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Sample records for protein crp erythrocyte

  1. Effect of Sidaguri (Sidarhombifolia L) on C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in osteoarthritis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpaung, B.; Siregar, J.

    2018-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is degenerative and inflammatory joint diseases. Management of OA, until now limited only to overcome the pain, inflammation, and improvement of joint function with medication in the form of NSAIDs that have many side effects. Damage to cells due to the stimulus will free various mediators or substances inflammation such as prostaglandin, IL-6, TNF-α and nitric oxide. Sidaguri plant (Sidarhombifolia L) has anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of nitric oxide. The mechanism of action Meloxicam, like other NSAIDs, may be associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase). One of the markers of the inflammatory process is CRP and ESR. We tested 50 patients divided into two groups, patients who get Meloxicam and Sidaguri (n = 25) and patients who get Meloxicam and placebo (n = 25). There were significant changes before and after therapy with p-value<0.0001.

  2. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and its Association with Periodontal Disease: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Tushika; Pandey, Anita; D, Deepa; Asthana, Ashish K

    2014-07-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic infection of the gums characterised by a loss of attachment between the tooth and bone, and bone loss. C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation is a part of the acute phase response to acute and chronic inflammation. Many epidemiological studies have shown that serum CRP levels were elevated in patients with chronic periodontitis. CRP levels increase to hundreds of μg/ml within hours following infection. It out-performs erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in terms of responsiveness and specificity for inflammation. While CRP elevation is suggestive of inflammation or infection in the appropriate clinical context, it can also occur with obesity and renal dysfunction. Conversely, a lack of CRP elevation in inflammation may be seen with hepatic failure, as well as during flares of conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus.

  3. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be caused by a number of different pathological conditions such as arthritis , lupus , or inflammatory bowel ... clinchem.org . Accessed October 2011. Lowry, F. (2010 March 23). CRP Test Guides Antibiotic Prescribing for Respiratory ...

  4. Identification of the subunit of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) that functionally interacts with CytR in CRP-CytR-mediated transcriptional repression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, K L; Kallipolitis, B H; Ebright, R H

    2000-01-01

    At promoters of the Escherichia coli CytR regulon, the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) interacts with the repressor CytR to form transcriptionally inactive CRP-CytR-promoter or (CRP)(2)-CytR-promoter complexes. Here, using "oriented heterodimer" analysis, we show that only one subunit of the CRP dimer......, the subunit proximal to CytR, functionally interacts with CytR in CRP-CytR-promoter and (CRP)(2)-CytR-promoter complexes. Our results provide information about the architecture of CRP-CytR-promoter and (CRP)(2)-CytR-promoter complexes and rule out the proposal that masking of activating region 2 of CRP...

  5. Electrochemical investigations of the interaction of C-reactive protein (CRP) with a CRP antibody chemically immobilized on a gold surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennessey, Hooman; Afara, Nadia; Omanovic, Sasha; Padjen, Ante L.

    2009-01-01

    A possibility of using a range of dc and ac electrochemical techniques to probe associative interactions of C-reactive protein (CRP) with CRP antibody (aCRP) immobilized on a gold electrode surface was investigated. It was demonstrated that the investigated electrochemical techniques can be used efficiently to probe these interactions over a wide CRP concentration range, from 1.15 x 10 -5 to 1.15 mg L -1 . The measured sensitivity of the techniques is in the following decreasing order: differential pulse voltammetry, charge-transfer resistance obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and double-layer capacitance deduced from EIS measurements which gave the poorest sensitivity. Measurements of kinetic parameters demonstrated that the associative interactions of CRP with the immobilized aCRP reached quasi-equilibrium after 20-30 min. The kinetics of these interactions was modeled successfully using a two-step kinetic model. In this model, the first step represents reversible CRP-aCRP associative-dissociative interactions, while the second step represents the irreversible transformation of the bound CRP into a thermodynamically stable configuration. It was demonstrated that the thermodynamically stable configuration of CRP starts prevailing after 7 min of interaction of CRP with the immobilized aCRP.

  6. Solid-phase classical complement activation by C-reactive protein (CRP) is inhibited by fluid-phase CRP-C1q interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoewall, Christopher; Wetteroe, Jonas; Bengtsson, Torbjoern; Askendal, Agneta; Almroth, Gunnel; Skogh, Thomas; Tengvall, Pentti

    2007-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) interacts with phosphorylcholine (PC), Fcγ receptors, complement factor C1q and cell nuclear constituents, yet its biological roles are insufficiently understood. The aim was to characterize CRP-induced complement activation by ellipsometry. PC conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (PC-KLH) was immobilized to cross-linked fibrinogen. A low-CRP serum with different amounts of added CRP was exposed to the PC-surfaces. The total serum protein deposition was quantified and deposition of IgG, C1q, C3c, C4, factor H, and CRP detected with polyclonal antibodies. The binding of serum CRP to PC-KLH dose-dependently triggered activation of the classical pathway. Unexpectedly, the activation was efficiently down-regulated at CRP levels >150 mg/L. Using radial immunodiffusion, CRP-C1q interaction was observed in serum samples with high CRP concentrations. We propose that the underlying mechanism depends on fluid-phase interaction between C1q and CRP. This might constitute another level of complement regulation, which has implications for systemic lupus erythematosus where CRP is often low despite flare-ups

  7. Serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Target for Therapy or Trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Virginia B; Jordan, Joanne M

    2007-02-07

    High sensitivity serum C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has come into clinical use as a marker of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition to a role as a marker of disease, CRP has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. Specific small-molecule inhibitors of CRP have recently been developed with the intent of mitigating cardiac damage during acute myocardial infarction. However, the use of CRP, both as a risk marker and a disease target are controversial for several reasons. Serum hs-CRP concentrations can be elevated on the basis of genetics, female gender, and non-Caucasian ethnicity. It is not clear, in these contexts, that elevations of hs-CRP have any pathological significance. As a non-specific indicator of inflammation, CRP is also not a specific indicator of a single disease state such as cardiovascular disease but elevated concentrations can be seen in association with other comorbidities including obesity and pulmonary disease. In sharp contrast to the proposed inhibition of CRP for cardiovascular disease treatment, the infusion of CRP has been shown to have profound therapeutic benefits for autoimmune disease and septic shock. The balance between the risks and benefits of these competing views of the role of CRP in disease and disease therapy is reminiscent of the ongoing controversy regarding the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for musculoskeletal disease and their cardiovascular side effects. Soon, NSAIDs may not be the only agents about which Rheumatologists and Cardiologists may spar.

  8. Computational prediction of cAMP receptor protein (CRP binding sites in cyanobacterial genomes

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    Su Zhengchang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP, also known as catabolite gene activator protein (CAP, is an important transcriptional regulator widely distributed in many bacteria. The biological processes under the regulation of CRP are highly diverse among different groups of bacterial species. Elucidation of CRP regulons in cyanobacteria will further our understanding of the physiology and ecology of this important group of microorganisms. Previously, CRP has been experimentally studied in only two cyanobacterial strains: Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120; therefore, a systematic genome-scale study of the potential CRP target genes and binding sites in cyanobacterial genomes is urgently needed. Results We have predicted and analyzed the CRP binding sites and regulons in 12 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes using a highly effective cis-regulatory binding site scanning algorithm. Our results show that cyanobacterial CRP binding sites are very similar to those in E. coli; however, the regulons are very different from that of E. coli. Furthermore, CRP regulons in different cyanobacterial species/ecotypes are also highly diversified, ranging from photosynthesis, carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation, to chemotaxis and signal transduction. In addition, our prediction indicates that crp genes in modern cyanobacteria are likely inherited from a common ancestral gene in their last common ancestor, and have adapted various cellular functions in different environments, while some cyanobacteria lost their crp genes as well as CRP binding sites during the course of evolution. Conclusion The CRP regulons in cyanobacteria are highly diversified, probably as a result of divergent evolution to adapt to various ecological niches. Cyanobacterial CRPs may function as lineage-specific regulators participating in various cellular processes, and are important in some lineages. However, they are dispensable in some other lineages. The

  9. Validity and predictive ability of the juvenile arthritis disease activity score based on CRP versus ESR in a Nordic population-based setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordal, E B; Zak, M; Aalto, K

    2012-01-01

    To compare the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS) based on C reactive protein (CRP) (JADAS-CRP) with JADAS based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (JADAS-ESR) and to validate JADAS in a population-based setting.......To compare the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS) based on C reactive protein (CRP) (JADAS-CRP) with JADAS based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (JADAS-ESR) and to validate JADAS in a population-based setting....

  10. Prospective associations of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and CRP genetic risk scores with risk of total knee and hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a diverse cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadyab, A H; Terkeltaub, R; Kooperberg, C; Reiner, A; Eaton, C B; Jackson, R D; Krok-Schoen, J L; Salem, R M; LaCroix, A Z

    2018-05-22

    To examine associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and polygenic CRP genetic risk scores (GRS) with risk of end-stage hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA), defined as incident total hip (THR) or knee replacement (TKR) for OA. This study included a cohort of postmenopausal white, African American, and Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative. Women were followed from baseline to date of THR or TKR, death, or December 31, 2014. Medicare claims data identified THR and TKR. Hs-CRP and genotyping data were collected at baseline. Three CRP GRS were constructed: 1) a 4-SNP GRS comprised of genetic variants representing variation in the CRP gene among European populations; 2) a multilocus 18-SNP GRS of genetic variants significantly associated with CRP levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies; and 3) a 5-SNP GRS of genetic variants significantly associated with CRP levels among African American women. In analyses conducted separately among each race and ethnic group, there were no significant associations of ln hs-CRP with risk of THR or TKR, after adjusting for age, body mass index, lifestyle characteristics, chronic diseases, hormone therapy use, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. CRP GRS were not associated with risk of THR or TKR in any ethnic group. Serum levels of ln hs-CRP and genetically-predicted CRP levels were not associated with risk of THR or TKR for OA among a diverse cohort of women. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP, Target for Therapy or Trouble?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia B. Kraus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High sensitivity serum C-reactive protein (hs-CRP has come into clinical use as a marker of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. In addition to a role as a marker of disease, CRP has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. Specific small-molecule inhibitors of CRP have recently been developed with the intent of mitigating cardiac damage during acute myocardial infarction. However, the use of CRP, both as a risk marker and a disease target are controversial for several reasons. Serum hs-CRP concentrations can be elevated on the basis of genetics, female gender, and non-Caucasian ethnicity. It is not clear, in these contexts, that elevations of hs-CRP have any pathological significance. As a non-specific indicator of inflammation, CRP is also not a specific indicator of a single disease state such as cardiovascular disease but elevated concentrations can be seen in association with other comorbidities including obesity and pulmonary disease. In sharp contrast to the proposed inhibition of CRP for cardiovascular disease treatment, the infusion of CRP has been shown to have profound therapeutic benefits for autoimmune disease and septic shock. The balance between the risks and benefits of these competing views of the role of CRP in disease and disease therapy is reminiscent of the ongoing controversy regarding the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs for musculoskeletal disease and their cardiovascular side effects. Soon, NSAIDs may not be the only agents about which Rheumatologists and Cardiologists may spar.

  12. [hsCRP protein in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Urban, Mirosława; Peczyńska, Jadwiga; Koput, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    HsCRP protein is known as a novel marker of low grade inflammatory state, which characterises an atherosclerotic process in its early stages. Contrary to a large amount of data on inflammatory markers in diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome in adults, little is known so far about the inflammatory process in diabetes type 1, especially in children. The aim of the study was to estimate the level of hsCRP protein in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 depending on coexisting additional risk factors for atherosclerosis and microvascular complications. 127 children and adolescents with diabetes duration 6.7+/-3.3 years, aged 14.9+/-3.1, were studied. The control group consisted of 52 healthy children aged 14.9+/-2.8 years, matched acc. to gender. HsCRP level was assessed with use of immunoturbidymetric, latex augmented method (Tina-quant CRP (Latex) HS, Roche). HsCRP in the whole study group was nearly significantly higher compared to control group: 0.17+/-0.2 vs. 0.078+/-0.1 mg/dl, p=0.072. In diabetic hypertensive children (n=38) we found significantly higher levels of hsCRP compared to controls (0.27+/-0.3 vs. 0.07 mg/dl, p=0.008) and compared to diabetic normotensive children (0.13+/-0.22 mg/dl; p=0.024). Diabetic obese patients (n=23) had significantly higer hsCRP compared to controls (0.24+/-0.3 vs. 0.07+/-0.1 mg/dl, p=0.04). In 14 studied diabetic children we found coexisting hypertension and obesity, and we found further increase in hsCRP level - 0.28+/-0.3 mg/dl. In diabetic children with microangiopathy hsCRP level was 0.22+/-0.2 mg/dl, and it was insignificantly higher compared to controls and to diabetic children without complications. Correlation analysis showed interrelations between hsCRP and systolic blood pressure (r=0.2; p=0.04) and HbA1c (r=0.25; p=0.015). In stepwise regression analysis hsCRP was related to systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and the triglycerides level (R=0.37; p=0.003). In children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 we

  13. The cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP, is required for both virulence and expression of the minimal CRP regulon in Yersinia pestis biovar microtus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lingjun; Han, Yanping; Yang, Lei; Geng, Jing; Li, Yingli; Gao, He; Guo, Zhaobiao; Fan, Wei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan; Zhou, Dongsheng; Yang, Ruifu

    2008-11-01

    The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is a bacterial regulator that controls more than 100 promoters, including those involved in catabolite repression. In the present study, a null deletion of the crp gene was constructed for Yersinia pestis bv. microtus strain 201. Microarray expression analysis disclosed that at least 6% of Y. pestis genes were affected by this mutation. Further reverse transcription-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay analyses disclosed a set of 37 genes or putative operons to be the direct targets of CRP, and thus they constitute the minimal CRP regulon in Y. pestis. Subsequent primer extension and DNase I footprinting assays mapped transcriptional start sites, core promoter elements, and CRP binding sites within the DNA regions upstream of pla and pst, revealing positive and direct control of these two laterally acquired plasmid genes by CRP. The crp disruption affected both in vitro and in vivo growth of the mutant and led to a >15,000-fold loss of virulence after subcutaneous infection but a pestis and, particularly, is more important for infection by subcutaneous inoculation. It can further be concluded that the reduced in vivo growth phenotype of the crp mutant should contribute, at least partially, to its attenuation of virulence by both routes of infection. Consistent with a previous study of Y. pestis bv. medievalis, lacZ reporter fusion analysis indicated that the crp deletion resulted in the almost absolute loss of pla promoter activity. The plasminogen activator encoded by pla was previously shown to specifically promote Y. pestis dissemination from peripheral infection routes (subcutaneous infection [flea bite] or inhalation). The above evidence supports the notion that in addition to the reduced in vivo growth phenotype, the defect of pla expression in the crp mutant will greatly contribute to the huge loss of virulence of this mutant strain in subcutaneous infection.

  14. C-reactive (CRP) protein in transfusion dependent thalassaemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, R.; Mughal, Z.U.N.

    2009-01-01

    In thalassaemic patients iron overload, secondary to blood transfusion, results toxic effects by producing reactive radicals. Iron overload can be studied using serum ferritin level which has a direct correlation with the body's iron status. While oxidative damage can be studied using biomarker of inflammation like hsC-reactive proteins. Blood samples of 55 thalassaemic patients (39 males, 16 females) were collected from Fatmid Foundation (Hyderabad). The samples were analyzed for CBC, serum ferritin level and hsC-reactive proteins. High mean serum ferritin levels was found in all the patients regardless of the frequency of blood transfusion (4774.2135+-3143.3040 mu g/L), indicating the iron overload. High mean hsC-reactive protein was found (2.5151+-1.3712) with a positive correlation with ferritin (r= 0.8371198, p= 0.0000) and platelets (r= 0.43293443, p=0.000962175). C-reactive proteins serve as biomarker of various inflammatory conditions, progression of cardiovascular diseases and as indicator of morbidity and mortality. High C-reactive proteins in these patients indicate ongoing iron overload toxicity related damage in these patients. The estimation of hsC-reactive proteins and other biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation may help in better management of these patients. (author)

  15. The malaria parasite RhopH protein complex interacts with erythrocyte calmyrin identified from a comprehensive erythrocyte protein library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyokazu; Takeo, Satoru; Ntege, Edward H; Otsuki, Hitoshi; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Ishino, Tomoko; Takashima, Eizo; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2018-06-02

    Malaria merozoite apical organelles; microneme and rhoptry secreted proteins play functional roles during and following invasion of host erythrocytes. Among numerous proteins, the rhoptries discharge high molecular weight proteins known as RhopH complex. Recent reports suggest that the RhopH complex is essential for growth and survival of the malaria parasite within erythrocytes. However, an in-depth understanding of the host-parasite molecular interactions is indispensable. Here we utilized a comprehensive mouse erythrocyte protein library consisting of 443 proteins produced by a wheat germ cell-free system, combined with AlphaScreen technology to identify mouse erythrocyte calmyrin as an interacting molecule of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii RhopH complex (PyRhopH). The PyRhopH interaction was dependent on the calmyrin N-terminus and divalent cation capacity. The finding unveils a recommendable and invaluable usefulness of our comprehensive mouse erythrocyte protein library together with the AlphaScreen technology in investigating a wide-range of host-parasite molecular interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperature-dependent binding of cyclosporine to an erythrocyte protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.P.; Threatte, G.A.; McPherson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this competitive binding assay to measure endogenous binding capacity for cyclosporine (CsA) in erythrocyte lysates, a fixed amount of [ 3 H]CsA plus various concentrations of unlabeled CsA is incubated with aliquots of a test hemolysate. Free CsA is then adsorbed onto charcoal and removed by centrifugation; CsA complexed with a cyclosporine-binding protein (CsBP) remains in the supernate. We confirmed the validity of this charcoal-separation mode of binding analysis by comparison with equilibrium dialysis. Scatchard plot analysis of the results at 4 degrees C yielded a straight line with slope corresponding to a binding constant of 1.9 X 10(7) L/mol and a saturation capacity of approximately 4 mumol per liter of packed erythrocytes. Similar analysis of binding data at 24 degrees C and 37 degrees C showed that the binding constant decreased with increasing temperature, but the saturation capacity did not change. CsBP was not membrane bound but appeared to be freely distributed within erythrocytes. 125 I-labeled CsA did not complex with the erythrocyte CsBP. Several antibiotics and other drugs did not inhibit binding between CsA and CsBP. These findings may explain the temperature-dependent uptake of CsA by erythrocytes in whole blood and suggest that measurement of CsBP in erythrocytes or lymphocytes may help predict therapeutic response or toxicity after administration of CsA

  17. MODIFICATION OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE PROTEINS WITH POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 1500

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    N. G. Zemlianskykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the effect of polyethylene glycol PEG-1500 on the Ca2+-ATPase activity and changes in CD44 surface marker expression in human erythrocyte membranes. Determination of the Ca2+-ATPase activity was carried out in sealed erythrocyte ghosts by the level of accumulation of inorganic phosphorus. Changes in the expression of CD44 and amount of CD44+-erythrocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. The inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity and a reduction in the level of CD44 expression and also the decrease in the amount CD44+-cells were found, reflecting a fairly complex restructuring in the membrane-cytoskeleton complex of erythrocytes under the influence of PEG-1500. Effect of PEG-1500 on the surface CD44 marker could be mediated by modification of proteins of membrane-cytoskeleton complex, as indicated by accelerated loss of CD44 in erythrocyte membranes after application of protein cross-linking reagent diamide. Reduced activity of Ca2+-ATPase activity may contribute to the increase in intracellular Ca2+ level and thus leads to a modification of interactions of integral proteins with cytoskeletal components that eventually could result in membrane vesiculation and decreasing in expression of the CD44 marker, which is dynamically linked to the cytoskeleton.

  18. A robust quantitative solid phase immunoassay for the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) based on cytidine 5 '-diphosphocholine coupled dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Pedersen, H. G.; Jensen, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important acute phase protein, being used as a sensitive indicator of inflammation and infection and is also associated with the risk of cardiovascular problems. The present paper describes a robust and sensitive ELISA for CRP, based on the affinity of CRP for phosp......C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important acute phase protein, being used as a sensitive indicator of inflammation and infection and is also associated with the risk of cardiovascular problems. The present paper describes a robust and sensitive ELISA for CRP, based on the affinity of CRP...... was applied to determination of pig and human CRP using commercially available antibodies against human CRP. The assay was shown to be more sensitive than previously published immunoassays employing albumin-coupled cytidine diphosphocholine. The coating was stable for at least 30 days at room temperature...

  19. Syncytin-1, an endogenous retroviral protein, triggers the activation of CRP via TLR3 signal cascade in glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuling; Liu, Zhongchun; Wang, Peigang; Li, Shan; Zeng, Jie; Tu, Xiaoning; Yan, Qiujin; Xiao, Zheman; Pan, Mengxian; Zhu, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric disorder that impacts on social functioning and quality of life, and there is accumulating evidence that inflammation is a potential pathogenic mechanism of schizophrenia. However, the mechanism of inflammation possibly occurred in schizophrenia has not been well understood. The endogenous retroviral protein syncytin-1 and inflammatory marker CRP are both abnormally expressed in schizophrenia patients. CRP is one of the markers of bacterial infection generally. Less clear is whether virus or viral protein can trigger the activation of CRP. Here, we detected a robust increase of the levels of syncytin-1 and CRP in schizophrenia patients, and displayed a positive correlation and marked consistency between expressions of syncytin-1 and CRP in schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, overexpression of syncytin-1 significantly elevated the levels of CRP, TLR3, and IL-6 in both human microglia and astrocytes. TLR3 deficiency impaired the expressions of CRP and IL-6 induced by syncytin-1. Importantly, we observed a cellular co-localization and a direct interaction between syncytin-1 and TLR3. Additionally, knockdown of IL-6 inhibited the syncytin-1-induced CRP expression. Thus, the totality of these results showed that viral protein syncytin-1 could trigger the activation of CRP, which might explain the elevated CRP in sterile inflammation and exhibit a novel mechanism for regulation of inflammation by syncytin-1 in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and orthopedic implant infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerryl E Piper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR have been shown to be useful for diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection. Little information is available on CRP and ESR in patients undergoing revision or resection of shoulder arthroplasties or spine implants. METHODS/RESULTS: We analyzed preoperative CRP and ESR in 636 subjects who underwent knee (n=297, hip (n=221 or shoulder (n=64 arthroplasty, or spine implant (n=54 removal. A standardized definition of orthopedic implant-associated infection was applied. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine ideal cutoff values for differentiating infected from non-infected cases. ESR was significantly different in subjects with aseptic failure infection of knee (median 11 and 53.5 mm/h, respectively, p=<0.0001 and hip (median 11 and 30 mm/h, respectively, p=<0.0001 arthroplasties and spine implants (median 10 and 48.5 mm/h, respectively, p=0.0033, but not shoulder arthroplasties (median 10 and 9 mm/h, respectively, p=0.9883. Optimized ESR cutoffs for knee, hip and shoulder arthroplasties and spine implants were 19, 13, 26, and 45 mm/h, respectively. Using these cutoffs, sensitivity and specificity to detect infection were 89 and 74% for knee, 82 and 60% for hip, and 32 and 93% for shoulder arthroplasties, and 57 and 90% for spine implants. CRP was significantly different in subjects with aseptic failure and infection of knee (median 4 and 51 mg/l, respectively, p<0.0001, hip (median 3 and 18 mg/l, respectively, p<0.0001, and shoulder (median 3 and 10 mg/l, respectively, p=0.01 arthroplasties, and spine implants (median 3 and 20 mg/l, respectively, p=0.0011. Optimized CRP cutoffs for knee, hip, and shoulder arthroplasties, and spine implants were 14.5, 10.3, 7, and 4.6 mg/l, respectively. Using these cutoffs, sensitivity and specificity to detect infection were 79 and 88% for knee, 74 and 79% for hip, and 63 and 73% for shoulder arthroplasties, and 79 and

  1. High-affinity RNA aptamers to C-reactive protein (CRP): newly developed pre-elution methods for aptamer selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, N; Umekage, S; Sakai, E; Tanaka, T; Kikuchi, Y; Sato, K; Kawauchi, S; Tanaka, H

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a modified SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method to obtain RNA aptamers with high affinity to C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a clinical biomarker present in plasma, the level of which increases in response to infections and noninfectious inflammation. The CRP level is also an important prognostic indicator in patients with several syndromes. At present, CRP content in blood is measured immunochemically using antibodies. To develop a more sensitive method using RNA aptamers, we have attempted to obtain high-affinity RNA aptamers to CRP. We succeeded in obtaining an RNA aptamer with high affinity to CRP using a CRP-immobilized Sepharose column and pre-elution procedure. Pre-elution is a method that removes the weak binding portion from a selected RNA population by washing for a short time with buffer containing CRP. By surface plasmon-resonance (SPR) analysis, the affinity constant of this aptamer for CRP was calculated to be K D = 2.25x10 -9 (M). The secondary structure, contact sites with CRP protein, and application of this aptamer will be described.

  2. C-reactive protein (+1444C>T) polymorphism influences CRP response following a moderate inflammatory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aiuto, Francesco; Casas, Juan P; Shah, Tina; Humphries, Steve E; Hingorani, Aroon D; Tonetti, Maurizio S

    2005-04-01

    Elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration are associated with an increased risk of future coronary events in prospective studies and it has been suggested that CRP could be used to aid risk prediction. A +1444C>T polymorphism in the CRP gene has been associated with differences in CRP concentration. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on the CRP response to periodontal therapy, an intermediate inflammatory stimulus. Clinical parameters, CRP, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were evaluated in 55 consecutive patients suffering from periodontitis at baseline, 1, 7 and 30 days after an intensive course of periodontal treatment. In a multivariate analysis individuals homozygous for the +1444T allele showed higher CRP concentrations (day 1, 21.10+/-4.81 mg/L and day 7, 4.89+/-0.74 mg/L) compared with C-allele carriers (day 1, 12.37+/-1.61 mg/L and day 7, 3.08+/-2.00 mg/L). This effect was independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory factors known to affect CRP concentrations. CRP genotype may need to be considered when CRP values are used in coronary risk prediction.

  3. The correlation between changes of C-reactive protein (CRP level and size of infarct in stroke

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    Shahram Aboutalebi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of C-reactive protein (CRP during different stages of stroke had been shown in several studies. There is still no definite document about the correlation of CRP level and size of infarct in stroke. We studied the correlation of the acute level of CRP with size of infarct in stroke. Methods: A total of 90 consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted in Fatemeh Zahra University Hospital in Bushehr city were studied. Levels of CRP were measured at admission time and 48 hours later. Sizes of infarct and types of stroke were determined with Computerized Tomography scanning. The excluded patients were those with infection, stroke in brain stem, a delay more than 24 hours after attack of stroke and Transient Ischemic Attacks. CRP level was measured quantitatively using ELISA method. Results: No correlation between the first CRP levels and variables of age, size of infarct and type of stroke was detected. Size of infarct was correlated with the second CRP (r=0.41, P<0.001 and the difference in CRP levels (r=0.45, P<0.001. The CRP difference was significant in ischemic, hemorrhagic and territory infarcts (P<0.01. But there was no difference between the first and the second CRP in lacunar infarcts. Conclusion: We found no correlation between the CRP levels of the 24 first hours after acute stroke with size of infarct in stroke. But the increase of CRP levels which were measured in 48 hours after the stroke had correlation with size of infarct irrespective of types of stroke. More studies could reveal the cause and effect of CRP in size of infarct in stroke.

  4. Identification of a novel centrosomal protein CrpF46 involved in cell cycle progression and mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yi; Shen Enzhi; Zhao Na; Liu Qian; Fan Jinling; Marc, Jan; Wang Yongchao; Sun Le; Liang Qianjin

    2008-01-01

    A novel centrosome-related protein Crp F46 was detected using a serum F46 from a patient suffering from progressive systemic sclerosis. We identified the protein by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting followed by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. The protein Crp F46 has an apparent molecular mass of ∼ 60 kDa, is highly homologous to a 527 amino acid sequence of the C-terminal portion of the protein Golgin-245, and appears to be a splice variant of Golgin-245. Immunofluorescence microscopy of synchronized HeLa cells labeled with an anti-Crp F46 monoclonal antibody revealed that Crp F46 localized exclusively to the centrosome during interphase, although it dispersed throughout the cytoplasm at the onset of mitosis. Domain analysis using Crp F46 fragments in GFP-expression vectors transformed into HeLa cells revealed that centrosomal targeting is conferred by a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Antisense Crp F46 knockdown inhibited cell growth and proliferation and the cell cycle typically stalled at S phase. The knockdown also resulted in the formation of poly-centrosomal and multinucleate cells, which finally became apoptotic. These results suggest that Crp F46 is a novel centrosome-related protein that associates with the centrosome in a cell cycle-dependent manner and is involved in the progression of the cell cycle and M phase mechanism

  5. Acrolein stimulates the synthesis of IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in thrombosis model mice and cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Ryotaro; Hayashi, Daisuke; Ikuo, Yukiko; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Chiba, Kan; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro), IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma were useful for identifying silent brain infarction with high sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to determine whether acrolein causes increased production of IL-6 and CRP in thrombosis model mice and cultured cells. In mice with photochemically induced thrombosis, acrolein produced at the locus of infarction increased the level of IL-6 and then CRP in plasma. This was confirmed in cell culture systems - acrolein stimulated the production of IL-6 in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and IL-6 in turn stimulated the production of CRP in human hepatocarcinoma cells. The level of IL-6 mRNA was increased by acrolein through an increase in phosphorylation of the transcription factors, c-Jun, and NF-κB p65. Furthermore, CRP stimulated IL-6 production in mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and HUVEC. IL-6 functioned as a protective factor against acrolein toxicity in Neuro-2a cells and HUVEC. These results show that acrolein stimulates the synthesis of IL-6 and CRP, which function as protecting factors against acrolein toxicity, and that the combined measurement of PC-Acro, IL-6, and CRP is effective for identification of silent brain infarction. The combined measurements of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro), IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma were useful for identifying silent brain infarction. The aim of this study was to determine whether acrolein causes increased production of IL-6 and CRP, and indeed acrolein increased IL-6 synthesis and IL-6 in turn increased CRP synthesis. Furthermore, IL-6 decreased acrolein toxicity in several cell lines. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Cytoskeleton-interacting LIM-domain protein CRP1 suppresses cell proliferation and protects from stress-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latonen, Leena; Jaervinen, Paeivi M.; Laiho, Marikki

    2008-01-01

    Members of the cysteine-rich protein (CRP) family are actin cytoskeleton-interacting LIM-domain proteins known to act in muscle cell differentiation. We have earlier found that CRP1, a founding member of this family, is transcriptionally induced by UV radiation in human diploid fibroblasts [M. Gentile, L. Latonen, M. Laiho, Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis provoked by UV radiation-induced DNA damage are transcriptionally highly divergent responses, Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (2003) 4779-4790]. Here we show that CRP1 is induced by growth-inhibitory signals, such as increased cellular density, and cytotoxic stress induced by UV radiation or staurosporine. We found that high levels of CRP1 correlate with differentiation-associated morphology towards the myofibroblast lineage and that expression of ectopic CRP1 suppresses cell proliferation. Following UV- and staurosporine-induced stresses, expression of CRP1 provides a survival advantage evidenced by decreased cellular death and increased cellular metabolic activity and attachment. Our studies identify that CRP1 is a novel stress response factor, and provide evidence for its growth-inhibitory and cytoprotective functions

  7. Characterization of a crp* mutant of the E. coli cAMP receptor protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y.L.; Garges, S.; Adhya, S.; Krakow, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    One of the crp* mutants previously isolated to activate lac promoter in vivo has been characterized with regard to its biochemical properties. CRP*592 shows a more open conformation than CRP as indicated by its sensitivity to proteolytic attack. Dithionitrobenzoic acid mediated intersubunit crosslinking of CRP requires cAMP; this reaction occurs with unliganded CRP*592. Binding of CRP to its site on the lac promoter and activation of abortive initiation is effected by cAMP but not by cGMP. CRP*592 can activate abortive initiation in the presence of cAMP or cGMP and also at a high CRP*592 concentration in the absence of cyclic nucleotide. DNase I footprinting shows that cAMP-CRP* binds to its site on lac P + while unliganded CRP* and cGMP-CRP* form a stable complex with the [ 32 P]lac P + only in the presence of RNA polymerase. While cGMP binds to CRP it cannot replace cAMP in effecting the conformation necessary for site specific promoter binding; the weakly active unliganded CRP*592 can be shifted to a functional conformation by cAMP, cGMP and RNA polymerase

  8. Elevated serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in fibromyalgia syndrome patients correlate with body mass index, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yangming; Haynes, Wanda L; Michalek, Joel E; Russell, I Jon

    2013-05-01

    The levels of several inflammatory cytokines are abnormal in many patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and may play a role in its pathogenesis. The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with the disease activity in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, but its role in FMS is unknown. We undertook this study to determine whether high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) is elevated in FMS and whether its levels relate to key biologic or clinical measures. One hundred and five patients with FMS (1990 ACR criteria) and 61 healthy normal controls (HNC) at a ratio of 2:1 were recruited. The serum concentrations of hsCRP, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The hsCRP levels were marginally higher in FMS than in HNC (p = 0.06) and its abnormality rate (>1.5 SD above the HNC mean) was significantly higher in FMS (25 %) compared with HNC (6.8 %) (p = 0.03). Serum IL-8 levels, IL-6 levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in FMS did not differ from those in HNC. Body mass index (BMI), ESR, IL-8, and IL-6 levels correlated with hsCRP levels in FMS. No associations were found between hsCRP and age, gender, ethnicity, or other clinical measures. Serum CRP levels were higher in FMS and significantly correlated with BMI, ESR, IL-8, and IL-6 levels, suggesting that inflammation may contribute to the symptoms in some FMS patients, particularly those who are obese. Weight loss and therapies directed against inflammation may be useful in the management of FMS patients with elevated hsCRP.

  9. Isolation of low-molecular-weight lead-binding protein from human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, S.R.V.; Gonick, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    In blood, lead is mainly associated with erythrocytes and only a very small amount is found in plasma. Previously it was thought that the lead was bound to the erythrocyte cell membrane but more recently it has been observed that lead is bound primarily to the cell contents, ostensibly hemoglobin. In examining the lead-binding properties of normal human erythrocytes and those of lead-exposed industrial workers, we have found that, whereas lead binds only to hemoglobin in normal erythrocytes, there is also appreciable binding of lead to a low-molecular weight-protein in erythrocytes from lead-exposed workers. The synthesis of this protein may be induced by lead exposure. The 10,000 molecular weight protein may act as a storage site and mechanism for segregating lead in a non-toxic form

  10. [Comparative investigation of the non-histone proteins of chromatin from pigeon erythroblasts and erythrocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, A B; Gazarian, G G

    1976-01-01

    Chromosomal non-histone proteins are obtained from nuclei of two types of pigeon erythroid cells: erythroblasts (cells active in RNA synthesis) and erythrocytes (cells with repressed RNA synthesis). They are well soluble in solutions of low ionic strength. Electrophoretic separation of the obtained non-histone proteins in polyacrylamide gels with urea and SDS shows the presence of qualitative differences in the pattern of non-histone proteins of chromatine from erythroblasts and erythrocytes. By electrophoresis in urea some protein bands of non-histone proteins of chromatine from erythroblasts were found which disappear with the aging of cells. At the same time two protein fractions were observed in chromatine from erythrocytes which were absent in that of erythroblasts. Disappearance of some high molecular weight protein fractions from erythrocyte chromatine as compared to erythroblasts was observed by separation of the non-histone proteins in the presence of SDS. These fractions of the non-histone proteins disappearing during aging of cells are well extractable from erythroblast chromatine by 0.35 M NaCl solution. In the in vitro system with E. coli RNA polymerase addition of non-histone proteins of chromatine from erythroblasts to chromatine from erythrocytes increases RNA synthesis 2--3 times. At the same time addition of non-histone proteins from erythrocytes is either without any influence on this process or somewhat inhibiting.

  11. Validity and Agreement between the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score Based on C-Reactive Protein and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielung, Louise; Christensen, Robin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To validate the agreement between the 28-joint disease activity score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) and the 28-joint disease activity score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) in a group of Danish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Data from 109...... Danish RA patients initiating biologic treatment were analysed at baseline and following one year of treatment. Participants were retrospectively enrolled from a previous cohort study and were considered eligible for this project if CRP and ESR were measured at baseline and at the follow-up visit...... are interchangeable when assessing RA patients and the two versions of DAS28 are comparable between studies....

  12. Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katherine E; Hjerrild, Kathryn A; Bartlett, Jonathan; Douglas, Alexander D; Jin, Jing; Brown, Rebecca E; Illingworth, Joseph J; Ashfield, Rebecca; Clemmensen, Stine B; de Jongh, Willem A; Draper, Simon J; Higgins, Matthew K

    2014-11-20

    Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. The stages of erythrocyte invasion, including initial contact, apical reorientation, junction formation, and active invagination, are directed by coordinated release of specialized apical organelles and their parasite protein contents. Among these proteins, and central to invasion by all species, are two parasite protein families, the reticulocyte-binding protein homologue (RH) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins, which mediate host-parasite interactions. RH5 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfRH5) is the only member of either family demonstrated to be necessary for erythrocyte invasion in all tested strains, through its interaction with the erythrocyte surface protein basigin (also known as CD147 and EMMPRIN). Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. This provides the first structural insight into erythrocyte binding by the Plasmodium RH protein family and identifies novel inhibitory epitopes to guide design of a new generation of vaccines against the blood-stage parasite.

  13. CRP and SAA1 Haplotypes Are Associated with Both C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A Levels: Role of Suppression Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Ko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the statistical association of the CRP and SAA1 locus variants with their corresponding circulating levels and metabolic and inflammatory biomarker levels by using mediation analysis, a sample population of 599 Taiwanese subjects was enrolled and five CRP and four SAA1 variants were genotyped. Correlation analysis revealed that C-reactive protein (CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA levels were significantly associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes and inflammatory marker levels. Our data further revealed a significant association of CRP and SAA1 variants with both CRP and SAA levels. Mediation analysis revealed that SAA levels suppressed the association between SAA1 genotypes/haplotypes and CRP levels and that CRP levels suppressed the association between CRP haplotypes and SAA levels. In conclusion, genetic variants at the CRP and SAA1 loci independently affect both CRP and SAA levels, and their respective circulating levels act as suppressors. These results provided further evidence of the role of the suppression effect in biological science and may partially explain the missing heritability in genetic association studies.

  14. Synthesis of erythrocyte membrane proteins in dispersed cells from fetal rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yasuo; Murakami, Akihiko; Sugimoto, Etsuro

    1984-01-01

    Protein synthesis in dispersed cells from fetal liver was studied by fluorography of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a [ 35 S] methionine labeled cell lysate. Synthesis of several proteins with molecular weights ranging from 45,000 to 220,000 was observed during erythropoiesis in fetal liver. Some of these proteins were demonstrated to be erythrocyte membrane proteins because they were immunoprecipitated with antiserum against rat red blood cells and the immunoprecipitation was competitive with non-radioactive proteins solubilized from erythrocyte ghosts. The same antiserum caused agglutination of dispered cells from fetal liver. This supported the possibility that these proteins are translocated onto plasma membranes of the dispersed cells. (author)

  15. Change in levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum cortisol in morbidly obese patients after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Oller, Inmaculada; Galindo, Isabel; Llavero, Carolina; Arroyo, Antonio; Calero, Alicia; Diez, María; Zubiaga, Lorea; Calpena, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) has been associated with the macro- and microvascular effects of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Referring to serum cortisol, it has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, and it has been demonstrated that weight loss normalizes cortisol levels and improves insulin resistance. The aims of this study were to analyze CRP and cortisol levels pre- and postoperatively in morbidly obese patients undergoing a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and to correlate them with weight loss and parameters associated with cardiovascular risk. A prospective study of all the morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as bariatric procedure between October 2007 and May 2011 was performed. A total of 40 patients were included in the study. CRP levels decreased significantly 12 months after surgery (median reduction of 8.9 mg/l; p = 0.001). Serum cortisol levels decreased significantly 6 months after surgery (median reduction of 34.9 μg/dl; p = 0.001). CRP values reached the normal range (cortisol, a significant association was observed with the cardiovascular risk predictor (triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio) from the 6th month after surgery onward (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.559; p = 0.008). CRP levels are increased preoperatively and in the postoperative course up to 1 year after surgery. Serum cortisol levels remain elevated until the 6th month after surgery. From this moment onward, serum cortisol is associated with the cardiovascular risk predictor reflecting the cardiovascular risk decreasement during the weight loss.

  16. Effect of complete protein 4.1R deficiency on ion transport properties of murine erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Alicia; De Franceschi, Lucia; Peters, Luanne L.; Gascard, Philippe; Mohandas, Narla; Brugnara, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Moderate hemolytic anemia, abnormal erythrocyte morphology (spherocytosis), and decreased membrane stability are observed in mice with complete deficiency of all erythroid protein 4.1 protein isoforms (4.1-/-; Shi TS et al., J. Clin. Invest. 103:331,1999). We have examined the effects of erythroid protein 4.1 (4.1R) deficiency on erythrocyte cation transport and volume regulation. 4.1-/- mice exhibited erythrocyte dehydration that was associated with reduced cellular K and increased Na content. Increased Na permeability was observed in these mice, mostly mediated by Na/H exchange with normal Na-K pump and Na-K-2Cl cotransport activities. The Na/H exchange of 4.1-/- erythrocytes was markedly activated by exposure to hypertonic conditions (18.2+- 3.2 in 4.1 -/- vs.9.8 +- 1.3 mmol/1013 cell x h in control mice), with an abnormal dependence on osmolarity, (K0.5=417 +- 42 in 4.1 -/- vs. 460 +- 35 mOsmin control mice) suggestive of an up-regulated functional state. While the affinity for internal protons was not altered (K0.5= 489.7 +- 0.7 vs.537.0 +- 0.56 nM in control mice), the Vmax of the H-induced Na/H exchange activity was markedly elevated in 4.1-/- erythrocytes Vmax 91.47 Moderate hemolytic anemia, abnormal erythrocyte morphology (spherocytosis), and decreased membrane stability are observed in mice with complete deficiency of all erythroid protein 4.1 protein isoforms (4.1-/-; Shi TSet al., J. Clin. Invest. 103:331,1999). We have examined the effects of erythroid protein 4.1 (4.1R) deficiency on erythrocyte cation transport and volume regulation. 4.1-/- mice exhibited erythrocyte dehydration that was associated with reduced cellular K and increased Na content. Increased Na permeability was observed in these mice, mostly mediated by Na/H exchange with normal Na-K pump and Na-K-2Cl cotransport activities. The Na/H exchange of 4.1-/- erythrocytes was markedly activated by exposure to hypertonic conditions (18.2 +- 3.2 in 4.1 -/- vs. 9.8 +- 1.3mmol/1013 cell x h in

  17. The association of C-reactive protein and CRP genotype with coronary heart disease: findings from five studies with 4,610 cases amongst 18,637 participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie A Lawlor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether C-reactive protein (CRP is causally related to coronary heart disease (CHD. Genetic variants that are known to be associated with CRP levels can be used to provide causal inference of the effect of CRP on CHD. Our objective was to examine the association between CRP genetic variant +1444C>T (rs1130864 and CHD risk in the largest study to date of this association. METHODS AND RESULTS: We estimated the association of CRP genetic variant +1444C>T (rs1130864 with CRP levels and with CHD in five studies and then pooled these analyses (N = 18,637 participants amongst whom there were 4,610 cases. CRP was associated with potential confounding factors (socioeconomic position, physical activity, smoking and body mass whereas genotype (rs1130864 was not associated with these confounders. The pooled odds ratio of CHD per doubling of circulating CRP level after adjustment for age and sex was 1.13 (95%CI: 1.06, 1.21, and after further adjustment for confounding factors it was 1.07 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.13. Genotype (rs1130864 was associated with circulating CRP; the pooled ratio of geometric means of CRP level among individuals with the TT genotype compared to those with the CT/CC genotype was 1.21 (95%CI: 1.15, 1.28 and the pooled ratio of geometric means of CRP level per additional T allele was 1.14 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.18, with no strong evidence in either analyses of between study heterogeneity (I(2 = 0%, p>0.9 for both analyses. There was no association of genotype (rs1130864 with CHD: pooled odds ratio 1.01 (95%CI: 0.88, 1.16 comparing individuals with TT genotype to those with CT/CC genotype and 0.96 (95%CI: 0.90, 1.03 per additional T allele (I(20.6 for both meta-analyses. An instrumental variables analysis (in which the proportion of CRP levels explained by rs1130864 was related to CHD suggested that circulating CRP was not associated with CHD: the odds ratio for a doubling of CRP level was 1.04 (95%CI: 0.61, 1.80. CONCLUSIONS

  18. Enhancing E. coli tolerance towards oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Basak

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage to microbial hosts often occurs under stressful conditions during bioprocessing. Classical strain engineering approaches are usually both time-consuming and labor intensive. Here, we aim to improve E. coli performance under oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP, which can directly or indirectly regulate redox-sensing regulators SoxR and OxyR, and other ~400 genes in E. coli. Error-prone PCR technique was employed to introduce modifications to CRP, and three mutants (OM1~OM3 were identified with improved tolerance via H(2O(2 enrichment selection. The best mutant OM3 could grow in 12 mM H(2O(2 with the growth rate of 0.6 h(-1, whereas the growth of wild type was completely inhibited at this H(2O(2 concentration. OM3 also elicited enhanced thermotolerance at 48°C as well as resistance against cumene hydroperoxide. The investigation about intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, which determines cell viability, indicated that the accumulation of ROS in OM3 was always lower than in WT with or without H(2O(2 treatment. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis has shown not only CRP-regulated genes have demonstrated great transcriptional level changes (up to 8.9-fold, but also RpoS- and OxyR-regulated genes (up to 7.7-fold. qRT-PCR data and enzyme activity assay suggested that catalase (katE could be a major antioxidant enzyme in OM3 instead of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase or superoxide dismutase. To our knowledge, this is the first work on improving E. coli oxidative stress resistance by reframing its transcription machinery through its native global regulator. The positive outcome of this approach may suggest that engineering CRP can be successfully implemented as an efficient strain engineering alternative for E. coli.

  19. Association of the C-Reactive Protein Gene (CRP rs1205 C>T Polymorphism with Aortic Valve Calcification in Patients with Aortic Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wypasek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP levels have been shown in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS. Minor allele of the CRP gene (CRP rs1205 C>T polymorphism has been associated with lower plasma CRP concentrations in cohorts of healthy and atherosclerotic patients. Considering the existing similarities between atherosclerosis and AS, we examined the effect of CRP rs1205 C>T polymorphism on the AS severity. Three hundred consecutive Caucasian patients diagnosed with AS were genotyped for the rs1205 C>T polymorphism using the TaqMan assay. Severity of the AS was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography. The degree of calcification was analyzed semi-quantitatively. Carriers of the rs1205 T allele were characterized by elevated serum CRP levels (2.53 (1.51–3.96 vs. 1.68 (0.98–2.90 mg/L, p < 0.001 and a higher proportion of the severe aortic valve calcification (70.4% vs. 55.1%, p = 0.01 compared with major homozygotes. The effect of CRP rs1205 polymorphism on CRP levels is opposite in AS-affected than in unaffected subjects, suggesting existence of a disease-specific molecular regulatory mechanism. Furthermore, rs1205 variant allele predisposes to larger aortic valve calcification, potentially being a novel genetic risk marker of disease progression.

  20. Comparison between clinical significance of serum proinflammatory proteins (IL-6 and CRP) and classic tumor markers (CEA and CA 19-9) in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewicz-Zając, Marta; Mroczko, Barbara; Gryko, Mariusz; Kędra, Bogusław; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2011-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a second most common cause of cancer-related death and represents an inflammation-driven malignancy. It has been suggested that interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) play a potential role in the growth and progression of GC. The aim of the present study was to compare clinical significance of IL-6 and CRP with classic tumor markers-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) in GC patients. The study included 92 patients with GC and 70 healthy subjects. The serum concentrations of IL-6, CEA and CA 19-9 were determined using immunoenzyme assays, whereas CRP using immunoturbidimetric method. We defined the diagnostic criteria and prognostic value for proteins tested. In GC patients, the serum concentrations of all the proteins tested were significantly higher than in healthy subjects. The IL-6, CEA and CA 19-9 levels correlated with nodal metastases, while CRP with tumor stage, gastric wall invasion, presence of nodal and distant metastases. Diagnostic sensitivity of IL-6 was higher (85%) than those of other markers (CRP 66%, CA 19-9 34%, CEA 22%) and increased in combined use with CRP or CEA (88%). The area under ROC curve for IL-6 was larger than those of CRP and classic tumor markers (CEA and CA 19-9). None of the proteins tested was independent prognostic factor for the survival of GC patients. Our findings indicate better usefulness of serum proinflammatory proteins-IL-6 and CRP than classic tumor markers-CEA and CA 19-9 in the diagnosis of GC.

  1. CRP genotype and haplotype associations with serum C-reactive protein level and DAS28 in untreated early rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Christian Gytz; Steffensen, Rudi; Bøgsted, Martin

    2014-01-01

    investigated: rs11265257, rs1130864, rs1205, rs1800947, rs2808632, rs3093077 and rs876538. The genotype and haplotype associations with CRP and DAS28 levels were evaluated using linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and treatment. RESULTS: The minor allele of rs1205 C > T was associated......INTRODUCTION: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene are implicated in the regulation of the constitutional C-reactive protein (CRP) expression and its response to proinflammatory stimuli. Previous reports suggest that these effects may have an impact on clinical decision...

  2. A comparison of osteoprotegerin with adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a marker for insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with low adiponectin and elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been shown to be elevated in type 2 diabetes, but whether it reflects underlying IR is unclear. We aimed to compare the ability of serum OPG with adiponectin and hsCRP to act as a marker for IR in individuals with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance.

  3. Influence of hemodilution of plasma proteins on erythrocyte aggregability : An in vivo study in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Graaff, R; de Hoog, E; Veeger, NJGM; Panday, G; Boonstra, PW; van Oeveren, W

    2005-01-01

    Erythrocyte aggregation is known to be affected by a number of factors including the concentration of various plasma proteins. This study was performed to examine the in vivo effect of hemodilution of plasma proteins on erythrocyte aggregation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)

  4. Fatty-acid binding protein 4 gene variants and childhood obesity: potential implications for insulin sensitivity and CRP levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Rakesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Obesity increases the risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in both adults and children. FABP4 is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family that is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and plays an important role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to measure FABP4 plasma levels, assess FABP4 allelic variants, and explore potential associations with fasting glucose and insulin levels in young school-age children with and without obesity. Methods A total of 309 consecutive children ages 5-7 years were recruited. Children were divided based on BMI z score into Obese (OB; BMI z score >1.65 and non-obese (NOB. Fasting plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, hsCRP, and FABP4 levels were measured. HOMA was used as correlate of insulin sensitivity. Four SNPs of the human FABP4 gene (rs1051231, rs2303519, rs16909233 and rs1054135, corresponding to several critical regions of the encoding FABP4 gene sequence were genotyped. Results Compared to NOB, circulating FABP4 levels were increased in OB, as were LDL, hsCRP and HOMA. FABP4 levels correlated with BMI, and also contributed to the variance of HOMA and hsCRP, but not serum lipids. The frequency of rs1054135 allelic variant was increased in OB, and was associated with increased FABP4 levels, while the presence of rs16909233 variant allele, although similar in OB and NOB, was associated with increased HOMA values. Conclusions Childhood obesity is associated with higher FABP4 levels that may promote cardiometabolic risk. The presence of selective SNPs in the FABP4 gene may account for increased risk for insulin resistance or systemic inflammation in the context of obesity.

  5. Targeted disruption of a ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA)-like export protein gene in Plasmodium falciparum confers stable chondroitin 4-sulfate cytoadherence capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goel, Suchi; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Miao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family proteins mediate the adherence of infected erythrocytes to microvascular endothelia of various organs, including the placenta, thereby contributing to cerebral, placental, and other severe malaria pathogenesis. Several paras...

  6. Hierarchical, domain type-specific acquisition of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in Tanzanian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cham, Gerald K K; Turner, Louise; Kurtis, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a variant antigen expressed on the surface of malaria-infected erythrocytes. PfEMP1 attaches to the vascular lining and allows infected erythrocytes to avoid filtration through the spleen. Each parasite genome encodes about 60 diffe...... and play a major role in limiting parasite multiplication in the blood.......Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a variant antigen expressed on the surface of malaria-infected erythrocytes. PfEMP1 attaches to the vascular lining and allows infected erythrocytes to avoid filtration through the spleen. Each parasite genome encodes about 60...... different PfEMP1 variants, each PfEMP1 comprises several domains in its extracellular region, and the PfEMP1 repertoire in different parasites contains domain types that are serologically cross-reactive. In this longitudinal study, we followed 672 children living in an area of high malaria transmission...

  7. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) as a simple and independent prognostic factor in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Jun; Li, Zhi-Ming; Xia, Yi; Huang, Jia-Jia; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Lin, Tong-Yu; Li, Su; Cai, Xiu-Yu; Wu-Xiao, Zhi-Jun; Jiang, Wen-Qi

    2013-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker of the inflammatory response, and it shows significant prognostic value for several types of solid tumors. The prognostic significance of CRP for lymphoma has not been fully examined. We evaluated the prognostic role of baseline serum CRP levels in patients with extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL). We retrospectively analyzed 185 patients with newly diagnosed ENKTL. The prognostic value of the serum CRP level was evaluated for the low-CRP group (CRP≤10 mg/L) versus the high-CRP group (CRP>10 mg/L). The prognostic value of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the Korean Prognostic Index (KPI) were evaluated and compared with the newly developed prognostic model. Patients in the high-CRP group tended to display increased adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (P60 years, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels were independent adverse predictors of OS. Based on these four independent predictors, we constructed a new prognostic model that identified 4 groups with varying OS: group 1, no adverse factors; group 2, 1 factor; group 3, 2 factors; and group 4, 3 or 4 factors (PKPI in distinguishing between the low- and intermediate-low-risk groups, the intermediate-low- and high-intermediate-risk groups, and the high-intermediate- and high-risk groups. Our results suggest that pretreatment serum CRP levels represent an independent predictor of clinical outcome for patients with ENKTL. The prognostic value of the new prognostic model is superior to both IPI and KPI.

  8. Interaction of Plasmodium falciparum knob-associated histidine-rich protein (KAHRP) with erythrocyte ankyrin R is required for its attachment to the erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Haibo; Guo, Xinhua; Papoin, Julien; Wang, Jie; Coppel, Ross; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exports a large number of proteins into the erythrocyte cytoplasm during the asexual intraerythrocytic stage of its life cycle. A subset of these proteins interacts with erythrocyte membrane skeletal proteins and grossly alters the structure and function of the membrane. Several of the exported proteins, such as PfEMP1, PfEMP3, RESA and KAHRP, interact with the preponderant erythrocyte skeleton protein, spectrin. Here we have searched for possible interaction of these four malaria proteins with another major erythrocyte skeleton protein, ankyrin R. We have shown that KAHRP, but none of the other three, binds to ankyrin R. We have mapped the binding site for ankyrin R to a 79-residue segment of the KAHRP sequence, and the reciprocal binding site for KAHRP in ankyrin R to a subdomain (D3) of the 89kDa ankyrin R membrane-binding domain. Interaction of intact ankyrin R with KAHRP was inhibited by the free D3 subdomain. When, moreover, red cells loaded with the soluble D3 subdomain were infected with P. falciparum, KAHRP secreted by the intraerythrocytic parasite no longer migrated to the host cell membrane, but remained diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. Our findings suggest a potentially important role for interaction of KAHRP with red cell membrane skeleton in promoting the adhesion of malaria-infected red cells to endothelial surfaces, a central element in the pathophysiology of malaria. © 2013.

  9. Band 3 protein function in teleost fish erythrocytes: effect of oxygenation-deoxygenation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Russo, A.; Tellone, E.; Ficarra, S.; Giardina, B.; Bellocco, E.; Lagana, G.; Leuzzi, U.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Galtieri, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2008), s. 49-54 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : erythrocytes * hemoglobin * band 3 protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  10. Transbilayer distribution and mobility of phosphatidylcholine in intact erythrocyte membranes. A study with phosphatidylcholine exchange protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.; Poorthuis, B. J.; Wirtz, K. W.; Op den Kamp, J. A.; van Deenen, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    1. The exchange of phosphatidylcholine between intact human or rat erythrocytes and rat liver microsomes was greatly stimulated by phosphatidylcholine-specific exchange proteins from rat liver and beef liver. It was found, however, that compared to the exchange reaction between phospholipid vesicles

  11. Transbilayer distribution and mobility of phosphatidylcholine in intact erythrocyte membranes. A study with phosphatidylcholine exchange protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; Poorthuis, B.J.H.M.; Wirtz, K.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068427956; op den Kamp, J.A.F.; van Deenen, L.L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The exchange of phosphatidylcholine between intact human or rat erythrocytes and rat liver microsomes was greatly stimulated by phosphatidylcholine-specific exchange proteins from rat liver and beef liver. It was found, however, that compared to the exchange reaction between phospholipid vesicles

  12. The 10 kDa domain of human erythrocyte protein 4.1 binds the Plasmodium falciparum EBA-181 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coetzer Theresa L

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum parasites represents a key mechanism during malaria pathogenesis. Erythrocyte binding antigen-181 (EBA-181 is an important invasion protein, which mediates a unique host cell entry pathway. A novel interaction between EBA-181 and human erythrocyte membrane protein 4.1 (4.1R was recently demonstrated using phage display technology. In the current study, recombinant proteins were utilized to define and characterize the precise molecular interaction between the two proteins. Methods 4.1R structural domains (30, 16, 10 and 22 kDa domain and the 4.1R binding region in EBA-181 were synthesized in specific Escherichia coli strains as recombinant proteins and purified using magnetic bead technology. Recombinant proteins were subsequently used in blot-overlay and histidine pull-down assays to determine the binding domain in 4.1R. Results Blot overlay and histidine pull-down experiments revealed specific interaction between the 10 kDa domain of 4.1R and EBA-181. Binding was concentration dependent as well as saturable and was abolished by heat denaturation of 4.1R. Conclusion The interaction of EBA-181 with the highly conserved 10 kDa domain of 4.1R provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms utilized by P. falciparum during erythrocyte entry. The results highlight the potential multifunctional role of malaria invasion proteins, which may contribute to the success of the pathogenic stage of the parasite's life cycle.

  13. An Improved 2-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Method for Resolving Human Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Rajendra; Meena, Anil; Patidar, Bhagwan S; Prasad, Rajendra; Chhabra, Sunil K; Bansal, Surendra K

    2017-01-01

    The 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) technique is widely used for the analysis of complex protein mixtures extracted from biological samples. It is one of the most commonly used analytical techniques in proteomics to study qualitative and quantitative protein changes between different states of a cell or an organism (eg, healthy and diseased), conditionally expressed proteins, posttranslational modifications, and so on. The 2-DE technique is used for its unparalleled ability to separate thousands of proteins simultaneously. The resolution of the proteins by 2-DE largely depends on the quality of sample prepared during protein extraction which increases results in terms of reproducibility and minimizes protein modifications that may result in artifactual spots on 2-DE gels. The buffer used for the extraction and solubilization of proteins influences the quality and reproducibility of the resolution of proteins on 2-DE gel. The purification by cleanup kit is another powerful process to prevent horizontal streaking which occurs during isoelectric focusing due to the presence of contaminants such as salts, lipids, nucleic acids, and detergents. Erythrocyte membrane proteins serve as prototypes for multifunctional proteins in various erythroid and nonerythroid cells. In this study, we therefore optimized the selected major conditions of 2-DE for resolving various proteins of human erythrocyte membrane. The modification included the optimization of conditions for sample preparation, cleanup of protein sample, isoelectric focusing, equilibration, and storage of immobilized pH gradient strips, which were further carefully examined to achieve optimum conditions for improving the quality of protein spots on 2-DE gels. The present improved 2-DE analysis method enabled better detection of protein spots with higher quality and reproducibility. Therefore, the conditions established in this study may be used for the 2-DE analysis of erythrocyte membrane proteins for

  14. The AMP-activated protein kinase beta 1 subunit modulates erythrocyte integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, Emma L; McIntyre, Zoe; Clare, Simon; Arends, Mark J; Goulding, David; Isherwood, Christopher; Caetano, Susana S; Reviriego, Carmen Ballesteros; Swiatkowska, Agnieszka; Kane, Leanne; Harcourt, Katherine; Adams, David J; White, Jacqueline K; Speak, Anneliese O

    2017-01-01

    Failure to maintain a normal in vivo erythrocyte half-life results in the development of hemolytic anemia. Half-life is affected by numerous factors, including energy balance, electrolyte gradients, reactive oxygen species, and membrane plasticity. The heterotrimeric AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that acts as a critical regulator of cellular energy balance. Previous roles for the alpha 1 and gamma 1 subunits in the control of erythrocyte survival have been reported. In the work described here, we studied the role of the beta 1 subunit in erythrocytes and observed microcytic anemia with compensatory extramedullary hematopoiesis together with splenomegaly and increased osmotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeted disruption of the mouse Csrp2 gene encoding the cysteine- and glycine-rich LIM domain protein CRP2 result in subtle alteration of cardiac ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoll Doris

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine and glycine rich protein 2 (CRP2 encoded by the Csrp2 gene is a LIM domain protein expressed in the vascular system, particularly in smooth muscle cells. It exhibits a bimodal subcellular distribution, accumulating at actin-based filaments in the cytosol and in the nucleus. In order to analyze the function of CRP2 in vivo, we disrupted the Csrp2 gene in mice and analysed the resulting phenotype. Results A ~17.3 kbp fragment of the murine Csrp2 gene containing exon 3 through 6 was isolated. Using this construct we confirmed the recently determined chromosomal localization (Chromosome 10, best fit location between markers D10Mit203 proximal and D10Mit150 central. A gene disruption cassette was cloned into exon 4 and a mouse strain lacking functional Csrp2 was generated. Mice lacking CRP2 are viable and fertile and have no obvious deficits in reproduction and survival. However, detailed histological and electron microscopic studies reveal that CRP2-deficient mice have subtle alterations in their cardiac ultrastructure. In these mice, the cardiomyocytes display a slight increase in their thickness, indicating moderate hypertrophy at the cellular level. Although the expression of several intercalated disc-associated proteins such as β-catenin, N-RAP and connexin-43 were not affected in these mice, the distribution of respective proteins was changed within heart tissue. Conclusion We conclude that the lack of CRP2 is associated with alterations in cardiomyocyte thickness and hypertrophy.

