NAC and recombinant FGF21 significantly attenuated the CoCl 2 -induced TG accumulation. In conclusion, the decrease of FGF21 in Caco-2 cells by chemical hypoxia is independent of HIFα, but dependent on an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism. The regulation of FGF21 by hypoxia may contribute to intestinal lipid metabolism and absorption. -- Graphical abstract: Physical

  14. Protein energy malnutrition decreases immunity and increases susceptibility to influenza infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew K; Cao, Weiping; Vora, Keyur P; De La Cruz, Juan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif R; Katz, Jacqueline M; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Gangappa, Shivaprakash

    2013-02-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM), a common cause of secondary immune deficiency in children, is associated with an increased risk of infections. Very few studies have addressed the relevance of PEM as a risk factor for influenza. We investigated the influence of PEM on susceptibility to, and immune responses following, influenza virus infection using isocaloric diets providing either adequate protein (AP; 18%) or very low protein (VLP; 2%) in a mouse model. We found that mice maintained on the VLP diet, when compared to mice fed with the AP diet, exhibited more severe disease following influenza infection based on virus persistence, trafficking of inflammatory cell types to the lung tissue, and virus-induced mortality. Furthermore, groups of mice maintained on the VLP diet showed significantly lower virus-specific antibody response and a reduction in influenza nuclear protein-specific CD8(+) T cells compared with mice fed on the AP diet. Importantly, switching diets for the group maintained on the VLP diet to the AP diet improved virus clearance, as well as protective immunity to viral challenge. Our results highlight the impact of protein energy on immunity to influenza infection and suggest that balanced protein energy replenishment may be one strategy to boost immunity against influenza viral infections.

  15. Mechanical stimulation increases proliferation, differentiation and protein expression in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Yadav, Kavita; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2007-01-01

    Myogenesis is a complex sequence of events, including the irreversible transition from the proliferation-competent myoblast stage into fused, multinucleated myotubes. Myogenic differentiation is regulated by positive and negative signals from surrounding tissues. Stimulation due to stretch- or load...... to elucidate also the signaling pathway by which this mechanical stimulation can causes an increase in protein expression. When mechanically stimulated via laminin receptors on cell surface, C(2)C(12) cells showed an increase in cell proliferation and differentiation. Populations undergoing mechanical...... stimulation through laminin receptors show an increase in expression of Myo-D, myogenin and an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Cells stimulated via fibronectin receptors show no significant increases in fusion competence. We conclude that load induced signalling through integrin containing laminin...

  16. Expression of goose parvovirus whole VP3 protein and its epitopes in Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasiuk, K; Woźniakowski, G; Holec-Gąsior, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the expression of goose parvovirus capsid protein (VP3) and its epitopes in Escherichia coli cells. Expression of the whole VP3 protein provided an insufficient amount of protein. In contrast, the expression of two VP3 epitopes (VP3ep4, VP3ep6) in E. coli, resulted in very high expression levels. This may suggest that smaller parts of the GPV antigenic determinants are more efficiently expressed than the complete VP3 gene.

  17. HER 2/neu protein expression in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuell, B; Gruenberger, T; Scheithauer, W; Zielinski, Ch; Wrba, F

    2006-01-01

    Conflicting data exist about the prevalence of HER-2/neu overexpression in colorectal cancer ranging from 0 to 83 %. In our study we tried to clarify the extent of expression and its relationship to clinicopathological parameters. This study involved 77 specimens of malignant colorectal cancer lesions of surgically resected patients. HER-2/neu immunohistochemistry was performed using the Hercep-Test Kit. Out of 77 specimens, 56 were Her-2/neu negative (70%), 20 (26%) showed a barely immunostaining (1+), only 1 (1%) was moderately (2+) and 2 (3%) were strongly positive (3+). Her-2/neu staining (moderately and strongly positive) was only detected in primary tumours of patients with confirmed metastases. No relationship was found between membranous HER-2 expression and patients' gender or differentiation. The median survival time of patients with positive HER-2/neu immunostaining was 21 versus 39 months in patients without HER-2/neu expression (p = 0.088). The c-erbB protein expression was observed in colorectal cancer but rarely in the therapeutic range (2+ and 3+). There was no significant association with tumour grade, gender, localization of the primary tumour or survival. These data indicate that c-erbB-2 is unlikely to play a major role in the therapeutic management of colorectal cancer

  18. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in human nervous system tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grizzi, Fabio; Baena, Riccardo Rodriguez y; Dioguardi, Nicola; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Gaetani, Paolo; Franceschini, Barbara; Di Ieva, Antonio; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Ceva-Grimaldi, Giorgia; Bollati, Angelo; Frezza, Eldo E; Cobos, E

