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Sample records for protein carbs sodium

  1. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pvs. NP (-11.5 ± 4 kg; -9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (pvs. NC (-12.3 ± 3 kg; -10.3 ± 1.1 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-14.7 ± 5 kg; -11.9 ± 1.6 kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8 ± 3 kg; -11.9 ± 1.8 kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7 ± 4 kg; -8.6 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. NP (-8.9 ± 3 kg; -7.7 ± 0.6 kg) (pvs. NC (11.1 ± 3 kg; 9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-11.6 ± 5 kg ; -8.2 ± 0.7 kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.9 kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2 ± 3 kg; -6.7 ± 0.6 kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7 ± 3 kg; -8.5 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet were not statistically significant. Metabolic profile and fat-free-mass were improved following weight-loss. Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright

  2. Low-Carb Diet: Could It Help You Lose Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods in the form of sugar or white flour. Examples of foods that contain refined carbohydrates are white breads ... carbs you eat but also to the quality of your other food choices. Lean protein (fish, poultry, legumes), healthy fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated) and ...

  3. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  5. CarbAl Heat Transfer Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of power electronics, such as high-current semiconductor devices and modules, within space vehicles is driving the need to develop specialty thermal management materials in both the packaging of these discrete devices and the packaging of modules consisting of these device arrays. Developed by Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI), CarbAl heat transfer material is uniquely characterized by its low density, high thermal diffusivity, and high thermal conductivity. Its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is similar to most power electronic materials, making it an effective base plate substrate for state-of-the-art silicon carbide (SiC) super junction transistors. The material currently is being used to optimize hybrid vehicle inverter packaging. Adapting CarbAl-based substrates to space applications was a major focus of the SBIR project work. In Phase I, ANI completed modeling and experimentation to validate its deployment in a space environment. Key parameters related to cryogenic temperature scaling of CTE, thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength. In Phase II, the company concentrated on improving heat sinks and thermally conductive circuit boards for power electronic applications.

  6. Effects of sodium salt types on the intermolecular interaction of sodium alginate/antarctic krill protein composite fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Jing; Liu, Yuanfa; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Sen; Yu, Yue

    2018-06-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) and antarctic krill protein (AKP) were blended to fabricate the SA/AKP composite fibers by the conventional wet spinning method using 5% CaCl 2 as coagulation solution. The sodium salt was added to the SA/AKP solution to adjust the ionization degree and intermolecular interaction of composite system. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of sodium salt types (NaCl, CH 3 COONa, Na 2 SO 4 ) on the intermolecular interaction of SA/AKP composite fibers. The intermolecular interaction, morphology, crystallinity, thermal stability and mechanical properties of SA/AKP composite fibers were analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results show that the types of sodium salt have obvious influences on the content of both β-sheet, intermolecular hydrogen bond, breaking strength and surface morphology in SA/AKP composite fibers, but have a negligible effect on the crystallinity and thermal stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  8. Counting Carbs? Understanding Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compare how single servings of different foods affect blood sugar. It takes into account both the quality and quantity of carbs in a serving. . Some studies suggest that sticking to foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent ...

  9. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shufang; Yang Jinghe; Wu Xia; Wang Fei; Wang Feng; Jia Zhen

    2006-01-01

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y 3+ ), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10 -9 -1.0x10 -5 g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10 -8 -1.0x10 -5 g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10 -7 -2.0x10 -5 g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10 -9 , 9.8x10 -9 and 2.1x10 -8 g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied

  10. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Feng [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-15

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y{sup 3+}), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10{sup -8}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10{sup -7}-2.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10{sup -9}, 9.8x10{sup -9} and 2.1x10{sup -8}g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  11. Response of rat brain protein synthesis to ethanol and sodium barbital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, S.; Greenberg, S.A.; Do, K.; Grey, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as ethanol and barbiturates under acute or chronic conditions can induce changes in rat brain protein synthesis. While these data demonstrate the individual effects of drugs on protein synthesis, the response of brain protein synthesis to alcohol-drug interactions is not known. The goal of the present study was to determine the individual and combined effects of ethanol and sodium barbital on brain protein synthesis and gain an understanding of the mechanisms by which these alterations in protein synthesis are produced. Specifically, the in vivo and in vitro effects of sodium barbital (one class of barbiturates which is not metabolized by the hepatic tissue) were examined on brain protein synthesis in rats made physically dependent upon ethanol. Using cell free brain polysomal systems isolated from Control, Ethanol and 24 h Ethanol Withdrawn rats, data show that sodium barbital, when intubated intragastrically, inhibited the time dependent incorporation of 14 C) leucine into protein by all three groups of ribosomes. Under these conditions, the Ethanol Withdrawn group displayed the largest inhibition of the 14 C) leucine incorporation into protein when compared to the Control and Ethanol groups. In addition, sodium barbital when added at various concentrations in vitro to the incubation medium inhibited the incorporation of 14 C) leucine into protein by Control and Ethanol polysomes. The inhibitory effects were also obtained following preincubation of ribosomes in the presence of barbital but not cycloheximide. Data suggest that brain protein synthesis, specifically brain polysomes, through interaction with ethanol or barbital are involved in the functional development of tolerance. These interactions may occur through proteins or polypeptide chains or alterations in messenger RNA components associated with the ribosomal units

  12. Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.Y.G.; Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility

  13. Carbohydrates: How Carbs Fit into a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obesity. Carbohydrates are an essential part of a healthy diet, and provide many important nutrients. Still, not all carbs are created equal. Here's how to make healthy carbohydrates work in a balanced diet: Emphasize fiber-rich fruits and vegetables. Aim for ...

  14. Mining Protein Evolution for Insights into Mechanisms of Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channel Auxiliary Subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinarolo, Steven; Granata, Daniele; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Ahern, Christopher A

    2018-02-21

    Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) beta (β) subunits have been called the "overachieving" auxiliary ion channel subunit. Indeed, these subunits regulate the trafficking of the sodium channel complex at the plasma membrane and simultaneously tune the voltage-dependent properties of the pore-forming alpha-subunit. It is now known that VGSC β-subunits are capable of similar modulation of multiple isoforms of related voltage-gated potassium channels, suggesting that their abilities extend into the broader voltage-gated channels. The gene family for these single transmembrane immunoglobulin beta-fold proteins extends well beyond the traditional VGSC β1-β4 subunit designation, with deep roots into the cell adhesion protein family and myelin-related proteins - where inherited mutations result in a myriad of electrical signaling disorders. Yet, very little is known about how VGSC β-subunits support protein trafficking pathways, the basis for their modulation of voltage-dependent gating, and, ultimately, their role in shaping neuronal excitability. An evolutionary approach can be useful in yielding new clues to such functions as it provides an unbiased assessment of protein residues, folds, and functions. An approach is described here which indicates the greater emergence of the modern β-subunits roughly 400 million years ago in the early neurons of Bilateria and bony fish, and the unexpected presence of distant homologues in bacteriophages. Recent structural breakthroughs containing α and β eukaryotic sodium channels containing subunits suggest a novel role for a highly conserved polar contact that occurs within the transmembrane segments. Overall, a mixture of approaches will ultimately advance our understanding of the mechanism for β-subunit interactions with voltage-sensor containing ion channels and membrane proteins.

  15. Interfacial composition and stability of emulsions made with mixtures of commercial sodium caseinate and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian

    2008-10-15

    The interfacial composition and the stability of oil-in-water emulsion droplets (30% soya oil, pH 7.0) made with mixtures of sodium caseinate and whey protein concentrate (WPC) (1:1 by protein weight) at various total protein concentrations were examined. The average volume-surface diameter (d32) and the total surface protein concentration of emulsion droplets were similar to those of emulsions made with both sodium caseinate alone and WPC alone. Whey proteins were adsorbed in preference to caseins at low protein concentrations (caseins were adsorbed in preference to whey proteins at high protein concentrations. The creaming stability of the emulsions decreased markedly as the total protein concentration of the system was increased above 2% (sodium caseinate >1%). This was attributed to depletion flocculation caused by the sodium caseinate in these emulsions. Whey proteins did not retard this instability in the emulsions made with mixtures of sodium caseinate and WPC. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and urea on the molecular interactions and properties of whey protein isolate-based films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven

    2016-12-01

    Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm³ (STP / standard temperature and pressure) 100 µm (m² d bar)-1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 µm (m² d)-1 measured at 50 to 0 % r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient.

  17. Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Nitrogen, and Sugar Amounts Are Valid Biomarkers of Dietary Sodium, Protein, and High Sugar Intake in Nonobese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

  19. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate- Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE) of Irradiated Wheat Flour Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souzan, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) flour have revealed 23 polypeptides of molecular weights between 170 and 11.57 KDa, High molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) were distinguished. Densitometric analysis of the gel showed the effect of radiation on polypeptide constitution at radiation energy up to 7.5 kGy. Irradiation of wheat flour with 2.5 kGy have resulted in a slight increase in the molecular weight of wheat flour protein subunits. The increase of irradiation dose to 5.0 kGy has also induced an additional increase of molecular weight of protein subunits. The continuity in application of more radiation energy to a level of 7.5 kGy have resulted in the prevalence of degradation processes of all protein subunits more than the aggregation

  20. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... by aqueous 50% propan-2-ol containing a Tris-borate buffer, pH 8.6. The presence of the buffer facilitates the consecutive complete reduction of the extracted protein in the alcohol. Reduction and alkylation in the buffer containing propan-2-ol give sharper bands in the electrophoresis than reduction...

  1. Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate Attenuates Myocardial Reperfusion Injury by Reducing the Unfolded Protein Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Osamu; Usui, Soichiro; Okajima, Masaki; Kaneko, Shuichi; Ootsuji, Hiroshi; Takashima, Shin-Ichiro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Murai, Hisayoshi; Furusho, Hiroshi; Takamura, Masayuki

    2017-05-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) plays a pivotal role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in various organs such as heart, brain, and liver. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reportedly acts as a chemical chaperone that reduces UPR. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of PBA on reducing the UPR and protecting against myocardial I/R injury in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 30-minute myocardial I/R, and were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (as a vehicle) or PBA. At 4 hours after reperfusion, mice treated with PBA had reduced serum cardiac troponin I levels and numbers of apoptotic cells in left ventricles (LVs) in myocardial I/R. Infarct size had also reduced in mice treated with PBA at 48 hours after reperfusion. At 2 hours after reperfusion, UPR markers, including eukaryotic initiation of the factor 2α-subunit, activating transcription factor-6, inositol-requiring enzyme-1, glucose-regulated protein 78, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein, and caspase-12, were significantly increased in mice treated with vehicle compared to sham-operated mice. Administration of PBA significantly reduced the I/R-induced increases of these markers. Cardiac function and dimensions were assessed at 21 days after I/R. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate dedicated to the improvement of cardiac parameters deterioration including LV end-diastolic diameter and LV fractional shortening. Consistently, PBA reduced messenger RNA expression levels of cardiac remodeling markers such as collagen type 1α1, brain natriuretic peptide, and α skeletal muscle actin in LV at 21 days after I/R. Unfolded protein response mediates myocardial I/R injury. Administration of PBA reduces the UPR, apoptosis, infarct size, and preserved cardiac function. Hence, PBA may be a therapeutic option to attenuate myocardial I/R injury in clinical practice.

  2. A Comparative Study on Carbohydrate Estimation: GoCARB vs. Dietitians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Vasiloglou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available GoCARB is a computer vision-based smartphone system designed for individuals with Type 1 Diabetes to estimate plated meals’ carbohydrate (CHO content. We aimed to compare the accuracy of GoCARB in estimating CHO with the estimations of six experienced dietitians. GoCARB was used to estimate the CHO content of 54 Central European plated meals, with each of them containing three different weighed food items. Ground truth was calculated using the USDA food composition database. Dietitians were asked to visually estimate the CHO content based on meal photographs. GoCARB and dietitians achieved comparable accuracies. The mean absolute error of the dietitians was 14.9 (SD 10.12 g of CHO versus 14.8 (SD 9.73 g of CHO for the GoCARB (p = 0.93. No differences were found between the estimations of dietitians and GoCARB, regardless the meal size. The larger the size of the meal, the greater were the estimation errors made by both. Moreover, the higher the CHO content of a food category was, the more challenging its accurate estimation. GoCARB had difficulty in estimating rice, pasta, potatoes, and mashed potatoes, while dietitians had problems with pasta, chips, rice, and polenta. GoCARB may offer diabetic patients the option of an easy, accurate, and almost real-time estimation of the CHO content of plated meals, and thus enhance diabetes self-management.

  3. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the terbium (III)-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Chemistry, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Guo Changying [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-12-15

    It is found that in hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA)-HCl buffer of pH=8.00, proteins can enhance the fluorescence of terbium (III) (Tb{sup 3+})-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) system. Based on this, a sensitive method for the determination of proteins is proposed. The experiments indicate that under the optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 4.0x10{sup -9}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.5x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA), 1.0x10{sup -8}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 0.5, 0.8 and 2.0ng/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  4. Determination of Protein by Fluorescence Enhancement of Curcumin in Lanthanum-Curcumin-Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate-Protein System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Huang, Wei [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Zhang, Yunfeng [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Wang, Mingyin [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Sun, Lina [Zaozhuang University, People' s Republic of China; Tang, Bo [Shandong University, Jinan, China; Wang, Wei [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We found that the fluorescence intensity of the lanthanum (La(3+))-curcumin (CU) complex can be highly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS). Based on this finding, a new fluorimetric method for the determination of protein was developed. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced intensities of fluorescence are quantitatively in proportion to the concentrations of proteins in the range 0.0080-20.0 g mL(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.00080-20.0 g mL(-1) for human serum albumin (HSA) with excitation of 425 nm, and 0.00020-20.0 g mL(-1) for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.00080-20.0 g mL(-1)for human serum albumin (HSA) with excitation of 280 nm, while corresponding qualitative detection limits (S/N 3) are as low as 5.368, 0.573, 0.049, 0.562 g mL(-1), respectively. Study on reaction mechanism reveals that proteins can bind with La(3+), CU and SDBS through self-assembling function with electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction and van der Waals forces, etc. The proteins form a supermolecular association with multilayer structure, in which La(3+)-CU is clamped between BSA and SDBS. The unique high fluorescence enhancement of CU is resulted through synergic effects of favorable hydrophobic microenvironment provided by BSA and SDBS, and efficient intermolecular energy transfer among BSA, SDBS and CU. In energy transfer process, La(3+) plays a crucial role because it not only shortens the distance between SDBS and CU, but also acts as a "bridge" for transferring the energy from BSA to CU.

  5. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  6. Arabidopsis Intracellular NHX-Type Sodium-Proton Antiporters are Required for Seed Storage Protein Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashnest, Joanne R; Huynh, Dung L; Dragwidge, Jonathan M; Ford, Brett A; Gendall, Anthony R

    2015-11-01

    The Arabidopsis intracellular sodium-proton exchanger (NHX) proteins AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 have a well-documented role in plant development, and have been used to improve salt tolerance in a variety of species. Despite evidence that intracellular NHX proteins are important in vacuolar trafficking, the mechanism of this role is poorly understood. Here we show that NHX5 and NHX6 are necessary for processing of the predominant seed storage proteins, and also influence the processing and activity of a vacuolar processing enzyme. Furthermore, we show by yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) technology that the C-terminal tail of NHX6 interacts with a component of Retromer, another component of the cell sorting machinery, and that this tail is critical for NHX6 activity. These findings demonstrate that NHX5 and NHX6 are important in processing and activity of vacuolar cargo, and suggest a mechanism by which NHX intracellular (IC)-II antiporters may be involved in subcellular trafficking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Physiochemical, texture properties, and the microstructure of set yogurt using whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate aggregates as thickening agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Xie, Siyu; Yin, Yuan; Feng, Xianmin; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Mingruo; Ni, Chunlei

    2017-07-01

    Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate can be induced to gel in an acidic environment provided during fermentation. The variety of thickening agent has an influence on texture that is an essential aspect of yogurt quality affecting consumer preference. Similar to polysaccharide stabilizers, the cold gelation properties of whey proteins can improve the body texture of yogurt products. Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate could be a favorable and interesting thickening agent for making set yogurt. The effects of whey protein isolate (WPI), heat-treated whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate (WPI-STPP), heat-treated WPI and pectin on the storage properties and microstructure of yogurt were investigated. All samples were analyzed for syneresis, pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, texture profile and microstructure during storage. The results showed that incorporating heat-treated WPI-STPP had a significant impact on syneresis (32.22 ± 0.60), viscosity (10 956.67 ± 962.1) and hardness (209.24 ± 12.48) (p Yogurt fermented with modified WPI-STPP had higher levels of protein and better hardness compared with yogurt using pectin. The microstructure was observed to be a uniform and denser, complicated network. Heat-treated WPI-STPP may be useful for improving yogurt texture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Pretreatment with Sodium Phenylbutyrate Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Upregulating DJ-1 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play critical roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. DJ-1 is an endogenous antioxidant that attenuates oxidative stress and maintains mitochondrial function, likely acting as a protector of I/R injury. In the present study, we explored the protective effect of a possible DJ-1 agonist, sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB, against I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial dysfunction via the upregulation of DJ-1 protein. Pretreatment with SPB upregulated the DJ-1 protein level and rescued the I/R injury-induced DJ-1 decrease about 50% both in vivo and in vitro. SPB also improved cellular viability and mitochondrial function and alleviated neuronal apoptosis both in cell and animal models; these effects of SPB were abolished by DJ-1 knockdown with siRNA. Furthermore, SPB improved the survival rate about 20% and neurological functions, as well as reduced about 50% of the infarct volume and brain edema, of middle cerebral artery occlusion mice 23 h after reperfusion. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that preconditioning of SPB possesses a neuroprotective effect against cerebral I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial function dependent on the DJ-1 upregulation, suggesting that DJ-1 is a potential therapeutic target for clinical ischemic stroke.

  9. Pretreatment with Sodium Phenylbutyrate Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Upregulating DJ-1 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-Xin; Lei, Jie; Wang, Bo-Dong; Feng, Da-Yun; Huang, Lu; Li, Yu-Qian; Li, Tao; Zhu, Gang; Li, Chen; Lu, Fang-Fang; Nie, Tie-Jian; Gao, Guo-Dong; Gao, Li

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play critical roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. DJ-1 is an endogenous antioxidant that attenuates oxidative stress and maintains mitochondrial function, likely acting as a protector of I/R injury. In the present study, we explored the protective effect of a possible DJ-1 agonist, sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), against I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial dysfunction via the upregulation of DJ-1 protein. Pretreatment with SPB upregulated the DJ-1 protein level and rescued the I/R injury-induced DJ-1 decrease about 50% both in vivo and in vitro . SPB also improved cellular viability and mitochondrial function and alleviated neuronal apoptosis both in cell and animal models; these effects of SPB were abolished by DJ-1 knockdown with siRNA. Furthermore, SPB improved the survival rate about 20% and neurological functions, as well as reduced about 50% of the infarct volume and brain edema, of middle cerebral artery occlusion mice 23 h after reperfusion. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that preconditioning of SPB possesses a neuroprotective effect against cerebral I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial function dependent on the DJ-1 upregulation, suggesting that DJ-1 is a potential therapeutic target for clinical ischemic stroke.

  10. Enhanced Hydrophilicity and Protein Adsorption of Titanium Surface by Sodium Bicarbonate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a novel and convenient method of chemical treatment to modify the hydrophilicity of titanium surfaces. Sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA titanium surfaces and machined titanium surfaces were treated with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 solution. The wetting behavior of both kinds of surfaces was measured by water contact angle (WCA test. The surface microstructure was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D optical microscopy. The elemental compositions of the surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The protein adsorption analysis was performed with fibronectin. Results showed that, after 1 M NaHCO3 treatment, the hydrophilicity of both SLA and machined surfaces was enhanced. No significant microstructural change presented on titanium surfaces after NaHCO3 treatment. The deprotonation and ion exchange activities might cause the enhanced hydrophilicity of titanium surfaces. The increased protein adsorption of NaHCO3-treated SLA surfaces might indicate their improved tissue-integration in clinical use.

  11. Increased renal alpha-epithelial sodium channel (ENAC) protein and increased ENAC activity in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Crystal; Zhang, Zheng; Ecker, Geoffrey; Masilamani, Shyama M E

    2010-11-01

    Pregnancy-mediated sodium (Na) retention is required to provide an increase in plasma volume for the growing fetus. The mechanisms responsible for this Na retention are not clear. We first used a targeted proteomics approach and found that there were no changes in the protein abundance compared with virgin rats of the β or γ ENaC, type 3 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), bumetanide-sensitive cotransporter (NKCC2), or NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in mid- or late pregnancy. In contrast, we observed marked increases in the abundance of the α-ENaC subunit. The plasma volume increased progressively during pregnancy with the greatest plasma volume being evident in late pregnancy. ENaC inhibition abolished the difference in plasma volume status between virgin and pregnant rats. To determine the in vivo activity of ENaC, we conducted in vivo studies of rats in late pregnancy (days 18-20) and virgin rats to measure the natriuretic response to ENaC blockade (with benzamil). The in vivo activity of ENaC (U(Na)V postbenzamil-U(Na)V postvehicle) was markedly increased in late pregnancy, and this difference was abolished by pretreatment with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone. These findings demonstrate that the increased α-ENaC subunit of pregnancy is associated with an mineralocorticoid-dependent increase in ENaC activity. Further, we show that ENaC activity is a major contributor of plasma volume status in late pregnancy. These changes are likely to contribute to the renal sodium retention and plasma volume expansion required for an optimal pregnancy.

  12. Sodium Solute Symporter and Cadherin Proteins Act as Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba Toxin Functional Receptors in Tribolium castaneum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Estefanía; Schoppmeier, Michael; Real, M. Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins interact with proteins in the midgut of susceptible coleopteran insects is crucial to fully explain the molecular bases of Bt specificity and insecticidal action. In this work, aminopeptidase N (TcAPN-I), E-cadherin (TcCad1), and sodium solute symporter (TcSSS) have been identified by ligand blot as putative Cry3Ba toxin-binding proteins in Tribolium castaneum (Tc) larvae. RNA interference knockdown of TcCad1 or TcSSS proteins resulted in decreased susceptibility to Cry3Ba toxin, demonstrating the Cry toxin receptor functionality for these proteins. In contrast, TcAPN-I silencing had no effect on Cry3Ba larval toxicity, suggesting that this protein is not relevant in the Cry3Ba toxin mode of action in Tc. Remarkable features of TcSSS protein were the presence of cadherin repeats in its amino acid sequence and that a TcSSS peptide fragment containing a sequence homologous to a binding epitope found in Manduca sexta and Tenebrio molitor Bt cadherin functional receptors enhanced Cry3Ba toxicity. This is the first time that the involvement of a sodium solute symporter protein as a Bt functional receptor has been demonstrated. The role of this novel receptor in Bt toxicity against coleopteran insects together with the lack of receptor functionality of aminopeptidase N proteins might account for some of the differences in toxin specificity between Lepidoptera and Coleoptera insect orders. PMID:23645668

  13. Structural analysis of protein complexes with sodium alkyl sulfates by small-angle scattering and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospinal-Jiménez, Mónica; Pozzo, Danilo C

    2011-02-01

    Small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering is used to probe the structure of protein-surfactant complexes in solution and to correlate this information with their performance in gel electrophoresis. Proteins with sizes between 6.5 to 116 kDa are denatured with sodium alkyl sulfates (SC(x)S) of variable tail lengths. Several combinations of proteins and surfactants are analyzed to measure micelle radii, the distance between micelles, the extension of the complex, the radius of gyration, and the electrophoretic mobility. The structural characterization shows that most protein-surfactant complexes can be accurately described as pearl-necklace structures with spherical micelles. However, protein complexes with short surfactants (SC(8)S) bind with micelles that deviate significantly from spherical shape. Sodium decyl (SC(10)S) and dodecyl (SC(12)S, more commonly abbreviated as SDS) sulfates result in the best protein separations in standard gel electrophoresis. Particularly, SC(10)S shows higher resolutions for complexes of low molecular weight. The systematic characterization of alkyl sulfate surfactants demonstrates that changes in the chain architecture can significantly affect electrophoretic migration so that protein-surfactant structures could be optimized for high resolution protein separations.

  14. Obtención de carbón activado a partir de aserrín y carbón mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria E. Cardona

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Siendo el carbón activado un material extensamente utilizado en el control de la contaminación de las aguas, la purificación de azúcares, la recuperación de solventes, la manufactura de llantas, la elaboración de productos farmacéuticos, la refinación de productos alimenticios y aún como antítodo en casos de envenenamiento, y siendo demás un producto que se Importa en nuestro país, decidimos emprender la labor de preparar carbón activado a partir de materias primas baratas como aserrín, desechos de carbón mineral y CaCl2 y ZnCL2 (activantes. Fue así como preparamos varios carbones activados en polvo y granulares.

  15. Hydrogen bonds of sodium alginate/Antarctic krill protein composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Guo, Jing; Yu, Yue; An, Qingda; Wang, Liyan; Li, Shenglin; Huang, Xuelin; Mu, Siyang; Qi, Shanwei

    2016-05-20

    Sodium alginate/Antarctic krill protein composite material (SA/AKP) was successfully obtained by blending method. The hydrogen bonds of SA/AKP composite material were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectrum (HNMR). Experiment manifested the existence of intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in SA/AKP system; strength of intermolecular hydrogen bond enhanced with the increase of AKP in the composite material and the interaction strength of hydrogen bonding followed the order: OH…Ether O>OH…π>OH…N. The percentage of intermolecular hydrogen bond decreased with increase of pH. At the same time, the effect of hydrogen bonds on properties of the composite material was discussed. The increase of intermolecular hydrogen bonding led to the decrease of crystallinity, increase of apparent viscosity and surface tension, as well as obvious decrease of heat resistance of SA/AKP composite material. SA/AKP fiber SEM images and energy spectrum showed that crystallized salt was separated from the fiber, which possibly led to the fibrillation of the composite fibers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. RING finger protein 121 facilitates the degradation and membrane localization of voltage-gated sodium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Kazutoyo; Low, Sean E.; Yamada, Kenta; Saint-Amant, Louis; Zhou, Weibin; Muto, Akira; Asakawa, Kazuhide; Nakai, Junichi; Kawakami, Koichi; Kuwada, John Y.; Hirata, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Following their synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) are transported to the membranes of excitable cells, where they often cluster, such as at the axon initial segment of neurons. Although the mechanisms by which NaV channels form and maintain clusters have been extensively examined, the processes that govern their transport and degradation have received less attention. Our entry into the study of these processes began with the isolation of a new allele of the zebrafish mutant alligator, which we found to be caused by mutations in the gene encoding really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 121 (RNF121), an E3-ubiquitin ligase present in the ER and cis-Golgi compartments. Here we demonstrate that RNF121 facilitates two opposing fates of NaV channels: (i) ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and (ii) membrane localization when coexpressed with auxiliary NaVβ subunits. Collectively, these results indicate that RNF121 participates in the quality control of NaV channels during their synthesis and subsequent transport to the membrane. PMID:25691753

  17. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  18. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women stratified by hormone replacement therapy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a high-sodium, high-protein diet on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women ( aged 49 - 60 y) stratified by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a crossover trial, 18 women (n = 8 HRT users (+HRT) and n = 10 nonusers (-HRT)) were...... randomly assigned to a diet high in protein ( 90 g/day) and sodium (180 mmol/day) ( calciuric diet) or a diet moderate in protein ( 70 g/day) and low in sodium ( 65 mmol/day) for 4 weeks followed by crossover to alternative dietary regimen for a further 4 weeks. The calciuric diet significantly (P...