  16. Investigating possible biological targets of Bj-CRP, the first cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodovicho, Marina E; Costa, Tássia R; Bernardes, Carolina P; Menaldo, Danilo L; Zoccal, Karina F; Carone, Sante E; Rosa, José C; Pucca, Manuela B; Cerni, Felipe A; Arantes, Eliane C; Tytgat, Jan; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Pereira-Crott, Luciana S; Sampaio, Suely V

    2017-01-04

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are commonly described as part of the protein content of snake venoms, nevertheless, so far, little is known about their biological targets and functions. Our study describes the isolation and characterization of Bj-CRP, the first CRISP isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, also aiming at the identification of possible targets for its actions. Bj-CRP was purified using three chromatographic steps (Sephacryl S-200, Source 15Q and C18) and showed to be an acidic protein of 24.6kDa with high sequence identity to other snake venom CRISPs. This CRISP was devoid of proteolytic, hemorrhagic or coagulant activities, and it did not affect the currents from 13 voltage-gated potassium channel isoforms. Conversely, Bj-CRP induced inflammatory responses characterized by increase of leukocytes, mainly neutrophils, after 1 and 4h of its injection in the peritoneal cavity of mice, also stimulating the production of IL-6. Bj-CRP also acted on the human complement system, modulating some of the activation pathways and acting directly on important components (C3 and C4), thus inducing the generation of anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a and C5a). Therefore, our results for Bj-CRP open up prospects for better understanding this class of toxins and its biological actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. There Is No Further Gain from Calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints with High Sensitivity Assays of C-Reactive Protein Because of High Intraindividual Variability of CRP: A Cross Sectional Study and Theoretical Consideration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie; Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Antonsen, Steen

    Background/Purpose: The threshold for reporting of C-reactive protein (CRP) differs from laboratory to laboratory. Moreover, CRP values are affected by the intra individual biological variability.[1] With respect to disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), precise...... threshold for reporting CRP is important due to the direct effects of CRP on calculating DAS28, patient classification and subsequent treatment decisions[2] Methods: This study consists of two sections: a theoretical consideration discussing the performance of CRP in calculating DAS28 with regard...... to the biological variation and reporting limit for CRP and a cross sectional study of all RA patients from our department (n=876) applying our theoretical results. In the second section, we calculate DAS28 twice with actual CRP and CRP=9, the latter to elucidate the positive consequences of changing the lower...

  18. There Is No Further Gain from Calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints with High Sensitivity Assays of C-Reactive Protein Because of High Intraindividual Variability of CRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie; Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Antonsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose: The threshold for reporting of C-reactive protein (CRP) differs from laboratory to laboratory. Moreover, CRP values are affected by the intra individual biological variability.[1] With respect to disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), precise...... threshold for reporting CRP is important due to the direct effects of CRP on calculating DAS28, patient classification and subsequent treatment decisions[2] Methods: This study consists of two sections: a theoretical consideration discussing the performance of CRP in calculating DAS28 with regard...... to the biological variation and reporting limit for CRP and a cross sectional study of all RA patients from our department (n=876) applying our theoretical results. In the second section, we calculate DAS28 twice with actual CRP and CRP=9, the latter to elucidate the positive consequences of changing the lower...

  19. CRP-ductin, the mouse homologue of gp-340/deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1), binds gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and interacts with lung surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Tornøe, Ida; Nielsen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    CRP-ductin is a protein expressed mainly by mucosal epithelial cells in the mouse. Sequence homologies indicate that CRP-ductin is the mouse homologue of human gp-340, a glycoprotein that agglutinates microorganisms and binds the lung mucosal collectin surfactant protein-D (SP-D). Here we report...... that purified CRP-ductin binds human SP-D in a calcium-dependent manner and that the binding is not inhibited by maltose. The same properties have previously been observed for gp-340 binding of SP-D. CRP-ductin also showed calcium-dependent binding to both gram-positive and -negative bacteria. A polyclonal...... antibody raised against gp-340 reacted specifically with CRP-ductin in Western blots. Immunoreactivity to CRP-ductin was found in the exocrine pancreas, in epithelial cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the parotid ducts. A panel of RNA preparations from mouse tissues was screened for CRP...

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of lipid and protein membrane components of erythrocytes oxidized with hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendanha, S.A.; Anjos, J.L.V.; Silva, A.H.M.; Alonso, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2012-04-05

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of spin labels was used to monitor membrane dynamic changes in erythrocytes subjected to oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The lipid spin label, 5-doxyl stearic acid, responded to dramatic reductions in membrane fluidity, which was correlated with increases in the protein content of the membrane. Membrane rigidity, associated with the binding of hemoglobin (Hb) to the erythrocyte membrane, was also indicated by a spin-labeled maleimide, 5-MSL, covalently bound to the sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins. At 2% hematocrit, these alterations in membrane occurred at very low concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50 µM) after only 5 min of incubation at 37°C in azide phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Lipid peroxidation, suggested by oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde formation, started at 300 µM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (for incubation of 3 h), which is a concentration about six times higher than those detected with the probes. Ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol protected the membrane against lipoperoxidation, but did not prevent the binding of proteins to the erythrocyte membrane. Moreover, the antioxidant (+)-catechin, which also failed to prevent the cross-linking of cytoskeletal proteins with Hb, was very effective in protecting erythrocyte ghosts from lipid peroxidation induced by the Fenton reaction. This study also showed that EPR spectroscopy can be useful to assess the molecular dynamics of red blood cell membranes in both the lipid and protein domains and examine oxidation processes in a system that is so vulnerable to oxidation.

  1. Expression of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in experimentally infected humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavstsen, Thomas; Magistrado, Pamela; Hermsen, Cornelus C

    2005-01-01

    -encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, which is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes where it mediates binding to endothelial receptors. Thus, severe malaria may be caused by parasites expressing PfEMP1 variants that afford parasites optimal sequestration...... in immunologically naive individuals and high effective multiplication rates. METHODS: var gene transcription was analysed using real time PCR and PfEMP1 expression by western blots as well as immune plasma recognition of parasite cultures established from non-immune volunteers shortly after infection with NF54...... compared to parasites expressing other var genes. The differential expression of PfEMP1 was confirmed at the protein level by immunoblot analysis. In addition, serological typing showed that immune sera more often recognized second and third generation parasites than first generation parasites. CONCLUSION...

  2. Quantitative analysis of the erythrocyte membrane proteins in polycythemia vera patients treated with hydroxycarbamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Kottahachchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of polycythemia vera (PV patients have a mutation in the protein JAK2, which is closely associated with the erythrocyte membrane. With the comparison of 1-D gels of erythrocyte membranes obtained from PV patients treated with hydroxycarbamide and those of untreated controls we observed significant differences in the region of 40–55 kDa. On the basis of the LC–MS/MS analysis of this region we report up-regulation of four protein disulfide isomerases, which was subsequently confirmed by targeted mass spectrometric analysis. In further studies it will be prudent to compare this in patients both treated and not treated with hydroxycarbamide.

  3. Targeted disruption of py235ebp-1: Invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium yoelii using an alternative py235 erythrocyte binding protein

    KAUST Repository

    Ogun, Solabomi A.

    2011-02-17

    Plasmodium yoelii YM asexual blood stage parasites express multiple members of the py235 gene family, part of the super-family of genes including those coding for Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding proteins and Plasmodium falciparum RH proteins. We previously identified a Py235 erythrocyte binding protein (Py235EBP-1, encoded by the PY01365 gene) that is recognized by protective mAb 25.77. Proteins recognized by a second protective mAb 25.37 have been identified by mass spectrometry and are encoded by two genes, PY01185 and PY05995/PY03534. We deleted the PY01365 gene and examined the phenotype. The expression of the members of the py235 family in both the WT and gene deletion parasites was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and RNA-Seq. py235ebp-1 expression was undetectable in the knockout parasite, but transcription of other members of the family was essentially unaffected. The knockout parasites continued to react with mAb 25.77; and the 25.77-binding proteins in these parasites were the PY01185 and PY05995/PY03534 products. The PY01185 product was also identified as erythrocyte binding. There was no clear change in erythrocyte invasion profile suggesting that the PY01185 gene product (designated PY235EBP-2) is able to fulfill the role of EBP-1 by serving as an invasion ligand although the molecular details of its interaction with erythrocytes have not been examined. The PY01365, PY01185, and PY05995/PY03534 genes are part of a distinct subset of the py235 family. In P. falciparum, the RH protein genes are under epigenetic control and expression correlates with binding to distinct erythrocyte receptors and specific invasion pathways, whereas in P. yoelii YM all the genes are expressed and deletion of one does not result in upregulation of another. We propose that simultaneous expression of multiple Py235 ligands enables invasion of a wide range of host erythrocytes even in the presence of antibodies to one or more of the proteins and that this functional

  4. Targeted disruption of py235ebp-1: Invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium yoelii using an alternative py235 erythrocyte binding protein

    KAUST Repository

    Ogun, Solabomi A.; Tewari, Rita; Otto, Thomas D.; Howell, Steven A.; Knuepfer, Ellen; Cunningham, Deirdre A.; Xu, Zhengyao; Pain, Arnab; Holder, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium yoelii YM asexual blood stage parasites express multiple members of the py235 gene family, part of the super-family of genes including those coding for Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding proteins and Plasmodium falciparum RH proteins. We previously identified a Py235 erythrocyte binding protein (Py235EBP-1, encoded by the PY01365 gene) that is recognized by protective mAb 25.77. Proteins recognized by a second protective mAb 25.37 have been identified by mass spectrometry and are encoded by two genes, PY01185 and PY05995/PY03534. We deleted the PY01365 gene and examined the phenotype. The expression of the members of the py235 family in both the WT and gene deletion parasites was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and RNA-Seq. py235ebp-1 expression was undetectable in the knockout parasite, but transcription of other members of the family was essentially unaffected. The knockout parasites continued to react with mAb 25.77; and the 25.77-binding proteins in these parasites were the PY01185 and PY05995/PY03534 products. The PY01185 product was also identified as erythrocyte binding. There was no clear change in erythrocyte invasion profile suggesting that the PY01185 gene product (designated PY235EBP-2) is able to fulfill the role of EBP-1 by serving as an invasion ligand although the molecular details of its interaction with erythrocytes have not been examined. The PY01365, PY01185, and PY05995/PY03534 genes are part of a distinct subset of the py235 family. In P. falciparum, the RH protein genes are under epigenetic control and expression correlates with binding to distinct erythrocyte receptors and specific invasion pathways, whereas in P. yoelii YM all the genes are expressed and deletion of one does not result in upregulation of another. We propose that simultaneous expression of multiple Py235 ligands enables invasion of a wide range of host erythrocytes even in the presence of antibodies to one or more of the proteins and that this functional

  5. Targeted disruption of py235ebp-1: invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium yoelii using an alternative Py235 erythrocyte binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solabomi A Ogun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium yoelii YM asexual blood stage parasites express multiple members of the py235 gene family, part of the super-family of genes including those coding for Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding proteins and Plasmodium falciparum RH proteins. We previously identified a Py235 erythrocyte binding protein (Py235EBP-1, encoded by the PY01365 gene that is recognized by protective mAb 25.77. Proteins recognized by a second protective mAb 25.37 have been identified by mass spectrometry and are encoded by two genes, PY01185 and PY05995/PY03534. We deleted the PY01365 gene and examined the phenotype. The expression of the members of the py235 family in both the WT and gene deletion parasites was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and RNA-Seq. py235ebp-1 expression was undetectable in the knockout parasite, but transcription of other members of the family was essentially unaffected. The knockout parasites continued to react with mAb 25.77; and the 25.77-binding proteins in these parasites were the PY01185 and PY05995/PY03534 products. The PY01185 product was also identified as erythrocyte binding. There was no clear change in erythrocyte invasion profile suggesting that the PY01185 gene product (designated PY235EBP-2 is able to fulfill the role of EBP-1 by serving as an invasion ligand although the molecular details of its interaction with erythrocytes have not been examined. The PY01365, PY01185, and PY05995/PY03534 genes are part of a distinct subset of the py235 family. In P. falciparum, the RH protein genes are under epigenetic control and expression correlates with binding to distinct erythrocyte receptors and specific invasion pathways, whereas in P. yoelii YM all the genes are expressed and deletion of one does not result in upregulation of another. We propose that simultaneous expression of multiple Py235 ligands enables invasion of a wide range of host erythrocytes even in the presence of antibodies to one or more of the proteins and that this

  6. Time dependent transition of the levels of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro), IL-6 and CRP in plasma during stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Madoka; Kato, Naoki; Uemura, Takeshi; Mizoi, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Mizuho; Saiki, Ryotaro; Hatano, Keisuke; Sato, Kunitomo; Kakizaki, Shota; Nakamura, Aya; Ishii, Takuya; Terao, Tohru; Murayama, Yuichi; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2017-06-01

    Measurement of plasma levels of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) together with IL-6 and CRP can be used to identify silent brain infarction (SBI) with high sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to determine how these biomarkers vary during stroke. Levels of PC-Acro, IL-6 and CRP in plasma were measured on day 0, 2, 7 and 14 after the onset of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. After the onset of stroke, the level of PC-Acro in plasma was elevated corresponding to the size of stroke. It returned to near control levels by day 2, and remained similar through day 14. The degree of the decrease in PC-Acro on day 2 was greater when the size of brain infarction or hemorrhage was larger. An increase in IL-6 and CRP occurred after the increase in PC-Acro, and it was well correlated with the size of the injury following infarction or hemorrhage. The results suggest that acrolein becomes a trigger for the production of IL-6 and CRP, as previously observed in a mouse model of stroke and in cell culture systems. The increase in IL-6 and CRP was also correlated with poor outcome judging from mRS. The results indicate that the degree of the decrease in PC-Acro and the increase in IL-6 and CRP from day 0 to day 2 was correlated with the size of brain infarction, and the increase in IL-6 and CRP with poor outcome at discharge.

  7. Ectopic expression of the erythrocyte band 3 anion exchange protein, using a new avian retrovirus vector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerstenberg, S; Beug, H; Introna, M

    1990-01-01

    into protein. Using the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene cloned into the vector as a test construct, expression of enzyme activity could be detected in 90 to 95% of transfected target cells and in 80 to 85% of subsequently infected cells. In addition, a cDNA encoding the avian erythrocyte band 3 anion...... exchange protein has been expressed from the vector in both chicken embryo fibroblasts and QT6 cells and appears to function as an active, plasma membrane-based anion transporter. The ectopic expression of band 3 protein provides a visual marker for vector function in these cells....

  8. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) assay using metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi; Keegan, Gemma L.; Stranik, Ondrej; Brennan-Fournet, Margaret E.; McDonagh, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence has been extensively employed in the area of diagnostic immunoassays. A significant enhancement of fluorescence can be achieved when noble metal nanoparticles are placed in close proximity to fluorophores. This effect, referred to as metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), has the potential to produce immunoassays with a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection (LOD). In this study, we investigate the fluorescence enhancement effect of two different nanoparticle systems, large spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold edge-coated triangular silver nanoplates, and both systems were evaluated for MEF. The extinction properties and electric field enhancement of both systems were modeled, and the optimum system, spherical AgNPs, was used in a sandwich immunoassay for human C-reactive protein with a red fluorescent dye label. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence was observed, which corresponded to an LOD improvement of ∼19-fold compared to a control assay without AgNPs

  9. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) assay using metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi; Keegan, Gemma L., E-mail: gemmakeegan@gmail.com [Dublin City University, School of Physical Sciences, Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (Ireland); Stranik, Ondrej [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Department of NanoBiophotonics (Germany); Brennan-Fournet, Margaret E. [CMP-EMSE, MOC, Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines (France); McDonagh, Colette [Dublin City University, School of Physical Sciences, Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    Fluorescence has been extensively employed in the area of diagnostic immunoassays. A significant enhancement of fluorescence can be achieved when noble metal nanoparticles are placed in close proximity to fluorophores. This effect, referred to as metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), has the potential to produce immunoassays with a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection (LOD). In this study, we investigate the fluorescence enhancement effect of two different nanoparticle systems, large spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold edge-coated triangular silver nanoplates, and both systems were evaluated for MEF. The extinction properties and electric field enhancement of both systems were modeled, and the optimum system, spherical AgNPs, was used in a sandwich immunoassay for human C-reactive protein with a red fluorescent dye label. A significant enhancement in the fluorescence was observed, which corresponded to an LOD improvement of ∼19-fold compared to a control assay without AgNPs.

  10. Comparison between clinical significance of serum proinflammatory proteins (IL-6 and CRP) and classic tumor markers (CEA and CA 19-9) in gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Łukaszewicz-Zając, Marta; Mroczko, Barbara; Gryko, Mariusz; Kędra, Bogusław; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a second most common cause of cancer-related death and represents an inflammation-driven malignancy. It has been suggested that interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) play a potential role in the growth and progression of GC. The aim of the present study was to compare clinical significance of IL-6 and CRP with classic tumor markers—carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) in GC patients. The study included 92 patients with GC and 70 ...

  11. Use of a computerized C-reactive protein (CRP based sepsis evaluation in very low birth weight (VLBW infants: a five-year experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Coggins

    Full Text Available Serial C-reactive protein (CRP values may be useful for decision-making regarding duration of antibiotics in neonates. However, established standard of practice for its use in preterm very low birth weight (<1500 g, VLBW infants are lacking.Evaluate compliance with a CRP-guided computerized decision support (CDS algorithm and compare characteristics and outcomes of compliant versus non-compliant cases. Measure correlation between CRPs and white blood count (WBC indices.We examined 3 populations: 1 all preterm VLBW infants born at Vanderbilt 2006-2011 - we assessed provider compliance with CDS algorithm and measured relevant outcomes; 2 all patients with positive blood culture results admitted to the Vanderbilt NICU 2006-2012 - we tested the correlation between CRP and WBC results within 7 days of blood culture phlebotomy; 3 1,000 randomly selected patients out of the 7,062 patients admitted to the NICU 2006-2012 - we correlated time-associated CRP values and absolute neutrophil counts.Of 636 VLBW infants in cohort 1, 569 (89% received empiric antibiotics for suspected early-onset sepsis. In 409 infants (72% the CDS algorithm was followed; antibiotics were discontinued ≤48 hours in 311 (55% with normal serial CRPs and continued in 98 (17% with positive CRPs, resulting in significant reduction in antibiotic exposure (p<0.001 without increase in complications or subsequent infections. One hundred sixty (28% were considered non-compliant because antibiotics were continued beyond 48 hours despite negative serial CRPs and blood cultures. Serial CRPs remained negative in 38 (12% of 308 blood culture-positive infants from cohort 2, but only 4 patients had clinically probable sepsis with single organisms and no immunodeficiency besides extreme prematurity. Leukopenia of any cell type was not linked with CRPs in cohorts 2 and 3.CDS/CRP-guided antibiotic use is safe and effective in culture-negative VLBW infants. CRP results are not affected by low WBC

  12. Evidence that the low-affinity folate-binding protein in erythrocyte hemolysate is identical to hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1981-01-01

    Gel filtration studies on erythrocyte hemolysate demonstrated the presence of a folate binding protein, apparently of the low-affinity type, that co-elutes with hemoglobin. Further, the folate binder eluted with a low salt concentration after DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B anion-exchange chromatography of erythrocyte hemolysate at pH 6.3. The chromatographic behavior of hemoglobin labeled with [3H]folate was so similar to that of the present binder as to suggest that the folate binder in erythrocytes is in fact hemoglobin

  13. Study of High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (HS-CRP) After Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Patients Undergoing Isolated CABG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari Moghadam, Adel; Azizinejad, Saied

    2016-12-01

    Although cardiac rehabilitation is known as a tool to reduce the overall risk of cardiovascular complications, its specific role in the reduction of hs-CRP as a marker of inflammation and a proven marker of cardiovascular risk needs further investigation. The present study aims at elucidating the effects of a full course of conventional cardiac rehabilitation program for the period of eight weeks, on the levels of hs-CRP in patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. In this case study, 30 consecutive patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass surgery (isolated CABGS), and a full 8-week cardiac rehabilitation program in Tehran Heart Center, were investigated. A group of 30 similar patients, who enrolled in the same period of rehabilitation program but did not participate in practice, was considered as a control group. Serum levels of hs-CRP in both groups were measured retrospectively and in similar days before the start of rehabilitation program and at the end of it (or 8 weeks after initial registration for the control group). Levels of hs-CRP in the rehabilitation group and control group were 5.9 7.7 and 6.3 6.9 respectively before start of the program which was not statistically meaningful ( P -Value = 0.833). However, after the program, level of hs-CRP in the two tested groups changed to 2.3 5.1 and 5.7 6.1 respectively which showed a meaningful correlation ( P -Value = 0.023). These results also showed that decrease in hs-CRP level in the rehabilitated group but not in the control group was statistically meaningful (with P -Value of 0.037 and 0.0723 respectively). In patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery, participating in a full course of cardiac rehabilitation for 8 weeks has resulted in a significant reduction in hs-CRP levels as a marker of cardiovascular risk.

  14. Investigating the function of Fc -specific binding of IgM to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 mediating erythrocyte rosetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Liz; Huda, Pie; Jeppesen, Anine

    2015-01-01

    of opsonized infected erythrocytes (IEs) without compromising the placental IE adhesion mediated by this PfEMP1 type. IgM also binds via Fc to several other PfEMP1 proteins, where it has been proposed to facilitate rosetting (binding of uninfected erythrocytes to a central IE). To further dissect...

  15. Polymorphism in the Mr 32,000 Rh protein purified from Rh(D)-positive and -negative erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboori, A.M.; Smith, B.L.; Agre, P.

    1988-01-01

    A M r 32,000 integral membrane protein has previously been identified on erythrocytes bearing the Rh(D) antigen and is thought to contain the antigenic variations responsible for the different Rh phenotypes. To study it on a biochemical level, a simple large-scale method was developed to purify the M r 32,000 Rh protein from multiple units of Rh(D)-positive and -negative blood. Erythrocyte membrane vesicles were solubilized in NaDodSO 4 , and a tracer of immunoprecipitated 125 I surface-labeled Rh protein was added. The Rh protein was purified to homogeneity by hydroxylapatite chromatography followed by preparative NaDodSO 4 /PAGE. Approximately 25 nmol of pure Rh protein was recovered from each unit of Rh(D)-positive and -negative blood. Rh protein purified from both Rh phenotypes appeared similar by one-dimensional NaDodSO 4 /PAGE, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences for the first 20 residues were identical. Rh proteins purified from Rh(D)-positive and -negative blood were compared by two-dimensional iodopeptide mapping after 125 I-labeling and α-chymotrypsin digestion. The peptide maps were very similar. These data indicate that a similar core Rh protein exists in both Rh(D)-positive and -negative erythrocytes, and the Rh proteins from erythrocytes with different Rh phenotypes contain distinct structural polymorphisms

  16. High-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) value with 90 days mortality in patients with heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyamsiah; Hasan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Hospitalization in patients with chronic heart failure is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity that during treatment and post-treatment. Despite the various therapies available today, mortality and re-hospitalization rates within 60 to 90 days post-hospitalization are still quite high. This period is known as the vulnerable phase. With the prognostic evaluation tools in patients with heart failure are expected to help identify high-risk individuals, then more rigorous monitoring and interventions can be undertaken. To determine whether hs-CRP have an impact on mortality within 90 days in hospitalized patients with heart failure, an observational cohort study was conducted in 39 patients with heart failure who were hospitalized due to worsening chronic heart failure. Patients were followed for up to 90 days after initial evaluation with the primary endpoint is death. Hs-CRP value >4.25 mg/L we found 70% was dead and hs-CRP value <4.25 mg/L only 6.9% was dead whereas the survival within 90 days. p:0.000.In conclusion, there were differences in hs-CRP values between in patients with heart failure who died and survival within 90 days.

  17. The relation of c-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and body mass index with diabetic retinopathy in patients enrolled from a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, A.; Waheed, P.; Rashid, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the relation of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Body Mass Index (BMI) with diabetic retinopathy in patients enrolled from a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine (CREAM-1) at Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO), Rawalpindi over a period of 6 months from Jan 2016 to Jun 2016. Material and Methods: There were 90 patients of diabetic retinopathy enrolled from AFIO. Their ages were in range 40-70 years. Their levels of ESR, CRP and BMI were assessed. These were then compared with 90 normal healthy controls from general population. Independent student's t-test was applied for scale variables and Chi square test was applied for nominal variables. Results: Patients and controls were age and gender matched. Their mean ages were 60 +- 8.9 years in patients and 59 +- 13.02 years in controls. In 90 patients enrolled 51 (56.7%) were males and 39 (43.3) were females. And in 90 controls considered 49 (54.4%) were males and 41 (45.6%) were females. Both scale variables gave following results ESR= 27.9 +- 6.96 in patients and 16.02 +- 7.6 in controls with a p-value of <0.001 and BMI = 28.9 +- 2.94 in patients and 26.02 +- 4.16 in controls with a p-value of <0.001. CRP being a nominal variable gave p-value <0.001. Diabetic retinopathy gave a significant positive association with all the three variables under study. Conclusion: There is a direct relationship of ESR and CRP with retinopathy signifying that inflammatory processes may be one of the underlying biochemical mechanisms in development of retinopathy. Moreover a direct relationship also exists between BMI and retinopathy indicating the contribution of weight gain in development of retinopathy. (author)

  18. New human erythrocyte protein with binding sites for both spectrin and calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, K.; Bennett, V.

    1986-01-01

    A new cytoskeletal protein that binds calmodulin has been purified to greater than 95% homogeneity from human erythrocyte cytoskeletons. The protein is a heterodimer with subunits of 103,000 and 97,000 and M/sub r/ = 197,000 calculated from its Stokes radius of 6.9 nm and sedimentation coefficient of 6.8. A binding affinity of this protein for calmodulin has been estimated to be 230 nM by displacement of two different concentrations of 125 I-azidocalmodulin with increasing concentrations of unmodified calmodulin followed by Dixon plot analysis. This protein is present in red cells at approximately 30,000 copies per cell and contains a very tight binding site(s) on cytoskeletons. The protein can be only partially solubilized from isolated cytoskeletons in buffers containing high salt, but can be totally solubilized from red cell ghost membranes by extraction in low ionic strength buffers. Affinity purified IgG against this calmodulin-binding protein identifies crossreacting polypeptide(s) in brain, kidney, testes and retina. Visualization of the calmodulin-binding protein by negative staining, rotary shadowing and unidirectional shadowing indicate that it is a flattened circular molecule with molecular height of 5.4 nm and a diameter of 12.4 nm. Preliminary cosedimentation studies with purified spectrin and F-actin indicate that the site of interaction of this calmodulin-binding protein with the cytoskeleton resides on spectrin

  19. Increased levels of the calcification marker matrix Gla Protein and the inflammatory markers YKL-40 and CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Stine B; Rathcke, Camilla N; Zerahn, Bo

    2010-01-01

    . In the present study levels of markers of calcification (MGP) and inflammation (YKL-40, hsCRP) were evaluated in patients with T2 D and/or ischemic heart disease (IHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 1) patients with T2D (n = 45); 2) patients with IHD (n = 37); patients with both T2D......OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Low grade inflammation is of pathogenic importance in atherosclerosis and in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Matrix GLA protein (MGP), an inhibitor of medial calcification of arteries, is increased in patients with atherosclerosis...... and IHD (n = 20) and 4) healthy controls (n = 20). Biochemical parameters were measured in venous blood samples. RESULTS: Levels of MGP, YKL-40 and hsCRP were increased in patients with IHD and/or T2D (p T2D and IHD had higher MGP levels (p

  20. Effects of cobalt-60 ionizing radiation on human erythrocyte and its membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amancio, Francisco Fernandes

    1998-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has several uses, as sterilization and radiotherapy, by its effects on living beings. recently, it has been used, at relatively lower doses (25 Gy), on blood for transfusions, mainly to eliminate undesirable graft host reactions, for use in multi transfused or immunocompromised patients. Here, we study the effect of larger doses of cobalt-60 ionizing radiation (25-1600 Gy) on human erythrocytes, by cytometric, physiologic, biochemical and immunological methods, looking for its effects and its detection. The red cells presented a clear dose-dependent increase in this volume, when irradiated in doses higher than 200 Gy, more significant in stored blood, but without hemolysis. Osmotic fragility was increased only after irradiation of more than 400 Gy. By ektacytometry, there was a lower deformability of irradiated red cells, at low stress (0.3 Pa), similar to capillary flow, but without alteration in higher stress (3 Pa), found in cardiac chambers. By SDS-PAGE, it was demonstrated that irradiated isolated erythrocyte membranes had aggregation of spectrin molecules, and decay of bands with lower molecular mass. This effect could be attributed to the radiation-induced hydroxyl radical, by specific scavenger studies. Those modifications were both antigenic and immunogenic in experimental animals, and the induced antibodies recognizes, by ELISA and immunoblot, both native or irradiated membrane proteins. They recognize rather irradiated whole erythrocyte than native ones, by hemagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence or flow cytometry assays. Our data suggests that human red cells could be irradiated at higher doses than those usually employed, with possible effect on other contaminant pathogens, without loss of viability of its use in transfusions. After improvements, irradiation induced epitopes detection could be a new tool in biological dosimetry. (author)

  1. Investigating the Effect of Inflammation on Atrial Fibrillation Occurrence by Measuring Highly Sensitive C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hassanzadeh Delui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmias that cardiologists and internists encounter. The goal of this article is to clarify an overview of the evidence linking inflammation to AF existence, which may highlight the effect of some pharmacological agents that have genuine potential to reduce the clinical burden of AF by modulating inflammatory pathways. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, 50 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF with different etiologies and 50 patients with sinus rhythm and similar bases were selected. Sampling for highly sensitive c-reactive (hs-CRP was done on the patients presenting with AF to the Ghaem hospital between October 2006 and June 2007. Results: Mean age of the patients was 62 years with maximum of 90 and minimum of 36 and standard deviation of 13.80. The most frequent age group was 71-80years. Fifty-four percent of patients were male and 46% were female. Mean serum hs-CRP levels in AF patients with hypertension (HTN ,Ischemic heart disease(IHD, Valvular heart disease (VHD, HTN+IHD and hyperthyroidism were 8.10, 9.40, 8.68, 10.16 and 5.98 mg/Lit; respectively. There was significant difference between hs-CRP levels in hypertensive patients in the two groups (P=0.010. Similar results were observed in IHD patients, VHD patients and HTN+IHD patients in two groups (P=0.015, P=0.037, P=0.000. Conclusion: In addition to some risk factors like baseline cardiac diseases, aging, thyrotoxicosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and cardiac surgery, there also appears to be consistent links between hs-CRP, a marker of inflammation, and the pathogenesis of AF. Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmias that cardiologists and internists encounter. The goal of this article is to clarify an overview of the evidence linking inflammation to AF existence, which may highlight the effect of some pharmacological agents that have genuine potential to

  2. Investigating the Effect of Inflammation on Atrial Fibrillation Occurrence by Measuring Highly Sensitive C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hassanzadeh Delui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmias that cardiologists and internists encounter. The goal of this article is to clarify an overview of the evidence linking inflammation to AF existence, which may highlight the effect of some pharmacological agents that have genuine potential to reduce the clinical burden of AF by modulating inflammatory pathways. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, 50 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF with different etiologies and 50 patients with sinus rhythm and similar bases were selected. Sampling for highly sensitive c-reactive (hs-CRP was done on the patients presenting with AF to the Ghaem hospital between October 2006 and June 2007. Results: Mean age of the patients was 62 years with maximum of 90 and minimum of 36 and standard deviation of 13.80. The most frequent age group was 71-80years. Fifty-four percent of patients were male and 46% were female. Mean serum hs-CRP levels in AF patients with hypertension (HTN ,Ischemic heart disease(IHD, Valvular heart disease (VHD, HTN+IHD and hyperthyroidism were 8.10, 9.40, 8.68, 10.16 and 5.98 mg/Lit; respectively. There was significant difference between hs-CRP levels in hypertensive patients in the two groups (P=0.010. Similar results were observed in IHD patients, VHD patients and HTN+IHD patients in two groups (P=0.015, P=0.037, P=0.000. Conclusion: In addition to some risk factors like baseline cardiac diseases, aging, thyrotoxicosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and cardiac surgery, there also appears to be consistent links between hs-CRP, a marker of inflammation, and the pathogenesis of AF.

  3. Effect of reagent charge on the labeling of erythrocyte membrane proteins by photoactivated reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, J.C.; Hakimian, R.; Shimer, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Leaky erythrocyte ghosts were labeled with 3 H-[2-(4-azido-2-nitroanilino)ethyl]trimethylammonium iodide (cationic label) or 3 H-N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-β-alanine (anionic label). After the membranes were thoroughly washed, seven times as much cationic label was associated with the membranes as anionic label at 5 μM, whereas at 50 μM the cationic label was favored 15-fold. The distribution of label in the membrane proteins was ascertain by SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography. At 50 μM cationic label, erythrocyte membrane protein bands 1,2,3,4.2, and 5 were intensely labeled, while band 6 was labeled weakly. At 5 μM cationic label, bands 1 and 4.2 were heavily labeled, while 2,3 and 5 were labeled less well. At both 50 μM and 5 μM anionic label, bands 1 and 6 were most prominently labeled. Bands 2,3,4.2 and 5 were labeled also at 50 μM, but they were labeled only very weakly at 5 μM. Band 4.1 was labeled very poorly if at all by either reagent. A mixture of the reagents gave an additive pattern. Thus, the charge and concentration of these reagents appear to play a major role in their ability to label membrane proteins indiscriminately. Because these reagents contain the same chromophore, 4-azido-2-nitroaniline, and differ mainly only in their charge, they may prove useful in assessing the location of charged sites on proteins in supramolecular complexes

  4. Novel structural features drive DNA binding properties of Cmr, a CRP family protein in TB complex mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Sridevi; Cheung, Jonah; Cassidy, Michael; Ginter, Christopher; Pata, Janice D; McDonough, Kathleen A

    2018-01-09

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes two CRP/FNR family transcription factors (TF) that contribute to virulence, Cmr (Rv1675c) and CRPMt (Rv3676). Prior studies identified distinct chromosomal binding profiles for each TF despite their recognizing overlapping DNA motifs. The present study shows that Cmr binding specificity is determined by discriminator nucleotides at motif positions 4 and 13. X-ray crystallography and targeted mutational analyses identified an arginine-rich loop that expands Cmr's DNA interactions beyond the classical helix-turn-helix contacts common to all CRP/FNR family members and facilitates binding to imperfect DNA sequences. Cmr binding to DNA results in a pronounced asymmetric bending of the DNA and its high level of cooperativity is consistent with DNA-facilitated dimerization. A unique N-terminal extension inserts between the DNA binding and dimerization domains, partially occluding the site where the canonical cAMP binding pocket is found. However, an unstructured region of this N-terminus may help modulate Cmr activity in response to cellular signals. Cmr's multiple levels of DNA interaction likely enhance its ability to integrate diverse gene regulatory signals, while its novel structural features establish Cmr as an atypical CRP/FNR family member. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. HIGH-SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (hsCRP IN YOUNG ADULTS: RELATION TO AEROBIC CAPACITY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mazurek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atheromatosis develops as a result of a chronic inflammatory process of the arteries. Inflammatory biomarkers, particularly high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, positively correlate with atheromatosis risk factors and can be used to estimate and predict the risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hsCRP concentration and BMI, body composition, classical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, energy expenditure for physical activity (WEE and  ·VO2max. 166 volunteers (78 women and 88 men were included in the examinations. Their mean age was 20.2±0.9 years. Health condition was described by the following variables: smoking, WEE,  ·VO2max, body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lipid profile, hsCRP, glucose and insulin concentration, and insulin resistance. Between the subgroups created on the basis of hsCRP concentration, in quartiles 1 to 3 and quartile 4, a comparative analysis was carried out. 79.5�0of women and 69.3�0of men had hsCRP values within the references ranges. Moderately high values were found in 14.1�0of women and 22.7�0of men and high in 6.4�0and 7.9�20respectively. Mean values of BMI, FFM, WHR, WEE,  ·VO2max, glucose and triglyceride concentration, and TC/HDL index were significantly lower, while FM and HDL were significantly higher, in women than in men. In the quartile 4 subgroup compared to the quartile 1-3 subgroup, we found significantly lower HDL concentration and a tendency for higher values of BMI (p=0.06 and TC (p=0.07 as well as higher percentages of smoking among men. In young, physically active, healthy persons, serum concentration of hsCRP is not related to physical activity or  ·VO2max.

  6. α2-macroglobulin can crosslink multiple Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) molecules and may facilitate adhesion of parasitized erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Liz; Laursen, Erik; Cowan, Graeme J

    2015-01-01

    -macroglobulin (α2M), which is both required and sufficient for rosetting mediated by the PfEMP1 protein HB3VAR06 and some other rosette-mediating PfEMP1 proteins. We map the α2M binding site to the C terminal end of HB3VAR06, and demonstrate that α2M can bind at least four HB3VAR06 proteins, plausibly....... Together, our results are evidence that P. falciparum parasites exploit α2M (and IgM) to expand the repertoire of host receptors available for PfEMP1-mediated IE adhesion, such as the erythrocyte carbohydrate moieties that lead to formation of rosettes. It is likely that this mechanism also affects IE...

  7. CRP-Mediated Carbon Catabolite Regulation of Yersinia pestis Biofilm Formation Is Enhanced by the Carbon Storage Regulator Protein, CsrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P Willias

    Full Text Available The natural transmission of Yersinia pestis is reliant upon biofilm blockage of the flea vector. However, the environmentally-responsive adaptive regulators which facilitate Y. pestis biofilm production in accordance with the flea midgut milieu are not well understood. We seek to establish the impact of available carbon source metabolism and storage upon Y. pestis biofilm production. Our findings demonstrate that Y. pestis biofilm production is subject to carbon catabolite regulation in which the presence of glucose impairs biofilm production; whereas, the sole metabolism of alternate carbon sources promotes robust biofilm formation. This observation is facilitated by the cAMP receptor protein, CRP. In accordance with a stark growth defect, deletion of crp in both CO92 and KIM6+ Y. pestis strains significantly impaired biofilm production when solely utilizing alternate carbon sources. Media supplementation with cAMP, a small-molecule activator of CRP, did not significantly alter Y. pestis biofilm production. Furthermore, CRP did not alter mRNA abundance of previously-characterized hms biofilm synthesis and regulation factors. Therefore, our findings indicate CRP does not confer a direct stimulatory effect, but may indirectly promote Y. pestis biofilm production by facilitating the alternate carbon source expression profile. Additionally, we assessed the impact of the carbon storage regulator protein, CsrA, upon Y. pestis biofilm production. Contrary to what has been described for E. coli, Y. pestis biofilm formation was found to be enhanced by CsrA. Regardless of media composition and available carbon source, deletion of csrA significantly impaired Y. pestis biofilm production. CsrA was found to promote Y. pestis biofilm production independent of glycogen regulation. Loss of csrA did not significantly alter relative hmsH, hmsP, or hmsT mRNA abundance. However, deletion of hmsP in the csrA-deficient mutant enabled excessive biofilm production

  8. A comparison of serum amyloid A (SAA) synthesis with that of the pentraxins: Serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuta, E.; Shirahama, T.; Sipe, J.D.; Skinner, M.

    1986-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) and serum amyloid P (SAP) were detected in cultures of hepatocytes which had been isolated from normal CBA/J mice by the collagenase perfusion technique. SAP production in 24 h cultures was more resistant than SAA and total protein synthesis to inhibition by actinomycin D, but was more sensitive to inhibition by 48 h. However, the production of SAP was more sensitive to cycloheximide than SAA and total protein throughout the 48 hr incubation period. SAP and SAA levels in the culture media were suppressed by treatment of liver cells with 10 -6 M of colchicine for 48 h. Inhibition of SAP production by colchicine was the same regardless of culture condition, but the effect of colchicine on SAA synthesis varied according to the presence of serum of monokine. These observations also support the concept that the two amyloid proteins are produced under different regulatory mechanisms. When C-reactive protein (CRP) was not detected in the sera of patients with severe chronic liver diseases, the SAA levels were very low. When CRP was detected, SAA values were within the normal range. Thus, in order to produce SAA, liver cells in these patients not only were viable but also maintained their specialized function

  9. A protein anomaly in erythrocyte membranes of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic comparisons of erythrocyte membranes from 20 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and 8 age-matched controls indicate a prominent and consistent protein anomaly in the patient samples. This was apparent in the following: (a) CH-stretching signals from control membranes reveal a thermotropic transition at 15.6 degrees C, attributable to a protein/lipid phase that is lacking in dystrophic membranes. (b) CH-stretching signals from control membranes also show a protein transition at 39 degrees C [pH 7.4] that is shifted to 45 degrees in dystrophic membranes. (c) A reduction in pH to 5.7 shifts this transition from 39 degrees C to 7 degrees C in normal membranes and from 45 degrees C to 24 degrees C in dystrophic membranes. (d) The Amide I/Amide III regions indicate a significant proportion of beta- structured peptide in dystrophic but not normal membranes. (e) Analysis of tyrosine signals indicates greater polar exposure of tyrosine hydroxyl groups in dystrophic vs normal membranes. All of the differences between dystrophic and normal membranes are highly significant (P less than 0.001). PMID:6854213

  10. Growth of plasmodium falciparum in human erythrocytes containing abnormal membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, S.; Roth, E.F. Jr.; Cheng, B.; Rybicki, A.C.; Sussman, I.I.; Wong, M.; Nagel, R.L.; Schwartz, R.S.; Wang, W.; Ranney, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the role of erythrocyte (RBC) membrane proteins in the invasion and maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the authors have studied, in culture, abnormal RBCs containing quantitative or qualitative membrane protein defects. These defects included hereditary spherocytosis (HS) due to decreases in the content of spectrin [HS(Sp + )], hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) due to protein 4.1 deficiency [HE(4.1 0 )], HE due to a spectrin αI domain structural variant that results in increased content of spectrin dimers [HE(Spα I/65 )], and band 3 structural variants. Parasite invasion, measured by the initial uptake of [ 3 H]hypoxanthine 18 hr after inoculation with merozoites, was normal in all of the pathologic RBCs. In contrast, RBCs from six HS(Sp + ) subjects showed marked growth inhibition that became apparent after the first or second growth cycle. The extent of decreased parasite growth in HS(Sp + ) RBCs closely correlated with the extent of RBC spectrin deficiency. Homogeneous subpopulations of dense HS RBCs exhibited decreased parasite growth to the same extent as did HS whole blood. RBCs from four HE subjects showed marked parasite growth and development

  11. Binding behavior of CRP and anti-CRP antibody analyzed with SPR and AFM measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Keun; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Cho, Sang-Joon; Jeong, Sang Won; Jeon, Won Bae

    2008-01-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) was exploited to take picture of the molecular topology of C-reactive protein (CRP) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. An explicit molecular image of CRP demonstrated a pentagonal structure composed of five subunits. Dimensions of the doughnut-shaped CRP molecule measured by AFM were about 25 nm in outside diameter and 10 nm in central pore diameter, and the height of CRP molecule was about 4 nm which was comparable to the value determined by X-ray crystallography. Bis(N-succinimido)-11,11'-dithiobis (undecyl succinate) (DSNHS) was synthesized for use as a linker for immobilizing anti-CRP antibody (anti-CRP) onto the gold surface of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chip. DSNHS formed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the gold surface. By use of an AFM tip, a pattern of ditch was engraved within the SAM of DSNHS, and anti-CRP was immobilized on the engraved SAM through replacement of N-hydroxysuccinimide group on the outside surface of DSNHS by the amine group of anti-CRP. Formation of CRP/anti-CRP complex on the gold surface of SPR sensor chip was clearly demonstrated by measuring SPR angle shift. A consecutive series of SAM, SAM/anti-CRP, and SAM/anti-CRP/CRP complexes was generated on a SPR sensor chip, and the changes in depth of the ditch were monitored by taking AFM images of the complexes. Comparative analysis of the depth differences indicates that binding of CRP to anti-CRP occurs in a planar mode

  12. Cytoadhesion to gC1qR through Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in severe malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magallón-Tejada, Ariel; Machevo, Sónia; Cisteró, Pau

    2016-01-01

    Cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to gC1qR has been associated with severe malaria, but the parasite ligand involved is currently unknown. To assess if binding to gC1qR is mediated through the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, we analyzed...

  13. Sequential, ordered acquisition of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cham, Gerald K K; Turner, Louise; Lusingu, John

    2009-01-01

    The binding of erythrocytes infected with mature blood stage parasites to the vascular bed is key to the pathogenesis of malignant malaria. The binding is mediated by members of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family. PfEMP1s can be divided into groups, and it has pr....... The identification of PfEMP1 domains expressed by parasites causing disease in infants and young children is important for development of vaccines protecting against severe malaria.......The binding of erythrocytes infected with mature blood stage parasites to the vascular bed is key to the pathogenesis of malignant malaria. The binding is mediated by members of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family. PfEMP1s can be divided into groups, and it has...... previously been suggested that parasites expressing group A or B/A PfEMP1s are most pathogenic. To test the hypothesis that the first malaria infections in infants and young children are dominated by parasites expressing A and B/A PfEMP1s, we measured the plasma Ab level against 48 recombinant PfEMP1 domains...

  14. Specific T-cell recognition of the merozoite proteins rhoptry-associated protein 1 and erythrocyte-binding antigen 1 of Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Hviid, L; Theander, T G

    1993-01-01

    The merozoite proteins merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) and rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) and synthetic peptides containing sequences of MSP-1, RAP-1, and erythrocyte-binding antigen 1, induced in vitro proliferative responses of lymphocytes collected from Ghanaian blood donors living i...... by individuals living in an area with a high transmission rate of malaria. Most of the donor plasma samples tested contained immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies recognizing the merozoite proteins, while only a minority showed high IgG reactivity to the synthetic peptides.......The merozoite proteins merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) and rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) and synthetic peptides containing sequences of MSP-1, RAP-1, and erythrocyte-binding antigen 1, induced in vitro proliferative responses of lymphocytes collected from Ghanaian blood donors living...

  15. Molecular cloning of human protein 4.2: A major component of the erythrocyte membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, L.A.; Chien, Shu; Lambert, K.; Chang, Longsheng; Bliss, S.A.; Bouhassira, E.E.; Nagel, R.L.; Schwartz, R.S.; Rybicki, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Protein 4.2 (P4.2) comprises ∼5% of the protein mass of human erythrocyte (RBC) membranes. Anemia occurs in patients with RBCs deficient in P4.2, suggesting a role for this protein in maintaining RBC stability and integrity. The authors now report the molecular cloning and characterization of human RBC P4.2 cDNAs. By immunoscreening a human reticulocyte cDNA library and by using the polymerase chain reaction, two cDNA sequences of 2.4 and 2.5 kilobases (kb) were obtained. These cDNAs differ only by a 90-base-air insert in the longer isoform located three codons downstream from the putative initiation site. The 2.4- and 2.5-kb cDNAs predict proteins of ∼77 and ∼80 kDa, respectively, and the authenticity was confirmed by sequence identity with 46 amino acids of three cyanogen bromide-cleaved peptides of P4.2. Northern blot analysis detected a major 2.4-kb RNA species in reticulocytes. Isolation of two P4.2 cDNAs implies existence of specific regulation of P4.2 expression in human RBCs. Human RBC P4.2 has significant homology with human factor XIII subunit a and guinea pig liver transglutaminase. Sequence alignment of P4.2 with these two transglutaminases, however, revealed that P4.2 lacks the critical cysteine residue required for the enzymatic crosslinking of substrates

  16. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are positively associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Eun-Sil; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Park, Ji Eun; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-07-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation may induce chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the relation between inflammatory biomarkers and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, which has not yet been reported in Asian populations. A cross-sectional study was performed in 543 patients recruited from diabetic clinics for an ongoing, prospective study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between inflammatory biomarkers and the presence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate Disease equation using plasma creatinine). The risk of chronic kidney disease increased in the highest quartiles of C-reactive protein (CRP) [multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.19-1.70] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (multivariate OR = 4.45; 95% CI = 1.63-12.11) compared to the lowest quartiles after adjustments for age, sex, zinc intake, and other putative risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Our results suggest that CRP and tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A causal mechanism of this association should be evaluated in a followup study of Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Loss of the clock protein PER2 shortens the erythrocyte life span in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Yunxia; Yang, Xiao; Li, Minghui; Xu, Xi; Wen, Dan; Wang, Junsong; Zhang, Jianfa

    2017-07-28

    Cell proliferation and release from the bone marrow have been demonstrated to be controlled by circadian rhythms in both humans and mice. However, it is unclear whether local circadian clocks in the bone marrow influence physiological functions and life span of erythrocytes. Here, we report that loss of the clock gene Per2 significantly decreased erythrocyte life span. Mice deficient in Per2 were more susceptible to acute stresses in the erythrocytes, becoming severely anemic upon phenylhydrazine, osmotic, and H 2 O 2 challenges. 1 H NMR-based metabolomics analysis revealed that the Per2 depletion causes significant changes in metabolic profiles of erythrocytes, including increased lactate and decreased ATP levels compared with wild-type mice. The lower ATP levels were associated with hyperfunction of Na + /K + -ATPase activity in Per2 -null erythrocytes, and inhibition of Na + /K + -ATPase activity by ouabain efficiently rescued ATP levels. Per2 -null mice displayed increased levels of Na + /K + -ATPase α1 (ATP1A1) in the erythrocyte membrane, and transfection of Per2 cDNA into the erythroleukemic cell line TF-1 inhibited Atp1a1 expression. Furthermore, we observed that PER2 regulates Atp1a1 transcription through interacting with trans-acting transcription factor 1 (SP1). Our findings reveal that Per2 function in the bone marrow is required for the regulation of life span in circulating erythrocytes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Design and evaluation of antimalarial peptides derived from prediction of short linear motifs in proteins related to erythrocyte invasion.

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    Alessandra Bianchin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood stage of the malaria causing parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to predict potential protein interactions between the parasite merozoite and the host erythrocyte and design peptides that could interrupt these predicted interactions. We screened the P. falciparum and human proteomes for computationally predicted short linear motifs (SLiMs in cytoplasmic portions of transmembrane proteins that could play roles in the invasion of the erythrocyte by the merozoite, an essential step in malarial pathogenesis. We tested thirteen peptides predicted to contain SLiMs, twelve of them palmitoylated to enhance membrane targeting, and found three that blocked parasite growth in culture by inhibiting the initiation of new infections in erythrocytes. Scrambled peptides for two of the most promising peptides suggested that their activity may be reflective of amino acid properties, in particular, positive charge. However, one peptide showed effects which were stronger than those of scrambled peptides. This was derived from human red blood cell glycophorin-B. We concluded that proteome-wide computational screening of the intracellular regions of both host and pathogen adhesion proteins provides potential lead peptides for the development of anti-malarial compounds.

  19. Lipids, atherosclerosis and CVD risk: is CRP an innocent bystander?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Zacho, J

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate recent human studies with respect to the interpretation of whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) cause cardiovascular disease (CVD), or whether elevated CRP levels more likely is an innocent bystander. DATA SYNTHESIS: Elevated CRP concentrations...... and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques, and thus simply an innocent bystander in CVD....

  20. Identification of a Golgi apparatus protein complex important for the asexual erythrocytic cycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallée, Stéphanie; Thériault, Catherine; Gagnon, Dominic; Kehrer, Jessica; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Mair, Gunnar R; Richard, Dave

    2018-03-26

    Compared with other eukaryotic cell types, malaria parasites appear to possess a more rudimentary Golgi apparatus being composed of dispersed, unstacked cis and trans-cisternae. Despite playing a central role in the secretory pathway of the parasite, few Plasmodium Golgi resident proteins have been characterised. We had previously identified a new Golgi resident protein of unknown function, which we had named Golgi Protein 1, and now show that it forms a complex with a previously uncharacterised transmembrane protein (Golgi Protein 2, GP2). The Golgi Protein complex localises to the cis-Golgi throughout the erythrocytic cycle and potentially also during the mosquito stages. Analysis of parasite strains where GP1 expression is conditionally repressed and/or the GP2 gene is inactivated reveals that though the Golgi protein complex is not essential at any stage of the parasite life cycle, it is important for optimal asexual development in the blood stages. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Plasmodium knowlesi Skeleton-Binding Protein 1 Localizes to the 'Sinton and Mulligan' Stipplings in the Cytoplasm of Monkey and Human Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, Amuza Byaruhanga; Sakaguchi, Miako; Katakai, Yuko; Kawai, Satoru; Yahata, Kazuhide; Templeton, Thomas J; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, exports protein products to the infected erythrocyte to introduce modifications necessary for the establishment of nutrient acquisition and surface display of host interaction ligands. Erythrocyte remodeling impacts parasite virulence and disease pathology and is well documented for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, but has been less described for other Plasmodium species. For P. falciparum, the exported protein skeleton-binding protein 1 (PfSBP1) is involved in the trafficking of erythrocyte surface ligands and localized to membranous structures within the infected erythrocyte, termed Maurer's clefts. In this study, we analyzed SBP1 orthologs across the Plasmodium genus by BLAST analysis and conserved gene synteny, which were also recently described by de Niz et al. (2016). To evaluate the localization of an SBP1 ortholog, we utilized the zoonotic malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Immunofluorescence assay of transgenic P. knowlesi parasites expressing epitope-tagged recombinant PkSBP1 revealed a punctate staining pattern reminiscent of Maurer's clefts, following infection of either monkey or human erythrocytes. The recombinant PkSBP1-positive puncta co-localized with Giemsa-stained structures, known as 'Sinton and Mulligan' stipplings. Immunoelectron microscopy also showed that recombinant PkSBP1 localizes within or on the membranous structures akin to the Maurer's clefts. The recombinant PkSBP1 expressed in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes co-localized with PfSBP1 at the Maurer's clefts, indicating an analogous trafficking pattern. A member of the P. knowlesi 2TM protein family was also expressed and localized to membranous structures in infected monkey erythrocytes. These results suggest that the trafficking machinery and induced erythrocyte cellular structures of P. knowlesi are similar following infection of both monkey and human erythrocytes, and are conserved with P. falciparum.

  2. Plasmodium knowlesi Skeleton-Binding Protein 1 Localizes to the ‘Sinton and Mulligan’ Stipplings in the Cytoplasm of Monkey and Human Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, Amuza Byaruhanga; Sakaguchi, Miako; Katakai, Yuko; Kawai, Satoru; Yahata, Kazuhide; Templeton, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, exports protein products to the infected erythrocyte to introduce modifications necessary for the establishment of nutrient acquisition and surface display of host interaction ligands. Erythrocyte remodeling impacts parasite virulence and disease pathology and is well documented for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, but has been less described for other Plasmodium species. For P. falciparum, the exported protein skeleton-binding protein 1 (PfSBP1) is involved in the trafficking of erythrocyte surface ligands and localized to membranous structures within the infected erythrocyte, termed Maurer's clefts. In this study, we analyzed SBP1 orthologs across the Plasmodium genus by BLAST analysis and conserved gene synteny, which were also recently described by de Niz et al. (2016). To evaluate the localization of an SBP1 ortholog, we utilized the zoonotic malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Immunofluorescence assay of transgenic P. knowlesi parasites expressing epitope-tagged recombinant PkSBP1 revealed a punctate staining pattern reminiscent of Maurer's clefts, following infection of either monkey or human erythrocytes. The recombinant PkSBP1-positive puncta co-localized with Giemsa-stained structures, known as ‘Sinton and Mulligan’ stipplings. Immunoelectron microscopy also showed that recombinant PkSBP1 localizes within or on the membranous structures akin to the Maurer's clefts. The recombinant PkSBP1 expressed in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes co-localized with PfSBP1 at the Maurer's clefts, indicating an analogous trafficking pattern. A member of the P. knowlesi 2TM protein family was also expressed and localized to membranous structures in infected monkey erythrocytes. These results suggest that the trafficking machinery and induced erythrocyte cellular structures of P. knowlesi are similar following infection of both monkey and human erythrocytes, and are conserved with P. falciparum. PMID:27732628

  3. Clinical significance of determination of serum hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and E-selectin levels in patients with coronary heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunxiu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of determination of serum contents of hs-CRP and E-Selectin in patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD). Methods: Serum hs-CRP Contents were determined with immuno-turbidity and E-Selectin contents were determined with ELISA in 58 patients with CHD (35SAP, 20UAP, 13AMI) and 35 controls. Results: Serum levels of hs-CRP and E-Selectin in CHD patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum levels of hs-CRP and E-Selectin were correlated to the development of CHD, but not to the coronary artery calibers. (authors)

  4. Clinical significance of determination of serum hypersensitive C reactive protein (HS-CRP) levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Chunxi; Zhang Fengju; Wang Kejun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between changes in serum HS-CRP levels and the status of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with ACS. Methods: Serum HS-CRP levels were measured in 35 patients with ACS at admission, 1 week and 1 month later as well as in 30 controls without recent infection. Results: HS-CRP levels in patients with ACS were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). The levels were highest at admission and fell gradually. Conclusion: HS-CRP could be a marker reflecting the status of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with ACS. (authors)

  5. Limited cross-reactivity among domains of the Plasmodium falciparum clone 3D7 erythrocyte membrane protein 1 family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Louise; Turner, Louise; Magistrado, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    The var gene-encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family is responsible for antigenic variation and sequestration of infected erythrocytes during malaria. We have previously grouped the 60 PfEMP1 variants of P. falciparum clone 3D7 into groups A and B/A (category A......) and groups B, B/C, and C (category non-A). Expression of category A molecules is associated with severe malaria, and that of category non-A molecules is associated with uncomplicated malaria and asymptomatic infection. Here we assessed cross-reactivity among 60 different recombinant PfEMP1 domains derived...... from clone 3D7 by using a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a pool of plasma from 63 malaria-exposed Tanzanian individuals. We conclude that naturally acquired antibodies are largely directed toward epitopes varying between different domains with a few, mainly category A, domains...

  6. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and its relationship with components of polycystic ovary syndrome in Indian adolescent women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Hassan, Saqib; Nisar, Sobia; Shamas, Nasir; Rashid, Aafia; Ahmed, Ishfaq; Douhat, Syed; Mudassar, Syed; Jan, Vicar M; Rashid, Fouzia

    2014-11-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a risk marker for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), limited data are available on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and its relationship with components of PCOS especially in Indian women. The objective was to determine serum hs-CRP concentration in adolescent women with and without PCOS and to assess possible correlations of serum hs-CRP levels with components of PCOS in Indian women. One hundred and sixty women with PCOS and sixty non-PCOS women having normal menstrual cycles were included. Clinical assessment included anthropometry, Ferriman-Gallwey (FG) score and blood pressure (BP) measurement. Laboratory evaluation included estimation of T4, TSH, LH, FSH, total testosterone, prolactin, cortisol, 17OHP, hs-CRP, lipid profile, and insulin, and glucose after 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and glucose intolerance was calculated. FG score, LH, FSH, total Testosterone, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were significantly different among women with or without PCOS (p women having PCOS, there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). A significant and positive correlation was found between hs-CRP and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.308, p Indian adolescent women suggest that hs-CRP levels may not per se be associated with PCOS, rather can be related to fat mass in this subset of subjects.