    2006-01-01

    Human sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved protein that was originally isolated from a rabbit epididymal sperm membrane and testis membrane pellet. It has recently been included in the cancer/testis (CT) antigen family, and shown to be expressed in multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. We investigated its immunolocalisation in specimens of nervous system (NS) malignancies, in order to establish its usefulness as a target for tumour-vaccine strategies. The expression of Sp17 was assessed by means of a standardised immunohistochemical procedure [(mAb/antigen) MF1/Sp17] in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded surgical specimens of NS malignancies, including 28 neuroectodermal primary tumours (6 astrocytomas, 16 glioblastoma multiforme, 5 oligodendrogliomas, and 1 ependymoma), 25 meningeal tumours, and five peripheral nerve sheath tumours (4 schwannomas, and 1 neurofibroma),. A number of neuroectodermal (21%) and meningeal tumours (4%) were found heterogeneously immunopositive for Sp17. None of the peripheral nerve sheath tumours was immunopositive for Sp17. The expression pattern was heterogeneous in all of the positive samples, and did not correlate with the degree of malignancy. The frequency of expression and non-uniform cell distribution of Sp17 suggest that it cannot be used as a unique immunotherapeutic target in NS cancer. However, our results do show the immunolocalisation of Sp17 in a proportion of NS tumour cells, but not in their non-pathological counterparts. The emerging complex function of Sp17 makes further studies necessary to clarify the link between it and immunopositive cells

  19. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  20. [Expression, purification and protective antigen analysis of cell wall protein MRP of Streptococcus suis type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-ping; Pian, Ya-ya; Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Yu-ling; Jiang, Yong-qiang; Xiong, Zheng-ying

    2012-02-01

    To amplify the mrp gene of Streptococcus suis type 2 05ZYH33, express it in E.coli BL21 in order to acquire high purity recombinant protein MRP, then evaluate the protective antigen of recombinant protein MRP. Using PCR technology to obtain the product of mrp gene of 05ZYH33, and then cloned it into the expression vector pET28a(+). The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography, later immunized New Zealand rabbit to gain anti-serum, then test the anti-serum titer by ELISA. The opsonophagocytic killing test demonstrated the abilities of protective antigen of MRP. The truncated of MRP recombinant protein in E.coli BL21 expressed by inclusion bodies, and purified it in high purity. After immunoprotection, the survival condition of CD-1 was significantly elevated. The survival rate of wild-type strain 05ZYH33 in blood was apparently decreased after anti-serum opsonophagocyticed, but the mutant delta; MRP showed no differences. MRP represent an important protective antigen activity.

  1. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Erica M. [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Niu, MengMeng; Bergholz, Johann [Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China); Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong, E-mail: jxiao@bu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China)

    2015-05-29

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas.

  2. Women with Recurrent Miscarriage Have Decreased Expression of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-Hydroxylase by the Fetal-Maternal Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qin Wang

    Full Text Available Effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy have been associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1 is integral to the vitamin D metabolic pathway. The enzyme catalyzes localized conversion of pro-hormone 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Our aim was to investigate the expression of CYP27B1 at the fetal-maternal interface in the first trimester pregnancy and to determine whether CYP27B1 was associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM.Expressions of CYP27B1 mRNA and protein in villi and decidua from 20 women undergoing primary miscarriage, 20 women with RM and 20 women with normal pregnancy were evaluated by western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR. The co-localization of CYP27B1 and certain cytokines including IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 expression were examined using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy.Women with RM had a significantly lower expression of CYP27B1 mRNA and protein in villous and decidual tissues compared with the normal pregnant women (P = 0.000 in villus, P = 0.002 in decidua for mRNA; P = 0.036 in villus, P = 0.007 in decidua for protein.. Compared with the normal pregnancy, immunostaining for CYP27B1 was significantly decreased in villous trophoblasts and decidual glandular epithelial cells in RM women. No significant differences in the localization of CYP27B1, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 expression were identified between the normal pregnant and RM women.Women with RM have a lower level of CYP27B1 expression in chorionic villi and decidua compared with normal pregnant women, suggesting that reduced CYP27B1 expression may be associated with RM. The consistent localization of CYP27B1 and IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 expression in villous and decidual tissues suggests the importance of the local production of 1,25(OH2D3 at the fetal-maternal interface to regulate cytokine responses.

  3. A knockout mutation of a constitutive GPCR in Tetrahymena decreases both G-protein activity and chemoattraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Lampert

    Full Text Available Although G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are a common element in many chemosensory transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells, no GPCR or regulated G-protein activity has yet been shown in any ciliate. To study the possible role for a GPCR in the chemoresponses of the ciliate Tetrahymena, we have generated a number of macronuclear gene knockouts of putative GPCRs found in the Tetrahymena Genome database. One of these knockout mutants, called G6, is a complete knockout of a gene that we call GPCR6 (TTHERM_00925490. Based on sequence comparisons, the Gpcr6p protein belongs to the Rhodopsin Family of GPCRs. Notably, Gpcr6p shares highest amino acid sequence homologies to GPCRs from Paramecium and several plants. One of the phenotypes of the G6 mutant is a decreased responsiveness to the depolarizing ions Ba²⁺ and K⁺, suggesting a decrease in basal excitability (decrease in Ca²⁺ channel activity. The other major phenotype of G6 is a loss of chemoattraction to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA and proteose peptone (PP, two known chemoattractants in Tetrahymena. Using microsomal [³⁵S]GTPγS binding assays, we found that wild-type (CU427 have a prominent basal G-protein activity. This activity is decreased to the same level by pertussis toxin (a G-protein inhibitor, addition of chemoattractants, or the G6 mutant. Since the basal G-protein activity is decreased by the GPCR6 knockout, it is likely that this gene codes for a constitutively active GPCR in Tetrahymena. We propose that chemoattractants like LPA and PP cause attraction in Tetrahymena by decreasing the basal G-protein stimulating activity of Gpcr6p. This leads to decreased excitability in wild-type and longer runs of smooth forward swimming (less interrupted by direction changes towards the attractant. Therefore, these attractants may work as inverse agonists through the constitutively active Gpcr6p coupled to a pertussis-sensitive G-protein.