  19. Performing Isoelectric Focusing and Simultaneous Fractionation of Proteins on A Rotary Valve Followed by Sodium Dodecyl – Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Joann J.; Gu, Congying; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Shaorong

    2013-01-01

    In this technical note, we design and fabricate a novel rotary valve and demonstrate its feasibility for performing isoelectric focusing and simultaneous fractionation of proteins, followed by sodium dodecyl – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The valve has two positions. In one position, the valve routes a series of capillary loops together into a single capillary tube where capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) is performed. By switching the valve to another position, the CIEF-resolved proteins in all capillary loops are isolated simultaneously, and samples in the loops are removed and collected in vials. After the collected samples are briefly processed, they are separated via sodium dodecyl – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, the 2nd-D separation) on either a capillary gel electrophoresis instrument or a slab-gel system. The detailed valve configuration is illustrated, and the experimental conditions and operation protocols are discussed. PMID:23819755

  20. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional rescue of mutant ABCA1 proteins by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenson, Brie; Suetani, Rachel J; Williams, Michael J A; Bickley, Vivienne M; George, Peter M; Jones, Gregory T; McCormick, Sally P A

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) are a major cause of decreased HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), which infers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many ABCA1 mutants show impaired localization to the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chemical chaperone, sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) could improve cellular localization and function of ABCA1 mutants. Nine different ABCA1 mutants (p.A594T, p.I659V, p.R1068H, p.T1512M, p.Y1767D, p.N1800H, p.R2004K, p.A2028V, p.Q2239N) expressed in HEK293 cells, displaying different degrees of mislocalization to the plasma membrane and discrete impacts on cholesterol efflux, were subject to treatment with 4-PBA. Treatment restored localization to the plasma membrane and increased cholesterol efflux function for the majority of mutants. Treatment with 4-PBA also increased ABCA1 protein expression in all transfected cell lines. In fibroblast cells obtained from low HDL-C subjects expressing two of the ABCA1 mutants (p.R1068H and p.N1800H), 4-PBA increased cholesterol efflux without any increase in ABCA1 expression. Our study is the first to investigate the effect of the chemical chaperone, 4-PBA on ABCA1 and shows that it is capable of restoring plasma membrane localization and enhancing the cholesterol efflux function of mutant ABCA1s both in vitro and ex vivo. These results suggest 4-PBA may warrant further investigation as a potential therapy for increasing cholesterol efflux and HDL-C levels.

  2. [Studies of progestin specific binding protein in the human prostate. [III]; Sodium molybdate effect on SDG analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K; Kumasaka, F; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, Y; Takahashi, E; Yamanaka, H

    1985-08-20

    The effect of sodium molybdate on the specific binding protein (SBP) of synthetic progestin 17 alpha-methyl-[3H]-promegestone (R5020) in the cytosol of the human prostate was studied. In a sucrose density gradient analysis, two R5020 SBP components at 4S and 7-8S were observed. It was apparent that the 4S component was reduced and the 7-8S component increased with the addition of 10mM sodium molybdate into the cytosol. Therefore, the molybdate enhancement degree on total SBP amount (4S plus 7-8S) was decided by the relationship between the decreasing rate at 4S and the increasing one at 7-8S. It was shown that the molybdate effect was time-dependent and was not related to the SBP state, whether it was bounded with steroid or not. Moreover, it was estimated that the molybdate effect was not related to phosphatase inhibition since R5020 SBP in SDG was not enhanced by the addition of sodium fluoride which was a phosphatase inhibitor. In this report, the possibility of the existence of the 7-8S forming factor in the human prostate and the relationship between it and sodium molybdate was also discussed through an experiment on a Sephadex G-25.

  3. Lack of cortical endoplasmic reticulum protein Ist2 alters sodium accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papoušková, Klára; Andršová, Markéta; Sychrová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2017), č. článku fox011. ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14297 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * Ist2 * alkali-metal- cation homeostasis * sodium tolerance * sodium uptake * alkali-metal- cation transporters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Mycology Impact factor: 3.299, year: 2016

  4. Sodium modulates opioid receptors through a membrane component different from G-proteins. Demonstration by target size analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.; Costa, T.; Herz, A.

    1988-01-01

    The target size for opioid receptor binding was studied after manipulations known to affect the interactions between receptor and GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins). Addition of GTP or its analogs to the binding reaction, exposure of intact cells to pertussis toxin prior to irradiation, or treatment of irradiated membranes with N-ethylmaleimide did not change the target size (approximately equal to 100 kDa) for opioid receptors in NG 108-15 cells and rat brain. These data suggest that the 100-kDa species does not include an active subunit of a G-protein or alternatively that GTP does not promote the dissociation of the receptor-G-protein complex. The presence of Na+ (100 mM) in the radioligand binding assay induced a biphasic decay curve for agonist binding and a flattening of the monoexponential decay curve for a partial agonist. In both cases the effect was explained by an irradiation-induced loss of the low affinity state of the opioid receptor produced by the addition of Na+. This suggests that an allosteric inhibitor that mediates the effect of sodium on the receptor is destroyed at low doses of irradiation, leaving receptors which are no longer regulated by sodium. The effect of Na+ on target size was slightly increased by the simultaneous addition of GTP but was not altered by pertussis toxin treatment. Thus, the sodium unit is distinct from G-proteins and may represent a new component of the opioid receptor complex. Assuming a simple bimolecular model of one Na+ unit/receptor, the size of this inhibitor can be measured as 168 kDa

  5. Cross-linking proteins by laccase: Effects on the droplet size and rheology of emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A C K; Perrechil, F A; Costa, A A S; Santana, R C; Cunha, R L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of laccase and ferulic acid on the characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate at different pH (3, 5 and 7). Emulsions were prepared by high pressure homogenization of soybean oil with sodium caseinate solution containing varied concentrations of laccase (0, 1 and 5mg/mL) and ferulic acid (5 and 10mM). Laccase treatment and pH exerted a strong influence on the properties with a consequent effect on stability, structure and rheology of emulsions stabilized by Na-caseinate. At pH7, O/W emulsions were kinetically stable due to the negative protein charge which enabled electrostatic repulsion between oil droplets resulting in an emulsion with small droplet size, low viscosity, pseudoplasticity and viscoelastic properties. The laccase treatment led to emulsions showing shear-thinning behavior as a result of a more structured system. O/W emulsions at pH5 and 3 showed phase separation due to the proximity to protein pI, but the laccase treatment improved their stability of emulsions especially at pH3. At pH3, the addition of ferulic acid and laccase produced emulsions with larger droplet size but with narrower droplet size distribution, increased viscosity, pseudoplasticity and viscoelastic properties (gel-like behavior). Comparing laccase treatments, the combined addition of laccase and ferulic acid generally produced emulsions with lower stability (pH5), larger droplet size (pH3, 5 and 7) and higher pseudoplasticity (pH5 and 7) than emulsion with only ferulic acid. The results suggested that the cross-linking of proteins by laccase and ferulic acid improved protein emulsifying properties by changing functional mechanisms of the protein on emulsion structure and rheology, showing that sodium caseinate can be successfully used in acid products when treated with laccase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radioiodination of surface proteins of bull spermatozoa and their characterization by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierula, M.

    1980-01-01

    Surface proteins of ejaculated bull spermatozoa were radioiodinated using Ma 125 I, solubilized and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The electron microscopic autoradiographs showed that the labelling was equally distributed to all parts of the spermatozoon and restricted to the sperm surface. The electrophoresis of solubilized radioactivity revealed 6 radioactive fractions with approximate molecular weights of 67 000-69 000, 47 000-50 000, 34 000-37 000, 25 000-28 000 and 14 000-16 000. The 6th fraction probably represented labelled lipids. The electrophoresis of radioiodinated seminal plasma proteins revealed only 2 radioactive protein peaks which coincided with the sperm surface protein fractions IV and V. (author)

  7. Sodium appetite elicited by low-sodium diet is dependent on p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activation in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, L R N; Marangon, P B; Elias, L L K; Reis, L C; Antunes-Rodrigues, J; Mecawi, A S

    2017-09-01

    Sodium appetite is regulated by several signalling molecules, among which angiotensin II (Ang II) serves as a key driver of robust salt intake by binding to Ang II type 1 receptors (AT1R) in several regions in the brain. The activation of these receptors recruits the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which has previously been linked to Ang II-induced increases in sodium appetite. Thus, we addressed the involvement of MAPK signalling in the induction of sodium appetite after 4 days of low-sodium diet consumption. An increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the laminae terminalis and mediobasal hypothalamus was observed after low-sodium diet consumption. This response was reduced by i.c.v. microinjection of an AT1R antagonist into the laminae terminalis but not the hypothalamus. This result indicates that low-sodium diet consumption activates the MAPK pathway via Ang II/AT1R signalling on the laminae terminalis. On the other hand, activation of the MAPK pathway in the mediobasal hypothalamus after low-sodium diet consumption appears to involve another extracellular mediator. We also evaluated whether a low-sodium diet could increase the sensitivity for Ang II in the brain and activate the MAPK pathway. However, i.c.v. injection of Ang II increased ERK phosphorylation on the laminae terminalis and mediobasal hypothalamus; this increase achieved a response magnitude similar to those observed in both the normal and low-sodium diet groups. These data indicate that low-sodium diet consumption for 4 days is insufficient to change the ERK phosphorylation response to Ang II in the brain. To investigate whether the MAPK pathway is involved in sodium appetite after low-sodium diet consumption, we performed i.c.v. microinjections of a MAPK pathway inhibitor (PD98059). PD98059 inhibited both saline and water intake after low-sodium diet consumption. Thus, the MAPK pathway is involved in promoting the sodium appetite after low-sodium

  8. Effects of montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod on acute phase protein and immune function in children with acute bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod on acute phase protein (APP and indexes of immunologic function in pediatric acute bronchitis treatment. Methods: A total of 180 cases children with acute bronchitis acted as research objects were randomly divided into control group (n=65 and observation group (n=63. On the basis of conventional therapy, control group was treated by plus pidotimod. On this base, observation group was treated with montelukast sodium. The changes of acute phase proteins (CRP, HP, a1-AAG and CER and immune function (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+ levels before and after treatment were observed after 2 months. Results: Before treatment, CRP, HP, a1-AAG, CER, CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+ levels of two groups had no statistically significant difference; CRP, HP, a1-AAG, CER, and CD8+ levels of control and observation groups decreased significantly after treatment, the decreases of observation group were more obvious than that of control group, and the levels after treatment were significantly lower than that of control groups. The levels of CD3+ , CD4+ and CD4+ /CD8+ in two groups after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment. For observation group, the levels of CD3+ , CD4+ and CD4+ /CD8+ increased more significantly after treatment, which were significantly higher than that of the control group. Conclusion: Using Montelukast sodium combined with pidotimod can effectively reduce the children's acute phase protein levels, improve immune function, which has clinical value for the treatment of children with acute bronchitis.

  9. Metabolic responses of healthy or prediabetic adults to bovine whey protein and sodium caseinate do not differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefle, Anja S; Bangert, Adina M; Stamfort, Adelmar; Gedrich, Kurt; Rist, Manuela J; Lee, Yu-Mi; Skurk, Thomas; Daniel, Hannelore

    2015-03-01

    Casein is considered a slowly digestible protein compared with whey protein, and this may cause differences in hormone responses and the kinetics of delivering amino acids into the circulation. We investigated whether postprandial plasma hormone and metabolite responses were different when bovine casein or whey protein was co-administered with carbohydrates in healthy and prediabetic adults. White healthy male adults (n = 15) and white, well-defined male and female prediabetic adults (n = 15) received test drinks randomly on 3 different occasions at least 2 d apart which contained 50 g of maltodextrin19 (MD19) alone or in combination with 50 g of whey protein isolate (WPI) or 50 g of sodium caseinate (SC). Blood samples were collected over a 240-min time period and were analyzed for hormone profiles and defined metabolites. No evidence was found that gastric emptying was different between the 2 protein drinks. Both proteins increased peak plasma insulin concentrations in prediabetic persons by 96% compared with MD19 (each, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by a reduction of peak venous blood glucose by 21% (each, P < 0.0001) without a difference between the 2 proteins. Peak plasma glucagon concentrations increased by 101% in both groups after the protein drinks (P < 0.05). The WPI drink also increased peak plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy volunteers by 56% (P < 0.01). Differences in plasma metabolite concentrations in volunteers could be attributed exclusively to the differences in the amino acid composition of the 2 proteins ingested. The WPI and the SC drinks similarly reduced postprandial glucose excursions when ingested with carbohydrates in healthy and prediabetic volunteers. Under our experimental conditions, however, no evidence was found that gastrointestinal processing of the 2 protein varieties differed substantially. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as DRKS00005682. © 2015 American Society for

  10. Cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 distribution in myocytes via interacting proteins: the multiple pool model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Diana; Gillet, Ludovic; Abriel, Hugues

    2013-04-01

    The cardiac sodium current (INa) is responsible for the rapid depolarization of cardiac cells, thus allowing for their contraction. It is also involved in regulating the duration of the cardiac action potential (AP) and propagation of the impulse throughout the myocardium. Cardiac INa is generated by the voltage-gated Na(+) channel, NaV1.5, a 2016-residue protein which forms the pore of the channel. Over the past years, hundreds of mutations in SCN5A, the human gene coding for NaV1.5, have been linked to many cardiac electrical disorders, including the congenital and acquired long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, conduction slowing, sick sinus syndrome, atrial fibrillation, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Similar to many membrane proteins, NaV1.5 has been found to be regulated by several interacting proteins. In some cases, these different proteins, which reside in distinct membrane compartments (i.e. lateral membrane vs. intercalated disks), have been shown to interact with the same regulatory domain of NaV1.5, thus suggesting that several pools of NaV1.5 channels may co-exist in cardiac cells. The aim of this review article is to summarize the recent works that demonstrate its interaction with regulatory proteins and illustrate the model that the sodium channel NaV1.5 resides in distinct and different pools in cardiac cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alteration of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rabbit ciliary processes by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamere, N.A.; Socci, R.R.; King, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    The response of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase was examined in membranes obtained from rabbit iris-ciliary body. In the presence of the protein kinase together with 10(-5) M cAMP, Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced. No change in Na,K-ATPase activity was detected in response to the protein kinase without added cAMP. Likewise cAMP alone did not alter Na,K-ATPase activity. Reduction of Na,K-ATPase activity was also observed in the presence of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The response of the enzyme to the kinase catalytic subunit was also examined in membranes obtained from rabbit ciliary processes. In the presence of 8 micrograms/ml of the catalytic subunit, ciliary process Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced by more than 50%. To examine whether other ATPases were suppressed by the protein kinase, calcium-stimulated ATPase activity was examined; its activity was stimulated by the catalytic subunit. To test whether the response of the ciliary process Na,K-ATPase is unique, experiments were also performed using membrane preparations from rabbit lens epithelium or rabbit kidney; the catalytic subunit significantly reduced the activity of Na,K-ATPase from the kidney but not the lens. These Na,K-ATPase studies suggest that in the iris-ciliary body, cAMP may alter sodium pump activity. In parallel 86Rb uptake studies, we observed that ouabain-inhibitable potassium uptake by intact pieces of iris-ciliary body was reduced by exogenous dibutryl cAMP or by forskolin

  12. Evaluación del cuesco de palma africana y del carbón del cerrejón para producir carbón activado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anundo Polanía León

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Se produjeron carbones activados a partir de carbón de El Cerrejón y del Cuesco de Palma Africana mediante activación con vapor de agua y KOH, a 700 y 800 ó 900°C variando la relación activante/carbonizado y el tiempo de activación. Los tiempos de activación a los que se desarrolla mayor área superficial son mucho más cortos con el vapor de agua que con el KOH. Al activar con este último se obtienen valores de área superficial similares errlas dos materias primas, según la temperatura de trabajo, mientras que la activación con vapor de agua, presenta características totalmente diferentes. La activación del Cuesco de Palma Africana con KOH, produce carbones esencialmente microporosos, mientras que con vapor de agua, produce carbones activados con una apreciable mesoporosidad favorecida por el incremento de la temperatura. La activación del carbón de El Cerrejón con KOH o vapor de agua produce carbones activados microporosos. En líneas generales se puede decir que el tipo de textura porosa obtenida en la producción de un carbón activado, es función no sólo de los agentes activantes utilizados, sino también del tipo u origen de la materia prima, mientras que la calidad del carbón activado, (área superficial total, es función del tiempo y de la temperatura de activación, al menos con los materiales de partida usados en este trabajo.

  13. Quantification of protein thiols and dithiols in the picomolar range using sodium borohydride and 4,4'-dithiodipyridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa E; Østergaard, Henrik; Nørgaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    Experimental determination of the number of thiols in a protein requires methodology that combines high sensitivity and reproducibility with low intrinsic thiol oxidation disposition. In detection of disulfide bonds, it is also necessary to efficiently reduce disulfides and to quantify...... the liberated thiols. Ellman's reagent (5,5'-dithiobis-[2-nitrobenzoic acid], DTNB) is the most widely used reagent for quantification of protein thiols, whereas dithiothreitol (DTT) is commonly used for disulfide reduction. DTNB suffers from a relatively low sensitivity, whereas DTT reduction is inconvenient...... sodium borohydride and the thiol reagent 4,4'-dithiodipyridine (4-DPS). Because borohydride is efficiently destroyed by the addition of acid, the complete reduction and quantification can be performed conveniently in one tube without desalting steps. Furthermore, the use of reverse-phase high...

  14. Interactions Between Flavonoid-Rich Extracts and Sodium Caseinate Modulate Protein Functionality and Flavonoid Bioaccessibility in Model Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Jennifer L; Li, Min; Jones, Owen G; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2018-05-01

    With growing interest in formulating new food products with added protein and flavonoid-rich ingredients for health benefits, direct interactions between these ingredient classes becomes critical in so much as they may impact protein functionality, product quality, and flavonoids bioavailability. In this study, sodium caseinate (SCN)-based model products (foams and emulsions) were formulated with grape seed extract (GSE, rich in galloylated flavonoids) and green tea extract (GTE, rich in nongalloylated flavonoids), respectively, to assess changes in functional properties of SCN and impacts on flavonoid bioaccessibility. Experiments with pure flavonoids suggested that galloylated flavonoids reduced air-water interfacial tension of 0.01% SCN dispersions more significantly than nongalloylated flavonoids at high concentrations (>50 μg/mL). This observation was supported by changes in stability of 5% SCN foam, which showed that foam stability was increased at high levels of GSE (≥50 μg/mL, P < 0.05) but was not affected by GTE. However, flavonoid extracts had modest effects on SCN emulsion. In addition, galloylated flavonoids had higher bioaccessibility in both SCN foam and emulsion. These results suggest that SCN-flavonoid binding interactions can modulate protein functionality leading to difference in performance and flavonoid bioaccessibility of protein-based products. As information on the beneficial health effects of flavonoids expands, it is likely that usage of these ingredients in consumer foods will increase. However, the necessary levels to provide such benefits may exceed those that begin to impact functionality of the macronutrients such as proteins. Flavonoid inclusion within protein matrices may modulate protein functionality in a food system and modify critical consumer traits or delivery of these beneficial plant-derived components. The product matrices utilized in this study offer relevant model systems to evaluate how fortification with flavonoid

  15. National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Nelson; Timothy Carr

    2009-03-31

    This annual and final report describes the results of the multi-year project entitled 'NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)' (http://www.natcarb.org). The original project assembled a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) in the midcontinent of the United States (MIDCARB) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) geologic sequestration. The NatCarb system built on the technology developed in the initial MIDCARB effort. The NatCarb project linked the GIS information of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project includes access to national databases and GIS layers maintained by the NatCarb group (e.g., brine geochemistry) and publicly accessible servers (e.g., USGS, and Geography Network) into a single system where data are maintained and enhanced at the local level, but are accessed and assembled through a single Web portal to facilitate query, assembly, analysis and display. This project improves the flow of data across servers and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project worked to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO{sub 2} carbon capture and storage data through a single website portal (http://www.natcarb.org/). While the external

  16. Detection of protein kinase activity by renaturation in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anostario, M. Jr.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a procedure for identifying protein kinase activity in protein samples following electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins are allowed to renature directly in the gel by removal of detergent. The gel is then incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP to allow renatured protein kinases to autophosphorylate or to phosphorylate various substrates which can be incorporated into the gel. The positions of the radiolabeled proteins can then be detected by autoradiography. With this technique, using purified catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, enzyme concentrations as low as 0.01 μg can be detected on gels containing 1.0 mg/ml casein. The procedure is also applicable for the determination of active subunits of multisubunit protein kinases. For example, when the two subunits of casein kinase II are separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and allowed to renature, only the larger α subunit shows activity. This procedure can also be used to detect and distinguish kinases present in heterogeneous mixtures. Starting with a particulate fraction from LSTRA, a murine T cell lymphoma, several distinct enzymes were detected, including a 30,000 Dalton protein with protein-tyrosine kinase activity. This same enzyme has also been detected in T lymphocytes and other T lymphoid cell lines

  17. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) - A Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb Aldrich; Lois Arena; Dianne Griffiths; Srikanth Puttagunta; David Springer

    2010-12-31

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) (http://www.carb-swa.com/), one of the 'Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership' Industry Teams, for the period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. The Building America Program (BAP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program (BTP). The long term goal of the BAP is to develop cost effective, production ready systems in five major climate zones that will result in zero energy homes (ZEH) that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis by 2020. CARB is led by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. with Davis Energy Group, Inc. (DEG), MaGrann Associates, and Johnson Research, LLC as team members. In partnership with our numerous builders and industry partners, work was performed in three primary areas - advanced systems research, prototype home development, and technical support for communities of high performance homes. Our advanced systems research work focuses on developing a better understanding of the installed performance of advanced technology systems when integrated in a whole-house scenario. Technology systems researched included: - High-R Wall Assemblies - Non-Ducted Air-Source Heat Pumps - Low-Load HVAC Systems - Solar Thermal Water Heating - Ventilation Systems - Cold-Climate Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps - Hot/Dry Climate Air-to-Water Heat Pump - Condensing Boilers - Evaporative condensers - Water Heating CARB continued to support several prototype home projects in the design and specification phase. These projects are located in all five program climate regions and most are targeting greater than 50% source energy savings over the Building America Benchmark home. CARB provided technical support and developed builder project case studies to be included in near-term Joule Milestone reports for the following community scale projects: - SBER Overlook at

  18. Performance of a geostationary mission, geoCARB, to measure CO2, CH4 and CO column-averaged concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Polonsky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available GeoCARB is a proposed instrument to measure column averaged concentrations of CO2, CH4 and CO from geostationary orbit using reflected sunlight in near-infrared absorption bands of the gases. The scanning options, spectral channels and noise characteristics of geoCARB and two descope options are described. The accuracy of concentrations from geoCARB data is investigated using end-to-end retrievals; spectra at the top of the atmosphere in the geoCARB bands are simulated with realistic trace gas profiles, meteorology, aerosol, cloud and surface properties, and then the concentrations of CO2, CH4 and CO are estimated from the spectra after addition of noise characteristic of geoCARB. The sensitivity of the algorithm to aerosol, the prior distributions assumed for the gases and the meteorology are investigated. The contiguous spatial sampling and fine temporal resolution of geoCARB open the possibility of monitoring localised sources such as power plants. Simulations of emissions from a power plant with a Gaussian plume are conducted to assess the accuracy with which the emission strength may be recovered from geoCARB spectra. Scenarios for "clean" and "dirty" power plants are examined. It is found that a reliable estimate of the emission rate is possible, especially for power plants that have particulate filters, by averaging emission rates estimated from multiple snapshots of the CO2 field surrounding the plant. The result holds even in the presence of partial cloud cover.

  19. Influence of sodium nitrite on protein oxidation and nitrosation of sausages subjected to processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xianchao; Li, Chenyi; Jia, Xu; Guo, Yan; Lei, Na; Hackman, Robert M; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The influence of NaNO2 content on protein oxidation and nitrosation was investigated in cooked sausages at different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg NaNO2/kg). Dependent on concentration, NaNO2 had both anti- and pro-oxidant effects on protein oxidation. The antioxidant effects of NaNO2 on the protein oxidation were evidenced by significantly lower carbonyl contents, higher free amines and lower surface hydrophobicities. The pro-oxidant effects of NaNO2 on protein oxidation resulted in a decrease of sulfhydryls and an increase of disulfide bonds. NaNO2 also improved the protein nitrosation inducing the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). Moreover, 3-NT had significant correlations with parameters of protein oxidation, indicating that 3-NT may be a possible marker for protein oxidation. Results of this study contribute to an understanding of the impact of NaNO2 on food quality and help to identify optimal formulations of cured meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical conversion of cisplatin and carboplatin with histidine in a model protein crystallized under sodium iodide conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanley, Simon W. M.; Helliwell, John R., E-mail: john.helliwell@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-29

    Crystals of HEWL with cisplatin and HEWL with carboplatin grown in sodium iodide conditions both show a partial chemical transformation of cisplatin or carboplatin to a transiodoplatin (PtI{sub 2}X{sub 2}) form. The binding is only at the N{sup δ} atom of His15. A further Pt species (PtI{sub 3}X) is also seen, in both cases bound in a crevice between symmetry-related protein molecules. Cisplatin and carboplatin are platinum anticancer agents that are used to treat a variety of cancers. Previous X-ray crystallographic studies of carboplatin binding to histidine in hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) showed a partial chemical conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin owing to the high sodium chloride concentration used in the crystallization conditions. Also, the co-crystallization of HEWL with carboplatin in sodium bromide conditions resulted in the partial conversion of carboplatin to the transbromoplatin form, with a portion of the cyclobutanedicarboxylate (CBDC) moiety still present. The results of the co-crystallization of HEWL with cisplatin or carboplatin in sodium iodide conditions are now reported in order to determine whether the cisplatin and carboplatin converted to the iodo form, and whether this took place in a similar way to the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin in NaCl conditions or to transbromoplatin in NaBr conditions as seen previously. It is reported here that a partial chemical transformation has taken place to a transplatin form for both ligands. The NaI-grown crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The chemically transformed cisplatin and carboplatin bind to both His15 residues, i.e. in each asymmetric unit. The binding is only at the N{sup δ} atom of His15. A third platinum species is also seen in both conditions bound in a crevice between symmetry-related molecules. Here, the platinum is bound to three I atoms identified based on their anomalous difference electron densities

  1. Determination of protein by resonance light scattering technique using dithiothreitol-sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate as probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihang; Mu, Dan; Gao, Dejiang; Deng, Xinyu; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2009-02-01

    The resonance light scattering (RLS) spectra of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-dithiothreitol (DTT)-sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (SDBS) and its analytical application were investigated. The RLS intensity of this system can be effectively enhanced in the presence of BSA. Based on the enhanced RLS intensity, a simple assay for BSA was developed. The experimental results indicate that the enhanced RLS intensity is proportional to the concentration of BSA in the range from 1.0 × 10 -8 to 7.5 × 10 -7 mol L -1 with the determination limit of 5.0 × 10 -9 mol L -1. The effects of pH, concentration of SDBS and DTT on the RLS enhancement were discussed. Most metal ions have little interference on the determination of BSA. Some synthetic and real samples were analyzed, and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by Bradford method.