  7. Time dependent transition of the levels of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro, IL-6 and CRP in plasma during stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madoka Yoshida

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that the degree of the decrease in PC-Acro and the increase in IL-6 and CRP from day 0 to day 2 was correlated with the size of brain infarction, and the increase in IL-6 and CRP with poor outcome at discharge.

  8. The effects of Ankaferd® Blood Stopper on transcription factors in HUVEC and the erythrocyte protein profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Yılmaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd® Blood Stopper (ABS is an herbal extract that has historically been used as a hemostatic agent in traditional Turkish medicine. ABS is comprised of a standardized herbal mixture of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, V. vinifera, A. officinarum, and U. dioica. ABS’s basic mechanism of action is the formation of an encapsulated protein web, which represents the focal point for vital erythrocyte masses. The hemostatic effects of ABS have been observed in vitro and in vivo. ABS was registered as a hemostatic agent for external hemorrhages and dental bleeding following phase I randomized, double-blind crossover placebo-controlled clinical research, and safety and efficacy reports. In terms of the potential use of ABS, transcription factors may be novel factors that play a role in the hemostatic and other pleiotropic effects of ABS. Materials and Methods: Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of ABS on endothelium, and possible transcription factor changes in HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells and the erythrocyte membrane profile. ABS (5 μL and 50 μL was administered to HUVEC (in 75 cm2; ~75% fullness for 5 min and 15 min. Results: ABS caused significant increases in the level of activation of the following transcription factors; AP2, AR, CRE/ATF1, CREB, E2F1-5, E2F6, EGR, GATA, HNF-1, ISRE, Myc-Max, NF-1, NFkB, p53, PPAR, SMAD 2/3, SP1, TRE/AP1, and YY1. Following erythrocyte membrane isolation, protein complexes were undissolved, but denatured. The protein complex formed was resistant to heat and detergent. Trypsin and sonication were used in order to break this complex; the complex dissolved and erythrocyte membrane proteins were released in SDS-PAGE.Conclusion: ABS established a very fast and solid protein web, and increased the level of transcription factor activation. Therefore the cellular effects of ABS could be related to different intracellular biological pathways.

  9. Host-parasite interaction: selective Pv-fam-a family proteins of Plasmodium vivax bind to a restricted number of human erythrocyte receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Mohammad; Tyagi, Rupesh Kumar; Tyagi, Kriti; Alam, Mohd Shoeb; Sharma, Yagya Dutta

    2015-04-01

    Plasmodium vivax synthesizes the largest number of 36 tryptophan-rich proteins belonging to the Pv-fam-a family. These parasite proteins need to be characterized for their biological function because tryptophan-rich proteins from other Plasmodium species have been proposed as vaccine candidates. Recombinant P. vivax tryptophan-rich antigens (PvTRAgs) were used to determine their erythrocyte-binding activity by a cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and a rosetting assay. Only 4 (PvTRAg26.3, PvTRAg34, PvTRAg36, and PvTRAg36.6) of 21 PvTRAgs bind to host erythrocytes. The cross-competition data indicated that PvTRAg36 and PvTRAg34 share their erythrocyte receptors with previously described proteins PvTRAg38 and PvTRAg33.5, respectively. On the other hand, PvTRAg26.3 and PvTRAg36.6 cross-compete with each other and not with any other PvTRAg, indicating that these 2 proteins bind to the same but yet another set of erythrocyte receptor(s). Together, 10 of 36 PvTRAgs possess erythrocyte-binding activity in which each protein recognizes >1 erythrocyte receptor. Further, each erythrocyte receptor is shared by >1 PvTRAg. This redundancy may be useful for the parasite to invade red blood cells and cause disease pathogenesis, and it can be exploited to develop therapeutics against P. vivax malaria. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Characterization of changes in composition and function of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinying; Wei Shanjian; Hu Xiaojian

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The delayed effect of radiation on erythrocyte membrane protein, the composition and function of the membrane proteins in five patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were follow up at six years after the Shanghai 60 Co irradiation accident. Methods: Percoll centrifugation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analysis of NO 2 - transport rate and DIDS inhibition rate were performed. Results: The injuries of the membrane proteins induced by radiation, characterized by reduced content of band 8 and declined anion transport function of band 3 protein remained the same as initially observed. The further study showed that the inhibition of DIDS on the anion transport of the ARS erythrocytes was decreased and the transport time for NO 2 - by band 3 was significantly prolonged in younger erythrocytes than those in middle-or old-aged cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that the radiation damage to erythrocyte membrane proteins might occur at the stage of erythropoiesis in bone marrow. The exo-facial site in band 3 may be changed after radiation, which could result in the abnormalities in anion transport. It is believed that the aging of erythrocytes might be present in advanced stage of ARS

  11. Association Between Free Fatty Acid (FFA and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Inflammation (Adiponectin and high sensivity C-reactive Protein/hs-CRP and Stress Oxidative (Superoxide Dismutase/SOD in Obese Non-Diabetic Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriyanti Rafi Sukmawati

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is highly related to insulin resistance, therefore, the increased number of obesity is followed by the increased prevalence of type 2 Diabetes Melitus. Obesity is associated with increased of reactive oxygen species (ROS in muscle, liver and endothelial cells. The increase of ROS would lead to insulin resistance (IR and increased pro-inflammatory protein. FFA plays an important role in IR by inhibiting muscle glucose transport and oxidation via effects on serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1. The aim of this study was discover the existence of SOD, hs-CRP and and adiponectin levels towards the occurrence of insulin resistance which was caused by elevated level of FFA and to discover the interaction between SOD, hs-CRP and adiponectin in non diabetic obese adult male. METHODS: This was observational study with cross sectional design. There were 65 obese male non diabetic subjects and 45 non obese male non diabetic subjects who met the criteria. In this study, measurements were done on body mass index (BMI, fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, hs-CRP and SOD. Obese was defined as BMI >25 kg/m2, normal weight was defined as BMI 18.5-23 kh/m2 and Insulin Resistance was defined as HOMA-IR >1. RESULTS: This study showed that Hypoadiponectinemia condition, decreased SOD level and high level of hs-CRP is associated with insulin resistance in obese non diabetic subject. Adiponectin and SOD were correlated negatively with insulin resistance in obese non diabetic (Adiponectin, r=-0.455, p<0.001; SOD, r=-0.262, p=0.003, hs-CRP was positively correlated with insulin resistance in obese non diabetic (r=0.592, p<0.001. FFA levels was increased in obese insulin resistance compared with non obese non insulin resistance. The Odds Ratio of Adiponectin, hs-CRP and SOD in this study was analyzed by logistic binary. The OR for SOD 3.6 (p=0.001, hs-CRP 9.1 (p<0.001 and Adiponectin 7.2 (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that FFA

  12. The Relationship of Fetuin-A, Adiponectin, Retinol Binding Protein-4 (RBP-4 and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP with Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in Obese Non Diabetic Men

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    Imelda Novianti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central obesity is the accumulation of visceral (intra-abdominal fat and is strongly known to be associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Obesity can cause adipocyte hypertrophy that results in dysregulation of adipokine expression. The abnormal function of adipocytes may play an important role in the development of a chronic low-grade proinflammatory state associated with obesity. Adiponectin, retinol binding protein (RBP-4 and fetuin-A play a role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. Expression of fetuin-A is increased due to fat accumulation in the liver. Elevated concentration of fetuin-A in the circulation can impair insulin signaling in muscle and liver as well as suppress adiponectin secretion, although its molecular mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship of fetuin-A, adiponectin, RBP-4 and hsCRP with insulin resistance in obese non diabetic men. METHODS: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. The study subjects were 64 men with non diabetic abdominal obesity, characterized by waist circumference of 98.47±5.88 cm and fasting blood glucose of 85.75±8.36 mg/dL. RESULTS: This study showed that fetuin-A was positively correlated with HOMA-IR in obese non diabetic men with insulin resistance (r=0.128; p=0.570, although not significant. Fetuin-A was found to be correlated with adiponectin, RBP-4 and hsCRP (r=0.150; p=0.233; r=0.050; p=0.711; r=-0.04; p=0.445, although not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration of fetuin-A showed a tendency to be positively correlated with HOMA-IR and with RBP-4 in obese non diabetic men, although statistically not significant. The concentration of fetuin-A showed a tendency to be negatively correlated with adiponectin and hsCRP although statistically not significant. There was no interrelationship between fetuin-A, adiponectin, RBP-4, hsCRP and HOMA-IR. Elevated concentrations of fetuin

  13. Band 3 Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Acts as Redox Stress Sensor Leading to Its Phosphorylation by p72 Syk

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    Antonella Pantaleo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In erythrocytes, the regulation of the redox sensitive Tyr phosphorylation of band 3 and its functions are still partially defined. A role of band 3 oxidation in regulating its own phosphorylation has been previously suggested. The current study provides evidences to support this hypothesis: (i in intact erythrocytes, at 2 mM concentration of GSH, band 3 oxidation, and phosphorylation, Syk translocation to the membrane and Syk phosphorylation responded to the same micromolar concentrations of oxidants showing identical temporal variations; (ii the Cys residues located in the band 3 cytoplasmic domain are 20-fold more reactive than GSH; (iii disulfide linked band 3 cytoplasmic domain docks Syk kinase; (iv protein Tyr phosphatases are poorly inhibited at oxidant concentrations leading to massive band 3 oxidation and phosphorylation. We also observed that hemichromes binding to band 3 determined its irreversible oxidation and phosphorylation, progressive hemolysis, and serine hyperphosphorylation of different cytoskeleton proteins. Syk inhibitor suppressed the phosphorylation of band 3 also preventing serine phosphorylation changes and hemolysis. Our data suggest that band 3 acts as redox sensor regulating its own phosphorylation and that hemichromes leading to the protracted phosphorylation of band 3 may trigger a cascade of events finally leading to hemolysis.

  14. Annotating N termini for the human proteome project: N termini and Nα-acetylation status differentiate stable cleaved protein species from degradation remnants in the human erythrocyte proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Philipp F; Huesgen, Pitter F; Nguyen, Karen; Overall, Christopher M

    2014-04-04

    A goal of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project is to identify all human protein species. With 3844 proteins annotated as "missing", this is challenging. Moreover, proteolytic processing generates new protein species with characteristic neo-N termini that are frequently accompanied by altered half-lives, function, interactions, and location. Enucleated and largely void of internal membranes and organelles, erythrocytes are simple yet proteomically challenging cells due to the high hemoglobin content and wide dynamic range of protein concentrations that impedes protein identification. Using the N-terminomics procedure TAILS, we identified 1369 human erythrocyte natural and neo-N-termini and 1234 proteins. Multiple semitryptic N-terminal peptides exhibited improved mass spectrometric identification properties versus the intact tryptic peptide enabling identification of 281 novel erythrocyte proteins and six missing proteins identified for the first time in the human proteome. With an improved bioinformatics workflow, we developed a new classification system and the Terminus Cluster Score. Thereby we described a new stabilizing N-end rule for processed protein termini, which discriminates novel protein species from degradation remnants, and identified protein domain hot spots susceptible to cleavage. Strikingly, 68% of the N-termini were within genome-encoded protein sequences, revealing alternative translation initiation sites, pervasive endoproteolytic processing, and stabilization of protein fragments in vivo. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to ProteomeXchange with the data set identifier .

  15. Protein 4.1, a component of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton and its related homologue proteins forming the protein 4.1/FERM superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander F Sikorski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review is focused on the domain structure and function of protein 4.1, one of the proteins belonging to the membrane skeleton. The protein 4.1 of the red blood cells (4.1R is a multifunctional protein that localizes to the membrane skeleton and stabilizes erythrocyte shape and membrane mechanical properties, such as deformability and stability, via lateral interactions with spectrin, actin, glycophorin C and protein p55. Protein 4.1 binding is modulated through the action of kinases and/or calmodulin-Ca2+. Non-erythroid cells express the 4.1R homologues: 4.1G (general type, 4.1B (brain type, and 4.1N (neuron type, and the whole group belongs to the protein 4.1 superfamily, which is characterized by the presence of a highly conserved FERM domain at the N-terminus of the molecule. Proteins 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1N and 4.1B are encoded by different genes. Most of the 4.1 superfamily proteins also contain an actin-binding domain. To date, more than 40 members have been identified. They can be divided into five groups: protein 4.1 molecules, ERM proteins, talin-related molecules, protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPH proteins and NBL4 proteins. We have focused our attention on the main, well known representatives of 4.1 superfamily and tried to choose the proteins which are close to 4.1R or which have distinct functions. 4.1 family proteins are not just linkers between the plasma membrane and membrane skeleton; they also play an important role in various processes. Some, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK, non-receptor tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions in adherent cells, play the role in cell adhesion. The other members control or take part in tumor suppression, regulation of cell cycle progression, inhibition of cell proliferation, downstream signaling of the glutamate receptors, and establishment of cell polarity; some are also involved in cell proliferation, cell motility, and/or cell-to-cell communication.

  16. C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Interferon Gamma-Inducible Protein 10 (IP-10), and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Are Associated with Risk of Tuberculosis after Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Mark W.; Gupte, Nikhil; Dowdy, David W.; Asmuth, David M.; Balagopal, Ashwin; Pollard, Richard B.; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Lama, Javier R.; Pillay, Sandy; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Pawar, Jyoti; Santos, Breno; Riviere, Cynthia; Mwelase, Noluthando; Kanyama, Cecilia; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Hakim, James G.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Bollinger, Robert; Semba, Richard D.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Gupta, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association between pre-antiretroviral (ART) inflammation and immune activation and risk for incident tuberculosis (TB) after ART initiation among adults is uncertain. Design Nested case-control study (n = 332) within ACTG PEARLS trial of three ART regimens among 1571 HIV-infected, treatment-naïve adults in 9 countries. We compared cases (participants with incident TB diagnosed by 96 weeks) to a random sample of controls (participants who did not develop TB, stratified by country and treatment arm). Methods We measured pre-ART C-reactive protein (CRP), EndoCab IgM, ferritin, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14 (sCD14), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and CD4/DR+/38+ and CD8/DR+/38+ T cells. Markers were defined according to established cutoff definitions when available, 75th percentile of measured values when not, and detectable versus undetectable for LPS. Using logistic regression, we measured associations between biomarkers and incident TB, adjusting for age, sex, study site, treatment arm, baseline CD4 and log10 viral load. We assessed the discriminatory value of biomarkers using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Seventy-seven persons (4.9%) developed incident TB during follow-up. Elevated baseline CRP (aOR 3.25, 95% CI: 1.55–6.81) and IP-10 (aOR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.05–3.39), detectable plasma LPS (aOR 2.39, 95% CI: 1.13–5.06), and the established TB risk factors anemia and hypoalbuminemia were independently associated with incident TB. In ROC analysis, CRP, albumin, and LPS improved discrimination only modestly for TB risk when added to baseline routine patient characteristics including CD4 count, body mass index, and prior TB. Conclusion Incident TB occurs commonly after ART initiation. Although associated with higher post-ART TB risk, baseline CRP, IP-10, and LPS add limited value to routine patient characteristics

  17. A large multi-centre European study validates high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a clinical biomarker for the diagnosis of diabetes subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanabalasingham, G.; Shah, N.; Vaxillaire, M.

    2011-01-01

    CRP) levels are lower in UK patients with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A)-MODY than in other diabetes subtypes. In this large multi-centre study we aimed to assess the clinical validity of hsCRP as a diagnostic biomarker, examine the genotype-phenotype relationship and compare different hsCRP assays....... High-sensitivity CRP levels were analysed in individuals with HNF1A-MODY (n = 457), glucokinase (GCK)-MODY (n = 404), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A)-MODY (n = 54) and type 2 diabetes (n = 582) from seven European centres. Three common assays for hsCRP analysis were evaluated. We excluded 121......) a parts per thousand yenaEuro parts per thousand 0.91, p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 1 x 10(-5)). Across the seven centres, the C-statistic for distinguishing HNF1A-MODY from young adult-onset type 2 diabetes ranged from 0.79 to 0.97, indicating high discriminative accuracy...

  18. Analyzing Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 gene expression by a next generation sequencing based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob S.; Petersen, Bent; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine

    2013-01-01

    at identifying PfEMP1 features associated with high virulence. Here we present the first effective method for sequence analysis of var genes expressed in field samples: a sequential PCR and next generation sequencing based technique applied on expressed var sequence tags and subsequently on long range PCR......, encoded by ~60 highly variable 'var' genes per haploid genome. PfEMP1 is exported to the surface of infected erythrocytes and is thought to be fundamental to immune evasion by adhesion to host and parasite factors. The highly variable nature has constituted a roadblock in var expression studies aimed...

  19. [Impact of metabolic syndrome on CRP levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, E; Costa, J A; Mares, S; Miralles, A; González, C; Sánchez, C; Pascual, J M

    2006-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to assess whether the metabolic syndrome (MS) and parameters involved in its diagnosis might influence serum CRP values. Cross-sectional study in outpatients of a HTA and Vascular Risk clinic. MS was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Educational Program ATP-III guidelines, and hs-CRP was analyzed by nephelometry. A total of 1,969 patients (47% male) were evaluated and distributed into four groups: 1) 1,220 non-diabetics without MS; 2) 384 non-diabetics with MS; 3) 153 diabetics without MS, and 4) 212 diabetics with MS. Patients with MS had higher CRP in both non-diabetic 3.0 (1.7-4.4) mg/l vs. 1.7 (0.9-3.4) mg/l; p=0.001 (MW), and diabetic patients: 2.8 (1.5-4.6) mg/l vs. 2.2 (0.9-4.3) mg/l; p=0.01 (MW). Diabetic patients without MS had CRP values not different to non-diabetic without MS. CRP values increased in relation to the number of parameters included in the MS from 1.7 (2.2) mg/l, in patients without any parameters, to 4.2 (2.8) mg/l in patients who fulfilled five parameters (p=0.001) (KW). In multiple regression analysis abdominal obesity (p=0.001), TG (p=0.001) and glucose (p=0.02) were associated with CRP levels after correcting for other factors. Abdominal obesity (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5-2.4; p=0.001) and TG (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 -1.7; p=0.003), but not glucose were independent factors related to the presence of high levels of CRP (>3 mg/l) in a logistic regression analysis. Diabetic and non-diabetic patients with MS have high CRP levels. Of the five components of MS, the most closely related to CRP is abdominal obesity.

  20. Ultra-Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (US-CRP) in Patients With Periodontal Disease and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriza, Catalina Latorre; Arregoces, Francina Escobar; Porras, Juliana Velosa; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Ferro; Morales, Alvaro Ruiz

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the US-CRP values associated with periodontal disease are risk markers for Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and to determine if the US-CRP levels associated with recent AMI are higher in patients with Periodontal disease. In order to meet the goal of the study, a case control study design was conducted. The analysis sample consisted of 401 adults (30 - 75 years old), living in Bogota D.C., Colombia, from the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, the Faculty of Dentistry at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, and the Fundacion Cardio Infantil. Patients with current infections, antibiotic use in the last 3 months, periodontal treatment at least six months before the baseline of this study, mouth ulcerations caused by any type of prosthesis, candidiasis, stomatitis, or less than 7 teeth in mouth were excluded. Periodontal examination for the case group and the control group was conducted by three previously calibrated examiners. Periodontal disease was diagnosed by the presence of bleeding on probing and attachment loss. The Chronic Periodontitis diagnosis was confirmed with these clinical signs, according to the 1999 Armitage classification. The assessment of the US-CRP was performed using the IMMULITE method containing one monoclonal and one polyclonal anti-CRP antibody. This method provides a measurement range of 0.1 - 500 mg/L. Statistical analysis of variables was performed with OR and confidence intervals. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the association between the US-CRP increase, periodontal disease and acute myocardial infarction, adjusting for smoking and other confounding factors identified in the analysis. The study population was constituted by 401 patients, 56.1% (225) males, with a mean age of 52.6. When groups were compared it was observed that, in those patients with AMI and chronic severe or moderate periodontitis, 24.2% had HDL-C values lower than 40 mg/dl, 78.8% had LDL-C values

  1. Dual fluorescence labeling of surface-exposed and internal proteins in erythrocytes infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Dominique C; Sowa, Kordai M P; Arnot, David E

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for improved methods for in situ localization of surface proteins on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to help understand how these antigens are trafficked to, and positioned within, the host cell membrane. This protocol for confocal immunofluorescence microscopy combines...... and permeabilization; indirect labeling of the internal antigen using a secondary antibody tagged with a spectrally distinct fluorescent dye; and detection of the differentially labeled antigens using a laser scanning confocal microscope. The protocol can be completed in approximately 7 h. Although the protocol...... surface antigen labeling on live cells with subsequent fixation and permeabilization, which enables antibodies to penetrate the cell and label internal antigens. The key steps of the protocol are as follows: indirect labeling of the surface antigen using a fluorescently tagged secondary antibody; fixation...

  2. The Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) of Plasmodium knowlesi from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo show different binding activity level to human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khai Lone; Amir, Amirah; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik

    2017-08-11

    The zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi is a major cause of human malaria in Malaysia. This parasite uses the Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) to interact with the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) receptor on human and macaque erythrocytes to initiate invasion. Previous studies on P. knowlesi have reported distinct Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo PkDBPαII haplotypes. In the present study, the differential binding activity of these haplotypes with human and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) erythrocytes was investigated. The PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo were expressed on the surface of COS-7 cells and tested with human and monkey erythrocytes, with and without anti-Fy6 (anti-Duffy) monoclonal antibody treatment. Binding activity level was determined by counting the number of rosettes formed between the transfected COS-7 cells and the erythrocytes. Anti-Fy6 treatment was shown to completely block the binding of human erythrocytes with the transfected COS-7 cells, thus verifying the specific binding of human DARC with PkDBPαII. Interestingly, the PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia displayed a higher binding activity with human erythrocytes when compared with the Malaysian Borneo PkDBPαII haplotype (mean number of rosettes formed = 156.89 ± 6.62 and 46.00 ± 3.57, respectively; P < 0.0001). However, no difference in binding activity level was seen in the binding assay using M. fascicularis erythrocytes. This study is the first report of phenotypic difference between PkDBPαII haplotypes. The biological implication of this finding is yet to be determined. Therefore, further studies need to be carried out to determine whether this differential binding level can be associated with severity of knowlesi malaria in human.

  3. Radiation-induced structural changes in membrane proteins of human erythrocytes and ghosts and the relation to cellular morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurhuis, G.J.; Hommes, J.; Vos, J.; Molenaar, I.; Konings, A.W.T. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands))

    1984-02-01

    Isolated human erythrocytes and ghosts were irradiated with X-rays under different experimental conditions and the effect examined with regard to the structure of membrane proteins and morphology of whole cells and ghosts. From sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis it is concluded that spectrin (band 1 and 2) is the most radiosensitive of the membrane proteins examined. X-irradiation of cells and ghosts induced covalent cross-linking of a small fraction of membrane proteins. In the protein aggregates thus formed spectrin was found to be the major component. Molecular disulphide (-SS-) bridges seemed to account for part of the cross-links observed. Some nondisulphide cross-links were found, especially when ghosts were irradiated. Significant amounts of spectrin aggregates were formed during post-irradiation incubation at 37/sup 0/C but not at 4/sup 0/C. In the intact cell a transformation in shape from discocyte to echinocyte accompanied the process of post-irradiation spectrin aggregation. The characteristics of both processes, such as their reversibility with adenosine, point to a metabolic involvement. It is shown that there is no causal relationship between the two phenomena observed. Possible causes of the post-irradiation effects and the parallelism with similar processes in non-irradiated metabolically depleted cells are discussed.

  4. Radiation-induced structural changes in membrane proteins of human erythrocytes and ghosts and the relation to cellular morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurhuis, G.J.; Hommes, J.; Vos, J.; Molenaar, I.; Konings, A.W.T.

    1984-01-01

    Isolated human erythrocytes and ghosts were irradiated with X-rays under different experimental conditions and the effect examined with regard to the structure of membrane proteins and morphology of whole cells and ghosts. From sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis it is concluded that spectrin (band 1 and 2) is the most radiosensitive of the membrane proteins examined. X-irradiation of cells and ghosts induced covalent cross-linking of a small fraction of membrane proteins. In the protein aggregates thus formed spectrin was found to be the major component. Molecular disulphide (-SS-) bridges seemed to account for part of the cross-links observed. Some nondisulphide cross-links were found, especially when ghosts were irradiated. Significant amounts of spectrin aggregates were formed during post-irradiation incubation at 37 0 C but not at 4 0 C. In the intact cell a transformation in shape from discocyte to echinocyte accompanied the process of post-irradiation spectrin aggregation. The characteristics of both processes, such as their reversibility with adenosine, point to a metabolic involvement. It is shown that there is no causal relationship between the two phenomena observed. Possible causes of the post-irradiation effects and the parallelism with similar processes in non-irradiated metabolically depleted cells are discussed. (author)

  5. Evaluación de proteína C reactiva, velocidad de sedimentación globular, reticulocitos y ancho de distribución eritrocitaria, en niños menores de 5 años con anemia por déficit de hierro, en Cumaná, Venezuela | Evaluation of C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, reticulocytes and erithrocyte distribution width, in children under 5 years old with iron deficiency anemia, in Cumaná, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Hannaoui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate C-reactive protein, rate of globular sedimentation, reticulocytes and erythrocyte distribution width, in infants with iron deficiency anemia, 114 children of both genders were studied, aged 0 to 5 years, who attended the pediatric consultation of three health centers in the city of Cumana, Sucre state. The infants were divided into three groups: 35 apparently healthy children formed the control group, 59 children enrolled in iron deficiency anemia and 20 children with anemia from other causes. Each infant was determined the levels of serum iron, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP, hemoglobin, hematocrit, hematimetric indices (MCHC and MCV, red cell distribution width (ADE, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and percentage reticulocyte. An ANOVA statistical analysis was applied to determine possible differences between the evaluated parameters. There were highly significant differences in the levels of iron, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, MCV and ADE among the three groups studied; while ferritin variables, reticulocytes, CRP and ESR showed no significant differences among these groups. The results allow to conclude that the determination of iron and hematological parameters are useful tools for diagnosis and for monitoring patients with iron deficiency anemia. It is recommended that the ADE be included within the profile of exams for such patients in order to assess the degree of anisocitosis in iron deficiency anemia, and thus lead doctors to a quick and accurate diagnosis as quickly as possible.

  6. The influence of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. pruinosa tea on lipid peroxidation and non-protein SH groups in human erythrocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Andréia C F; Leal, Carina Q; Bianchini, Matheus C; Prado, Ianeli O; Mendez, Andreas S L; Puntel, Robson L; Folmer, Vanderlei; Soares, Félix A; Avila, Daiana S; Puntel, Gustavo O

    2013-06-21

    Bauhinia forficata (BF) has been traditionally used as tea in folk medicine of Brazil for treatment of Diabetes mellitus (DM). To evaluate the effects of BF leaf tea on markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant levels in an experimental model of hyperglycemia in human erythrocytes in vitro. Human erythrocytes were incubated with high glucose concentrations or glucose and BF tea for 24h and 48h. After incubation lipid peroxidation and non-protein SH levels were analyzed. Moreover, quantification of polyphenols and flavonoids, iron chelating property, scavenging of DPPH, and prevention of lipid peroxidation in isolated lipids were also assessed. A significant amount of polyphenols and flavonoids was observed. The main components found by LC-MS analysis were quercetin-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl) rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl) rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. BF tea presents important antioxidant and chelating properties. Moreover, BF tea was effective to increase non-protein SH levels and reduce lipid peroxidation induced by high glucose concentrations in human erythrocytes. The antioxidant effects of BF tea could be related to the presence of different phenolic and flavonoids components. We believe that these components can be responsible to protect human erythrocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations against oxidative damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CRP in acute appendicitis--is it a necessary investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalesh, T; Shankar, M; Shankar, R

    2004-01-01

    Appendectomy is one of the commonest procedures in surgery. In spite of various investigations used to improve the accuracy of diagnosis, the rate of normal appendices removed is still about 15-30%. Many studies have investigated the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in acute appendicitis, but with conflicting results. In a prospective, double blind study, blood for the measurement of serum C-reactive protein was collected pre-operatively from 192 children before going to the operating theatre for appendectomy. The histopathology was grouped into positive (acute appendicitis) and negative (normal appendix) and this was correlated with CRP values. CRP was normal in 14 out of 33 negative explorations (normal appendix on histopathology). The specificity and sensitivity of serum CRP was 42% and 91% respectively. The predictive value of a positive (raised CRP) and negative (normal CRP) test is 88% and 48% respectively. We conclude that neither raised nor normal CRP value is helpful in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. CRP is not a good tool for helping the surgeon make the diagnosis of appendicitis and it should not be measured in suspected appendicitis.

  8. Allexiviruses may have acquired inserted sequences between the CP and CRP genes to change the translation reinitiation strategy of CRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoto; Shimura, Hanako; Masuta, Chikara

    2018-06-01

    Allexiviruses are economically important garlic viruses that are involved in garlic mosaic diseases. In this study, we characterized the allexivirus cysteine-rich protein (CRP) gene located just downstream of the coat protein (CP) gene in the viral genome. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the CP and CRP genes from numerous allexivirus isolates and performed a phylogenetic analysis. According to the resulting phylogenetic tree, we found that allexiviruses were clearly divided into two major groups (group I and group II) based on the sequences of the CP and CRP genes. In addition, the allexiviruses in group II had distinct sequences just before the CRP gene, while group I isolates did not. The inserted sequence between the CP and CRP genes was partially complementary to garlic 18S rRNA. Using a potato virus X vector, we showed that the CRPs affected viral accumulation and symptom induction in Nicotiana benthamiana, suggesting that the allexivirus CRP is a pathogenicity determinant. We assume that the inserted sequences before the CRP gene may have been generated during viral evolution to alter the termination-reinitiation mechanism for coupled translation of CP and CRP.

  9. Study on the changes of serum adiponectin (APN), insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin levels after one year treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Li Yan; Fu Lei; Lin Yanli; Qu Wei; Qi Shaokang; Tao Xiaojun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the β-cell function status and possible mechanism of insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes through studies on the changes of serum APN, insulin, CRP, leptin, insulin antibody and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GAD-Ab) levels after one year of treatment. Methods: Serum levels of the above four parameters and the positive rate of the two antibodies were measured (with CLIA, ELISA and RIA as appropriately) in 184 patients with type 2 diabetes and 30 controls as well as in 75 patients after one year of treatment. Results: The serum contents of insulin, leptin, CRP, insulin antibody in patients with type 2 diabetes were significantly higher (P<0.01) and APN levels significantly lower (P<0.001) than those in controls. Levels of APN were negatively correlated with those of the other parameters. In the 75 treated patients, levels of those parameters (with the exception of APN and insulin-antibody) decreased significantly. However, the APN levels were significantly increased (vs before treatment, P<0.001). Conclusion: Further study on the dynamic changes of these parameters in the diabetic patients might elucidate certain key-points in the pathogenesis of the disease. (authors)

  10. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 - Glycosylation and localization to low-density, detergent-resistant membranes in the parasitized erythrocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoessli, D.C.; Poincelet, M.; Gupta, Ramneek

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the major carbohydrate moieties of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, we report that Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) bears O-GlcNAc modifications predominantly in beta-anomeric configuration, in both the C- and N-terminal portions of the protein....... Subcellular fractionation of parasitized erythrocytes in the late trophozoite/schizont stage reveals that GPI-anchored C-terminal fragments of MSP-1 are recovered in Triton X-100 resistant, low-density membrane fractions. Our results suggest that O -GlcNAc-modified MSP-1 N-terminal fragments tend to localize...... within the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane while GPI-anchored MSP-1 C-terminal fragments associate with low-density, Triton X-100 resistant membrane domains (rafts), redistribute in the parasitized erythrocyte and are eventually shed as membrane vesicles that also contain the endogenous, GPI-linked CD...

  11. A sequence in subdomain 2 of DBL1α of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 induces strain transcending antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blomqvist

    Full Text Available Immunity to severe malaria is the first level of immunity acquired to Plasmodium falciparum. Antibodies to the variant antigen PfEMP1 (P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 present at the surface of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC confer protection by blocking microvascular sequestration. Here we have generated antibodies to peptide sequences of subdomain 2 of PfEMP1-DBL1α previously identified to be associated with severe or mild malaria. A set of sera generated to the amino acid sequence KLQTLTLHQVREYWWALNRKEVWKA, containing the motif ALNRKE, stained the live pRBC. 50% of parasites tested (7/14 were positive both in flow cytometry and immunofluorescence assays with live pRBCs including both laboratory strains and in vitro adapted clinical isolates. Antibodies that reacted selectively with the sequence REYWWALNRKEVWKA in a 15-mer peptide array of DBL1α-domains were also found to react with the pRBC surface. By utilizing a peptide array to map the binding properties of the elicited anti-DBL1α antibodies, the amino acids WxxNRx were found essential for antibody binding. Complementary experiments using 135 degenerate RDSM peptide sequences obtained from 93 Ugandan patient-isolates showed that antibody binding occurred when the amino acids WxLNRKE/D were present in the peptide. The data suggests that the ALNRKE sequence motif, associated with severe malaria, induces strain-transcending antibodies that react with the pRBC surface.

  12. The Plasmodium falciparum exported protein PF3D7_0402000 binds to erythrocyte ankyrin and band 4.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, Bikash; Penn, Wesley D.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Lacount, Douglas J.

    2017-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum extensively modifies the infected red blood cell (RBC), resulting in changes in deformability, shape and surface properties. These alterations suggest that the RBC cytoskeleton is a major target for modification during infection. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are largely unknown. To begin to address this question, we screened for exported P. falciparum proteins that bound to the erythrocyte cytoskeleton proteins ankyrin 1 (ANK1) and band 4.1 (4.1R), which form critical interactions with other cytoskeletal proteins that contribute to the deformability and stability of RBCs. Yeast two-hybrid screens with ANK1 and 4.1R identified eight interactions with P. falciparum exported proteins, including an interaction between 4.1R and PF3D7_0402000 (PFD0090c). This interaction was first identified in a large-scale screen (Vignali et al., Malaria J, 7:211, 2008), which also reported an interaction between PF3D7_0402000 and ANK1. We confirmed the interactions of PF3D7_0402000 with 4.1R and ANK1 in pair-wise yeast two-hybrid and co-precipitation assays. In both cases, an intact PHIST domain in PF3D7_0402000 was required for binding. Complex purification followed by mass spectrometry analysis provided additional support for the interaction of PF3D7_0402000 with ANK1 and 4.1R. RBC ghost cells loaded with maltose-binding protein (MBP)-PF3D7_0402000 passed through a metal microsphere column less efficiently than mock- or MBP-loaded controls, consistent with an effect of PF3D7_0402000 on RBC rigidity or membrane stability. This study confirmed the interaction of PF3D7_0402000 with 4.1R in multiple independent assays, provided the first evidence that PF3D7_0402000 also binds to ANK1, and suggested that PF3D7_0402000 affects deformability or membrane stability of uninfected RBC ghosts.

  13. Radioiodinated, photoactivatable phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine: transfer properties and differential photoreactive interaction with human erythrocyte membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroit, A.J.; Madsen, J.; Ruoho, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    An isotopically labeled cross-linking reagent, succinimido 3-(3-[ 125 I]iodo-4-azidophenyl)propionate, has been synthesized and coupled to 1-acyl-2-(aminocaproyl)phosphatidylcholine according to previously described procedures. 125 I- and N 3 -labeled phosphatidylserine ( 125 I-N 3 -PS) was produced from the phosphatidylcholine (PC) analog by phospholipase D catalyzed base exchange in the presence of L-serine. These phospholipid analogues are photoactivatable, are labeled with 125 I at high specific activity, completely incorporate into synthetic vesicles, and spontaneously transfer between membranes. When an excess of acceptor vesicles or red blood cells (RBC) was mixed with a population of donor vesicles containing the 125 I-N 3 -phospholipids, approximately 40% of the analogues transferred to the acceptor population. After transfer in the dark to RBC, all of the 125 I-N 3 -PC incorporated into the cells could be removed by washing with serum, whereas the 125 I-N 3 -PS could not. After photolabeling of intact RBC, ∼50% of the PC and 20% of the PS cross-linked to membrane proteins as determined by their insolubility in CHCl 3 /MeOH. Analysis of probe distribution by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that 125 I-N 3 -PS preferentially labeled a M/sub r/ 30,000 peptide which contained ∼30% of the protein-bound label

  14. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = −0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = −0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%–61% vs. 14%–26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study. PMID:26247967

  15. IgG antibodies to endothelial protein C receptor-binding Cysteine-rich interdomain region domains of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 are acquired early in life in individuals exposed to malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Louise; Lavstsen, Thomas; Mmbando, Bruno P

    2015-01-01

    Severe malaria syndromes are precipitated by Plasmodium falciparum parasites binding to endothelial receptors on the vascular lining. This binding is mediated by members of the highly variant P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family. We have previously identified a subset of Pf...

  16. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase from pigeon erythrocytes under the action of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, K.M.; Bulargina, T.V.; Severin, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Preincubation of the plasma membranes from pigeon erythrocytes with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase leads to desensitization of adenylate cyclase of the erythrocytes. The adenylate cyclase activity, measured in the presence of 10 μM isoproterenol and 50 μM GTP-γ-S, is decreased by 40% in 10 min of incubation, while the activity in the presence of 50 μM GTP-γ-S is decreased by 35% in 20 min. The decrease in the adenylate cyclase activity is due to an increase in the lag phase of activation of the enzyme in the presence of a GTP analog stable to hydrolysis and a decrease in the activity in the steady-state phase of activation. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase under the action of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is coupled with a decrease in the number of β-adrenoreceptors capable of passing into a state of high affinity for antagonists in the absence of guanylic nucleotides. The influence of the catalytic subunit on adenylate cyclase entirely models the process of desensitization of the enzyme absorbed in the influence of isoproterenol or cAMP on erythrocytes

  17. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes......, var1, var2csa and var3 are found conserved in most parasite genomes. The most severe forms of malaria disease are caused by parasites expressing a subset of antigenically conserved PfEMP1 variants. Thus the ubiquitous and conserved VAR3 PfEMP1 is of particular interest to the research field. Evidence...... of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. METHODS: In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies...

  18. Rapid and Low-Cost CRP Measurement by Integrating a Paper-Based Microfluidic Immunoassay with Smartphone (CRP-Chip)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Meili; Wu, Jiandong; Ma, Zimin; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Zhang, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Liu, Yong; Rigatto, Claudio; Lin, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Traditional diagnostic tests for chronic diseases are expensive and require a specialized laboratory, therefore limiting their use for point-of-care (PoC) testing. To address this gap, we developed a method for rapid and low-cost C-reactive protein (CRP) detection from blood by integrating a paper-based microfluidic immunoassay with a smartphone (CRP-Chip). We chose CRP for this initial development because it is a strong biomarker of prognosis in chronic heart and kidney disease. The microfluidic immunoassay is realized by lateral flow and gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection of the target protein. The test image signal is acquired and analyzed using a commercial smartphone with an attached microlens and a 3D-printed chip–phone interface. The CRP-Chip was validated for detecting CRP in blood samples from chronic kidney disease patients and healthy subjects. The linear detection range of the CRP-Chip is up to 2 μg/mL and the detection limit is 54 ng/mL. The CRP-Chip test result yields high reproducibility and is consistent with the standard ELISA kit. A single CRP-Chip can perform the test in triplicate on a single chip within 15 min for less than 50 US cents of material cost. This CRP-Chip with attractive features of low-cost, fast test speed, and integrated easy operation with smartphones has the potential to enable future clinical PoC chronic disease diagnosis and risk stratification by parallel measurements of a panel of protein biomarkers. PMID:28346363

  19. Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid on High Glucose-Induced Protein Glycation, Lipid Peroxidation, and Membrane Ion Pump Activity in Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachat Sompong

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid (FA is the ubiquitous phytochemical phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid. Experimental studies in diabetic models demonstrate that FA possesses multiple mechanisms of action associated with anti-hyperglycemic activity. The mechanism by which FA prevents diabetes-associated vascular damages remains unknown. The aim of study was to investigate the protective effects of FA on protein glycation, lipid peroxidation, membrane ion pump activity, and phosphatidylserine exposure in high glucose-exposed human erythrocytes. Our results demonstrated that FA (10-100 μM significantly reduced the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c whereas 0.1-100 μM concentrations inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes exposed to 45 mM glucose. This was associated with increased glucose consumption. High glucose treatment also caused a significant reduction in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the erythrocyte plasma membrane which could be reversed by FA. Furthermore, we found that FA (0.1-100 μM prevented high glucose-induced phosphatidylserine exposure. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism of FA for the prevention of vascular dysfunction associated with diabetes.

  20. Malaria Parasite CLAG3, a Protein Linked to Nutrient Channels, Participates in High Molecular Weight Membrane-Associated Complexes in the Infected Erythrocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayvan Zainabadi

    Full Text Available Malaria infected erythrocytes show increased permeability to a number of solutes important for parasite growth as mediated by the Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel (PSAC. The P. falciparum clag3 genes have recently been identified as key determinants of PSAC, though exactly how they contribute to channel function and whether additional host/parasite proteins are required remain unknown. To begin to answer these questions, I have taken a biochemical approach. Here I have used an epitope-tagged CLAG3 parasite to perform co-immunoprecipitation experiments using membrane fractions of infected erythrocytes. Native PAGE and mass spectrometry studies reveal that CLAG3 participate in at least three different high molecular weight complexes: a ~720kDa complex consisting of CLAG3, RHOPH2 and RHOPH3; a ~620kDa complex consisting of CLAG3 and RHOPH2; and a ~480kDa complex composed solely of CLAG3. Importantly, these complexes can be found throughout the parasite lifecycle but are absent in untransfected controls. Extracellular biotin labeling and protease susceptibility studies localize the 480kDa complex to the erythrocyte membrane. This complex, likely composed of a homo-oligomer of 160kDa CLAG3, may represent a functional subunit, possibly the pore, of PSAC.

  1. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Thompson, Rachel L.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Winton, James R.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP gene sequence supported the conclusion that ENV does not group with any of the currently described iridovirus genera. Because there is no information regarding genetic variation of the MCP gene across the reported host and geographic range for ENV, we also developed a second qPCR assay for a more conserved ATPase-like gene region. The MCP and ATPase qPCR assays demonstrated good analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity based on samples from laboratory challenges of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. The qPCR assays had similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as light microscopy of stained blood smears for the presence of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. However, the qPCR assays may detect viral DNA early in infection prior to the formation of inclusion bodies. Both qPCR assays appear suitable for viral surveillance or as a confirmatory test for ENV in Pacific herring from the Salish Sea.

  2. Erythrocyte nanovesicles: Biogenesis, biolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamaleldin I. Harisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanovesicles (NVs represent a novel transporter for cell signals to modify functions of target cells. Therefore, NVs play many roles in both physiological and pathological processes. This report highlights biogenesis, composition and biological roles of erythrocytes derived nanovesicles (EDNVs. Furthermore, we address utilization of EDNVs as novel drug delivery cargo as well as therapeutic target. EDNVs are lipid bilayer vesicles rich in phospholipids, proteins, lipid raft, and hemoglobin. In vivo EDNVs biogenesis is triggered by an increase of intracellular calcium levels, ATP depletion and under effect of oxidative stress conditions. However, in vitro production of EDNVs can be achieved via hypotonic treatment and extrusion of erythrocyte. NVs can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of therapy and drug delivery system. Many therapeutic agents are suggested to decrease NVs biogenesis.

  3. In silico and biological survey of transcription-associated proteins implicated in the transcriptional machinery during the erythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischoff Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the most important parasitic disease in the world with approximately two million people dying every year, mostly due to Plasmodium falciparum infection. During its complex life cycle in the Anopheles vector and human host, the parasite requires the coordinated and modulated expression of diverse sets of genes involved in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. However, despite the availability of the complete sequence of the Plasmodium falciparum genome, we are still quite ignorant about Plasmodium mechanisms of transcriptional gene regulation. This is due to the poor prediction of nuclear proteins, cognate DNA motifs and structures involved in transcription. Results A comprehensive directory of proteins reported to be potentially involved in Plasmodium transcriptional machinery was built from all in silico reports and databanks. The transcription-associated proteins were clustered in three main sets of factors: general transcription factors, chromatin-related proteins (structuring, remodelling and histone modifying enzymes, and specific transcription factors. Only a few of these factors have been molecularly analysed. Furthermore, from transcriptome and proteome data we modelled expression patterns of transcripts and corresponding proteins during the intra-erythrocytic cycle. Finally, an interactome of these proteins based either on in silico or on 2-yeast-hybrid experimental approaches is discussed. Conclusion This is the first attempt to build a comprehensive directory of potential transcription-associated proteins in Plasmodium. In addition, all complete transcriptome, proteome and interactome raw data were re-analysed, compared and discussed for a better comprehension of the complex biological processes of Plasmodium falciparum transcriptional regulation during the erythrocytic development.

  4. Predictive value of C-reactive protein/albumin ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Ates, Ihsan; Akpinar, Muhammed Yener; Yuksel, Mahmut; Kuzu, Ufuk Baris; Kacar, Sabite; Coskun, Orhan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2017-08-15

    Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) increases and albumin decreases in patients with inflammation and infection. However, their role in patients with acute pancreatitis is not clear. The present study was to investigate the predictive significance of the CRP/albumin ratio for the prognosis and mortality in acute pancreatitis patients. This study was performed retrospectively with 192 acute pancreatitis patients between January 2002 and June 2015. Ranson scores, Atlanta classification and CRP/albumin ratios of the patients were calculated. The CRP/albumin ratio was higher in deceased patients compared to survivors. The CRP/albumin ratio was positively correlated with Ranson score and Atlanta classification in particular and with important prognostic markers such as hospitalization time, CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In addition to the CRP/albumin ratio, necrotizing pancreatitis type, moderately severe and severe Atlanta classification, and total Ranson score were independent risk factors of mortality. It was found that an increase of 1 unit in the CRP/albumin ratio resulted in an increase of 1.52 times in mortality risk. A prediction value about CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 was found to be a significant marker in predicting mortality with 92.1% sensitivity and 58.0% specificity. It was seen that Ranson and Atlanta classification were higher in patients with CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 compared with those with CRP/albumin ratio ≤16.28. Patients with CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 had a 19.3 times higher chance of death. The CRP/albumin ratio is a novel but promising, easy-to-measure, repeatable, non-invasive inflammation-based prognostic score in acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of glucose exchange rates and permeability of erythrocyte membrane in preeclampsia and subsequent oxidative stress-related protein damage using dynamic-{sup 19}F-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.dickinson@york.ac.uk [University of York, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Arnold, John R. P. [Selby College (United Kingdom); Fisher, Julie [University of Leeds, School of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    The cause of the pregnancy condition preeclampsia (PE) is thought to be endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. As abnormal glucose tolerance has also been associated with PE, we use a fluorinated-mimic of this metabolite to establish whether any oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has increased cell membrane permeability. Data were acquired using {sup 19}F Dynamic-NMR (DNMR) to measure exchange of 3-fluoro-3-deoxyglucose (3-FDG) across the membrane of erythrocytes from 10 pregnant women (5 healthy control women, and 5 from women suffering from PE). Magnetisation transfer was measured using the 1D selective inversion and 2D EXSY pulse sequences, over a range of time delays. Integrated intensities from these experiments were used in matrix diagonalisation to estimate the values of the rate constants of exchange and membrane permeability. No significant differences were observed for the rate of exchange of 3-FDG and membrane permeability between healthy pregnant women and those suffering from PE, leading us to conclude that no oxidative damage had occurred at this carrier-protein site in the membrane.

  6. Determination of glucose exchange rates and permeability of erythrocyte membrane in preeclampsia and subsequent oxidative stress-related protein damage using dynamic-"1"9F-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth; Arnold, John R. P.; Fisher, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The cause of the pregnancy condition preeclampsia (PE) is thought to be endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. As abnormal glucose tolerance has also been associated with PE, we use a fluorinated-mimic of this metabolite to establish whether any oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has increased cell membrane permeability. Data were acquired using "1"9F Dynamic-NMR (DNMR) to measure exchange of 3-fluoro-3-deoxyglucose (3-FDG) across the membrane of erythrocytes from 10 pregnant women (5 healthy control women, and 5 from women suffering from PE). Magnetisation transfer was measured using the 1D selective inversion and 2D EXSY pulse sequences, over a range of time delays. Integrated intensities from these experiments were used in matrix diagonalisation to estimate the values of the rate constants of exchange and membrane permeability. No significant differences were observed for the rate of exchange of 3-FDG and membrane permeability between healthy pregnant women and those suffering from PE, leading us to conclude that no oxidative damage had occurred at this carrier-protein site in the membrane.

  7. Proposal for a coordination research programme (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on stable isotope tracer techniques for studies on protein-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.; James, W.P.T.

    1993-01-01

    This Report provides a rationale and justification for the initiation of a Coordinated Research programme to support studies using stable isotopic tracer techniques to address priority areas of human protein-energy interactions with special emphasis on the problems of human nutrition in developing countries. The Report suggests a modus for establishing such a practically oriented Coordinated Research Programme under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency with concrete suggestions for its organization and the identification of probable participants in such a programme. The likely sources of additional funding to sustain such an activity viable for a period of 4 to 5 years are also indicated. 8 refs

  8. Structural Studies on Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) Malaria Antigens Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Stig

    Chemistry (App I) [1]. VAR2CSA binds specifically to CSA in the placental tissue of pregnant women hereby causing severe malaria symptoms endangering both mother and child. The minimal VAR2CSA region required to effectively bind CSA was determined to be the N-terminal DBL domain, DBL2X which we locate......Infection with the pathogenic Plasmodium falciparum parasite causes the potentially deadly Malaria disease which leads to over 1 million fatalities each year according to the WHO (World Health Organization). Individuals subjected to multiple infections gradually become immune to the disease...... symptoms and vaccine research is focused on trying to mimic or advance this immune acquisition. Immunity is primarily caused by acquisition of antibodies directed against a family of Plasmodium protein antigens called PfEMP1s located on the surface of infected erythrocytes. The PfEMP1 proteins are adhesive...

  9. Insect cells are superior to Escherichia coli in producing malaria proteins inducing IgG targeting PfEMP1 on infected erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joergensen Louise

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PFD1235w Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 antigen is associated with severe malaria in children and can be expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IE adhering to ICAM1. However, the exact three-dimensional structure of this PfEMP1 and its surface-exposed epitopes are unknown. An insect cell and Escherichia coli based system was used to express single and double domains encoded by the pfd1235w var gene. The resulting recombinant proteins have been evaluated for yield and purity and their ability to induce rat antibodies, which react with the native PFD1235w PfEMP1 antigen expressed on 3D7PFD1235w-IE. Their recognition by human anti-malaria antibodies from previously infected Tanzanian donors was also analysed. Methods The recombinant proteins were run on SDS-PAGE and Western blots for quantification and size estimation. Insect cell and E. coli-produced recombinant proteins were coupled to a bead-based Luminex assay to measure the plasma antibody reactivity of 180 samples collected from Tanzanian individuals. The recombinant proteins used for immunization of rats and antisera were also tested by flow cytometry for their ability to surface label 3D7PFD1235w-IE. Results All seven pAcGP67A constructs were successfully expressed as recombinant protein in baculovirus-infected insect cells and subsequently produced to a purity of 60-97% and a yield of 2-15 mg/L. By comparison, only three of seven pET101/D-TOPO constructs expressed in the E. coli system could be produced at all with purity and yield ranging from 3-95% and 6-11 mg/L. All seven insect cell, but only two of the E. coli produced proteins induced antibodies reactive with native PFD1235w expressed on 3D7PFD1235w-IE. The recombinant proteins were recognized in an age- and transmission intensity-dependent manner by antibodies from 180 Tanzanian individuals in a bead-based Luminex assay. Conclusions The baculovirus based insect cell

  10. Sulfate influx on band 3 protein of equine erythrocyte membrane (Equus caballus) using different experimental temperatures and buffer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, S; Piccione, D; Ielati, S; Bocchino, E G; Piccione, G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the anion transport in equine erythrocytes through the measurement of the sulfate uptake operating from band 3 using different experimental temperatures and buffer solutions. Blood samples of six clinically healthy horses were collected via jugular vein puncture, and an emochrome-citometric examination was performed. The blood was divided into four aliquots and by centrifugation and aspiration the plasma and buffy coat were carefully discarded. The red blood cells were washed with an isosmotic medium and centrifuged. The obtained cell suspensions were incubated with two different experimental buffer solutions (buffer A: 115 mM Na2SO4, 10 mM NaCl, 20 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 30 mM glucose; and buffer B: 115 mM Na2SO4, 10 mM NaCl, 20 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 30 mM MgCl2) in a water bath for 1 h at 25 °C and 37 °C. Normal erythrocytes, suspended at 3% hematocrit, were used to measure the SO4= influx by absorption spectrophotometry at 425 nm wavelength. Unpaired Student's t-test showed a statistically significant decrease (P buffer solutions. Comparing the buffer A with buffer B unpaired Student's t-test showed statistically lower values (P < 0.0001) for A solution versus B solution both at 25 °C and at 37 °C. The greater inhibition of SO4 (=) influx measured in equine erythrocytes indicates the increased formation of the sulfydryl bonds in band 3 and the modulation of the sulfydryl groups, culminating in the conformational changes in band 3. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. 3D7-derived Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 is a frequent target of naturally acquired antibodies recognizing protein domains in a particular pattern independent of malaria transmission intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Louise; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Turner, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria is largely mediated by IgG against surface Ags such as the erythrocyte membrane protein 1 family (PfEMP1) responsible for antigenic variation and sequestration of infected erythrocytes. PfEMP1 molecules can be divided into groups A, B/A, B, C, and B......, the sequence by which individuals acquired Abs to particular constructs was largely the same in the three villages. This indicates that the pattern of PfEMP1 expression by parasites transmitted at the different sites was similar, suggesting that PfEMP1 expression is nonrandom and shaped by host......-parasite relationship factors operating at all transmission intensities....

  12. Factors influencing erythrocyte choline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B L; Jenden, D J; Tang, C; Read, S

    1989-01-01

    Choline concentrations in human erythrocytes increase after freezing and thawing, during incubation in Krebs-phosphate for 30 min or on storage at 0 degrees C for 3-24 hr. The increase is prevented by protein precipitation by 10% perchloric acid, 10% zinc hydroxide, 10% sodium tungstate or boiling in water. It is not prevented by EDTA (10 mM) and is increased by oleate (5 mM). We suggest that the increase is due to the action of phospholipase D on erythrocyte phospholipids.

  13. Inflammation, insulin resistance, and diabetes--Mendelian randomization using CRP haplotypes points upstream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Brunner

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Raised C-reactive protein (CRP is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. According to the Mendelian randomization method, the association is likely to be causal if genetic variants that affect CRP level are associated with markers of diabetes development and diabetes. Our objective was to examine the nature of the association between CRP phenotype and diabetes development using CRP haplotypes as instrumental variables.We genotyped three tagging SNPs (CRP + 2302G > A; CRP + 1444T > C; CRP + 4899T > G in the CRP gene and measured serum CRP in 5,274 men and women at mean ages 49 and 61 y (Whitehall II Study. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c were measured at age 61 y. Diabetes was ascertained by glucose tolerance test and self-report. Common major haplotypes were strongly associated with serum CRP levels, but unrelated to obesity, blood pressure, and socioeconomic position, which may confound the association between CRP and diabetes risk. Serum CRP was associated with these potential confounding factors. After adjustment for age and sex, baseline serum CRP was associated with incident diabetes (hazard ratio = 1.39 [95% confidence interval 1.29-1.51], HOMA-IR, and HbA1c, but the associations were considerably attenuated on adjustment for potential confounding factors. In contrast, CRP haplotypes were not associated with HOMA-IR or HbA1c (p = 0.52-0.92. The associations of CRP with HOMA-IR and HbA1c were all null when examined using instrumental variables analysis, with genetic variants as the instrument for serum CRP. Instrumental variables estimates differed from the directly observed associations (p = 0.007-0.11. Pooled analysis of CRP haplotypes and diabetes in Whitehall II and Northwick Park Heart Study II produced null findings (p = 0.25-0.88. Analyses based on the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (1,923 diabetes cases, 2,932 controls using three SNPs in tight linkage disequilibrium with our

  14. Correlation between Interleukin-6 (IL-6, High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP, Endothelin-1 (ET-1, Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA and Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in Central Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Hidayat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that obesity was closely related to insulin resistance via several pathways such as inflammation, oxidative stress, lipolysis, and endothelial dysfunction. This study was carried out to observe the correlation between inflammation (IL-6 and hsCRP, lipolysis process (ET-1, and endothelial dysfunction (ADMA and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in centrally obese men. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study on 62 male subjects aged 30–60 years old with waist circumference (WC >90 cm. IL-6, ET-1 and ADMA levels were measured using ELISA method, while hsCRP and insulin were measured using chemiluminescence method. All blood testings were conducted in Prodia Clinical Laboratory. RESULTS: The results showed that WC was significantly correlated with hsCRP (r=0.294, p=0.022, ET-1 (r=0.257, p=0.047 and ADMA (r=0.338, p=0.009. We also found a significant correlation between hsCRP with HOMA-IR (r=0.324, p=0.021, ADMA with HOMA-IR (r=0.280, p=0.045 and IL-6 with hsCRP (r=0.437, p=0.003. CONCLUSIONS: hsCRP and ADMA have significant correlation with HOMA-IR in centrally obese men. HOMA-IR significantly increases in subjects with ADMA above median and either IL-6 or hsCRP above median, as compared to those in the other groups. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are important causal pathways of insulin resistance state in centrally obese men. KEYWORDS: obesity, IL-6, hsCRP, ET-1, ADMA, HOMA-IR.

  15. EFFECT OF CRP ON SOME OF THE IN VITRO PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Nayeri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the most important underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD which recently has been classified as an inflammatory disorder. Accumulation of large amounts of oxidized LDL in the intima during local inflammation reaction led to increase several factors such as C -reactive protein (CRP. It has also been reported that CRP is able to bind with modified forms of LDL as well as oxidized LDL. These findings suggest possible positive or negative involvement of this protein in atherogenesis. The main objective of the present study was to assess the influence of CRP on LDL oxidation and the possible physical \\changes of LDL in the presence of CRP in vitro.    METHODS: In this study, the susceptibility of purified LDL to oxidation was assayed by monitoring of formation of conjugated dienes in different physiological concentrations of CRP (0 - 0.5 -2  µg/ml using a shimadzu spectrophotometer. Electrophoresis was used to determine the electrophoretic mobility of LDL in those conditions.    RESULTS: CRP significantly reduced the susceptibility of Cu++ -induced LDL oxidation through increasing the lag timeand there was positive relationship between these findings and CRP concentration (P < 0.05. CRP caused a significant reduction in the electrophotretic mobility of LDL compared to native LDL (n-LDL (P<0.05.     CONCLUSION: A considerable reduction was shown in LDL oxidation, in higher concentration of CRP, via an unknown mechanism. The electrophoretic mobility of LDL, in the oxidative condition, decreases in the presence of CRP compared to n-LDL, which can be indicative of the effect of this protein on the physical and chemical properties of LDL. It seems that, other pathway than LDL oxidation is responsible for the effect of CRP on the atherogenesis processes.      Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Creactive protein, Low-density lipoprotein, Inflammation.  

  16. CRP-dependent positive autoregulation and proteolytic degradation regulate competence activator Sxy of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaskólska, Milena; Gerdes, Kenn

    2015-01-01

    is positively autoregulated at the level of transcription by a mechanism that requires cAMP receptor protein (CRP), cyclic AMP (cAMP) and a CRP-S site in the sxy promoter. Similarly, we found no evidence that Sxy expression in E. coli was regulated at the translational level. However, our analysis revealed...

  17. ChIP-exo interrogation of Crp, DNA, and RNAP holoenzyme interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latif, Haythem; Federowicz, Stephen; Ebrahim, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Numerous in vitro studies have yielded a refined picture of the structural and molecular associations between Cyclic-AMP receptor protein (Crp), the DNA motif, and RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. In this study, high-resolution ChIP-exonuclease (ChIP-exo) was applied to study Crp binding in vivo...

  18. Design of cAMP-CRP-activated promoters in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, P; Holst, B; Søgaard-Andersen, L

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the deoP2 promoter of Escherichia coli to define features that are required for optimal activation by the complex of adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Systematic mutagenesis of deoP2 shows that the distance between the CRP site and the -10...