  4. Altered polymorphonuclear leukocyte Fc gamma R expression contributes to decreased candicidal activity during intraabdominal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simms, H.H.; D'Amico, R.; Monfils, P.; Burchard, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the effects of untreated intraabdominal sepsis on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) candicidal activity. Two groups of swine were studied. Group I (n=6) underwent sham laparotomy, group II (n=7) underwent cecal ligation and incision. Untreated intraabdominal sepsis resulted in a progressive decrease in PMN candicidal activity. Concomitant rosetting and phagocytosis assays demonstrated a decrease in both the attachment and phagocytosis of Candida albicans opsonized with both normal and septic swine serum by PMNs in group II. Iodine 125-labeled swine immunoglobulin G (IgG) and fluorescein isothioalanate (FITC)-labeled swine IgG were used to investigate Fc gamma receptor ligand interactions. Scatchard analyses demonstrated a progressive decline in both the binding affinity constant and number of IgG molecules bound per PMN. Stimulation of the oxidative burst markedly reduced 125I-labeled IgG binding in both group I and group II, with a greater decrement being seen in animals with intraabdominal sepsis. Further, in group II, PMN recycling of the Fc gamma receptor to the cell surface after generation of the oxidative burst was reduced by postoperative day 4. Binding of monoclonal antibodies to Fc gamma receptor II, but not Fc gamma receptor I/III markedly reduced intracellular candicidal activity. Immunofluorescence studies revealed a homogeneous pattern of FITC-IgG uptake by nearly all group I PMNs, whereas by postoperative day 8 a substantial number of PMNs from group II failed to internalize the FITC-IgG. These studies suggest that untreated intraabdominal sepsis reduces PMN candicidal activity and that this is due, in part, to altered PMN Fc gamma receptor ligand interactions

  5. Regulation of cellulase expression, sporulation, and morphogenesis by velvet family proteins in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuimei; Dong, Yanmei; Wang, Fangzhong; Jiang, Baojie; Wang, Mingyu; Fang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Homologs of the velvet protein family are encoded by the ve1, vel2, and vel3 genes in Trichoderma reesei. To test their regulatory functions, the velvet protein-coding genes were disrupted, generating Δve1, Δvel2, and Δvel3 strains. The phenotypic features of these strains were examined to identify their functions in morphogenesis, sporulation, and cellulase expression. The three velvet-deficient strains produced more hyphal branches, indicating that velvet family proteins participate in the morphogenesis in T. reesei. Deletion of ve1 and vel3 did not affect biomass accumulation, while deletion of vel2 led to a significantly hampered growth when cellulose was used as the sole carbon source in the medium. The deletion of either ve1 or vel2 led to the sharp decrease of sporulation as well as a global downregulation of cellulase-coding genes. In contrast, although the expression of cellulase-coding genes of the ∆vel3 strain was downregulated in the dark, their expression in light condition was unaffected. Sporulation was hampered in the ∆vel3 strain. These results suggest that Ve1 and Vel2 play major roles, whereas Vel3 plays a minor role in sporulation, morphogenesis, and cellulase expression.

  6. Expression and the antigenicity of recombinant coat proteins of tungro viruses expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Siew Fung; Chu, Chia Huay; Poili, Evenni; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry

    2017-02-01

    Rice tungro disease (RTD) is a recurring disease affecting rice farming especially in the South and Southeast Asia. The disease is commonly diagnosed by visual observation of the symptoms on diseased plants in paddy fields and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, visual observation is unreliable and PCR can be costly. High-throughput as well as relatively cheap detection methods are important for RTD management for screening large number of samples. Due to this, detection by serological assays such as immunoblotting assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are preferred. However, these serological assays are limited by lack of continuous supply of antibodies as reagents due to the difficulty in preparing sufficient purified virions as antigens. This study aimed to generate and evaluate the reactivity of the recombinant coat proteins of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) as alternative antigens to generate antibodies. The genes encoding the coat proteins of both viruses, RTBV (CP), and RTSV (CP1, CP2 and CP3) were cloned and expressed as recombinant fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. All of the recombinant fusion proteins, with the exception of the recombinant fusion protein of the CP2 of RTSV, were reactive against our in-house anti-tungro rabbit serum. In conclusion, our study showed the potential use of the recombinant fusion coat proteins of the tungro viruses as alternative antigens for production of antibodies for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. AR-v7 protein expression is regulated by protein kinase and phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinan; Xie, Ning; Gleave, Martin E.; Rennie, Paul S.; Dong, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Failure of androgen-targeted therapy and progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are often attributed to sustained expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and its major splice variant, AR-v7. Although the new generation of anti-androgens such as enzalutamide effectively inhibits AR activity, accumulating pre-clinical and clinical evidence indicates that AR-v7 remains constitutively active in driving CRPC progression. However, molecular mechanisms which control AR-v7 protein expression remain unclear. We apply multiple prostate cancer cell models to demonstrate that enzalutamide induces differential activation of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) and Akt kinase depending on the gene context of cancer cells. The balance between PP-1 and Akt activation governs AR phosphorylation status and activation of the Mdm2 ubiquitin ligase. Mdm2 recognizes phosphorylated serine 213 of AR-v7, and induces AR-v7 ubiquitination and protein degradation. These findings highlight the decisive roles of PP-1 and Akt for AR-v7 protein expression and activities when AR is functionally blocked. PMID:26378044

  8. Protein expression of Myt272-3 recombinant clone and in silico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the expression of Myt272-3 recombinant protein and also to predict a possible protein vaccine candidate against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: Myt272-3 protein was expressed in pET30a+-Myt272-3 clone. The purity of the protein was determined using Dynabeads® His-Tag Isolation ...