  2. Microstructural, textural, and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurts fortified with sodium calcium caseinate or whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalın, A S; Unal, G; Dinkci, N; Hayaloglu, A A

    2012-07-01

    The influence of milk protein-based ingredients on the textural characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of probiotic yogurt during a refrigerated storage period of 28 d was studied. Milk was fortified with 2% (wt/vol) skim milk powder as control, 2% (wt/vol) sodium calcium caseinate (SCaCN), 2% (wt/vol) whey protein concentrate (WPC) or a blend of 1% (wt/vol) SCaCN and 1% (wt/vol) WPC. A commercial yogurt starter culture and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 as probiotic bacteria were used for the production. The fortification with SCaCN improved the firmness and adhesiveness. Higher values of viscosity were also obtained in probiotic yogurts with SCaCN during storage. However, WPC enhanced water-holding capacity more than the caseinate. Addition of SCaCN resulted in a coarse, smooth, and more compact protein network; however, WPC gave finer and bunched structures in the scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The use of SCaCN decreased texture scores in probiotic yogurt; probably due to the lower water-holding capacity and higher syneresis values in the caseinate-added yogurt sample. Therefore, the textural characteristics of probiotic yogurts improved depending on the ingredient variety. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of sodium nitrite on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in anaesthetized dogs: is protein S-nitrosylation involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Kovács

    Full Text Available To provide evidence for the protective role of inorganic nitrite against acute ischaemia and reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias in a large animal model.Dogs, anaesthetized with chloralose and urethane, were administered intravenously with sodium nitrite (0.2 µmol kg(-1 min(-1 in two protocols. In protocol 1 nitrite was infused 10 min prior to and during a 25 min occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery (NaNO2-PO; n = 14, whereas in protocol 2 the infusion was started 10 min prior to reperfusion of the occluded vessel (NaNO2-PR; n = 12. Control dogs (n = 15 were infused with saline and subjected to the same period of ischaemia and reperfusion. Severities of ischaemia and ventricular arrhythmias, as well as changes in plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx levels in the coronary sinus blood, were assessed throughout the experiment. Myocardial superoxide and nitrotyrosine (NT levels were determined during reperfusion. Changes in protein S-nitrosylation (SNO and S-glutathionylation were also examined.Compared with controls, sodium nitrite administered either pre-occlusion or pre-reperfusion markedly suppressed the number and severity of ventricular arrhythmias during occlusion and increased survival (0% vs. 50 and 92% upon reperfusion. There were also significant decreases in superoxide and NT levels in the nitrite treated dogs. Compared with controls, increased SNO was found only in NaNO2-PR dogs, whereas S-glutathionylation occurred primarily in NaNO2-PO dogs.Intravenous infusion of nitrite profoundly reduced the severity of ventricular arrhythmias resulting from acute ischaemia and reperfusion in anaesthetized dogs. This effect, among several others, may result from an NO-mediated reduction in oxidative stress, perhaps through protein SNO and/or S-glutathionylation.

  4. Quantification and rationalization of the higher affinity of sodium over potassium to protein surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbka, Luboš; Vondrášek, Jiří; Jagoda-Cwiklik, Barbara; Vácha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 42 (2006), 15440-15444 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC512; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400400503; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1727; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/05/H001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ion-protein interaction * molecular dynamics * cell environment * protein function Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.643, year: 2006

  5. Toma de decisiones mediante metodología multicriterio (carbón nacional y seguridad energética)

    OpenAIRE

    Cansado Bravo, Pablo; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Este artículo investiga la viabilidad de alternativas a largo plazo del carbón español a través de un proceso MCDM (Toma de decisiones multicriterio). La principal contribución de esta investigación es doble. En primer lugar, evaluar el comportamiento a largo plazo de los yacimientos de carbón existentes en España utilizando la metodología MAUT dentro de tres ámbitos de competencia diferenciados: ubicación geográfica, tecnología minera del carbón y tipo de carbón. En segundo lugar, evalúa las...

  6. The substrate-binding protein imposes directionality on an electrochemical sodium gradient-driven TRAP transporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, Christopher; Geertsma, Eric R.; Severi, Emmanuele; Kelly, David J.; Poolman, Bert; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2009-01-01

    Substrate-binding protein-dependent secondary transporters are widespread in prokaryotes and are represented most frequently by members of the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporter family. Here, we report the membrane reconstitution of a TRAP transporter, the sialic acid-specific

  7. The NatCarb geoportal: Linking distributed data from the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.R.; Rich, P.M.; Bartley, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships are generating the data for a "carbon atlas" of key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential sinks, etc.) required for rapid implementation of carbon sequestration on a broad scale. The NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb) provides Web-based, nation-wide data access. Distributed computing solutions link partnerships and other publicly accessible repositories of geological, geophysical, natural resource, infrastructure, and environmental data. Data are maintained and enhanced locally, but assembled and accessed through a single geoportal. NatCarb, as a first attempt at a national carbon cyberinfrastructure (NCCI), assembles the data required to address technical and policy challenges of carbon capture and storage. We present a path forward to design and implement a comprehensive and successful NCCI. ?? 2007 The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of corn protein hydrolysate and sodium caseinate stabilized curcumin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Yang; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Jin-Mei; Guo, Jian; Lin, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this work were to construct corn protein hydrolysate (CPH)-based curcumin nanoparticles (Cur NPs) and to compare the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of the Cur NPs stabilized CPH and sodium caseinate (NaCas) respectively. The results indicated that Cur solubility could be considerably improved after the Cur NPs fabrication. The spectroscopy results demonstrated that the solubilization of Cur should be attributed to its complexation with CPH or NaCas. The Cur NPs exhibited good colloidal stability after 1 week's storage but showed smaller (40 nm) size in CPH than in NaCas (100 nm). After lyophilization, the Cur NPs powders showed good rehydration properties and chemical stability, and compared with NaCas, the size of Cur NPs stabilized by CPH was still smaller. Additionally, the Cur NPs exhibited higher chemical stability against the temperature compared with free Cur, and the CPH could protect Cur from degradation more efficiently. Comparing with NaCas, the Cur NPs stabilized by CPH exhibited better bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that CPH may be better than NaCas in Cur NPs fabrication and it opens up the possibility of using hydrophobic protein hydrolysate to construct the NPs delivery system.

  9. Rab27a regulates epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity through synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 effector mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Sunil K.; Horiuchi, Hisanori; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2006-01-01

    Liddle's syndrome (excessive absorption of sodium ions) and PHA-1 (pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1) with decreased sodium absorption are caused by the mutations in the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel ENaC. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in vesicle transport, docking, and fusion. Earlier, we reported that Rab27a inhibits ENaC-mediated currents through protein-protein interaction in HT-29 cells. We hereby report that Rab27a-dependent inhibition is associated with the GTP/GDP status as constitutively active or GTPase-deficient mutant Q78L inhibits amiloride-sensitive currents whereas GDP-locked inactive mutant T23N showed no effect. In order to further explore the molecular mechanism of this regulation, we performed competitive assays with two Rab27a-binding proteins: synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 (a putative priming factor for exocytosis). Both proteins eliminate negative modulation of Rab27a on ENaC function. The SLP-5 reversal of Rab27a effect was restricted to C-terminal C2A/C2B domains assigned for putative phospholipids-binding function while the Rab27a-binding SHD motif imparted higher inhibition. The ENaC-mediated currents remain unaffected by Rab27a though SLP-5 appears to strongly bind it. The immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that in the presence of excessive Munc13-4 and SLP-5 proteins, Rab27a interaction with ENaC is diminished. Munc13-4 and SLP-5 limit the Rab27a availability to ENaC, thus minimizing its effect on channel function. These observations decisively prove that Rab27a inhibits ENaC function through a complex mechanism that involves GTP/GDP status, and protein-protein interactions involving Munc13-4 and SLP-5 effector proteins

  10. Bromodomain-containing Protein 4 Activates Voltage-gated Sodium Channel 1.7 Transcription in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons to Mediate Thermal Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Ho, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Cheng-Yuan; Wang, Hsueh-Hsiao; Lee, An-Sheng; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Chau, Yat-Pang; Peng, Hsien-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Bromodomain-containing protein 4 binds acetylated promoter histones and promotes transcription; however, the role of bromodomain-containing protein 4 in inflammatory hyperalgesia remains unclear. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received hind paw injections of complete Freund's adjuvant to induce hyperalgesia. The dorsal root ganglia were examined to detect changes in bromodomain-containing protein 4 expression and the activation of genes involved in the expression of voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7, which is a key pain-related ion channel. The intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant injections resulted in thermal hyperalgesia (4.0 ± 1.5 s; n = 7). The immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting results demonstrated an increase in the bromodomain-containing protein 4-expressing dorsal root ganglia neurons (3.78 ± 0.38 fold; n = 7) and bromodomain-containing protein 4 protein levels (2.62 ± 0.39 fold; n = 6). After the complete Freund's adjuvant injection, histone H3 protein acetylation was enhanced in the voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 promoter, and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 and phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II were recruited to this area. Furthermore, the voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7-mediated currents were enhanced in neurons of the complete Freund's adjuvant rats (55 ± 11 vs. 19 ± 9 pA/pF; n = 4 to 6 neurons). Using bromodomain-containing protein 4-targeted antisense small interfering RNA to the complete Freund's adjuvant-treated rats, the authors demonstrated a reduction in the expression of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (0.68 ± 0.16 fold; n = 7), a reduction in thermal hyperalgesia (7.5 ± 1.5 s; n = 7), and a reduction in the increased voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 currents (21 ± 4 pA/pF; n = 4 to 6 neurons). Complete Freund's adjuvant triggers enhanced bromodomain-containing protein 4 expression, ultimately leading to the enhanced excitability of nociceptive neurons and thermal hyperalgesia. This effect is

  11. Sodium Phenylbutyrate Enhances Astrocytic Neurotrophin Synthesis via Protein Kinase C (PKC)-mediated Activation of cAMP-response Element-binding Protein (CREB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Grant T.; Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are believed to be genuine molecular mediators of neuronal growth and homeostatic synapse activity. However, levels of these neurotrophic factors decrease in different brain regions of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Induction of astrocytic neurotrophin synthesis is a poorly understood phenomenon but represents a plausible therapeutic target because neuronal neurotrophin production is aberrant in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we delineate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), a Food and Drug Administration-approved oral medication for hyperammonemia, induces astrocytic BDNF and NT-3 expression via the protein kinase C (PKC)-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. NaPB treatment increased the direct association between PKC and CREB followed by phosphorylation of CREB (Ser133) and induction of DNA binding and transcriptional activation of CREB. Up-regulation of markers for synaptic function and plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons by NaPB-treated astroglial supernatants and its abrogation by anti-TrkB blocking antibody suggest that NaPB-induced astroglial neurotrophins are functionally active. Moreover, oral administration of NaPB increased the levels of BDNF and NT-3 in the CNS and improved spatial learning and memory in a mouse model of AD. Our results highlight a novel neurotrophic property of NaPB that may be used to augment neurotrophins in the CNS and improve synaptic function in disease states such as AD. PMID:23404502

  12. Evaluation of some residual bioactivities of microencapsulated Phaseolus lunatus protein fraction with carboxymethylated flamboyant (Delonix regia gum/sodium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukthar Sandovai-Peraza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown the beneficial effect of peptides, an unexploited source could be Phaseolus lunatus being an important raw material for those functional products in order to improve their utilization. In addition to improve the beneficial effect of bioactive peptides the microencapsulation could be a way to protect the peptides against the environment to which they are exposed. P. lunatus protein fraction (<10 kDa of weight was encapsulated using a blend of carboxymethylated flamboyant gum (CFG and sodium alginate (SA at different concentrations of CaCl2 and hardening times. After in vitro digestion of microcapsules the residual activity, in the intestinal system, both inhibition of agiotensin-converting enzyme (I-ACE and antioxidant activity obtained were in a range of 0.019-0.136 mg/mL and 570.64-813.54 mM of TEAC respectively. The microencapsulation employed CFG/SA blends could be used controlled delivery of peptide fractions with potential use as a nutraceutical or therapeutic agents.

  13. A national look at carbon capture and storage-National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.R.; Iqbal, A.; Callaghan, N.; ,; Look, K.; Saving, S.; Nelson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are responsible for generating geospatial data for the maps displayed in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. Key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential storage sites, transportation, land use, etc.) are required for the Atlas, and for efficient implementation of carbon sequestration on a national and regional scale. The National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographical Information System (NatCarb) is a relational database and geographic information system (GIS) that integrates carbon storage data generated and maintained by the RCSPs and various other sources. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project is working to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO2 carbon capture and storage data. NatCarb is organizing and enhancing the critical information about CO2 sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, model, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data related to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. NatCarb is a functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas. It forms the first step toward a functioning National Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (NCCI). NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of

  14. (R,S)-3-Carb­oxy-2-(isoquinolinium-2-yl)propanoate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilinović, Vladimir; Frkanec, Leo; Kaitner, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C13H11NO4·H2O, is a monohydrate of a betaine exhibiting a positively charged N-substituted isoquino­line group and a deprotonated carboxyl group. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected via short O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between protonated and deprotonated carboxyl groups into chains of either R or S enanti­omers along [001]. These chains are additionally connected by hydrogen bonding between water mol­ecules and the deprotonated carb­oxy groups of neighbouring mol­ecules. PMID:21579503

  15. (R,S)-3-Carb-oxy-2-(isoquinolinium-2-yl)propanoate monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilinović, Vladimir; Frkanec, Leo; Kaitner, Branko

    2010-05-22

    The title compound, C(13)H(11)NO(4)·H(2)O, is a monohydrate of a betaine exhibiting a positively charged N-substituted isoquino-line group and a deprotonated carboxyl group. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected via short O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between protonated and deprotonated carboxyl groups into chains of either R or S enanti-omers along [001]. These chains are additionally connected by hydrogen bonding between water mol-ecules and the deprotonated carb-oxy groups of neighbouring mol-ecules.

  16. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2-deficient mice are protected from dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steury, Michael D; Kang, Ho Jun; Lee, Taehyung; Lucas, Peter C; McCabe, Laura R; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2018-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a serine/threonine kinase and plays a key role in different disease processes. Previously, we showed that GRK2 knockdown enhances wound healing in colonic epithelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that ablation of GRK2 would protect mice from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced acute colitis. To test this, we administered DSS to wild-type (GRK2 +/+ ) and GRK2 heterozygous (GRK +/- ) mice in their drinking water for 7 days. As predicted, GRK2 +/- mice were protected from colitis as demonstrated by decreased weight loss (20% loss in GRK2 +/+ vs. 11% loss in GRK2 +/- ). lower disease activity index (GRK2 +/+ 9.1 vs GRK2 +/- 4.1), and increased colon lengths (GRK2 +/+ 4.7 cm vs GRK2 +/- 5.3 cm). To examine the mechanisms by which GRK2 +/- mice are protected from colitis, we investigated expression of inflammatory genes in the colon as well as immune cell profiles in colonic lamina propria, mesenteric lymph node, and in bone marrow. Our results did not reveal differences in immune cell profiles between the two genotypes. However, expression of inflammatory genes was significantly decreased in DSS-treated GRK2 +/- mice compared with GRK2 +/+ . To understand the mechanisms, we generated myeloid-specific GRK2 knockout mice and subjected them to DSS-induced colitis. Similar to whole body GRK2 heterozygous knockout mice, myeloid-specific knockout of GRK2 was sufficient for the protection from DSS-induced colitis. Together our results indicate that deficiency of GRK2 protects mice from DSS-induced colitis and further suggests that the mechanism of this effect is likely via GRK2 regulation of inflammatory genes in the myeloid cells.

  17. Expression of renin-angiotensin system signalling compounds in maternal protein-restricted rats: effect on renal sodium excretion and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávia Fernandes; Gontijo, José Antonio Rocha; Boer, Patrícia Aline

    2010-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction due to low maternal dietary protein during pregnancy is associated with retardation of foetal growth, renal alterations and adult hypertension. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a coordinated hormonal cascade in the control of cardiovascular, renal and adrenal function that governs body fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as arterial pressure. In the kidney, all the components of the renin-angiotensin system including angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors are expressed locally during nephrogenesis. Hence, we investigated whether low protein diet intake during pregnancy altered kidney and adrenal expression of AT1(R) and AT2(R) receptors, their pathways and if the modified expression of the RAS compounds occurs associated with changes in urinary sodium and in arterial blood pressure in sixteen-week-old males' offspring of the underfed group. The pregnancy dams were divided in two groups: with normal protein diet (pups named NP) (17% protein) or low protein diet (pups LP) (6% protein) during all pregnancy. The present data confirm a significant enhancement in arterial pressure in the LP group. Furthermore, the study showed a significantly decreased expression of RAS pathway protein and Ang II receptors in the kidney and an increased expression in the adrenal of LP rats. The detailed immunohistochemical analysis of RAS signalling proteins in the kidney confirm the immunoblotting results for both groups. The present investigation also showed a pronounced decrease in fractional urinary sodium excretion in maternal protein-restricted offspring, compared with the NP age-matched group. This occurred despite unchanged creatinine clearance. The current data led us to hypothesize that foetal undernutrition could be associated with decreased kidney expression of AT(R) resulting in the inability of renal tubules to handle the hydro-electrolyte balance, consequently causing arterial hypertension.

  18. Minería subterránea de carbón: relación entre los niveles de polvo de hulla de carbón y neumoconiosis en Boyacá y Cundinamarca, Colombia 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Rey, Carlos H.; Ibáñez-Pinilla, Milcíades; Briceno-Ayala, Leonardo; Varona, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    En Colombia la neumoconiosis de los mineros de carbón es considerada un problema de salud pública debido a su carácter de irreversibilidad, el alto costo una vez ha sido diagnosticada y a la carencia de datos relacionados con su prevalencia en el país. Se realizó un estudio transversal con el propósito de determinar la prevalencia de neumoconiosis en los trabajadores de minería subterránea de carbón en los departamentos de Boyacá y Cundinamarca. Los resultados permitieron establecer qu...

  19. Adsorción de resorcinol desde solución acuosa sobre carbón activado

    OpenAIRE

    BLANCO, DIEGO A.; GIRALDO, LILIANA; MORENO, JUAN C.

    2009-01-01

    Se analiza el comportamiento de adsorción de resorcinol, un fenol monohidroxilado débilmente ácido a 298 K sobre carbón activado, estudiando la influencia del pH de la solución en el proceso de adsorción y la influencia de la reducción de la superficie del carbón. Para ello se utiliza un carbón activado de origen lignocelulósico y un material que resulta de la reducción del mismo. La interacción sólido­solución se caracteriza por el análisis de sus isotermas de adsorción a 298 K a valore...

  20. Cardiac sodium channel Na(v)1.5 interacts with and is regulated by the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Gavillet, Bruno; van Bemmelen, Miguel X

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify proteins interacting with the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.5, we used the last 66 amino acids of the C-terminus of the channel as bait to screen a human cardiac cDNA library. We identified the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1 as an interacting protein. Pull......-down experiments confirmed the interaction, and indicated that it depends on the PDZ-domain binding motif of Na(v)1.5. Co-expression experiments in HEK293 cells showed that PTPH1 shifts the Na(v)1.5 availability relationship toward hyperpolarized potentials, whereas an inactive PTPH1 or the tyrosine kinase Fyn...... does the opposite. The results of this study suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation destabilizes the inactivated state of Na(v)1.5....

  1. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins are regulators of the sodium/iodide symporter in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, G; Pachner, L I; Gessner, D K; Eder, K; Ringseis, R

    2016-11-01

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), which is essential for iodide concentration in the thyroid, is reported to be transcriptionally regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) in rat FRTL-5 thyrocytes. The SREBP are strongly activated after parturition and throughout lactation in the mammary gland of cattle and are important for mammary epithelial cell synthesis of milk lipids. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the NIS gene is regulated also by SREBP in mammary epithelial cells, in which NIS is functionally expressed during lactation. Regulation of NIS expression and iodide uptake was investigated by means of inhibition, silencing, and overexpression of SREBP and by reporter gene and DNA-binding assays. As a mammary epithelial cell model, the human MCF-7 cell line, a breast adenocarcinoma cell line, which shows inducible expression of NIS by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and unlike bovine mammary epithelial cells, is widely used to investigate the regulation of mammary gland NIS and NIS-specific iodide uptake, was used. Inhibition of SREBP maturation by treatment with 25-hydroxycholesterol (5 µM) for 48h reduced ATRA (1 µM)-induced mRNA concentration of NIS and iodide uptake in MCF-7 cells by approximately 20%. Knockdown of SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 by RNA interference decreased the mRNA and protein concentration of NIS by 30 to 50% 48h after initiating knockdown, whereas overexpression of nuclear SREBP (nSREBP)-1c and nSREBP-2 increased the expression of NIS in MCF-7 cells by 45 to 60%, respectively, 48h after initiating overexpression. Reporter gene experiments with varying length of NIS promoter reporter constructs revealed that the NIS 5'-flanking region is activated by nSREBP-1c and nSREBP-2 approximately 1.5- and 4.5-fold, respectively, and activation involves a SREBP-binding motif (SRE) at -38 relative to the transcription start site of the NIS gene. Gel shift assays using oligonucleotides spanning either the wild-type or the

  2. Application of 'C.A.R.B. financial methodology' analysis for alternative energy technologies into UK housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanos, Ioannis; Duckers, Les; Holmes, Kenneth L.

    2007-01-01

    Current energy trends in UK housing are reviewed and then assessed by introducing the 'CARB financial analysis' methodology. CARB is an acronym for 'Carbon Abatement', as it evaluates the potential carbon-dioxide reduction from different technologies; 'Relative', as all the technologies examined are dependant on various primary sources; and 'Balance', as the cost of surplus CO 2 is quantified. According to conventional financial analysis, most of the technologies examined have the potential to provide positive returns on the investments especially for those with an environmentally conscious agenda. Further reduction of up to 30% of most installed alternative energy systems cost is required to compete with an investment in, e.g., a UK pension scheme. Using the 'CARB financial analysis' the cost of reducing CO 2 has been quantified, and compared with the potential cost of climate change impact. Conventional installed solar technologies are not financially attractive both with a pay back period calculations and 'CARB financial analysis' under current market costs and governmental subsidy regimes. Heat recovery technologies could be sensible investments, both in financial and environmental terms under particular assumptions; especially if the investment budget is small. The use of cogeneration technologies provides a financial advantage in the attempt to minimise the cost of climate change impact, as pay back period of such investment could be less than 7 yr, and the cost of CO 2 saved could be two to seven times less than the global damage cost of carbon emissions. (author)

  3. The carB gene encoding the large subunit of carbamoylphosphate synthetase from Lactococcus lactis is transcribed monocistronically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    The biosynthesis of carbamoylphosphate is catalysed by the heterodimeric enzyme carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPSase). The genes encoding the two subunits in procaryotes are normally transcribed as an operon, whereas in Lactococcus lactis, the gene encoding the large subunit (carB) is shown...

  4. RISKGATE y operaciones en minas de carbón en Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Kirsch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El principal programa de investigación de la Asociación de Carbón en Australia (ACARP, RISKGATE ha completado tres años de conocimiento en la captura y el desarrollo del sistema. El cuerpo de conocimiento del manejo de riesgos de neumáticos, colisiones, incendios, aislamiento, estratos de suelo en las minas subterráneas, suelo en minas de cielo abierto, explosiones, explosivos en minas subterráneas, explosivos en minas de cielo abierto, trabajos manuales, resbalones/tropiezos/caídas fue lanzada en diciembre del 2012. Recientemente, el proyecto a adicionado al cuerpo de conocimiento temas relacionados a escapes de gas espontaneo, fallas en la extracción de carbón, interface entre la interacción máquina-humano, depósito de escoria, higiene ocupacional y escape de cuerpos de agua a los originales 11 tópicos. En el 2014, los planes del proyecto (pendiente a la aprobación a la fundación de ACARP es al enfoque en problemas relacionados con salud ocupacional. RISKGATE provee un ambiente en la captura de conocimiento y reciprocidad en un mundo de innovación e intercambio de prácticas actuales a través de la industria en la identificación, evaluación y manejo de riesgo. En la captura del conocimiento operacional por medio de expertos industriales, RISKGATE provee memoria corporativa acumulativa en un momento de alta rotación del personal en la industria del carbón. Este artículo presenta una visión en conjunto de los primeros diecisiete tópicos, estructura de los tópicos y contraste de relaciones internas entre los tópicos. La segunda parte del articulo discute algunos primeros pasos que las compañías están tomando para integrar RISKGATE en estas operaciones; y concluye con algunos ideas en donde RISKGATE puede ir en un futuro.