  19. Functional changes in the properties of the β-adrenoreceptors of pigeon erythrocytes under the action of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, K.M.; Bulargina, T.V.; Severin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The β-adrenoreceptors were solubilized from the plasma membranes of pigeon erythrocytes, treated with N-ethylmaleimide, using deoxycholate. The removal of the deoxycholate leads to incorporation of receptors into phospholipid vesicles and a restoration of their biological activity. After fusion of vesicles containing reconstituted receptors with vesicles containing the N/sub s/-protein and the catalytic component, a restoration of the hormonal activity of the enzyme was observed. If vesicles containing β-adrenoreceptors were incubated before fusion with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, the hormonal activity of the preparation obtained was lowered by 45-50%. The decrease in activity occurred on account of an increase in the lag phase of activation of the enzyme in the presence of isoproterenol and GPP(NH)p, as well as on account of a decrease in the activity in the stationary phase of activation. Phosphorylation of the β-adrenoreceptors leads to a decrease in the content of the ternary isoproterenol-receptor-N/sub s/-protein complex, participating in the activation of adenylate cyclase. Thus, phosphorylation of the receptors leads to disruptions of the mechanism of transmission of the hormonal signal, analogous to those observed in the desensitization of adenylate cyclase

  20. Possible role of plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in assessing compliance with occupational hygiene and safety practices in waste management workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Odewabi, Adenike A; Oritogun, Kolawole S; Ekor, Martins

    2013-05-01

    Work-related health and safety risks are common among waste management workers (WMWs). This study investigated the level of compliance with safety measures in relation to levels of inflammatory markers among WMWs in Sagamu, South-West Nigeria. WMWs comprising 30 cart pushers (CPs) and 50 truck users (TUs) were recruited alongside 45 people from the normal population as control. Data on health complaints were obtained from questionnaire surveys. Inflammation was assessed by measuring plasma ceruloplasmin (Cp), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin. WMWs exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and poor compliance with health and safety measures. Significant (P footwear between TUs and CPs. ESR, Cp, and CRP increased significantly (P safety measures. ESR and Cp may be useful predictors of occupational hygiene and compliance with safety measures among Nigerian WMWs.

  1. Induction of transient radioresistance in human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokosz, Anita; Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    Human erythrocytes suspended in an isotonic Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 (hematocrit of 2%), were irradiated with γ-rays with single and split doses under air or N 2 O in order to determine the physicochemical changes caused by the dose inducing an increase in resistance to radiation-induced hemolysis. The obtained results showed that under the applied irradiation conditions, the dose of 0.4 kGy induced changes in erythrocytes, which were responsible for temporary resistance of erythrocytes to hemolysis. We concluded that the observed resistance is caused mainly by the structural changes in proteins

  2. A single point in protein trafficking by Plasmodium falciparum determines the expression of major antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes targeted by human antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jo-Anne; Howell, Katherine B; Langer, Christine; Maier, Alexander G; Hasang, Wina; Rogerson, Stephen J; Petter, Michaela; Chesson, Joanne; Stanisic, Danielle I; Duffy, Michael F; Cooke, Brian M; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Bull, Peter C; Marsh, Kevin; Fowkes, Freya J I; Beeson, James G

    2016-11-01

    Antibodies to blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum play a pivotal role in human immunity to malaria. During parasite development, multiple proteins are trafficked from the intracellular parasite to the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs). However, the relative importance of different proteins as targets of acquired antibodies, and key pathways involved in trafficking major antigens remain to be clearly defined. We quantified antibodies to surface antigens among children, adults, and pregnant women from different malaria-exposed regions. We quantified the importance of antigens as antibody targets using genetically engineered P. falciparum with modified surface antigen expression. Genetic deletion of the trafficking protein skeleton-binding protein-1 (SBP1), which is involved in trafficking the surface antigen PfEMP1, led to a dramatic reduction in antibody recognition of IEs and the ability of human antibodies to promote opsonic phagocytosis of IEs, a key mechanism of parasite clearance. The great majority of antibody epitopes on the IE surface were SBP1-dependent. This was demonstrated using parasite isolates with different genetic or phenotypic backgrounds, and among antibodies from children, adults, and pregnant women in different populations. Comparisons of antibody reactivity to parasite isolates with SBP1 deletion or inhibited PfEMP1 expression suggest that PfEMP1 is the dominant target of acquired human antibodies, and that other P. falciparum IE surface proteins are minor targets. These results establish SBP1 as part of a critical pathway for the trafficking of major surface antigens targeted by human immunity, and have key implications for vaccine development, and quantifying immunity in populations.

  3. Role of erythrocyte tropomodulin in the biomechanics and topology of the erythrocyte membrane skeletal network

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Terrell Ann

    2010-01-01

    The erythrocyte membrane skeleton is a multi-protein complex providing mechanical properties and stability to erythrocytes. Defects in the skeleton can manifest in dysfunction and disease such as hemolytic anemia. Erythrocyte tropomodulin (E-Tmod) is a slow-growing end actin-capping protein and has been proposed that together with tropomyosin 5 or 5b they form a "molecular ruler" which dictates protofilament length of 37 nm in the network. In this study, the role for E-Tmod in the network org...

  4. Subcompartmentalisation of proteins in the rhoptries correlates with ordered events of erythrocyte invasion by the blood stage malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Zuccala

    Full Text Available Host cell infection by apicomplexan parasites plays an essential role in lifecycle progression for these obligate intracellular pathogens. For most species, including the etiological agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, infection requires active host-cell invasion dependent on formation of a tight junction - the organising interface between parasite and host cell during entry. Formation of this structure is not, however, shared across all Apicomplexa or indeed all parasite lifecycle stages. Here, using an in silico integrative genomic search and endogenous gene-tagging strategy, we sought to characterise proteins that function specifically during junction-dependent invasion, a class of proteins we term invasins to distinguish them from adhesins that function in species specific host-cell recognition. High-definition imaging of tagged Plasmodium falciparum invasins localised proteins to multiple cellular compartments of the blood stage merozoite. This includes several that localise to distinct subcompartments within the rhoptries. While originating from the same organelle, however, each has very different dynamics during invasion. Apical Sushi Protein and Rhoptry Neck protein 2 release early, following the junction, whilst a novel rhoptry protein PFF0645c releases only after invasion is complete. This supports the idea that organisation of proteins within a secretory organelle determines the order and destination of protein secretion and provides a localisation-based classification strategy for predicting invasin function during apicomplexan parasite invasion.

  5. MetR and CRP bind to the Vibrio harveyi lux promoters and regulate luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Jaidip; Miyamoto, Carol M; Zouzoulas, Athina; Lang, B Franz; Skouris, Nicolas; Meighen, Edward A

    2002-10-01

    The induction of luminescence in Vibrio harveyi at the later stages of growth is controlled by a quorum-sensing mechanism in addition to nutritional signals. However, the mechanism of transmission of these signals directly to the lux promoters is unknown and only one regulatory protein, LuxR, has been shown to bind directly to lux promoter DNA. In this report, we have cloned and sequenced two genes, crp and metR, coding for the nutritional regulators, CRP (cAMP receptor protein) and MetR (a LysR homologue), involved in catabolite repression and methionine biosynthesis respectively. The metR gene was cloned based on a general strategy to detect lux DNA-binding proteins expressed from a genomic library, whereas the crp gene was cloned based on its complementation of an Escherichia coli crp mutant. Both CRP and MetR were shown to bind to lux promoter DNA, with CRP being dependent on the presence of cAMP. Expression studies indicated that the two regulators had opposite effects on luminescence: CRP was an activator and MetR a repressor. Disruption of crp decreased luminescence by about 1,000-fold showing that CRP is a major activator of luminescence the same as LuxR, whereas disruption of MetR resulted in activation of luminescence over 10-fold, confirming its function as a repressor. Comparison of the levels of the autoinducers involved in quorum sensing excreted by V. harveyi, and the crp and metR mutants, showed that autoinducer production was not significantly different, thus indicating that the nutritional signals do not affect luminescence by changing the levels of the signals required for quorum sensing. Indeed, the large effects of these nutritional sensors show that luminescence is controlled by multiple signals related to the environment and the cell density which must be integrated at the molecular level to control expression at the lux promoters.

  6. Osteoprotegerin improves risk detection by traditional cardiovascular risk factors and hsCRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Haahr-Pedersen, Sune Ammentorp; Bjerre, Mette

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association of plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) to hospitalisation for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), ischaemic stroke and all-cause mortality, and the effect of combining plasma OPG and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)....

  7. Allelic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 entails variant-specific red cell surface epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Vigan-Womas

    Full Text Available The clonally variant Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1 adhesin is a virulence factor and a prime target of humoral immunity. It is encoded by a repertoire of functionally differentiated var genes, which display architectural diversity and allelic polymorphism. Their serological relationship is key to understanding the evolutionary constraints on this gene family and rational vaccine design. Here, we investigated the Palo Alto/VarO and IT4/R29 and 3D7/PF13_003 parasites lines. VarO and R29 form rosettes with uninfected erythrocytes, a phenotype associated with severe malaria. They express an allelic Cys2/group A NTS-DBL1α(1 PfEMP1 domain implicated in rosetting, whose 3D7 ortholog is encoded by PF13_0003. Using these three recombinant NTS-DBL1α(1 domains, we elicited antibodies in mice that were used to develop monovariant cultures by panning selection. The 3D7/PF13_0003 parasites formed rosettes, revealing a correlation between sequence identity and virulence phenotype. The antibodies cross-reacted with the allelic domains in ELISA but only minimally with the Cys4/group B/C PFL1955w NTS-DBL1α. By contrast, they were variant-specific in surface seroreactivity of the monovariant-infected red cells by FACS analysis and in rosette-disruption assays. Thus, while ELISA can differentiate serogroups, surface reactivity assays define the more restrictive serotypes. Irrespective of cumulated exposure to infection, antibodies acquired by humans living in a malaria-endemic area also displayed a variant-specific surface reactivity. Although seroprevalence exceeded 90% for each rosetting line, the kinetics of acquisition of surface-reactive antibodies differed in the younger age groups. These data indicate that humans acquire an antibody repertoire to non-overlapping serotypes within a serogroup, consistent with an antibody-driven diversification pressure at the population level. In addition, the data provide important information for vaccine design, as

  8. The Severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with transcript levels of var genes encoding endothelial protein C receptor-binding P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkumbaye, Sixbert I; Wang, Christian W; Lyimo, Eric

    2017-01-01

    By attaching infected erythrocytes to the vascular lining, Plasmodium falciparum parasites leave blood circulation and avoid splenic clearance. This sequestration is central to pathogenesis. Severe malaria is associated with parasites expressing an antigenically distinct P. falciparum erythrocyte...

  9. Increased LDL cholesterol and CRP in infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Svarrer, Eva Martha Madsen; Damm, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Proatherogenic stimuli during foetal life may predispose to development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) expression is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis.......Proatherogenic stimuli during foetal life may predispose to development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) expression is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis....

  10. Plasticity of regulation of mannitol phosphotransferase system operon by CRP-cAMP complex in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan Yan; Zhang, Hong Zhi; Liang, Wei Li; Zhang, Li Juan; Zhu, Jun; Kan, Biao

    2013-10-01

    The complex of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) and cAMP is an important transcriptional regulator of numerous genes in prokaryotes. The transport of mannitol through the phosphotransferase systems (PTS) is regulated by the CRP-cAMP complex. The aim of the study is to investigate how the CRP-cAMP complex acting on the mannitol PTS operon mtl of the Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype. The crp mutant strain was generated by homologous recombination to assess the need of CRP to activate the mannitol PTS operon of V. cholerae El Tor. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and the reporter plasmid pBBRlux were used to confirm the role that the CRP-cAMP complex playing on the mannitol PTS operon mtl. In this study, we confirmed that CRP is strictly needed for the activation of the mtl operon. We further experimentally identified five CRP binding sites within the promoter region upstream of the mannitol PTS operon mtl of the Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype and found that these sites display different affinities for CRP and provide different contributions to the activation of the operon. The five binding sites collectively confer the strong activation of mannitol transfer by CRP in V. cholerae, indicating an elaborate and subtle CRP activation mechanism. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatty acid profile of maternal and fetal erythrocytes and placental expression of fatty acid transport proteins in normal and intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Renata P; Mucci, Daniela B; Fonseca, Fernanda C P; Marcondes, Henrique; Sardinha, Fátima L C; Citelli, Marta; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G

    2017-10-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), mainly docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic acids (AA), are critical for adequate fetal growth and development. We investigated mRNA expression of proteins involved in hydrolysis, uptake and/or transport of fatty acids in placenta of fifteen full term normal pregnancies and eleven pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with normal umbilical blood flows. The mRNA expression of LPL, FATPs (-1, -2 and -4) and FABPs (-1 and -3) was increased in IUGR placentas, however, tissue profile of LC-PUFA was not different between groups. Erythrocytes from both mothers and fetuses of the IUGR group showed lower concentrations of AA and DHA and inferior DHA/ALA ratio compared to normal pregnancies (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that reduced circulating levels of AA and DHA could up-regulate mRNA expression of placental fatty acids transporters, as a compensatory mechanism, however this failed to sustain normal LC-PUFA supply to the fetus in IUGR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Navarro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (−0.132, p < 0.05 with hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  13. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals binding residues for the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surface glycoprotein (SU, gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV must bind to a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4, to invade CD4+ cells. Plasmodium vivax uses the Duffy Binding Protein (DBP to bind the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC and invade reticulocytes. Results Variable loop 3 (V3 of HIV-1 SU and domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax DBP share a sequence similarity. The site of amino acid sequence similarity was necessary, but not sufficient, for DARC binding and contained a consensus heparin binding site essential for DARC binding. Both HIV-1 and P. vivax can be blocked from binding to their chemokine receptors by the chemokine, RANTES and its analog AOP-RANTES. Site directed mutagenesis of the heparin binding motif in members of the DBP family, the P. knowlesi alpha, beta and gamma proteins abrogated their binding to erythrocytes. Positively charged residues within domain 1 are required for binding of P. vivax and P. knowlesi erythrocyte binding proteins. Conclusion A heparin binding site motif in members of the DBP family may form part of a conserved erythrocyte receptor binding pocket.

  14. Study of factors that interfere in the labelling process of erythrocytes and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutfilen, Bianca

    1989-01-01

    The labelling of red blood cells (RBC) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) depends on several factors, as the stannous ion (Sn++) concentration, time, temperature, the presence of plasma proteins (PP) and others. However the Sn++ concentration seems to be the most important factor; probably because the uptake of this reducing agent by RBC is limited. The excess of Sn++ in extracellular medium can determine the labelling of PP. the modifications of RBC at 50 deg C described in the literature, the possibility of labelling RBC with Tc-99m at this temperature and experimental results obtained made it possible to perform spleen selective scintigraphy through a simple technique with few manipulations. The effect of gentamicin, nifedipine and verapamil in the labelling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m was studied because of similarities between Ca++ and Sn++. The results show that, under some conditions, these drugs are capable to alter this Tc-99m incorporation. The modification of the ionic distribution determined by these drugs or the blockage of Sn++ and/or Tc-99m or the fact that they bind theirselves to plasma proteins, or the possibility of the labelling of these drugs, are factors that can interfere in the labelling process of red blood cells and plasma proteins with Tc-99m. (author)

  15. Agreement between the DAS28-CRP assessed with 3 and 4 variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents in the daily clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2013-01-01

    The Disease Activity Score-28-C-reactive Protein 4 [DAS28-CRP(4)] composite measure for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on 4 variables: tender and swollen joint counts, CRP, and patient global assessment. DAS28-CRP(3) includes only 3 variables, because patient global assessment has been omitted...

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21, Free Fatty Acid (FFA, High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hsCRP and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR Among Indonesian Obese Non-Diabetic Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Lina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21 is known as an important endocrine and paracrine regulator of metabolic homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that FGF21 attenuates lipolysis in human adipocytes, which is suggested as a FGF21's mechanism as anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hyperglycemia and anti-obesity. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between FGF21, FFA, hsCRP and HOMA-IR among Indonesian obese non diabetic males. METHODS: The study was observational with cross sectional design. The analysis was done in 137 subjects aged 30-60 years with non diabetic abdominal obesity. We measured the biochemical markers FGF21, FFA, hsCRP, fasting insulin and fasting glucose. We also measured weight, height, waist circumrefence (WC, creatinine, serum glutamin oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Correlation between markers was measured using Pearson and Spearman's analysis. RESULTS: There were significant positive correlations between FGF21-HOMA-IR (r=0.314, p=0.000; FGF21-WC (r=0.173, p=0.043; FFA=hsCRP r=0.270, p=0.001; and WC-HOMA-IR (r=0.279, p=0.001. There was significant negative correlation between FGF21-FFA (r=-0.038, p=0.657 and FGF21-hsCRP (r=-0.061, p=0.482. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that although there was no significant correlation, FGF21 might act as an anti-lipolytic and anti-inflammation agent among Indonesian obese non-diabetic males. Our findings agree with results of previous studies that the positive correlation between FGF21-WC and FGF21-HOMA-IR might occur as a compensatory mechanism or resistance to FGF21 in obesity. KEYWORDS: obesity, FGF21, FFA, hsCRP, HOMA-IR.

  17. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals a functional heparin binding motif involved in binding to the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV surface glycoprotein gp120 (SU, gp120 and the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP bind to chemokine receptors during infection and have a site of amino acid sequence similarity in their binding domains that often includes a heparin binding motif (HBM. Infection by either pathogen has been found to be inhibited by polyanions. Results Specific polyanions that inhibit HIV infection and bind to the V3 loop of X4 strains also inhibited DBP-mediated infection of erythrocytes and DBP binding to the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC. A peptide including the HBM of PvDBP had similar affinity for heparin as RANTES and V3 loop peptides, and could be specifically inhibited from heparin binding by the same polyanions that inhibit DBP binding to DARC. However, some V3 peptides can competitively inhibit RANTES binding to heparin, but not the PvDBP HBM peptide. Three other members of the DBP family have an HBM sequence that is necessary for erythrocyte binding, however only the protein which binds to DARC, the P. knowlesi alpha protein, is inhibited by heparin from binding to erythrocytes. Heparitinase digestion does not affect the binding of DBP to erythrocytes. Conclusion The HBMs of DBPs that bind to DARC have similar heparin binding affinities as some V3 loop peptides and chemokines, are responsible for specific sulfated polysaccharide inhibition of parasite binding and invasion of red blood cells, and are more likely to bind to negative charges on the receptor than cell surface glycosaminoglycans.

  18. The treatment of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes with chloroquine leads to accumulation of ferriprotoporphyrin IX bound to particular parasite proteins and to the inhibition of the parasite's 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famin O.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FPIX is a potentially toxic product of hemoglobin digestion by intra-erythrocytic malaria parasites. It is detoxified by biomineralization or through degradation by glutathione. Both processes are inhibited by the antimalarial drug chloroquine, leading to the accumulation of FPIX in the membranes of the infected cell and their consequent permeabilization. It is shown here that treatment of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes with chloroquine also leads to the binding of FPIX to a subset of parasite proteins. Parasite enzymes such as aldolase, pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphate kinase and pyrimidine 5'- nucleotidase were inhibited by FPIX in vitro, but only the activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase was reduced significantly in cells after drug treatment. Additional proteins were extracted from parasite cytosol by their ability to bind FPIX. Sequencing of these proteins identified heat shock proteins 90 and 70, enolase, elongation factor 1-α, phoshoglycerate kinase, glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase and gametocytogenesis onset-specific protein. The possible involvement of these proteins in the antimalarial mode of action of chloroquine is discussed. It is concluded that drug-induced binding of FPIX to parasite glycolytic enzymes could underlie the demonstrable inhibition of glycolysis by chloroquine. The inhibition of 6- phosphogluconate dehydrogenase could explain the reduction of the activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt by the drug. Inhibition of both processes is deleterious to parasite survival. Binding of FPIX to other proteins is probably inconsequential to the rapid killing of the parasite by chloroquine.

  19. Normocyte-binding protein required for human erythrocyte invasion by the zoonotic malaria parasitePlasmodium knowlesi

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Robert W.; Sharaf, Hazem; Hastings, Claire H.; Ho, Yung Shwen; Nair, Mridul; Rchiad, ‍ Zineb; Knuepfer, Ellen; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Mohring, Franziska; Amir, Amirah; Yusuf, Noor A.; Hall, Joanna; Almond, Neil; Lau, Yee Ling; Pain, Arnab; Blackman, Michael J.; Holder, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant cause of malaria in Malaysia is now Plasmodium knowlesi, a zoonotic parasite of cynomolgus macaque monkeys found throughout South East Asia. Comparative genomic analysis of parasites adapted to in vitro growth in either cynomolgus or human RBCs identified a genomic deletion that includes the gene encoding normocyte-binding protein Xa (NBPXa) in parasites growing in cynomolgus RBCs but not in human RBCs. Experimental deletion of the NBPXa gene in parasites adapted to growth in human RBCs (which retain the ability to grow in cynomolgus RBCs) restricted them to cynomolgus RBCs, demonstrating that this gene is selectively required for parasite multiplication and growth in human RBCs. NBPXa-null parasites could bind to human RBCs, but invasion of these cells was severely impaired. Therefore, NBPXa is identified as a key mediator of P. knowlesi human infection and may be a target for vaccine development against this emerging pathogen.

  20. Normocyte-binding protein required for human erythrocyte invasion by the zoonotic malaria parasitePlasmodium knowlesi

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Robert W.

    2016-06-15

    The dominant cause of malaria in Malaysia is now Plasmodium knowlesi, a zoonotic parasite of cynomolgus macaque monkeys found throughout South East Asia. Comparative genomic analysis of parasites adapted to in vitro growth in either cynomolgus or human RBCs identified a genomic deletion that includes the gene encoding normocyte-binding protein Xa (NBPXa) in parasites growing in cynomolgus RBCs but not in human RBCs. Experimental deletion of the NBPXa gene in parasites adapted to growth in human RBCs (which retain the ability to grow in cynomolgus RBCs) restricted them to cynomolgus RBCs, demonstrating that this gene is selectively required for parasite multiplication and growth in human RBCs. NBPXa-null parasites could bind to human RBCs, but invasion of these cells was severely impaired. Therefore, NBPXa is identified as a key mediator of P. knowlesi human infection and may be a target for vaccine development against this emerging pathogen.

  1. Kinetics of B Cell responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in Ghanaian women naturally exposed to malaria parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampomah, Paulina; Stevenson, Liz; Ofori, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    . In this first, to our knowledge, longitudinal study of its kind, we measured B cell subset composition, as well as PfEMP1-specific Ab levels and memory B cell frequencies, in Ghanaian women followed from early pregnancy up to 1 y after delivery. Cell phenotypes and Ag-specific B cell function were assessed...... three times during and after pregnancy. Levels of IgG specific for pregnancy-restricted, VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1 increased markedly during pregnancy and declined after delivery, whereas IgG levels specific for two PfEMP1 proteins not restricted to pregnancy did not. Changes in VAR2CSA-specific memory B cell...

  2. Increased hsCRP is associated with higher risk of aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyme, Adam; Nielsen, Olav W.; Asferg, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate relations between inflammation and aortic valve stenosis (AS) by measuring high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, at baseline (hsCRP0) and after 1 year (hsCRP1) and exploring associations with aortic valve replacement (AVR). Design We examined 1423 patients from...... the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study. Results During first year of treatment, hsCRP was reduced both in patients later receiving AVR (2.3 [0.9–4.9] to 1.8 [0.8–5.4] mg/l, p CRP1...... predicted later AVR (HR = 1.17, p CRP0 (HR = 0.96, p = 0.33), aortic valve area (AVA) and other risk factors. A higher rate of AVR was observed in the group with high hsCRP0 and an increase during the first year (AVRhighCRP0CRP1inc=47.3% versus AVRhighCRP0CRP1dec=27.5%, p

  3. Serum hsCRP: A Novel Marker for Prediction of Cerebrovascular Accidents (Stroke).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patgiri, Dibyaratna; Pathak, Mauchumi Saikia; Sharma, Pradeep; Kutum, Tridip; Mattack, Nirmali

    2014-12-01

    Strokes are caused by disruption of the blood supply to the brain. This may result from either blockage or rupture of a blood vessel. Yearly 15 million people worldwide suffer a stroke. India ranks second worldwide in terms of deaths from stroke. The incidence of stroke increases with age affecting the economically productive middle aged population. Hypertension and male sex are other risk factors for stroke. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein whose concentration rises in blood following inflammation. Formerly, assays for CRP detected its rise only after significant inflammation. However, recently developed high sensitivity assays (hsCRP) enable the measurement of CRP in individuals who are apparently healthy. Several studies indicate that hsCRP is elevated in individuals who are at risk of developing Coronary Artery Disease or Cerebrovascular events, the elevation may be found years before the first detection of vascular problems. In the absence of other biochemical markers, the present study aimed to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic role of hsCRP in stroke. The study consisted of 50 patients of acute stroke admitted in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital. The control population consisted of two groups - 50 age and sex matched controls with hypertension (Hypertensive control group) and 50 age and sex matched controls with no obvious disease constituted the Normal control group. hsCRP levels were measured in all the groups and compared statistically. hsCRP is an acute phase reactant whose concentration rises in stroke as well as in those at risk. The rise may be identified even before the appearance of risk factors. Hence, hsCRP may be useful as a predictive and diagnostic marker in stroke.

  4. The enhanced UV-sensitivity of Escherichia coli uvr A crp strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skavronskaya, A.G.; Aleshkin, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    Mutations in genes cya and crp do not affect the UV cell sensitivity of Escherichia coli of wild type in relation to repairs of UV-injuries and UV induced mutations yield. Mutations in gene crp (protein defect of catabolitic activator - cap) result in UV sensitivity decrease of E. coli uvrA strain, imperfect as to the first stage of excision repairs not decreasing the quantity of revertants, induced by the UV-light

  5. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, N.; Kumari, Minal; Kalra, Nitish; Arjun, P.; Naik, Savitha B.; Pradeep, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of progranulin (PGRN) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP) in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis. PMID:24191130

  6. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis.

  7. Analysis of OLAB, BNP and CRP levels in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Fu Lei; Luo Jun

    2004-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of coronary heart disease and the effect of therapy on unstable angina pectoris (UAP) OLAB, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and supersensitive C reaction protein(CRP) levels in the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease were detected. The OLAB, BNP and CRP levels and their correlations in the plasma of 124 patients with coronary heart disease and 30 controls were determined by chemiluminescence and ELISA technique, respectively. The OLAB, BNP and CRP levels of 48 UAP patients after PTCA were also analyzed. The BNP and CRP levels of patients with coronary heart disease, especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and UAP patients to stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients were higher than those of controls (P<0.01). The OLAB levels in AMI patients was higher than UAP, SAP and controls (P<0.05). There was a significant difference of OLAB, BNP and CRP levels in UAP patients before and after PTCA therapy (P<0.05). OLAB, BNP and CRP, which is involved in the developing procedure of coronary heart disease, may be used to predict the long-term cardiac function recover. OLAB, BNP and CRP levels in UAP patients were decreased significantly after PTCA and may also be considered as the therapy effect observing markers. OLAB takes part in the whole procedure of coronary atherosclerosis and the occurrence and ending of AMI. (authors)

  8. Correlation of CRP, Fasting Serum Triglycerides and Obesity as Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation of C-reactive protein (CRP) with fasting triglycerides (TG) among pre-obese and obese patients without established diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Study Design: A comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2010. Methodology: Patients with BMI > 23 kg/m2 aged between 18 - 65 years were inducted and above variables were studied. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, patients on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications and febrile patients were not recruited. Body mass index was also determined. Independent sample t-test was applied to see the mean difference of age, CRP level and triglycerides level in relation to gender. Chisquare test was used to see the association between qualitative variables. ANOVA was applied to see CRP and fasting serum TG level in relation to BMI categories. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression was applied to see the dependency of CRP and triglycerides with BMI. P-value A = 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Raised CRP was major finding among all groups of BMI. Most of obese and pre-obese patients were young and middle aged and belonged to pre-obese group followed by class-1 and class-2 obesity. CRP level increased with body mass index. No such trend was observed for triglycerides. There was an intermediate positive correlation between CRP and BMI and triglycerides and BMI showed a weak negative correlation. If BMI increases by 1 unit on the average, CRP rises by 0.239 times and this unit rise was significant. Whereas 1 unit rise increase in triglycerides on the average cause CRP to decrease -0.006 times but this value was insignificant. Conclusion: Raised CRP and high fasting TG were major findings in all age groups especially among young and middle aged people. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and raised CRP are interrelated suggesting that obesity is not

  9. Correlation of CRP, fasting serum triglycerides and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, Samar

    2014-05-01

    To determine the correlation of C-reactive protein (CRP) with fasting triglycerides (TG) among pre-obese and obese patients without established diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). A comparative cross-sectional study. Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2010. Patients with BMI > 23 kg/m2 aged between 18 - 65 years were inducted and above variables were studied. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, patients on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications and febrile patients were not recruited. Body mass index was also determined. Independent sample t-test was applied to see the mean difference of age, CRP level and triglycerides level in relation to gender. Chi-square test was used to see the association between qualitative variables. ANOVA was applied to see CRP and fasting serum TG level in relation to BMI categories. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression was applied to see the dependency of CRP and triglycerides with BMI. P-value ² 0.05 was taken as significant. Raised CRP was major finding among all groups of BMI. Most of obese and pre-obese patients were young and middle aged and belonged to pre-obese group followed by class-1 and class-2 obesity. CRP level increased with body mass index. No such trend was observed for triglycerides. There was an intermediate positive correlation between CRP and BMI and triglycerides and BMI showed a weak negative correlation. If BMI increases by 1 unit on the average, CRP rises by 0.239 times and this unit rise was significant. Whereas 1 unit rise increase in triglycerides on the average cause CRP to decrease -0.006 times but this value was insignificant. Raised CRP and high fasting TG were major findings in all age groups especially among young and middle aged people. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and raised CRP are interrelated suggesting that obesity is not only linked to hypertriglyceridemia but vascular inflammation among pre-obese and obese

  10. Does erythrocyte sedimentation rate reflect and discriminate flare from infection in systemic lupus erythematosus? Correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters of disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Valentin Sebastian; Weiß, Katharina; Krause, Andreas; Schmidt, Wolfgang Andreas

    2018-07-01

    To examine disease activity parameters in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experiencing flare, infection, both, or neither condition, focusing on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). This study is a retrospective analysis of 371 consecutive inpatient SLE cases from 2006 to 2015. Cases were classified as flare (n = 147), infection (n = 48), both (n = 23), or neither (n = 135). ESR levels were correlated to C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, anti-dsDNA antibodies, complement C3 reduction, serositis, and erythrocyturia with proteinuria (Pearson's correlation). ESR levels were related to an age- and gender-adapted cut-off value (ESRp). We analyzed mean values of age, ESR, ESRp, CRP, ferritin and distribution of anti-dsDNA antibodies, C3 reduction, serositis, and erythrocyturia with proteinuria. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated via receiver operating characteristic or two-by-two table. Association of parameters with disease activity and infection was tested via two-sided chi square test. ESR correlated moderately with CRP in cases with flare and/or infection (r = 0.505-0.586). While ESR and CRP were normal in remission, mean values overlapped in cases with flare, infection, or both. ESRp was higher in flare than in infection (p = 0.048). ESR lost association to activity in infected cases, CRP to infection in flaring cases. ESRp, serositis, and anti-dsDNA antibodies were related to disease activity regardless of infections. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were most sensitive for detecting flares (74%), while serositis, proteinuria with erythrocyturia, anti-dsDNA antibodies, C3 reduction, and ESRp values ≥ 2 were most specific. ESR levels were raised by flares, infections, and age; adapting them to age and gender increased their diagnostic value. Obtaining several parameters remains necessary to differentiate flare from infection.

  11. Association of CRP gene polymorphism with CRP levels and Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Askari Sede, Saeed; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban; Majidi, Shahla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Methods: We performed coronary angiography for 308 T2DM patients and classified them into two groups: T2DM with CAD and T2DM without CAD. All patients were from Ahvaz, Iran. serum levels of CRP, glucose and lipid profile were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the severity of coronary artery disease was determined by Gensini score. Results: The GG genotype of SNP rs279421 was associated with the increased risk of CAD (OR= 2.38; 95% CI: 1.12- 5.8; p= 0.02) and CA, TT, TA genotypes and A allele of SNP rs3091244 and GA genotypes and A allele of SNP rs3093062 were significantly associated with increased CRP levels. None of genotypes or alleles was associated with Gensini score. We found that the haplotype 7 (AGCG) was associated with decreased risk of CAD (OR= 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.66; p= 0.017) and the Gensini score was correlated with increased levels of CRP, only in CAD group. Conclusion: Although genetic polymorphisms were influenced on serum RP levels, none of the alleles and genotypes raising or falling C-reactive protein levels was consistently associated with an increased prevalence of CAD or protected from that. PMID:25337466

  12. CRP and suPAR are differently related to anthropometry and subclinical organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Sehestedt, Thomas; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) independently predict CVD. We tested the hypothesis that these biomarkers reflect different aspects...... of the inflammation associated with CVD. METHODS: We studied 2273 subjects without CVD. Log-transformed CRP and suPAR were included in general linear and logistic regression models to compare associations with measures of anthropometry and subclinical organ damage (SOD). Owing to interactions on body mass index (BMI......) (P3: 1.31 (1.16-1.47), whereas log-CRP was not (1.00 (0.89-1.11))). CONCLUSIONS: CRP is positively associated with anthropometric measures, whereas suPAR is linked to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis....

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis of Young and Old Erythrocytes of Fish

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    Miriam Götting

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding gene expression changes over the lifespan of cells is of fundamental interest and gives important insights into processes related to maturation and aging. This study was undertaken to understand the global transcriptome changes associated with aging in fish erythrocytes. Fish erythrocytes retain their nuclei throughout their lifetime and they are transcriptionally and translationally active. However, they lose important functions during their lifespan in the circulation. We separated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss erythrocytes into young and old fractions using fixed angle-centrifugation and analyzed transcriptome changes using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq technology and quantitative real-time PCR. We found 930 differentially expressed between young and old erythrocyte fractions; 889 of these showed higher transcript levels in young, while only 34 protein-coding genes had higher transcript levels in old erythrocytes. In particular genes involved in ion binding, signal transduction, membrane transport, and those encoding various enzyme classes are affected in old erythrocytes. The transcripts with higher levels in old erythrocytes were associated with seven different GO terms within biological processes and nine within molecular functions and cellular components, respectively. Our study furthermore found several highly abundant transcripts as well as a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs for which the protein products are currently not known revealing the gaps of knowledge in most non-mammalian vertebrates. Our data provide the first insight into changes involved in aging on the transcriptional level and thus opens new perspectives for the study of maturation processes in fish erythrocytes.

  14. Erythrocyte metallothionein as an index of zinc status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, A.; Bailey, L.B.; Cousins, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Metallothionein concentrations in erythrocyte lysates derived from human subjects were measured by an ELISA procedure. IgG obtained from serum of sheep injected with human metallothionein 1 was used in this competitive assay. Subjects were fed a semipurified zinc-deficient diet for an 8-day depletion period after 3 days of acclimation. Fasting plasma zinc concentrations were reduced ∼7%. Metallothionein in the erythrocyte lysates was significantly decreased to 59% of the initial level by the end of the depletion period. Supplementation of these depleted subjects with zinc did not increase erythrocyte metallothionein levels within 24 hr. Daily supplementation of control subjects with zinc increased erythrocyte metallothionein to a 7-fold maximum within 7 days. These levels were reduced by 61% within 14 days after zinc supplementation was terminated. Incubation of rat [ 35 S]metallothionein with human erythrocyte lysate showed a time-dependent increase in 35 S soluble in 20% trichloroacetic acid, indicating degradation of the labeled protein, presumably via protease activity in the lysate. It is proposed that zinc supplementation induces erythrocyte metallothionein during erythropoiesis and that low zinc intake decreases synthesis and/or accelerates degradation of the protein in reticulocytes/erythrocytes. Metallothionein levels in erythrocytes may provide a useful index upon which to assess zinc status in humans

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric proteins contribute to cytoadherence and anchor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 to the host cell cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberli, Alexander; Zurbrügg, Laura; Rusch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    is anchored to the cytoskeleton, and the Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric (PHIST) gene family plays a role in many host cell modifications including binding the intracellular domain of PfEMP1. Here, we show that conditional reduction of the PHIST protein PFE1605w strongly reduces adhesion...... interacts with both the intracellular segment of PfEMP1 and with cytoskeletal components. This is the first report of a PHIST protein interacting with key molecules of the cytoadherence complex and the host cytoskeleton, and this functional role seems to play an essential role in the pathology of P...

  16. Study of High Sensitive-CRP and Cardiac Marker Enzymes in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna R,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation has been proposed as a contributor to different stages in the pathogenesis of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. High sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP, an acute-phase plasma protein synthesized by the liver, is the most extensively studied systemic marker of inflammation. Elevated hsCRP concentrations early in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS, prior to the tissue necrosis, may be a surrogate marker for cardiovascular co-morbidities. The cardiac marker enzymes Creatine Kinase myocardial bound (CK-MB, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH have been known to be increased in coronary artery diseases. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure hs-CRP levels and other cardiac marker enzymes in ACS patients and to compare the levels of hs-CRP with other cardiac marker enzymes between ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI and Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI patients. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 207 consecutive patients admitted to Sri Siddhartha Medical College Hospital within the first 6 hours from the onset of chest pain. Patients were diagnosed as Unstable Angina (UA, (n=84; STEMI (n=63 and NSTEMI (n=60. ACS patients were compared with 211 healthy age and sex matched controls. Hs-CRP, CK-MB, AST and LDH levels were measured by standard methods in both groups at baseline and forcases at 36-48 hours i.e. Peak levels. Results: ACS patients had significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of hs-CRP, CKMB, AST and LDH in comparison to controls at baseline. Hs-CRP, CK-MB, AST and LDH levels were significantly higher in STEMI patients compared to NSTEMI patients (p<0.05 at baseline. There was a significant difference regarding peak hs-CRP levels between the two groups, as STEMI patients had significantly higher peak hs-CRP levels compared to NSTEMI patients (p<0.05. Conclusion: STEMI patients have significantly higher peak hsCRP levels compared to NSTEMI patients. These data

  17. Haplotypes in the CRP Gene Associated with Increased BMI and Levels of CRP in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Obesity from Southwestern Mexico

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    América Martínez-Calleja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, type 2 diabetes (T2D, obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. Methods. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. Results. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG was associated with increased levels of CRP (β=0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P=0.005 and haplotype 7 (TGGG with higher body mass index (BMI (β=0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P<0.001. The risk score for coronary heart disease was associated with increased levels of CRP, but not with any polymorphism or haplotype. Conclusions. The association between the TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 with obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

  18. Does C-reactive protein have a value in early detection of infection after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?

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    Behrouz Ghazimoghadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL has produced a great revolution in the treatment of the urolithiasis. Bacteriemia, bacteriuria, and septic shock are the documented complaints for which early diagnosis and treatment can be vital. C-reactive protein (CRP, an acute phase reactant, serves as a marker of the infection before other measures. In this study, we measured the CRP value in the early detection of bacteriemia and bacteriuria after ESWL.Methods: In 2005, we sought patients who had urolithiasis and were candidates for ESWL, and we recruited such patients for this study. The inclusion criteria were sterile urine and a negative CRP test. The patients who participated in the study were requested to undergo laboratory tests on the third and seventh days after ESWL. After the resulting data were entered into the SPSS-11.5 data analysis software, the analyses were done with Chi squared test.Results: Among the studied subjects, 29 out of 97 (29.9% had a positive CRP test and 16 (15.2% had positive urine cultures. There was no significant statistical relationship between the CRP tests and the urine cultures (P value > 0.05. On the third day, the relationship between CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR was significant (P value < 0.001. The positive predictive values of CRP were 0.087 and 0.214, and the negative predictive values were 0.87 and 0.963. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP were 18.2% and 74.1% (first stage, respectively, and 60% and 82.5% (second stage, respectively.Conclusions: We were unable to determine what the diagnostic value of CRP should be in the early detection of infection after ESWL. Additional studies are needed to provide greater insight into this issue.

  19. Relationship of HS CRP and Sacroiliac Joint Inflammation in Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te-Jung; Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Heng-Yi; Hsu, Chun-Sheng; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2018-01-01

    Elevation of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level has been demonstrated as a risk factor for varying diseases, as well as a biomarker for predicting recovery after operation of lumber disc herniation. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between serum hs-CRP and sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA). In this retrospective study, we enrolled patients with uSpA who underwent hs-CRP testing between January 2007 and September 2013. Serum hs-CRP was analyzed at our central laboratory. All enrolled patients underwent skeletal scintigraphic scan with quantitative sacroiliac measurement. A total of 29 patients were enrolled with mean age 32.27 years and female:male ratio of 6:23. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant difference between hs-CRP in serum and SI/S ratio in uSpA, particularly the middle part of the sacroiliac joint, either right side or left side. The significantly high concentration of serum hs-CRP might indicate a systemic inflammatory response to flare-up of the SI joint and might be an indicator of SI inflammation in uSpA.

  20. Relationship of HS CRP and Sacroiliac Joint Inflammation in Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te-Jung; Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Heng-Yi; Hsu, Chun-Sheng; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective Elevation of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level has been demonstrated as a risk factor for varying diseases, as well as a biomarker for predicting recovery after operation of lumber disc herniation. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between serum hs-CRP and sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA). Methods In this retrospective study, we enrolled patients with uSpA who underwent hs-CRP testing between January 2007 and September 2013. Serum hs-CRP was analyzed at our central laboratory. All enrolled patients underwent skeletal scintigraphic scan with quantitative sacroiliac measurement. Results A total of 29 patients were enrolled with mean age 32.27 years and female:male ratio of 6:23. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significant difference between hs-CRP in serum and SI/S ratio in uSpA, particularly the middle part of the sacroiliac joint, either right side or left side. The significantly high concentration of serum hs-CRP might indicate a systemic inflammatory response to flare-up of the SI joint and might be an indicator of SI inflammation in uSpA. PMID:29785410

  1. High CRP values predict poor survival in patients with penile cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, Sandra; Kuczyk, Markus A; Schrader, Andres J; Al Ghazal, Andreas; Steinestel, Julie; Lehmann, Rieke; Wegener, Gerd; Schnoeller, Thomas J; Cronauer, Marcus V; Jentzmik, Florian; Schrader, Mark

    2013-01-01

    High levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) have recently been linked to poor clinical outcome in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative serum CRP level in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. This retrospective analysis included 79 penile cancer patients with information about their serum CRP value prior to surgery who underwent either radical or partial penectomy at two German high-volume centers (Ulm University Medical Center and Hannover Medical School) between 1990 and 2010. They had a median (mean) follow-up of 23 (32) months. A significantly elevated CRP level (>15 vs. ≤ 15 mg/l) was found more often in patients with an advanced tumor stage (≥pT2) (38.9 vs. 11.6%, p=0.007) and in those with nodal disease at diagnosis (50.0 vs. 14.6%, p=0.007). However, high CRP levels were not associated with tumor differentiation (p=0.53). The Kaplan-Meier 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was 38.9% for patients with preoperative CRP levels above 15 mg/l and 84.3% for those with lower levels (p=0.001). Applying multivariate analysis and focusing on the subgroup of patients without metastasis at the time of penile surgery, both advanced local tumor stage (≥pT2; HR 8.8, p=0.041) and an elevated CRP value (>15 mg/l; HR 3.3, p=0.043) were identified as independent predictors of poor clinical outcome in patients with penile cancer. A high preoperative serum CRP level was associated with poor survival in patients with penile cancer. If larger patient populations confirm its prognostic value, its routine use could enable better risk stratification and risk-adjusted follow-up of patients with SCC of the penis

  2. Oxidative Hemolysis of Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodek, Lidia; Kusior, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    This exercise for students will allow them to simultaneously observe lipid peroxidation and consequent hemolysis of rat erythrocytes and the effect of sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, on these processes. It will also demonstrate a protective action of antioxidants, the therapeutically used N-acetylcysteine and albumins present in plasma.

  3. Experiment study and FEM simulation on erythrocytes under linear stretching of optical micromanipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Song, Huadong; Zhu, Panpan; Lu, Hao; Tang, Qi

    2017-08-01

    The elasticity of erythrocytes is an important criterion to evaluate the quality of blood. This paper presents a novel research on erythrocytes' elasticity with the application of optical tweezers and the finite element method (FEM) during blood storage. In this work, the erythrocytes with different in vitro times were linearly stretched by trapping force using optical tweezers and the time dependent elasticity of erythrocytes was investigated. The experimental results indicate that the membrane shear moduli of erythrocytes increased with the increasing in vitro time, namely the elasticity was decreasing. Simultaneously, an erythrocyte shell model with two parameters (membrane thickness h and membrane shear modulus H) was built to simulate the linear stretching states of erythrocytes by the FEM, and the simulations conform to the results obtained in the experiment. The evolution process was found that the erythrocytes membrane thicknesses were decreasing. The analysis assumes that the partial proteins and lipid bilayer of erythrocyte membrane were decomposed during the in vitro preservation of blood, which results in thin thickness, weak bending resistance, and losing elasticity of erythrocyte membrane. This study implies that the FEM can be employed to investigate the inward mechanical property changes of erythrocyte in different environments, which also can be a guideline for studying the erythrocyte mechanical state suffered from different diseases.

  4. P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes: evidence of a detoxification mechanism in fish erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2013-12-05

    Blood is a site of physiological transport for a great variety of molecules, including xenobiotics. Blood cells in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish, are directly exposed to aquatic pollution. P-gp are ubiquitous "membrane detoxification proteins" implicated in the cellular efflux of various xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may be pollutants. The existence of this P-gp detoxification system inducible by benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), a highly cytotoxic PAH, was investigated in the nucleated erythrocytes of brown trout. Western blot analysis showed the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in trout erythrocytes. Primary cultures of erythrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of BaP showed no evidence of cell toxicity. Yet, in the same BaP-treated erythrocytes, P-gp expression increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Brown trout P-gp erythrocytes act as membrane defence mechanism against the pollutant, a property that can be exploited for future biomarker development to monitor water quality.

  5. Anti-bacterial activity of Achatina CRP and its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sandip; Barman, Soma; Mandal, Narayan Chandra; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-07-01

    The physiological role of C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute-phase protein, is not well documented, despite many reports on biological effects of CRP in vitro and in model systems in vivo. It has been suggested that CRP protects mice against lethal toxicity of bacterial infections by implementing immunological responses. In Achatina fulica CRP is a constitutive multifunctional protein in haemolymph and considered responsible for their survival in the environment for millions of years. The efficacy of Achatina CRP (ACRP) was tested against both Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis infections in mice where endogenous CRP level is negligible even after inflammatory stimulus. Further, growth curves of the bacteria revealed that ACRP (50 microg/mL) is bacteriostatic against gram negative salmonellae and bactericidal against gram positive bacilli. ACRP induced energy crises in bacterial cells, inhibited key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes such as phosphofructokinase in glycolysis, isocitrate dehydrogenase in TCA cycle, isocitrate lyase in glyoxylate cycle and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in gluconeogenesis. ACRP disturbed the homeostasis of cellular redox potential as well as reduced glutathione status, which is accompanied by an enhanced rate of lipid peroxidation. Annexin V-Cy3/CFDA dual staining clearly showed ACRP induced apoptosis-like death in bacterial cell population. Moreover, immunoblot analyses also indicated apoptosis-like death in ACRP treated bacterial cells, where activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) and caspase-3 was noteworthy. It is concluded that metabolic impairment by ACRP in bacterial cells is primarily due to generation of reactive oxygen species and ACRP induced anti-bacterial effect is mediated by metabolic impairment leading to apoptosis-like death in bacterial cells.

  6. Failure of CRP decline within three days of hospitalization is associated with poor prognosis of Community-acquired Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Bang; Baunbæk Egelund, Gertrud Louise; Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute phase protein used to monitor the patient's response during treatment in infectious diseases. Mortality from Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) remains high, particularly in hospitalized patients. Better risk prediction during hospitaliza......BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute phase protein used to monitor the patient's response during treatment in infectious diseases. Mortality from Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) remains high, particularly in hospitalized patients. Better risk prediction during...... hospitalization could improve management and ultimately reduce mortality levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate CRP on the 3rd day (CRP3) of hospitalization as a predictor for 30 days mortality. METHODS: A retrospective multicentre cohort study of adult patients admitted with CAP at three Danish hospitals....... Predictive associations of CRP3 (absolute levels and relative decline) and 30 days mortality were analysed using receiver operating characteristics and logistic regression. RESULTS: Eight hundred and fourteen patients were included and 90 (11%) died within 30 days. The area under the curve for CRP3 level...

  7. High-sensitivity CRP discriminates HNF1A-MODY from other subtypes of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tim J; Shields, Beverley M; Lawry, Jane; Owen, Katharine R; Gloyn, Anna L; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2011-08-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) as a result of mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A) is often misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Recent work has shown that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels are lower in HNF1A-MODY than type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or glucokinase (GCK)-MODY. We aim to replicate these findings in larger numbers and other MODY subtypes. hs-CRP levels were assessed in 750 patients (220 HNF1A, 245 GCK, 54 HNF4-α [HNF4A], 21 HNF1-β (HNF1B), 53 type 1 diabetes, and 157 type 2 diabetes). hs-CRP was lower in HNF1A-MODY (median [IQR] 0.3 [0.1-0.6] mg/L) than type 2 diabetes (1.40 [0.60-3.45] mg/L; P MODY (1.45 [0.46-2.88] mg/L; P MODY (0.60 [0.30-1.80] mg/L; P MODY (0.60 [0.10-2.8] mg/L; P = 0.07). hs-CRP discriminated HNF1A-MODY from type 2 diabetes with hs-CRP MODY than other forms of diabetes and may be used as a biomarker to select patients for diagnostic HNF1A genetic testing.

  8. Threat-related amygdala activity is associated with peripheral CRP concentrations in men but not women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Prather, Aric A.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2017-01-01

    Increased levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with increased risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. The brain mechanisms that may underlie the association between peripheral inflammation and internalizing problems remain to be determined. The present study examines associations between peripheral CRP concentrations and threat-related amygdala activity, a neural biomarker of depression and anxiety risk, in a sample of 172 young adult undergraduate students. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while performing an emotional face matching task to obtain a measure of threat-related amygdala activity to angry and fearful faces; CRP concentrations were assayed from dried blood spots. Results indicated a significant interaction between CRP and sex: in men, but not women, higher CRP was associated with higher threat-related amygdala activity. These results add to the literature finding associations between systemic levels of inflammation and brain function and suggest that threat-related amygdala activity may serve as a potential pathway through which heightened chronic inflammation may increase risk for mood and anxiety problems. PMID:28183031

  9. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing [gamma- 32 P]ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the 32 P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references

  10. Haplotypes in the CRP gene associated with increased BMI and levels of CRP in subjects with type 2 diabetes or obesity from Southwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Calleja, América; Quiróz-Vargas, Irma; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco A; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Vences-Velázquez, Amalia; Cruz, Miguel; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG) was associated with increased levels of CRP (β = 0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P = 0.005) and haplotype 7 (TGGG) with higher body mass index (BMI) (β = 0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

  11. Pretransplant Levels of CRP and Interleukin-6 Family Cytokines; Effects on Outcome after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Henrik Tvedt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several pretransplant factors, including CRP (C-reactive protein levels, reflect the risk of complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. IL-6 induces CRP increase, and we therefore investigated the effects of pretransplant IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptors, IL-6 family cytokines and CRP serum levels on outcome for 100 consecutive allotransplant recipients. All patients had related donors, none had active infections and 99 patients were in complete remission before conditioning. The incidence of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD requiring treatment was 40%, survival at Day +100 82%, and overall survival 48%. Despite a significant correlation between pretransplant CRP and IL-6 levels, only CRP levels significantly influenced transplant-related mortality (TRM. However, CRP did not influence overall survival (OS. Pretransplant IL-31 influenced late TRM. Finally, there was a significant association between pretransplant IL-6 and early postconditioning weight gain (i.e., fluid retention, and this fluid retention was a risk factor for aGVHD, TRM and OS. To conclude, pretransplant CRP, IL-31 and early posttransplant fluid retention were independent risk factors for TRM and survival after allotransplantation.

  12. The ratio of CRP to prealbumin levels predict mortality in patients with hospital-acquired acute kidney injury

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    Hao Chuanming

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and human studies suggest that inflammation and malnutrition are common in acute kidney injury (AKI patients. However, only a few studies reported CRP, a marker of inflammation, albumin, prealbumin and cholesterol, markers of nutritional status were associated with the prognosis of AKI patients. No study examined whether the combination of inflammatory and nutritional markers could predict the mortality of AKI patients. Methods 155 patients with hospital-acquired AKI were recruited to this prospective cohort study according to RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Lost or End Stage Kidney criteria. C-reactive protein (CRP, and the nutritional markers (albumin, prealbumin and cholesterol measured at nephrology consultation were analyzed in relation to all cause mortality of these patients. In addition, CRP and prealbumin were also measured in healthy controls (n = 45, maintenance hemodialysis (n = 70 and peritoneal dialysis patients (n = 50 and then compared with AKI patients. Results Compared with healthy controls and end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, patients with AKI had significantly higher levels of CRP/prealbumin (p 28 days. Similarly, the combined factors including the ratio of CRP to albumin (CRP/albumin, CRP/prealbumin and CRP/cholesterol were also significantly higher in the former group (p p = 0.027 while the others (CRP, albumin, prealbumin, cholesterol, CRP/albumin and CRP/cholesterol became non-significantly associated. The hazard ratio was 1.00 (reference, 1.85, 2.25 and 3.89 for CRP/prealbumin increasing according to quartiles (p = 0.01 for the trend. Conclusions Inflammation and malnutrition were common in patients with AKI. Higher level of the ratio of CRP to prealbumin was associated with mortality of AKI patients independent of the severity of illness and it may be a valuable addition to SOFA score to independent of the severity of illness and it may be a

  13. CRP-Cyclic AMP Regulates the Expression of Type 3 Fimbriae via Cyclic di-GMP in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

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    Ching-Ting Lin

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscesses of diabetic patients in Asian countries. However, the effects of elevated blood glucose levels on the virulence of this pathogen remain largely unknown. Type 3 fimbriae, encoded by the mrkABCDF genes, are important virulence factors in K. pneumoniae pathogenesis. In this study, the effects of exogenous glucose and the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP signaling pathway on type 3 fimbriae expression regulation were investigated. The production of MrkA, the major subunit of type 3 fimbriae, was increased in glucose-rich medium, whereas cAMP supplementation reversed the effect. MrkA production was markedly increased by cyaA or crp deletion, but slightly decreased by cpdA deletion. In addition, the mRNA levels of mrkABCDF genes and the activity of PmrkA were increased in Δcrp strain, as well as the mRNA levels of mrkHIJ genes that encode cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP-related regulatory proteins that influence type 3 fimbriae expression. Moreover, the activities of PmrkHI and PmrkJ were decreased in ΔlacZΔcrp strain. These results indicate that CRP-cAMP down-regulates mrkABCDF and mrkHIJ at the transcriptional level. Further deletion of mrkH or mrkI in Δcrp strain diminished the production of MrkA, indicating that MrkH and MrkI are required for the CRP regulation of type 3 fimbriae expression. Furthermore, the high activity of PmrkHI in the ΔlacZΔcrp strain was diminished in ΔlacZΔcrpΔmrkHI, but increased in the ΔlacZΔcrpΔmrkJ strain. Deletion of crp increased the intracellular c-di-GMP concentration and reduced the phosphodiesterase activity. Moreover, we found that the mRNA levels of multiple genes related to c-di-GMP metabolism were altered in Δcrp strain. These indicate that CRP regulates type 3 fimbriae expression indirectly via the c-di-GMP signaling pathway. In conclusion, we found evidence of a coordinated regulation of type 3 fimbriae expression by the CRP

  14. Bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in lipid-symmetric erythrocytes assessed by a photoactivable phospholipid analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, D.; Schlegel, R.A.; Williamson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed for maintenance of transbilayer phospholipid asymmetry in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, one involving specific interactions between the aminophospholipids of the inner leaflet of the bilayer and the cytoskeleton, particularly spectrin, and the other involving the aminophospholipid translocase. If the former mechanism is correct, then erythrocytes which have lost their asymmetric distribution of phospholipids should display altered bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions. To test this possibility, normal erythrocytes, erythrocytes from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or sickle disease, and lipid-symmetric and -asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts were labeled with the radioactive photoactivable analogue of phosphatidylethanolamine, 2-(2-azido-4-nitrobenzoyl)-1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho[ 14 C] ethanolamine ([ 14 C]AzPE), previously shown to label cytoskeletal proteins from the bilayer. The labeling pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in pathologic erythrocytes and lipid-asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts was indistinguishable from normal erythrocytes, indicating that the probe detects no differences in bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in these cells. In contrast, in lipid-symmetric erythrocyte ghosts, labeling of bands 4.1 and 4.2 and actin, and to a lesser extent ankyrin, by [ 14 C]AzPE was considerably reduced. Significantly, however, labeling of spectrin was unaltered in the lipid-symmetric cells. These results do not support a model in which spectrin is involved in the maintenance of an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in erythrocytes

  15. Association Between Free Fatty Acid (FFA) and Insulin Resistance: the Role of Inflammation (Adiponectin and High Sensivity C-reactive Protein/hs-CRP) and Stress Oxidative (Superoxide Dismutase/SOD) in Obese Non-Diabetic Individual

    OpenAIRE

    Sukmawati, Indriyanti Rafi; Donoseputro, Marsetio; Lukito, Widjaja

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is highly related to insulin resistance, therefore, the increased number of obesity is followed by the increased prevalence of type 2 Diabetes Melitus. Obesity is associated with increased of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, liver and endothelial cells. The increase of ROS would lead to insulin resistance (IR) and increased pro-inflammatory protein. FFA plays an important role in IR by inhibiting muscle glucose transport and oxidation via effects on serine/threonin...

  16. Electron Pathways through Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane in Human Physiology and Pathology: Potential Redox Biomarker?

    OpenAIRE

    Matteucci, Elena; Giampietro, Ottavio

    2007-01-01

    Erythrocytes are involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Since pH is the influential factor in the Bohr-Haldane effect, pHi is actively maintained via secondary active transports Na+/H+ exchange and HC3 -/Cl- anion exchanger. Because of the redox properties of the iron, hemoglobin generates reactive oxygen species and thus, the human erythrocyte is constantly exposed to oxidative damage. Although the adult erythrocyte lacks protein synthesis and cannot restore dama...

  17. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio; Asami, Koji

    2008-01-01

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes

  18. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio [Life Science Laboratory, Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Sony Bioinformatics Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Asami, Koji [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Division of Multidisciplinary Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: Yoshihito.Hayashi@jp.sony.com

    2008-05-21

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes.

  19. High-normal levels of hs-CRP predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    Full Text Available We performed a follow-up study to address whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels within the normal range can predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in healthy male subjects. Among15347 male workers between 30 and 59 years old who received annual health check-ups in 2002, a NAFLD-free cohort of 4,138 was followed through December 2009. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a questionnaire. At each visit, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to identify fatty liver disease. The COX proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between hs-CRP and incident NAFLD. During the follow-up period, 28.8% (1191 of 4138 of participants developed NAFLD. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were increased by hs-CRP categories within the normal range in the non-adjusted model and age-adjusted model. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, BMI, systolic BP, triglyceride, and fasting glucose, these incidences were only increased between the lowest and the highest hs-CRP categories. The risk for NAFLD increased as the hs-CRP level increased (p< 0.001. As the hs-CRP level increased within the healthy cohort, the risk of developing NAFLD increased. This trend remained true even if the hs-CRP level remained within the normal range. hs-CRP can be used as a predictor of NAFLD, as well as other obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, individuals with higher hs-CRP levels (even within the normal range may require appropriate follow-up and management to prevent NAFLD development.

  20. Fucoxanthin Induced Suicidal Death of Human Erythrocytes

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    Marilena Briglia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fucoxanthin, a carotenoid isolated from brown seaweeds, induces suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells and is thus considered for the treatment or prevention of malignancy. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cell, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include Ca2+ entry with increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, oxidative stress and activation of p38 kinase or protein kinase C. The present study explored, whether and how fucoxanthin induces eryptosis. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and abundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS from DCFDA dependent fluorescence and lipid peroxidation using BODIPY fluoresence. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to fucoxanthin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥ 50 µM, significantly decreased average forward scatter (≥ 25 µM, significantly increased hemolysis (≥ 25 µM, significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence (≥ 50 µM, significantly increased lipid peroxidation, but did not significantly modify DCFDA fluorescence. The effect of fucoxanthin on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+, and was insensitive to p38 kinase inhibitor skepinone (2 µM and to protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin (100 nM. Conclusion: Fucoxanthin triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect in part due to stimulation of Ca2+ entry.