  9. Decreased expression of the ATM gene linked to poor prognosis for gastric cancer of different nationalities in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Ma, Lanying; Qu, Yanli; Tang, Yong

    2017-08-01

    To explore the clinicopathological significance of ATM gene in the occurrence and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) from different nationalities in Xinjiang. The expression of ATM in 385 patients with GC (including 98 Uygurs, 231 Hans and 56 Kazaks) and its corresponding adjacent tissues were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry assay to, analyze its correlations with clinicopathological features and prognosis of GC. The ATM expression in GC tissues was significantly decreased when compared to that in adjacent normal tissues of Uygur, Han and Kazak patients in Xinjiang, while Uygurs and Kazaks were much lower than Hans in the ATM expression of GC tissues (all PATM-negative tumors had a markedly lower survival rate than patients in Hans (P=0.028), and GC patients with ATM negative expression presented more unfavorable overall survival rate than those with positive expression among the three different nationalities (all PATM expression, TNM staging, depth of invasion, and lymph node metastasis were independent factors affecting the prognosis of GC patients in Xinjiang (all PATM was downregulated in GC patients in Xinjiang, especially for Uygurs and Kazaks, which suggested ATM to be an independent indicator of prognosis for GC therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppression of topoisomerase IIα expression and function in human cells decreases chromosomal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, Samantha Y.A.; Riches, Andrew C.; Bryant, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism behind chromatid break formation is as yet unclear, although it is known that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the initiating lesions. Chromatid breaks formed in cells in the G2-phase of the cell-cycle disappear ('rejoin') as a function of time between radiation exposure and cell fixation. However, the kinetics of disappearance of chromatid breaks does not correspond to those of DSB rejoining, leading us to seek alternative models. We have proposed that chromatid breaks could be formed indirectly from DSB and that the mechanism involves topoisomerase IIα. In support of this hypothesis we have recently shown that frequencies of radiation-induced chromatid breaks are lower in two variant human promyelocytic leukaemic cell lines with reduced topoisomerase IIα expression. Here we report that suppression of topoisomerase IIα in human hTERT-RPE1 cells, either by its abrogation using specific siRNA or by inhibition of its catalytic activity with the inhibitor ICRF-193, causes a reduction in frequency of chromatid breaks in radiation-exposed cells. The findings support our hypothesis for the involvement of topoisomerase IIα in the formation of radiation-induced chromatid breaks, and could help explain inter-individual variation in human chromosomal radiosensitivity; elevation of which has been linked with cancer susceptibility.

  11. Central administration of insulin-like growth factor-I decreases depressive-like behavior and brain cytokine expression in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantzer Robert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exogenous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I has anti-depressant properties in rodent models of depression. However, nothing is known about the anti-depressant properties of IGF-I during inflammation, nor have mechanisms by which IGF-I alters behavior following activation of the innate immune system been clarified. We hypothesized that central IGF-I would diminish depressive-like behavior on a background of an inflammatory response and that it would do so by inducing expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF while decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the brain. IGF-I (1,000 ng was administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v. to CD-1 mice. Mice were subsequently given lipopolysaccharide i.c.v. (LPS, 10 ng. Sickness and depressive-like behaviors were assessed followed by analysis of brain steady state mRNA expression. Central LPS elicited typical transient signs of sickness of mice, including body weight loss, reduced feed intake and decreased social exploration toward a novel juvenile. Similarly, LPS increased time of immobility in the tail suspension test (TST. Pretreatment with IGF-I or antidepressants significantly decreased duration of immobility in the TST in both the absence and presence of LPS. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-depressant action of IGF-I, we quantified steady-state mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators in whole brain using real-time RT-PCR. LPS increased, whereas IGF-I decreased, expression of inflammatory markers interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-(TNFα, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Moreover, IGF-I increased expression of BDNF. These results indicate that IGF-I down regulates glial activation and induces expression of an endogenous growth factor that shares anti-depressant activity. These actions of IGF-I parallel its ability to diminish depressive-like behavior.