  5. The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Elizabeth; Simecek, Nicole; Brown, Richard; Forster, Sam; Spinks, Jenny; Toms, Nick; Gibson, G. Gordon; Lyon, Jon; Plant, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1 mM lithium chloride or 1 mM sodium valproate for 6 h or 72 h, and transcriptomes measured by Affymetrix U133A/B microarray. Statistically significant gene expression changes were identified using SAM software, with selected changes confirmed at transcript (TaqMan) and protein (Western blotting) levels. Finally, anti-apoptotic action was measured by an in vitro fluorescent assay. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to therapeutically relevant concentrations of either lithium chloride or sodium valproate elicited 936 statistically significant changes in gene expression. Amongst these changes we observed a large (maximal 31.3-fold) increase in the expression of the homeodomain protein Six1, and have characterized the time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of this gene in response to both drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that, like LiCl or VPA treatment, Six1 over-expression protects SH-SY5Y cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis via the blockade of caspsase-3 activation, whereas removal of Six1 protein via siRNA antagonises the ability of LiCl and VPA to protect SH-SY5Y cells from STS-induced apoptosis. These results provide a novel mechanistic rationale underlying the neuroprotective mechanism of LiCl and VPA, suggesting exciting possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinsonism

  6. Background-free, high sensitivity staining of proteins in one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using a luminescent ruthenium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, K; Chernokalskaya, E; Steinberg, T H; Kemper, C; Lopez, M F; Diwu, Z; Haugland, R P; Patton, W F

    2000-07-01

    SYPRO Ruby dye is a permanent stain comprised of ruthenium as part of an organic complex that interacts noncovalently with proteins. SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain provides a sensitive, gentle, fluorescence-based method for detecting proteins in one-dimensional and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins are fixed, stained from 3h to overnight and then rinsed in deionized water or dilute methanol/acetic acid solution for 30 min. The stain can be visualized using a wide range of excitation sources commonly used in image analysis systems including a 302 nm UV-B transilluminator, 473 nm second harmonic generation (SHG) laser, 488 nm argon-ion laser, 532 nm yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser, xenon arc lamp, blue fluorescent light bulb or blue light-emitting diode (LED). The sensitivity of SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain is superior to colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) stain or monobromobimane labeling and comparable with the highest sensitivity silver or zinc-imidazole staining procedures available. The linear dynamic range of SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel stain extends over three orders of magnitude, which is vastly superior to silver, zinc-imidazole, monobromobimane and CBB stain. The fluorescent stain does not contain superfluous chemicals (formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, Tween-20) that frequently interfere with peptide identification in mass spectrometry. While peptide mass profiles are severely altered in protein samples prelabeled with monobromobimane, successful identification of proteins by peptide mass profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry was easily performed after protein detection with SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel stain.

  7. Quantification of Whey Protein Content in Infant Formulas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Capillary Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-CGE): Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Fuerer, Christophe; McMahon, Adrienne

    2017-03-01

    Protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary gel electrophoresis, followed by UV absorption at 220 nm, allows for the quantification of major proteins in raw milk. In processed dairy samples such as skim milk powder (SMP) and infant formulas, signals from individual proteins are less resolved, but caseins still migrate as one family between two groups of whey proteins. In the first group, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin migrate as two distinct peaks. Lactosylated adducts show delayed migration times and interfere with peak separation, but both native and modified forms as well as other low-MW whey proteins still elute before the caseins. The second group contains high-MW whey proteins (including bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, and immunoglobulins) and elutes after the caseins. Caseins and whey proteins can thus be considered two distinct nonoverlapping families whose ratio can be established based on integrated areas without the need for a calibration curve. Because mass-to-area response factors for whey proteins and caseins are different, an area correction factor was determined from experimental measurement using SMP. Method performance assessed on five infant formulas showed RSDs of 0.2-1.2% (within day) and 0.5-1.1% (multiple days), with average recoveries between 97.4 and 106.4% of added whey protein. Forty-three different infant formulas and milk powders were analyzed. Of the 41 samples with manufacturer claims, the measured whey protein content was in close agreement with declared values, falling within 5% of the declared value in 76% of samples and within 10% in 95% of samples.

  8. Charcoal briquettes as substitute of blas furnace coal. I - Compound carbón bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabesinsky Felperin, M.

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn el presente trabajo, se considera a los Cuerpos Compuestos en general, y a los Cuerpos Compuestos carbonosos en particular, examinando sus fases componentes. Considerando el efecto pared, la viscosidad de la pasta conglomerante en las condiciones de temperatura y presión de conformado, es posible obtener Cuerpos Compuestos carbonosos de mínima relación "pasta/esqueleto granular", por composición de partículas de carbón vegetal de diferentes tamaños. Los requerimientos de pasta conglomerante coquizable decrecen a medida que se hace mayor el tamaño máximo de estos microesqueletos granulares, de mínima superficie específica.

  9. Salud y trabajo: minería artesanal del carbón en Paipa, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN MANUEL OSPINA DÍAZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: existe relación directa entre las técnicas de minería del carbón y riesgos laborales, con estado de salud y probabilidad de enfermar, principalmente por neumoconiosis, trauma y alteraciones osteomusculares. Objetivo: describir condiciones de trabajo y estado de salud en una muestra de mineros informales del carbón en Paipa, Boyacá. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Mediante instrumento previamente diseñado se evaluó a 196 mineros. Se exploró ambiente laboral y estado de salud. Además se revisaron algunas historias clínicas. La información se sistematizó y analizó en Epi-Info2002®. Se estimaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión para las variables incluidas. Resultados: edad promedio 30 años; 16,3% menores de edad; características sociodemográficas compatibles con pobreza extrema; 34,7% no afiliados al SGSS; apenas 1% afiliado al régimen contributivo y 0,5% cubierto por ARP; ingreso promedio mensual $280.000 (US$140,0 aprox.; 48,9% consume alcohol semanalmente; promedio jornada 7,44 horas; 76,5% trabaja bajo superficie; 16,8% presentaba alguna enfermedad en la valoración; 15,65% refiere al menos un accidente de trabajo; 64,8% encuentra su labor monótona o repetitiva; trastornos oculares, respiratorios y osteomusculares se autorreportan frecuentemente. Conclusiones: alto riesgo ocupacional, población vulnerable, mal remunerada, sin protección laboral. Bajo nivel educativo, trabajo infantil, dieta inadecuada, consumo de alcohol y ambiente inapropiado son factores de riesgo encontrados, que se expresan principalmente como traumatismos, lesiones oculares, enfermedades respiratorias y alteraciones del sistema osteomuscular.

  10. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl)

  11. Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyse, S.M.; Tyrrell, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide, and menadione. The known antioxidant properties of heme catabolites taken together with the observation of a high level of induction of the enzyme in cells from an organ not involved in hemoglobin breakdown strongly supports the proposal that the induction of heme oxygenase may be a general response to oxidant stress and constitutes an important cellular defense mechanism against oxidative damage

  12. Modulating the aggregation behaviour to restore the mechanical response of acid induced mixed gels of sodium caseinate and soy proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Anneke H.; Los Reyes Jiménez, De Marta L.; Pouvreau, Laurice

    2016-01-01

    Partial replacement of milk proteins with plant proteins is a challenge due to the reported negative effect on physical and sensory properties. Understanding of how the mechanical properties of acidified milk gels can be restored when 30% casein is replaced with soy proteins is therefore

  13. Modulating the aggregation behaviour to restore the mechanical response of acid induced mixed gels of sodium caseinate and soy proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Reyes Jiménez, M. L. de los; Pouvreau, L.

    2016-01-01

    Partial replacement of milk proteins with plant proteins is a challenge due to the reported negative effect on physical and sensory properties. Understanding of how the mechanical properties of acidified milk gels can be restored when 30% casein is replaced with soy proteins is therefore explored.

  14. Effects of addition of hydrocolloids on the textural and structural properties of high-protein intermediate moisture food model systems containing sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Wu, Y; Ma, Y; Lu, N; Regenstein, J M; Zhou, P

    2017-08-01

    High-protein intermediate moisture food (HPIMF) containing sodium caseinate (NaCN) often gave a harder texture compared with that made from whey proteins or soy proteins, due to the aggregation of protein particles. The objectives of this study were to explore whether the addition of hydrocolloids could soften the texture and illustrate the possible mechanism. Three kinds of hydrocolloids, xanthan gum, κ-carrageenan, and gum arabic were chosen, and samples including of these three kinds of hydrocolloids were studied through texture analysis using a TPA test and microstructure observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The texture analysis results showed that xanthan gum was more effective at softening the HPIMF containing NaCN compared to κ-carrageenan and gum arabic. In addition, with the increase of xanthan gum concentration from 0.2 to 2%, the HPIMF matrix became softer, and fractures were observed during the compression for samples with xanthan gum added at low concentrations but not 2%. Microstructure observation suggested that the matrix originally dominated by the network formed through the aggregation of swollen protein particles was inhibited by the addition of xanthan gum, resulting in the softening of the texture and also contributing to the fracture during compression. With the increase of xanthan gum concentration up to 2%, the protein dominating network would be gradually replaced with a matrix dominated by the newly formed network of xanthan gum with protein particles as fillers. Furthermore, this formation of a xanthan gum dominating network structure also resulted in changes in small molecule distribution, as observed using low-field NMR.

  15. Maillard Conjugation of Sodium Alginate to Whey Protein for Enhanced Resistance to Surfactant-Induced Competitive Displacement from Air-Water Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingqing; Saito, Anna; Ikeda, Shinya

    2018-01-24

    Whey protein adsorbed to an interface forms a viscoelastic interfacial film but is displaced competitively from the interface by a small-molecule surfactant added afterward. The present study evaluated the impact of the covalent conjugation of high- or low-molecular-weight sodium alginate (HA or LA) to whey protein isolate (WPI) via the Maillard reaction on the ability of whey protein to resist surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface. Surfactant added after the pre-adsorption of conjugate to the interface increased surface pressure. At a given surface pressure, the WPI-LA conjugate showed a significantly higher interfacial area coverage and lower interfacial film thickness compared to those of the WPI-HA conjugate or unconjugated WPI. The addition of LA to the aqueous phase had little effect on the interfacial area and thickness of pre-adsorbed WPI. These results suggest the importance of the molecular weight of the polysaccharide moiety in determining interfacial properties of whey protein-alginate conjugates.

  16. Sensitization of human colon cancer cells to sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis by modulation of sphingosine kinase 2 and protein kinase D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Min; Liu, Yungang; Zou, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) have been recognized as important proteins regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Of the two isoforms of SphK (SphK1 and SphK2), little is known about the functions of SphK2. Sodium butyrate (NaBT) has been established as a promising chemotherapeutic agent, but the precise mechanism for its effects is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of SphK2 in NaBT-induced apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that following NaBT treatment SphK2 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, leading to its accumulation in the cytoplasm; in the meantime, only mild apoptosis occurred. However, downregulation of SphK2 resulted in sensitized apoptosis, and overexpression of SphK2 led to even lighter apoptosis; these strongly indicate an inhibitory role of SphK2 in cell apoptosis induced by NaBT. After knocking down protein kinase D (PKD), another protein reported to be critical in cell proliferation/apoptosis process, by using siRNA, blockage of cytoplasmic accumulation of SphK2 and sensitized apoptosis following NaBT treatment were observed. The present study suggests that PKD and SphK2 may form a mechanism for the resistance of cancer cells to tumor chemotherapies, such as HCT116 colon cancer cells to NaBT, and these two proteins may become molecular targets for designation of new tumor-therapeutic drugs. -- Highlights: ► In the present study sodium butyrate (10 mM) induced mild apoptosis of cancer cells. ► The apoptosis was negatively regulated by cytoplasmic Sphingosine Kinase 2 (SphK2). ► Translocation of SphK2 from nucleus to cytoplasm was mediated by protein kinase D. ► Downregulation of SphK2 or protein kinase D leads to sensitized cell apoptosis.

  17. Valoración mediante espirometría de mineros del carbón de Paipa, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    González, Nubia; Díaz, Sara Lucía; Wilches, Myriam Rocío; Franky, Mabel Patricia; Méndez, César; Herrera, Andrea del Rosario

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción: Las enfermedades respiratorias derivadas de la exposición a material en partículas, como sucede en la minería del carbón, continúa siendo un reto investigativo en el país y un problema de salud pública. La espirometría es una prueba de la función respiratoria, fundamental para el diagnóstico y la vigilancia de este tipo de enfermedades pulmonares crónicas. Objetivo. Determinar los valores de la espirometría en la población minera de carbón del municipio de Paipa, y su ...

  18. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  19. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analysis of Serum Proteins in Wistar Rats Treated with Sodium Fluoride: Insight into the Potential Mechanism and Candidate Biomarkers of Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis induced by exposure to high level fluoride is quite widespread in the world. The manifestations of fluorosis include dental mottling, bone damage, and impaired malfunction of soft tissues. However, the molecular mechanism of fluorosis has not been clarified until now. To explore the underlying mechanisms of fluorosis and screen out serum biomarkers, we carried out a quantitative proteomics study to identify differentially expressed serum proteins in Wistar rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF by using a proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. We fed Wistar rats drinking water that had 50, 150, and 250 mg/L of dissolved NaF for 24 weeks. For the experimental duration, each rat was given an examination of the lower incisors to check for the condition of dental fluorosis (DF. By the end of the treatment, fluoride ion concentration in serum and lower incisors were detected. The results showed that NaF treatment can induce rat fluorosis. By iTRAQ analysis, a total of 37 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between NaF-treated and control rats. These proteins were further analyzed by bioinformatics, out of which two proteins were validated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISA. The major proteins were involved in complement and coagulation cascade, inflammatory response, complement activation, defense response, and wound response, suggesting that inflammation and immune reactions may play a key role in fluorosis pathogenesis. These proteins may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of fluoride toxicity, and may serve as potential biomarkers for fluorosis.

  20. Effect of irradiation and soaking in BHT and sodium pyrophosphate on meat proteins and lipids during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Emam, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of irradiation treatments up to 10 KGy, soaking in a solution containing 0.5% Na-pyrophosphate and 250 ppm butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and a combination of both treatments on the nitrogen content and solubility, protein fractions and lipids stability in beef steaks during cold storage at 4 ± 1°C was followed until the samples were rejected by sensory evaluation. The least effective radiation doses for soluble protein nitrogen (SPN), total soluble nitrogen (TSN) and total nitrogen (TN) were 2, 5 and 10 KGy, respectively. Such effects were proportionally related to the applied dose. The loss in nitrogen compounds and/or their solubility which occurred upon irradiation appeared to be retarded by soaking treatment. Irradiation treatments induced additional protein fraction which seems to be originated from the sarcoplasmic proteins. After the resolution of rigor mortis, the incremental rate of nitrogen extractability was inversely related to the irradiation dose. Another protein fraction was detected only in the 10 KGy irradiated samples after 14 days of cold storage which might be originating from fibrillar proteins as a result of its interaction with some lipid oxidation products. However, soaking treatment itself caused extensive changes in protein fractions, in contrast, protection from radiation and radiation after-effects were observed

  1. AS160 associates with the Na+,K+-ATPase and mediates the adenosine monophosphate-stimulated protein kinase-dependent regulation of sodium pump surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daiane S; Farr, Glen A; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; Caplan, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is the major active transport protein found in the plasma membranes of most epithelial cell types. The regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity involves a variety of mechanisms, including regulated endocytosis and recycling. Our efforts to identify novel Na(+),K(+)-ATPase binding partners revealed a direct association between the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and AS160, a Rab-GTPase-activating protein. In COS cells, coexpression of AS160 and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase led to the intracellular retention of the sodium pump. We find that AS160 interacts with the large cytoplasmic NP domain of the α-subunit of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Inhibition of the activity of the adenosine monophosphate-stimulated protein kinase (AMPK) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells through treatment with Compound C induces Na(+),K(+)-ATPase endocytosis. This effect of Compound C is prevented through the short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of AS160, demonstrating that AMPK and AS160 participate in a common pathway to modulate the cell surface expression of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase.

  2. Study of total seed proteins pattern of sesame (sesamum indicum l.) landraces via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, F.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2012-01-01

    The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) germplasm, comprising of 105 accessions was characterized for total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The germplasm was collected from diverse agro-ecological regions of Pakistan. To our information, no studies have yet been carried out in Pakistan on the genetic evaluation of sesame genotypes based on total seed protein. Total seed proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12% polyacrylamide gels by standard protocols. A total of 20 polypeptide bands were observed, of which 14 (70%) were polymorphic and 6 (30%) were monomorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 13.5 to 100 kDa. Six bands i.e., 7, 11, 12, 15, 16 and 18 were common in all genotypes. Similarity coefficients varied fro m 0.50 to 1.00. The dendrogram based on dissimilarity matrix using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) separated all sesame accessions into three main groups i.e., A, B, C, comprising 89, 14 and 2 genotypes, respectively. Overall a low to medium level of genetic variability was observed for SDS-PAGE (single dimension). As SDS-PAGE alone did not reveal high level of genetic variability, hence 2-D gel electrophoresis along with other advanced type DNA markers and more number of sesame accessions from all over the country are recommended for the future genetic evaluation. Our investigation will significantly support the classification, development, genetic evaluation and conservation of sesame germplasm in Pakistan. (author)

  3. Study of total seed proteins pattern of sesame (sesamum indicum l.) landraces via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar, F; Shinwari, Z K [Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Biotechnology; Yousif, N; Masood, M S [Institute of Agri-Biotechnology and Genetic Resources, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-11-15

    The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) germplasm, comprising of 105 accessions was characterized for total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The germplasm was collected from diverse agro-ecological regions of Pakistan. To our information, no studies have yet been carried out in Pakistan on the genetic evaluation of sesame genotypes based on total seed protein. Total seed proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12% polyacrylamide gels by standard protocols. A total of 20 polypeptide bands were observed, of which 14 (70%) were polymorphic and 6 (30%) were monomorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 13.5 to 100 kDa. Six bands i.e., 7, 11, 12, 15, 16 and 18 were common in all genotypes. Similarity coefficients varied fro m 0.50 to 1.00. The dendrogram based on dissimilarity matrix using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) separated all sesame accessions into three main groups i.e., A, B, C, comprising 89, 14 and 2 genotypes, respectively. Overall a low to medium level of genetic variability was observed for SDS-PAGE (single dimension). As SDS-PAGE alone did not reveal high level of genetic variability, hence 2-D gel electrophoresis along with other advanced type DNA markers and more number of sesame accessions from all over the country are recommended for the future genetic evaluation. Our investigation will significantly support the classification, development, genetic evaluation and conservation of sesame germplasm in Pakistan. (author)

  4. Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Munmun; Zhou, Zhigang; Hao, Shuanglin; Mata, Marina; Fink, David J

    2012-03-22

    Painful neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. Previous studies have identified significant increases in the amount of voltage gated sodium channel isoforms Na(V)1.7 and Na(V)1.3 protein in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. We found that gene transfer-mediated release of the inhibitory neurotransmitters enkephalin or gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) from DRG neurons in diabetic animals reduced pain-related behaviors coincident with a reduction in Na(V)1.7 protein levels in DRG in vivo. To further evaluate the role of Na(V)α subunit levels in DRG in the pathogenesis of pain in diabetic neuropathy, we constructed a non-replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based vector expressing a microRNA (miRNA) against Na(V)α subunits. Subcutaneous inoculation of the miRNA-expressing HSV vector into the feet of diabetic rats to transduce DRG resulted in a reduction in Na(V)α subunit levels in DRG neurons, coincident with a reduction in cold allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia. These data support the role of increased Na(V)α protein in DRG in the pathogenesis of pain in diabetic neuropathy, and provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of a novel therapy that could be used to treat intractable pain in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  5. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  6. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  7. Inhibition of overexpression of Giα proteins and nitroxidative stress contribute to sodium nitroprusside-induced attenuation of high blood pressure in SHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Sarkar, Oli; Li, Yuan; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2018-03-01

    We earlier showed that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibit enhanced expression of Giα proteins which was attributed to the decreased levels of nitric oxide (NO), because elevation of the intracellular levels of NO by NO donors; sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP), attenuated the enhanced expression of Giα proteins. Since the enhanced expression of Giα proteins is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, the present study was undertaken to investigate if treatment of SHR with SNP could also attenuate the development of high blood pressure (BP) and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Intraperitoneal injection of SNP at a concentration of 0.5 mg/kg body weight twice a week for 2 weeks into SHR attenuated the high blood pressure by about 80 mmHg without affecting the BP in WKY rats. SNP treatment also attenuated the enhanced levels of superoxide anion (O 2 - ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), peroxynitrite (ONOO - ), and NADPH oxidase activity in VSMC from SHR to control levels. In addition, the overexpression of different subunits of NADPH oxidase; Nox-1, Nox-2, Nox-4, P 22phox , and P 47phox , and Giα proteins in VSMC from SHR were also attenuated by SNP treatment. On the other hand, SNP treatment augmented the decreased levels of intracellular NO, eNOS, and cGMP in VSMC from SHR. These results suggest that SNP treatment attenuates the development of high BP in SHR through the elevation of intracellular levels of cGMP and inhibition of the enhanced levels of Giα proteins and nitroxidative stress. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Investigation and Comparison of Leishmania major Promastigote and Amastigote Protein Content by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soleimanifard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction & Objective: Leishmania is a protozoan of the trypanosomatidae family. This pro-tozoan has two stages in its life cycle, promastigote form in sand flies and amastigote form in macrophage of mammalian hosts. The purpose of this study was identification and compari-son of proteins of Leishmania amastigote and promastigote stages. Materials & Methods: The present study is a cross sectional study of two forms of Leishmania major. To culture promastigotes , L.major (MRHO/IR/75/ER from previously infected Balb/c mice was transferred to modified N.N.N medium with overlay of liquid BHI and then transferred to RPMI-1640 at 26oc ± 1 for mass production. After isolation and growth, pro-mastigotes were transferred to liquid cell culture medium RPMI-1640 with pH 5.5 and incu-bated at 5% CO2 at 37oc for 72 hours until promastigote to amastigote transformation. Elec-trophoresis was performed with SDS-PAGE method to find and compare the molecular weight of the antigens of two stages. Results: The molecular weights of the bands observed in both forms were as follows: 19, 36, 50, 63, 65, 80, 90, 94, 96, 110- 130 KDa. The proteins in the surface of only promastigote were 22, 28 and 46 KDa and special proteins in the surface of amastigote were 12 and 32 KDa. Conclusion : According to this study Leishmania parasite has stage specific proteins. Various studies have shown that axenic amastigotes and tissue amastigotes are similar in their protein content. Therefore, based on stage specific proteins ,effective drugs and vaccines can be de-signed against leishmaniasis. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (1:1-8

  9. Interaction of Cefpiramide sodium with bovine hemoglobin and effect of the coexistent metal ion on the protein-drug association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaona; Liu, Baosheng; Chong, Baohong; Cao, Shina

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and cefpiramide sodium (CPMS) was investigated at different temperatures by fluorescence, UV absorption, and CD spectroscopy, as well as the effect of common metal ions (Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Co 2+ , Fe 3+ , Ni 2+ ) on the BHb–CPMS system. Results showed that CPMS could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BHb strongly, and the quenching mechanism was a static quenching process. The electrostatic force played an important role on the conjugation reaction between BHb and CPMS. The order of magnitude of binding constants (K a ) was 10 4 , the number of binding site (n) in the binary system was approximately equal to 1 and the binding distance (r) was about 3.08 nm. Besides, the values of Hill's coefficients were approximately equal to 1, which indicated there was almost no cooperativity in CPMS's binding with BHb. Synchronous spectra and CD spectra revealed that the microenvironment and the conformation of BHb were changed during the binding reaction. Studies on the interaction between BHb and drug will facilitate interpretation of the drug's metabolism and transporting process in the blood, and will help to explain the relationship between structures and functions of BHb. -- Highlights: • CPMS could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BHb strongly through a static quenching process. • Electrostatic force played an important role on the conjugation reaction between BHb and CPMS. • The microenvironment and conformation of BHb were changed during the binding reaction

  10. Crystal Structure of the Mammalian GIRK2 K+ Channel and Gating Regulation by G-Proteins, PIP2 and Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, Matthew R.; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2011-01-01

    Summary G-protein-gated K+ channels (Kir3.1–Kir3.4) control electrical excitability in many different cells. Among their functions relevant to human physiology and disease, they regulate the heart rate and govern a wide range of neuronal activities. Here we present the first crystal structures of a G-protein-gated K+ channel. By comparing the wild-type structure to that of a constitutively active mutant, we identify a global conformational change through which G-proteins could open a G-loop gate in the cytoplasmic domain. The structures of both channels in the absence and presence of PIP2 show that G-proteins open only the G-loop gate in the absence of PIP2, but in the presence of PIP2 the G-loop gate and a second inner helix gate become coupled, so that both gates open. We also identify a strategically located Na+ ion-binding site, which would allow intracellular Na+ to modulate GIRK channel activity. These data provide a mechanistic description of multi-ligand regulation of GIRK channel gating. PMID:21962516

  11. Effects of Chronic Exposure to Sodium Arsenite on Expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2 Proteins in the Epididymis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yan-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2 at protein level in the epididymis of rats with arsenism. Methods. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: the high dose arsenic infected group (60.0 mg/L in water, the middle dose arsenic infected group (12.0 mg/L in water, the low dose arsenic infected group (2.4 mg/L in water, and the control group (distilled water. Rats were treated with arsenic through drinking water for 6 consecutive months. At the end of the experiment, the average densitometry values of apoptotic cells in epididymis tubules were determined by TUNEL method; the protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and VEGFR2 were observed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real time fluorescent quantitative PCR, respectively. Results. Compared with the control group, in each infected group, the average densitometry values of apoptotic cells in the epididymis tubules were significantly lower. Compared with control group, protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and VEGFR2 in each infected group were obviously declined. The correlations between protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and VEGFR2 were positively exhibited (r = 0.843, 0.869, p < 0.05. Conclusions. Arsenism affects the expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2 in the epididymis of rats and results in apoptosis of pathophysiology of male infertility.

  12. Inhibition and Promotion of Heat-Induced Gelation of Whey Proteins in the Presence of Calcium by Addition of Sodium Caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bach T; Balakrishnan, Gireeshkumar; Jacquette, Boris; Nicolai, Taco; Chassenieux, Christophe; Schmitt, Christophe; Bovetto, Lionel

    2016-11-14

    Heat-induced aggregation and gelation of aqueous solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI) in the presence of sodium caseinate (SC) and CaCl 2 was studied at pH 6.6. The effect of adding SC (0-100 g/L) on the structure of the aggregates and the gels was investigated by light scattering and confocal laser scanning microscopy at different CaCl 2 concentration ([CaCl 2 ] = 0-30 mM). The gelation process was studied by oscillatory shear rheology. At the whey protein concentrations studied here (34 and 60 g/L), no gels were formed in the absence of CaCl 2 and SC. However, WPI solutions gelled above a critical CaCl 2 concentration that increased with increasing SC concentration. In the absence of CaCl 2 , WPI gels were formed only above a critical SC concentration. The critical SC concentration needed to induce WPI gelation decreased weakly when CaCl 2 was added. In an intermediate range of CaCl 2 concentrations, gels were formed both at low and high SC concentrations, but not at intermediate SC concentrations. Finally, at high CaCl 2 concentrations gels were formed at all SC concentrations. The gelation rate and the gel structure of the gels formed at low and high casein concentrations were very different. The effect of SC on the thermal gelation of WPI was interpreted by competition for Ca 2+ , a chaperon effect, and microphase separation.