  1. Diagnostic value of CRP and Lp(a) in coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbağci, Ayşe Binnur; Tarakçioğlu, Mehmet; Aksoy, Mehmet; Kocabaş, Ramazan; Nacak, Muradiye; Aynacioğlu, A Sükrü; Sivrikoz, Cumhur

    2002-06-01

    Increased lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] concentration was reported to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Recent epidemiological studies affirmed the value of C-reactive protein (CRP) as the strongest, univariate predictor of the cardiovascular events. We decided to establish cut-off levels providing maximum diagnostic efficiency for CHD. In this study we measured CRP and Lp(a) concentrations in patients with angiographically demonstrated CHD (group A, n: 120), patients without any angiographically demonstrable lesion (group B, n: 62) and a group of healthy subjects (group C, n: 41). Data were evaluated correcting for lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, age, and body mass index in men and women. ROC curve based cut-off values (comparing group A versus groups B and C) and associated diagnostic performances of the assays were evaluated. Significant increases were noted in serum CRP concentrations in men and women, in groups A vs. B,A vs. C, B vs. C. Lp(a) concentrations were not different among groups in men but were higher in group A vs. B and C in women. Optimal cut-off levels for CRP in women and men were found as 2.1 and 3.0 mg/l with the diagnostic values of 0.792 and 0.770, respectively. For Lp(a) optimal cut-off levels were found as 22.6 and 9.8 mg/dl with the diagnostic values of 0.612 and 0.596 in women and men, respectively. The CRP level is quite efficient for separation of patients from controls. Therefore keeping in mind the lack of specificity, the CRP level may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. However, the Lp(a) level is not efficient enough to support the use of Lp(a) measurement for management of coronary heart disease.

  2. Effect of flurbiprofen aretilon on serum hs-CRP, IL-6 levels in patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiakai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of flurbiprofen axetil on serum high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery. Methods: Thirty patients were divided into 2 groups with 15 cases each. The patients in groups A were given flurbiprofen axetil and those in group B were not as the controls. Serum hs-CRP (immuno-turbidity method) and IL-6 (RIA) levels were determined before anesthesia induction and after extubation. Results: The levels of serum hs-CRP, IL-6 were significantly higher in group B than those in group A (P<0.05). Conclusion: Flurbiprofen axetil could reduce serum hs-CRP, IL-6 levels in patients undergoing Esophageal cancer surgery. (authors)

  3. Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticle-conducting polymer nanocomposite based bioelectrode for CRP detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sujeet K; Sharma, Vikash; Kumar, Devendra; Rajesh

    2014-10-01

    An electrochemical impedance immunosensing method for the detection and quantification of C-reactive proteinCRP) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is demonstrated. The protein antibody, Ab-αCRP, has been covalently immobilized on a platform comprising of electrochemically deposited 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped gold nanoparticles Au(MPA)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite film of controlled thickness onto an indium tin oxide-coated glass plate. The free carboxyl groups present on the nanocomposite film have been used to site-specifically immobilize the Ab-αCRP biomolecules through a stable acyl amino ester intermediate generated by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide. The nanocomposite film was characterized by atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques. The bioelectrode was electrochemically analyzed using modified Randles circuit in terms of constant phase element (CPE), electron transfer resistance (R et), and Warburg impedance (Z w). The value of n, a CPE exponent used as a gauge of heterogeneity, for the Au-PPy nanocomposite film was found to be 0.56 which is indicative of a rather rough morphology and porous structure. A linear relationship between the increased ∆R et values and the logarithmic value of protein antigen, Ag-αCRP, concentrations was found in the range of 10 ng to 10 μg mL(-1) with a R et sensitivity of 46.27 Ω cm(2)/decade of [Ag-αCRP] in PBS (pH 7.4).

  4. Factors Affecting Conservation Practice Behavior of CRP Participants in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili Onianwa; Gerald Wheelock; Shannon Hendrix

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the factors that affect conservation practice choices of CRP farmers in Alabama. From over 9,000 contracts enrolled in the state between 1986 and 1995, 594 were randomly selected for the study. A multiple-regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results indicate that education, ratio ofcropland in CRP, farm size, gender, prior crop...

  5. Application value of Serum Hs-CRP, IL-6 and plasma FIB joint detection in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the application value of High sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and fibrinogen (FIB joint detection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods: A total of 181 COPD cases were divided to be COPD stable phase group (65 cases and COPD acute exacerbation phase group (116 cases per the course of disease. COPD acute exacerbation phase group was classified into grade I (39 cases, grade II (43 cases and grade III (34 cases based on pulmonary function. Then survival group (87 cases and death group (29 cases were divided based on illness transition. Meanwhile, 80 cases of healthy people at the same phase were set to be healthy group. Differences in levels of Serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and FIB in these groups were analyzed, and according to these indexes, prognostic potency of COPD acute exacerbation phase could be evaluated. Results: Difference in serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and FIB levels in COPD stable phase group, COPD acute exacerbation phase group and healthy group were statistical significant (P<0.05. both for healthy group CRP, IL-6 and FIB levels in grade I, II, III of pulmonary function in the COPD acute exacerbation phase group were statistical significant (P<0.05 both for grade 1 < grade 2 < grade 3. Result of person analyzing showed significant positive correlation on grading of pulmonary function and serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and FIB levels, the correlation coefficient was 0.573. Differences of hs-CRP, IL-6 and FIB levels between survival group and death group were statistical significant. Serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and FIB levels were utilized respectively to evaluate area under curve of receiver operating characteristic in prognostic COPD acute exacerbation phase group, namely, 0.836, 0.815, 0.776. Sensitivities of “death”, which was evaluated by the various indexes, respectively showed as: 72.41%, 65.51% and 75

  6. Chemopreventive and renal protective effects for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: implications of CRP and lipid peroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darweish MM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish oil-derived ω-3 fatty acids, like docosahexanoic (DHA, claim a plethora of health benefits. We currently evaluated the antitumor effects of DHA, alone or in combination with cisplatin (CP in the EAC solid tumor mice model, and monitored concomitant changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA and leukocytic count (LC. Further, we verified the capacity of DHA to ameliorate the lethal, CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and the molecular mechanisms involved therein. Results EAC-bearing mice exhibited markedly elevated LC (2-fold, CRP (11-fold and MDA levels (2.7-fold. DHA (125, 250 mg/kg elicited significant, dose-dependent reductions in tumor size (38%, 79%; respectively, as well as in LC, CRP and MDA levels. These effects for CP were appreciably lower than those of DHA (250 mg/kg. Interestingly, DHA (125 mg/kg markedly enhanced the chemopreventive effects of CP and boosted its ability to reduce serum CRP and MDA levels. Correlation studies revealed a high degree of positive association between tumor growth and each of CRP (r = 0.85 and leukocytosis (r = 0.89, thus attesting to a diagnostic/prognostic role for CRP. On the other hand, a single CP dose (10 mg/kg induced nephrotoxicity in rats that was evidenced by proteinuria, deterioration of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, -4-fold, a rise in serum creatinine/urea levels (2–5-fold after 4 days, and globally-induced animal fatalities after 7 days. Kidney-homogenates from CP-treated rats displayed significantly elevated MDA- and TNF-α-, but reduced GSH-, levels. Rats treated with DHA (250 mg/kg, but not 125 mg/kg survived the lethal effects of CP, and showed a significant recovery of GFR; while their homogenates had markedly-reduced MDA- and TNF-α-, but -increased GSH-levels. Significant association was detected between creatinine level and those of MDA (r = 0.81, TNF-α r = 0.92 and GSH (r = -0

  7. Thyroid disorders in patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis is associated with poor initial treatment response evaluated by disease activity score in 28 joints-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Hangaard, Jørgen; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2017-01-01

    peptide antibody (anti-CCP), and antinuclear antibody (ANA), and also disease activity score in 28 joints-C-reactive protein at the time of diagnosis and after 4 months (±1–2 months) of treatment initiation were extracted from Danish Danbio Registry. Patients’ electronic hospital records for the past 10...... years were reviewed to reveal if they had been diagnosed with thyroid disorders or they had abnormal thyroid test.In all, 439 patients were included, female 60.1%, mean age 64.6 ± 15.0 years and disease duration 2.6 ± 1.7 years. Prevalence of thyroid disorders was 69/439 (15.7%) and hypothyroidism...... treatment compared with patients with isolated RA after 4 months of treatment (P = .02). There were no associations between thyroid disorders and age, disease duration, and also IgM RF positivity.Presence of thyroid disorders in RA patients is suggestive of a more aggressive disease and poor outcome...

  8. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Novobiocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Lupescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Novobiocin, an aminocoumarin antibiotic, interferes with heat shock protein 90 and hypoxia inducible factor dependent gene expression and thus compromises cell survival. Similar to survival of nucleated cells, erythrocyte survival could be disrupted by eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and by phospholipd scrambling of the cell membrane with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i. The Ca2+ sensitivity of phospholipid scrambling is enhanced by ceramide. The present study explored, whether novobiocin elicits eryptosis. Methods: [Ca2+]i was estimated from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance utilizing fluorescent antibodies, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding. Results: A 48 hours exposure to novobiocin (500 µM was followed by a significant increase of [Ca2+]i, decrease of forward scatter, increase of annexin-V-binding and enhanced ceramide formation. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ virtually abrogated the increase of annexin-V-binding following novobiocin exposure. Conclusions: Novobiocin stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and formation of ceramide.

  9. [Ceruloplasmin receptor on human erythrocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, E L; Basevich, V V; Iaropolov, A I

    1988-08-01

    The structural fragments of the human ceruloplasmin (CP) molecule and of erythrocyte receptors which provide for the specific interaction of CP with erythrocytes were identified, and their properties were investigated. The interaction of CP with erythrocytes, both intact and treated with neuroaminidase and proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, papaine, pronase E) is described. Experiments with CP reception were performed at 4 degrees C, using [125I]CP and [125I]asialo-CP. The parameters of binding were determined in Scatchard plots. It was demonstrated that the specific binding of CP to erythrocyte receptors is determined by its interaction with two structural sites of the carbohydrate moiety of the CP molecule, i.e., the terminal residues of sialic acids and a site, (formula; see text) located at a large distance from the chain terminus.

  10. Expression of senescent antigen on erythrocytes infected with a knobby variant of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winograd, E.; Greenan, J.R.T.; Sherman, I.W.

    1987-01-01

    Erythrocytes infected with a knobby variant of Plasmodium falciparum selectively bind IgG autoantibodies in normal human serum. Quantification of membrane-bound IgG, by use of 125 I-labeled protein A, revealed that erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant bound 30 times more protein A than did noninfected erythrocytes; infection with a knobless variant resulted in less than a 2-fold difference compared with noninfected erythrocytes. IgG binding to knobby erythrocytes appeared to be related to parasite development, since binding of 125 I-labeled protein A to cells bearing young trophozoites (less than 20 hr after parasite invasion) was similar to binding to uninfected erythrocytes. By immunoelectron microscopy, the membrane-bound IgG on erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant was found to be preferentially associated with the protuberances (knobs) of the plasma membrane. The removal of aged or senescent erythrocytes from the peripheral circulation is reported to involve the binding of specific antibodies to an antigen (senescent antigen) related to the major erythrocyte membrane protein band 3. Since affinity-purified autoantibodies against band 3 specifically bound to the plasma membrane of erythrocytes infected with the knobby variant of P. falciparum, it is clear that the malaria parasite induces expression of senescent antigen

  11. Changes of BNP, ANP, ET and CRP levels in the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxing; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Luo Jun

    2004-01-01

    To explore the pathogenesis and provide evidence for the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by observing the levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), endothelins (ET), C-reactive protein (CRP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in plasma of the patients, BNP, ET, CRP and ANP levels in plasma of 46 AMI patients before and after therapy and 30 normal controls were detected by ELISA and immunoradiometric assay, respectively. Results showed that there were significant differences in BNP, ET, CRP and ANP levels in patients with AMI before and after therapy (P 0.05) after thrombolysis and other supporting therapy, the decreased BNP, ET and CRP were still significantly higher than those of control ( P<0.05). The changes of BNP, ANP, ET and CRP indicate that they involved in the occurrence and development of AMI, especially in the formation and disruption of atheromatous plaque and thrombosis. So the detection of BNP, ANP, ET and CRP levels was significant to the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis judgement

  12. Relationship of the Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Its Main Components with CRP Levels in the Spanish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, Carlos; Castillo, Elisa; Mostaza, Jose M; de Dios, Olaya; Salinero-Fort, Miguel A; González-Alegre, Teresa; García-Iglesias, Francisca; Estirado, Eva; Laguna, Fernando; Sanchez, Vanesa; Sabín, Concesa; López, Silvia; Cornejo, Victor; de Burgos, Carmen; Garcés, Carmen

    2018-03-20

    Background: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet seems to be inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. A 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) has been developed to assess dietary compliance. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether each of the MEDAS questions as well as their final score were associated with the levels of CRP in general Spanish population. Cross-sectional analysis of 1411 subjects (mean age 61 years, 43.0% males) randomly selected from the general population. CRP levels were determined by a commercial ELISA kit. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the 14-point MEDAS. Results: There was an inverse correlation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the CRP concentration, even after adjusting by age, gender, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, statin treatment and hypertension treatment ( p = 0.041). Subjects who consume ≥2 servings of vegetables per day ( p = 0.003), ≥3 pieces of fruit per day ( p = 0.003), ≥1 serving of butter, margarine, or cream per day ( p = 0.041) or ≥3 servings of fish/seafood per week ( p = 0.058) had significantly lower levels of CRP. Conclusions : Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet measured by a simple questionnaire is associated with lower CRP concentration. However, this association seems to be particularly related to a higher consumption of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, and fish.

  13. Fluorescence energy transfer on erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.M.; Hof, M.; Lawaczeck, R.

    1995-08-01

    Stationary and time-dependent fluorescence have been measured for a donor/acceptor (DA) pair bound to membrane proteins of bovine erythrocyte ghosts. The donor N-(p-(2-benzoxazolyl)phenyl)-maleimid (BMI) and the acceptor fluram bind to SH- and NH 2 -residues, respectively. The fluorescence spectra and the time-dependent emission are consistent with a radiationless fluorescence energy transfer (RET). The density of RET-effective acceptor binding sites c=0.072 nm -2 was calculated on the basis of the two-dimensional Foerster-kinetic. Band3 protein is the only membrane spanning protein with accessible SH-groups, and therefore only effective binding sites on the band3 protein are counted for the RET measurements performed. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Early prediction of treatment response by serum CRP levels in patients with advanced esophageal cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    Serum C reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to be associated with the progression of esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between treatment response and serum CRP levels in time course during definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in terms of early prediction of CRT response by serum CRP. The subjects of this study were 36 patients with cT3/cT4 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent definitive CRT in our hospital. Serum CRP levels during definitive CRT (pretreatment, 1W, 2W and 3W after CRT initiation) were compared between CR and non-CR group. In addition, partition model was constructed to discriminate CR with non-CR and the prediction accuracy was evaluated. The patients were consisted of 28 males and 8 females. At pretreatment diagnosis, tumors were categorized as T3 (n=21) and T4 (n=15). Thirty four patients received FP-based chemotherapy and 2 patients received docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Treatment responses were categorized as CR (n=8), partial response (PR) (n=14), no change (NC) (n=2) and progressive disease (PD) (n=12). Serum CRP levels at the time of 2W after CRT initiation (CRT2W) in CR group were low compared to those in non-CR group (p=0.071). The partition model was constructed based on CRP levels at CRT2W. The prediction accuracies to discriminate CR from non-CR by CRP ≤0.1 were 50%, 82%, and 75% in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, respectively. Serum CRP is a useful biomarker for an early prediction of CRT response. (author)

  15. Obesity, Inflammation and Acute Myocardial Infarction - Expression of leptin, IL-6 and high sensitivity-CRP in Chennai based population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Karthick

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity, characterised by increased fat mass and is currently regarded as a pro-inflammatory state and often associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD including Myocardial infarction. There is an upregulation of inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6, interleukin-6 receptor and acute phase protein CRP in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI patients but the exact mechanism linking obesity and inflammation is not known. It is of our interest to investigate if serum leptin (ob gene product is associated with AMI and correlated with inflammatory proteins namely Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and high sensitivity - C reactive protein (hs-CRP. Results Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in AMI patients when compared to Non-CVD controls. IL-6 and hs-CRP were also elevated in the AMI group and leptin correlated positively with IL-6 and hs-CRP. Incidentally this is the first report from Chennai based population, India. Conclusions The strong correlation between serum levels of leptin and IL-6 implicates an involvement of leptin in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines during AMI. We hypothesise that the increase in values of IL-6, hs-CRP and their correlation to leptin in AMI patients could be due to participation of leptin in the signaling cascade after myocardial ischemia.

  16. Obesity, Inflammation and Acute Myocardial Infarction - Expression of leptin, IL-6 and high sensitivity-CRP in Chennai based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Karthick; Devarajan, Nalini; Ganesan, Manohar; Ragunathan, Malathi

    2012-08-14

    Obesity, characterised by increased fat mass and is currently regarded as a pro-inflammatory state and often associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including Myocardial infarction. There is an upregulation of inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6, interleukin-6 receptor and acute phase protein CRP in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) patients but the exact mechanism linking obesity and inflammation is not known. It is of our interest to investigate if serum leptin (ob gene product) is associated with AMI and correlated with inflammatory proteins namely Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity - C reactive protein (hs-CRP). Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in AMI patients when compared to Non-CVD controls. IL-6 and hs-CRP were also elevated in the AMI group and leptin correlated positively with IL-6 and hs-CRP. Incidentally this is the first report from Chennai based population, India. The strong correlation between serum levels of leptin and IL-6 implicates an involvement of leptin in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines during AMI. We hypothesise that the increase in values of IL-6, hs-CRP and their correlation to leptin in AMI patients could be due to participation of leptin in the signaling cascade after myocardial ischemia.

  17. Regulation of crp gene expression by the catabolite repressor/activator, Cra, in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongge; Aboulwafa, Mohammad; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    Growth of E. coli on several carbon sources is dependent on the catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein although a Cra consensus DNA-binding site is not present in the control regions of the relevant catabolic operons. We show that Cra regulates growth by activating expression of the crp gene. It thereby mediates catabolite repression of catabolic operons by an indirect mechanism. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Plasmodium falciparum secretome in erythrocyte and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani eSoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of deadly malaria disease. It is an intracellular eukaryote and completes its multi-stage life cycle spanning the two hosts viz, mosquito and human. In order to habituate within host environment, parasite conform several strategies to evade host immune responses such as surface antigen polymorphism or modulation of host immune system and it is mediated by secretion of proteins from parasite to the host erythrocyte and beyond, collectively known as, malaria secretome. In this review, we will discuss about the deployment of parasitic secretory protein in mechanism implicated for immune evasion, protein trafficking, providing virulence, changing permeability and cyto-adherence of infected erythrocyte. We will be covering the possibilities of developing malaria secretome as a drug/vaccine target. This gathered information will be worthwhile in depicting a well-organized picture for host-pathogen interplay during the malaria infection and may also provide some clues for development of novel anti-malarial therapies.

  19. Clinical Significance of Determination of the Serum Levels of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhaojun; Zheng Jing; Sun Weili; Yuan Yuan; Tao Jian; Li Weipeng

    2010-01-01

    To explore the clinical significance the serum levels of N-Terminal proB-Type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with acute coronary syndrome,the serum levels of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP in patients and normal controls were determined by ECi Immunity Analyzer and radioimmunoassay respectively. The results showed that the serum levels of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP in patients with acute coronary syndrome were significantly higher than that of controls (P<0.05). The diagnostic specificity for acute coronary syndrome was 100% by combined detection of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP. The results suggest that the combined detection of serum NT-proBNP and hs-CRP levels are very important to evaluate heart function in patients with acute coronary syndrome. (authors)

  20. A mutant crp allele that differentially activates the operons of the fuc regulon in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Lin, E C

    1988-05-01

    L-Fucose is used by Escherichia coli through an inducible pathway mediated by a fucP-encoded permease, a fucI-encoded isomerase, a fucK-encoded kinase, and a fucA-encoded aldolase. The adolase catalyzes the formation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-lactaldehyde. Anaerobically, lactaldehyde is converted by a fucO-encoded oxidoreductase to L-1,2-propanediol, which is excreted. The fuc genes belong to a regulon comprising four linked operons: fucO, fucA, fucPIK, and fucR. The positive regulator encoded by fucR responds to fuculose 1-phosphate as the effector. Mutants serially selected for aerobic growth on propanediol became constitutive in fucO and fucA [fucO(Con) fucA(Con)], but noninducible in fucPIK [fucPIK(Non)]. An external suppressor mutation that restored growth on fucose caused constitutive expression of fucPIK. Results from this study indicate that this suppressor mutation occurred in crp, which encodes the cyclic AMP-binding (or receptor) protein. When the suppressor allele (crp-201) was transduced into wild-type strains, the recipient became fucose negative and fucose sensitive (with glycerol as the carbon and energy source) because of impaired expression of fucA. The fucPIK operon became hyperinducible. The growth rate on maltose was significantly reduced, but growth on L-rhamnose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, glycerol, or glycerol 3-phosphate was close to normal. Lysogenization of fuc+ crp-201 cells by a lambda bacteriophage bearing crp+ restored normal growth ability on fucose. In contrast, lysogenization of [fucO(Con)fucA(Con)fucPIK(Non)crp-201] cells by the same phage retarded their growth on fucose.

  1. IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H. J.; Kim, K. N.; Lee, K. W.; Jung, C. H

    2001-03-01

    The following were studied through the project entitled 'IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors 1. Decontamination technology development for TRIGA radioactive soil waste - Electrokinetic soil decontamination experimental results and its mathematical simulation 2. The 2nd IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors - Meeting results and program 3. Hosting the 2001 IAEA/RCA D and D training course for research reactors and small nuclear facilities.

  2. IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H. J.; Kim, K. N.; Lee, K. W.; Jung, C. H.

    2001-03-01

    The following were studied through the project entitled 'IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors 1. Decontamination technology development for TRIGA radioactive soil waste - Electrokinetic soil decontamination experimental results and its mathematical simulation 2. The 2nd IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors - Meeting results and program 3. Hosting the 2001 IAEA/RCA D and D training course for research reactors and small nuclear facilities

  3. Phosphorylation of intact erythrocytes in human muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.M.; Nigro, M.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of exogenous 32 Pi into the membrane proteins of intact erythrocytes was measured in 8 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. No abnormalities were noted after autoradiographic analysis. This contrasts with earlier results obtained when isolated membranes were phosphorylated with gamma-[ 32 P]ATP, and suggests a possible reinterpretation of those experiments

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRP/FNR family transcription regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akif, Mohd; Akhter, Yusuf; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Mande, Shekhar C.

    2006-01-01

    The CRP/FNR family transcription factor from M. tuberculosis H37Rv has been crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 in the absence of cAMP. The crystals show the presence of a dimeric molecule in the asymmetric unit. CRP/FNR family members are transcription factors that regulate the transcription of many genes in Escherichia coli and other organisms. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv contains a probable CRP/FNR homologue encoded by the open reading frame Rv3676. The deletion of this gene is known to cause growth defects in cell culture, in bone marrow-derived macrophages and in a mouse model of tuberculosis. The mycobacterial gene Rv3676 shares ∼32% sequence identity with prototype E. coli CRP. The structure of the protein might provide insight into transcriptional regulation in the pathogen by this protein. The M. tuberculosis CRP/FNR transcription regulator was crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 54.1, b = 84.6, c = 101.2 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.9 Å. Matthews coefficient and self-rotation function calculations reveal the presence of two monomers in the asymmetric unit

  5. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 - Glycosylation and localization to low-density, detergent-resistant membranes in the parasitized erythrocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoessli, D.C.; Poincelet, M.; Gupta, Ramneek

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the major carbohydrate moieties of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, we report that Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) bears O-GlcNAc modifications predominantly in beta-anomeric configuration, in both the C- and N-terminal portions of the protei...

  6. Primary structure and localization of a conserved immunogenic Plasmodium falciparum glutamate rich protein (GLURP) expressed in both the preerythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the vertebrate life cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, M B; Dziegiel, M; Høgh, B

    1991-01-01

    A gene coding for a 220-kDa glutamate rich protein (GLURP), an exoantigen of Plasmodium falciparum, was isolated and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence contains 2 repeat regions. The sequence of one of these was shown to be conserved among geographically...

  7. Erythrocyte fluorescence and lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K G

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples from people exposed to inorganic lead were examined by fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin. With continued lead absorption, fluorescent erythrocytes appeared in the circulation of workers handling this metal or its compounds, and they progressively increased in number and brilliance. These changes ensued if the blood lead concentration was maintained above 2-42 mumol/l (50 mug/100 ml), and preceded any material fall in the haemoglobin value. At one factory, 62-5% of 81 symptomless workers showed erythrocyte fluorescence attributable to the toxic effects of lead. Excess fluorocytes were found in blood samples from a child with pica and three of her eight siblings. These four were subsequently shown to have slightly increased blood lead concentrations (2-03 to 2-32 mumol/l). Fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin is a sensitive method for the detection of chronic lead intoxication. A relatively slight increase in the blood lead is associated with demonstrabel changes in erythrocyte porphyrin content. The procedure requires little blood, and may be performed upon stored samples collected for lead estimation. The results are not readily influenced by contamination, and provide good confirmatory evidence for the absorption of biochemically active lead. PMID:963005

  8. Affinity of hemoglobin for the cytoplasmic fragment of human erythrocyte membrane band 3. Equilibrium measurements at physiological pH using matrix-bound proteins: the effects of ionic strength, deoxygenation and of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chétrite, G; Cassoly, R

    1985-10-05

    The cytoplasmic fragment of band 3 protein isolated from the human erythrocyte membrane was linked to a CNBr-activated Sepharose matrix in an attempt to measure, in batch experiments, its equilibrium binding constant with oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin at physiological pH and ionic strength values and in the presence or the absence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. All the experiments were done at pH 7.2, and equilibrium constants were computed on the basis of one hemoglobin tetramer bound per monomer of fragment. In 10 mM-phosphate buffer, a dissociation constant KD = 2 X 10(-4)M was measured for oxyhemoglobin and was shown to increase to 8 X 10(-4)M in the presence of 50 mM-NaCl. Association could not be demonstrated at higher salt concentrations. Diphosphoglycerate-stripped deoxyhemoglobin was shown to associate more strongly with the cytoplasmic fragment of band 3. In 10 mM-bis-Tris (pH 7.2) and in the presence of 120 mM-NaCl, a dissociation constant KD = 4 X 10(-4)M was measured. Upon addition of increasing amounts of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, the complex formed between deoxyhemoglobin and the cytoplasmic fragment of band 3 was dissociated. On the reasonable assumption that the hemoglobin binding site present on band 3 fragment was not modified upon linking the protein to the Sepharose matrix, the results indicated that diphosphoglycerate-stripped deoxyhemoglobin or partially liganded hemoglobin tetramers in the T state could bind band 3 inside the intact human red blood cell.

  9. High-Sensitive C-Reactive Protein Levels in a Group of Syrian University Male Students and Its Associations with Smoking, Physical Activity, Anthropometric Measurements, and Some Hematologic Inflammation Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafika Zarzour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Syria, health risk data on young males are limited. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors along with C-reactive protein levels measured by high-sensitive method (hsCRP in a group of healthy males of university students (n=101, 18–25 years old. Participants’ anthropometric characteristics; alcohol drinking, smoking, and physical activity habits; parents medical history; and some inflammatory biomarkers were inspected for their associations with hsCRP. Results. Regarding hsCRP level, 19 participants were at average (1–3 mg/L and 13 were at high (>3 mg/L risk of CVD. Nonparametric statistical tests (p value < 0.05 revealed that hsCRP level was higher in participants who had high body mass index (BMI, had high BMI with high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, or did not practice sport frequently. Unexpectedly, it did not vary between smokers and nonsmokers. In general, it correlated positively with anthropometric and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR measurements. Nevertheless, it negatively correlated with sports practicing in overall and nonsmoker groups and in participants whose parents were without medical history. Finally, when participants with high BMI were smokers, did not practice sport frequently, or had a parent with medical history, their hsCRP levels were higher than others who had the same circumstances but with low BMI.

  10. Protein kinase a dependent phosphorylation of apical membrane antigen 1 plays an important role in erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Leykauf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a variety of hosts, causing significant diseases in livestock and humans. The invasive forms of the parasites invade their host cells by gliding motility, an active process driven by parasite adhesion proteins and molecular motors. A crucial point during host cell invasion is the formation of a ring-shaped area of intimate contact between the parasite and the host known as a tight junction. As the invasive zoite propels itself into the host-cell, the junction moves down the length of the parasite. This process must be tightly regulated and signalling is likely to play a role in this event. One crucial protein for tight-junction formation is the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1. Here we have investigated the phosphorylation status of this key player in the invasion process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We show that the cytoplasmic tail of P. falciparum AMA1 is phosphorylated at serine 610. We provide evidence that the enzyme responsible for serine 610 phosphorylation is the cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PfPKA. Importantly, mutation of AMA1 serine 610 to alanine abrogates phosphorylation of AMA1 in vivo and dramatically impedes invasion. In addition to shedding unexpected new light on AMA1 function, this work represents the first time PKA has been implicated in merozoite invasion.

  11. Morphological characteristics of urine erythrocytes in children with erythrocyturia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Minakova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nephropathies with erythrocyturia make up about 1/3 of all diseases of the kidneys and the urinary system, and they have some difficulties in differential diagnostics. Quite often, erythrocyturia is the only symptom of these diseases. In connection with this, determination of its origin is an important task in forming the correct diagnosis. Erythrocyturia in most diseases of the lower urinary tract is not accompanied by proteinuria or the presence of cylinders in the urine. The presence of proteinuria (more than 0.3 g/l or 1 g protein in urine per day, along with the appearance of erythrocytic cylinder in the urine sediment, raises suspicion in favor of glomerular or tubular diseases. Glomerular erythrocytes may be detected by means of urea concentration factor (UCF in the urinary sediment as a preliminary test for the determination of the erythrocyturia site. Erythrocytes that pass through the glomerular membrane have a changed form (dysmorphic. Determination of acanthocytes in the urine (ring-shaped erythrocytes with one or several bulges in the form of bubbles of different sizes and types is a more precise criterion of glomerular nephropathy than the presence of dysmorphic erythrocytes. The purpose of the study was to determine the morphological characteristics of urine erythrocytes in children with erythrocyturia, to improve the quality of differential diagnosis. Materials and methods. Determination of the morphological characteristics of urinary erythrocytes using UCF in 73 patients aged 1 to 18 years, of which 45 (61.6 % are patients with hematuric form of glomerulonephritis, 23 (31.5 % — with hereditary nephritis, and 5 (6.8 % — with dysmetabolic nephropathy. Detection of 50 to 80 % of dysmorphic erythrocytes in the urine sediment and finding in urine of more than 5 % of acanthocytes is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic criterion for glomerular hematuria. Results. In children with a clinical diagnosis

  12. Erythrocyte stiffness during morphological remodeling induced by carbon ion radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Zhang

    Full Text Available The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy. The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study

  13. Relationship of obesity with serum concentrations of leptin, CRP and IL-6 in breast cancer survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, Z; Mosapour, A.; Moslemi, D.; Parsian, H.; Pouramir, M.; Khafri, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the adverse effect of obesity on quality of life among women with breast cancer, including alteration in some inflammatory markers. The aim of this study was to determine the status of serum levels of leptin, IL-6 and CRP in obese, overweight and normal weight breast cancer survivors in order to determine the relationship between inflammatory markers’ levels and obesity. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 75 women with breast cancer, 30 obese, 15 overweight and 30 normal weight patients. Serum leptin, IL-6, CRP, total protein, albumin and lipid profile as well as anthropometric parameters were measured in three groups. Results: Serum leptin levels of obese patients were significantly higher than those of overweight and normal weight patients ( P < 0.05). Higher serum CRP and lower albumin levels were observed in obese patients in comparison with normal weight patients ( P < 0.05). HDL-C level was significantly different between overweight and normal weight patients ( P < 0.05). Significant differences in serum IL-6 levels were not observed between the study groups ( P > 0.05). Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that leptin was significantly associated with BMI ( P < 0.001), while albumin was negatively correlated with BMI ( P < 0.05). CRP levels were significantly correlated with BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, high leptin levels and alteration in acute phase proteins in obese patients may exaggerate the inflammation status. As inflammation has the potential to increase the susceptibility of the patients to metastasis development, it is necessary to decline its rate.

  14. Insect cells are superior to Escherichia coli in producing malaria proteins inducing IgG targeting PfEMP1 on infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, Michala E; Bengtsson, Anja; Andersen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    -exposed epitopes are unknown. An insect cell and Escherichia coli based system was used to express single and double domains encoded by the pfd1235w var gene. The resulting recombinant proteins have been evaluated for yield and purity and their ability to induce rat antibodies, which react with the native PFD1235w...... PfEMP1 antigen expressed on 3D7PFD1235w-IE. Their recognition by human anti-malaria antibodies from previously infected Tanzanian donors was also analysed....

  15. B-cell responses to pregnancy-restricted and -unrestricted Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 antigens in Ghanaian women naturally exposed to malaria parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampomah, Paulina; Stevenson, Liz; Ofori, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and memory B-cell frequencies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay in a cohort of P. falciparum-exposed nonpregnant Ghanaian women. The antigens used were a VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1 (IT4VAR04) with expression restricted to parasites infecting the placenta, as well as two...... commonly recognized PfEMP1 proteins (HB3VAR06 and IT4VAR60) implicated in rosetting and not pregnancy restricted. This enabled, for the first time, a direct comparison in the same individuals of immune responses specific for a clinically important parasite antigen expressed only during well-defined periods...

  16. Multiple Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 variants per genome can bind IgM via its Fc fragment Fcμ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anine; Ditlev, Sisse Bolm; Soroka, Vladyslav

    2015-01-01

    with severe clinical manifestations, such as cerebral malaria in children and placental malaria in pregnant women. PfEMP1 that can bind the Fc part of IgM (Fcμ) characterizes one such type, although the functional significance of this IgM binding to PfEMP1 remains unclear. In this study, we report...... resemble the rosette-mediating and IgM-binding PfEMP1 HB3VAR06, but none of them mediated formation of rosettes. We could map the capacity for Fc-specific IgM binding to DBLε domains near the C terminus for three of the four PfEMP1 proteins tested. Our study provides new evidence regarding Fc...

  17. Performance of code 'FAIR' in IAEA CRP on FUMEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami Prasad, P.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-01-01

    A modern fuel performance analysis code FAIR has been developed for analysing high burnup fuel pins of water/heavy water cooled reactors. The code employs finite element method for modelling thermo mechanical behaviour of fuel pins and mechanistic models for modelling various physical and chemical phenomena affecting the behaviour of nuclear reactor fuel pins. High burnup affects such as pellet thermal conductivity degradation, enhanced fission gas release and radial flux redistribution are incorporated in the code FAIR. The code FAIR is capable of performing statistical analysis of fuel pins using Monte Carlo technique. The code is implemented on BARC parallel processing system ANUPAM. The code has recently participated in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coordinated research program (CRP) on fuel modelling at extended burnups (FUMEX). Nineteen agencies from different countries participated in this exercise. In this CRP, spread over a period of three years, a number of high burnup fuel pins irradiated at Halden reactor are analysed. The first phase of the CRP is a blind code comparison exercise, where the computed results are compared with experimental results. The second phase consists of modifications to the code based on the experimental results of first phase and statistical analysis of fuel pins. The performance of the code FAIR in this CRP has been very good. The present report highlights the main features of code FAIR and its performance in the IAEA CRP on FUMEX. 14 refs., 5 tabs., ills

  18. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. Keywords: Haematological parameters, erythrocyte ...

  19. Integrated microfluidic system for rapid screening of CRP aptamers utilizing systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-June; Lin, Hsin-I; Shiesh, Shu-Chu; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2010-03-15

    The systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is an experimental procedure that allows screening of given molecular targets by desired binding affinities from an initial random pool of oligonucleotides and oligomers. The final products of SELEX are usually referred as aptamers, which are recognized as promising molecules for a variety of biomedical applications. However, SELEX is an iterative process requiring multiple rounds of extraction and amplification that demands significant time and labor. Therefore, this study presents a novel, automatic, miniature SELEX platform. As a demonstration, the rapid screening of C-reactive protein (CRP) aptamers was performed. By utilizing microfluidic technologies and magnetic beads conjugated with CRP, aptamers with a high affinity to CRP were extracted from a random single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) pool. These aptamers were further amplified by an on-chip polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. After five consecutive extraction and amplification cycles, a specific aptamer with the highest affinity was screened automatically. The screened aptamers were used as a recognition molecule for the detection of CRP. The developed microsystem demonstrated fast screening of CRP aptamers and can be used as a powerful tool to select analyte-specific aptamers for biomedical applications. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum Pentraxin 3 and hs-CRP Levels in Children with Severe Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemşit Karakurt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to untreated left-to-right shunt defects leads to increased pulmonary blood flow, endothelial dysfunction, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, vascular remodelling, neointimal and plexiform lesions. Some recent studies have shown that inflammation has an important role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate serum pentraxin 3 and high sensitive (hs-C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in children with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH secondary to untreated congenital heart defects and evaluate the role of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: After ethics committee approval and receiving consent from parents, there were 31 children were selected for the study with severe PAH, mostly with a left-to-right shunt, who had been assessed by cardiac catheterisation and were taking specific pulmonary vasodilators. The control group consisted of 39 age and gender matched healthy children. After recording data about all the patients including age, gender, weight, haemodynamic studies and vasodilator testing, a physical examination was done for all subjects. Blood was taken from patients and the control group using peripheral veins to analyse serum Pentraxin 3, N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-ProBNP and hs-CRP levels. Serum Pentraxin-3 levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and expressed as ng/mL. Serum hs-CRP levels were measured with an immunonephelometric method and expressed as mg/dL. The serum concentration of NT-proBNP was determined by a chemiluminescent immunumetric assay and expressed as pg/mL. Results: Serum Pentraxin- 3 levels were determined to be 1.28±2.12 (0.12-11.43 in the PAH group (group 1 and 0.40±0.72 (0.07-3.45 in group 2. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01. Serum hs-CRP levels

  1. High-sensitive CRP as a predictive marker of long-term outcome in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi-Saugstrup, Mikel; Zak, Marek; Nielsen, Susan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether C-reactive protein (CRP), including variation within the normal range, is predictive of long-term disease outcome in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed JIA were included prospectively from defined geographic areas of the Nordic...... countries from 1997 to 2000. Inclusion criteria were availability of a baseline serum sample within 12 months after disease onset and 8-year clinical assessment data. Systemic onset JIA was not included. CRP was measured by high-sensitive ELISA (detection limit of 0.2 mg/l). One hundred and thirty...... participants with a median follow-up time of 97 months (range 95–100) were included. At follow-up, 38% of the patients were in remission off medication. Absence of remission was associated with elevated level of CRP at baseline (odds ratio (OR) 1.33, confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.63, p = 0.007). By applying...

  2. A localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) immunosensor for CRP detection using 4-chloro-1-naphtol (4-CN) precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Su-Ji; Park, Jin-Ho; Byun, Ju-Young; Ahn, Young-Deok; Kim, Min-Gon

    2017-07-01

    In this study, C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected by monitoring of LSPR shift promoted by precipitation of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN). The precipitation occurred by horseradish peroxide (HRP) catalyst which is modified at CRP-detection antibody utilized in sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on gold nano bipyramid (GNBP) substrate. Due to 4-CN precipitates which are located nearby the surface of GNBP, local refractive index (RI) and molecular density were greatly increased. This phenomenon eventually induced strong spectral red-shift of absorption band of GNBP. An excellent linear relationship (R2=0.9895) between the LSPR shift and CRP concentration was obtained in the range from 100 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL and limit of detection (LOD) was reached to 87 pg/mL.

  3. Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1: use of relatively conserved synthetic peptide pools to determine CD4 T cell responses in malaria-exposed individuals in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Ambaliou

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1, a variant antigen of the malaria parasite, is potentially a target for the immune response. It would be important to determine whether there are CD4 T cells that recognise conserved regions. However, within the relatively conserved region, there is variation. It is not possible to test T cell responses from small field samples with all possible peptides. Methods We have aligned sequences that are relatively conserved between several PfEMP1 molecules, and chosen a representative sequence similar to most of the PfEMP1 variants. Using these peptides as pools representing CIDRα, CIDRβ and DBLβ-δ domains, DBLα domain, and EXON 2 domain of PfEMP1, we measured the CD4 T cell responses of malaria-exposed donors from Benin, West Africa by a FACS based assay. Results All the three peptide pools elicited a CD4 T cell response in a proportion of malaria-exposed and non-exposed donors. CD4 T cell proliferation occurs at a relatively higher magnitude to peptide pools from the DBLα and EXON 2 in the malaria-exposed donors living in Benin than in the UK malaria-unexposed donors. Conclusions These findings suggest that an immunological recall response to conserved peptides of a variant antigen can be measured. Further testing of individual peptides in a positive pool will allow us to determine those conserved sequences recognised by many individuals. These types of assays may provide information on conserved peptides of PfEMP1 which could be useful for stimulating T cells to provide help to P. falciparum specific B cells.

  4. Recruitment of human aquaporin 3 to internal membranes in the Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietz, Sven; Montilla, Irine; Külzer, Simone; Przyborski, Jude M; Lingelbach, Klaus

    2009-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane in Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes are incompletely understood, and the protein composition of this membrane is still enigmatic. Although the differentiated mammalian erythrocyte lacks the machinery required for endocytosis, some reports have described a localisation of host cell membrane proteins at the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane. Aquaporin 3 is an abundant plasma membrane protein of various cells, including mammalian erythrocytes where it is found in distinct oligomeric states. Here we show that human aquaporin 3 is internalized into infected erythrocytes, presumably during or soon after invasion. It is integrated into the PVM where it is organized in novel oligomeric states which are not found in non-infected cells.

  5. C-reactive protein and later preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Schlüssel, Michael M; Vaz, Juliana S

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia....

  6. Association between Periodontopathogens and CRP Levels in Patients with Periodontitis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pejcic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that individuals with periodontitis have a significantly higher risk of developing coronary heart disease, which might be attributed to the complex microbiota in the dental plaque. Periodontopathogens have been reported as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated association of chronic periodontitis and periodontopathogens with CRP in systemically healthy Serbian adults. Materials and methods. Serum C-reactive protein levels were measured in 24 patients with moderate periodontitis, 26 patients with severe periodontitis, and 25 periodontally healthy subjects. Periodontal health indicators included gingival bleeding on probing and periodontal disease status. Patients with moderate periodontitis had low attachment loss and pocket depths of 5 mm. The control group with healthy gingiva had gingival sulcus of 5 mol/L was greater in the higher clinical AL group compared to the group with less attachment loss. Presence of periodontopathogens was also associated with elevated CRP levels and poor periodontal status. Conclusions. PD and subgingival periodontopathogens are associated with increased CRP levels. These findings suggest that periodontal infection may contribute to systemic inflammatory burden in otherwise healthy individuals.

  7. Correlation of Progranulin, Granulin, Adiponectin and Vaspin with Metaflammation (hs-CRP in Indonesian Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia E Napitupulu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is closely related to chronic, low grade systemic inflammation (metaflammation and it leads to further metabolic complications such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes due to the adipocytokine imbalance. This study was carried out to assess the correlation between progranulin, granulin, adiponectin and visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (Vaspin with metaflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in centrally obese men. METHODS: This study was observational with a cross sectional design involving 60 men aged 30-60 years, consisted of 43 obese men (waist circumference (WC ≥90 cm and 13 non obese men (WC 105 cm. CONCLUSIONS: We found metaflammation (hs-CRP was significantly correlated with Vaspin, but not with progranulin, granulin and adiponectin, in obese men. We suggest the possibility of a dynamic expression of adipokines related to WC that are subjected to adipocytes hypertrophy-hyperplasia phenomenon. KEYWORDS: progranulin, granulin, adiponectin, Vaspin, hs-CRP, metaflammation, central obesity.

  8. Association of Irisin and CRP Levels with the Radiographic Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yongtao; Xu, Wei; Xie, Zonggang; Dong, Qirong

    2016-02-01

    Irisin, a recently identified myokine, is implicated in protecting mice from obesity. This study was designed to examine the relation of irisin levels in serum and synovial fluid (SF) with the radiographic severity of osteoarthritis (OA). Our study included 215 patients with knee OA. Irisin levels in serum and SF were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The progression of OA was assessed using Kellgren-Lawrence grading system. Knee OA patients had lower serum irisin concentrations and increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels compared with healthy controls. There were markedly decreased irisin levels in both the serum and the SF, as well as increased serum CRP levels of knee OA patients with Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grade 4 compared with patients classified as KL grade 2 and 3. Furthermore, patients with KL grade 3 showed markedly reduced serum and SF levels of irisin, as well as increased serum CRP levels compared with patients classified as KL grade 2. Irisin levels in serum and SF of knee OA patients were negatively correlated with disease severity evaluated by KL grading criteria. Irisin levels in the serum and SF of knee OA patients were negatively correlated with disease severity evaluated by the radiographic KL grading criteria.

  9. Cystatin C, CRP, log TG/HDLc and metabolic syndrome are associated with microalbuminuria in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva [Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Daniel França [Área de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Freitas, Eduardo [Departamento de Estatística, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Moura, Flavio José Dutra de; Rosa, Tânia Torres; Veiga, Joel Paulo Russomano, E-mail: joelprv@unb.br [Área de Clínica Médica, Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In patients with systemic hypertension, microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine the factors that may lead to the occurrence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with serum creatinine lower than 1.5 mg/dL. This cross-sectional study included 133 Brazilians with essential hypertension followed up at a hypertension outpatient clinic. Those with serum creatinine higher than 1.5 mg/dL, as well as those with diabetes mellitus, were excluded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and GFR estimated by using the CKD-EPI formula were calculated. The serum levels of the following were assessed: CysC, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting glucose. Microalbuminuria was determined in 24-hour urine. Hypertensive patients were classified according to the presence of one or more criteria for metabolic syndrome. In a multiple regression analysis, the serum levels of CysC and CRP, the atherogenic index log TG/HDLc and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome were positively correlated with microalbuminuria (r{sup 2}: 0.277, p < 0.05). CysC, CRP, log TG/HDLc, and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome, regardless of serum creatinine, were associated with microalbuminuria, an early marker of kidney damage and cardiovascular risk in patients with essential hypertension.

  10. Post-MI depression and levels of serum IL-6 and CRP in AMI patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tiejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the presence and severity of post-MI depression and the increased inflammatory activity, as marked by the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) after myocardial infarction. Methods: Serum IL-6 and CRP levels were measured in 58 AMI patients within 36 hours after onset of event. Depression was evaluated by self-reporting standardized questionnaire, using a validated Chinese version of Hospiatla Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)-Depression Subscale (7 items) within 7 days. Demographic and medical data including LVEF, NYHA cardiac function grading, atherosclerosis severity shown from angiography as well as cardiac risk factors were recorded. Results: Serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were higher in depressive AMI patients than those in non-depressive ones (0.93 ± 0.64 vs 0.48 ± 0.37 ng/L, P<0.05 and 0.96 ± 0.41 vs 0.47 ± 0.26 mg/dL, P<0.05). Neither levels of IL-6 nor HADS-D scores were found to be correlated to the severity of atherosclerosis shown in angiography. Conclusion: Presence and severity of post-MI depression is associated with increased activity of inflammation in patients after myocardial infarction. (authors)

  11. Cystatin C, CRP, log TG/HDLc and metabolic syndrome are associated with microalbuminuria in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva; Vasconcelos, Daniel França; Freitas, Eduardo; Moura, Flavio José Dutra de; Rosa, Tânia Torres; Veiga, Joel Paulo Russomano

    2014-01-01

    In patients with systemic hypertension, microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine the factors that may lead to the occurrence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with serum creatinine lower than 1.5 mg/dL. This cross-sectional study included 133 Brazilians with essential hypertension followed up at a hypertension outpatient clinic. Those with serum creatinine higher than 1.5 mg/dL, as well as those with diabetes mellitus, were excluded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and GFR estimated by using the CKD-EPI formula were calculated. The serum levels of the following were assessed: CysC, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting glucose. Microalbuminuria was determined in 24-hour urine. Hypertensive patients were classified according to the presence of one or more criteria for metabolic syndrome. In a multiple regression analysis, the serum levels of CysC and CRP, the atherogenic index log TG/HDLc and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome were positively correlated with microalbuminuria (r 2 : 0.277, p < 0.05). CysC, CRP, log TG/HDLc, and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome, regardless of serum creatinine, were associated with microalbuminuria, an early marker of kidney damage and cardiovascular risk in patients with essential hypertension

  12. A Prospective Study to Compare the Diagnostic Value of Serum Procalcitonin and Crp in Early Onset Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Verma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is the most common cause of death in newborns in developing countries. Prompt diagnosis is the critical determinant in its outcome. As manifestations are often vague, clinically it is difficult to differentiate sepsis from non-infective conditions. Timely diagnosis is important as delay in initiation of antimicrobials can prove fatal. On the other hand empirical use of antibiotics not only increases the risk of antibiotic resistance but also delays the diagnosis of true condition. Procalcitonin (PCT has been well evaluated in late onset sepsis but data pertaining to Early Onset Sepsis (EOS are still lacking. We compared the diagnostic value of PCT and CRP (C-Reactive Protein in EOS. Aim: To compare the diagnostic value of serum PCT and CRP in early onset sepsis. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective observational study conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Department of Paediatrics, Dr.S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, India. All neonates delivered in hospitals attached to this medical college or referred here within 7 days of life and having ≥2 perinatal risk factors for sepsis or displaying clinical sepsis were included in the study. All enrolled neonates were subjected to sepsis screen, PCT levels and blood culture at birth or admission which ever was the earliest. PCT levels ≥ 0.5 ng/ml and CRP levels above 8mg/l were considered positive for EOS. Results: Sensitivity and negative predictive value of PCT were higher than CRP (90.12% vs. 50.62% and 93.33% vs. 79.06% respectively. Also it had a higher positive predictive value of 40.56% than CRP where it was 37.61%. CRP was more specific (68.95% vs. 51.4% with overall higher diagnostic accuracy (0.64 vs. 0.61 in comparison to PCT. Conclusion: PCT is more sensitive and has a higher negative predictive value than CRP in early onset sepsis. Higher positive predictive value and specificity of CRP suggest that, PCT should not be used alone rather

  13. Study on the strategy of participation in CRP and effective technical cooperation with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Ro; Choi, P. H.; Kim, K. P.; Shim, J. S.; Shim, M. W.; Min, D.Y.

    2003-07-01

    This project aims to promote the participation from Korea in the IAEA CRP, and provide the CRP projects being undertaken in Korea with R and D funds. In order to achieve these goals, this project supported 24 CRP projects with 50,000,000 won in total. In addition, an analysis on the IAEA CRP announcement for 2003 was undertaken by this project, and promoted participation in the the CRP. As a result, 29 new CRP proposals for 2003 were submitted to the IAEA Finally, some recommendations on the CRP strategy of Korea were proposed

  14. Influence of Erythrocyte Membrane Stability in Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Garrote-Filho, Mario; Bernardino-Neto, Morun; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to show how an excess of cholesterol in the erythrocyte membrane contributes stochastically to the progression of atherosclerosis, leading to damage in blood rheology and O 2 transport, deposition of cholesterol (from trapped erythrocytes) in an area of intraplaque hemorrhage, and local exacerbation of oxidative stress. Cholesterol contained in the membrane of erythrocytes trapped in an intraplaque hemorrhage contributes to the growth of the necrotic nucleus. There is even a relationship between the amount of cholesterol in the erythrocyte membrane and the severity of atherosclerosis. In addition, the volume variability among erythrocytes, measured by RDW, is predictive of a worsening of this disease. Erythrocytes contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in several ways, especially when trapped in intraplate hemorrhage. These erythrocytes are oxidized and phagocytosed by macrophages. The cholesterol present in the membrane of these erythrocytes subsequently contributes to the growth of the atheroma plaque. In addition, when they rupture, erythrocytes release hemoglobin, which leads to the generation of free radicals. Finally, increased RDW may predict the worsening of atherosclerosis, due to the effects of inflammation and oxidative stress on erythropoiesis and erythrocyte volume. A better understanding of erythrocyte participation in atherosclerosis may contribute to the improvement of the prevention and treatment strategies of this disease.

  15. Antibodies to variant antigens on the surfaces of infected erythrocytes are associated with protection from malaria in Ghanaian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodoo, D; Staalsoe, T; Giha, H

    2001-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a variant antigen expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Each parasite genome contains about 40 PfEMP1 genes, but only 1 PfEMP1 gene is expressed at a given time. PfEMP1 serves as a parasite-sequestering ligand to endoth...

  16. Radiation damages to cell membranes of dogs and rats quantitatively estimated by changes in sedimentation behaviour of erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, V.F.; Potemkin, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    It was shown that injury to plasma membranes leads to a change in the sedimentation behaviour of erythrocytes: the maximum effect is produced when a protein component of the membrane is affected. The same dose dependent character of the change in erythrocyte sedimentation in urografine are observed during the first 24 h after γ-irradiation of rats and dogs

  17. The 52Cr(p, γ)53Mn reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuister, P.H.

    The 52Cr(p, γ)53Mn reaction was investigated in the energy region Ep = 1.36–2.26 MeV. The resonance energies, the corresponding 53Mn excitation energies and the resonance strengths of 199 resonances, assigned to this reaction, are reported. The excitation energies and gamma-ray branchings of 13

  18. 7 CFR 1410.22 - CRP conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... productive capability of the soil, improve water quality, protect wildlife or wetlands, protect a public well... plans and revisions of such plans shall be subject to the approval of CCC. (f) Mid-cover management... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CRP conservation plan. 1410.22 Section 1410.22...

  19. Effects of haying on breeding birds in CRP grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a voluntary program that is available to agricultural producers to help protect environmentally sensitive or highly erodible land. Management disturbances of CRP grasslands generally are not allowed unless authorized to provide relief to livestock producers during severe drought or a similar natural disaster (i.e., emergency haying and grazing) or to improve the quality and performance of the CRP cover (i.e., managed haying and grazing). Although CRP grasslands may not be hayed or grazed during the primary bird-nesting season, these disturbances may have short-term (1 yr after disturbance) and long-term (≥2 yr after disturbance) effects on grassland bird populations. We assessed the effects of haying on 20 grassland bird species in 483 CRP grasslands in 9 counties of 4 states in the northern Great Plains, USA between 1993 and 2008. We compared breeding bird densities (as determined by total-area counts) in idle and hayed fields to evaluate changes 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after haying. Haying of CRP grasslands had either positive or negative effects on grassland birds, depending on the species, the county, and the number of years after the initial disturbance. Some species (e.g., horned lark [Eremophila alpestris], bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]) responded positively after haying, and others (e.g., song sparrow [Melospiza melodia]) responded negatively. The responses of some species changed direction as the fields recovered from haying. For example, densities for common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis), and clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida) declined the first year after haying but increased in the subsequent 3 years. Ten species showed treatment × county interactions, indicating that the effects of haying varied geographically. This long-term evaluation on the effects of haying on breeding birds provides important information on the strength and direction of changes in

  20. M1 Macrophages but Not M2 Macrophages Are Characterized by Upregulation of CRP Expression via Activation of NFκB: a Possible Role for Ox-LDL in Macrophage Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marielle; Shur, Anna; Tendler, Yvgeny

    2018-04-23

    Arterial macrophages comprise a heterogeneous population: pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2). Since C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions, understanding of CRP regulation in macrophages could be crucial to decipher inflammatory patterns in atherogenesis. We aimed to analyze CRP expression in M1/M2 macrophages and to question whether it involves NFκB signaling pathway. Furthermore, we questioned whether oxidative stress affect macrophage phenotype and modulate macrophage CRP expression. M1/M2 macrophage polarization was validated using THP-1 macrophages. CRP mRNA and protein expression were determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Involvement of NFκB was determined by nuclear translocation of p50 subunit and the use of NFκB inhibitor. Involvement of oxidative stress in macrophage phenotypes induction was studied using oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) and antioxidants. M1 macrophages were characterized by elevated CRP mRNA expression (by 67%), CRP protein levels (by 108%), and upregulation of NFκB activation compared to control, but these features were not shared by M2 macrophages. Macrophages incubation with Ox-LDL led to a moderate M1 phenotype combined with a M2 phenotype, correlated with increased CRP mRNA expression. Antioxidants inhibited by up to 86% IL6 expression but did not significantly affect IL10 secretion. Antioxidants significantly inhibited CRP expression in M1 macrophages, but not in M2 macrophages. Elevated expression of CRP was characteristic of M1 macrophages rather than M2 through NFκB activation. Oxidative stress could be one of the endogenous triggers for macrophage activation to a mixed M1 and M2 phenotype, in association with increased expression of CRP.

  1. Alterations of erythrocyte rheology and cellular susceptibility in end stage renal disease: Effects of peritoneal dialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Zeynep Ertan

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of peritoneal dialysis on hemorheological and hematological parameters and their relations with oxidant and antioxidant status of uremic patients. Hemorheological parameters (erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation, osmotic deformability, blood and plasma viscosity were measured in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD and volunteers. Erythrocyte deformability, osmotic deformability and aggregation in both autologous plasma and 3% dextran 70 were measured by laser diffraction ektacytometry. Enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were studied in erythrocytes; lipid peroxidation was studied by measuring the amount of malondialdehyde in both erythrocytes and plasma samples. Blood viscosity at native hematocrit was significantly lower in PD patients at all measured shear rates compared to controls, but it was high in PD patients at corrected (45% hematocrit. Erythrocyte deformability did not show any difference between the two groups. Osmotic deformability was significantly lower in PD patients compared to controls. Aggregation index values were significantly high in PD patients in plasma Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were decreased in PD patients whereas superoxide dismutase activity was increased compared to controls. Malondialdehyde was significantly increased in erythrocytes and plasma samples of PD patients which also shows correlations with aggregation parameters. It has been concluded that erythrocytes in PD patients are more prone to aggregation and this tendency could be influenced by lipid peroxidation activity in patient's plasma. These results imply that uremic conditions, loss of plasma proteins and an increased risk of oxidative stress because of decreasing levels of antioxidant enzymes affect erythrocyte rheology during peritoneal dialysis. This level of distortion may have

  2. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  3. DC-SIGN activation mediates the differential effects of SAP and CRP on the innate immune system and inhibits fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-07-07

    Fibrosis is caused by scar tissue formation in internal organs and is associated with 45% of deaths in the United States. Two closely related human serum proteins, serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP), strongly affect fibrosis. In multiple animal models, and in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, SAP affects several aspects of the innate immune system to reduce fibrosis, whereas CRP appears to potentiate fibrosis. However, SAP and CRP bind the same Fcγ receptors (FcγR) with similar affinities, and why SAP and CRP have opposing effects is unknown. Here, we report that SAP but not CRP binds the receptor DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) to affect the innate immune system, and that FcγR are not necessary for SAP function. A polycyclic aminothiazole DC-SIGN ligand and anti-DC-SIGN antibodies mimic SAP effects in vitro. In mice, the aminothiazole reduces neutrophil accumulation in a model of acute lung inflammation and, at 0.001 mg/kg, alleviates pulmonary fibrosis by increasing levels of the immunosuppressant IL-10. DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) is present on mouse lung epithelial cells, and SAP and the aminothiazole potentiate IL-10 production from these cells. Our data suggest that SAP activates DC-SIGN to regulate the innate immune system differently from CRP, and that DC-SIGN is a target for antifibrotics.

  4. Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in ex vivo perfused placental tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehrson, Caroline; Mathiesen, Line; Heno, Kristine K

    2016-01-01

    placental tissue. RESULTS: The ex vivo placental perfusion model was modified to study adhesion of infected erythrocytes binding to CSA, endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) or a transgenic parasite where P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 expression had been shut down. Infected erythrocytes......, such as binding to immunoglobulins. Furthermore, other parasite antigens have been associated with placental malaria. These findings have important implications for placental malaria vaccine design. The objective of this study was to adapt and describe a biologically relevant model of parasite adhesion in intact...... expressing VAR2CSA accumulated in perfused placental tissue whereas the EPCR binding and the transgenic parasite did not. Soluble CSA and antibodies specific against VAR2CSA inhibited binding of infected erythrocytes. CONCLUSION: The ex vivo model provides a novel way of studying receptor-ligand interactions...

  5. Characterization of human placental glycosaminoglycans and regional binding to VAR2CSA in malaria infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaudet, Julie M; Mansur, Leandra; Joo, Eun Ji

    2014-01-01

    expressing VAR2CSA on the erythrocyte surface. This protein adheres to a low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate-A found in placental tissue causing great harm to both mother and developing fetus. In rare cases, the localization of infected erythrocytes to the placenta can even result in the vertical transmission...... placental tissue accessible to parasites in the bloodstream, suggesting it is the primary receptor for parasite infected red blood cells....

  6. Influence of ionizing radiation on the spatial structure of erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreval', V.Yi.; Syichevs'ka, L.V.; Doroshenko, A.O.; Roshal', O.D.