  12. Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with decreased gene expression and increased DNA methylation in peripheral blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameer, Syeda Shegufta [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Engström, Karin [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals & Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Concha, Gabriela [Science Department, Risk Benefit Assessment Unit, National Food Agency, Uppsala (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals & Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: Karin.broberg@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals & Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic increases the risk of cancer and non-malignant diseases. Inefficient arsenic metabolism is a marker for susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Arsenic may alter gene expression, possibly by altering DNA methylation. Objectives: To elucidate the associations between arsenic exposure, gene expression, and DNA methylation in peripheral blood, and the modifying effects of arsenic metabolism. Methods: The study participants, women from the Andes, Argentina, were exposed to arsenic via drinking water. Arsenic exposure was assessed as the sum of arsenic metabolites in urine (U-As), using high performance liquid-chromatography hydride-generation inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry, and arsenic metabolism efficiency was assessed by the urinary fractions (%) of the individual metabolites. Genome-wide gene expression (N = 80 women) and DNA methylation (N = 93; 80 overlapping with gene expression) in peripheral blood were measured using Illumina DirectHyb HumanHT-12 v4.0 and Infinium Human-Methylation 450K BeadChip, respectively. Results: U-As concentrations, ranging 10–1251 μg/L, was associated with decreased gene expression: 64% of the top 1000 differentially expressed genes were down-regulated with increasing U-As. U-As was also associated with hypermethylation: 87% of the top 1000 CpGs were hypermethylated with increasing U-As. The expression of six genes and six individual CpG sites were significantly associated with increased U-As concentration. Pathway analyses revealed enrichment of genes related to cell death and cancer. The pathways differed somewhat depending on arsenic metabolism efficiency. We found no overlap between arsenic-related gene expression and DNA methylation for individual genes. Conclusions: Increased arsenic exposure was associated with lower gene expression and hypermethylation in peripheral blood, but with no evident overlap. - Highlights: • Women exposed to inorganic arsenic were studied for

  13. IκK-16 decreases miRNA-155 expression and attenuates the human monocyte inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman James Galbraith

    Full Text Available Excessive inflammatory responses in the surgical patient may result in cellular hypo-responsiveness, which is associated with an increased risk of secondary infection and death. microRNAs (miRNAs, such as miR-155, are powerful regulators of inflammatory signalling pathways including nuclear factor κB (NFκB. Our objective was to determine the effect of IκK-16, a selective blocker of inhibitor of kappa-B kinase (IκK, on miRNA expression and the monocyte inflammatory response. In a model of endotoxin tolerance using primary human monocytes, impaired monocytes had decreased p65 expression with suppressed TNF-α and IL-10 production (P < 0.05. miR-155 and miR-138 levels were significantly upregulated at 17 h in the impaired monocyte (P < 0.05. Notably, IκK-16 decreased miR-155 expression with a corresponding dose-dependent decrease in TNF-α and IL-10 production (P < 0.05, and impaired monocyte function was associated with increased miR-155 and miR-138 expression. In the context of IκK-16 inhibition, miR-155 mimics increased TNF-α production, while miR-155 antagomirs decreased both TNF-α and IL-10 production. These data demonstrate that IκK-16 treatment attenuates the monocyte inflammatory response, which may occur through a miR-155-mediated mechanism, and that IκK-16 is a promising approach to limit the magnitude of an excessive innate inflammatory response to LPS.

  14. Effects of Diabetes on Salivary Gland Protein Expression of Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cassandra R; Obi, Nneka; Epane, Elodie C; Akbari, Alexander A; Halpern, Leslie; Southerland, Janet H; Gangula, Pandu R

    2016-06-01

    Xerostomia is defined as dry mouth resulting from a change in the amount or composition of saliva and is often a major oral health complication associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Studies have shown that xerostomia is more common in females at the onset of DM. Evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in healthy salivary gland function. However, the specific mechanisms by which NO regulates salivary gland function at the onset of DM have yet to be determined. This study has two aims: 1) to determine whether protein expression or dimerization of NO synthase enzymes (neuronal [nNOS] and endothelial [eNOS]) are altered in the onset of diabetic xerostomia; and 2) to determine whether the changes in nNOS/eNOS protein expression or dimerization are correlated with changes in NO cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthetic enzymes (guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 and dihydrofolate reductase). Functional and Western blot studies were performed in streptozotocin-induced and control Sprague-Dawley female rats with DM (type 1 [t1DM]) using standardized protocols. Confirmation of xerostomia was determined by increased water intake and decreased salivary flow rate. The results showed that in female rats with DM, salivary hypofunction is correlated with decreased submandibular and parotid gland sizes. The results also show a decrease in NOS and BH4 biosynthetic enzyme in submandibular glands. These results indicate that a decrease in submandibular NO-BH4 protein expression may provide insight pertaining to mechanisms for the development of hyposalivation in DM-induced xerostomia. Furthermore, understanding the role of the NO-BH4 pathway may give insight into possible treatment options for the patient with DM experiencing xerostomia.

  15. Growing functional modules from a seed protein via integration of protein interaction and gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrakopoulou Konstantina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays modern biology aims at unravelling the strands of complex biological structures such as the protein-protein interaction (PPI networks. A key concept in the organization of PPI networks is the existence of dense subnetworks (functional modules in them. In recent approaches clustering algorithms were applied at these networks and the resulting subnetworks were evaluated by estimating the coverage of well-established protein complexes they contained. However, most of these algorithms elaborate on an unweighted graph structure which in turn fails to elevate those interactions that would contribute to the construction of biologically more valid and coherent functional modules. Results In the current study, we present a method that corroborates the integration of protein interaction and microarray data via the discovery of biologically valid functional modules. Initially the gene expression information is overlaid as weights onto the PPI network and the enriched PPI graph allows us to exploit its topological aspects, while simultaneously highlights enhanced functional association in specific pairs of proteins. Then we present an algorithm that unveils the functional modules of the weighted graph by expanding a kernel protein set, which originates from a given 'seed' protein used as starting-point. Conclusion The integrated data and the concept of our approach provide reliable functional modules. We give proofs based on yeast data that our method manages to give accurate results in terms both of structural coherency, as well as functional consistency.