  13. Interaction of Cefpiramide sodium with bovine hemoglobin and effect of the coexistent metal ion on the protein-drug association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiaona; Liu, Baosheng, E-mail: lbs@hbu.edu.cn; Chong, Baohong; Cao, Shina

    2013-10-15

    The interaction between bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and cefpiramide sodium (CPMS) was investigated at different temperatures by fluorescence, UV absorption, and CD spectroscopy, as well as the effect of common metal ions (Mg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}) on the BHb–CPMS system. Results showed that CPMS could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BHb strongly, and the quenching mechanism was a static quenching process. The electrostatic force played an important role on the conjugation reaction between BHb and CPMS. The order of magnitude of binding constants (K{sub a}) was 10{sup 4}, the number of binding site (n) in the binary system was approximately equal to 1 and the binding distance (r) was about 3.08 nm. Besides, the values of Hill's coefficients were approximately equal to 1, which indicated there was almost no cooperativity in CPMS's binding with BHb. Synchronous spectra and CD spectra revealed that the microenvironment and the conformation of BHb were changed during the binding reaction. Studies on the interaction between BHb and drug will facilitate interpretation of the drug's metabolism and transporting process in the blood, and will help to explain the relationship between structures and functions of BHb. -- Highlights: • CPMS could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BHb strongly through a static quenching process. • Electrostatic force played an important role on the conjugation reaction between BHb and CPMS. • The microenvironment and conformation of BHb were changed during the binding reaction.

  14. PI3K activation is associated with intracellular sodium/iodide symporter protein expression in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knostman, Katherine AB; McCubrey, James A; Morrison, Carl D; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Capen, Charles C; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2007-01-01

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is a membrane glycoprotein mediating active iodide uptake in the thyroid gland and is the molecular basis for radioiodide imaging and therapeutic ablation of thyroid carcinomas. NIS is expressed in the lactating mammary gland and in many human breast tumors, raising interest in similar use for diagnosis and treatment. However, few human breast tumors have clinically evident iodide uptake ability. We previously identified PI3K signaling as important in NIS upregulation in transgenic mouse models of breast cancer, and the PI3K pathway is commonly activated in human breast cancer. NIS expression, subcellular localization, and function were analyzed in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and MCF-7 cells stably or transiently expressing PI3K p110alpha subunit using Western blot of whole cell lysate, cell surface biotinylation Western blot and immunofluorescence, and radioiodide uptake assay, respectively. NIS localization was determined in a human breast cancer tissue microarray using immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and was correlated with pre-existing pAkt IHC data. Statistical analysis consisted of Student's t-test (in vitro studies) or Fisher's Exact Test (in vivo correlational studies). In this study, we demonstrate that PI3K activation in MCF-7 human mammary carcinoma cells leads to expression of underglycosylated NIS lacking cell surface trafficking necessary for iodide uptake ability. PI3K activation also appears to interfere with cell surface trafficking of exogenous NIS as well as all-trans retinoic acid-induced endogenous NIS. A correlation between NIS expression and upregulation of PI3K signaling was found in a human breast cancer tissue microarray. Thus, the PI3K pathway likely plays a major role in the discordance between NIS expression and iodide uptake in breast cancer patients. Further study is warranted to realize the application of NIS-mediated radioiodide ablation in breast cancer

  15. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  16. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  17. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  18. Carbonic Anhydrase and Zinc in Plant Physiology Anhidrasa Carbónica y Zinc en Fisiología Vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Jacqueline Escudero-Almanza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase (CA (EC: 2.4.1.1 catalyzes the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide plus water into a proton and the bicarbonate ion (HCO3- that can be found in prokaryotes and higher organisms; it is represented by four different families. Carbonic anhydrase is a metalloenzyme that requires Zn as a cofactor and is involved in diverse biological processes including pH regulation, CO2 transfer, ionic exchange, respiration, CO2 photosynthetic fixation, and stomatal closure. Therefore, the review includes relevant aspects about CA morphology, oligomerization, and structural differences in the active site. On the other hand, we consider the general characteristics of Zn, its geometry, reactions, and physiology. We then consider the CA catalysis mechanism that is carried out by the metal ion and where Zn acts as a cofactor. Zinc deficiency can inhibit growth and protein synthesis, and there is evidence that it reduces the CA content in some plants, which is a relationship addressed in this review. In leaves, CA represents 20.1% of total soluble protein, while it is the second most abundant in the chloroplast after ribulose 1,5-disphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO. This facilitates the supply of CO2 to the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in C4 and CAM plants and RuBisCO in C3 plants.La anhidrasa carbónica (CA (EC: 4.2.1.1 cataliza la conversión rápida de dióxido de carbono más agua en un protón y el ion bicarbonato (HCO3-; la cual puede encontrarse en procariotas y en organismos superiores y está representada por cuatro familias distintas. La CA es una metaloenzima que requiere Zn como cofactor y está implicada en diversos procesos biológicos, incluyendo la regulación del pH, la transferencia de CO2, intercambio iónico, la respiración, la fijación fotosintética de CO2, y el cierre estomático. Por lo cual, la revisión incluye aspectos relevantes sobre la morfología de laAC, su oligomerización y diferencias estructurales en el

  19. Crystal structure of [1,1':3',1''-ter-phenyl]-2',3,3''-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decato, Daniel A; Berryman, Orion B

    2015-09-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C21H14O6, com-prises two symmetrically independent mol-ecules that form a locally centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded dimer, with the planes of the corresponding carb-oxy-lic acid groups rotated by 15.8 (1) and 17.5 (1)° relative to those of the adjacent benzene rings. The crystal as a whole, however, exhibits a noncentrosymmetric packing, described by the polar space group Pca21. The dimers form layers along the ab plane, being inter-connected by hydrogen bonds involving the remaining carb-oxy-lic acid groups. The plane of the central carb-oxy-lic acid group forms dihedral angles of 62.5 (1) and 63.0 (1)° with those of the adjacent benzene rings and functions as a hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor. As a donor, it inter-connects adjacent layers, while as an acceptor it stabilizes the packing within the layers. The 'distal' carb-oxy-lic acid groups are nearly coplanar with the planes of the adjacent benzene rings, forming dihedral angles of 1.8 (1) and 7.1 (1)°. These groups also form intra- and inter-layer hydrogen bonds, but with 'reversed' functionality, as compared with the central carb-oxy-lic acid groups.

  20. Sodium arsenite alters cell cycle and MTHFR, MT1/2, and c-Myc protein levels in MCF-7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Albores, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2009-01-01

    There is limited available information on the effects of arsenic on enzymes participating in the folate cycle. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effects of sodium arsenite on the protein levels of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and its further relationship with the expression MT1/2 and c-myc in MCF-7 cells. Arsenite treatment (0-10 μM) for 4 h decreased MTHFR levels in a concentration-dependent fashion without significant effects on DHFR. The effects on MTHFR were observed at arsenite concentrations not significantly affecting cell viability. We also observed an increase in S-phase recruitment at all concentrations probed. Lower concentrations (< 5 μM) induced cell proliferation, showing a high proportion of BrdU-stained cells, indicating a higher DNA synthesis rate. However, higher concentrations (≥ 5 μM) or longer treatment periods induced apoptosis. Arsenite also induced dose-dependent increases in MT1/2 and c-Myc protein levels. The levels of MTHFR were inversely correlated to MT1/2 and c-Myc overexpression and increased S-phase recruitment. Our findings indicate that breast epithelial cells are responsive to arsenite and suggest that exposure may pose a risk for breast cancer. The reductions in MTHFR protein levels contribute to understand the mechanisms underlying the induction of genes influencing growth regulation, such as c-myc and MT1/2. However, further research is needed to ascertain if the effects here reported following short-time and high-dose exposure are relevant for human populations chronically exposed to low arsenic concentrations.

  1. Molecular determinants of voltage-gated sodium channel regulation by the Nedd4/Nedd4-like proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; van Bemmelen, Miguel X; Bruce, M Christine

    2004-01-01

    -ubiquitin ligases of the Nedd4 family. We recently reported that cardiac Na(v)1.5 is regulated by Nedd4-2. In this study, we further investigated the molecular determinants of regulation of Na(v) proteins. When expressed in HEK-293 cells and studied using whole cell voltage clamping, the neuronal Na(v)1.2 and Na...... that Nedd4-dependent ubiquitination of Na(v) channels may represent a general mechanism regulating the excitability of neurons and myocytes via modulation of channel density at the plasma membrane....

  2. Neumoconiosis en la minería subterránea del carbón, Amaga, 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Rendón Ospina, Iván Darío; Mazuera del Hierro, María Eugenia; Grisales Romero, Hugo

    1997-01-01

    Se hizo una encuesta de prevalencia de neumoconiosis en una muestra representativa de mineros del carbón en Amagá, Anitoquia, Colombia. Igualmente se exploro la asociación prevalente entre algunos factores de riesgo ocupacional y la neumoconiosis. La prevalencia para neumoconiosis fue de 5.12 * 10 (2). Se encontraron prevalencias altas entre quienes laboran en minas mecanizadas y mixtas, 6.3 y 5.9 * 10(2), respectivamente, pero la diferencia no fue estadisticamente significativa al compararla...

  3. Condiciones de trabajo y morbilidad percibidas entre mineros de carbón en Guachetá, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez Forero, Claudia Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: En Colombia la investigación sobre condiciones de trabajo y salud en minería carbonífera es escasa y no considera la percepción de la población expuesta y sus comportamientos frente a los riesgos inherentes. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre las condiciones de trabajo y morbilidad percibidas entre trabajadores de minas de carbón en Guachetá, Cundinamarca. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal con 154 trabajadores seleccionados aleatoriamente del tota...

  4. CASAS COMERCIALES Y SUS OPERACIONES EN VALPARAÍSO: El Caso del Carbón Extranjero. 1890-1905

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Meneses Inostroza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chile posterior a la Guerra del Pacifico, vio incrementada fuertemente su actividad económica, con la integración del salitre, teniendo como principal combustible el carbón. De ahí que resulte importante conocer esta actividad donde se aprovisionó principalmente de hullas australianas e inglesas, permitiendo a su vez vislumbrar la mentalidad de quienes llevaron a cabo esta actividad, las casas comerciales involucradas, sus prácticas en lo relacionado a las ventas, bandas de precio de las hullas y formas de pago

  5. Adsorción catalítica de NO a baja temperatura sobre monolitos de carbón activado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un monolito tipo celular de carbón activado (ACH para la adsorción de NO a 30ºC. Para la preparación de los monolitos celulares se usó como aglomerante la carboximetilcelulosa (CMC y como coaglomerante breade alquitranes de carbón (BAC. Se estudiaron los efectos de la adición de O2 y la presencia de cobre como catalizador. Para las muestras de monolito de carbón activado impregnado con Cu, la presencia de O2 favoreció la adsorción de NO incrementando el tiempo del punto de quiebre (breakthrough y la capacidad de adsorción.

  6. Efecto del co2 en la velocidad de combustión de semicoques de carbón en aplicaciones de oxi-combustión

    OpenAIRE

    MOLINA, ALEJANDRO; SHADDIX, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    Un reactor de flujo de arrastre equipado con un equipo que permite la medición del tamaño y temperatura de las partículas de carbón se utilizó para determinar la cinética de combustión de semicoques de carbón pulverizado oxidados en mezclas en mezclas con distintas concentraciones de oxígeno en ambiente de N2 o CO2. Esta información es importante para entender y simular la combustión de carbón en ambiente enriquecido de oxígeno y con recirculado de gases de combustión, tecnología promisor...

  7. Nacionalismo conflictivo: exclusión-asimilación en Trocitos de carbón, de Carlos Gagini (Troubled Nationalism: Exclusion-Assimilation in Trocitos de carbón, by Carlos Gagini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Solano Rivera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza Trocitos de carbón (1923, de Carlos Gagini, una de las primeras muestras de un nacionalismo inclusivo que tiene en cuenta las provincias periféricas de Guanacaste, Puntarenas y Limón. Al mismo tiempo, el texto materializa los remanentes de un racismo excluidor y excluyente de los elementos hasta ese momento considerados extranjeros o inmigrantes como son los negros limonenses, los cuales son aceptados únicamente si se asimilan al centro cultural hegemónico vallecentrista. Trocitos de carbón (1923, by Carlos Gagini, is analyzed as one of the first cases of an inclusive nationalism that takes into account the provinces of Guanacaste, Puntarenas and Limón. At the same time, the text materializes the remnants of a discriminatory racism of those elements considered then as foreigners or immigrants, such as black people from Limón, accepted only if they assimilate the hegemonic culture of the central valley.

  8. Electrophoretic analysis of proteinases in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels containing copolymerized radiolabeled protein substrates: Application to proenkephalin processing enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, J.W.; Roberts, S.F.; Lindberg, I. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans (USA))

    1990-10-01

    A novel method is described for the zymographic analysis of proteinases in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels containing copolymerized radiolabeled protein substrates such as ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled proenkephalin or {sup 125}I-labeled proinsulin. After electrophoresis the enzyme is reactivated and cleaves the radiolabeled in situ substrate into smaller peptides. These small peptides are able to diffuse out of the gel, leaving clear areas against a dark background when visualized by autoradiography. The technique can be used to detect as little as 200 fg of trypsin using only 50 ng (1.25 microCi) of ({sup 35}S)proenkephalin. Soluble- and membrane-bound adrenal trypsin-like enzyme were isolated from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules. Both proteinases cleaved ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled proenkephalin but not {sup 125}I-labeled proinsulin. Moreover, both had a Mr of approximately 30,000. The potential of this technique for general use is discussed. An additional method using the synthetic fluorogenic substrate t-butoxycarbonyl Glu-Lys-Lys aminomethylcoumarin is also described.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Espa-Carb Efficacy in Patients with Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankiv

    2014-05-01

    Materials and Methods. We observed 55 patients with DTG, divided into two groups. The first group (n = 30 received carbimazole (Espa-Carb, the second group (n = 25 — thiamazolum (Mercazolil-Zdorovye. The patient groups did not differ in age, sex, size of thyroid gland and duration of thyrotoxicosis. Results. Analysis of the findings shows that the first group of patients has a more significant effect of treatment compared with patients of the second group. Average thyroid volume was significantly reduced only in the first group. At average, thyroid volume decreased from 37.2 ± 3.1 cm3 to 29.3 ± 2.9 cm3 (p 0.05. In patients from the first group with DTG, a significant increase in TSH (from 0.027 ± 0.009 mIU/l to 0.37 ± 0.16 mIU/L; p 0.05. At the same time, the second group of patients reported a significant decrease in the levels fT4 (from 31.4 ± 2.1 nmol/l to 21.7 ± 1.8 nmol/l; p 0.05. Side effects weren’t observed for six months during the treatment of patients in both groups. Normalization of peripheral hormones (fT4 and fT3 in 90 days of observation has been achieved in 96.2 % of patients in the first group and 74.1 % — in the second group. The number of patients who achieved normal TSH levels was significantly higher in the first group (93.3 % vs. 76 %. Conclusions. We determined higher efficiency of carbimazole compared to thiamazolum that manifested by more rapid achievement of clinical effect and compensation thyrotoxicosis, significant decrease of thyroid volume, the level of antibodies to the TSH receptor. Using carbimazole reduces thyreostatics daily dose in patients with DTG, which reduces the risk of complications of therapy. When using carbimazole for six months in patients with DTG, cases of intolerance or other adverse effects weren’t reported.

  10. Activation of protein kinase C and disruption of endothelial monolayer integrity by sodium arsenite-Potential mechanism in the development of atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Flavia E.; Coffin, J. Douglas; Beall, Howard D.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been shown to exacerbate atherosclerosis, beginning with activation of the endothelium that lines the vessel wall. Endothelial barrier integrity is maintained by proteins of the adherens junction (AJ) such as vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and β-catenin and their association with the actin cytoskeleton. In the present study, human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to 1, 5 and 10 μM sodium arsenite [As(III)] for 1, 6, 12 and 24 h, and the effects on endothelial barrier integrity were determined. Immunofluorescence studies revealed formation of actin stress fibers and non-uniform VE-cadherin and β-catenin staining at cell-cell junctions that were concentration- and time-dependent. Intercellular gaps were observed with a measured increase in endothelial permeability. In addition, concentration-dependent increases in tyrosine phosphorylation (PY) of β-catenin and activation of protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were observed. Inhibition of PKCα restored VE-cadherin and β-catenin staining at cell-cell junctions and abolished the As(III)-induced formation of actin stress fibers and intercellular gaps. Endothelial permeability and PY of β-catenin were also reduced to basal levels. These results demonstrate that As(III) induces activation of PKCα, which leads to increased PY of β-catenin downstream of PKCα activation. Phosphorylation of β-catenin plausibly severs the association of VE-cadherin and β-catenin, which along with formation of actin stress fibers, results in intercellular gap formation and increased endothelial permeability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that As(III) causes a loss of endothelial monolayer integrity, which potentially could contribute to the development of atherosclerosis

  11. Slack sodium-activated potassium channel membrane expression requires p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, Sushmitha; Fleites, John; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2016-04-01

    p38 MAPK has long been understood as an inducible kinase under conditions of cellular stress, but there is now increasing evidence to support its role in the regulation of neuronal function. Several phosphorylation targets have been identified, an appreciable number of which are ion channels, implicating the possible involvement of p38 MAPK in neuronal excitability. The KNa channel Slack is an important protein to be studied as it is highly and ubiquitously expressed in DRG neurons and is important in the maintenance of their firing accommodation. We sought to examine if the Slack channel could be a substrate of p38 MAPK activity. First, we found that the Slack C-terminus contains two putative p38 MAPK phosphorylation sites that are highly conserved across species. Second, we show via electrophysiology experiments that KNa currents and further, Slack currents, are subject to tonic modulation by p38 MAPK. Third, biochemical approaches revealed that Slack channel regulation by p38 MAPK occurs through direct phosphorylation at the two putative sites of interaction, and mutating both sites prevented surface expression of Slack channels. Based on these results, we conclude that p38 MAPK is an obligate regulator of Slack channel function via the trafficking of channels into the membrane. The present study identifies Slack KNa channels as p38 MAPK substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Remoción de mercúrio en lixiviados de un relleno sanitário empleando carbón activado impregnado con azufre

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Barrero, Maria Fanny; Londono Carvajal, Adela; Girado Gómez, Gloria Inés; Gonzalez, Nancy Rocio Sanabria

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción. Los lixiviados del relleno sanitario La Esmeralda, de Manizales (Colombia) presentan una elevada concentración de mercurio, el cual es un metal altamente tóxico para la salud humana y de los ecosistemas. La adsorción de mercurio en solución sobre carbón activado es un método eficiente para su remoción, y la modificación de la superficie del carbón activado con azufre mejora la capacidad de adsorción de este metal en medio acuoso. Objetivo. Evaluar la remoción de mercur...

  13. Sodium phenylbutyrate enhances astrocytic neurotrophin synthesis via protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB): implications for Alzheimer disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Grant T; Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-03-22

    Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are believed to be genuine molecular mediators of neuronal growth and homeostatic synapse activity. However, levels of these neurotrophic factors decrease in different brain regions of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Induction of astrocytic neurotrophin synthesis is a poorly understood phenomenon but represents a plausible therapeutic target because neuronal neurotrophin production is aberrant in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we delineate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), a Food and Drug Administration-approved oral medication for hyperammonemia, induces astrocytic BDNF and NT-3 expression via the protein kinase C (PKC)-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. NaPB treatment increased the direct association between PKC and CREB followed by phosphorylation of CREB (Ser(133)) and induction of DNA binding and transcriptional activation of CREB. Up-regulation of markers for synaptic function and plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons by NaPB-treated astroglial supernatants and its abrogation by anti-TrkB blocking antibody suggest that NaPB-induced astroglial neurotrophins are functionally active. Moreover, oral administration of NaPB increased the levels of BDNF and NT-3 in the CNS and improved spatial learning and memory in a mouse model of AD. Our results highlight a novel neurotrophic property of NaPB that may be used to augment neurotrophins in the CNS and improve synaptic function in disease states such as AD.

  14. Preclinical pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of sodium (±-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (BZP, an innovative potent anti-ischemic stroke agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sodium (±-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (BZP is a potential cardiovascular drug and exerts potent neuroprotective effect against transient and long-term ischemic stroke in rats. BZP could convert into 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP in vitro and in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic profiles of BZP and Br-NBP still have not been evaluated. For the purpose of investigating the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of BZP and Br-NBP, a rapid, sensitive and specific method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS has been developed for determination of BZP and Br-NBP in biological samples. The results indicated that BZP and Br-NBP showed a short elimination half-life, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg; i.v. and beagle dogs (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.v.gtt were obtained after single dosing of BZP. After multiple dosing of BZP, there was no significant accumulation of BZP and Br-NBP in the plasma of rats and beagle dogs. Following i.v. single dose (6 mg/kg to rats, BZP and Br-NBP were distributed rapidly into all tissues examined, with the highest concentrations of BZP and Br-NBP in lung and kidney, respectively. The brain distribution of Br-NBP in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO rats was more than in normal rats (P<0.05. The plasma protein binding degree of BZP at three concentrations (8000, 20000 and 80000 ng/mL from rat, beagle dog and human plasma were 98.1~98.7%, 88.9~92.7% and 74.8%~83.7% respectively. In conclusion, both BZP and Br-NBP showed short half-life, good dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile, wide tissue distribution and different degree protein binding to various species plasma. This was the first preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation of BZP and Br-NBP in both rats and beagle dogs, which provided vital guidance for further preclinical research and the subsequent clinical trials.

  15. Single Site Mutations in the Hetero-oligomeric Mrp Antiporter from Alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 That Affect Na+/H+ Antiport Activity, Sodium Exclusion, Individual Mrp Protein Levels, or Mrp Complex Formation*

    OpenAIRE

    Morino, Masato; Natsui, Shinsuke; Ono, Tomohiro; Swartz, Talia H.; Krulwich, Terry A.; Ito, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Mrp systems are widely distributed and structurally complex cation/proton antiporters. Antiport activity requires hetero-oligomeric complexes of all six or seven hydrophobic Mrp proteins (MrpA–MrpG). Here, a panel of site-directed mutants in conserved or proposed motif residues was made in the Mrp Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporter from an alkaliphilic Bacillus. The mutant operons were expressed in antiporter-deficient Escherichia coli KNabc and assessed for antiport properties, support of sodium resista...

  16. Weight Loss on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carb Diets by Insulin Resistance Status Among Overweight Adults & Adults with Obesity: A Randomized Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D.; Offringa, Lisa; Hartle, Jennifer; Kapphahn, Kris; Cherin, Rise

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test for differential weight loss response to Low-Fat (LF) vs. Low-Carbohydrate (LC) diets by insulin resistance status with emphasis on overall quality of both diets. METHODS Sixty-one adults, BMI 28-40 kg/m2, were randomized in a 2X2 design to LF or LC by insulin resistance status in this pilot study. Primary outcome was 6-month weight change. Participants were characterized as more insulin resistant (IR) or more insulin sensitive (IS) by median split of baseline insulin-area-under-the-curve from an oral glucose tolerance test. Intervention consisted of 14 one-hour class-based educational sessions. RESULTS Baseline % carb:% fat:% protein was 44:38:18. At 6m the LF group reported 57:21:22 and the LC group reported 22:53:25 (IR and IS combined). Six-month weight loss (kg) was 7.4 ± 6.0 (LF-IR), 10.4 ± 7.8 (LF-IS), 9.6 ± 6.6 (LC-IR), and 8.6 ± 5.6 (LC-IS). No significant main effects were detected for weight loss by diet group or IR status; no significant diet X IR interaction. Significant differences in several secondary outcomes were observed. CONCLUSION Substantial weight loss was achieved overall, but a significant diet X IR status interaction was not observed. Opportunity to detect differential response may have been limited by the focus on high diet quality for both diet groups and sample size. PMID:26638192

  17. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  18. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    K?se, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; U?ar, Sema Kalkan; ?oker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  19. Establishment of a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line expressing dual reporter genes: sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Won Jung; Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Mo Sun

    2007-01-01

    Dual reporter gene imaging has several advantages for more sophisticated molecular imaging studies such as gene therapy monitoring. Herein, we have constructed hepatoma cell line expressing dual reporter genes of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and the functionalities of the genes were evaluated in vivo by nuclear and optical imaging. A pRetro-PN vector was constructed after separating NIS gene from pcDNA-NIS. RSV-EGFP-WPRE fragment separated from pLNRGW was cloned into pRetro-PN vector. The final vector expressing dual reporter genes was named pRetro-PNRGW. A human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected by the retrovirus containing NIS and EGFP gene (HepG2-NE). Expression of NIS gene was confirmed by RT-PCR, radioiodine uptake and efflux studies. Expression of EGFP was confirmed by RT-PCR and fluorescence microscope. The HepG2 and HepG2-NE cells were implanted in shoulder and hindlimb of nude mice, then fluorescence image, gamma camera image and I-124 microPET image were undertaken. The HepG2-NE cell was successfully constructed. RT-PCR showed NIS and EGFP mRNA expression. About 50% of cells showed fluorescence. The iodine uptake of NIS-expressed cells was about 9 times higher than control. In efflux study, T 1/2 of HepG2-NE cells was 9 min. HepG2-NE xenograft showed high signal-to-background fluorescent spots and higher iodine-uptake compared to those of HepG2 xenograft. A hepatoma cell line expressing NIS and EGFP dual reporter genes was successfully constructed and could be used as a potential either by therapeutic gene or imaging reporter gene

  20. Evaluation of the pH- and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Marina; Kunimura, Juliana Sayuri; Jeng, Hélio Tallon; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Cholewa, Olivia

    The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations, pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column, was diluted in water for injection (WFI) (pH 6.0-7.0) and in 10 mM buffer solutions (acetate, pH 5.0; phosphate, pH 7.0; and Tris-EDTA, pH 8.0) with 0.9-30% NaCl or without and incubated at 80-95°C. The extent of protein denaturation was expressed as a percentage of the calculated decimal reduction time (D-value). In acetate buffer (pH 4.84 ±0.12), the mean D-values for 90% reduction in GFP fluorescence ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 min, independent of NaCl concentration and temperature. GFP thermal stability diluted in WFI (pH 5.94±0.60) was half that observed in phosphate buffer (pH 6.08±0.60); but in both systems, D-values decreased linearly with increasing NaCl concentration, with D-values (at 80°C) ranging from 3.44, min (WFI) to 6.1 min (phosphate buffer), both with 30% NaCl. However, D-values in Tris-EDTA (pH 7.65±0.17) were directly dependent on the NaCl concentration and 5-10 times higher than D-values for GFP in WFI at 80°C. GFP pH-and thermal stability can be easily monitored by the convenient measure of fluorescence intensity and potentially be used as an indicator to monitor that processing times and temperatures were attained.