    1998-01-01

    Influence of gamma-radiation of doses of 10, 10 2 , 5 centre dot 10 2 , and 10 3 Gy on the structure of the protein-lipid complexes of erythrocyte membranes is investigated. The allotment of fluorescence of protein in the donor-acceptor pair of tryptophan-pyrene and the distance of protein from the surface of the lipid bilayer of a membrane are determined by the method of inductive-resonance transfer of energy. The pair is localized at the distance of above 3.2 nm from lipids. We find that the action of irradiation changes the space structure of proteins and lipids of the erythrocyte membrane

  7. C-reactive protein collaborates with plasma lectins to boost immune response against bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Patricia M L; Le Saux, Agnès; Lee, Chia M

    2007-01-01

    Although human C-reactive protein (CRP) becomes upregulated during septicemia, its role remains unclear, since purified CRP showed no binding to many common pathogens. Contrary to previous findings, we show that purified human CRP (hCRP) binds to Salmonella enterica, and that binding is enhanced ...

  8. Hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis associated with prosthetic heart valve replacement: rheological study of erythrocyte modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprari, Patrizia; Tarzia, Anna; Mojoli, Giorgio; Cianciulli, Paolo; Mannella, Emilio; Martorana, Maria Cristina

    2009-04-01

    The implantation of a prosthetic heart valve (HVP) in patients with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) is rare, and the changes in the structure and deformability of erythrocytes that follow implantation in these patients have been poorly described. In the present study, the erythrocytes in HS and HE patients with mechanical HVP were compared to the erythrocytes in patients with only congenital membrane defects, in terms of biochemical modifications and rheological behaviour. Integral and cytoskeletal erythrocyte membrane proteins were studied, and blood viscosity (shear rate/shear stress ratio), aggregation ratio [eta(1 s(-1))/eta(200 s(-1))], and red cell visco-elasticity were determined. Valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis worsened anaemia and resulted in a change in haemolysis, from sub-clinical to evident. The rheological investigation of erythrocytes from HS patients confirmed the characteristic increased viscosity and aggregation ratio and the decreased deformability. The rheological behaviour of erythrocytes from patients with HVP showed a decrease in viscosity and an increase in elastic modulus. In these patients, the prosthesis seems to have induced traumatic damage to the erythrocyte membrane, leading to fragmentation and lysis, which in turn modified rheological parameters. The biochemical and rheological investigation allowed us to understand the clinical and haematological pictures of the patients and to describe the role played by different factors in haemolytic anaemia.

  9.  Oxidative stress modulates the organization of erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olszewska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  Background:Apart from their main role in transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide, erythrocytes play also an important role in organism antioxidative defence. Direct exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS results in shortening of their half-life, even by 50�20The presence of glucose, being the substrate in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP cycle, is one of the factors that can have influence on the level of oxidative stress. The activity of PPP increases during oxidative stress. Glucose guarantees normal PPP functioning with the production of reductive equivalents in the amounts necessary to reproduction of glutathione – nonenzymatic free radical scavenger. In available literature there are no reports regarding the changes in protein contents of erythrocyte cytoskeleton exposed to t-butyl hydroperoxide in relation to glucose presence in incubation medium.Material/methods:Erythrocytes taken from 10 healthy subjects were used to assess the influence of generated free radicals on erythrocyte proteins and chosen parameters of oxidative stress. Erythrocytes were incubated in the solutions containing deferent concentrations of t-butyl hydroperoxide and glucose. Electrophoresis was performed on polyacrylamide gel in denaturating conditions. The contents of tryptophan in membranes was evaluated spectrofluorometrically.Results/conclusions:In vitro conditions oxidative stress leads to protein damage in erythrocyte cytoskeleton, both in proteins inside the cell as well as having contact with extracellular environment. In consequence, the amount of low-molecular proteins – mainly globin, which bind to cytoskeleton, increases. This process takes place independently of glucose presence in incubation medium. One of the element of protein cytoskeleton, tryptophan, also undergoes degradation. The decrease of its contents is higher during erythrocyte exposure to t-BOOH in environment containing glucose, what can suggest prooxidative influence of glucose in

  10. Modulation of global low-frequency motions underlies allosteric regulation: demonstration in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Thomas L; Townsend, Philip D; Burnell, David; Jones, Matthew L; Richards, Shane A; McLeish, Tom C B; Pohl, Ehmke; Wilson, Mark R; Cann, Martin J

    2013-09-01

    Allostery is a fundamental process by which ligand binding to a protein alters its activity at a distinct site. There is growing evidence that allosteric cooperativity can be communicated by modulation of protein dynamics without conformational change. The mechanisms, however, for communicating dynamic fluctuations between sites are debated. We provide a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low-frequency dynamics without a change in structure. We have generated coarse-grained models that describe the protein backbone motions of the CRP/FNR family transcription factors, CAP of Escherichia coli and GlxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The latter we demonstrate as a new exemplar for allostery without conformation change. We observe that binding the first molecule of cAMP ligand is correlated with modulation of the global normal modes and negative cooperativity for binding the second cAMP ligand without a change in mean structure. The theory makes key experimental predictions that are tested through an analysis of variant proteins by structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. Quantifying allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein "design space" that identified the inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, through analyzing CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. This finding provides a link between the position of CRP/FNR transcription factors within the allosteric free energy landscapes and evolutionary selection pressures. Our study therefore reveals significant features of the mechanistic basis for allostery. Changes in low-frequency dynamics correlate with allosteric effects on ligand binding without the requirement for a defined spatial pathway. In addition to evolving suitable three-dimensional structures, CRP/FNR family transcription factors have been selected to

  11. Modulation of global low-frequency motions underlies allosteric regulation: demonstration in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Rodgers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Allostery is a fundamental process by which ligand binding to a protein alters its activity at a distinct site. There is growing evidence that allosteric cooperativity can be communicated by modulation of protein dynamics without conformational change. The mechanisms, however, for communicating dynamic fluctuations between sites are debated. We provide a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low-frequency dynamics without a change in structure. We have generated coarse-grained models that describe the protein backbone motions of the CRP/FNR family transcription factors, CAP of Escherichia coli and GlxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The latter we demonstrate as a new exemplar for allostery without conformation change. We observe that binding the first molecule of cAMP ligand is correlated with modulation of the global normal modes and negative cooperativity for binding the second cAMP ligand without a change in mean structure. The theory makes key experimental predictions that are tested through an analysis of variant proteins by structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. Quantifying allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein "design space" that identified the inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, through analyzing CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. This finding provides a link between the position of CRP/FNR transcription factors within the allosteric free energy landscapes and evolutionary selection pressures. Our study therefore reveals significant features of the mechanistic basis for allostery. Changes in low-frequency dynamics correlate with allosteric effects on ligand binding without the requirement for a defined spatial pathway. In addition to evolving suitable three-dimensional structures, CRP/FNR family transcription factors have

  12. Elevated levels of Hs-CRP and IL-6 after delivery are associated with depression during the 6 months post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Yutao; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-09-30

    The objective of this study is to determine whether inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6) early in the postpartum period contribute to the development of postpartum depression (PPD). From 4 May 2014 to 30 June 2014, all eligible women not on medication for depression giving birth at the Beijing Chao-Yang hospital were consecutively recruited and followed up for 6 months. Depression symptoms were measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and inflammatory biomarkers (Hs-CRP and IL-6) were tested. During the study period, 296 women were enrolled and completed follow-up. In these women, 45 (15.2%) were considered as meeting the criteria for PPD. Serum levels of Hs-CRP and IL-6 in women with PPD were significantly higher than those without PPD (all P<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristics to predict PPD demonstrated areas under the curve of IL-6 of 0.861 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.801-0.922), which was superior to Hs-CRP (0.837 (95% CI, 0.781-0.894), P<0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, IL-6 and Hs-CRP were independent predictors of PPD. The present study demonstrates a strong relationship between elevated serum Hs-CRP and IL-6 levels at admission and the development of PPD within 6 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Erythrocytes in alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, V.V.; Chifu, A.; Simplaceanu, T.; Frangopol, P.T.

    1983-02-01

    The elastic and inelastic deformation of erythrocytes induced by alternating fields and the suggestion that moderate field intensities (1.2 kV/cm) when continuously applied can cause lysis by a different mechanism compared to the action of short intense field pulses is presented. The different experimental conditions can be used to approach various properties of the membrane such as those related to the dielectric polarization of the membrane or to the interfacial polarization, leading to the inelastic deformation of the cells. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of Hs-CRP levels and interleukin 18 (-137G/C promoter polymorphism in risk prediction of coronary artery disease in first degree relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar G

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade.Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants.Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.

  15. Evaluation of Hs-CRP levels and interleukin 18 (-137G/C) promoter polymorphism in risk prediction of coronary artery disease in first degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Rajesh Kumar; K, Mrudula Spurthi; G, Kishore Kumar; Kurapati, Mohanalatha; M, Saraswati; T, Mohini Aiyengar; P, Chiranjeevi; G, Srilatha Reddy; S, Nivas; P, Kaushik; K, Sanjib Sahu; H, Surekha Rani

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS) with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP) is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade. Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C) by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C) polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants. Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C) polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.

  16. Descriptive parameters of the erythrocyte aggregation phenomenon using a laser transmission optical chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toderi, Martín A.; Castellini, Horacio V.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2017-01-01

    The study of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is of great interest because of its implications for human health. Altered RBC aggregation can lead to microcirculatory problems as in vascular pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes, due to a decrease in the erythrocyte surface electric charge and an increase in the ligands present in plasma. The process of erythrocyte aggregation was studied in stasis situation (free shear stresses), using an optical chip based on the laser transmission technique. Kinetic curves of erythrocyte aggregation under different conditions were obtained, allowing evaluation and characterization of this process. Two main characteristics of blood that influence erythrocyte aggregation were analyzed: the erythrocyte surface anionic charge (EAC) after digestion with the enzyme trypsin and plasmatic protein concentration in suspension medium using plasma dissolutions in physiological saline with human albumin. A theoretical approach was evaluated to obtain aggregation and disaggregation ratios by syllectograms data fitting. Sensible parameters (Amp100, t) regarding a reduced erythrocyte EAC were determined, and other parameters (AI, M-Index) resulted that are representative of a variation in the plasmatic protein content of the suspension medium. These results are very useful for further applications in biomedicine.

  17. Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, Challagundla K.; Khanna, Subhash K.; Das, Mukul

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in α-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of α-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy

  18. Erythrocyte remodeling in Plasmodium berghei infection: the contribution of SEP family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currà, Chiara; Pace, Tomasino; Franke-Fayard, Blandine M D; Picci, Leonardo; Bertuccini, Lucia; Ponzi, Marta

    2012-03-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium largely modifies the infected erythrocyte through the export of proteins to multiple sites within the host cell. This remodeling is crucial for pathology and translocation of virulence factors to the erythrocyte surface. In this study, we investigated localization and export of small exported proteins/early transcribed membrane proteins (SEP/ETRAMPs), conserved within Plasmodium genus. This protein family is characterized by a predicted signal peptide, a short lysine-rich stretch, an internal transmembrane domain and a highly charged C-terminal region of variable length. We show here that members of the rodent Plasmodium berghei family are components of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), which surrounds the parasite throughout the erythrocytic cycle. During P. berghei development, vesicle-like structures containing these proteins detach from the PVM en route to the host cytosol. These SEP-containing vesicles remain associated with the infected erythrocyte ghosts most probably anchored to the membrane skeleton. Transgenic lines expressing the green fluorescent protein appended to different portions of sep-coding region allowed us to define motifs required for protein export. The highly charged terminal region appears to be involved in protein-protein interactions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Tuning SERS for living erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Parshina, E.Y.; Khabanova, V.V.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a unique technique to study submembrane hemoglobin (Hbsm) in erythrocytes. We report the detailed design of SERS experiments on living erythrocytes to estimate dependence of the enhancemen t factor for main Raman bands of Hbsm on silver nanoparticle (Ag......NP) properties. We demonstrate that the enhancement factor for 4/A1g, 10/B1g and A2g Raman bands of Hbsm varies from 105 to 107 under proposed experimental conditions with 473 nm laser excitation. For the first time we show that the enhancement of Raman scattering increases with the increase in the relative...... between small AgNPs and Hbsm and, consequently, leads to the higher enhancement of Raman scattering of Hbsm. The enhancement of higher wavenumber bands 10/B1g and A2g is more sensitive to AgNPs' size and the relative amount of small AgNPs than the enhancement of the lower wavenumber band 4/A1g. This can...

  20. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving

  1. Enzymatic assay for methotrexate in erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H; Heinsvig, E M

    1985-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) accumulates in erythrocytes in MTX-treated patients. We present a modified enzymatic assay measuring MTX concentrations between 10 and 60 nmol/l in erythrocytes, adapted for a centrifugal analyser (Cobas Bio). About 40 patient's samples could be analysed within 1 h. The detection...

  2. Molecular mechanisms of erythrocyte photo-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.T.; Souza, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The role of singlet oxygen and the lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte membrane are studied. The irradiation of erythrocytes with visible light in the presence of a photodynamic mediator (toluidine blue) is reported. A system of light application by optical fiber, connected to a catheter is suggested for local instillation of the photosensitizing agent. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Phenotypic variations in osmotic lysis of Sahel goat erythrocytes in non-ionic glucose media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbokwe, Nanacha Afifi; Igbokwe, Ikechukwu Onyebuchi

    2016-03-01

    Erythrocyte osmotic lysis in deionised glucose media is regulated by glucose influx, cation efflux, and changes in cell volume after water diffusion. Transmembrane fluxes may be affected by varied expression of glucose transporter protein and susceptibility of membrane proteins to glucose-induced glycosylation and oxidation in various physiologic states. Variations in haemolysis of Sahel goat erythrocytes after incubation in hyposmotic non-ionic glucose media, associated with sex, age, late pregnancy, and lactation, were investigated. The osmotic fragility curve in glucose media was sigmoidal with erythrocytes from goats in late pregnancy (PRE) or lactation (LAC) or from kid (KGT) or middle-aged (MGT) goats. Non-sigmoidal phenotype occurred in yearlings (YGT) and old (OGT) goats. The composite fragility phenotype for males and non-pregnant dry (NPD) females was non-sigmoidal. Erythrocytes with non-sigmoidal curves were more stable than those with sigmoidal curves because of inflectional shift of the curve to the left. Erythrocytes tended to be more fragile with male than female sex, KGT and MGT than YGT and OGT, and LAC and PRE than NPD. Thus, sex, age, pregnancy, and lactation affected the haemolytic pattern of goat erythrocytes in glucose media. The physiologic state of the goat affected the in vitro interaction of glucose with erythrocytes, causing variations in osmotic stability with variants of fragility phenotype. Variations in the effect of high extracellular glucose concentrations on the functions of membrane-associated glucose transporter, aquaporins, and the cation cotransporter were presumed to be relevant in regulating the physical properties of goat erythrocytes under osmotic stress.

  4. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barretto O.C. de O.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study of erythrocyte metabolism of vertebrates, the specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD of the Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis in a hemolysate was shown to be high, 207 ± 38 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37ºC, compared to the human erythrocyte activity of 12 ± 2 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37ºC. The apparent high specific activity of the mixture led us to investigate the physicochemical properties of the opossum enzyme. We report that reduced glutathione (GSH in the erythrocytes was only 50% higher than in human erythrocytes, a value lower than expected from the high G6PD activity since GSH is maintained in a reduced state by G6PD activity. The molecular mass, determined by G-200 Sephadex column chromatography at pH 8.0, was 265 kDa, which is essentially the same as that of human G6PD (260 kDa. The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km: 55 µM for glucose-6-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Km: 3.3 µM were similar to those of the human enzyme (Km: 50-70 and Km: 2.9-4.4, respectively. A 450-fold purification of the opossum enzyme was achieved and the specific activity of the purified enzyme, 90 IU/mg protein, was actually lower than the 150 IU/mg protein observed for human G6PD. We conclude that G6PD after purification from the hemolysate of D. marsupialis does not have a high specific activity. Thus, it is quite probable that the red cell hyperactivity reported may be explained by increased synthesis of G6PD molecules per unit of hemoglobin or to reduced inactivation in the RBC hemolysate.

  5. C reactive protein and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Vestbo, Jørgen; Zacho, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design.......It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design....

  6. The Complementary Role of High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in the Diagnosis and Severity Assessment of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Mohammad Reza; Javanbakht, Maryam; Shayegan, Mohammad Reza; Kianoush, Sina; Omid, Fatemeh; Hojati, Maryam; Meshkat, Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a beneficial diagnostic test for the evaluation of inflammatory response. Extremely low levels of CRP can be detected using high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) test. A considerable body of evidence has demonstrated that inflammatory response has an important role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we evaluated…

  7. Extracellular histones induce erythrocyte fragility and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordbacheh, Farzaneh; O'Meara, Connor H; Coupland, Lucy A; Lelliott, Patrick M; Parish, Christopher R

    2017-12-28

    Extracellular histones have been shown to play an important pathogenic role in many diseases, primarily through their cytotoxicity toward nucleated cells and their ability to promote platelet activation with resultant thrombosis and thrombocytopenia. In contrast, little is known about the effect of extracellular histones on erythrocyte function. We demonstrate in this study that histones promote erythrocyte aggregation, sedimentation, and using a novel in vitro shear stress model, we show that histones induce erythrocyte fragility and lysis in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, histones impair erythrocyte deformability based on reduced passage of erythrocytes through an artificial spleen. These in vitro results were mirrored in vivo with the injection of histones inducing anemia within minutes of administration, with a concomitant increase in splenic hemoglobin content. Thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were also observed. These findings suggest that histones binding to erythrocytes may contribute to the elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rates observed in inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, histone-induced increases in red blood cell lysis and splenic clearance may be a significant factor in the unexplained anemias seen in critically ill patients. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  8. Prognostic impact of hs-CRP and IL-6 in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation treated with electrical cardioversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Therkelsen, Susette Krohn; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the role of inflammatory processes in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the prognostic impact of inflammatory markers in predicting long-term risk of AF recurrence after electrical cardioversion (CV). METHODS: High-sensitivity C......-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured in 56 patients with persistent AF (lasting mean 128 days (range 14-960), mean age 65 years (34-84)), 19 healthy volunteers and 19 patients with permanent AF. Patients with persistent AF underwent CV. Blood samples were taken prior to CV and after 1......, 30 and 180 days. RESULTS: The immediate success rate of CV was 88%, while the total recurrence rate after 180 days was 68%. Patients with permanent AF had significantly higher levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 than patients with persistent AF (p = 0.0011, p

  9. In vitro and ex vivo effect of hyaluronic acid on erythrocyte flow properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palatnik S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyaluronic acid (HA is present in many tissues; its presence in serum may be related to certain inflammatory conditions, tissue damage, sepsis, liver malfunction and some malignancies. In the present work, our goal was to investigate the significance of hyaluronic acid effect on erythrocyte flow properties. Therefore we performed in vitro experiments incubating red blood cells (RBCs with several HA concentrations. Afterwards, in order to corroborate the pathophysiological significance of the results obtained, we replicated the in vitro experiment with ex vivo RBCs from diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, a serum HA-increasing pathology. Methods Erythrocyte deformability (by filtration through nucleopore membranes and erythrocyte aggregability (EA were tested on blood from healthy donors additioned with purified HA. EA was measured by transmitted light and analyzed with a mathematical model yielding two parameters, the aggregation rate and the size of the aggregates. Conformational changes of cytoskeleton proteins were estimated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR. Results In vitro, erythrocytes treated with HA showed increased rigidity index (RI and reduced aggregability, situation strongly related to the rigidization of the membrane cytoskeleton triggered by HA, as shown by EPR results. Also, a significant correlation (r: 0.77, p Conclusions Our results lead us to postulate the hypothesis that HA interacts with the erythrocyte surface leading to modifications in erythrocyte rheological and flow properties, both ex vivo and in vitro.

  10. Association of serum hs-CRP and lipids with obesity in school children in a 12-month follow-up study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, Ritsuko; Ando, Michiko; Funabashi, Hidemitsu; Yoda, Yoshiko; Nakano, Masataka; Shima, Masayuki

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association of serum lipids and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with obesity in school children and to explore whether hs-CRP levels could be used to predict the presence or absence of obesity 12 months later. The subjects were school children (6-11 years old) in Japan. Blood sampling and physical measurements were performed in school (2001); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and hs-CRP levels were measured. Data from children who could be followed 12 months later were analyzed. Subjects weighing 20% or more over his/her standard weight were regarded as obese, and the association of obesity with serum parameters was analyzed. Data from 612 subjects were analyzed (follow-up rate, 75.4%). The mean of each serum parameter was significantly higher (inverse for HDL-C; lower) in obese than that in non-obese children. Logistic regression analysis for obesity at baseline showed that the odds ratio (OR) of hs-CRP was the highest [OR, 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-2.78 for an interquartile rage (IQR) increase]; the association with triglycerides and LDL-C/HDL-C was significant. At the 12-month follow-up, the OR of high hs-CRP remained the highest of all serum parameters (2.09; 95% CI, 1.63-2.69 for an IQR increase). High levels of triglycerides, LDL-C/HDL-C, and hs-CRP increased the risk of obesity in school children. Hs-CRP is considered to be a better predictor of obesity 12 months later than is LDL-C/HDL-C.

  11. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death Following Boswellic Acid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatrice Calabrò

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The antinflammatory natural product boswellic acid is effective against cancer at least in part by inducing tumor cell apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, a suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include oxidative stress, increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i, energy depletion, ceramide formation and p38 kinase activation. The present study tested, whether and how boswellic acid induces eryptosis. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies, reactive oxygen species (ROS from 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofuorescein diacetate (DCFDA fluorescence, and cytosolic ATP concentration utilizing a luciferin-luciferase assay kit. Results: A 24 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to boswellic acid (5 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (to 9.3 ±0.9 % and significantly decreased forward scatter. Boswellic acid did not significantly modify [Ca2+]i, cytosolic ATP, ROS, or ceramide abundance. The effect of boswellic acid on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by p38 kinase inhibitors skepinone (2 µM and SB203580 (2 µM. Conclusions: Boswellic acid stimulates cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect in part dependent on p38 protein kinase activity.

  12. Production of C-reactive protein by human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuta, A.E.; Baum, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute phase serum protein in humans; it is detectable at very high concentrations during infection and tissue trauma. This protein is a pentame composed of five identical, 21,500 MW subunits. CRP is detectable on the surface of approximately 4% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). CRP binds its physiological ligands in a Ca ++ dependent manner; removal of Ca ++ does not alter the expression of CRP on the lymphocyte surface. Recently, investigators in this laboratory reported substantial inhibition of natural killer cell (NK) activity with anti-CRP antibodies. The following studies were undertaken to determine the origin of surface-CRP (S-CRP) found on normal PBL. Cells were incubated in methionine-free DMEM supplemented with 35 S-methionine. Cells were lysed and subjected to immunoprecipitation with anti-CRP and Staphylococcus aureus; immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Data presented here suggested that lymphocytes, in particular, LGL produce small amounts of CRP and express it on their surface. Lymphocytes do not appear to secrete CRP since no CRP could be detected in culture supernatants. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates that peripheral blood monocytes produce no detectable CRP. Present studies utilizing Northern blot analysis are underway in order to detect CRP-mRNA

  13. The diagnostic value of CRP, IL-8, PCT, and sTREM-1 in the detection of bacterial infections in pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Karin G. E.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Elferink, Rob F. M. Oude; van Vliet, Michel J.; Nijhuis, Claudi S. M. Oude; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-8, procalcitonin (PCT), and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) as predictors for bacterial infection in febrile neutropenia, plus their usefulness in febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy-induced

  14. Association of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP Concentrations in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum in Chronic Periodontitis Subjects with and without Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is considered as a strong risk factor of inflammatory periodontal tissue destruction. The purpose of this study is to determine presence of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs CRP levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in obese subjects with chronic periodontitis and to find an association, if any.

  15. In-Depth, Label-Free Analysis of the Erythrocyte Cytoplasmic Proteome in Diamond Blackfan Anemia Identifies a Unique Inflammatory Signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther N Pesciotta

    Full Text Available Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA is a rare, congenital erythrocyte aplasia that is usually caused by haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins due to diverse mutations in one of several ribosomal genes. A striking feature of this disease is that a range of different mutations in ribosomal proteins results in similar disease phenotypes primarily characterized by erythrocyte abnormalities and macrocytic anemia, while most other cell types in the body are minimally affected. Previously, we analyzed the erythrocyte membrane proteomes of several DBA patients and identified several proteins that are not typically associated with this cell type and that suggested inflammatory mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of DBA. In this study, we evaluated the erythrocyte cytosolic proteome of DBA patients through in-depth analysis of hemoglobin-depleted erythrocyte cytosols. Simple, reproducible, hemoglobin depletion using nickel columns enabled in-depth analysis of over 1000 cytosolic erythrocyte proteins with only moderate total analysis time per proteome. Label-free quantitation and statistical analysis identified 29 proteins with significantly altered abundance levels in DBA patients compared to matched healthy control donors. Proteins that were significantly increased in DBA erythrocyte cytoplasms included three proteasome subunit beta proteins that make up the immunoproteasome and proteins induced by interferon-γ such as n-myc interactor and interferon-induced 35 kDa protein [NMI and IFI35 respectively]. Pathway analysis confirmed the presence of an inflammatory signature in erythrocytes of DBA patients and predicted key upstream regulators including mitogen activated kinase 1, interferon-γ, tumor suppressor p53, and tumor necrosis factor. These results show that erythrocytes in DBA patients are intrinsically different from those in healthy controls which may be due to an inflammatory response resulting from the inherent molecular defect of ribosomal

  16. The Effect of Covalently-Attached ATRP-Synthesized Polymers on Membrane Stability and Cytoprotection in Human Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clafshenkel, William P; Murata, Hironobu; Andersen, Jill; Creeger, Yehuda; Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocytes have been described as advantageous drug delivery vehicles. In order to ensure an adequate circulation half-life, erythrocytes may benefit from protective enhancements that maintain membrane integrity and neutralize oxidative damage of membrane proteins that otherwise facilitate their premature clearance from circulation. Surface modification of erythrocytes using rationally designed polymers, synthesized via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), may further expand the field of membrane-engineered red blood cells. This study describes the fate of ATRP-synthesized polymers that were covalently attached to human erythrocytes as well as the effect of membrane engineering on cell stability under physiological and oxidative conditions in vitro. The biocompatible, membrane-reactive polymers were homogenously retained on the periphery of modified erythrocytes for at least 24 hours. Membrane engineering stabilized the erythrocyte membrane and effectively neutralized oxidative species, even in the absence of free-radical scavenger-containing polymers. The targeted functionalization of Band 3 protein by NHS-pDMAA-Cy3 polymers stabilized its monomeric form preventing aggregation in the presence of the crosslinking reagent, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS3). A free radical scavenging polymer, NHS-pDMAA-TEMPO˙, provided additional protection of surface modified erythrocytes in an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Preserving or augmenting cytoprotective mechanisms that extend circulation half-life is an important consideration for the use of red blood cells for drug delivery in various pathologies, as they are likely to encounter areas of imbalanced oxidative stress as they circuit the vascular system.

  17. The Effect of Covalently-Attached ATRP-Synthesized Polymers on Membrane Stability and Cytoprotection in Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Clafshenkel

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes have been described as advantageous drug delivery vehicles. In order to ensure an adequate circulation half-life, erythrocytes may benefit from protective enhancements that maintain membrane integrity and neutralize oxidative damage of membrane proteins that otherwise facilitate their premature clearance from circulation. Surface modification of erythrocytes using rationally designed polymers, synthesized via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, may further expand the field of membrane-engineered red blood cells. This study describes the fate of ATRP-synthesized polymers that were covalently attached to human erythrocytes as well as the effect of membrane engineering on cell stability under physiological and oxidative conditions in vitro. The biocompatible, membrane-reactive polymers were homogenously retained on the periphery of modified erythrocytes for at least 24 hours. Membrane engineering stabilized the erythrocyte membrane and effectively neutralized oxidative species, even in the absence of free-radical scavenger-containing polymers. The targeted functionalization of Band 3 protein by NHS-pDMAA-Cy3 polymers stabilized its monomeric form preventing aggregation in the presence of the crosslinking reagent, bis(sulfosuccinimidylsuberate (BS3. A free radical scavenging polymer, NHS-pDMAA-TEMPO˙, provided additional protection of surface modified erythrocytes in an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Preserving or augmenting cytoprotective mechanisms that extend circulation half-life is an important consideration for the use of red blood cells for drug delivery in various pathologies, as they are likely to encounter areas of imbalanced oxidative stress as they circuit the vascular system.

  18. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum hs-CRP, sICAM-1 and TNF-α levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qiuyue

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between changes of serum sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels and development of the disease in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods: Serum levels of TNF-α and sICAM-1(with RIA) and hs-CRP(with immunoturbidimetry) were measured in 30 patients with GDM and 30 normal pregnant women as controls. Results: The serum hs-CRP, sICAM-1 and TNF-α contents in the patients with GDM were all significantly higher than those in normal pregnant women (all P<0.01).The serum hs-CRP levels were mutually positivety correlated with TNF-α and sICAM-1 levels (r=0.6097, 0.7213, all P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and sICAM-1 levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus would be helpful for outcome prediction. (authors)

  19. Identification and characterization of a novel Plasmodium falciparum adhesin involved in erythrocyte invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Hans

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major health problem worldwide. All clinical symptoms of malaria are attributed to the asexual blood stages of the parasite life cycle. Proteins resident in apical organelles and present on the surface of P. falciparum merozoites are considered promising candidates for the development of blood stage malaria vaccines. In the present study, we have identified and characterized a microneme associated antigen, PfMA [PlasmoDB Gene ID: PF3D7_0316000, PFC0700c]. The gene was selected by applying a set of screening criteria such as transcriptional upregulation at late schizogony, inter-species conservation and the presence of signal sequence or transmembrane domains. The gene sequence of PfMA was found to be conserved amongst various Plasmodium species. We experimentally demonstrated that the transcript for PfMA was expressed only in the late blood stages of parasite consistent with a putative role in erythrocyte invasion. PfMA was localized by immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy to be in the micronemes, an apical organelle of merozoites. The functional role of the PfMA protein in erythrocyte invasion was identified as a parasite adhesin involved in direct attachment with the target erythrocyte. PfMA was demonstrated to bind erythrocytes in a sialic acid independent, chymotrypsin and trypsin resistant manner and its antibodies inhibited P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion. Invasion of erythrocytes is a complex multistep process that involves a number of redundant ligand-receptor interactions many of which still remain unknown and even uncharacterized. Our work has identified and characterized a novel P. falciparum adhesin involved in erythrocyte invasion.

  20. Recognition of Human Erythrocyte Receptors by the Tryptophan-Rich Antigens of Monkey Malaria Parasite Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Tyagi

    Full Text Available The monkey malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi also infect humans. There is a lack of information on the molecular mechanisms that take place between this simian parasite and its heterologous human host erythrocytes leading to this zoonotic disease. Therefore, we investigated here the binding ability of P. knowlesi tryptophan-rich antigens (PkTRAgs to the human erythrocytes and sharing of the erythrocyte receptors between them as well as with other commonly occurring human malaria parasites.Six PkTRAgs were cloned and expressed in E.coli as well as in mammalian CHO-K1 cell to determine their human erythrocyte binding activity by cell-ELISA, and in-vitro rosetting assay, respectively.Three of six PkTRAgs (PkTRAg38.3, PkTRAg40.1, and PkTRAg67.1 showed binding to human erythrocytes. Two of them (PkTRAg40.1 and PkTRAg38.3 showed cross-competition with each other as well as with the previously described P.vivax tryptophan-rich antigens (PvTRAgs for human erythrocyte receptors. However, the third protein (PkTRAg67.1 utilized the additional but different human erythrocyte receptor(s as it did not cross-compete for erythrocyte binding with either of these two PkTRAgs as well as with any of the PvTRAgs. These three PkTRAgs also inhibited the P.falciparum parasite growth in in-vitro culture, further indicating the sharing of human erythrocyte receptors by these parasite species and the biological significance of this receptor-ligand interaction between heterologous host and simian parasite.Recognition and sharing of human erythrocyte receptor(s by PkTRAgs with human parasite ligands could be part of the strategy adopted by the monkey malaria parasite to establish inside the heterologous human host.

  1. Recognition of Human Erythrocyte Receptors by the Tryptophan-Rich Antigens of Monkey Malaria Parasite Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Kriti; Gupta, Deepali; Saini, Ekta; Choudhary, Shilpa; Jamwal, Abhishek; Alam, Mohd Shoeb; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Tyagi, Rupesh K; Sharma, Yagya D

    2015-01-01

    The monkey malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi also infect humans. There is a lack of information on the molecular mechanisms that take place between this simian parasite and its heterologous human host erythrocytes leading to this zoonotic disease. Therefore, we investigated here the binding ability of P. knowlesi tryptophan-rich antigens (PkTRAgs) to the human erythrocytes and sharing of the erythrocyte receptors between them as well as with other commonly occurring human malaria parasites. Six PkTRAgs were cloned and expressed in E.coli as well as in mammalian CHO-K1 cell to determine their human erythrocyte binding activity by cell-ELISA, and in-vitro rosetting assay, respectively. Three of six PkTRAgs (PkTRAg38.3, PkTRAg40.1, and PkTRAg67.1) showed binding to human erythrocytes. Two of them (PkTRAg40.1 and PkTRAg38.3) showed cross-competition with each other as well as with the previously described P.vivax tryptophan-rich antigens (PvTRAgs) for human erythrocyte receptors. However, the third protein (PkTRAg67.1) utilized the additional but different human erythrocyte receptor(s) as it did not cross-compete for erythrocyte binding with either of these two PkTRAgs as well as with any of the PvTRAgs. These three PkTRAgs also inhibited the P.falciparum parasite growth in in-vitro culture, further indicating the sharing of human erythrocyte receptors by these parasite species and the biological significance of this receptor-ligand interaction between heterologous host and simian parasite. Recognition and sharing of human erythrocyte receptor(s) by PkTRAgs with human parasite ligands could be part of the strategy adopted by the monkey malaria parasite to establish inside the heterologous human host.

  2. Adenosine deaminase activity of erythrocytes in hyperuricemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, W.; Richter, V.; Beenken, O.; Weinhold, D.; Hirschberg, K.; Rotzsch, W.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1982-01-01

    Erythrocytic adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was determined in 55 patients with primary hyperuricemia and in 37 healthy control persons. Unlike the controls, the ADA activity in the patient group showed a two-peak response. Hyperuricemia patients with high ADA activity also exhibited increased uric acid excretion and elevated 15 N incorporation into uric acid. High activity values of erythrocytic ADA can be interpreted as an uric acid overproduction, giving hints for a therapeutic plan. (author)

  3. C-reactive protein bearing cells are a subpopulation of natural killer cell precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, L.L.; Krueger, N.X.

    1986-01-01

    Cell surface C-reactive protein (S-CRP) is expressed on the surface membrane of a small percentage of lymphocytes. Anti-CRP inhibits natural killer (NK) function. Since NK effectors are heterogeneous, they suspected that the cells expressing S-CRP (CRP + ) might respond differently to stimulation than the NK effectors lacking S-CRP (CRP - ). Methods were developed to separate CRP + and CRP - lymphocytes and their functional responses were examined and compared. These techniques are dependent upon the binding of CRP to its ligands, C-polysaccharide (CPS) or Phosphocholine (PC). The first method involves rosette formation with CPS coupled autologous red blood cells; the second method utilizes the binding of CRP + lymphocytes to PC-sepharose. Lymphocytes separated using either of these techniques yield similar results. CRP - lymphocytes respond to 3 day incubation with PHA or Il-2 by producing effectors which kill 51 Cr labeled K562 tumor cells, CRP + precursors do not. CRP + lymphocytes respond to a 5 day incubation with inactivated K562 by producing effectors which kill K562; CRP - precursors do not. NK functional activity of both is increased by incubation with interferon. This ability to respond differently to stimulation suggests that CRP + and CRP - cells are functionally distinct

  4. Curcumin Protects -SH Groups and Sulphate Transport after Oxidative Damage in Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Erythrocytes, continuously exposed to oxygen pressure and toxic compounds, are sensitive to oxidative stress, namely acting on integral Band 3 protein, with consequences on cell membranes deformability and anion transport efficiency. The aim of the present investigation, conducted on human erythrocytes, is to verify whether curcumin (1 or 10µM, a natural compound with proved antioxidant properties, may counteract Band 3-mediated anion transport alterations due to oxidative stress. Methods: Oxidative conditions were induced by exposure to, alternatively, either 2 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM or pH-modified solutions (6.5 and 8.5. Rate constant for SO4= uptake and -SH groups estimation were measured to verify the effect of oxidative stress on anion transport efficiency and erythrocyte membranes. Results: After the exposure of erythrocytes to, alternatively, NEM or pH-modified solutions, a significant decrease in both rate constant for SO4= uptake and -SH groups was observed, which was prevented by curcumin, with a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions: Our results show that: i the decreased efficiency of anion transport may be due to changes in Band 3 protein structure caused by cysteine -SH groups oxidation, especially after exposure to NEM and pH 6.5; ii 10 µM Curcumin is effective in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative stress events at level of cell membrane transport.

  5. Physicochemical characterization of artificial nanoerythrosomes derived from erythrocyte ghost membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Róbert; Mihály, Judith; Szigyártó, Imola Cs; Wacha, András; Lelkes, Gábor; Bóta, Attila

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal stabile nanoerythrosomes with 200 nm average diameter were formed from hemoglobin-free erythrocyte ghost membrane via sonication and membrane extrusion. The incorporation of extra lipid (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC), added to the sonicated ghosts, caused significant changes in the thermotropic character of the original membranes. As a result of the increased DPPC ratio the chain melting of the hydrated DPPC system and the characteristic small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of the lipid bilayers appeared. Significant morphological changes were followed by transmission electron microscopy combined with freeze fracture method (FF-TEM). After the ultrasonic treatment the large entities of erythrocyte ghosts transformed into nearly spherical nanoerythrosomes with diameters between 100 and 300 nm and at the same time a great number of 10-30 nm large membrane proteins or protein clusters were dispersed in the aqueous medium. The infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) pointed out, that the sonication did not cause changes in the secondary structures of the membrane proteins under our preparation conditions. About fivefold of extra lipid--compared to the lipid content of the original membrane--caused homogeneous dispersion of nanoerythrosomes however the shape of the vesicles was not uniform. After the addition of about tenfold of DPPC, monoform and monodisperse nanoerythrosomes became typical. The outer surfaces of these roughly spherical objects were frequently polygonal, consisting of a net of pentagons and hexagons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Erythrocyte endogenous proteinase activity during blood bank storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, V; de Matteis, M C; Orazi, B M; Santarossa, L; Della Toffola, L; Raineri, A; Vettore, L

    1990-01-01

    We studied proteolytic alterations of membrane proteins in ghosts derived from human red blood cells, preserved up to 35 days in the liquid state either as whole blood or with additive solution. The study was carried out by performing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of stromal proteins from erythrocytes, either previously treated with proteinase inhibitors or previously incubated in conditions promoting proteolysis. To differentiate the effect of erythrocyte from granulocyte proteinases, the investigation was also carried out in leukocyte-free red cell preparations. The results show: (1) the effects of endogenous proteinases on membrane proteins derived from red cells stored under blood bank conditions; (2) a decrease of proteolytic effects in ghosts derived from red cells which have been submitted to a longer storage; (3) a relevant influence of the red cell resuspending medium before lysis on the time-dependent onset and exhaustion of proteolysis in ghosts. The presence of increased proteolysis in ghosts could be regarded as a marker of molecular lesions induced in red cells by storage under blood bank conditions.

  7. cAMP-CRP acts as a key regulator for the viable but non-culturable state in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosho, Kazuki; Fukushima, Hiroko; Asai, Takehiro; Nishio, Masahiro; Takamaru, Reiko; Kobayashi-Kirschvink, Koseki Joseph; Ogawa, Tetsuhiro; Hidaka, Makoto; Masaki, Haruhiko

    2018-03-01

    A variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, are known to enter the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state under various stress conditions. During this state, cells lose colony-forming activities on conventional agar plates while retaining signs of viability. Diverse environmental stresses including starvation induce the VBNC state. However, little is known about the genetic mechanism inducing this state. Here, we aimed to reveal the genetic determinants of the VBNC state of E. coli. We hypothesized that the VBNC state is a process wherein specific gene products important for colony formation are depleted during the extended period of stress conditions. If so, higher expression of these genes would maintain colony-forming activities, thereby restraining cells from entering the VBNC state. From an E. coli plasmid-encoded ORF library, we identified genes that were responsible for maintaining high colony-forming activities after exposure to starvation condition. Among these, cpdA encoding cAMP phosphodiesterase exhibited higher performance in the maintenance of colony-forming activities. As cpdA overexpression decreases intracellular cAMP, cAMP or its complex with cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) may negatively regulate colony-forming activities under stress conditions. We confirmed this using deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase or CRP. These mutants fully maintained colony-forming activities even after a long period of starvation, while wild-type cells lost most of this activity. Thus, we concluded that the lack of cAMP-CRP effectively retains high colony-forming activities, indicating that cAMP-CRP acts as a positive regulator necessary for the induction of the VBNC state in E. coli.

  8. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the erythrocyte membrane: ESR, NMR and biochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantafora, A.; Ceccarini, M.; Guidoni, L.; Ianzini, F.; Minetti, M.; Viti, V.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation on resealed erythrocyte ghosts have been examined with different techniques. Phospholipid analysis reveals peroxidative damage on the polyunsaturated chains of phosphatidylethanolamine. Gel electrophoresis and ESR measurements indicate modifications of the cytoskeletal proteins. 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance data show bilayer modifications that can be interpreted as changes in lipid-protein interactions. The overall picture from the present results favours interaction between lipids and proteins in the inner monolayer of the membrane. (author)

  9. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  10. ADA 和 CRP 在结核性脑膜炎和化脓性脑膜炎诊断中的应用%Application of ADA and CRP in the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis and Purulent Meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄赟; 黄仕辉; 徐荣金

    2016-01-01

    Objective Through the detection of meningitis patients blood and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)in Ada (ADA)con-tent detected at the same time,blood CRP (C -reactive protein)content,for differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and purulent meningitis.Method The blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with tuberculous meningitis and purulent meningitis in our hospital were detected by ADA and CRP.Meanwhile,The detection results of ADA and CRP were compared and analyzed with the control group of virus and other meningitis.Results By comparing the tuberculous and pyogenic meningitis and the con-trol group,blood and CSF of ADA content was significantly higher in patients with tuberculous meningitis,and the difference was quite obvious.When P <0.05,there was statistic significance;compared with tuberculousmeningitis and matched groups,CPR content in the blood of Purulen meningitis patient was obviously higher and the difference was quite distinctive.When P <0.05, there was statistic significance.Conclusion ADA joint CRP detection of early differential diagnosis of tuberculous and pyogenic meningitis has great value.%目的:通过检测脑膜炎患者血液和 CSF(脑脊液)中的 ADA(腺苷脱氨酶)含量,同时检测患者血液中的CRP(C -反应蛋白)含量,用以鉴别结核性脑膜炎和化脓性脑膜炎。方法:选取儿科结核性脑膜炎和化脓性脑膜炎患者的血及脑脊液作 ADA 和血 CRP 进行生化检测,同时以病毒性及其他脑膜炎作对照组,对 ADA 和 CRP 的检测结果进行比对分析。结果:通过对结核性和化脓性及对照组脑膜炎的比较,结核性脑膜炎患者血和 CSF 中的 ADA 含量明显增高,差异明显,具有统计学意义(P <0.05);CRP 在化脓性脑膜炎患者血液中的含量较结核性和对照组明显增加,差异明显,具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:ADA 联合 CRP 检测对早期鉴别诊断结核性与化脓性脑膜炎有较大价值。

  11. Role of plasma adiponectin /C-reactive protein ratio in obesity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... Objective(s): We examined relations between fasting plasma adiponectin (ADIP), C-reactive protein (CRP) ... Methods: Fasting plasma ADIP, CRP, Insulin (IN), HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, body fat percent (%BF), waist ...

  12. Correlation of CRP Levels in Third Trimester with Fetal Birth Weight in Preeclamptic and Normotensive Pregnant Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.; Bukhari, F. A.; Zargham, U.; Khakan, S.; Zaki, S.; Tauseef, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammatory marker in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women and to determine its correlation with fetal birth weight. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Unit of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Shaikh Zayed Hospital and Gynaecological Unit II of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: The participants included 60 cases with preeclampsia and 60 normotensive pregnant women, all in their third trimester. All the participants were in the age group of 20 - 40 years and had a BMI range of 18 - 25. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were measured by Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 15). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: C-reactive protein levels were significantly high (p < 0.001) in the preeclamptic group with a median value of 8.8 (0.3 - 25.5) as compared to 5.4 (0.24 - 9.8) mg/l in the normotensive women. The birth weight of babies was also significantly low in the preeclamptic group. The high CRP levels were negatively correlated with fetal birth weight in preeclamptic group. Conclusion: Elevated C-reactive protein levels in the preeclamptic pregnant women is a part of an exaggerated maternal systemic inflammatory response, and correlates with low fetal birth weight. (author)

  13. The lateral distribution of intramembrane particles in the erythrocyte membrane and recombinant vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.; Verkleij, A.J.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1979-01-01

    Triton X-100 (in concentrations which did not cause a significant solubilization of membrane material) caused aggregation of the intramembrane particles of human erythrocyte ghosts. Ghosts from which the extrinsic proteins had been removed by alkali treatment showed a temperature-induced

  14. Isolation and removal of proteolytic enzymes with magnetic cross-linked erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarik, I. Ivo; Safarikova, Mirka

    2001-01-01

    New magnetic adsorbents for batch isolation and removal of various proteolytic enzymes were prepared by glutaraldehyde cross-linking of bovine, porcine and human erythrocytes in the presence of fine magnetic particles. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, alkaline bacterial protease and proteases present in various commercial enzyme preparations were efficiently adsorbed on these adsorbents; on the contrary, proteins without proteolytic activity were not adsorbed

  15. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  16. Plasmodium falciparum variant STEVOR antigens are expressed in merozoites and possibly associated with erythrocyte invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Michaela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum STEVOR proteins, encoded by the multicopy stevor gene family have no known biological functions. Their expression and unique locations in different parasite life cycle stages evoke multiple functionalities. Their abundance and hypervariability support a role in antigenic variation. Methods Immunoblotting of total parasite proteins with an anti-STEVOR antibody was used to identify variant antigens of this gene family and to follow changes in STEVOR expression in parasite populations panned on CSA or CD36 receptors. Immunofluorescence assays and immunoelectron microscopy were performed to study the subcellular localization of STEVOR proteins in different parasite stages. The capacity of the antibody to inhibit merozoite invasion of erythrocytes was assessed to determine whether STEVOR variants were involved in the invasion process. Results Antigenic variation of STEVORs at the protein level was observed in blood stage parasites. STEVOR variants were found to be present on the merozoite surface and in rhoptries. An insight into a participation in erythrocyte invasion was gained through an immunofluorescence analysis of a sequence of thin slides representing progressive steps in erythrocyte invasion. An interesting feature of the staining pattern was what appeared to be the release of STEVORs around the invading merozoites. Because the anti-STEVOR antibody did not inhibit invasion, the role of STEVORs in this process remains unknown. Conclusion The localization of STEVOR proteins to the merozoite surface and the rhoptries together with its prevalence as a released component in the invading merozoite suggest a role of these antigens in adhesion and/or immune evasion in the erythrocyte invasion process. These observations would also justify STEVORs for undergoing antigenic variation. Even though a role in erythrocyte invasion remains speculative, an association of members of the STEVOR protein family with

  17. Cooperative Actions of CRP-cAMP and FNR Increase the Fosfomycin Susceptibility of Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) by Elevating the Expression of glpT and uhpT under Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Kumiko; Tanimoto, Koichi; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Hirakawa, Hidetada

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infections to anaerobic site are often hard to be treated because the activity of most of antimicrobials decreases under anaerobic conditions. However, fosfomycin rather provides a greater activity under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Previously, we found that expression of glpT and uhpT , fosfomycin symporters in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) was upregulated by FNR, a global regulator during the anaerobiosis of the bacterium, which led to increased uptake and susceptibility to this drug. In this study, we showed that expression of glpT and uhpT is induced by CRP-cAMP, the regulator complex under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The activity of CRP-cAMP in EHEC was elevated under anaerobic conditions because levels of both CRP and cAMP were higher in the cells when grown anaerobically than those when grown aerobically. Results of expression study using mutants indicated that CRP-cAMP is indispensable for expression of glpT but not uhpT -whereas that of uhpT requires UhpA that is the response regulator composing of two-component system with the sensor kinase, UhpB. The CRP-cAMP protein bound to a region that overlaps RNA polymerase binding site for glpT and region upstream of UhpA binding site for uhpT . FNR bound to a region further upstream of CRP-cAMP binding site on region upstream of the glpT gene. These combined results suggested that increased antibacterial activity of fosfomycin to EHEC under anaerobic conditions is due to activation of FNR and increment of CRP-cAMP activity. Then, FNR enhances the expression of glpT activated by CRP-cAMP while CRP-cAMP and FNR cooperatively aids the action of UhpA to express uhpT to maximum level.

  18. In vitro erythrocytic membrane effects of dibenzyl trisulfide, a secondary metabolite of Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepple, D J; Richards, A A; Lowe, D A; Reid, W A; Younger, N O; Williams, L A D

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the in vitro effect of dibenzyl trisulfide (DTS), a secondary metabolite of Petiveria alliacea, on erythrocyte elasticity, relaxation time and membrane morphology. Blood samples from 8 volunteers with hemoglobin AA were exposed to 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 ng/ml of DTS respectively and the elasticity and relaxation time measured. There were statistically significant, dose-dependent increases in elasticity and relaxation times. The changes in membrane morphology observed also increased with increased concentration of DTS. This suggests that DTS interaction with membrane protein resulted in increased elasticity, relaxation time and deformation of the erythrocyte membrane. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of the effect of dose-rate on radiation-induced damage to human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokosz, Anita [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland)]. E-mail: krokosz@biol.uni.lodz.pl; Koziczak, Renata [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland); Gonciarz, Marta [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland); Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-01-15

    Human erythrocytes suspended in an isotonic Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 (hematocrit of 2%) were irradiated with {gamma}-rays at three dose-rates of 66.7, 36.7, 25 Gy min{sup -1} in order to investigate the influence of the dose-rate on radiation-induced membrane damage, hemoglobin oxidation and loss of reduced glutathione. The obtained results showed that such processes as erythrocyte hemolysis, lipid and protein destruction depend on the radiation dose-rate. The parameter values describing these processes showed an inverse dose-rate effect.

  20. Study of the effect of dose-rate on radiation-induced damage to human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokosz, Anita; Koziczak, Renata; Gonciarz, Marta; Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    Human erythrocytes suspended in an isotonic Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 (hematocrit of 2%) were irradiated with γ-rays at three dose-rates of 66.7, 36.7, 25 Gy min -1 in order to investigate the influence of the dose-rate on radiation-induced membrane damage, hemoglobin oxidation and loss of reduced glutathione. The obtained results showed that such processes as erythrocyte hemolysis, lipid and protein destruction depend on the radiation dose-rate. The parameter values describing these processes showed an inverse dose-rate effect

  1. Fumaric acid esters can block pro-inflammatory actions of human CRP and ameliorate metabolic disturbances in transgenic spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šilhavý

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disturbances. Esters of fumaric acid, mainly dimethyl fumarate, exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that fumaric acid ester (FAE treatment of an animal model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, the spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenically expressing human C-reactive protein (SHR-CRP, will ameliorate inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic disturbances. We studied the effects of FAE treatment by administering Fumaderm, 10 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks, to male SHR-CRP. Untreated male SHR-CRP rats were used as controls. All rats were fed a high sucrose diet. Compared to untreated controls, rats treated with FAE showed significantly lower levels of endogenous CRP but not transgenic human CRP, and amelioration of inflammation (reduced levels of serum IL6 and TNFα and oxidative stress (reduced levels of lipoperoxidation products in liver, heart, kidney, and plasma. FAE treatment was also associated with lower visceral fat weight and less ectopic fat accumulation in liver and muscle, greater levels of lipolysis, and greater incorporation of glucose into adipose tissue lipids. Analysis of gene expression profiles in the liver with Affymetrix arrays revealed that FAE treatment was associated with differential expression of genes in pathways that involve the regulation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings suggest potentially important anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and metabolic effects of FAE in a model of inflammation and metabolic disturbances induced by human CRP.

  2. Allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article literature review of the causes of allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens are presented. It is shown that the ability to produce antierythrocyte antibodies is affected by many factors, principal of whom it is difficult to identify. For the allosensibilisation development requires genetically determined differences in erythrocyte antigens phenotypes of donor and recipient, mother and fetus, which can lead to immune response and antibodies production. The biochemical nature of erythrocyte antigens, antigen dose (the amount of transfused doses, the number of antigens determinants on donor and fetus erythrocytes, the number of pregnancies are important. Individual patient characteristics: age, gender, diseases, the use of immunosuppressive therapy and the presence of inflammatory processes, are also relevant. Note that antibody to one erythrocyte antigens have clinical value, and to the other – have no. The actual data about frequency of clinically significant antibodies contribute to the development of post-transfusion hemolytic complications prophylaxis as well as the improvement of laboratory diagnosis of hemolytic disease of the newborn in the presence of maternal antierythrocyte antibodies.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion: combining function with immune evasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin J Wright

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available All the symptoms and pathology of malaria are caused by the intraerythrocytic stages of the Plasmodium parasite life cycle. Because Plasmodium parasites cannot replicate outside a host cell, their ability to recognize and invade erythrocytes is an essential step for both parasite survival and malaria pathogenesis. This makes invasion a conceptually attractive vaccine target, especially because it is one of the few stages when the parasite is directly exposed to the host humoral immune system. This apparent vulnerability, however, has been countered by the parasite, which has evolved sophisticated molecular mechanisms to evade the host immune response so that parasites asymptomatically replicate within immune individuals. These mechanisms include the expansion of parasite invasion ligands, resulting in multiple and apparently redundant invasion "pathways", highly polymorphic parasite surface proteins that are immunologically distinct, and parasite proteins which are poorly immunogenic. These formidable defences have so far thwarted attempts to develop an effective blood-stage vaccine, leading many to question whether there really is an exploitable chink in the parasite's immune evasion defences. Here, we review recent advances in the molecular understanding of the P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion field, discuss some of the challenges that have so far prevented the development of blood-stage vaccines, and conclude that the parasite invasion ligand RH5 represents an essential pinch point that might be vulnerable to vaccination.

  4. Erythrocyte membrane stabilization effect and antioxidant activity of methyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, B.

    2004-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMK) is a synthetic product with mild impact on human health that is not well studied on cellular basis. Here, human erythrocytes were used to investigate the effects MMK exerts on acid and heat-induced hemolysis. Biphasic effect of MMK was observed for acid-induced hemolysis; i.e., protection at low (0 - 0.05% v/v) and stimulation at higher (0.1- 0.4% v/v) concentrations. The maximal protective effect was produced at 0.03% (v/v). At this concentration MMK increased the temperatures of heat denaturation of erythrocyte membrane proteins, spectrin and integral proteins, by about 2 0 C and inhibited the heat-induced hemolysis by 20 %. This membrane stabilization effect of MMK is similar to that produced by some anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs. The increased acid resistance possibly indicated anti-oxidant properties of MMK. The nonenzymatic antioxidant activity test evidenced that MMK has no superoxide dismutase-like activity but demonstrates strong catalase-like activity (about 900 kU/mmol at 0.05-0.1 mmol/l concentration). The results indicate that at low concentration MMK exerts benign effect on cellular membrane that could find therapeutic usage. (author)

  5. Life cycle-dependent cytoskeletal modifications in Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shi

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum infection of human erythrocytes is known to result in the modification of the host cell cytoskeleton by parasite-coded proteins. However, such modifications and corresponding implications in malaria pathogenesis have not been fully explored. Here, we probed the gradual modification of infected erythrocyte cytoskeleton with advancing stages of infection using atomic force microscopy (AFM. We reported a novel strategy to derive accurate and quantitative information on the knob structures and their connections with the spectrin network by performing AFM-based imaging analysis of the cytoplasmic surface of infected erythrocytes. Significant changes on the red cell cytoskeleton were observed from the expansion of spectrin network mesh size, extension of spectrin tetramers and the decrease of spectrin abundance with advancing stages of infection. The spectrin network appeared to aggregate around knobs but also appeared sparser at non-knob areas as the parasite matured. This dramatic modification of the erythrocyte skeleton during the advancing stage of malaria infection could contribute to the loss of deformability of the infected erythrocyte.

  6. Life cycle-dependent cytoskeletal modifications in Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Liu, Zhuo; Li, Ang; Yin, Jing; Chong, Alvin G L; Tan, Kevin S W; Zhang, Yong; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection of human erythrocytes is known to result in the modification of the host cell cytoskeleton by parasite-coded proteins. However, such modifications and corresponding implications in malaria pathogenesis have not been fully explored. Here, we probed the gradual modification of infected erythrocyte cytoskeleton with advancing stages of infection using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We reported a novel strategy to derive accurate and quantitative information on the knob structures and their connections with the spectrin network by performing AFM-based imaging analysis of the cytoplasmic surface of infected erythrocytes. Significant changes on the red cell cytoskeleton were observed from the expansion of spectrin network mesh size, extension of spectrin tetramers and the decrease of spectrin abundance with advancing stages of infection. The spectrin network appeared to aggregate around knobs but also appeared sparser at non-knob areas as the parasite matured. This dramatic modification of the erythrocyte skeleton during the advancing stage of malaria infection could contribute to the loss of deformability of the infected erythrocyte.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of erythrocyte membranes in chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morariu, V V; Petrov, L

    1986-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the apparent water diffusional exchange through erythrocyte membranes in cases of policitemia vera, chronic granulocytic leukemia and primary myelofibrosis was measured by using a nuclear magnetic resonance method in the presence of Mn2+. The thermal transition shifted to lower temperatures in all cases, regardless of the stage of the disease, suggesting a structural alteration of the membrane. The shift of transition indirectly suggests a lower penetration of the erythrocytes by Mn2+. The water exchange time at 37 degrees C also increased, mainly in the blast crisis; it seems to have a prognostic value of some clinical interest. No simple correlation of the water exchange and the following clinical investigations was observed: the white count, the percentage of promyelocites and myeloblasts, the sedimentation rate of blood, the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, the total concentration of proteins, albumin and immunoglobulins, respectively, in plasma.

  8. The influence of split doses of γ-radiation on human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koziczak, R.; Gonciarz, M.; Krokosz, A.; Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Human erythrocyte suspensions in an isotonic Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, of hematocrit of 2% were exposed under air to gamma radiation at a dose rate of 2.2 kGy. Erythrocytes were irradiated with single doses, and identical doses split into two fractions with an interval time of 3.5 h between following exposures. The obtained results indicated that the irradiation of enucleated human erythrocytes with split doses caused a reduction of hemolysis (2.4 times), a decrease in the level of damage to membrane lipids and the contents of MetHb, compared with identical single doses. However, the splitting of radiation doses did not change the level of damage to the membrane proteins, as was estimated with a maleimide spin label. The obtained results suggest that a decrease in the level of damage to lipids was related to a decrease in hemolysis. (author)

  9. Enzymatic methylation of band 3 anion transporter in intact human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, L.L.; Clarke, S.

    1987-01-01

    Band 3, the anion transport protein of erythrocyte membranes, is a major methyl-accepting substrate of the intracellular erythrocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine: protein-D-aspartate O-methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.77). The localization of methylation sites in intact cells by analysis of proteolytic fragments indicated that sites were present in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain as well as the membranous C-terminal portion of the polypeptide. The amino acid residues that serve as carboxyl methylation sites of the erythrocyte anion transporter were also investigated. 3 H-Methylated band 3 was purified from intact erythrocytes incubated with L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine and from trypsinized and lysed erythrocytes incubated with S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine. After proteolytic digestion with carboxypeptidase Y, D-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl ester was isolated in low yields (9% and 1%, respectively) from each preparation. The bulk of the radioactivity was recovered as [ 3 H]methanol, and the amino acid residue(s) originally associated with these methyl groups could not be determined. No L-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl ester or glutamyl gamma-[ 3 H]methyl ester was detected. The formation of D-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl esters in this protein in intact cells resulted from protein carboxyl methyltransferase activity since it was inhibited by adenosine and homocysteine thiolactone, which increases the intracellular concentration of the potent product inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine, and cycloleucine, which prevents the formation of the substrate S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine

  10. Erythrocyte Membrane Failure by Electromechanical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We envision that electrodeformation of biological cells through dielectrophoresis as a new technique to elucidate the mechanistic details underlying membrane failure by electrical and mechanical stresses. Here we demonstrate the full control of cellular uniaxial deformation and tensile recovery in biological cells via amplitude-modified electric field at radio frequency by an interdigitated electrode array in microfluidics. Transient creep and cyclic experiments were performed on individually tracked human erythrocytes. Observations of the viscoelastic-to-viscoplastic deformation behavior and the localized plastic deformations in erythrocyte membranes suggest that electromechanical stress results in irreversible membrane failure. Examples of membrane failure can be separated into different groups according to the loading scenarios: mechanical stiffening, physical damage, morphological transformation from discocyte to echinocyte, and whole cell lysis. These results show that this technique can be potentially utilized to explore membrane failure in erythrocytes affected by other pathophysiological processes.