  16. LPS-Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Signaling on Expression of Protein S and C4b-Binding Protein in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein S (PS, mainly synthesized in hepatocytes and endothelial cells, plays a critical role as a cofactor of anticoagulant activated protein C (APC. PS activity is regulated by C4b-binding protein (C4BP, structurally composed of seven α-chains (C4BPα and a β-chain (C4BPβ. In this paper, based primarily on our previous studies, we review the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced signaling which affects expression of PS and C4BP in the liver. Our in vivo studies in rats showed that after LPS injection, plasma PS levels are significantly decreased, whereas plasma C4BP levels first are transiently decreased after 2 to 12 hours and then significantly increased after 24 hours. LPS decreases PS antigen and mRNA levels in both hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs, and decreases C4BP antigen and both C4BPα and C4BPβ mRNA levels in hepatocytes. Antirat CD14 and antirat Toll-like receptor (TLR-4 antibodies inhibited LPS-induced NFκB activation in both hepatocytes and SECs. Furthermore, inhibitors of NFκB and MEK recovered the LPS-induced decreased expression of PS in both cell types and the LPS-induced decreased expression of C4BP in hepatocytes. These data suggest that the LPS-induced decrease in PS expression in hepatocytes and SECs and LPS-induced decrease in C4BP expression in hepatocytes are mediated by MEK/ERK signaling and NFκB activation and that membrane-bound CD14 and TLR-4 are involved in this mechanism.

  17. Expression and purification of recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein and its interactions with polyomavirus proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Chang, D.; Rottinghaus, S.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448), using the recombinant expression system pFPYV2. Recombinant VP2 was purified to near homogeneity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electroelution, and Extracti-Gel chromatography. Polyclonal serum to this protein which reacted specifically with recombinant VP2 as well as polyomavirus virion VP2 and VP3 on Western blots (immunoblots) was produced. Purified VP2 was used to establish an in vitro protein-protein interaction assay with polyomavirus structural proteins and purified recombinant VP1. Recombinant VP2 interacted with recombinant VP1, virion VP1, and the four virion histones. Recombinant VP1 coimmunoprecipitated with recombinant VP2 or truncated VP2 (delta C12VP2), which lacked the carboxy-terminal 12 amino acids. These experiments confirmed the interaction between VP1 and VP2 and revealed that the carboxyterminal 12 amino acids of VP2 and VP3 were not necessary for formation of this interaction. In vivo VP1-VP2 interaction study accomplished by cotransfection of COS-7 cells with VP2 and truncated VP1 (delta N11VP1) lacking the nuclear localization signal demonstrated that VP2 was capable of translocating delta N11VP1 into the nucleus. These studies suggest that complexes of VP1 and VP2 may be formed in the cytoplasm and cotransported to the nucleus for virion assembly to occur.

  18. Trichohyalin-like 1 protein, a member of fused S100 proteins, is expressed in normal and pathologic human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakoshi, Takako [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Makino, Teruhiko, E-mail: tmakino@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Ur Rehman, Mati; Yoshihisa, Yoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Sugimori, Michiya [Department of Integrative Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Shimizu, Tadamichi, E-mail: shimizut@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Trichohyalin-like 1 protein is a member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. ► Specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein were generated. ► TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. ► TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in tumor nests of BCC and SCC. ► The expression of TCHHL1 proteins increased in epidermis of psoriasis vulgaris. - Abstract: Trichohyalin-like 1 (TCHHL1) protein is a novel member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence of TCHHL1 contains an EF-hand domain in the N-terminus, one trans-membrane domain and a nuclear localization signal. We generated specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein and examined the expression of TCHHL1 proteins in normal and pathological human skin. An immunohistochemical study showed that TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. In addition, signals of TCHHL1 proteins were observed around the nuclei of cultured growing keratinocytes. Accordingly, TCHHL1 mRNA has been detected in normal skin and cultured growing keratinocytes. Furthermore, TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in the peripheral areas of tumor nests in basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. A dramatic increase in the number of Ki67 positive cells was observed in TCHHL1-expressing areas. The expression of TCHHL1 proteins also increased in non-cancerous hyperproliferative epidermal tissues such as those of psoriasis vulgaris and lichen planus. These findings highlight the possibility that TCHHL1 proteins are expressed in growing keratinocytes of the epidermis and might be associated with the proliferation of keratinocytes.