  1. Effects of N,N-dimethylglycine sodium salt on apparent digestibility, vitamin E absorption, and serum proteins in broiler chickens fed a high- or low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prola, L; Nery, J; Lauwaerts, A; Bianchi, C; Sterpone, L; De Marco, M; Pozzo, L; Schiavone, A

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of supplementation with sodium salt of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG-Na) on apparent digestibility (AD) in broiler chickens fed low- and high-fat diets. Twenty-eight 1-d-old broiler chickens were fed one of the dietary treatments: a low-fat diet (LF) or a high-fat diet (HF) supplemented with or without 1,000 mg/kg of DMG-Na. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded at 14 and 35 d of age. Average daily growth, daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The AD of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, total fat (TF), and α-tocopheryl-acetate were assessed by 2 digestibility trials (at 18-21 and 32-35 d, respectively). Serum protein and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were assessed at 35 d of age. Final BW, feed intake, carcass, breast, and spleen weight were higher in groups fed LF than HF diets (P = 0.048, P = 0.002, P = 0.039, P DMG-Na-unsupplemented groups (P = 0.011) for both fat levels. During the first digestibility trial (18-21 d), the AD of DM (P = 0.023), OM (P = 0.033), CP (P = 0.030), and α-tocopheryl-acetate (P = 0.036) was higher in the DMG-Na-supplemented group than control. Digestibility of total fat was increased by DMG-Na supplementation in the LF groups (P = 0.038). A trend for improvement of digestibility was observed during the second digestibility trial (32-35 d) for DM (P = 0.089), OM (P = 0.051), and CP (P = 0.063) in DMG-Na groups. Total serum proteins (and relative fractions) were positively influenced by DMG-Na supplementation both in LF and HF diets (P = 0.029). Plasma α-tocopherol concentration was higher in groups fed LF than HF diets (P < 0.001).

  2. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  3. The CarbFix Pilot Project in Iceland - CO2 capture and mineral storage in basaltic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, H.; Sigfusson, B.; Aradottir, E. S.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Gislason, S. R.; Alfredsson, H. A.; Broecker, W. S.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Oelkers, E.

    2010-12-01

    The overall objective of the CarbFix project is to develop and optimize a practical and cost-effective technology for capturing CO2 and storing it via in situ mineral carbonation in basaltic rocks, as well as to train young scientist to carry the corresponding knowledge into the future. The project consists of a field injection of CO2 charged water at the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant in SW Iceland, laboratory experiments, numerical reactive transport modeling, tracer tests, natural analogue and cost analysis. The CO2 injection site is situated about 3 km south of the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant. Reykjavik Energy operates the power plant, which currently produces 60,000 tons/year CO2 of magmatic origin. The produced geothermal gas mainly consists of CO2 and H2S. The two gases will be separated in a pilot gas treatment plant, and CO2 will be transported in a pipeline to the injection site. There, CO2 will be fully dissolved in 20 - 25°C water during injection at 25 - 30 bar pressure, resulting in a single fluid phase entering the storage formation, which consists of relatively fresh basaltic lavas. The CO2 charged water is reactive and will dissolve divalent cations from the rock, which will combine with the dissolved carbon to form solid thermodynamically stable carbonate minerals. The injection test is designed to inject 2200 tons of CO2 per year. In the past three years the CarbFix project has been addressing background fluid chemistries at the injection site and characterizing the target reservoir for the planned CO2 injection. Numerous groundwater samples have been collected and analysed. A monitoring and accounting plan has been developed, which integrates surface, subsurface and atmospheric monitoring. A weather station is operating at the injection site for continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO2 and to track all key parameters for the injection. Environmental authorities have granted licenses for the CO2 injection and the use of tracers, based

  4. Cambios producidos en un carbón coquizante por oxidación con aire a baja temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Sánchez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Un carbón coquizante. La Vega (LVF fueoxidado hasta quitarle suspropiedades aglomerantes (LVO. El cambio en las propiedades plásticas con el tiempo de oxidación indican que éstas responden a causas diferentes. Los carbones LVF, LVO y uno no aglomerante, Tres Bancos (TB, fueron extraídos secuencialmente con tres solventes acuosos y seis orgánicos. La extractabilidad con THF y Piridina muestra diferencias significativas. El estudio por FTIR de los carbones y residuos de extracción permitió detectar diferencias en las funciones oxigenadas, formación de esteres alifáticos, ácidos carboxílicos y pérdida de cadenas laterales alquiTicas como consecuencia de la oxidación.

  5. Single site mutations in the hetero-oligomeric Mrp antiporter from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 that affect Na+/H+ antiport activity, sodium exclusion, individual Mrp protein levels, or Mrp complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Masato; Natsui, Shinsuke; Ono, Tomohiro; Swartz, Talia H; Krulwich, Terry A; Ito, Masahiro

    2010-10-01

    Mrp systems are widely distributed and structurally complex cation/proton antiporters. Antiport activity requires hetero-oligomeric complexes of all six or seven hydrophobic Mrp proteins (MrpA-MrpG). Here, a panel of site-directed mutants in conserved or proposed motif residues was made in the Mrp Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter from an alkaliphilic Bacillus. The mutant operons were expressed in antiporter-deficient Escherichia coli KNabc and assessed for antiport properties, support of sodium resistance, membrane levels of each Mrp protein, and presence of monomeric and dimeric Mrp complexes. Antiport did not depend on a VFF motif or a conserved tyrosine pair, but a role for a conserved histidine in a potential quinone binding site of MrpA was supported. The importance of several acidic residues for antiport was confirmed, and the importance of additional residues was demonstrated (e.g. three lysine residues conserved across MrpA, MrpD, and membrane-bound respiratory Complex I subunits (NuoL/M/N)). The results extended indications that MrpE is required for normal membrane levels of other Mrp proteins and for complex formation. Moreover, mutations in several other Mrp proteins lead to greatly reduced membrane levels of MrpE. Thus, changes in either of the two Mrp modules, MrpA-MrpD and MrpE-MrpG, influence the other. Two mutants, MrpB-P37G and MrpC-Q70A, showed a normal phenotype but lacked the MrpA-MrpG monomeric complex while retaining the dimeric hetero-oligomeric complex. Finally, MrpG-P81A and MrpG-P81G mutants exhibited no antiport activity but supported sodium resistance and a low [Na(+)](in). Such mutants could be used to screen hypothesized but uncharacterized sodium efflux functions of Mrp apart from Na(+) (Li(+))/H(+) antiport.

  6. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  7. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  8. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  9. Caracterización de las condiciones de salud respiratoria de los trabajadores expuestos a polvo de carbón en minería subterránea en Boyacá, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Garrote-Wilches, Carolina F.; Malagón-Rojas, Jeadran N.; Morgan, Gloria; Combariza, David; Varona, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la neumoconiosis de los mineros de carbón es una enfermedad pulmonar ocupacional asociada a factores individuales y condiciones laborales específicas. Se manifiesta progresiva e irreversiblemente, afectando la salud de los trabajadores y la productividad laboral. Objetivo: caracterizar las condiciones de salud respiratoria e identificar los factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de neumoconiosis en trabajadores que han laborado expuestos a polvo de carbón en minas de socavón...

  10. Sodium Channel (Dys)Function and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2010-01-01

    P>Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane proteins located in the cell membrane of cardiomyocytes. Influx of sodium ions through these ion channels is responsible for the initial fast upstroke of the cardiac action potential. This inward sodium current thus triggers the initiation

  11. Detection of carbapenemase activity in Enterobacteriaceae using LC-MS/MS in comparison with the neo-rapid CARB kit using direct visual assessment and colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Charlotte A; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Zowawi, Hosam M; Kvaskoff, David; Reed, Sarah; McNamara, John F; McCarthy, Kate L; Harris, Patrick; Toh, Benjamin; Wailan, Alexander M; Paterson, David L

    2016-12-01

    It has been described that the sensitivity of the Carba NP test may be low in the case of OXA-48-like carbapenamases and mass spectrometry based methods as well as a colorimetry based method have been described as alternatives. We evaluated 84 Enterobacteriaceae isolates including 31 OXA-48-like producing isolates and 13 isolates that produced either an imipenemase (IMP; n=8), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM; n=3), or Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC; n=2), as well as 40 carbapenemase negative Enterobacteriaceae isolates. We used the Neo-Rapid CARB kit, assessing the results with the unaided eye and compared it with a colorimetric approach. Furthermore, we incubated the isolates in growth media with meropenem and measured the remaining meropenem after one and 2h of incubation, respectively, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Whilst all carbapenemase producing isolates with the exception of the OXA-244 producer tested positive for both the Neo-rapid CARB test using the unaided eye or colorimetry, and the 13 isolates producing either IMP, NDM or KPC hydrolysed the meropenem in the media almost completely after 2h of incubation, the 31 OXA-48-like producing isolates exhibited very variable hydrolytic activity when incubated in growth media with meropenem. In our study, the Neo-Rapid CARB test yielded a sensitivity of 98% for both the traditional and the colorimetric approach with a specificity of 95% and 100% respectively. Our results indicate that the Neo-Rapid CARB test may have use for the detection of OXA-48 type carbapenemases and that it may be particularly important to ensure bacterial lysis for the detection of these weaker hydrolysers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Análisis de factores que afectan la caracterización de las propiedades del carbón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cifuentes Baquero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el problema relacionado con la variación de las propiedades del carbón bituminoso, utilizado en una planta de energía eléctrica colombiana. La estrategia implementada fue la metodología de diseño de experimentos (DOE para encontrar lascausas de estas variaciones, cambiando las condiciones de almacenamiento, afectadas por el clima y las diferentes formas de manejo de muestras. El estudio contempla el diseño, desarrollo y análisis de tres experimentos con el fin de identificar la influencia de parámetros como el tiempo y utilización del carbón almacenado, el clima antes del consumo y algunos procedimientos de muestreo y de esta forma explicar la divergencia entre las propiedades del carbón medidas en el patio y durante la trituración justo antes de ser quemado. Los resultados mostraron que el tiempo de almacenamiento en el patio y el desempeño del sistema automático de muestreo son la causa principal del problema.

  13. Molecular study on the carAB operon reveals that carB gene is required for swimming and biofilm formation in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Tao; Rou, Wei; Song, Xue; Guo, Jing; Fan, Xiaojing; Kamau, Gicharu Gibson; Zou, Huasong

    2015-10-23

    The carA and carB genes code the small and large subunits of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (CPS) that responsible for arginine and pyrimidine production. The purpose of this work was to study the gene organization and expression pattern of carAB operon, and the biological functions of carA and carB genes in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. RT-PCR method was employed to identify the full length of carAB operon transcript in X. citri subsp. citri. The promoter of carAB operon was predicted and analyzed its activity by fusing a GUS reporter gene. The swimming motility was tested on 0.25% agar NY plates with 1% glucose. Biofilm was measured by cell adhesion to polyvinyl chloride 96-well plate. The results indicated that carAB operon was composed of five gene members carA-orf-carB-greA-rpfE. A single promoter was predicted from the nucleotide sequence upstream of carAB operon, and its sensitivity to glutamic acid, uracil and arginine was confirmed by fusing a GUS reporter gene. Deletion mutagenesis of carB gene resulted in reduced abilities in swimming on soft solid media and in forming biofilm on polystyrene microtiter plates. From these results, we concluded that carAB operon was involved in multiple biological processes in X. citri subsp. citri.

  14. Estudio por Drifts de la oxidación en óxido nitroso de un carbón activado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Díaz Velásquez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de obtener materiales con propiedades superficiales diversas, en este trabajo se modificó un carbón activado mediante tratamiento térmico en una atmósfera de 20 % de óxido nitroso en nitrógeno a 500°C, por diferentes períodos de tiempo, al igual que en atmósferas de 5% de oxígeno en nitrógeno a 425°C por 600 minutos, y de 100% dehidrógeno a 950°C por 360 minutos. Para caracterizar la química superficial de los materiales tratados, se utilizó latécnica DRIFTS, cuyos resultados cualitativos muestran que los tratamientos con óxido nitroso tienen efectos mayoressobre la intensidad de los grupos superficiales formados. Estos cambios podrían estar asociados con la incorporacióndel nitrógeno dentro de la matriz del carbón. De acuerdo con los reportes de la literatura, la oxidación en fase gaseosadel carbón activado muestra principalmente grupos superficiales, tales como anhídridos carboxílicos, fenoles ycarboxilatos, lactonas y quinonas.

  15. Investigation of the Aerosols Over the Los Angeles Basin during the ARCTAS-CARB 2008 Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, L.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A.; Chen, G.; Winstead, E. L.; Lathem, T.; Diskin, G.; Sachse, G.; Dibb, J.; Scheuer, E.

    2008-12-01

    In the summer of 2008 during preparation for the second phase of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS), detailed measurements of atmospheric composition were made on-board the NASA DC-8 over the state of California on behalf of the California Air resources Board (CARB). Four flights were conducted between 18 July and 24 July, totaling 31 hours, over southern and central California to establish upwind chemical boundary conditions and gain a better understanding of the sources, chemical characteristics and spatial distribution of smog and greenhouse gases over the state. Serendipitously, from a science perspective, this time period was marked by numerous wildfires spread throughout the state. The DC-8 sensor suite included aerosol instruments capable of measuring the number concentrations, optical properties, and size distributions of aerosols between 0.003 and 20 um in diameter. In this presentation, we will characterize aerosols sampled during sorties over the Los Angeles basin, which included several missed approaches at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), traverses through the Long Beach and Santa Barbara ship channels, sampling in and out of the marine boundary layer, and encounters with outflow of forest fires mixed with urban smog. We will examine the evolution of the aerosols over the course of the day, as the smog accumulates within the basin and is then transported out of the basin into the surrounding atmosphere.

  16. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  17. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  18. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  19. Efficacy and compatibility with mass spectrometry of methods for elution of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and polyvinyldifluoride membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Jagd, M.; Sørensen, B.K.

    2004-01-01

    projects. As a result of this, methods for postelectrophoretic protein characterization are of Great interest as exemplified by in situ protease digestion combined with mass spectrometry (MS), which is the method of choice for identification of proteins. In this study we have developed and compared methods...... for recovering intact proteins from polyacrylamide gels and electroblotting membranes to define efficient methods compatible with MS. These methods complement in situ digestion protocols and allow determination of the molecular mass of whole proteins separated by SDS-PAGE. Passive elution of proteins from SDS......-PAGE gels was efficient only in the presence of SDS, whereas electroelution was achieved using butTers without SDS. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization MS (SELDI-MS) analysis of proteins eluted in the presence of SIDS was possible using ion exchange ProteinChip arrays for concentration of sample...

  20. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. VI. Effect of sodium chloride and abscisic acid on amino-acid and protein metabolism in leaves of Phaseolus aconitifolius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Kreutmeier, F.; Sankhla, N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) and abscisic acid (ABA) on protein synthesis, protein hydrolysis, activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase and amino-acid composition was investigated in the leaves of four days old Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings. Both NaCl and ABA inhibited protein synthesis, but promoted the activities of leucine arylamidase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and ..delta..-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-reductase. The results of the amino-acid analysis indicated following treatment with NaCl the amounts of proline, arginine, serine and glutamic acid increased significantly in the leaves. An increase of the proline concentration could be observed only up to a salt concentration of 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M. Increasing concentrations of ABA also brought a corresponding rise in proline, serine and glutamic acid content. Interestingly the decrease of proline concentration by a salt concentration of more than 8.5 x 10/sup -3/ M is correlated with a decrease in endogenous ABA-content. The possible significance of the similarites between the action of abscisic acid and salinity in influencing the amino-acid and protein metabolism in Phaseolus aconitifolius seedlings during stress is discussed. 31 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Evaluación de la reducción de pelets utilizando carbón como agente reductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Pérez Velásquez Alfonso López Díaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La obtención del acero se realiza a partir del mineralde hierro o de  la chatarra. En el primer caso el procesotiene lugar vía alto horno–convertidor; en el segundo,vía horno  eléctrico de  arco. Sin  embargo,  al hornoeléctrico también se pueden cargar los denominadospelets  prerreducidos  de  minerales  de  hierro,materiales metálicos  que  pueden  ser  obtenidos  apartir de  finos de mineral de hierro  (portador de  lacarga metálica,  finos de  carbón  (agente  reductor,finos  de  cal  (agente  desulfurante  y  bentonita(aglomerante, los cuales son convertidos en ovoidesmediante el empleo de un disco peletizador. El trabajomuestra  la  caracterización  realizada  a  las materiasprimas,  los  ensayos  de  reducibilidad  efectuados  apelets cargados en un horno tipo Linder –fabricadosa partir de dos yacimientos colombianos de mineralesde  hierro–  y  el  diseño  y  construcción  de  un  hornopara evaluar el comportamiento de los pelets durantela  reducción. Describe  los  equipos  y  analiza  sus

  2. Mujeres del carbón. Protestas y emociones en la reestructuración minera española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Sanz Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Las mujeres del carbón se hicieron visibles en las protestas del verano de 2012 trascendiendo el ámbito de lo privado y ocupando espacios de protesta y de participación en un sector claramente masculinizado abogando por “salvar” la mina; salvar un trabajo que les identificaba –a ellas y sus familias– como ser y ciudadano de un tejido social fuertemente ligado a una industria en vías de extinción. A través del análisis de discursos, traeremos las voces de las mujeres participantes en la movilización de la minería aragonesa (el origen del ruido y los motivos para el silencio acercándonos a la sociogénesis y el sentido de la protesta. Concluiremos que si bien el contexto de crisis y falta de alternativas laborales están en la base la movilización minera, la acción colectiva femenina fue en primer lugar, expresión de un proceso de reidentificación grupal (en el que mediaban diferentes identidades, entre ellas las de género; en segundo lugar, que la incorporación de la voz femenina a la protesta moldeó discursivamente su expresión, dando centralidad a la dimensión familiar en primer lugar y a la comunitaria después. Y en tercer y último lugar, que estas nuevas formas y narrativas generaron zonas emocionales que activaron y renovaron de modo efectivo y eficaz las solidaridades y reciprocidades articuladoras de la Marea Negra.

  3. Energy efficiency of digestible protein, fat and carbohydrate utilisation for growth in rainbow trout and Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Johan W; Haidar, Mahmoud N; Geurden, Inge; Heinsbroek, Leon T N; Kaushik, Sachi J

    2018-04-01

    Currently, energy evaluation of fish feeds is performed on a digestible energy basis. In contrast to net energy (NE) evaluation systems, digestible energy evaluation systems do not differentiate between the different types of digested nutrients regarding their potential for growth. The aim was to develop an NE evaluation for fish by estimating the energy efficiency of digestible nutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrates) and to assess whether these efficiencies differed between Nile tilapia and rainbow trout. Two data sets were constructed. The tilapia and rainbow data set contained, respectively, eight and nine experiments in which the digestibility of protein, fat and energy and the complete energy balances for twenty-three and forty-five diets was measured. The digestible protein (dCP), digestible fat (dFat) and digestible carbohydrate intakes (dCarb) were calculated. By multiple regression analysis, retained energy (RE) was related to dCP, dFat and dCarb. In tilapia, all digestible nutrients were linearly related to RE (Pefficiency of dCP, dFat and dCarb was 49, 91 and 66 %, respectively, showing large similarity with pigs. Tilapia and trout had similar energy efficiencies of dCP (49 v. 57 %) and dFat (91 v. 84 %), but differed regarding dCarb.

  4. Crystal structure of [1,1′:3′,1′′-ter­phenyl]-2′,3,3′′-tri­carb­oxy­lic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decato, Daniel A.; Berryman, Orion B.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C21H14O6, com­prises two symmetrically independent mol­ecules that form a locally centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded dimer, with the planes of the corresponding carb­oxy­lic acid groups rotated by 15.8 (1) and 17.5 (1)° relative to those of the adjacent benzene rings. The crystal as a whole, however, exhibits a noncentrosymmetric packing, described by the polar space group Pca21. The dimers form layers along the ab plane, being inter­connected by hydrogen bonds involving the remaining carb­oxy­lic acid groups. The plane of the central carb­oxy­lic acid group forms dihedral angles of 62.5 (1) and 63.0 (1)° with those of the adjacent benzene rings and functions as a hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor. As a donor, it inter­connects adjacent layers, while as an acceptor it stabilizes the packing within the layers. The ‘distal’ carb­oxy­lic acid groups are nearly coplanar with the planes of the adjacent benzene rings, forming dihedral angles of 1.8 (1) and 7.1 (1)°. These groups also form intra- and inter-layer hydrogen bonds, but with ‘reversed’ functionality, as compared with the central carb­oxy­lic acid groups. PMID:26396894

  5. Liver Fat Scores Moderately Reflect Interventional Changes in Liver Fat Content by a Low-Fat Diet but Not by a Low-Carb Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Stefan; Bäther, Sabrina; Dambeck, Ulrike; Kemper, Margrit; Gerbracht, Christiana; Honsek, Caroline; Sachno, Anna; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2018-01-31

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder all over the world, mainly being associated with a sedentary lifestyle, adiposity, and nutrient imbalance. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD accommodates similar developments for type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related comorbidities and complications. Therefore, early detection of NAFLD is an utmost necessity. Potentially helpful tools for the prediction of NAFLD are liver fat indices. The fatty liver index (FLI) and the NAFLD-liver fat score (NAFLD-LFS) have been recently introduced for this aim. However, both indices have been shown to correlate with liver fat status, but there is neither sufficient data on the longitudinal representation of liver fat change, nor proof of a diet-independent correlation between actual liver fat change and change of index values. While few data sets on low-fat diets have been published recently, low-carb diets have not been yet assessed in this context. We aim to provide such data from a highly effective short-term intervention to reduce liver fat, comparing a low-fat and a low-carb diet in subjects with prediabetes. Anthropometric measurements, magnetic resonance (MR)-based intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content, and several serum markers for liver damage have been collected in 140 subjects, completing the diet phase in this trial. Area-under-the-responder-operator-curves (AUROC) calculations as well as cross-sectional and longitudinal Spearman correlations were used. Both FLI and NAFLD-LFS predict liver fat with moderate accuracy at baseline (AUROC 0.775-0.786). These results are supported by correlation analyses. Changes in liver fat, achieved by the dietary intervention, correlate moderately with changes in FLI and NAFLD-LFS in the low-fat diet, but not in the low-carb diet. A correlation analysis between change of actual IHL content and change of single elements of the liver fat indices revealed diet-specific moderate to strong correlations between ΔIHL and

  6. Impacto del tratamiento con ozono sobre las propiedades superficiales del carbón activado Impact of ozone treatment on activated carbon surface properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Valdés

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El uso conjunto de ozono y carbón activado para tratar efluentes tóxicos ha sido demostrado recientemente. Sin embargo, existen dudas acerca del efecto del ozono sobre las propiedades del carbón activado. En este artículo se presentan resultados sobre la modificación de las propiedades superficiales de un carbón activado comercial por la acción del ozono durante diferentes tiempos de exposición. Las propiedades químicas superficiales del carbón activado fueron evaluadas utilizando las técnicas de neutralización selectiva, desorción térmica programada (DTP y el pH del punto de carga cero. Las características texturales fueron evaluadas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido. El área superficial aparente, el volumen de microporos y mesoporos fueron obtenidos a partir de las isotermas de adsorción de nitrógeno a 77 K. Las propiedades adsortivas fueron caracterizadas por el índice de adsorción de azul de metileno. Los resultados demuestran que los grupos superficiales oxigenados presentes en el carbón activado se modifican producto del tratamiento con el ozono. A mayores dosis de ozono, el carbón sufre mayor oxidación y se incrementan los grupos ácidos en especial los grupos carboxílicos, mientras que el pH de punto de carga cero disminuye. El área BET, así como el volumen de microporos disminuyen al igual que el poder de adsorción de azul de metileno.The combined use of ozone and activated carbon has recently started to be developed for the treatment of toxic effluents. However, the effect of ozone on the properties of activated carbon is not fully elucidated. A study was undertaken of modifications of the surface properties of a commercial activated carbon produced by its ozonation during different time periods. Surface chemistry of the activated carbon samples was characterized by of selective neutralization, temperature-programmed desorption, and pH of the point of zero charge. Surface area and volume of

  7. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  8. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  9. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  10. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  11. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  12. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  13. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  14. Mejoras tecnológicas en el proceso de inyección de carbón pulverizado en el horno alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich, A.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace operation technology with pulverized coal injection (PCI has been carried out in order to replace the maximum amount of metallurgical coke in the burden. PC burning has been studied and methods and designs for the intensification of its combustion have been developed within the raceway. Recommendations for optimizing coal grinding have been developed. Problems of PC distribution inside the circumference of the furnace were investigated. Compensating technology for changes in reduction, heat exchange and other processes under PCI have been developed.

    Se estudia la tecnología de operación del horno alto con inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP con el fin de sustituir el máximo posible de coque siderúrgico en la carga y se analizan aspectos de la combustión del carbón pulverizado (CP y los métodos y dispositivos elaborados para intensificar su combustión en la zona de toberas del horno alto. Se ofrecen recomendaciones para optimizar la molienda del carbón, se estudia la problemática de la distribución del CP a lo largo de la periferia del horno y se describe una tecnología elaborada para compensar las perturbaciones producidas por la inyección de CP en el horno alto sobre diferentes parámetros, tales como grado de reducción directa, intercambio térmico y otras.

  15. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  16. Síntesis de zeolitas a partir de cenizas volantes de centrales termoeléctricas de carbón

    OpenAIRE

    Umaña Peña, Juan Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Los sub-productos de combustión del carbón producidos en centrales térmicas, están compuestos generalmente por más de un 70% de material vítreo aluminosilicatado. Esta composición los hace potencialmente utilizables en obras de ingeniería civil o alternativamente como rellenos inertes en minería, así como adsorbentes, inmovilizadores, fuente alternativa en la extracción de Al, Fe, Si, Ge, Ga, V y Ni, y aditivos en suelos.Las cenizas volantes se caracterizan por una distribución granulométrica...

  17. Remoción de color de los lixiviados del relleno sanitario la Esmeralda por adsorción sobre carbón activado

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Benavides, Lilia del Pilar; Posada Giraldo, Ronald Edwin

    2004-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se abordan los estudios acerca de la problemática de la refinación de los lixiviados del relleno sanitario. La Esmeralda (lixiviado viejo que no tiene ningún tratamiento previo y los efluentes del tratamiento biológico del reactor UASB y del filtro anaerobio de flujo ascendente dispuestos en serie) por proceso de adsorción con carbón activado en reactor discontinuo para la remoción de color. Este estudio se desarrollo dentro de la tercera etapa de la investigación sobre...