  11. Influence of styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizomov, Negmat; Barakaeva, Mubaro; Kurtaliev, Eldar N.; Rahimov, Sherzod I.; Khakimova, Dilorom P.; Khodjayev, Gayrat; Yashchuk, Valeriy N.

    2008-08-01

    It was studied the influence of F, Sbt, Sil, Sbo monomer and homodimer Dst-5, Dst-10, Dbt-5, Dbt-10, Dil-10, Dbo-10 styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes of white rats. It was shown that the homodimer styryl dyes Dst-5, Dbt-5 and Dbo-10 decrease the erythrocytes quantity by 1.5-2 times more as compared with monomer dyes Sbt and Sbo. The main cause of dyes different action is the different oxidation degree of intracellular hemoglobin evoked by these dyes. It was established that the observed effects was connected with different penetration of these dyes through membrane of erythrocytes and with interaction of these dyes with albumin localized in membranes of cells.

  12. Preterm delivery predicted by soluble CD163 and CRP in women with symptoms of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ida; Grove, Jakob; Thorsen, Poul

    2005-01-01

    : High levels of sCD163 or CRP are associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery in women with symptoms of delivery. Good prediction of preterm delivery before 34 weeks of gestation was obtained by a combination of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM), overweight, relaxin, CRP and s...

  13. Aptamer-conjugated live human immune cell based biosensors for the accurate detection of C-reactive protein

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a pentameric protein that is present in the bloodstream during inflammatory events, e.g., liver failure, leukemia, and/or bacterial infection. The level of CRP indicates the progress and prognosis of certain diseases; it is therefore necessary to measure CRP levels in the blood accurately. The normal concentration of CRP is reported to be 1?3?mg/L. Inflammatory events increase the level of CRP by up to 500 times; accordingly, CRP is a biomarker of acute inflammator...

  14. Serum proteins reflecting inflammation, injury and repair as biomarkers of disease activity in ANCA-associated vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monach, Paul A; Warner, Roscoe L; Tomasson, Gunnar; Specks, Ulrich; Stone, John H; Ding, Linna; Fervenza, Fernando C; Fessler, Barri J; Hoffman, Gary S; Iklé, David; Kallenberg, Cees GM; Krischer, Jeffrey; Langford, Carol A; Mueller, Mark; Seo, Philip; St. Clair, E William; Spiera, Robert; Tchao, Nadia; Ytterberg, Steven R; Johnson, Kent J; Merkel, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify circulating proteins that distinguish between active anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and remission in a manner complementary to markers of systemic inflammation. Methods Twenty-eight serum proteins representing diverse aspects of the biology of AAV were measured before and 6 months after treatment in a large clinical trial of AAV. Subjects (n=186) enrolled in the Rituximab in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (RAVE) trial were studied. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were available for comparison. The primary outcome was the ability of markers to distinguish severe AAV (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener’s granulomatosis (BVAS/WG)≥3 at screening) from remission (BVAS/WG=0 at month 6), using areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Results All subjects had severe active vasculitis (median BVAS/WG=8) at screening. In the 137 subjects in remission at month 6, 24 of the 28 markers showed significant declines. ROC analysis indicated that levels of CXCL13 (BCA-1), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) best discriminated active AAV from remission (AUC>0.8) and from healthy controls (AUC>0.9). Correlations among these markers and with ESR or CRP were low. Conclusions Many markers are elevated in severe active AAV and decline with treatment, but CXCL13, MMP-3 and TIMP-1 distinguish active AAV from remission better than the other markers studied, including ESR and CRP. These proteins are particularly promising candidates for future studies to address unmet needs in the assessment of patients with AAV. PMID:22975753

  15. Ameliorative effect of Opuntia ficus indica juice on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice (OFIj) on reversing oxidative damages induced by chronic ethanol intake in rat erythrocytes. OFIj was firstly analyzed with HPLC for phenolic and flavonoids content. Secondly, 40 adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups and treated for 90 days as follows: control (C), ethanol-only 3 g/kg body weight (b.w) (E), low dose of OFIj 2 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Ldj+E), high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Hdj+E), and only a high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100g b.w (Hdj). HPLC analysis indicated high concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OFIj. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Changes in the erythrocyte's antioxidant ability were accompanied by enhanced oxidative modification of lipids (increase of malondialdeyde level) and proteins (increase in carbonyl groups). Interestingly, pre-administration of either 2 ml/100 g b.w or 4 ml/100 g b.w of OFIj to ethanol-intoxicated rats significantly reversed decreases in enzymatic as well as non enzymatic antioxidants parameters in erythrocytes. Also, the administration of OFIj significantly protected lipids and proteins against ethanol-induced oxidative modifications in rat erythrocytes. The beneficial effect of OFIj can result from the inhibition of ethanol-induced free radicals chain reactions in rat erythrocytes or from the enhancement of the endogenous antioxidants activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of diurnal fasting during Ramadan on the lipid profile, hs-CRP, and serum leptin in stable cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaji, Hadi Abdul Ridha Hadi; Bener, Abdulbari; Osman, Mohammed; Al Merri, Ajayeb; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of strict prolonged fasting on lipid profile, serum leptin, and high- sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with different stable cardiac illnesses and look for associated new cardiac events and any correlation between entire variables. A total of 56 patients of different stable cardiac illnesses were followed in our cardiology outpatient for 3 months. Data concerning their ability to fast were collected: New York Heart Association class of congestive cardiac failure, angina class, previous myocardial infarction, previous coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous coronary intervention, severity of valvular lesion, metallic prosthetic valve, and traditional risk factors (diabetes mellitus, insulin requirement, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking habit, and obesity). Detailed clinical examination and electrocardiography were performed in all patients in three consecutive visits before, during, and after Ramadan. Echocardiographic and angiographic findings and medication plans were collected from patient records. Lipid profile, serum leptin, and hs-CRP were assessed before, during, and after Ramadan. All patients fasted during Ramadan: 80.4% were male, 67.9% were aged >50 years, 71.4% had no change in their symptoms during fasting while 28.6% felt better. No patient has deteriorated. 91.1% of the patients were compliant with medicine during Ramadan, 73.2% after. 89.3% were compliant with diet during Ramadan with no significant change in body weight in the follow-up period. No cardiac or noncardiac morbidity or mortality was reported. High- density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased significantly during compared to before fasting (P = 0.012). Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) significantly increased during compared to before fasting (P = 0.022). No statistically significant changes were observed in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), serum leptin, or hs-CRP. Significant correlation was observed between

  17. Cryo scanning electron microscopy of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum invades erythrocytes as an essential part of their life cycle. While living inside erythrocytes, the parasite remodels the cell's intracellular organization as well as its outer surface. Late trophozoite-stage parasites and schizonts introduce numerous small protrusions...

  18. Comprehensive Identification of Glycated Peptides and Their Glycation Motifs in Plasma and Erythrocytes of Control and Diabetic Subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Monroe, Matthew E.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Clauss, Therese RW; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Meng, Da; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2011-07-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is implicated in diabetes mellitus and its related complications. In this report, we extend our previous development and refinement of proteomics-based methods for the analysis of non-enzymatically glycated proteins to comprehensively identify glycated proteins in normal and diabetic human plasma and erythrocytes. Using immunodepletion, enrichment, and fractionation strategies, we identified 7749 unique glycated peptides, corresponding to 3742 unique glycated proteins. Semi-quantitative comparisons revealed a number of proteins with glycation levels significantly increased in diabetes relative to control samples and that erythrocyte proteins are more extensively glycated than plasma proteins. A glycation motif analysis revealed amino acids that are favored more than others in the protein primary structures in the vicinity of the glycation sites in both sample types. The glycated peptides and corresponding proteins reported here provide a foundation for the potential identification of novel markers for diabetes, glycemia, or diabetic complications.

  19. Elevated C-reactive protein in the diagnosis, prognosis, and cause of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize present evidence of an association between circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and cancer risk, and to evaluate whether elevated circulating CRP levels cause cancer. Additionally, the review provides background information on the acute......-phase response, chronic inflammation, the molecular biology, function and measurement of CRP, circulating levels of CRP in health and disease, the principle of Mendelian randomization, the association between circulating levels of CRP and cancer prognosis, and cancer biomarkers. In the Copenhagen General...... increased risk of death from breast cancer compared to patients with CRP levels...

  20. Paired Chicken and Mammalian Erythrocyte Indicator Systems for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three levels of erythrocytes suspensions, 1.5%, 1% and 0.5% respectively from goat and guinea pig, were compared to conventional 0.5% chicken erythrocytes, in an attempt to investigate the suitability for the two sources of mammalian erythrocytes as indicators for Newcastle disease virus haemagglutination (HA) tests.

  1. Solubilization of human erythrocyte membranes by ASB detergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Domingues

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the membrane solubilization process and finding effective solubilizing agents are crucial challenges in biochemical research. Here we report results on the interaction of the novel linear alkylamido propyl dimethyl amino propanosulfonate detergents, ASB-14 and ASB-16, with human erythrocyte membranes. An estimation of the critical micelle concentration of these zwitterionic detergents (ASB-14 = 100 µM and ASB-16 = 10 µM was obtained using electron paramagnetic resonance. The amount of proteins and cholesterol solubilized from erythrocytes by these detergents was then determined. The hemolytic activities of the ASB detergents were assayed and the detergent/lipid molar ratios for the onset of hemolysis (Re sat and total lysis (Re sol were calculated, allowing the determination of the membrane binding constants (Kb. ASB-14 presented lower membrane affinity (Kb = 7050 M-1 than ASB-16 (Kb = 15610 M-1. The amount of proteins and cholesterol solubilized by both ASB detergents was higher while Re sat values (0.22 and 0.08 detergent/lipid for ASB-14 and ASB-16, respectively were smaller than those observed with the classic detergents CHAPS and Triton X-100. These results reveal that, besides their well-known use as membrane protein solubilizers to enhance the resolution of two dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry, ASB-14 and ASB-16 are strong hemolytic agents. We propose that the physicochemical properties of ASB detergents determine their membrane disruption efficiency and can help to explain the improvement in the solubilization of membrane proteins, as reported in the literature.

  2. The Effect of 12 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Homocysteine and CRP Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Body Composition in Overweight Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Bahram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: High levels of homocysteine inflammatory markers and C-Reactive Protein (CRP cause many complications, including atherosclerosis, venous thrombosis, and cardiovascular problems. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12-weekHigh Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on homocysteine, CRP, and body composition in overweight men. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 20 students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences with a body mass index between 25 and 30 kg/m2, were purposefully selected and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group had practiced in the HIIT program with the intensity of up to 90 percent of maximum heart rate for 12 weeks. Before and after exercise, the amount of homocysteine, CRP, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated. The data were analyzed by using dependent and independent t-test at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: The results showed that12 weeks of HIIT had significant effects on reducing serum levels of homocysteine and HSCRP, body weight, body fat percentage, BMI, and WHR in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that 12 weeks of intense interval training as a non-invasive method can have a positive effect on reducing the amount of homocysteine, HS-CRP, and some anthropometric indexes of obesity and overweight.

  3. Sickle erythrocytes enhance phenylephrine and histamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sickle erythrocytes enhance phenylephrine and histamine contractions of isolated rabbit carotid arteries. ... enhancement of histamine contractions, compared with phenylephrine (in AS and SS), suggests a possible role for histamine in the increased vascular tone and vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease.

  4. Baseline Haematology and Erythrocyte Morphological Changes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study evaluates the haematological parameters and the observed erythrocytes morphological changes in dogs raised in Ibadan, Oyo State in the south western part of Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from sixty-four apparently healthy dogs. The haematological parameters of the blood samples ...

  5. Erythrocyte aging in sickle cell disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Physiological removal of old erythrocytes from the circulation by macrophages is initiated by binding of autologous IgG to senescent cell antigen (SCA). SCA is generated from the anion exchanger band 3. This process is accompanied by a number of alterations in the function and structure of band 3.

  6. Erythrocyte seditnentation rate in elderly blacks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract This study inv~tigated the erythrocyte sedimen- tation rate (ESR) in an elderly population with the objective of establishing reference ranges and the diagnostic value of the ESR. Elderly blacks were randomly selected frOIn conununities in the. Orange Free State. ESR determinations were done according to the ...

  7. Sickle erythrocytes enhance phenylephrine and histamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    the influence of sickle erythrocyte on contractile responses induced by phenylephrine and histamine. ... obtained from subjects of different haemoglobin (Hb) genotypes (AA, AS and SS), under ... the sixth position of the β-chain of the hemoglobin S. Address for ... blood pressure values in sickle cell anaemia subjects as.

  8. Comparative Erythrocytes Osmotic Fragility Test and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erythrocytes osmotic fragility and haematological parameters of subjects with HbAS (sickle cell trait) and HbSS (sickle cell anaemia) were determined and compared with subjects with HbAA (normal adult haemoglobin), which acted as control. They were divided into three groups of 40 subjects for HbAA, 35 subjects for ...

  9. Sleep restriction increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases by augmenting proinflammatory responses through IL-17 and CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel M A van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep restriction, leading to deprivation of sleep, is common in modern 24-h societies and is associated with the development of health problems including cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to investigate the immunological effects of prolonged sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep, by simulating a working week and following recovery weekend in a laboratory environment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After 2 baseline nights of 8 hours time in bed (TIB, 13 healthy young men had only 4 hours TIB per night for 5 nights, followed by 2 recovery nights with 8 hours TIB. 6 control subjects had 8 hours TIB per night throughout the experiment. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol and serum C-reactive protein (CRP were measured after the baseline (BL, sleep restriction (SR and recovery (REC period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected at these time points, counted and stimulated with PHA. Cell proliferation was analyzed by thymidine incorporation and cytokine production by ELISA and RT-PCR. CRP was increased after SR (145% of BL; p<0.05, and continued to increase after REC (231% of BL; p<0.05. Heart rate was increased after REC (108% of BL; p<0.05. The amount of circulating NK-cells decreased (65% of BL; p<0.005 and the amount of B-cells increased (121% of BL; p<0.005 after SR, but these cell numbers recovered almost completely during REC. Proliferation of stimulated PBMC increased after SR (233% of BL; p<0.05, accompanied by increased production of IL-1beta (137% of BL; p<0.05, IL-6 (163% of BL; p<0.05 and IL-17 (138% of BL; p<0.05 at mRNA level. After REC, IL-17 was still increased at the protein level (119% of BL; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: 5 nights of sleep restriction increased lymphocyte activation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1beta IL-6 and IL-17; they remained elevated after 2 nights of recovery sleep, accompanied by increased heart rate and serum CRP, 2 important risk

  10. Clofazimine Induced Suicidal Death of Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbace Officioso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The antimycobacterial riminophenazine clofazimine has previously been shown to up-regulate cellular phospholipase A2 and to induce apoptosis. In erythrocytes phospholipase A2 stimulates eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Phospholipase A2 is in part effective by fostering formation of prostaglandin E2, which triggers Ca2+ entry. Stimulators of Ca2+ entry and eryptosis further include oxidative stress and energy depletion. The present study tested, whether and how clofazimine induces eryptosis. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, reactive oxygen species (ROS from 2′, 7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA fluorescence, and cytosolic ATP level utilizing a luciferin-luciferase assay kit. Results: A 24-48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to clofazimine (≥1.5 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells without appreciably modifying forward scatter. Clofazimine significantly increased [Ca2+]i, significantly decreased cytosolic ATP, but did not significantly modify ROS. The effect of clofazimine on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not fully abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+, and by phospholipase A2 inhibitor quinacrine (25 µM. Clofazimine further augmented the effect of Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (0.1 µM on eryptosis. The clofazimine induced annexin-V-binding was, however, completely abrogated by combined Ca2+ removal and addition of quinacrine. Conclusion: Clofazimine stimulates phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect in part dependent on entry of extracellular Ca2+, paralleled by cellular energy depletion and sensitive to

  11. Band 3 tyrosine kinase in avian erythrocyte plasma membrane is immunologically related to pp60c-src

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillsgrove, D.; Shores, C.G.; Parker, J.C.; Maness, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have identified in the plasma membrane of the chicken erythrocyte a 60-kDa tyrosine-specific protein kinase immunologically related to the transforming protein pp60 v-src of Rous sarcoma virus. The erythrocyte protein kinase phosphorylated heavy chains of tumor-bearing rabbit (TBR) antibodies reactive with pp60 c-src at tyrosine in immune complex protein kinase assays. The kinase was identified as a 60-kDa protein by [ 35 S]methionine labeling of erythrocytes and by autophosphorylation in immune complexes. The kinase migrated on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with an apparent pI and molecular mass similar to pp60 c-src . A plasma membrane-enriched fraction isolated from chicken red cells contained the majority of the kinase activity. Incubation of the plasma membrane fraction with [ 32 P]ATP resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of the anion transport protein band 3. Band 3 phosphorylation was blocked by TBR antibodies, indicting that the kinase recognized by pp60 c-src antibodies was responsible for band 3 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that the avian erythrocyte plasma membrane contains a tightly bound tyrosine-specific protein kinase identical or closely related to pp60 c-src and that this kinase is responsible for band 3 phosphorylation in vitro

  12. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase XIII in the erythrocytes of the Burmese python, Python molurus bivittatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, A J; Secor, S M; Grosell, M

    2015-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of the most abundant proteins found in vertebrate erythrocytes with the majority of species expressing a low activity CA I and high activity CA II. However, several phylogenetic gaps remain in our understanding of the expansion of cytoplasmic CA in vertebrate erythrocytes. In particular, very little is known about isoforms from reptiles. The current study sought to characterize the erythrocyte isoforms from two squamate species, Python molurus and Nerodia rhombifer, which was combined with information from recent genome projects to address this important phylogenetic gap. Obtained sequences grouped closely with CA XIII in phylogenetic analyses. CA II mRNA transcripts were also found in erythrocytes, but found at less than half the levels of CA XIII. Structural analysis suggested similar biochemical activity as the respective mammalian isoforms, with CA XIII being a low activity isoform. Biochemical characterization verified that the majority of CA activity in the erythrocytes was due to a high activity CA II-like isoform; however, titration with copper supported the presence of two CA pools. The CA II-like pool accounted for 90 % of the total activity. To assess potential disparate roles of these isoforms a feeding stress was used to up-regulate CO2 excretion pathways. Significant up-regulation of CA II and the anion exchanger was observed; CA XIII was strongly down-regulated. While these results do not provide insight into the role of CA XIII in the erythrocytes, they do suggest that the presence of two isoforms is not simply a case of physiological redundancy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Elevated 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentrations and alteration of structural integrity in the erythrocytes of Indian cases of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, T; Ghosh, D K; Mukherjee, N; Ghosal, J

    1995-08-01

    The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) known as kala-azar in India is characterized by severe anaemia. The anaemia seems to be the result, at least in part, of the relatively short life-time of the erythrocytes, which have weakened cell membranes, possibly because of elevated concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). There is a negative correlation (r = 0.91; P < 0.01) between erythrocytic 2,3-DPG concentrations and the blood concentration of haemoglobin, and the erythrocytes from infected patients display higher osmotic fragility than those from uninfected controls. Spectrofluorometry, using 1,6-diphenyl 1,3,5-hexatriene as a probe, indicated that fluorescence depolarization and microviscosity are also higher in the erythrocytic membranes from VL cases than in those from the controls. The cholesterol/phospholipid ratio is also relatively high in the membranes from the VL cases and there is degradation of the skeletal components and the major integral protein (band 3). The enhanced concentration of 2,3-DPG may be related to the altered structural integrity of the erythrocytes and this may lead to anisocytosis and the reduction in the erythrocytic half life.

  14. Prognostic value of suPAR and hs-CRP on cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Marie Zöga; Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Mickley, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Background and aims: Studies have shown that soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) and CRP (both inflammatory markers) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are independent risk predictors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The aim of this study is to assess whether suPAR and CRP...... have an increased predictive prognostic value beyond the traditional CV risk factors and the CAC score. Methods: A population sample of 1179 subjects, free of CV disease was included. The subjects underwent traditional CV risk evaluation, CAC assessment and blood sampling for suPAR and CRP. CV events...

  15. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI) in elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, Maria Dida Silva; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Pestana, Manuella Castro Silva; Pestana, Vitor Silva; Schinoni, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP), in the abdominal circumference (AC) and the body mass index (BMI) in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years). The active in...

  16. Blood hsCRP And PGE2 Content With Clinical Outcome Using Modified Fenestrat Restorative Spinoplasty Better Than Lamonectomy-Fusion In Lumbar Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    T Mahadewa; Sri Maliawan; A Raka-Sudewi; M Wiryana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Modified Fenestration-Restorative Spinoplasty (MFRS) technique is an alternative to lumbar stenosis treatment, providing the equal decompression comparing with laminectomy techniques, without the implant, less expensive and complication rates. The purpose of this study was to determine which technique gives better inflammation and clinical outcome based on high sensitive C-Reactive Protein biomarker (hsCRP) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2), Visua...

  17. Major Depression, C-Reactive Protein, and Incident Ischemic Heart Disease in Healthy Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surtees, Paul G.; Wainwright, Nicholas W. J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Luben, Robert N.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how C-reactive protein (CRP) and major depressive disorder (MDD) relate to each other and to incident ischemic heart disease (IHD). Studies have shown that both depression and raised CRP concentration predict IHD and that elevated CRP is linked with increased risk of

  18. The effect of mud pack therapy on serum YKL-40 and hsCRP levels in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngen, Gonca; Ardic, Fusun; Fındıkoğlu, Gülin; Rota, Simin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with mud pack in knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to determine whether mud pack effects serum levels of YKL-40 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) which are reported to be biological markers for articular damage or inflammation in patients with OA. Forty-four patients with the diagnosis of knee OA assigned into two groups were treated with local natural mineral-rich mud pack or hot pack. Treatments were applied for 6 days a week for 2 weeks as a total of 12 sessions. Patients were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3 months after the treatment. VAS, range of motion, 15-m walking time, WOMAC index, Nottingham Health Profile, serum YKL-40, and hsCRP levels were the outcome measures. Pain intensity and joint stiffness decreased in both groups at all follow-ups. Physical activity status was found to persist for 3 months after treatment only in mud pack group. Serum mean YKL-40 and hsCRP levels of the patients were higher compared to healthy control group. Serum YKL-40 level increased significantly only in hot pack group 3 months after the treatment (P 0.05). Mud pack and hot pack therapy were both demonstrated to be effective in symptomatic treatment of knee OA until the end of the 2-week treatment period, whereas only mud pack therapy was shown to be effective in functional status over time. In the hot pack group, increased serum YKL-40 level 3 months after the treatment might indicate persistence of cartilage degradation. Maintenance of YKL-40 level in mud pack therapy seems to slow down the progression of knee OA.

  19. Conjugated Bilirubin Triggers Anemia by Inducing Erythrocyte Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Elisabeth; Gatidis, Sergios; Freise, Noemi F; Bock, Hans; Kubitz, Ralf; Lauermann, Christian; Orth, Hans Martin; Klindt, Caroline; Schuier, Maximilian; Keitel, Verena; Reich, Maria; Liu, Guilai; Schmidt, Sebastian; Xu, Haifeng C; Qadri, Syed M; Herebian, Diran; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Mayatepek, Ertan; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Karl S; Föller, Michael; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency, or liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice leads to severe anemia despite increased reticulocyte numbers. Bilirubin stimulated suicidal death of human erythrocytes. Mechanistically, bilirubin triggered rapid Ca2+ influx, sphingomyelinase activation, formation of ceramide, and subsequent translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Consistent with our in vitro and in vivo findings, incubation of erythrocytes in serum from patients with liver disease induced suicidal death of erythrocytes in relation to their plasma bilirubin concentration. Consistently, patients with hyperbilirubinemia had significantly lower erythrocyte and significantly higher reticulocyte counts compared to patients with low bilirubin levels. Conclusion: Bilirubin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death, thus contributing to anemia during liver disease. (Hepatology 2015;61:275–284) PMID:25065608

  20. Pre- and post-operative values of serum CRP in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syeda, T.; Rizvi, H.A.; Hashim, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the concentration of C-reactive protein in pre- and post-operative serum samples of brain tumour patients in order to detect the potential risks of post-operative infections. Methods: Serum C-reactive protein was measured on pre- and post-operative Day 1, Day 2 and Day 7 in 18 patients who underwent surgery for brain tumours. The study was performed at the Neurosurgical Ward, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2007 to April 2008. Mean pre-operative patients and control values were compared using Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon tests for comparing between pre- and post-operative values. P-value was considered significant at 5.0mg/L but no statistically significant difference was found when compared with healthy controls, with mean 4.4+-6.6 and 0.9+-0.7, respectively. Significantly raised serum concentrations were observed in all post-operative samples when compared with pre-operative samples. Serum CRP concentrations significantly increased post-operatively on Day 1, with mean value of 102.9+-82.0mg/L (p<0.0005), and further increased on Day 2 with mean value of 166.9+-128.1mg/L (p<0.0005), but declined on Day 7, with mean value of 42.7+-63.6mg/L (p<0.005). Conclusion: Pre-operative serum C-reactive protein concentrations of 28% of the patients were elevated, suggesting an association with brain tumours. Post-operative serum concentrations were significantly higher than those noted before the surgery. Absence of a fall of concentration from peak value on post-operative Day 2 or a secondary rise from post-operative Day 7 could be alarming for inter-current infection. (author)

  1. Radioaerosol imaging of the lung. An IAEA [CRP] group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Whee Bahk; Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    of the BARC nebulizer, already published in 1979, are described in much greater detail with many blue-print diagrams. The efficacy of and easy access to the nebulizer have been tested and established against commercially available nebulizers. The comparative studies have been conducted on aerosol lung scan images using the BARC and other nebulizers. The results of extended clinical applications are presented: the diseases investigated include COPD, bronchial obstruction, compensatory overinflation, acute pneumonia, tuberculosis, focal and diffuse interstitial fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, lung edema and bronchogenic carcinoma and metastasis. Of these, COPD was used as a model disease group, in which an analytical interpretation of scan alterations has been attempted to establish a differential diagnostic scheme of clinically related but pathologically different diseases. It was aimed at emphasizing the potential role of aerosol scan in making specific diagnosis of the individual diseases on the basis of both anatomical and physiological alterations as they are portrayed in aerosol lung scans. More clinical applications are described in association with embolism, inhalation bums and glue-sniffing. In regard with the aerosol scan technique, a modification has been introduced to improve scan image quality with enhanced resolution by maximally avoiding background noise so that the scan may provide more graphic information. The tests that examine nonrespiratory lung functions such as mucociliary transport and lung permeability are also discussed in this monograph for the future study. In order to epitomize the ready practicability, economical aspect and excellent reproducibility of radioaerosol lung scan by using the BARC nebulizer, a forum is provided for case presentation of those who have enthusiastically participated in this CRP group study during the past 5 years. Because of the limits in space, the number of cases presented are squeezed to a mininium. It is

  2. Radioaerosol imaging of the lung. An IAEA [CRP] group study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan); eds.

    1994-07-01

    of the BARC nebulizer, already published in 1979, are described in much greater detail with many blue-print diagrams. The efficacy of and easy access to the nebulizer have been tested and established against commercially available nebulizers. The comparative studies have been conducted on aerosol lung scan images using the BARC and other nebulizers. The results of extended clinical applications are presented: the diseases investigated include COPD, bronchial obstruction, compensatory overinflation, acute pneumonia, tuberculosis, focal and diffuse interstitial fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, lung edema and bronchogenic carcinoma and metastasis. Of these, COPD was used as a model disease group, in which an analytical interpretation of scan alterations has been attempted to establish a differential diagnostic scheme of clinically related but pathologically different diseases. It was aimed at emphasizing the potential role of aerosol scan in making specific diagnosis of the individual diseases on the basis of both anatomical and physiological alterations as they are portrayed in aerosol lung scans. More clinical applications are described in association with embolism, inhalation bums and glue-sniffing. In regard with the aerosol scan technique, a modification has been introduced to improve scan image quality with enhanced resolution by maximally avoiding background noise so that the scan may provide more graphic information. The tests that examine nonrespiratory lung functions such as mucociliary transport and lung permeability are also discussed in this monograph for the future study. In order to epitomize the ready practicability, economical aspect and excellent reproducibility of radioaerosol lung scan by using the BARC nebulizer, a forum is provided for case presentation of those who have enthusiastically participated in this CRP group study during the past 5 years. Because of the limits in space, the number of cases presented are squeezed to a mininium. It is

  3. Fibrates down-regulate IL-1-stimulated C-reactive protein gene expression in hepatocytes by reducing nuclear p50-NFκB-C/EBP-β complex formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Gervois, P.P.; Verschuren, L.; Staels, B.; Princen, H.M.G.; Kooistra, T.

    2003-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute-phase protein in humans. Elevated plasma CRP levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CRP is predominantly expressed in hepatocytes and is induced by interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 under inflammatory situations, such as the acute phase. Fibrates

  4. Treatment with GLP1 receptor agonists reduce serum CRP concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Karimi, Ehsan; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-07-01

    To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RAs) therapy on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched for the period up until March 16, 2016. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of GLP-1 RAs on serum CRP were identified. A random effects model (using the DerSimonian-Laird method) and generic inverse variance methods were used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I 2 index. Random effects meta-regression was performed using unrestricted maximum likelihood method to evaluate the impact of potential moderator. International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42016036868. Meta-analysis of the data from 7 treatment arms revealed a significant reduction in serum CRP concentrations following treatment with GLP-1 RAs (WMD -2.14 (mg/dL), 95% CI -3.51, -0.78, P=0.002; I 2 96.1%). Removal of one study in the meta-analysis did not change the result in the sensitivity analysis (WMD -2.14 (mg/dL), 95% CI -3.51, -0.78, P=0.002; I 2 96.1%), indicating that our results could not be solely attributed to the effect of a single study. Random effects meta-regression was performed to evaluate the impact of potential moderator on the estimated effect size. Changes in serum CRP concentration were associated with the duration of treatment (slope -0.097, 95% CI -0.158, -0.042, Pmeta-analysis suggests that GLP-1 RAs therapy causes a significant reduction in CRP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CRP, but not TNF-α or IL-6, decreases after weight loss in patients with morbid obesity exposed to intensive weight reduction and balneological treatment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rość, Danuta; Adamczyk, Przemysław; Boinska, Joanna; Szafkowski, Robert; Ponikowska, Irena; Stankowska, Katarzyna; Góralczyk, Barbara; Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the degree of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with morbid obesity exposed to a three-week low-calorie diet and balneotherapy. Methods: The study included 33 patients (25 females and 8 males; mean age 46 years) with body mass index (BMI) values of >40 kg/m2. Evaluations of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, lipid profile, HOMA-IR, and fasting glucose were carried out before (baseline data) and three weeks after the treatment. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers (15 females and 5 males) with a mean age of 39 years and BMI values of ≤24.9 kg/m2. Results: In the blood of patients with morbid obesity we found significantly elevated levels of CRP, TNF-α, triglycerides, HOMA-IR and fasting glucose, but a decreased level of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, compared with the healthy individuals. The treatment resulted in about a 9.4% reduction in body weight from 122.5 to 111.0 kg and a significant decrease in the concentration of CRP, but no change in TNF-α or IL-6. HOMA-IR was significantly reduced. Conclusions: The decrease in CRP level without changes in TNF-α or IL-6 concentrations after the low-calorie diet and balneological treatment, suggests that an essential amount of adipose tissue must be removed before proper adipocyte function is restored. The decrease in HOMA-IR indicates an improvement in insulin sensitivity, which is beneficial in obese patients. PMID:25990058

  6. Effects of Atorvastatin calcium combined with Aspirin on serum levels of Hcy, NSE, UA, hs-CRP and inflammatory factors of patients with cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qin Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of Atorvastatin calcium combined with Aspirin on serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, uric acid (UA, high sensitity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and inflammatory factors of patients with cerebral infarction. Methods: 100 cases of patients with cerebral infarction from March 2014 to May 2016 were treated in the Department of Neurology of our hospital and affiliated to Huazhong University of Science and Technology of traditional Chinese medicine and Western Medicine. The subjects were divided into the control group (n=50 and the treatment group (n=50 randomly. The control group was treated with Aspirin, the treatment group were treated with Atorvastatin calcium combined with Aspirin. The two groups were treated for 28 d. The serum levels of Hcy, NSE, UA, hs- CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Results: There were no significantly differences of the serum levels of the Hcy, NSE, UA and hs-CRP of the two groups before treatment (P>0.05. After treatment, the serum levels of the Hcy, NSE, UA and hs-CRP of the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of the treatment group were significantly lower than the control group (P0.05. After treatment, the serum levels of the IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α of the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of the treatment group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Atorvastatin calcium combined with Aspirin can significantly reduce the serum levels of Hcy, NSE, UA, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α of the patients with cerebral infarction.

  7. Prognostic Impact of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet Count, CRP, and Albumin Levels in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with FOLFIRI-Bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaç, Mehmet; Uysal, Mükremin; Karaağaç, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Levent; Er, Zehra; Güler, Tunç; Börüban, Melih Cem; Bozcuk, Hakan

    2017-06-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a lethal disease and fluorouracil-leucovorin-irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab (bev) is a standard approach. Hence, there is a strong need for identifying new prognostic factors to show the efficacy of FOLFIRI-bev. This is a retrospective study including patients (n = 90) with mCRC from two centers in Turkey. Neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, platelet count, albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded before FOLFIRI-bev therapy. The efficacy of these factors on progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed with Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analysis. And the cutoff value of N/L ratio was analyzed with ROC analysis. The median age was 56 years (range 21-80). Forty-seven percent of patients with N/L ratio >2.5 showed progressive disease versus 43 % in patients with N/L ratio ratio >2.5 versus 13.5 months for the patients with N/L ratio analysis, high baseline neutrophil count, LDH, N/L ratio, and CRP were all significantly associated with poor prognosis. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, CRP was confirmed to be a better independent prognostic factor. CRP variable was divided into above the upper limit of normal (ULN) and normal value. The median PFSs of the patients with normal and above ULN were 11.3 versus 5.8 months, respectively (p = 0.022). CRP and N/L ratio are potential predictors for advanced mCRC treated with FOLFIRI-bev.

  8. The Trends of CRP Levels at Different Waist-to-Hip Ratios Among Normotensive Overweight and Obese Patients: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation between CRP (C-reactive protein) and Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) among over weight and obese patients with normal blood pressure. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical indoor and outpatient clinics of Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from March to August 2013. Methodology: Willing patients with Body Mass Index (BMI) of > 23 kg/m2, normal blood pressures, and age between 18 - 65 years were inducted in the study. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications, hypertensives and febrile patients were excluded. Patients were considered to be at low risk for cardiovascular events if WHR among males and females was < 0.95 and < 0.80, respectively. Similarly, males and females with WHR > 1 and > 0.85, respectively were taken as high risk. Levels in-between these ranges were taken as moderate risk. Data was analyzed on SPSS 15. Descriptive statistics were determined. The p-value was calculated by ANOVA and independent sample t-test among males and females respectively, to compare WHR in relation to different CRP levels and < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: There were 34 male and 74 female patients. The gender-wise mean WHR did not show statistically significant difference categorized CRP levels (p=0.072 in male, and 0.052 in females). There was an increasing trend in CRP levels as WHR increased among females, but this was statistically insignificant (p=0.05). Conclusion: Although the impact of central obesity on cardiac health is well known, however, WHR alone is an unreliable indicator of systemic inflammation and raised CRP level. (author)

  9. Surface co-expression of two different PfEMP1 antigens on single Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes facilitates binding to ICAM1 and PECAM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Louise; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Bengtsson, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) antigens play a major role in cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE), antigenic variation, and immunity to malaria. The current consensus on control of variant surface antigen expression is that only one PfEMP1 encoded by one var...

  10. Coordinated research project on radiation sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials. CRP report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    processing to be carried out at any desired temperature, sterilizability of mixed products in kits, offering simultaneous sterilization and modification of polymer based formulations. Radiation sterilization has already demonstrated its advantages over conventional (chemical) methods, with the scale of its application rising. The results of the CRP demonstrated new fields of applications and roles of the process in the decontamination of natural medical herbs, which finds increasing usage worldwide. The process application for synthetic pharmaceuticals sterilization has also been demonstrated. The analytical and processing procedures were elaborated for selected materials. The radiation effects on drugs of different types and on traditional herbal medicine components (e.g.Traditional Chinese Medicines) were investigated, in particular the identification of the products of radiolysis was achieved and evaluation of their role in changing of biological activity of radiation sterilized pharmaceuticals was performed. Some of the methods were introduced to the manufacturer practice. New TC projects in the field were initiated. Despite all these apparent advantages, radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals has to be addressed on a case by case basis. It has been concluded that radiation sterilization of aqueous solutions and suspensions of most organic substances is difficult if not impossible. The trends and opportunities of using radiation processing for sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials and herbs have been evaluated. Proteins and polysaccharides and their formulations and new biotechnology products are currently being considered for radiation sterilization

  11. Coordinated research project on radiation sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials. CRP report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    processing to be carried out at any desired temperature, sterilizability of mixed products in kits, offering simultaneous sterilization and modification of polymer based formulations. Radiation sterilization has already demonstrated its advantages over conventional (chemical) methods, with the scale of its application rising. The results of the CRP demonstrated new fields of applications and roles of the process in the decontamination of natural medical herbs, which finds increasing usage worldwide. The process application for synthetic pharmaceuticals sterilization has also been demonstrated. The analytical and processing procedures were elaborated for selected materials. The radiation effects on drugs of different types and on traditional herbal medicine components (e.g.Traditional Chinese Medicines) were investigated, in particular the identification of the products of radiolysis was achieved and evaluation of their role in changing of biological activity of radiation sterilized pharmaceuticals was performed. Some of the methods were introduced to the manufacturer practice. New TC projects in the field were initiated. Despite all these apparent advantages, radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals has to be addressed on a case by case basis. It has been concluded that radiation sterilization of aqueous solutions and suspensions of most organic substances is difficult if not impossible. The trends and opportunities of using radiation processing for sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials and herbs have been evaluated. Proteins and polysaccharides and their formulations and new biotechnology products are currently being considered for radiation sterilization.

  12. Comparison of C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Helal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is highly prevalent in patients on hemodialysis (HD, as evidenced by increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP. We compared CRP to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP to determine whether it has any clinical implications and prognostic significance in terms of mortality. CRP was measured using a standard immunoturbidometric assay on the COBAS; INTEGRA system and hs-CRP was measured using the Dade Behring on the Konelab Nephelometer in 50 patients on HD. CRP (≥6 mg/L and hs-CRP (≥3 mg/L levels were elevated in 30% and 54% of the patients, respectively. A significant correlation was noted between hs-CRP and CRP levels (r = 0.98, P <0.001. Deming regression analysis showed that the slope was near one (r = 0.90; 0.83-0.94 and that the intercept was small. Multivariate regression confirmed that age above 40 years (RR = 3.69, P = 0.027 and duration on HD greater than five years (RR = 3.71, P = 0.028 remained significant independent predictors of serum hs-CRP. Thirteen patients died during follow-up (26%. Multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that hs-CRP (RR = 1.062, P = 0.03 and CRP levels (RR = 1.057, P = 0.009 and age (RR = 1.078, P = 0.001 were the most powerful predictors of mortality. The CRP standard assay presents a reasonable alternative to the hs-CRP assay in patients on HD. The advantages of the CRP standard assay are its online and real-time availability as well as lower costs, particularly in developing countries.

  13. Indonesia's experience with IAEA-CRP on radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasukha

    2001-01-01

    IAEA-CRP on Radiation Doses in Diagnostic Radiology and Methods for Dose Reduction has as participants some Asian and East European countries. Indonesia is one of participants that followed the IAEA program. This paper is not a discussion of CRP-results since it will be published as a TECDOC soon. But the work on evaluation of examination frequencies, film reject rate analysis, patient dose measurements, image quality before and after Quality Control (QC) and QC itself, gave some experiences to investigators to be explored and presented. Experiences could be in the form of problems, how to solve problems and some suggestions, starting from no QC up to complicated QC to be faced in conventional radiography to CT-scan and fluoroscopy units. These valuable experiences of Indonesia are proven exercise of IAEA-CRP as a good start for next CRP or national projects in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  14. Clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of biocompound IMMUNEPOTENT CRP in the third-molar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises A. Franco-Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A controlled, parallel, randomized and comparative trial was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of IMMUNEPOTENT CRP versus ibuprofen in patients after third-molar surgery over seven days. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of IMMUNEPOTENT CRP was evaluated using the method of Amin and Laskin, and the analysis of cytokine production (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, INF-γ in saliva was done by flow cytometry. The swelling process after surgery was significant (p < 0.05 and the treatments with IMMUNEPOTENT CRP or ibuprofen controlled this process properly; no difference between the groups was found (p < 0.05. Both treatments were shown to modulate the cytokine production. These results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of the natural compound IMMUNEPOTENT CRP and suggest it could be used in clinical dental practice.

  15. Biophysical parameters of erythrocyte membranes and mechanisms of interaction with non-opioid analgesics under acute pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Gubskyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods of fluorescent probing, spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry were applied to investigate the alterations in biophysical parameters of erythrocytes membranes, and specifically microviscosity, surface charge, molecular organization of lipid bilayer and lipid-protein interactions under conditions of acute pain syndrome produced by experimental chemical lesion. The distinctive features of non-opiod analgesics interactions and binding to the erythrocytes membranes of rats subjected to acute nociceptive pain accompanied with oxidative stress development were investigated. The abilities of analgesics under research, and namely paracetamol, aspirin, phenazone, ketorolac, pyrodazole, ketoprofenum, natrium mefenaminate, indometacin, nimesulide to make up physico-chemical complexes with lipoperoxidation modified erythrocytes surface and protein-lipid bilayer showed marked changes. The significance of oxidative damage of biophase under conditions of acute pain syndrome for analgesics effective pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics realization is under consideration.

  16. Evaluation of Usefulness of hs-CRP and Ferritin Assays in Patients with Nasal Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Partyka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic nature of the nasal polyps, tendency to recurrence, and lack of satisfying treatment need the diagnostic’s parameters which show early inflammatory state as ferritin and hs-CRP. The Aim of Study. Assessment of hs-CRP and ferritin blood levels in nasal polyps patients in evaluation of treatment efficacy. Methods. All 38 patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I included 19 patients with anti-inflammatory therapy 2 weeks after surgery. Group II included 19 patients without anti-inflammatory therapy 2 weeks after surgery. The levels of hs-CRP and ferritin have been assessed before and 2 and 6 weeks after surgical treatment. Results. Research showed statistically significant difference of ferritin’s concentration between examined groups 6 weeks after surgery (P<0.05 and statistically significant difference of hs-CRP concentration 2 and 6 weeks after surgery (P<0.05. Conclusion. (1 The analysis of serum ferritin and hs-CRP concentrations can be useful in early postoperative detection of inflammatory state in patients with nasal polyps and for the effectiveness of therapy. (2 Lack of correlation between mean ferritin and hs-CRP serum levels, at each diagnostic and monitoring stage, shows that they are independent and cannot be determined interchangeably.

  17. Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins Play an Essential Role in Signalling and Activation of Invasion into Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Hong Tham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The invasive form of malaria parasites is termed a merozoite and it employs an array of parasite proteins that bind to the host cell to mediate invasion. In Plasmodium falciparum, the erythrocyte binding-like (EBL and reticulocyte binding-like (Rh protein families are responsible for binding to specific erythrocyte receptors for invasion and mediating signalling events that initiate active entry of the malaria parasite. Here we have addressed the role of the cytoplasmic tails of these proteins in activating merozoite invasion after receptor engagement. We show that the cytoplasmic domains of these type 1 membrane proteins are phosphorylated in vitro. Depletion of PfCK2, a kinase implicated to phosphorylate these cytoplasmic tails, blocks P. falciparum invasion of red blood cells. We identify the crucial residues within the PfRh4 cytoplasmic domain that are required for successful parasite invasion. Live cell imaging of merozoites from these transgenic mutants show they attach but do not penetrate erythrocytes implying the PfRh4 cytoplasmic tail conveys signals important for the successful completion of the invasion process.

  18. Association of IL-6 and CRP gene polymorphisms with obesity and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela F. Todendi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Activation of adipose tissue inflammation is associated with obesity caused by lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Through this activation, proinflammatory cytokines, such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP seem to influence metabolic disorders. The present study evaluated whether polymorphisms in the CRP (rs1205 and IL-6 (rs1800795, rs2069845 genes are associated with the development of metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed, consisting of 470 students from the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil, aged 7-17 years. Body mass index (BMI was classified according to overweight and obesity. Genotyping was performed by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR. Anthropometric characteristics, biochemical markers, immunological markers and blood pressure were assessed. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and logistic regression were used for the analyses. No association was detected between the rs1800795 polymorphism and the assessed variables. Individuals with the risk genotype in the rs1205 gene were associated with the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia (OR 2.79; CI 1.40, 5.57; p = 0.003. Carriers of the risk genotype in the rs2069845 gene are associated with the risk of developing obesity (OR 3.07; CI 1.08, 8.72; p = 0.03. The polymorphism rs2069845 was associated with obesity and rs1205 was associated with the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia in Brazilian schoolchildren.

  19. Study of factors that interfere in the labelling process of erythrocytes and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m; Estudo de fatores que interferem no processo de marcacao de hemacias e proteinas plasmaticas com tecnecio-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfilen, Bianca

    1990-12-31

    The labelling of red blood cells (RBC) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) depends on several factors, as the stannous ion (Sn++) concentration, time, temperature, the presence of plasma proteins (PP) and others. However the Sn++ concentration seems to be the most important factor; probably because the uptake of this reducing agent by RBC is limited. The excess of Sn++ in extracellular medium can determine the labelling of PP. the modifications of RBC at 50 deg C described in the literature, the possibility of labelling RBC with Tc-99m at this temperature and experimental results obtained made it possible to perform spleen selective scintigraphy through a simple technique with few manipulations. The effect of gentamicin, nifedipine and verapamil in the labelling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m was studied because of similarities between Ca++ and Sn++. The results show that, under some conditions, these drugs are capable to alter this Tc-99m incorporation. The modification of the ionic distribution determined by these drugs or the blockage of Sn++ and/or Tc-99m or the fact that they bind theirselves to plasma proteins, or the possibility of the labelling of these drugs, are factors that can interfere in the labelling process of red blood cells and plasma proteins with Tc-99m. (author) 55 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Study of factors that interfere in the labelling process of erythrocytes and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m; Estudo de fatores que interferem no processo de marcacao de hemacias e proteinas plasmaticas com tecnecio-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfilen, Bianca

    1989-12-31

    The labelling of red blood cells (RBC) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) depends on several factors, as the stannous ion (Sn++) concentration, time, temperature, the presence of plasma proteins (PP) and others. However the Sn++ concentration seems to be the most important factor; probably because the uptake of this reducing agent by RBC is limited. The excess of Sn++ in extracellular medium can determine the labelling of PP. the modifications of RBC at 50 deg C described in the literature, the possibility of labelling RBC with Tc-99m at this temperature and experimental results obtained made it possible to perform spleen selective scintigraphy through a simple technique with few manipulations. The effect of gentamicin, nifedipine and verapamil in the labelling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m was studied because of similarities between Ca++ and Sn++. The results show that, under some conditions, these drugs are capable to alter this Tc-99m incorporation. The modification of the ionic distribution determined by these drugs or the blockage of Sn++ and/or Tc-99m or the fact that they bind theirselves to plasma proteins, or the possibility of the labelling of these drugs, are factors that can interfere in the labelling process of red blood cells and plasma proteins with Tc-99m. (author) 55 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. The mechanism of erythrocyte sedimentation. Part 2: The global collapse of settling erythrocyte network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribush, A; Meyerstein, D; Meyerstein, N

    2010-01-01

    Results reported in the companion paper showed that erythrocytes in quiescent blood are combined into a network followed by the formation of plasma channels within it. This study is focused on structural changes in the settling dispersed phase subsequent to the channeling and the effect of the structural organization on the sedimentation rate. It is suggested that the initial, slow stage of erythrocyte sedimentation is mainly controlled by the gravitational compactness of the collapsed network. The lifetime of RBC network and hence the duration of the slow regime of erythrocyte sedimentation decrease with an increase in the intercellular pair potential and with a decrease in Hct. The gravitational compactness of the collapsed network causes its rupture into individual fragments. The catastrophic collapse of the network transforms erythrocyte sedimentation from slow to fast regime. The size of RBC network fragment is insignificantly affected by Hct and is mainly determined by the intensity of intercellular attractive interactions. When cells were suspended in the weak aggregating medium, the Stokes radius of fragments does not differ measurably from that of individual RBCs. The proposed mechanism provides a reasonable explanation of the effects of RBC aggregation, Hct and the initial height of the blood column on the delayed erythrocyte sedimentation.

  2. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Regorafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Zierle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Side effects of regorafenib include anemia. At least in theory, regorafenib induced anemia could result from stimulated suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored, whether regorafenib induces eryptosis and, if so, whether it is effective up- and/or downstream of Ca2+. Methods: To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to regorafenib (≥ 0.5 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly decreased forward scatter (≥ 1.25 µg/ml, but did not significantly increase Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence or ceramide abundance. The effect of regorafenib on annexin-V-binding and forward scatter was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Regorafenib (5 µg/ml significantly augmented the increase of annexin-V-binding, but significantly blunted the decrease of forward scatter following treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. Conclusions: Regorafenib triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part downstream of Ca2+.

  3. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Regorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierle, Jens; Bissinger, Rosi; Bouguerra, Ghada; Abbès, Salem; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Side effects of regorafenib include anemia. At least in theory, regorafenib induced anemia could result from stimulated suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored, whether regorafenib induces eryptosis and, if so, whether it is effective up- and/or downstream of Ca2+. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to regorafenib (≥ 0.5 µg/ml) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly decreased forward scatter (≥ 1.25 µg/ml), but did not significantly increase Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence or ceramide abundance. The effect of regorafenib on annexin-V-binding and forward scatter was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Regorafenib (5 µg/ml) significantly augmented the increase of annexin-V-binding, but significantly blunted the decrease of forward scatter following treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. Regorafenib triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part downstream of Ca2+. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Stimulation of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Garcinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Fazio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The benzophenone garcinol from dried fruit rind of Garcinia indica counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of apoptosis. The proapototic effect of garcinol is attributed in part to inhibition of histone acetyltransferases and thus modification of gene expression. Moreover, garcinol triggers mitochondrial depolarisation. Erythrocytes lack gene expression and mitochondria but are nevertheless able to enter apoptosis-like suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include oxidative stress, energy depletion and Ca2+ entry with increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i. The present study explored, whether and how garcinol induces eryptosis. Methods: To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence and cytosolic ATP levels utilizing a luciferin-luciferase-based assay. Results: A 24 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to garcinol (2.5 or 5 µM significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Garcinol decreased (at 1 µM and 2.5 µM or increased (at 5 µM forward scatter. Garcinol (5 µM further increased Fluo3-fluorescence, increased DCFDA fluorescence, and decreased cytosolic ATP levels. The effect of garcinol on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusions: Garcinol triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect in part due to stimulation of ROS formation, energy depletion and Ca2+ entry.

  5. Quantitative changes of main components of erythrocyte membranes which define architectonics of cells under pttg gene knockout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Kanyuka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A pttg gene knockout affects the functional state of erythron in mice which could be associated with structural changes in the structure of erythrocyte membranes. The pttg gene knockout causes a significant modification of fatty acids composition of erythrocyte membrane lipids by reducing the content of palmitic acid and increasing of polyunsaturated fatty acids amount by 18%. Analyzing the erythrocyte surface architectonics of mice under pttg gene knockout, it was found that on the background of reduction of the functionally complete biconcave discs population one could observe an increase of the number of transformed cells at different degeneration stages. Researches have shown that in mice with a pttg gene knockout compared with a control group of animals cytoskeletal protein – β-spectrin was reduced by 17.03%. However, there is a reduction of membrane protein band 3 by 33.04%, simultaneously the content of anion transport protein band 4.5 increases by 35.2% and protein band 4.2 by 32.1%. The lectin blot analysis has helped to reveal changes in the structure of the carbohydrate determinants of ery­throcyte membrane glycoproteins under conditions of directed pttg gene inactivation, accompanied by changes in the type of communication, which joins the terminal residue in carbohydrate determinant of glycoproteins. Thus, a significant redistribution of protein and fatty acids contents in erythrocyte membranes that manifested in the increase of the deformed shape of red blood cells is observed under pttg gene knockout.

  6. Diffusion properties of band 3 in human erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Jeffrey O.

    The plasma membrane of the human erythrocyte (RBC) is a six fold symmetric network held together at various pinning points by several multi-protein complexes. This unique architecture is what gives the RBC its remarkable material properties and any disruptions to the network can have severe consequences for the cell. Band 3 is a major transmembrane protein that plays the role of linking the fluid lipid bilayer to the cytoskeletal network. To interrogate the structural integrity of the RBC membrane we have tracked individual band 3 molecules in RBCs displaying a variety of pathologies that are all a consequence of membrane or network related defects. These diseases are spherocytosis, elliptocytosis, and pyropokilocytosis. We have also investigated the protein related diseases sickle cell, and south east asian ovalocytosis. To assess the impact that the network has on the dynamic organization of the cell we have also studied the mobility of band 3 in RBC progenitor cells. Individual band 3 molecules were imaged at 120 frames/second and their diffusion coefficients and compartment sizes recorded. The distributions of the compartment sizes combined with the information about the short and long time diffusion of band 3 has given us insight into the architecture of the membrane in normal and diseased cells. The observation that different membrane pathologies can be distinguished, even to the point of different molecular origins of the same disease, implies that the mobility of transmembrane proteins may be a useful tool for characterizing the "health" of the membrane.

  7. Erythrocyte Saturation with IgG Is Required for Inducing Antibody-Mediated Immune Suppression and Impacts Both Erythrocyte Clearance and Antigen-Modulation Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Leal, Yoelys; Marjoram, Danielle; Lazarus, Alan H

    2018-02-15

    Anti-D prevents hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, and this mechanism has been referred to as Ab-mediated immune suppression (AMIS). Anti-D, as well as other polyclonal AMIS-inducing Abs, most often induce both epitope masking and erythrocyte clearance mechanisms. We have previously observed that some Abs that successfully induce AMIS effects could be split into those that mediate epitope masking versus those that induce erythrocyte clearance, allowing the ability to analyze these mechanisms separately. In addition, AMIS-inducing activity has recently been shown to induce Ag modulation (Ag loss from the erythrocyte surface). To assess these mechanisms, we immunized mice with transgenic murine RBCs expressing a single Ag protein comprising a recombinant Ag composed of hen egg lysozyme, OVA sequences comprising aa 251-349, and the human Duffy transmembrane protein (HOD-Ag) with serial doses of polyclonal anti-OVA IgG as the AMIS-inducing Ab. The anti-OVA Ab induced AMIS in the absence of apparent epitope masking. AMIS occurred only when the erythrocytes appeared saturated with IgG. This Ab was capable of inducing HOD-RBC clearance, as well as loss of the OVA epitope at doses of Ab that caused AMIS effects. HOD-RBCs also lost reactivity with Abs specific for the hen egg lysozyme and Duffy portions of the Ag consistent with the initiation of Ag modulation and/or trogocytosis mechanisms. These data support the concept that an AMIS-inducing Ab that does not cause epitope masking can induce AMIS effects in a manner consistent with RBC clearance and/or Ag modulation. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. There are no differences in IL-6, CRP and homocystein concentrations between women whose mothers had AD and women whose mothers did not have AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devčić, Sanja; Glamuzina, Ljubomir; Ruljancic, Nedjeljka; Mihanovic, Mate

    2014-12-30

    A wide range of recent studies have detected inflammation as one of the most influent factors in the appearance and spreading of neurodegenerative brain diseases. We aimed to understand the influence of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) on patients suffering from Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) and on their descendants. Three groups of subjects were analyzed: 55 patients suffering from AD, 51 middle-aged daughters of the patients of the first group, and 53 subjects without positive family history of AD. The results of the conducted research are in accordance with the present scientific knowledge, namely a statistically significant difference for examined parameters has been determined between women suffering from AD and their daughters and control group examinees. No difference was found in serum concentrations of IL-6, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Hcy between the groups of the middle-aged descendants of patients with AD and healthy controls without family history of AD. This finding supports the hypothesis that these markers may not play causal role in the development of AD. This is supported by the obtained positive correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP and IL-6 and Hcy in AD patients while there is no such correlation between female subjects with or without a family history of AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A semi-automated multiplex high-throughput assay for measuring IgG antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains in small volumes of plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cham, Gerald K K; Kurtis, Jonathan; Lusingu, John

    2008-01-01

    -based assay was sensitive, accurate and reproducible. Four recombinant PfEMP1 proteins C17, D5, D9 and D12, selected on the basis that they showed a spread of median fluorescent intensity (MFI) values from low to high when analysed by the bead-based assay were analysed by ELISA and the results from both...... reactivity levels to twenty eight different recombinant PfEMP1 proteins were simultaneously measured using a single microliter of plasma. Thus, the assay reported here provides a useful tool for rapid and efficient quantification of antibody reactivity against PfEMP1 variants in human plasma....... of twenty nine PfEMP1 domains were PCR amplified from 3D7 genomic DNA, expressed in the Baculovirus system and purified by metal-affinity chromatography. The antibody reactivity level to the recombinant PfEMP1 proteins in human hyper-immune plasma was measured by ELISA. In parallel, these recombinant PfEMP1...

  10. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  11. Elevated CRP levels during first trimester of pregnancy and subsequent preeclampsia: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whatever its etiology, the inflammatory reactions of preeclampsia lead to the activation of endothelium and result in vascular damage. CRP is considered a sensitive index of systemic inflammation, so it is used as predictive factor for disease. This study was carried out to test the screening and predictive abilities of the CRP test in order to detect and diagnose pregnant women prone to preeclampsia prior to the onset of symptoms.Methods: In this prospective cohort study, conducted in Arash Hospital between 2005 and 2006, we determined the CRP levels of 201 pregnant women at 10-16 weeks of pregnancy. Based on exclusion criteria and illness, 31 patients were excluded and 170 patients were followed until the end of their pregnancies.Results: In this study, the mean serum CRP values of those who had preeclamptic and those who had normal pregnancies were compared and the statistical differences were significant: 6.18 mg/L for preeclamptic patients compared with 4.12 mg/L for normal patients (p=0.003. Using a chi-square test, we found that patients whose CRP level was ≥4 were six times more likely to have preeclampsia than those with CRP levels <4 (k=9.4; p=0.002; OR=6.15; 95% CI=0.69-22.28.Conclusion: This study confirms the results of previous reports indicating a significant relationship between rising serum CRP in the first trimester of pregnancy and preeclampsia at third trimester. More studies consisting of other inflammation factors are necessary to find an acceptable and reasonable screening test to diagnose pregnant women who are prone to preeclampsia.

  12. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals binding residues for the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Michael J; Garry, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The surface glycoprotein (SU, gp120) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) must bind to a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4, to invade CD4+ cells. Plasmodium vivax uses the Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) to bind the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) and invade reticulocytes. Results Variable loop 3 (V3) of HIV-1 SU and domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax DBP share a sequence similarity. The site of amino acid sequence similarity was necessary, but not sufficient, ...

  13. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals a functional heparin binding motif involved in binding to the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Michael J; Garry, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The HIV surface glycoprotein gp120 (SU, gp120) and the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) bind to chemokine receptors during infection and have a site of amino acid sequence similarity in their binding domains that often includes a heparin binding motif (HBM). Infection by either pathogen has been found to be inhibited by polyanions. Results Specific polyanions that inhibit HIV infection and bind to the V3 loop of X4 strains also inhibited DBP-mediated infectio...