  19. Trichohyalin-like 1 protein, a member of fused S100 proteins, is expressed in normal and pathologic human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakoshi, Takako; Makino, Teruhiko; Ur Rehman, Mati; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Sugimori, Michiya; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Trichohyalin-like 1 protein is a member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. ► Specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein were generated. ► TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. ► TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in tumor nests of BCC and SCC. ► The expression of TCHHL1 proteins increased in epidermis of psoriasis vulgaris. - Abstract: Trichohyalin-like 1 (TCHHL1) protein is a novel member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence of TCHHL1 contains an EF-hand domain in the N-terminus, one trans-membrane domain and a nuclear localization signal. We generated specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein and examined the expression of TCHHL1 proteins in normal and pathological human skin. An immunohistochemical study showed that TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. In addition, signals of TCHHL1 proteins were observed around the nuclei of cultured growing keratinocytes. Accordingly, TCHHL1 mRNA has been detected in normal skin and cultured growing keratinocytes. Furthermore, TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in the peripheral areas of tumor nests in basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. A dramatic increase in the number of Ki67 positive cells was observed in TCHHL1-expressing areas. The expression of TCHHL1 proteins also increased in non-cancerous hyperproliferative epidermal tissues such as those of psoriasis vulgaris and lichen planus. These findings highlight the possibility that TCHHL1 proteins are expressed in growing keratinocytes of the epidermis and might be associated with the proliferation of keratinocytes

  20. Decreased Retinol Binding Protein 4 Concentrations are Associated With Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Nien Wang

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: Circulating RBP4 decreases in cholesterol gallstone disease independent of renal function. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between liver function and RBP4 levels in these patients.

  1. A Decrease of Histone Deacetylase 6 Expression Caused by Helicobacter Pylori Infection is Associated with Oncogenic Transformation in Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 plays a role in the progression of many tumors. However, the relationship between the level of HDAC6 expression and gastric tumorigenesis is still unclear. Here, we illustrate the potential correlation between Helicobacter pylori (HP infection and the variation of HDAC6 expression in different gastric lesions, as well as the clinical significance of HDAC6 expression in gastric cancer (GC patients. Materials and Methods: Between 2011 and 2016, 364 patients with different types of gastric lesions were enrolled in Baotou City Central Hospital. Immunostaining of HDAC6 expression and HP infection were performed in the following cohort including 21 normal tissues (Normal; 40 samples with chronic superficial gastritis (CSG; 106 with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG; 94 with intestinal metaplasia (IM; 64 with dysplasia (DYS and 39 with gastric cancer (GC. Survival analysis was performed in another 80 GC patients using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analyses. The level of HDAC6 expression was determined by Real-time PCR, Western blotting and IHC staining in gastric cell lines and tissues. Furthermore, the correlation between HDAC6 expression and clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed in the GC cohort. HP strains were lavaged into Kunming mice to investigate the effects of HP infection on the expression of different HDAC members in this mouse model. Results: Higher levels of HDAC6 expression were detected in normal and premalignant lesions than in the GC tissues (p<0.01, and decreased HDAC6 expression was associated with HP infection and TNM stage (p<0.01 and p=0.048, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that HDAC6 expression was an independent predictor of the outcome of GC patients (p=0.04. HP mediated HDAC6 expression in the cell lines and KM mice. HP infection could promote HDAC1 and HDAC4 expression as determined by Western blotting. Conclusions: HDAC6 is a

  2. Neurotoxocarosis alters myelin protein gene transcription and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Lea; Beyerbach, Martin; Lühder, Fred; Beineke, Andreas; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Neurotoxocarosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by migrating larvae of the common dog and cat roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), which are zoonotic agents. As these parasites are prevalent worldwide and neuropathological and molecular investigations on neurotoxocarosis are scare, this study aims to characterise nerve fibre demyelination associated with neurotoxocarosis on a molecular level. Transcription of eight myelin-associated genes (Cnp, Mag, Mbp, Mog, Mrf-1, Nogo-A, Plp1, Olig2) was determined in the mouse model during six time points of the chronic phase of infection using qRT-PCR. Expression of selected proteins was analysed by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Additionally, demyelination and neuronal damage were investigated histologically. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between transcription rates of T. canis-infected and uninfected control mice were detected for all analysed genes while T. cati affected five of eight investigated genes. Interestingly, 2', 3 ´-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (Cnp) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog) were upregulated in both T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice preceding demyelination. Later, CNPase expression was additionally enhanced. As expected, myelin basic protein (Mbp) was downregulated in cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice when severe demyelination was present 120 days post infectionem (dpi). The transcriptional pattern observed in the present study appears to reflect direct traumatic and hypoxic effects of larval migration as well as secondary processes including host immune reactions, demyelination and attempts to remyelinate damaged areas.

  3. Decreased neutrophil-associated miRNA and increased B-cell associated miRNA expression during tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, I C; du Toit, L; Walzl, G; du Plessis, N; Loxton, A G

    2018-05-20

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to, and suppressing the expression of genes. Research show that microRNAs have potential to be used as biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment response and can be used for therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, microRNA expression has effects on immune cell functions, which may lead to disease. Considering the important protective role of neutrophils and B-cells during M.tb infection, we evaluated the expression of microRNAs, known to alter function of these cells, in the context of human TB. We utilised real-time PCR to evaluate the levels of microRNA transcripts in the peripheral blood of TB cases and healthy controls. We found that neutrophil-associated miR-197-3p, miR-99b-5p and miR-191-5p transcript levels were significantly lower in TB cases. Additionally, B-cell-associated miR-320a, miR-204-5p, miR331-3p and other transcript levels were higher in TB cases. The miRNAs differentially expressed in neutrophils are predominantly implicated in signalling pathways leading to cytokine productions. Here, the decreased expression in TB cases may imply a lack of suppression on signalling pathways, which may lead to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma. Furthermore, the miRNAs differentially expressed in B-cells are mostly involved in the induction/suppression of apoptosis. Further functional studies are however required to elucidate the significance and functional effects of changes in the expression of these microRNAs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cerebral ischemic injury decreases α-synuclein expression in brain tissue and glutamate-exposed HT22 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Phil-Ok