  18. Estabilización de suelos arcillosos con cenizas de carbón para su uso como subrasante mejorada y/o sub base de pavimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Collantes, Rocío del Carmen; Pérez Collantes, Rocío del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Esta investigación, estudia el efecto que produce la adición de cenizas volantes de carbón en un suelo arcilloso, con el fin de evaluar en sus obras de pavimentación. La ceniza volante es un residuo que proviene de la planta termoeléctrica ubicada en Ilo, Moquegua. La disposición de éste, genera un problema ambiental. Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio para caracterizar la ceniza volante, las mezclas suelo-ceniza volante y suelo – ceniza volante – cemento para evaluar su comportamien...

  19. Coal trains and air quality in newcastle (trenes de carbón y su influencia en la calidad del aire en Newcastle)

    OpenAIRE

    Piedra Montoya, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo estudia la influencia de carbón en la calidad del aire una vez que ha sido extraído y es transportado en vagones desde el sitio de extracción hasta el puerto de exportación, en la localidad de Newcastle-Australia. A través de mediciones con equipos apropiados para calidad de aire, se observó el inclemento en la concentración de Material Particulado (MP 10 y MP 2,5) en el aire. Con la ayuda de software y las mediciones obtenidas se observó que a medida que los trenes que tr...

  20. Crystal structure of 2-amino-4-methyl-pyridin-1-ium (2R,3R)-3-carb-oxy-2,3-di-hydroxy-propano-ate monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovita, J V; Sathya, S; Usha, G; Vasanthi, R; Ramanand, A

    2014-09-01

    The title mol-ecular salt, C6H9N2 (+)·C4H5O6 (-)·H2O, crystallized with two 2-amino-4-methyl-pyridin-1-ium cations, two l-(+)-tartaric acid monoanions [systematic name: (2R,3R)-3-carb-oxy-2,3-di-hydroxy-propano-ate] and two water mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, the cations, anions and water mol-ecules are linked via a number of O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a C-H⋯O hydrogen bond, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  1. El carbón activado y las condiciones de oscuridad en la micropropagación de banana variedad Nanicão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Isabel Díaz Lezcano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo  del trabajo fue evaluar los efectos del carbón activado y las condiciones de oscuridad inicial sobre la propagación in vitro de banana (Musa spp. variedad Nanicão. Fueron empleados 64 ápices  provenientes de hijuelos de 20 - 30 cm. Los tratamientos consistieron en la combinación de dos concentraciones de carbón activado (2 y 3 g/l y dos condiciones de oscuridad inicial (15 y 30 días. El diseño experimental utilizado fue completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 2 y cuatro  repeticiones. Cada unidad experimental estuvo constituida por cuatro ápices. Las variables evaluadas fueron la tasa media de multiplicación, el porcentaje de supervivencia, oxidación, contaminación y  aclimatización de plántulas. El análisis estadístico consistió en el ANAVA con un nivel de significancia del 5 %. Las medias fueron comparadas a través del test de Tukey al 5 % de probabilidad. Los resultados mostraron que la combinación de 2 g/l de carbón activado y 15 días de oscuridad inicial promovió  el mayor  porcentaje de supervivencia del primer subcultivo que alcanzo 57,30 %.  En la fase de establecimiento el porcentaje de contaminación de los ápices de 39,06 % mientras que en el primer subcultivo  de 22,39 %. La oxidación en la fase de establecimiento fue de 9,37 % y en el primer subcultivo fue de 8,85 %. Se concluye que la  combinación entre la concentración de 2 g/l de carbón activado y 15 días de período de incubación inicial resulta efectiva en el aumento de la supervivencia de los ápices.

  2. Síntesis y caracterización de monolitos de carbón activado utilizando como precursor cáscara de coco

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Delgadillo, Diana; Giraldo-Gutierréz, Liliana; Ladino-Ospina, Yolanda; Moreno-Piraján, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Diferente series de monolitos de carbón activado fueron preparados por activación química de cáscara de coco con cloruro de zinc a diferentes concentraciones, sin el uso de ningún aglomerante. El paso de conformado por prensado fue introducido entre la impregnación con el agente químico y el tratamiento térmico. Las estructuras fueron caracterizadas por adsorción de N2 a 77 K, microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM) y algunas series fueron también caracterizadas mediante calorimetría de inme...

  3. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  4. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  5. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  6. Recuperación de oro a partir de disoluciones de amoniaco y tiosulfato utilizando carbón activado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of gold from solutions containing thiosulfate and ammonia using granular activated carbon was studied, evaluating the adsorption and elution stages. The influence of ammonia and thiosulfate concentration and the presence of impurities such as copper and zinc were also evaluated. In the presence of ammonia there was a concentration which maximized the adsorption of gold, while thiosulfate and impurities presence was harmful for the adsorption of gold. During elution, ammonia and thiosulfate concentration, pH regulator and temperature were evaluated. Ammonia favored the process as long as thiosulfate showed a maximum starting from which the elution diminishes. The effect of the pH regulator was very important; If was revealed that when the pH was regulated with caustic ammonia, a synergic effect appeared which favored the elution. Temperature favored the elution process, with activation energy of 9.13 kJ/mol.

    Se estudió la recuperación de oro de disoluciones de tiosulfato y amoniaco, utilizando carbón activado en gránulos, evaluando las etapas de adsorción y desorción. En la etapa de adsorción se evaluaron la concentración de amoniaco, de tiosulfato y de impurezas como cobre y cinc. En las condiciones experimentales ensayadas se encontró que, en presencia de amoniaco, existe una concentración óptima que maximiza la adsorción de oro, mientras que la presencia de tiosulfato e impurezas, tales como cobre y cinc, es perjudicial para la adsorción de oro. Para la desorción se evaluó la concentración de amoniaco, de tiosulfato, el regulador de pH y la temperatura. El amoniaco favoreció el proceso, en tanto que el tiosulfato presentó un máximo a partir del cual la desorción disminuyó. El efecto del regulador de pH fue muy importante, determinándose que cuando el pH era controlado con hidróxido de amonio, se presentaba un efecto sinérgico que favorecía la desorción. La temperatura favoreció el proceso de

  7. Understanding thermodynamics of drug partitioning in micelles and delivery to proteins: Studies with naproxen, diclofenac sodium, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talele, Paurnima; Choudhary, Sinjan; Kishore, Nand

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactions of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs studied with TTAB micelles, monomers. • Thermodynamics of drug-surfactant interactions and partitioning in micelles addressed. • Mechanism of drug partitioning addressed based on energetics of interactions. • Partitioning in micelles depends on functional groups on drugs. • Such studies are needed for target oriented synthesis and efficient drug delivery. - Abstract: The use of surfactants in drug delivery has offered several advantages. Quantitative knowledge of the interactions of drugs with micellar systems is essential for deriving guidelines to design efficient drug delivery systems. In this work we have quantitatively addressed the mechanism of interaction of naproxen and diclofenac sodium with the micelles and monomers of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) based on thermodynamic studies by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The mechanism of interaction of the drugs with TTAB is based on identification of the nature of interactions of the former with the surfactant micelles and monomers. The values of partitioning constant (which is same as equilibrium constant for the reaction of drugs with the surfactant micelles), enthalpy, entropy and stoichiometry of partitioning have been determined and discussed in terms of possible intermolecular interactions. Further, the interaction of the drug naproxen with bovine serum albumin, when delivered from the micellar media has also been addressed in terms of binding constant, enthalpy and entropy of binding. The results are important in developing improved strategies for effective drug delivery systems.

  8. Prevalencia de neumoconiosis y su relación con medidas de higiene y seguridad industrial y niveles ambientales de carbón en minería subterránea en el departamento de Cundinamarca - Colombia, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Corrales, Luis Eduardo; Palma, Ruth Marien; Varona, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La exposición en minas subterráneas a altos niveles de polvo de carbón está relacionada con patologías pulmonares. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de neumoconiosis, medidas de higiene y seguridad industrial y su relación con niveles ambientales de carbón en trabajadores de minas de socavón en Cundinamarca. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal, en 215 trabajadores seleccionados mediante muestreo probabilístico estratificado con asignación proporcional. ...

  9. Prevalencia de neumoconiosis y hallazgos espirométricos en trabajadores expuestos a polvo de carbón en minería subterránea en el Departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Briceno-Ayala, Leonardo; Romero Giraldo, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de neumoconiosis y caracterizar los resultados de la espirometría y la presencia de síntomas respiratorios en trabajadores expuestos a polvo de carbón por las labores realizadas en minas de socavón en Cundinamarca. Metodología: Estudio de corte transversal en 215 trabajadores con exposición ocupacional a polvo de carbón, que laboran en minas subterráneas en Cundinamarca, 2014. Se recolectó información de variables sociodemográficas, hábitos de tabaquismo...

  10. Obtención de carbón activado a partir de la cubierta seminal de leguminosa haba (Vicia-Faba) y su uso en el proceso de recuperación de oro desde soluciones cianuradas

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Zea, Norberto Sixto

    2008-01-01

    La minería aurífera en el Perú, carece de tecnologías adecuadas para recuperar oro eficientemente, teniéndose pérdidas significativas en los relaves como oro sedimentado o submicroscópico. Los procesos en nuevos proyectos de recuperación de oro, desarrollan la aplicación de la tecnología del carbón activado que adsorbe oro de soluciones lixiviadas en cianuro que permite trabajar minerales de baja ley consiguiendo ventajas en costos de operación y mejor productividad. El carbón activado para r...

  11. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  12. Effects of pelleted or powdered diets containing soy protein or sodium caseinate on lipid concentrations and bile acid excretion in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butteiger, Dustie N; Krul, Elaine S

    2015-08-01

    Custom diets are a convenient vector for oral administration of test articles, but the processing and physical form of a diet can affect its nutritional properties and how it is consumed. Here, the authors evaluated the feeding behavior and physiology of golden Syrian hamsters fed diets of either soy or caseinate protein in pelleted or powdered forms for 28 d to determine whether dietary processing and form mediates the physiological effects of dietary proteins. The authors compared body weight, food consumption, serum cholesterol concentration, serum triglyceride concentration, fecal weight and fecal excretion of bile acids between treatment groups. Hamsters fed powdered diets showed higher food consumption than hamsters fed pelleted diets, regardless of protein source. Hamsters fed soy pelleted diets showed lower serum cholesterol concentration and higher fecal excretion of bile acid than hamsters fed caseinate pelleted diets, and serum cholesterol concentration correlated strongly with fecal excretion of bile acid. This correlation suggests that the physiological effects of soy protein on cholesterol and excretion of bile acid might be related or similarly mediated through diet. The differences observed between hamsters on different diets indicate that dietary form can influence both feeding behavior and the physiological effects of a diet in hamsters.

  13. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  14. Obtención de fertilizantes nitrogenados a partir de carbón preparación y caracterización química

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Rincón

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza la oxidación de un carbón bituminoso con ácido nítrico y la separación de los ácidos húmicos regenerados por solubilización con hidróxido de sodio y posterior precipitación en medio ácido. Con los ácidos húmicos regenerados se prepararon los humatos de amonio, los cuales se transformaron a la forma amida correspondiente, mediante su calentamiento en un reactor tubular entre 150 y 300 °C y tiempo de residencia de 0.5 a 3.0 h. Se encontró que la temperatura es un factor determinante de la reacción mientras que la influencia del tiempo de residencia es poca. El nitrógeno, que iniciaimente era de 1.5% en el carbón, se incrementó al 10% en los humatos de amonio y en las amidas correspondientes.

  15. Mecanismo de selección de consorcios bacterianos compatibles con A. ferrooxidans y A. thiooxidans en procesos de biodesulfurización de carbón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Caicedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A nivel de erlenmeyer, se evaluaron procesos de biodesulfurización de un carbón rico en azufre con un tamaño de partícula entre 0,24 cm - 0,06 cm, empleando consorcios bacterianos de cepas compatibles con Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans y compatibles con Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Se analizaron los principales factores fisicoquímicos que pueden influir, con monitoreos de pH, potencial redox en el líquido lixiviante y sulfato en solución y precipitado, producido a partir de compuestos reducidos de azufre presentes en el carbón y en el medio. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, se alcanzó 71,50% de sulfato producido con relación al máximo posible después de 16 días de proceso. Estos resultados son claves para la escogencia de cepa a la hora de trabajar procesos de biodesulfurización a escala mayor.

  16. Evaluación de un carbón activado comercial en la remoción del colorante DB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grey Cecilia Castelar Ortega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Los colorantes sintéticos usados en la fabricación de textiles son una clase importante de compuestos orgánicos que, con frecuencia, se encuentran en los cuerpos de agua, como resultado de su amplio uso industrial, convirtiéndose en agentes que desafortunadamente afectan el medio ambiente. La disposición final de estos colorantes a los recursos de agua se debe evitar o minimizar; para tal efecto, se utilizan varias técnicas de tratamiento, siendo la adsorción una de las más empleadas. En este estudio se removió el colorante azul marino directo 2 en disolución acuosa sobre carbón activado granular comercial a 22°C ± 1°C. Se realizaron experimentos por lote para determinar el efecto de la concentración inicial (7 – 65 mgL-1 y del pH (5,0 – 9,0 sobre la capacidad de adsorción y el porcentaje de remoción. Los datos experimentales se ajustaron a los modelos de isotermas de adsorción de Freundlich y Langmuir. La capacidad de adsorción máxima lograda por el carbón activado fue de 2,22 mgg-1 a pH 5,0.

  17. Acción del cloro y carbón activado en polvo sobre la remoción de microcistinas en tratamientos de agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las floraciones (bloom de algas cianofíceas en el Lago de Salto Grande (Argentina- Uruguay son consecuencia del estado de eutrofización y las condiciones ambientales. Representan un problema ecológico, sanitario y económico porque afectan el turismo, producen aumento del costo de tratamiento de agua potable y, lo más importante, riesgos para la salud pública por exposición a productos de su metabolismo: las cianotoxinas. Las microcistinas son las toxinas halladas con mayor frecuencia y más tóxicas sobre el ser humano, y se ha detectado su presencia en todas las floraciones registradas en el Lago. Se estudió la acción del cloro y el carbón activado en polvo para la remoción de microcistinas, en condiciones de laboratorio, demostrándose mayor efectividad sobre la remoción de las mismas del tratamiento de oxidación con cloro respecto del método de adsorción con carbón activado en polvo.

  18. Evaluación de la celulosa de papel y de las cenizas de carbón, como materiales aislantes alternativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO MUÑOZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se construyó un medidor de conductividad térmica de materiales sólidos según las recomendaciones de las Normas ASTM C518 y C177. El equipo sirvió para medir la conductividad térmica como una función de la temperatura de dos materiales de desecho sólidos, cenizas de carbón y una mezcla de celulosa de papel con cemento. La conductividad de las cenizas fue tan baja como 0.073 W/mK a una temperatura de 250ºC y la conductividad de la mezcla de celulosa de papel con cemento fue de 0.241 W/mK a una temperatura de 160ºC. Esto muestra que ambos materiales tienen propiedades de aislantes térmicos como para usarse industrialmente. Las cenizas de carbón que soportan altas temperaturas pueden reemplazar la costosa fibra cerámica.

  19. Aprovechamiento de partículas de ultrafinos de carbón de una planta lavadora en la producción de coque metalúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Gutierrez Bernal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el aprovechamiento en mezclas de ultrafinos provenientes de una planta de lavado de carbón para la producción de coque por el proceso de briquetación, utilizando 6% en peso de alquitrán de carbón como aglomerante. Se caracterizaron las materias primas y se realizó una prueba piloto de coquización en un horno tipo Koppers. Se determinó la calidad del coque por pruebas de análisis próximo, estabilidad (Micum 10, M10 y Micum 40, M40, índice de reactividad del coque al CO2 (CRI y de resistencia después de la reacción con dióxido de carbono (CSR. Los resultados mostraron que la briquetación permite obtener un coque con un CRI de 19,0% y un CSR de 75,6%, características requeridas en los procesos metalúrgicos.

  20. Efecto de las propiedades físicas del carbón activado en la adsorción de oro desde medio cianuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, P.

    2010-06-01

    amount of adsorbed gold increased with the increase in macropores and with the increasing pore average diameter. The presence of cations favors the gold adsorption in cyanide media, especially those of higher valence.

    Se estudió el efecto de las propiedades físicas de un carbón activado, tales como distribución de tamaño de poros, superficie específica, diámetro promedio de poros, en la adsorción de oro desde disoluciones cianuradas, con el oro disuelto a la forma de Au (CN2. Para cumplir con los objetivos planteados se trabajó con dos carbones activados: el carbón A, con superficie específica de 985 m2/g, 57 % de microporos y 3,8 nm como diámetro promedio de poros, y el carbón B, con superficie específica de 786 m2/g, 27 % de microporos y 11,6 nm como diámetro promedio de poros; ambos carbones, de forma granular, han sido fabricados a partir de cáscara de coco. Se realizaron ensayos de adsorción batch en un reactor de 500 ml de capacidad, con agitación mecánica a temperatura constante. Se estudiaron los efectos de cationes presentes, tales como Ca2+, Na+, K+ y Li+, de la distribución de tamaño de poros, del diámetro promedio de poros y del área superficial, en la velocidad y cantidad de oro adsorbido en los carbones activados denominados como A y B. Se encontró que las propiedades físicas de un carbón activado constituyen un factor relevante en el proceso de adsorción de oro, en términos de velocidad y cantidad de oro adsorbido. El carbón B, con 786 m2/g de superficie específica, alcanzó una mayor carga por unidad de superficie (0,02 mg Au/m2 en relación al carbón A, de 985 m2/g, el cual alcanzó una carga de 0,01 mg Au/m2, después de 6 h de contacto carbón-disolución. La velocidad de adsorción de oro en ambos carbones fue controlada por transferencia de masa en la película líquida que rodea

  1. A phosphorylation-motif for tuneable helix stabilisation in intrinsically disordered proteins - Lessons from the sodium proton exchanger 1 (NHE1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendus-Altenburger, Ruth; Lambrughi, Matteo; Terkelsen, Thilde Bagger

    2017-01-01

    ). Using NMR spectroscopy, we found that two out of those six phosphorylation sites had a stabilizing effect on transient helices. One of these was further investigated by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy as well as by molecular dynamic simulations, which confirmed the stabilizing effect......-spread role in phosphorylation-mediated regulation of intrinsically disordered proteins. The identification of such motifs is important for understanding the molecular mechanism of cellular signalling, and is crucial for the development of predictors for the structural effect of phosphorylation; a tool......Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are involved in many pivotal cellular processes including phosphorylation and signalling. The structural and functional effects of phosphorylation of IDPs remain poorly understood and difficult to predict. Thus, a need exists to identify motifs that confer...

  2. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women and its interaction with vitamin D receptor genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of a high-Na, high-protein (calciuric) diet on Ca and bone metabolism was investigated in postmenopausal women (aged 5067 years) who were stratified by vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotype. In a crossover trial, twenty-four women were randomly assigned to a diet high in protein (90 g....../d) and Na (180 mmol/d) or a diet adequate in protein (70 g/d) and low in Na (65 mmol/d) for 4 weeks, followed by crossover to the alternative dietary regimen for a further 4 weeks. Dietary Ca intake was maintained at usual intakes (about 20 mmol (800 mg)/d). Urinary Na, K, Ca, N and type I collagen cross...... samples collected at the end of each dietary period. The calciuric diet significantly (Pdiet, but had no effect on circulating 25(OH)D-3, 1,25(OH)(2)D-3, PTH, osteocalcin or B-Alkphase in the total group (n 24). There were...

  3. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Köse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  4. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  5. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  6. Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) as a functional ingredient in porcine frankfurters without added sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Els; Utrera, Mariana; De Smet, Stefaan; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dog rose (Rosa canina L.; RC), rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on lipid and protein oxidation, colour stability and texture of frankfurters was investigated. Four treatments were prepared: with 5 or 30 g/kg RC extract and without sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite (5RC and 30RC, respectively), a positive control (with sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite; PC) and a negative control (without sodium ascorbate, sodium nitrite or RC extract; NC). Hexanal values were much higher throughout storage in NC compared to RC and PC frankfurters (Prose can act as a natural antioxidant in frankfurters, but not as full replacer for sodium nitrite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  8. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  9. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  10. Modulation of sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter (SLC4A4/NBCe1) protein and mRNA expression in rat's uteri by sex-steroids and at different phases of the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Khadijeh; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-02-01

    Oestrogen-induced uterine fluid sodium (Na(+)) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) secretion may involve SLC4A4. We hypothesized that uterine SLC4A4 expression changes under different sex-steroid influence, therefore may account for the fluctuation in uterine fluid Na(+) and HCO3(-) content throughout the oestrous cycle. The aim of this study is to investigate the differential effects of sex-steroids and oestrous cycle phases on uterine SLC4A4 expression. Adult female WKY rats were ovariectomised and treated with different doses of 17β-oestradiol (E2) (0.2, 2, 20 and 50 μg/ml/day) or progesterone (P4) (4 mg/ml/day) for three consecutive days and 3 days treatment with 0.2 μg/ml/day E2 followed by another 3 days with P4 to mimic the hormonal changes in early pregnancy. Oestrous cycle phases in intact, non-ovariectomised rats were determined by vaginal smear. The animals were then sacrificed and uteri were removed for protein and mRNA expression analyses by Western blotting and Real Time PCR, respectively. SLC4A4 distribution was observed by immunohistochemistry. Treatment with increasing E2 doses resulted in a dose-dependent increase in SLC4A4 protein expression. High SLC4A4 protein and mRNA expression can be seen at estrus. SLC4A4 is distributed mainly at the apical as well as basolateral membranes of the luminal and glandular epithelia following E2 treatment and at Es. Meanwhile, SLC4A4 expression was reduced following P4 treatment and was low at diestrus. High SLC4A4 expression under estrogen dominance may contribute to the increase in uterine fluid Na(+) and HCO3(-) content, while its low expression under P4 dominance may result in vice versa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  12. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  13. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  14. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  15. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA modulates expression of apoptosis associated proteins in hippocampus of rats exposed during postnatal period to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the role of exogenous alpha lipoic acid (ALA in amelioration of inorganic arsenic (iAs induced effects on apoptosis and apoptosis associated proteins in developing rat hippocampus. NaAsO2 (1.5/2.0 mg/kg bw alone or along with ALA (70 mg/kg bw was administered to rat pups (experimental groups by intraperitoneal (i.p. route from postnatal day (PND 4–15. Controls received no treatment/distilled water/ALA. On PND 16, the animals were perfusion fixed and the brains were processed for paraffin embedding (CV and TUNEL staining and cryopreservation (immunohistochemistry. The fresh brain tissue was used for Western blotting. Significant increase was observed in TUNEL positive cells and Bax (pro-apoptotic protein expression in hippocampal sub-regions of iAs alone treated groups, whereas Bcl-2 expression was intensified in animals receiving ALA with iAs. Densitometric analysis (Western blots revealed optimal restoration of Bax and Bcl-2 ratio in animals receiving ALA with iAs, thereby suggesting the protective role of ALA in iAs induced developmental neurotoxicity.

  16. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) modulates expression of apoptosis associated proteins in hippocampus of rats exposed during postnatal period to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Shilpi; Dhar, Pushpa; Mehra, Raj D

    2015-01-01

    The present study focused on the role of exogenous alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in amelioration of inorganic arsenic ( iAs ) induced effects on apoptosis and apoptosis associated proteins in developing rat hippocampus. NaAsO 2 (1.5/2.0 mg/kg bw) alone or along with ALA (70 mg/kg bw) was administered to rat pups (experimental groups) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route from postnatal day (PND) 4-15. Controls received no treatment/distilled water/ALA. On PND 16, the animals were perfusion fixed and the brains were processed for paraffin embedding (CV and TUNEL staining) and cryopreservation (immunohistochemistry). The fresh brain tissue was used for Western blotting. Significant increase was observed in TUNEL positive cells and Bax (pro-apoptotic protein) expression in hippocampal sub-regions of iAs alone treated groups, whereas Bcl-2 expression was intensified in animals receiving ALA with iAs . Densitometric analysis (Western blots) revealed optimal restoration of Bax and Bcl-2 ratio in animals receiving ALA with iAs , thereby suggesting the protective role of ALA in iAs induced developmental neurotoxicity.

  17. Comparisons of protein, lipid, phenolics, γ-oryzanol, vitamin E, and mineral contents in bran layer of sodium azide-induced red rice mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Toong Long; Ho, Pei Tzu; Shih, Yi Ju; Lai, Chia Chi; Wu, Min Tze; Sung, Jih Min

    2011-06-01

    The bran part of red rice grain is concentrated with many phytochemicals, including proanthocyanidins, oryzanol and vitamin E, that exert beneficial effects on human health, but it contains low levels of essential minerals such as Fe and Zn. In the present study, the protein, lipid, phytochemicals and mineral contents in bran samples were compared among red rice SA-586 and its NaN₃-induced mutants. The plant heights of NaN₃-induced mutants were decreased. The contents of protein, lipid, total phenolics, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, total proanthocyanidins, total γ-oryzanol, total tocopherols and total tocotrienols also varied among the tested mutants. The brans of mutants M-18, M-56 and M-50 contained more proanthocyanidins, γ-oryzanol, vitamin E than that of SA-586, respectively. M-54 accumulated more Fe content (588.7 mg kg⁻¹ bran dry weight) than SA-586 (100.1 mg kg⁻¹ bran dry weight). The brans of M-18, M-50 and M-56 are good sources of proanthocyanidins, vitamin E and γ-oryzanol, respectively, while the bran of M-54 is rich in Fe. Thus these mutants could be used to produce high-value phytochemicals or Fe byproducts from bran during rice grain milling or as genetic resources for rice improvement programs. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Profil Protein Trypanosoma evansi dari Daerah Geografis Berbeda di Indonesia Tahun 2012-2014 dengan Sodium Dodecil Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI PROTEIN PROFILE OF DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS ORIGIN IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrine Ekawasti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surra outbreak in 2012 has led to more than 1,700 animals have died in the province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT Indonesia. Surra case sporadically continues throughout the year in various areas, especially Kalimantan, Banten as well as other areas. Some reports reveal differences in protein profiles among multiple isolates of T. evansi. Therefore the purpose of this research were to find out the protein profile of each isolate T. evansi in Indonesia and the possible biological differences among them. Eleven isolates originating from the province of East Nusa Tenggara, South Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, Banten, Lampung and Bengkulu has been isolated and purified Using DEAE. Trypanosoma isolate were frezeethawing repeatedly to obtain soluble protein. Furthermore, soluble protein is treated with heating or without heating and then each was run on SDS PAGE with Coomassie Blue staining. The protein profiles of all isolates were compared each other. The results showed that eleven isolates of T. evansi in Indonesia has a very diverse protein profile. Then for the purposes of development of diagnostic kit can be used whole lysate cell (WCL as stock antigen in serological test process.