  14. Hydroxychloroquine binding to cytoplasmic domain of Band 3 in human erythrocytes: Novel mechanistic insights into drug structure, efficacy and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Mizuki; Sugawara, Kotomi; Goto, Tatsufumi; Wakui, Hideki; Nunomura, Wataru

    2016-05-13

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a widely used drug in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. It has also been prescribed for the treatment of malaria owing to its lower toxicity compared to its closely related compound chloroquine (CQ). However, the mechanisms of action of HCQ in erythrocytes (which bind preferentially this drug) have not been documented and the reasons underlying the lower side effects of HCQ compared to CQ remain unclear. Here we show that, although the activity of erythrocyte lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but not GAPDH, was inhibited by both HCQ and CQ in vitro, LDH activity in erythrocytes incubated with 20 mM HCQ was not significantly reduced within 5 h in contrast to CQ did. Using HCQ coupled Sepharose chromatography (HCQ-Sepharose), we identified Band 3, spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.1R and protein 4.2 as HCQ binding proteins in human erythrocyte plasma membrane. Recombinant cytoplasmic N-terminal 43 kDa domain of Band 3 bound to HCQ-Sepharose and was eluted with 40 mM (but not 20 mM) HCQ. Band 3 transport activity was reduced by only 23% in the presence of 20 mM HCQ. Taken together, these data demonstrate that HCQ binds to the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of Band 3 in human erythrocytes but does not inhibit dramatically its transport activity. We hypothesize that the trapping of HCQ on Band 3 contributes to the lower side effects of the drug on energy production in erythrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, J.R.; Corrier, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated [ 14 C]sucrose, [ 3 H]inulin, and 51 Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated [ 3 H]inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs

  16. Hepatic or splenic targeting of carrier erythrocytes: a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zocchi, E.; Guida, L.; Benatti, U.; Canepa, M.; Borgiani, L.; Zanin, T.; De Flora, A.

    1987-01-01

    Carrier mouse erythrocytes, i.e., red cells, subjected to a dialysis technique involving transient hypotonic hemolysis and isotonic resealing were treated in vitro in three different ways: (a) energy depletion by exposure for 90 min at 42 degrees C; (b) desialylation by incubation with neuroaminidase; and (c) oxidative stress by incubation with H 2 O 2 and NaN3. Procedure (c) afforded maximal damage, as shown by analysis of biochemical properties of the treated erythrocytes. Reinfusion in mice of the variously manipulated erythrocytes following their 51 Cr labeling showed extensive fragilization as indicated by rapid clearance of radioactivity from the circulation. Moreover, both the energy-depleted and the neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes showed a preferential liver uptake, reaching 50 and 75%, respectively, within 2 h. On the other hand, exposure of erythrocytes to the oxidant stress triggered a largely splenic removal, accounting for almost 40% of the reinjected cells within 4 h. Transmission electron microscopy of liver from mice receiving energy-depleted erythrocytes demonstrated remarkable erythrocyte congestion within the sinusoids, followed by hyperactivity of Kupffer cells and by subsequent thickening of the perisinusoidal Disse space. Concomitantly, levels of serum transaminase activities were moderately increased. Each of the three procedures of manipulation of carrier erythrocytes may prove applicable under conditions where selective targeting of erythrocyte-encapsulated chemicals and drugs to either the liver or the spleen has to be achieved

  17. Serum, plasma, and dried blood spot high sensitivity C-reactive protein enzyme immunoassay for population research

    OpenAIRE

    Brindle, Eleanor; Fujita, Masako; Shofer, Jane; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is used as a biomarker of morbidity and mortality risk in studies of population health, and is essential to interpretation of several micronutrient biomarkers. There is thus need for a robust high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) measurement method for large-scale, non-clinical studies. We developed an efficient, inexpensive assay suitable for quantifying CRP across the physiological range using any blood specimen type. The ELISA uses readily available monoclonal antibodies to...

  18. Inhibiting C-Reactive Protein for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease: Promising Evidence from Rodent Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Szalai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raised blood C-reactive protein (CRP level is a predictor of cardiovascular events, but whether blood CRP is causal in the disease process is unknown. The latter would best be defined by pharmacological inhibition of the protein in the context of a randomized case-control study. However, no CRP specific drug is currently available so such a prospective study cannot be performed. Blood CRP is synthesized primarily in the liver and the liver is an organ where antisense oligonucleotide (ASO drugs accumulate. Taking advantage of this we evaluated the efficacy of CRP specific ASOs in rodents with experimentally induced cardiovascular damage. Treating rats for 4 weeks with a rat CRP-specific ASO achieved >60% reduction of blood CRP. Notably, this effect was associated with improved heart function and pathology following myocardial infarction (induced by ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Likewise in human CRP transgenic mice treated for 2 weeks with a human CRP-specific ASO, blood human CRP was reduced by >70% and carotid artery patency was improved (2 weeks after surgical ligation. CRP specific ASOs might pave the way towards a placebo-controlled trial that could clarify the role of CRP in cardiovascular disease.

  19. C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and cardiovascular disease prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptoge, Stephen; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Pennells, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events.......There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events....

  20. Erythrocytes labelling for to value bleeding of digestive tract in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, R.

    2002-01-01

    The erythrocytes labelling has been facilitated by several factors: a) They are the cellular elements more abundant in the blood (5 x 10 9 / ml blood). b) They are easy to be isolated and manipulated In vitro and they are not very sensitive to the physical or chemical damages. c) They do not depend on energy or nutritious requirements as another cellular elements In vitro. d) With respect to another cells they show an easier labelling with radionuclides due to the availability of a variety of transporter mechanisms and of internal hemoglobin which is rich in active metal with multiple union sites. The erythrocytes are biconcave disks without nucleus composed by a 65% water, 32% hemoglobin and a 3% by lipids and proteins which form the stroma.The hemoglobin is the most important component of erythrocytes, it contains 4 heme groups and one globin molecule (with molecular weight of 68000) and fix iron covalently with 4 atoms of nitrogenated porfyrin. The oxygen is reversibly joined to iron. The hemoglobin does not experiment re-synthesis or degradation during its lifetime in the erythrocyte. It has been stipulated that the diagnostic applications in nuclear medicine are: a) That the radionuclide should have a high intensity of emission with an adequate energy for the image, with minimum particulate radiation and a half life time average similar to the length of the study that is carried out. b) That the radionuclide is joined firmly to the In vivo cells without altering physical and biochemical properties of the cells and their function In vitro. c) That the radionuclide once incorporated to the interior of cell must not be liberated during the study neither reused after of destruction. A quick procedure is now found available for labelling erythrocytes with 99m Tc offering a high performance and quality labelling. This is narrowly related to the 99m Tc chemistry understanding. (Author)

  1. Physical and Chemical Processes and the Morphofunctional Characteristics of Human Erythrocytes in Hyperglycaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Revin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examines the effect of graduated hyperglycaemia on the state and oxygen-binding ability of hemoglobin, the correlation of phospholipid fractions and their metabolites in the membrane, the activity of proteolytic enzymes and the morphofunctional state of erythrocytes.Methods: Conformational changes in the molecule of hemoglobin were determined by Raman spectroscopy. The structure of the erythrocytes was analyzed using laser interference microscopy (LIM. To determine the activity of NADN-methemoglobinreductase, we used the P.G. Board method. The degree of glycosylation of the erythrocyte membranes was determined using a method previously described by Felkoren et al. Lipid extraction was performed using the Bligh and Dyer method. Detection of the phospholipids was performed using V. E. Vaskovsky method.Results: Conditions of hyperglycaemia are characterized by a low affinity of hemoglobin to oxygen, which is manifested as a parallel decrease in the content of hemoglobin oxyform and the growth of deoxyform, methemoglobin and membrane-bound hemoglobin. The degree of glycosylation of membrane proteins and hemoglobin is high. For example, in the case of hyperglycaemia, erythrocytic membranes reduce the content of all phospholipid fractions with a simultaneous increase in lysoforms, free fatty acids and the diacylglycerol (DAG. Step wise hyperglycaemia in incubation medium and human erythrocytes results in an increased content of peptide components and general trypsin-like activity in the cytosol, with a simultaneous decreased activity of μ-calpain and caspase 3.Conclusions: Metabolic disorders and damage of cell membranes during hyperglycaemia cause an increase in the population of echinocytes and spherocytes. The resulting disorders are accompanied with a high probability of intravascular haemolysis.

  2. Effects of the whole-body cryotherapy on NTproBNP, hsCRP and troponin I in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Melegati, Gianluca; Barassi, Alessandra; d'Eril, Gianlodovico Melzi

    2009-11-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy refers to brief exposure to very cold air for treating symptoms of various illnesses. In sports medicine, whole-body cryotherapy is administered to improve recovery from muscular trauma. As specific studies are lacking, we measured cardiac markers in 10 top-level rugby players of the Italian National team before and after a 1-week course of daily sessions of whole-body cryotherapy. All subjects continued with the same training workload as that of the previous weeks. N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels increased but remained within the normal range, whilst troponin I (TnI) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were unchanged. Whole-body cryotherapy did not impair cardiac function in this sample of elite athletes.

  3. Breakdown of Phosphatidylserine Asymmetry Following Treatment of Erythrocytes with Lumefantrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousi Alzoubi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lumefantrine, a commonly used antimalarial drug, inhibits hemozoin formation in parasites. Several other antimalarial substances counteract parasitemia by triggering suicidal death or eryptosis of infected erythrocytes. Eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Signaling involved in eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i, formation of ceramide, oxidative stress and/or activation of p38 kinase, protein kinase C (PKC, or caspases. The present study explored, whether lumefantrine stimulates eryptosis. Methods: Cell volume has been estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, reactive oxygen species from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate fluorescence, content of reduced glutathione (GSH from mercury orange fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies in flow cytometry. Results: A 48 h exposure to lumefantrine (3 µg/mL was followed by a significant increase of annexin-V-binding without significantly altering forward scatter, [Ca2+]i, ROS formation, reduced GSH, or ceramide abundance. The annexin-V-binding following lumefantrine treatment was not significantly modified by p38 kinase inhibitors SB203580 (2 μM and p38 Inh III (1 μM, PKC inhibitor staurosporine (1 µM or pancaspase inhibitor zVAD (1 or 10 µM. Conclusions: Lumefantrine triggers cell membrane scrambling, an effect independent from entry of extracellular Ca2+, ceramide formation, ROS formation, glutathione content, p38 kinase, PKC or caspases.

  4. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abanades, Alberto; Aliberti, Gerardo; Gohar, Yousry; Talamo, Alberto; Bornos, Victor; Kiyavitskaya, Anna; Carta, Mario; Janczyszyn, Jerzy; Maiorino, Jose; Pyeon, Cheolho; Stanculescu, Alexander; Titarenko, Yury; Westmeier, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    In December 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has started a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWGFR) of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department, is to increase the capability of interested Member States in developing and applying advanced reactor technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. The specific objective of the CRP is to improve the present understanding of the coupling of an external neutron source (e.g. spallation source) with a multiplicative sub-critical core. The participants are performing computational and experimental benchmark analyses using integrated calculation schemes and simulation methods. The CRP aims at integrating some of the planned experimental demonstration projects of the coupling between a sub-critical core and an external neutron source (e.g. YALINA Booster in Belarus, and Kyoto University's Critical Assembly (KUCA)). The objective of these experimental programs is to validate computational methods, obtain high energy nuclear data, characterize the performance of sub-critical assemblies driven by external sources, and to develop and improve techniques for sub-criticality monitoring. The paper summarizes preliminary results obtained to-date for some of the CRP benchmarks. (authors)

  5. Modified C-reactive protein is expressed by stroke neovessels and is a potent activator of angiogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevin, Mark; Matou-Nasri, Sabine; Turu, Marta; Luque, Ana; Rovira, Norma; Badimon, Lina; Boluda, Susana; Potempa, Lawrence; Sanfeliu, Coral; de Vera, Nuria; Krupinski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Native C-reactive protein (nCRP) is a pentameric oligo-protein and an acute phase reactant whose serum expression is increased in patients with inflammatory disease. We have identified by immunohistochemistry, significant expression of a tissue-binding insoluble modified version or monomeric form of CRP (mCRP) associated with angiogenic microvessels in peri-infarcted regions of patients studied with acute ischaemic stroke. mCRP, but not nCRP was expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of damaged neurons. mCRP co-localized with CD105, a marker of angiogenesis in regions of revascularisation. In vitro investigations demonstrated that mCRP was preferentially expressed in human brain microvessel endothelial cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation and mCRP (but not column purified nCRP) associated with the endothelial cell surface, and was angiogenic to vascular endothelial cells, stimulating migration and tube formation in matrigel more strongly than fibroblast growth factor-2. The mechanism of signal transduction was not through the CD16 receptor. Western blotting showed that mCRP stimulated phosphorylation of the key down-stream mitogenic signalling protein ERK1/2. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation blocked the angiogenic effects of mCRP. We propose that mCRP may contribute to the neovascularization process and because of its abundant presence, be important in modulating angiogenesis in both acute stroke and later during neuro-recovery.

  6. Effect of radiation on sodium and water transport in rat erythrocytes and possible repair using olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, A.I.; El-Missiry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gamma radiation dose 4 Gy was administered to whole rats, and sodium, water transport and sulfhydryl groups (-SH) contents of the erythrocytes were evaluated in vivo at postirradiation times 1, 3 and 7 days. The present results showed increased sodium and water gain associated with loss of sulfhydryl contents of the erythrocytes. These results are attributed to inhibition of Na pump activity and increased Na leakage into cells which increased the intracellular osmotic elements that lead to influx of water. These changes were secondary to the destruction of erythrocyte -SH groups which was investigated as a change in tertiary structure of the membrane proteins. Olive oil administered intraperitoneally resulted in restoration of the status of the studied parameters. We also noticed an increase in the amount of plasma unsaturated fatty acids including phospholipids. The relation between the reappearance of erythrocyte -SH groups and increased plasma phospholipids suggested a repair role for olive oil. This is through reconstitution of the Na-pump activity in erythrocytes by reactivation of (Na-K) ATPase stimulated by negatively charged plasma phospholipids.4 fig.,1 tab. i

  7. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2012-05-01

    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of temperature and pH on the lipid photoperoxidation and the structural state of erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, D.I.; Pelenitsyn, A.B.; Vladimirov, Yu.A.

    1978-01-01

    The degree of lipid photoperoxidation in erythrocytes (the amount of TBA-active products accumulated under the given dose of ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm) increased abruptly with temperature in the interval 12 - 20 0 C, then it increased more slowly and later on passed over the maximum at about 30 - 32 0 C. Apparently, the degree of lipid photoperoxidation can serve as a sensitive index of lipid structural state. Using a method of modelling of erythrocyte membranes by liposomes of different chemical content, it was shown that under temperature changes in physiological limits the lipids of erythrocyte membranes undergo at least two structural transformations. The first might be a change in the relative position of cholesterol and phospholipids. The second is followed by the enhancement of membrane antioxidant activity. The degree of lipid photoperoxidation in erythrocytes grows with increasing pH from 6 to 8 according to S-shaped curve with middle point at pH 7.0. This effect can be attributed to structural transformation of membrane lipid zone associated with ionization of membrane protein hystidine. The swelling of erythrocytes in hypotonic medium also leads to structural transformation of lipid zone. (author)

  9. C-reactive protein interaction with macrophages: in vitro induction of tumor cytotoxicity, and characterization of C-reactive protein binding to macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of C-reactive protein (CRP) to activate macrophages to tumoricidal state was examined. CRP was able to activate macrophages to kill tumor cells. The activation was shown to be due to CRP and not to low levels of other activators present in the CRP preparations, since specific removal of CRP led to abrogation of the CRP mediated activation of macrophages. The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a contaminating activator was eliminated by showing the ability of CRP preparations to activate macrophages from LPS non-responsive strains of mice, and to activate macrophages under conditions which specifically inactivated or removed the contaminating LPS. In order to exclude the possibility of indirect activation of macrophages by other cells present in the peritoneal exudate cell population, effect of CRP on pure macrophages was examined. Bone marrow derived macrophages as well as well as macrophage cell lines exhibited a significant increase in their capacity to kill tumor cells after treatment with CRP. The nature of CRP and macrophage interaction was examined using radioiodinated CRP. Labelled CRP bound specifically to macrophages and macrophage cell lines

  10. aldB, an RpoS-dependent gene in Escherichia coli encoding an aldehyde dehydrogenase that is repressed by Fis and activated by Crp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Johnson, R C

    1995-06-01

    Escherichia coli aldB was identified as a gene that is negatively regulated by Fis but positively regulated by RpoS. The complete DNA sequence determined in this study indicates that aldB encodes a 56.3-kDa protein which shares a high degree of homology with an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by acoD of Alcaligenes eutrophus and an aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by aldA of Vibrio cholerae and significant homology with a group of other aldehyde dehydrogenases from prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Expression of aldB is maximally induced during the transition from exponential phase to stationary phase. Its message levels are elevated three- to fourfold by a fis mutation and abolished by an rpoS mutation. In addition, the expression of an aldB-lacZ fusion was decreased about 20-fold in the absence of crp. DNase I footprinting analysis showed that five Fis binding sites and one Crp binding site are located within the aldB promoter region, suggesting that Fis and Crp are acting directly to control aldB transcription. AldB expression is induced by ethanol, but in contrast to that of most of the RpoS-dependent genes, the expression of aldB is not altered by an increase in medium osmolarity.

  11. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  12. Evaluation of nonsurgical periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis patients with anemia by estimating hematological parameters and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalaiah, S V V S; Anupama, M; Nagasree, M; Krishna, Ch Murali; Kumar, Aravind; Kumar, P Mohan

    2014-07-01

    Periodontal tissues mount an immune inflammatory response to bacteria and their products. Certain inflammatory cytokines produced during periodontal inflammation increase the production of acute phase proteins like high‑sensitivity C‑reactive protein (hs‑CRP) and can depress erythropoietin production leading to the development of anemia. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on red blood cell (RBC) parameters and hs-CRP in chronic periodontitis patients with anemia. This is a longitudinal, interventional study with 6-month follow-up. A total of 30 subjects with anemia and chronic periodontitis with age group of 33-55 years were selected by screening hemoglobin (Hb) levels and examining periodontal findings. The clinical parameters plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded at baseline. Laboratory blood investigations were performed to evaluate RBC count, Hb, packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and red cell indices, hs-CRP at baseline. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy was performed for all patients. Patients were recalled after 6 months. The clinical and hematological parameters were re-evaluated to analyze the changes after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. The results showed that there was a significant increase in Hb levels, RBC count and PCV from baseline to 6 months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. There is significant decrease in levels of ESR and hs-CRP levels after nonsurgical periodontal therapy indicating resolution of periodontal inflammation. There is a significant decrease in PPD, scores of PI and GI and significant increase in CAL gain. Minimal changes in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and MCH concentration indicated that the lower values of red cell parameters are not due to any vitamin and mineral deficiencies, but secondary to the chronic inflammatory changes

  13. Clinical significance of determination of serum SA, CEA and CRP levels in patients with colo-rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jie; Hu Junyan; Sun Shuming; Cheng Benkun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical usefulness of determination of serum SA, CEA and CRP levels in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: Serum SA (with colorimetry), CEA (with CLIA) and CRP (with ILIA) levels were measured in 120 patients with colo-rectal cancer. Results: (1) Serum SA, CEA and CRP levels increased significantly as the disease stage advanced from Duke A through Duke D. (2) As the malignancy of the growth advanced from well-differentiated to anaplastic, the serum SA and CRP levels increased significantly while the reverse was true for serum CEA levels. (3) In 68 post-operative patients followed 1-5 years, the serum levels of SA, CEA and CRP were significantly higher in the patients with recurrence (n=29) than those in patients without recurrence (n=39) (P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum SA CEA and CRP levels were closely related to the disease process in patients with colo-rectal cancer. (authors)

  14. Determination of CFTR densities in erythrocyte plasma membranes using recognition imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebner, Andreas; Hinterdorfer, Peter [Institute for Biophysics, University of Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Nikova, Dessy; Lange, Tobias; Bruns, Reimer; Oberleithner, Hans; Schillers, Hermann [Institute of Physiology II, University of Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Haeberle, Johannes; Falk, Sabine; Duebbers, Angelika [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals of Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: schille@uni-muenster.de

    2008-09-24

    CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is a cAMP-regulated chloride (Cl{sup -}) channel that plays an important role in salt and fluid movement across epithelia. Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common genetic disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CFTR. The most predominant mutation, F508del, disturbs CFTR protein trafficking, resulting in a reduced number of CFTR in the plasma membrane. Recent studies indicate that CFTR is not only found in epithelia but also in human erythrocytes. Although considerable attempts have been made to quantify CFTR in cells, conclusions on numbers of CFTR molecules localized in the plasma membrane have been drawn indirectly. AFM has the power to provide the needed information, since both sub-molecular spatial resolution and direct protein recognition via antibody-antigen interaction can be observed. We performed a quantification study of the CFTR copies in erythrocyte membranes at the single molecule level, and compared the difference between healthy donors and CF patients. We detected that the number of CFTR molecules is reduced by 70% in erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis patients.

  15. Decreased erythrocyte CCS content is a biomarker of copper overload in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinato, Jesse; Sherrard, Lindsey; Plouffe, Louise J

    2010-07-02

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace metal that is toxic in excess. It is therefore important to be able to accurately assess Cu deficiency or overload. Cu chaperone for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CCS) protein expression is elevated in tissues of Cu-deficient animals. Increased CCS content in erythrocytes is particularly sensitive to decreased Cu status. Given the lack of a non-invasive, sensitive and specific biomarker for the assessment of Cu excess, we investigated whether CCS expression in erythrocytes reflects Cu overload. Rats were fed diets containing normal or high levels of Cu for 13 weeks. Diets contained 6.3 +/- 0.6 (Cu-N), 985 +/- 14 (Cu-1000) or 1944 +/- 19 (Cu-2000) mg Cu/kg diet. Rats showed a variable response to the high Cu diets. Some rats showed severe Cu toxicity, while other rats showed no visible signs of toxicity and grew normally. Also, some rats had high levels of Cu in liver, whereas others had liver Cu concentrations within the normal range. Erythrocyte CCS protein expression was 30% lower in Cu-2000 rats compared to Cu-N rats (P CCS (47% reduction, P CCS content is associated with Cu overload in rats and should be evaluated further as a potential biomarker for assessing Cu excess in humans.

  16. Determination of CFTR densities in erythrocyte plasma membranes using recognition imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, Andreas; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Nikova, Dessy; Lange, Tobias; Bruns, Reimer; Oberleithner, Hans; Schillers, Hermann; Haeberle, Johannes; Falk, Sabine; Duebbers, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is a cAMP-regulated chloride (Cl - ) channel that plays an important role in salt and fluid movement across epithelia. Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common genetic disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CFTR. The most predominant mutation, F508del, disturbs CFTR protein trafficking, resulting in a reduced number of CFTR in the plasma membrane. Recent studies indicate that CFTR is not only found in epithelia but also in human erythrocytes. Although considerable attempts have been made to quantify CFTR in cells, conclusions on numbers of CFTR molecules localized in the plasma membrane have been drawn indirectly. AFM has the power to provide the needed information, since both sub-molecular spatial resolution and direct protein recognition via antibody-antigen interaction can be observed. We performed a quantification study of the CFTR copies in erythrocyte membranes at the single molecule level, and compared the difference between healthy donors and CF patients. We detected that the number of CFTR molecules is reduced by 70% in erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis patients

  17. Metallic mercury uptake by catalase Part 1 In Vitro metallic mercury uptake by various kind of animals' erythrocytes and purified human erythrocyte catalase

    OpenAIRE

    劒持,堅志

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of metallic mercury was studied using erythrocytes with different catalase activities taken from various kind of animals. The results were: 1) The uptake of metallic mercury by erythrocytes paralleled the activity of catalase in the erythrocytes with and without hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that the erythrocyte catalase activity is related to the uptake of metallic mercury. 2) The uptake of metallic mercury occurred not only with purified human erythrocyte catalase but also with h...

  18. CRP on Demonstrating Performance of Spent Fuel and Related Storage Systems beyond the Long Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    At the initial Coordinated Research Project (CRP) planning meeting held in August 2011, international experts in spent fuel performance confirmed the value of further coordination and development of international efforts to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and related storage system components as durations extend. Furthermore, in recognition that the Extended Storage Collaboration Program (ESCP) managed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the USA, from now on ESCP, provided a broad context for the research and development work to be performed in the frame of this CRP, it was agreed that its objectives should target specific ESCP needs in order to make a relevant contribution. Accordingly, the experts examined on-going gap analyses - gaps between anticipated technical needs and existing technical data - for identify the specific research objectives. Additionally, during the planning meeting it was pointed out the need to coordinate and cooperate with the OECD/NEA counterparts involved in the organization of the International Workshop planned in autumn 2013 and with the on-going third phase of the CRP on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III). Given the importance to assess the performance of spent fuel and related important storage system components in order to confirm the viability of very long term storage for supporting the need to extend or renew licenses for storage facilities the CRP was approved by the IAEA in November 2011. While a full range of spent fuel types and storage conditions are deployed around the world, this CRP is focused on existing systems and, more specifically, water reactor fuel in dry storage with the overall research objective to support the technical basis for water reactor spent fuel management as dry storage durations extend. In March 2012 the group of international experts who participated at the initial CRP planning meeting in August 2011 evaluated and recommended for approval 9 research

  19. Contributions to and expectations from the CRP - Argonne National Laboratory (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    For us, the chief benefit of the CRP will be validation of multidimensional fluid dynamics capabilities for analysis of outlet plenum temperature distributions. As reactor designers seek new fuel handling features to reduce costs, upper internal structure configurations are becoming more compact, and higher fidelity analysis techniques are required to assess thermal stresses. Argonne currently has 1) a reactor systems analysis code with an experimentally-based model for plenum stratification, 2) the COMMIX code (parent of the JAEA AQUA code), and 3) commercial fluid dynamics analysis codes. It is anticipated that all or some combination of these capabilities will be employed to perform the CRP analysis

  20. An experimental modeling of trinomial bioengineering- crp, rDNA, and transporter engineering within single cell factory for maximizing two-phase bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Souvik; Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Aphale, Ashish N; Patra, Prabir K; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal

    2017-02-01

    A carbonyl reductase (cr) gene from Candida glabrata CBS138 has been heterologously expressed in cofactor regenerating E. coli host to convert Ethyl-4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into Ethyl-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (CHBE). The CR enzyme exhibited marked velocity at substrate concentration as high as 363mM with highest turnover number (112.77±3.95s -1 ). Solitary recombineering of such catalytic cell reproduced CHBE 161.04g/L per g of dry cell weight (DCW). Introduction of combinatorially engineered crp (crp*, F136I) into this heterologous E. coli host yielded CHBE 477.54g/L/gDCW. Furthermore, using nerolidol as exogenous cell transporter, the CHBE productivity has been towered to 710.88g/L/gDCW. The CHBE production has thus been upscaled to 8-12 times than those reported so far. qRT-PCR studies revealed that both membrane efflux channels such as acrAB as well as ROS scavenger genes such as ahpCF have been activated by engineering crp. Moreover, membrane protecting genes such as manXYZ together with solvent extrusion associated genes such as glpC have been upregulated inside mutant host. Although numerous proteins have been investigated to convert COBE to CHBE; this is the first approach to use engineering triad involving crp engineering, recombinant DNA engineering and transporter engineering together for improving cell performance during two-phase biocatalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enzymatic oxidation of mercury vapor by erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbach, S; Clarkson, T W

    1978-01-01

    The formation of glutathione radicals, the evolution of nascent oxygen or the peroxidatic reaction with catalase complex I are considered as possible mechanisms for the oxidation of mercury vapor by red blood cells. To select among these, the uptake of atomic mercury by erythrocytes from different species was studied and related to their various activities of catalase (hydrogen-peroxide:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (glutathione:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.9). A slow and continuouus infusion of diluted H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ was used to maintain steady concentrations of complex I. 1% red cell suspensions were found most suitable showing high rates of Hg uptake and yielding still enough cells for subsequent determinations. The results indicate that the oxidation of mercury depends upon the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-generation rate and upon the specific acticity of red-cell catalase. The oxidation occurred in a range of the catalase-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ reaction where the evolution of oxygen could be excluded. Compounds reacting with complex I were shown to be effective inhibitors of the mercury uptake. GSH-peroxidase did not participate in the oxidation but rather, was found to inhibit it by competing with catalase for hydrogen peroxide. These findings support the view that elemental mercury is oxidized in erythrocytes by a peroxidatic reaction with complex I only.

  2. The role of the erythrocyte in antitumour drug transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumez, Herlinde

    2005-01-01

    The area of research on the substance-carrier capacity of the erythrocyte is rather limited and it remains difficult to estimate the impact of erythrocyte drug level monitoring in the clinic. Although equilibrium between blood and tissues based on the dissolution of compounds in the plasma water

  3. The Role and Mechanism of Erythrocyte Invasion by Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M. Schmitt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is an extremely virulent bacterium that can be transmitted naturally by blood sucking arthropods. During mammalian infection, F. tularensis infects numerous types of host cells, including erythrocytes. As erythrocytes do not undergo phagocytosis or endocytosis, it remains unknown how F. tularensis invades these cells. Furthermore, the consequence of inhabiting the intracellular space of red blood cells (RBCs has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence indicating that residing within an erythrocyte enhances the ability of F. tularensis to colonize ticks following a blood meal. Erythrocyte residence protected F. tularensis from a low pH environment similar to that of gut cells of a feeding tick. Mechanistic studies revealed that the F. tularensis type VI secretion system (T6SS was required for erythrocyte invasion as mutation of mglA (a transcriptional regulator of T6SS genes, dotU, or iglC (two genes encoding T6SS machinery severely diminished bacterial entry into RBCs. Invasion was also inhibited upon treatment of erythrocytes with venom from the Blue-bellied black snake (Pseudechis guttatus, which aggregates spectrin in the cytoskeleton, but not inhibitors of actin polymerization and depolymerization. These data suggest that erythrocyte invasion by F. tularensis is dependent on spectrin utilization which is likely mediated by effectors delivered through the T6SS. Our results begin to elucidate the mechanism of a unique biological process facilitated by F. tularensis to invade erythrocytes, allowing for enhanced colonization of ticks.

  4. Desickling of Sickle Cell Erythrocytes by Pulsed RF Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-16

    spectrophotometery. Field induced menbrane potential which causes the L partyl breakdown of the memrbrane and the formation of pores was calculated... plasma . Fig.5 shows the photographs of sickled and desickled SS erythrocytes which are suspended in Hank’s solution. As shown, desickled erythrocytes

  5. Paired Chicken and Mammalian Erythrocyte Indicator Systems for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective flock health analysis revealed that the higher titres were associated with confirmable Newcastle Disease (ND) outbreaks in the affected flocks. These findings therefore suggested that the use of standardised guinea pig erythrocytes in parallel with chicken erythrocytes as indicators, might facilitate field ND ...

  6. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864.6700 Section 864.6700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6700 Erythrocyte...

  7. Investigations into the binding of 125I-calmodulin to CA++ transport ATPase of human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterk, V.

    1983-01-01

    The study described was carried out in order to investigate the binding of 125 I-calmodulin to Ca ++ transport ATPase using different Ca ++ concentrations and temperatures. The data obtained from these experiments were subsequently analysed in such as a way as to yield meaningful information relating to the mechanisms underlying the attachment of calmodulin to Ca ++ transport ATPase, the % proportion of membrane protein that was attributable to the enzyme as well as the number of calmodulin receptor sites on the individual erythrocytes, etc. Comparisons with data from the relevant literature permitted conclusions to be drawn concerning the mode of Ca ++ transport at the level of the erythrocytes. A new methodology and processing technique had to be developed prior to the beginning of the experiments. (orig./MG) [de

  8. A Novel Indirect Sequence Readout Component in the E. coli Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Valentin-Hansen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    binding sites in the E. coli genome, but the exact role of the N6 region in CRP interaction has not previously been systematic examined. Here we employ an in vitro selection system based on a randomized N6 spacer region to demonstrate that CRP binding to the lacP1 site may be enhanced up to 14-fold......The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) from Escherichia coli has been extensively studied for several decades. In particular, a detailed characterization of CRP interaction with DNA has been obtained. The CRP dimer recognizes a consensus sequence AANTGTGANNNNNNTCACANTT through direct amino acid...

  9. C reactive protein and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a Mendelian randomisation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Vestbo, Jørgen; Zacho, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design. Methods The authors measured high......-sensitivity CRP in plasma, genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CRP gene, and screened for spirometry-defined COPD and hospitalisation due to COPD in 7974 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and in 32¿652 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study. Results Elevated...... plasma CRP >3 mg/l compared with Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study, respectively. Genotype combinations...

  10. iAB-RBC-283: A proteomically derived knowledge-base of erythrocyte metabolism that can be used to simulate its physiological and patho-physiological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Aarash; Jamshidi, Neema; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2011-07-12

    The development of high-throughput technologies capable of whole cell measurements of genes, proteins, and metabolites has led to the emergence of systems biology. Integrated analysis of the resulting omic data sets has proved to be hard to achieve. Metabolic network reconstructions enable complex relationships amongst molecular components to be represented formally in a biologically relevant manner while respecting physical constraints. In silico models derived from such reconstructions can then be queried or interrogated through mathematical simulations. Proteomic profiling studies of the mature human erythrocyte have shown more proteins present related to metabolic function than previously thought; however the significance and the causal consequences of these findings have not been explored. Erythrocyte proteomic data was used to reconstruct the most expansive description of erythrocyte metabolism to date, following extensive manual curation, assessment of the literature, and functional testing. The reconstruction contains 281 enzymes representing functions from glycolysis to cofactor and amino acid metabolism. Such a comprehensive view of erythrocyte metabolism implicates the erythrocyte as a potential biomarker for different diseases as well as a 'cell-based' drug-screening tool. The analysis shows that 94 erythrocyte enzymes are implicated in morbid single nucleotide polymorphisms, representing 142 pathologies. In addition, over 230 FDA-approved and experimental pharmaceuticals have enzymatic targets in the erythrocyte. The advancement of proteomic technologies and increased generation of high-throughput proteomic data have created the need for a means to analyze these data in a coherent manner. Network reconstructions provide a systematic means to integrate and analyze proteomic data in a biologically meaning manner. Analysis of the red cell proteome has revealed an unexpected level of complexity in the functional capabilities of human erythrocyte metabolism.

  11. iAB-RBC-283: A proteomically derived knowledge-base of erythrocyte metabolism that can be used to simulate its physiological and patho-physiological states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palsson Bernhard O

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of high-throughput technologies capable of whole cell measurements of genes, proteins, and metabolites has led to the emergence of systems biology. Integrated analysis of the resulting omic data sets has proved to be hard to achieve. Metabolic network reconstructions enable complex relationships amongst molecular components to be represented formally in a biologically relevant manner while respecting physical constraints. In silico models derived from such reconstructions can then be queried or interrogated through mathematical simulations. Proteomic profiling studies of the mature human erythrocyte have shown more proteins present related to metabolic function than previously thought; however the significance and the causal consequences of these findings have not been explored. Results Erythrocyte proteomic data was used to reconstruct the most expansive description of erythrocyte metabolism to date, following extensive manual curation, assessment of the literature, and functional testing. The reconstruction contains 281 enzymes representing functions from glycolysis to cofactor and amino acid metabolism. Such a comprehensive view of erythrocyte metabolism implicates the erythrocyte as a potential biomarker for different diseases as well as a 'cell-based' drug-screening tool. The analysis shows that 94 erythrocyte enzymes are implicated in morbid single nucleotide polymorphisms, representing 142 pathologies. In addition, over 230 FDA-approved and experimental pharmaceuticals have enzymatic targets in the erythrocyte. Conclusion The advancement of proteomic technologies and increased generation of high-throughput proteomic data have created the need for a means to analyze these data in a coherent manner. Network reconstructions provide a systematic means to integrate and analyze proteomic data in a biologically meaning manner. Analysis of the red cell proteome has revealed an unexpected level of complexity in

  12. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the C-reactive protein gene (-286) with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, Hayder A; Nasr, Amre; Ekström, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    The role of inflammation in malaria pathogenesis is not fully understood, although C-reactive protein (CRP) may have a negative influence on host immunity to infections. An upstream polymorphism, -286 (C > T > A), in the CRP gene is known to influence CRP levels. In this study, a cohort of 192 Su...

  13. C-Reactive Protein Is an Important Biomarker for Prognosis Tumor Recurrence and Treatment Response in Adult Solid Tumors: A Systematic Review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shrotriya, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review was done to determine the relationship between elevated CRP and prognosis in people with solid tumors. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum acute phase reactant and a well-established inflammatory marker. We also examined the role of CRP to predict treatment response and tumor recurrence.

  14. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-03-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean /sup 51/Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma /sup 59/Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished.

  15. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma 59 Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished

  16. A National Survey of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Participants on Environmental Effects, Wildlife Issues, and Vegetation Management on Program Lands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    A national survey of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contractees was completed to obtain information about environmental and social effects of the program on participants, farms, and communities...

  17. The Aotus nancymaae erythrocyte proteome and its importance for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, D A; García-Valiente, R; Ibarrola, N; Muro, A; Patarroyo, M A

    2017-01-30

    The Aotus nancymaae species has been of great importance in researching the biology and pathogenesis of malaria, particularly for studying Plasmodium molecules for including them in effective vaccines against such microorganism. In spite of the forgoing, there has been no report to date describing the biology of parasite target cells in primates or their biomedical importance. This study was thus designed to analyse A. nancymaae erythrocyte protein composition using MS data collected during a previous study aimed at characterising the Plasmodium vivax proteome and published in the pertinent literature. Most peptides identified were similar to those belonging to 1189 Homo sapiens molecules; >95% of them had orthologues in New World primates. GO terms revealed a correlation between categories having the greatest amount of proteins and vital cell function. Integral membrane molecules were also identified which could be possible receptors facilitating interaction with Plasmodium species. The A. nancymaae erythrocyte proteome is described here for the first time, as a starting point for more in-depth/extensive studies. The data reported represents a source of invaluable information for laboratories interested in carrying out basic and applied biomedical investigation studies which involve using this primate. An understanding of the proteomics characteristics of A. nancymaae erythrocytes represents a fascinating area for research regarding the study of the pathogenesis of malaria since these are the main target for Plasmodium invasion. However, and even though Aotus is one of the non-human primate models considered most appropriate for biomedical research, knowledge of its proteome, particularly its erythrocytes, remains unknown. According to the above and bearing in mind the lack of information about the A. nancymaae species genome and transcriptome, this study involved a search for primate proteins for comparing their MS/MS spectra with the available information for

  18. Frictional characteristics of erythrocytes on coated glass plates subject to inclined centrifugal forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Takashi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Kousuke; Funamoto, Kenichi; Takeno, Takanori; Ohta, Makoto; Takeda, Motohiro; Shirai, Atsushi

    2008-10-01

    In recent years a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film and a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer have attracted attention as coating materials for implantable artificial organs or devices. When these materials are coated on vascular devices, compatibility to blood is an important problem. The present paper focuses on friction characteristics of erythrocytes to these coating materials in a medium. With an inclined centrifuge microscope developed by the authors, observation was made for erythrocytes moving on flat glass plates with and without coating in a medium of plasma or saline under the effect of inclined centrifugal force. Friction characteristics of erythrocytes with respect to these coating materials were then measured and compared to each other to characterize DLC and MPC as coating materials. The friction characteristics of erythrocytes in plasma using the DLC-coated and noncoated glass plates are similar, changing approximately proportional to the 0.5th power of the cell velocity. The cells stick to these plates in saline as well, implying the influence of plasma protein. The results using the MPC-coated plate in plasma are similar to those of the other plates for large cell velocities, but deviate from the other results with decreased cell velocity. The results change nearly proportional to the 0.75th power of the cell velocity in the range of small velocities. The results for the MPC-coated plate in saline are similar to that in plasma but somewhat smaller, implying that the friction characteristics for the MPC-coated plate are essentially independent of plasma protein.

  19. Absence of erythrocyte sequestration and lack of multicopy gene family expression in Plasmodium falciparum from a splenectomized malaria patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bachmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To avoid spleen-dependent killing mechanisms parasite-infected erythrocytes (IE of Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients have the capacity to bind to endothelial receptors. This binding also known as sequestration, is mediated by parasite proteins, which are targeted to the erythrocyte surface. Candidate proteins are those encoded by P. falciparum multicopy gene families, such as var, rif, stevor or PfMC-2TM. However, a direct in vivo proof of IE sequestration and expression of multicopy gene families is still lacking. Here, we report on the analysis of IE from a black African immigrant, who received the diagnosis of a malignant lymphoproliferative disorder and subsequently underwent splenectomy. Three weeks after surgery, the patient experienced clinical falciparum malaria with high parasitemia and circulating developmental parasite stages usually sequestered to the vascular endothelium such as late trophozoites, schizonts or immature gametocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initially, when isolated from the patient, the infected erythrocytes were incapable to bind to various endothelial receptors in vitro. Moreover, the parasites failed to express the multicopy gene families var, A-type rif and stevor but expression of B-type rif and PfMC-2TM genes were detected. In the course of in vitro cultivation, the parasites started to express all investigated multicopy gene families and concomitantly developed the ability to adhere to endothelial receptors such as CD36 and ICAM-1, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This case strongly supports the hypothesis that parasite surface proteins such as PfEMP1, A-type RIFIN or STEVOR are involved in interactions of infected erythrocytes with endothelial receptors mediating sequestration of mature asexual and immature sexual stages of P. falciparum. In contrast, multicopy gene families coding for B-type RIFIN and PfMC-2TM proteins may not be involved in sequestration, as these genes were

  20. Sickle erythrocytes inhibit human endothelial cell DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, R.; Zhou, M.A.; Bartlett-Pandite, A.; Wenc, K.

    1990-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell anemia experience severe vascular occlusive phenomena including acute pain crisis and cerebral infarction. Obstruction occurs at both the microvascular and the arterial level, and the clinical presentation of vascular events is heterogeneous, suggesting a complex etiology. Interaction between sickle erythrocytes and the endothelium may contribute to vascular occlusion due to alteration of endothelial function. To investigate this hypothesis, human vascular endothelial cells were overlaid with sickle or normal erythrocytes and stimulated to synthesize DNA. The erythrocytes were sedimented onto replicate monolayers by centrifugation for 10 minutes at 17 g to insure contact with the endothelial cells. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine into endothelial cell DNA was markedly inhibited during contact with sickle erythrocytes. This inhibitory effect was enhanced more than twofold when autologous sickle plasma was present during endothelial cell labeling. Normal erythrocytes, with or without autologous plasma, had a modest effect on endothelial cell DNA synthesis. When sickle erythrocytes in autologous sickle plasma were applied to endothelial monolayers for 1 minute, 10 minutes, or 1 hour and then removed, subsequent DNA synthesis by the endothelial cells was inhibited by 30% to 40%. Although adherence of sickle erythrocytes to the endothelial monolayers was observed under these experimental conditions, the effect of sickle erythrocytes on endothelial DNA synthesis occurred in the absence of significant adherence. Hence, human endothelial cell DNA synthesis is partially inhibited by contact with sickle erythrocytes. The inhibitory effect of sickle erythrocytes occurs during a brief (1 minute) contact with the endothelial monolayers, and persists for at least 6 hours of 3H-thymidine labeling

  1. Absence of correlation between serum CRP levels and mitochondrial D-loop DNA mutations in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. L. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both inflammation and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutation are thought to play a role in the many human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between inflammation and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations in the D-loop region in carcinogenesis of gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 20 patients with gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma were taken for measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP concentration. Direct sequencing of mtDNA in the D-loop region was done in the 20 adenocarcinoma samples and their corresponding surrounding non-cancerous tissue. Sequences were compared with existing mtDNA databases to identify mutations. Results: mtDNA mutations in the D-loop region occur commonly with almost identical frequency in both non-cancerous tissue (3.0 ΁ 1.6 and adenocarcinoma (3.1 ΁ 1.9 (P = 0.916, paired t-test. CRP levels are not predictive of the number of D-loop mutations in both adenocarcinoma (β: -0.131; 95% CI: -2.354-1.364; P = 0.583 and non-cancerous tissue samples (β: 0.130; 95% CI: -1.125-1.933; P = 0.586. Five new mutations were identified that were not recorded previously in mtDNA databases. Conclusion: D-loop mtDNA mutations are common in both gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma and surrounding non-cancerous tissue. However, the accumulation of such mutations appears to occur independent of systemic inflammation. The frequency of D-loop mutations is likely not useful as a marker for carcinogenesis in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  2. Simultaneous determination of CRP and D-dimer in human blood plasma samples with White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouvinos, Georgios; Petrou, Panagiota; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Drygiannakis, Dimitris; Raptis, Ioannis; Stefanitsis, Gerasimos; Martini, Spyridoula; Nikita, Dimitra; Goustouridis, Dimitrios; Moser, Isabella; Jobst, Gerhard; Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2016-10-15

    A dual-analyte assay for the simultaneous determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer in human blood plasma based on a white light interference spectroscopy sensing platform is presented. Measurement is accomplished in real-time by scanning the sensing surface, on which distinct antibody areas have been created, with a reflection probe used both for illumination of the surface and collection of the reflected interference spectrum. The composition of the transducer, the sensing surface chemical activation and biofunctionalization procedures were optimized with respect to signal magnitude and repeatability. The assay format involved direct detection of CRP whereas for D-dimer a two-site immunoassay employing a biotinylated reporter antibody and reaction with streptavidin was selected. The assays were sensitive with detection limits of 25ng/mL for both analytes, precise with intra- and inter-assay CV values ranging from 3.6% to 7.7%, and from 4.8% to 9.5%, respectively, for both assays, and accurate with recovery values ranging from 88.5% to 108% for both analytes. Moreover, the values determined for the two analytes in 35 human plasma samples were in excellent agreement with those received for the same samples by standard diagnostic laboratory instrumentation employing commercial kits. The excellent agreement of the results supported the validity of the proposed system for clinical application for the detection of multiple analytes since it was demonstrated that up to seven antibody areas can be created on the sensing surface and successfully interrogated with the developed optical set-up. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Global transformation of erythrocyte properties via engagement of an SH2-like sequence in band 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Turrini, Francesco M; Li, Yen-Hsing; Low, Philip S

    2016-11-29

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are composed of weakly conserved sequences of ∼100 aa that bind phosphotyrosines in signaling proteins and thereby mediate intra- and intermolecular protein-protein interactions. In exploring the mechanism whereby tyrosine phosphorylation of the erythrocyte anion transporter, band 3, triggers membrane destabilization, vesiculation, and fragmentation, we discovered a SH2 signature motif positioned between membrane-spanning helices 4 and 5. Evidence that this exposed cytoplasmic sequence contributes to a functional SH2-like domain is provided by observations that: (i) it contains the most conserved sequence of SH2 domains, GSFLVR; (ii) it binds the tyrosine phosphorylated cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3-PO 4 ) with K d = 14 nM; (iii) binding of cdb3-PO 4 to erythrocyte membranes is inhibited both by antibodies against the SH2 signature sequence and dephosphorylation of cdb3-PO 4 ; (iv) label transfer experiments demonstrate the covalent transfer of photoactivatable biotin from isolated cdb3-PO 4 (but not cdb3) to band 3 in erythrocyte membranes; and (v) phosphorylation-induced binding of cdb3-PO 4 to the membrane-spanning domain of band 3 in intact cells causes global changes in membrane properties, including (i) displacement of a glycolytic enzyme complex from the membrane, (ii) inhibition of anion transport, and (iii) rupture of the band 3-ankyrin bridge connecting the spectrin-based cytoskeleton to the membrane. Because SH2-like motifs are not retrieved by normal homology searches for SH2 domains, but can be found in many tyrosine kinase-regulated transport proteins using modified search programs, we suggest that related cases of membrane transport proteins containing similar motifs are widespread in nature where they participate in regulation of cell properties.

  4. WTO Compliance Status of the Conservation Security Program (CSP) and the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schnepf, Randy

    2007-01-01

    .... This report is not a legal opinion, but describes both the CSP and CRP programs, the WTO Annex II provisions that govern compliance, and the potential issues involved in evaluating the compliance status of the two programs. This report will be updated as events warrant.

  5. Systems assessment of transcriptional regulation on central carbon metabolism by Cra and CRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyuk; Seo, Sang Woo; Gao, Ye; Nam, Hojung; Guzman, Gabriela I; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2018-04-06

    Two major transcriptional regulators of carbon metabolism in bacteria are Cra and CRP. CRP is considered to be the main mediator of catabolite repression. Unlike for CRP, in vivo DNA binding information of Cra is scarce. Here we generate and integrate ChIP-exo and RNA-seq data to identify 39 binding sites for Cra and 97 regulon genes that are regulated by Cra in Escherichia coli. An integrated metabolic-regulatory network was formed by including experimentally-derived regulatory information and a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction. Applying analysis methods of systems biology to this integrated network showed that Cra enables optimal bacterial growth on poor carbon sources by redirecting and repressing glycolysis flux, by activating the glyoxylate shunt pathway, and by activating the respiratory pathway. In these regulatory mechanisms, the overriding regulatory activity of Cra over CRP is fundamental. Thus, elucidation of interacting transcriptional regulation of core carbon metabolism in bacteria by two key transcription factors was possible by combining genome-wide experimental measurement and simulation with a genome-scale metabolic model.

  6. Multi-Marker Strategy in Heart Failure: Combination of ST2 and CRP Predicts Poor Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Dupuy

    Full Text Available Natriuretic peptides (BNP and NT-proBNP are recognized as gold-standard predictive markers in Heart Failure (HF. However, currently ST2 (member of the interleukin 1 receptor family has emerged as marker of inflammation, fibrosis and cardiac stress. We evaluated ST2 and CRP as prognostic markers in 178 patients with chronic heart failure in comparison with other classical markers such as clinical established parameters but also biological markers: NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT alone or in combination. In multivariate analysis, subsequent addition of ST2 led to age, CRP and ST2 as the only remaining predictors of all-cause mortality (HR 1.03, HR 1.61 and HR 2.75, respectively as well as of cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.00, HR 2.27 and HR 3.78, respectively. The combined increase of ST2 and CRP was significant for predicting worsened outcomes leading to identify a high risk subgroup that individual assessment of either marker. The same analysis was performed with ST2 in combination with Barcelona score. Overall, our findings extend previous data demonstrating that ST2 in combination with CRP as a valuable tool for identifying patients at risk of death.

  7. Evaluation of serum homocysteine, high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys, folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001. Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss (P < 0.05. Patients with higher "Severity of Alopecia Total" (SALT score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA.

  8. Cooperative DNA binding of heterologous proteins: Evidence for contact between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and RNA polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y.L.; Garges, S.; Adhya, S.; Krakow, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Four cAMP-independent receptor protein mutants (designated CRP* mutants) isolated previously are able to activate in vivo gene transcription in the absence of cAMP and their activity can be enhanced by cAMP or cGMP. One of the four mutant proteins, CRP*598 (Arg-142 to His, Ala-144 to Thr), has been characterized with regard to its conformational properties and ability to bind to and support abortive initiation from the lac promoter. Binding of wild-type CRP to its site on the lac promoter and activation of abortive initiation by RNA polymerase on this promoter are effected by cAMP but not by cGMP. CRP*598 can activate lacP + -directed abortive initiation in the presence of cAMP and less efficiently in the presence of cGMP or in the absence of cyclic nucleotide. DNase I protection (footprinting) indicates that cAMP-CRP* binds to its site on the lac promoter whereas unliganded CRP* and cGMP-CRP* form a stable complex with the [ 32 P]lacP + fragment only in the presence of RNA polymerase, showing cooperative binding of two heterologous proteins. This cooperative binding provides strong evidence for a contact between CRP and RNA polymerase for activation of transcription. Although cGMP binds to CRP, it cannot replace cAMP in effecting the requisite conformational transition necessary for site-specific promoter binding

  9. C-reactive protein inhibits survivin expression via Akt/mTOR pathway downregulation by PTEN expression in cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Seob Lee

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is one of the most important biomarkers for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that CRP affects cell cycle and inflammatory process in cardiac myocytes. Survivin is also involved in cardiac myocytes replication and apoptosis. Reduction of survivin expression is associated with less favorable cardiac remodeling in animal models. However, the effect of CRP on survivin expression and its cellular mechanism has not yet been studied. We demonstrated that treatment of CRP resulted in a significant decrease of survivin protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes. The upstream signaling proteins of survivin, such as Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, were also downregulated by CRP treatment. In addition, CRP increased the protein and mRNA levels of PTEN. The siRNA transfection or specific inhibitor treatment for PTEN restored the CRP-induced downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway and survivin protein expression. Moreover, pretreatment with a specific p53 inhibitor decreased the CRP-induced PTEN expression. ERK-specific inhibitor also blocked the p53 phosphorylation and PTEN expression induced by CRP. Our study provides a novel insight into CRP-induced downregulation of survivin protein expression in cardiac myocytes through mechanisms that involved in downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway by expression of PTEN.

  10. A Conformational Change in C-Reactive Protein Enhances Leukocyte Recruitment and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Thiele

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionC-reactive protein circulates as a pentameric protein (pCRP. pCRP is a well-established diagnostic marker as plasma levels rise in response to tissue injury and inflammation. We recently described pro-inflammatory properties of CRP, which are mediated by conformational changes from pCRP to bioactive isoforms expressing pro-inflammatory neo-epitopes [pCRP* and monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP]. Here, we investigate the role of CRP isoforms in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI.MethodsRat kidneys in animals with and without intraperitoneally injected pCRP were subjected to IRI by the time of pCRP exposure and were subsequently analyzed for monocyte infiltration, caspase-3 expression, and tubular damage. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN was analyzed pre-ischemia and post-reperfusion. CRP effects on leukocyte recruitment were investigated via intravital imaging of rat-striated muscle IRI. Localized conformational CRP changes were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using conformation specific antibodies. 1,6-bis(phosphocholine-hexane (1,6-bisPC, which stabilizes CRP in its native pentameric form was used to validate CRP effects. Leukocyte activation was assessed by quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS induction by CRP isoforms ex vivo and in vitro through electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Signaling pathways were analyzed by disrupting lipid rafts with nystatin and subsequent ROS detection. In order to confirm the translational relevance of our findings, biopsies of microsurgical human free tissue transfers before and after IRI were examined by immunofluorescence for CRP deposition and co-localization of CD68+ leukocytes.ResultsThe application of pCRP aggravates tissue damage in renal IRI. 1,6-bisPC reverses these effects via inhibition of the conformational change that leads to exposure of pro-inflammatory epitopes in CRP (pCRP* and mCRP. Structurally altered CRP induces leukocyte–endothelial interaction and induces ROS

  11. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women. © 2013.

  12. Rapid and specific biotin labelling of the erythrocyte surface antigens of both cultured and ex-vivo Plasmodium parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Joanne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitive detection of parasite surface antigens expressed on erythrocyte membranes is necessary to further analyse the molecular pathology of malaria. This study describes a modified biotin labelling/osmotic lysis method which rapidly produces membrane extracts enriched for labelled surface antigens and also improves the efficiency of antigen recovery compared with traditional detergent extraction and surface radio-iodination. The method can also be used with ex-vivo parasites. Methods After surface labelling with biotin in the presence of the inhibitor furosemide, detergent extraction and osmotic lysis methods of enriching for the membrane fractions were compared to determine the efficiency of purification and recovery. Biotin-labelled proteins were identified on silver-stained SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Results Detergent extraction and osmotic lysis were compared for their capacity to purify biotin-labelled Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium chabaudi erythrocyte surface antigens. The pellet fraction formed after osmotic lysis of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes is notably enriched in suface antigens, including PfEMP1, when compared to detergent extraction. There is also reduced co-extraction of host proteins such as spectrin and Band 3. Conclusion Biotinylation and osmotic lysis provides an improved method to label and purify parasitised erythrocyte surface antigen extracts from both in vitro and ex vivo Plasmodium parasite preparations.

  13. Carbon debt of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands converted to bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Zenone, Terenzio; Jasrotia, Poonam; Chen, Jiquan; Hamilton, Stephen K; Robertson, G Philip

    2011-08-16

    Over 13 million ha of former cropland are enrolled in the US Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), providing well-recognized biodiversity, water quality, and carbon (C) sequestration benefits that could be lost on conversion back to agricultural production. Here we provide measurements of the greenhouse gas consequences of converting CRP land to continuous corn, corn-soybean, or perennial grass for biofuel production. No-till soybeans preceded the annual crops and created an initial carbon debt of 10.6 Mg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)e)·ha(-1) that included agronomic inputs, changes in C stocks, altered N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes, and foregone C sequestration less a fossil fuel offset credit. Total debt, which includes future debt created by additional changes in soil C stocks and the loss of substantial future soil C sequestration, can be constrained to 68 Mg CO(2)e·ha(-1) if subsequent crops are under permanent no-till management. If tilled, however, total debt triples to 222 Mg CO(2)e·ha(-1) on account of further soil C loss. Projected C debt repayment periods under no-till management range from 29 to 40 y for corn-soybean and continuous corn, respectively. Under conventional tillage repayment periods are three times longer, from 89 to 123 y, respectively. Alternatively, the direct use of existing CRP grasslands for cellulosic feedstock production would avoid C debt entirely and provide modest climate change mitigation immediately. Incentives for permanent no till and especially permission to harvest CRP biomass for cellulosic biofuel would help to blunt the climate impact of future CRP conversion.

  14. Erythrocyte 22Na+ influx in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalev, O.; Eaton, J.W.; Ben-Ishay, D.

    1984-01-01

    We assessed 22Na+ uptake by erythrocytes (RBC) from 38 individuals with essential hypertension and 37 healthy controls. All subjects were male, white, non-obese and with normal renal function, obviating sex, race, hormonal, ponderal and renal factors known to influence RBC Na+ handling. The mean +/- sem 22Na+ uptake of the patients was 284 +/- 16 mumole/liter RBC/hour while that of normal controls was 249 +/- 11 mumole/liter RBC/hour; although the difference reached borderline significance, individual values showed considerable overlap. Consequently, in our population, RBC 22Na+ uptake is not a reliable marker for essential hypertension. We believe that previous studies should be reassessed with regard to patients' characteristics and future studies employ rigorous criteria in selection of subjects

  15. In Vitro Protective Effect of Phikud Navakot Extraction on Erythrocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Kengkoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phikud Navakot (PN, Thai herbal remedy in National List of Essential Medicines, has been claimed to reduce many cardiovascular symptoms especially dizziness and fainting. Apart from blood supply, erythrocyte morphology, in both shape and size, is one of the main consideration factors in cardiovascular diseases and may be affected by vascular oxidative stress. However, little is known about antioxidative property of PN on erythrocyte to preserve red blood cell integrity. In this study, 1,000 μM hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress was conducted on sheep erythrocyte. Three doses of PN (1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/mL and 10 μM of ascorbic acid were compared. The released hemoglobin absorbance was measured to demonstrate hemolysis. Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies were also performed to characterize dysmorphic erythrocyte and osmotic ability in relation to aquaporin- (AQP- 1 expression, respectively. The results revealed that all doses of PN and ascorbic acid decreased the severity of dysmorphic erythrocyte, particularly echinocyte, acanthocyte, knizocyte, codocyte, clumping, and other malformations. However, the most effective was 0.5 mg/mL PN dosage. In addition, hydrostatic pressure may be increased in dysmorphic erythrocyte in association with AQP-1 upregulation. Our results demonstrated that PN composes antioxidative effect to maintain the integrity and osmotic ability on sheep erythrocyte.

  16. Deformability of Erythrocytes and Oxidative Damage in Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukerrem Betul Yerer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A lowered cerebral perfusion as a consequence of hemodynamic microcirculatory insufficiency is one of the factors underlying in Alzheimer's disease, which is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive cognitive impairment. Erythrocyte deformability is one of the major factors affecting the microcirculatory hemodynamics which is closely related to the oxidative damage. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the erythrocyte deformability, nitric oxide levels and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The blood samples of 30 elderly people in three groups consisting of healthy control and different severities of the disease (low and severe were used. Then the erythrocytes were isolated and the deformability of erythrocytes was determined by Rheodyne SSD evaluating the elongation indexes of the erythrocytes under different shear stress. The catalase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma nitric oxide levels were measured spectrophotometric ally. Results: The plasma nitric oxide levels, catalase activities were found significantly higher and glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly lower in severe Alzheimer's disease patients compared to the control group. However, the deformability of erythrocytes was not significantly affected from these alterations. Conclusion: the oxidant-antioxidant status is dramatically changed in Alzheimer's disease patients with the severity of the disease and similar alterations were seen in the nitric oxide levels without any significant change in erythrocyte deformability. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(2.000: 65-75

  17. The Uremic Toxin Acrolein Promotes Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siyabeldin E. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia is a major complication of end stage renal disease. The anemia is mainly the result of impaired formation of erythrocytes due to lack of erythropoietin and iron deficiency. Compelling evidence, however, points to the contribution of accelerated erythrocyte death, which decreases the life span of circulating erythrocytes. Erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i. Erythrocytes could be sensitized to cytosolic Ca2+ by ceramide. In end stage renal disease, eryptosis may possibly be stimulated by uremic toxins. The present study explored, whether the uremic toxin acrolein could trigger eryptosis. Methods: Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin-V-binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide from fluorescent antibodies. Results: A 48 h exposure to acrolein (30 - 50 µM did not significantly modify [Ca2+]i but significantly decreased forward scatter and increased annexin-V-binding. Acrolein further triggered slight, but significant hemolysis and increased ceramide formation in erythrocytes. Acrolein (50 µM induced annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. Acrolein augmented the annexin-V-binding following treatment with