    2017-09-01

    α-Synuclein is abundantly expressed in neuronal tissue, plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress. Cerebral ischemia causes severe neurological disorders and neuronal dysfunction. In this study, we examined α-synuclein expression in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemic injury and neuronal cells damaged by glutamate treatment. MCAO surgical operation was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats, and brain samples were isolated 24 hours after MCAO. We confirmed neurological behavior deficit, infarction area, and histopathological changes following MCAO injury. A proteomic approach and Western blot analysis demonstrated a decrease in α-synuclein in the cerebral cortices after MCAO injury. Moreover, glutamate treatment induced neuronal cell death and decreased α-synuclein expression in a hippocampal-derived cell line in a dose-dependent manner. It is known that α-synuclein regulates neuronal survival, and low levels of α-synuclein expression result in cytotoxicity. Thus, these results suggest that cerebral ischemic injury leads to a reduction in α-synuclein and consequently causes serious brain damage.

  5. Suppression of expression of muscle-associated proteins by PPARα in brown adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Yuhong; Hara, Atsushi; Komatsu, Makiko; Tanaka, Naoki; Kamijo, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) belongs to the steroid/nuclear receptor superfamily. Two-dimensional (2D) SDS-PAGE analysis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) unexpectedly revealed six spots that were present only in PPARα-null mice. Proteomic analysis indicated that these proteins were tropomyosin-1 α chain, tropomyosin β chain, myosin regulatory light chain 2, myosin light chain 3, and parvalbumin α. Analyses of mRNA have revealed that PPARα suppressed the genes encoding these proteins in a synchronous manner in adult wild-type mice. Histological and physiological analyses of BAT showed in adult wild-type mice, a marked suppression of BAT growth concurrent with a prominent decrease in lipolytic and thermogenesis activities. These results suggest that in adult mice, PPARα functions to suppress the expression of the proteins that may be involved in the architecture of BAT, and thus may function in keeping BAT in a quiescent state

  6. Partial Support Ventilation and Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidants Protect against Ventilator-Induced Decreases in Diaphragm Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Hudson

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life-saving intervention in patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragm atrophy and weakness. MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness is significant because inspiratory muscle dysfunction is a risk factor for problematic weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a clinical intervention to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is important. In this regard, MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy occurs due to both increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis. While efforts to impede MV-induced increased proteolysis in the diaphragm are well-documented, only one study has investigated methods of preserving diaphragmatic protein synthesis during prolonged MV. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of two therapeutic interventions that, conceptually, have the potential to sustain protein synthesis in the rat diaphragm during prolonged MV. Specifically, these experiments were designed to: 1 determine if partial-support MV will protect against the decrease in diaphragmatic protein synthesis that occurs during prolonged full-support MV; and 2 establish if treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant will maintain diaphragm protein synthesis during full-support MV. Compared to spontaneously breathing animals, full support MV resulted in a significant decline in diaphragmatic protein synthesis during 12 hours of MV. In contrast, diaphragm protein synthesis rates were maintained during partial support MV at levels comparable to spontaneous breathing animals. Further, treatment of animals with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant prevented oxidative stress during full support MV and maintained diaphragm protein synthesis at the level of spontaneous breathing animals. We conclude that treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants or the use of partial-support MV are potential strategies to preserve diaphragm protein synthesis during prolonged MV.

  7. Partial Support Ventilation and Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidants Protect against Ventilator-Induced Decreases in Diaphragm Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Matthew B; Smuder, Ashley J; Nelson, W Bradley; Wiggs, Michael P; Shimkus, Kevin L; Fluckey, James D; Szeto, Hazel H; Powers, Scott K

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention in patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragm atrophy and weakness. MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness is significant because inspiratory muscle dysfunction is a risk factor for problematic weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a clinical intervention to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is important. In this regard, MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy occurs due to both increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis. While efforts to impede MV-induced increased proteolysis in the diaphragm are well-documented, only one study has investigated methods of preserving diaphragmatic protein synthesis during prolonged MV. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of two therapeutic interventions that, conceptually, have the potential to sustain protein synthesis in the rat diaphragm during prolonged MV. Specifically, these experiments were designed to: 1) determine if partial-support MV will protect against the decrease in diaphragmatic protein synthesis that occurs during prolonged full-support MV; and 2) establish if treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant will maintain diaphragm protein synthesis during full-support MV. Compared to spontaneously breathing animals, full support MV resulted in a significant decline in diaphragmatic protein synthesis during 12 hours of MV. In contrast, diaphragm protein synthesis rates were maintained during partial support MV at levels comparable to spontaneous breathing animals. Further, treatment of animals with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant prevented oxidative stress during full support MV and maintained diaphragm protein synthesis at the level of spontaneous breathing animals. We conclude that treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants or the use of partial-support MV are potential strategies to preserve diaphragm protein synthesis during prolonged MV.

  8. Effects of Soil Water Deficit on Insecticidal