  19. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.; Anderson, N.R.

    1971-01-01

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  20. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  1. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.C.; Brewer, J.; Forster, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four strains of eri, Samia cynthia ricini Lepidoptera: Saturniidae that can be identified morphologically and maintained at North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat were characterized based on their protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA by random ...

  3. The pathway by which the yeast protein kinase Snf1p controls acquisition of sodium tolerance is different from that mediating glucose regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tian; Elbing, Karin; Hohmann, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    It recently became apparent that the highly conserved Snf1p protein kinase plays roles in controlling different cellular processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in addition to its well-known function in glucose repression/derepression. We have previously reported that Snf1p together with Gis4p controls ion homeostasis by regulating expression of ENA1, which encodes the Ena1p Na(+) extrusion system. In this study we found that Snf1p is rapidly phosphorylated when cells are exposed to NaCl and this phosphorylation is required for the role of Snf1p in Na(+) tolerance. In contrast to activation by low glucose levels, the salt-induced phosphorylation of Snf1p promoted neither phosphorylation nor nuclear export of the Mig1p repressor. The mechanism that prevents Mig1p phosphorylation by active Snf1p under salt stress does not involve either hexokinase PII or the Gis4p regulator. Instead, Snf1p may mediate upregulation of ENA1 expression via the repressor Nrg1p. Activation of Snf1p in response to glucose depletion requires any of the three upstream protein kinases Sak1p, Tos3p and Elm1p, with Sak1p playing the most prominent role. The same upstream kinases were required for salt-induced Snf1p phosphorylation, and also under these conditions Sak1p played the most prominent role. Unexpectedly, however, it appears that Elm1p plays a dual role in acquisition of salt tolerance by activating Snf1p and in a presently unknown parallel pathway. Together, these results indicate that under salt stress Snf1p takes part in a different pathway from that during glucose depletion and this role is performed together as well as in parallel with its upstream kinase Elm1p. Snf1p appears to be part of a wider functional network than previously anticipated and the full complexity of this network remains to be elucidated.

  4. Obtención de fertilizantes nitrogenados a partir de carbón preparación y caracterización química

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón, José M.; Portilla, José Gregorio; Vanegas, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    Se realiza la oxidación de un carbón bituminoso con ácido nítrico y la separación de los ácidos húmicos regenerados por solubilización con hidróxido de sodio y posterior precipitación en medio ácido. Con los ácidos húmicos regenerados se prepararon los humatos de amonio, los cuales se transformaron a la forma amida correspondiente, mediante su calentamiento en un reactor tubular entre 150 y 300 °C y tiempo de residencia de 0.5 a 3.0 h. Se encontró que la temperatura es un factor determinante...

  5. Influencia del ph sobre la adsorción en carbón activado de cd(ii) y ni(ii) desde soluciones acuosas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Paola; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    La adsorción de iones Cd(II) y Ni(II) desde soluciones acuosas sobre carbón activado se estudia con diferentes valores de pH. La adsorción de los iones se realiza en dos condiciones de pH de la solución: en la primera el pH varía en el transcurso del proceso a medida que los iones se adsorben y en la segunda el pH se mantiene fijo durante la adsorción. Cuando no se realiza un control en el pH de la solución se observan incrementos en la concentración de los io...

  6. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCar & Vehicle Technologies Program CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion engine Vehicle -- Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-01

    The CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle was undertaken to define the requirements to achieve a California Air Resource Board Executive Order for a hydrogenfueled vehicle retrofit kit. A 2005 to 2006 General Motors Company Sierra/Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD pickup was assumed to be the build-from vehicle for the retrofit kit. The emissions demonstration was determined not to pose a significant hurdle due to the non-hydrocarbon-based fuel and lean-burn operation. However, significant work was determined to be necessary for Onboard Diagnostics Level II compliance. Therefore, it is recommended that an Experimental Permit be obtained from the California Air Resource Board to license and operate the vehicles for the durability of the demonstration in support of preparing a fully compliant and certifiable package that can be submitted.

  7. Monolitos de carbón activado a partir de cáscara de coco e impregnación con niquel y cobre

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno-Piraján, J. C

    2009-01-01

    Una serie de diferentes monolitos de carbón activado fueron preparados a partir de cáscara de coco por medio de activación química con ácido fosfórico a diferentes concentraciones sin utilizar aglomerantes ni plastificantes. Al monolito que mayor área desarrolló se le impregnó vía húmeda con soluciones de Ni y Cu a diferentes relaciones molares. Las estructuras fueron caracterizadas por la adsorción de N2 a 77 K, y se exploró su morfología por medio de microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los ...

  8. Proceso de depuración calco-carbónica en la obtención del azucar de remolacha

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Jiménez, Eva; Climent Márquez, Diego

    2017-01-01

    El presente proyecto tiene como objeto el diseño de una planta de obtención de azúcar a partir de remolacha azucarera, con una capacidad de molturación media de 5.400 t/día (225 t/h) obteniéndose una producción total estimada de 27 t/h de azúcar. Aunque el proyecto se centrará en el diseño de cada uno de los equipos que componen la etapa de depuración calco-carbónica, se hará una descripción de las restantes etapas que componen todo el proceso de obtención del azúcar de r...

  9. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  10. Feasibility of dual reporter gene in rat myoblast cell line using human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, You La; Ahn, Sohn Joo; Choi, Chang Ik; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To develop a non-invasive combined imaging method of gamma camera and optical imaging to assess rat myoblast cell line, H9c2, we constructed retrovirus containing hNIS and EGFP gene, and transfected to rat myoblast cell and monitored hNIS and EGFP expression. Rat myoblast cell line, H9C2, was transfected with hNIS and EGFP gene using retrovirus (H9C2-NG). The expression of hNIS and EGFP gene was determined by RT-PCR and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The uptake and efflux of I-125 were measured in the transfected and wild type cell lines. Each cell line was injected to 4 flank sites (H9c2: 1X107 or 2X107, H9C2-NG: 1X107 or 2X107) in nude mouse. Scintigraphic image was performed at 3h, 1 day after H9C2 and H9C2-NG cell inoculation. We performed gamma camera and animal PET imaging to evaluate NIS expression. Also, GFP image obtained using optical imaging system. The expression of hNIS and EGFP gene was confirmed by RT-PCR. In iodide uptake, H9C2-NG cells accumulated 274.52.2 pmol/ mg protein at 30 min. But wild type cell line did not uptake iodide. In fluorescent microscopy, H9C2-NG cells were highly fluorescent than that of H9C2 cells. In iodide efflux study, 50% of radioactivity flowed out during the first 10min. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake of Tc-99m in H9c2-NG than in H9C2 for 1 day. Also, H9C2-NG cells showed high signal-to-background fluorescent spots in animal body. In this study, NIS and EGFP reporter gene were successfully transfected by a retrovirus in myoblast cell line, and the transfected cell can be easily visualized in vivo. These results suggest that NIS and EGFP gene has an excellent feasibility as a reporter gene, and it can be used to monitor cell trafficking for monitoring.

  11. Effects of dietary sodium on metabolites: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Andriy; Sampson, Joshua; Joseph, Justin; Playdon, Mary C; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2017-10-01

    Background: High sodium intake is known to increase blood pressure and is difficult to measure in epidemiologic studies. Objective: We examined the effect of sodium intake on metabolites within the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial)-Sodium Trial to further our understanding of the biological effects of sodium intake beyond blood pressure. Design: The DASH-Sodium Trial randomly assigned individuals to either the DASH diet (low in fat and high in protein, low-fat dairy, and fruits and vegetables) or a control diet for 12 wk. Participants within each diet arm received, in random order, diets containing high (150 nmol or 3450 mg), medium (100 nmol or 2300 mg), and low (50 nmol or 1150 mg) amounts of sodium for 30 d (crossover design). Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each sodium intervention. We measured 531 identified plasma metabolites in 73 participants at the end of their high- and low-sodium interventions and in 46 participants at the end of their high- and medium-sodium interventions ( N = 119). We used linear mixed-effects regression to model the relation between each log-transformed metabolite and sodium intake. We also combined the resulting P values with Fisher's method to estimate the association between sodium intake and 38 metabolic pathways or groups. Results: Six pathways were associated with sodium intake at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.0013 (e.g., fatty acid, food component or plant, benzoate, γ-glutamyl amino acid, methionine, and tryptophan). Although 82 metabolites were associated with sodium intake at a false discovery rate ≤0.10, only 4-ethylphenylsufate, a xenobiotic related to benzoate metabolism, was significant at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold ( P Sodium intake is associated with changes in circulating metabolites, including gut microbial, tryptophan, plant component, and γ-glutamyl amino acid-related metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000608. © 2017

  12. Proinflammatory effect of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in deltaF508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator lung epithelial cells: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 and c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Telma; Boncoeur, Emilie; Saint-Criq, Vinciane; Bonvin, Elise; Clement, Annick; Tabary, Olivier; Jacquot, Jacky

    2008-09-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) has attracted a great deal of attention in cystic fibrosis (CF) pathology due to its capacity to traffic DeltaF508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to the cell membrane and restore CFTR chloride function at the plasma membrane of CF lung cells in vitro and in vivo. Using two different DeltaF508-CFTR lung epithelial cell lines (CFBE41o- and IB3-1 cells, characterized with DeltaF508-homozygous and heterozygous genotype, respectively) in vitro, 4-PBA induced an increase of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 production in a concentration-dependent manner. This 4-PBA-induced IL-8 production was associated with a strong reduction of proteasome and nuclear factor-kappaB transcriptional activities in the two DeltaF508-CFTR lung cells either in a resting state or after tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation. In contrast, a strong increase of activator protein-1 transcriptional activity was observed. The inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio] butadiene (U0126) and 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (PD98059) and c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by anthra[1,9-cd] pyrazol-6 (2H)-one (SP600125), respectively, was associated with a reduction (2-3.5-fold) of IL-8 production in both DeltaF508-CFTR lung cell lines treated with 4-PBA. No significant change of IL-8 production was observed after an inhibition of p38 MAPK with 4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-pyridinyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl] phenol (SB202190). Therefore, we suggest that inhibition of both ERK1/2 and JNK signaling may be a means to strongly reduce 4-PBA-induced IL-8 production in combination with 4-PBA treatment to restore CFTR Cl(-) channel function in lung epithelial cells of patients with CF.

  13. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  14. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  15. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  16. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  17. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  18. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Fresl, M.; Svoboda, V.

    1979-02-01

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  19. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of cloisite-30B clay dispersed poly (acryl amide/sodium alginate)/AgNp hydrogel composites for the study of BSA protein drug delivery and antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjunda Reddy, B. H.; Ranjan Rauta, Pradipta; Venkatalakshimi, V.; Sreenivasa, Swamy

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to inspect the effect of Cloisite-30B (C30B) modified clay dispersed poly (acrylamide-co-Sodiumalginate)/AgNp hydrogel nanocomposites (PASA/C30B/Ag) for drug delivery and antibacterial activity. A novel hydrogel composite based sodium alginate (SA) and the inorganic modified clay with silver nano particle (C30B/AgNps)polymer hydrogel composites are synthesized via the graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) in an aqueous medium with methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium per sulfate(APS) as an initiator. The UV/Visible spectroscopy of obtained composites is successfully studied, which confirms the occurrence of AgNps in the hydrogel composites. And the swelling capacity and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein as model drug delivery study for these hydrogel nanocomposites have been carried out. The C30B/Ag filled hydrogel composites exhibit superior water absorbency or swelling capacity compared to pure samples and it is establish that the formulations with clay (C30B) dispersed silver nanocomposite hydrogels show improved and somewhat faster rate of drug delivery than other formulations(pure systems) and SEM and TEM reports suggests that the size of AgNps in the composite hydrogels is in the range of 5-10 nm with shrunken surface and the antibacterial characterizations for gram positive and gram negative bacteria are carried out by using Streptococcus faecalis (S. Faecalis) and Escherichia coli (E.coli) as model bacteria and the hydrogel composites of PASA/C30B/Ag shows exceptional antibacterial activity against both the bacteria as compared to pure hydrogel composites samples.

  1. Sodium fires and its extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhedov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The fire safety problems of NPP with sodium coolants in USSR are presented. The design of sodium reactors is made with premises with sodium coolants being hermetic and filled with nitrogen. Some engineering solutions of fire safety including design, elaboration and choice of construction and protection materials are presented. Some theoretical aspects of sodium burning are presented as well as methods of sodium fire extinguishing methods including the use of powder

  2. Multi-scale modeling study of the source contributions to near-surface ozone and sulfur oxides levels over California during the ARCTAS-CARB period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic high surface ozone (O3 levels and the increasing sulfur oxides (SOx = SO2+SO4 ambient concentrations over South Coast (SC and other areas of California (CA are affected by both local emissions and long-range transport. In this paper, multi-scale tracer, full-chemistry and adjoint simulations using the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are conducted to assess the contribution of local emission sourcesto SC O3 and to evaluate the impacts of transported sulfur and local emissions on the SC sulfur budgetduring the ARCTAS-CARB experiment period in 2008. Sensitivity simulations quantify contributions of biogenic and fire emissions to SC O3 levels. California biogenic and fire emissions contribute 3–4 ppb to near-surface O3 over SC, with larger contributions to other regions in CA. During a long-range transport event from Asia starting from 22 June, high SOx levels (up to ~0.7 ppb of SO2 and ~1.3 ppb of SO4 is observed above ~6 km, but they did not affect CA surface air quality. The elevated SOx observed at 1–4 km is estimated to enhance surface SOx over SC by ~0.25 ppb (upper limit on ~24 June. The near-surface SOx levels over SC during the flight week are attributed mostly to local emissions. Two anthropogenic SOx emission inventories (EIs from the California Air Resources Board (CARB and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA are compared and applied in 60 km and 12 km chemical transport simulations, and the results are compared withobservations. The CARB EI shows improvements over the National Emission Inventory (NEI by EPA, but generally underestimates surface SC SOx by about a factor of two. Adjoint sensitivity analysis indicated that SO2 levels at 00:00 UTC (17:00 local time at six SC surface sites were influenced by previous day maritime emissions over the

  3. Adsorción de resorcinol desde solución acuosa sobre carbón activado. relación isotermas de adsorción y entalpía de inmersión

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Diego; Moreno, Juan; Giraldo, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    Se estudia la adsorción de resorcinol, sobre carbones activados modificados, obtenidos a partir de un carbón activado comercial CarbochemTM –PS30, CAG, por medio de tratamiento químico con HNO3 7M, CAO y tratamiento térmico bajo flujo de H2, CAR; se analiza la influencia del pH de la solución, la reducción y oxidación de la superficie del carbón y se determina la entalpía de inmersión de los carbones activados en soluciones acuosas de resorcinol.La interacción sólido-solución se caracteriza...

  4. Tecnología de fabricación de arrabio con inyección de combustibles y otros materiales por toberas en el horno alto. II parte. Inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, L.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The technology of ironmaking with coal injection by tuyeres in the blast furnace is described. The influence of the main coal constituents in the furnace operation is analyzed. Information about the countries that employ this technology is given.

    Se describe la tecnología de fabricación de arrabio con inyección de carbón por toberas en el horno alto. Se analiza y comenta la influencia de los principales constituyentes del carbón en la operación del horno. Se ofrece información sobre los países que emplean esta tecnología.

  5. Postratamiento en escala piloto del lixiviado del relleno sanitario Antanas (Pasto, Nariño por filtración-adsorción con arena, antracita y carbón activado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe López Guerrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación evaluó el postratamiento del lixiviado del relleno sanitario Antanas mediante tres filtros ascendentes en serie con arena, antracita y carbón activado granular. Se evaluaron rangos de tasas de filtración de 20-35, 60-100 y 150-300 m3/m2*d correspondientes a tiempos de contacto con el carbón de 48, 24 y 8 minutos. El seguimiento a cada condición se efectuó durante un mes, las remociones medias de DQO para dichas tasas y tiempos fueron 60,2, 54,3 y 31,4% respectivamente. El mejor desempeño del sistema dependió fundamentalmente del aumento del tiempo de contacto y no de la reducción de las tasas de filtración.

  6. Evaluación de la eficiencia de remoción de material particulado y dióxido de azufre (so2) en un lavador tipo venturi para una caldera que emplea carbón como combustible

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Riaño, Quelver Yesid

    2012-01-01

    El aporte de las emisiones industriales a la contaminación del aire de Bogotá es significativo y, dentro de las industrias, aquellas que usan carbón como fuente de combustible para la generación de vapor en calderas son las que mayor impacto negativo tiene en la calidad del aire de la ciudad. En este trabajo se llevó a cabo la evaluación de las variables de operación de un sistema de control de emisiones atmosféricas para una caldera industrial a carbón. Se diseño, construyó y puso en marcha ...

  7. Adsorción de Fenol en soluciones acuosas empleando monolitos de carbón activado de cáscara de Coco: isotermas y cinéticas de adsorción

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Piraján, Juan; Giraldo, Liliana; González, Juan

    2011-01-01

    En esta investigación se obtuvo carbón activado por activación química con ácido fosfórico (H3PO4) al 85% a partir de material cáscara de Coco, el cual fue conformado en estructuras rígidas de geometrías Monolíticas, especificamente geometrías disco y “panal de abejas” o honeycomb. El carbón activado obtenido fue empleado en la remoción de fenol en soluciones acuosas con concentraciones iniciales entre 10 y 100 mg/L en sistemas batch a temperatura ambiente. Las determinaciones se realizaron m...

  8. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τ c = δ·g -0.83 ·10 (3570/T Na -3.34) , in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and

  9. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H Y; Choi, Y D [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  10. Impacts of transported background ozone on California air quality during the ARCTAS-CARB period – a multi-scale modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale tracer and full-chemistry simulations with the STEM atmospheric chemistry model are used to analyze the effects of transported background ozone (O3 from the eastern Pacific on California air quality during the ARCTAS-CARB experiment conducted in June, 2008. Previous work has focused on the importance of long-range transport of O3 to North America air quality in springtime. However during this summer experiment the long-range transport of O3 is also shown to be important. Simulated and observed O3 transport patterns from the coast to inland northern California are shown to vary based on meteorological conditions and the O3 profiles over the oceans, which are strongly episodically affected by Asian inflows. Analysis of the correlations of O3 at various altitudes above the coastal site at Trinidad Head and at a downwind surface site in northern California, show that under long-range transport events, high O3 air-masses (O3>60 ppb at altitudes between about 2 and 4 km can be transported inland and can significantly influence surface O3 20–30 h later. These results show the importance of characterizing the vertical structure of the lateral boundary conditions (LBC needed in air quality simulations. The importance of the LBC on O3 prediction during this period is further studied through a series of sensitivity studies using different forms of LBC. It is shown that the use of the LBC downscaled from RAQMS global model that assimilated MLS and OMI data improves the model performance. We also show that the predictions can be further improved through the use of LBC based on NASA DC-8 airborne observations during the ARCTAS-CARB experiment. These results indicate the need to develop observational strategies to provide information on the three-dimensional nature of pollutant distributions, in order to improve our capability to predict

  11. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  12. The combustion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The burning rates of sodium in the form of vapour jets, droplets, sprays and unconfined and confined pools have been reviewed. Attention has been paid to assessing the value of models in the various combustion modes. Additional models have been constructed for the descriptions of laminar and turbulent vapour jets, stationary droplets, forced convection over ambient pool fires together with correlations for peak pressures in confined pool environments. Where appropriate experiments with sodium have not been conducted, the likely behaviour is predicted by comparison with the burning of other fuels, particularly in the field of large free ambient fires. Some areas where further knowledge is required are highlighted. (author)

  13. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  14. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  15. The Late Devonian Frasnian-Famennian (F/F) biotic crisis: Insights from δ13C carb, δ13C org and 87Sr / 86Sr isotopic systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daizhao; Qing, Hairuo; Li, Renwei

    2005-06-01

    A severe biotic crisis occurred during the Late Devonian Frasnian-Famennian (F/F) transition (± 367 Myr). Here we present δ13C carb, δ13C org and 87Sr / 86Sr isotopic systematics, from identical samples of two sections across F/F boundary in South China, which directly demonstrate large and frequent climatic fluctuations (˜200 kyr) from warming to cooling during the F/F transition. These climate fluctuations are interpreted to have been induced initially by increased volcanic outgassing, and subsequent enhanced chemical weathering linked to the rapid expansion of vascular plants on land, which would have increased riverine delivery to oceans and primary bioproductivity, and subsequent burial of organic matter, thereby resulting in climate cooling. Such large and frequent climatic fluctuations, together with volcanic-induced increases in nutrient (e.g., biolimiting Fe), toxin (sulfide) and anoxic water supply, and subsequent enhanced riverine fluxes and microbial bloom, were likely responsible for the stepwise faunal demise of F/F biotic crisis.

  16. Studying, Determining The Radionuclide Of Tritum In The Water Samples (Rain, Surface Water) By Using Liquid Scintillation Counting (TRi-carb 3180TR/SL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Linh; Nguyen Dinh Tung; Truong Y; Le Nhu Sieu; Nguyen Van Phuc; Nguyen Van Phu; Nguyen Kim Thanh

    2014-01-01

    Tritium in the environment is of natural or man-made origin. Tritium is a radioactive isotope that occurs in the environment and is associated with the interaction of cosmic ray in the atmosphere. However, the most significant sources of tritium in the environment results from nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Today, the most important new sources of tritium in the environments, such as power stations, processing and using of isotopes released the local tritium. The objective of this study is the application of the liquid scintillation technique to tritium analysis in water samples (rain, and surface waters). Following the Eichrom Tritium Column technique, an aliquot of the passed tritium resin sample (10 mL) is mixed with 10 mL of scintillation cocktail (Ultima Gold LLT, Packard) in 20-mL plastic- container vials and the sample activity is determined using a liquid scintillation spectrometer, Tri-carb 3180TR/SL. Counting efficiency is evaluated with internal standards. The tritium concentrations of water samples that were collected from DaLat, Lamdong range between 0 to 36.2 TU. (author)

  17. Importancia de los planes de reordenación en la reconversión del carbón en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria González Rabanal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es conocer el funcionamiento del sector minero energético a través de los sucesivos planes de reordenación del sector desde una perspectiva normativa e institucional. Estos planes de reordenación y reajuste nacen, en un principio, de la planificación energética nacional. La adhesión de España al proyecto comunitario introdujo nuevas directrices en actividades como la de la extracción de carbón. Los objetivos fijados en cada uno de ellos y articulación de los mecanismos de ayuda por ellos establecida, nos ayudarán a entender el papel desempeñado por las instituciones políticas, sociales y económicas involucradas en dicho proceso.The aim of this paper is the analysis of the Spanish coal rationalization plans from a normative and institutional view. The energy demand has been influenced by the economic situation of coal sector also the control of electricity companies. In the beginnign, these action plans were a part of the national energy strategy. After Spanish integration in European Community, these plans were integrated into the European energy strategy. The study of each plan and their implementation help us to understand the complexity of coal rationalization process in Spain and also the role of partners' involved in the process.

  18. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  19. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  20. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  1. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harant, M.

    1978-01-01

    Substitution, inverse and substitution inverse relations in form of regression polynomials were used in calculating saturation pressure and density for thermodynamic and transport properties determination of sodium. Program UNISOAUT/A3 was used in calculating regression polynomials coefficients. (J.P.)

  2. Extinction of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Spagna, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents how, starting from a knowledge of sodium ignition and burning, principles for extinction (smothering catch trays, leak recuperation systems, powders) can be developed. These techniques applied in Superphenix 1 and PEC reactors have been tested in the ESMERALDA experimental program which is a joint French/Italian project. (author)

  3. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability

  4. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  5. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  6. Creep in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnock, W.; Cordwell, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Available information on the creep of austenitic, ferritic and Alloy-800 type steels in liquid sodium is critically reviewed. Creep properties of stainless steels can be affected by element transfer and corrosion. At reactor structural component temperatures environmental effects are likely to be less important than changes due to thermal ageing. At high clad temperatures (700 0 C) decarburisation may cause the loss of strength and ductility in unstabilised steels while cavity formation may cause embrittlement in stabilised steels. The properties of Alloy 800 are, in some experiments, found to deteriorate while in others they are enhanced. This may be a consequence of the metallurgical complexity of the material or arise from the nature of the various techniques employed. Low alloy ferritic steels tend to decarburise in sodium at temperatures greater than 500 0 C and this leads to loss of strength and an increase in ductility. High alloy ferritics are immune to this effect and appear to be able to tolerate a degree of carburisation. Although intergranular cracking may be enhanced in liquid sodium the mechanical consequences are not significant and evidence for the existence of an embrittlement effect not associated with element transfer or corrosion is weak. Stress and strain may enhance element transfer at crack tips. However in real cracks the gettering or supply action of the crack faces conditions the chemistry of the cracks in sodium and protects the crack tip from element transfer. Thus creep crack extension rates should be independent of changes in bulk coolant chemistry. (author)

  7. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  8. Unusual Voltage-Gated Sodium Currents as Targets for Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C; Cummins, T R

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a serious health problem that impacts the lives of many individuals. Hyperexcitability of peripheral sensory neurons contributes to both acute and chronic pain syndromes. Because voltage-gated sodium currents are crucial to the transmission of electrical signals in peripheral sensory neurons, the channels that underlie these currents are attractive targets for pain therapeutics. Sodium currents and channels in peripheral sensory neurons are complex. Multiple-channel isoforms contribute to the macroscopic currents in nociceptive sensory neurons. These different isoforms exhibit substantial variations in their kinetics and pharmacology. Furthermore, sodium current complexity is enhanced by an array of interacting proteins that can substantially modify the properties of voltage-gated sodium channels. Resurgent sodium currents, atypical currents that can enhance recovery from inactivation and neuronal firing, are increasingly being recognized as playing potentially important roles in sensory neuron hyperexcitability and pain sensations. Here we discuss unusual sodium channels and currents that have been identified in nociceptive sensory neurons, describe what is known about the molecular determinants of the complex sodium currents in these neurons. Finally, we provide an overview of therapeutic strategies to target voltage-gated sodium currents in nociceptive neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  10. Safety measuring for sodium handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, T J; Kim, B H; Choi, J H

    2001-09-01

    This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented.

  11. GlycA, a novel proinflammatory glycoprotein biomarker, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are inversely associated with sodium intake after controlling for adiposity : the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruppen, Eke G.; Connelly, Margery A.; Vart, Priya; Otvos, James D.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The extent to which dietary sodium intake may confer alterations in the inflammatory status is unclear. GlycA is a novel proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-measured biomarker of systemic inflammation, which is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and

  12. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  13. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  14. Development of Sodium Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Jeong, K. C.; Park, J. H.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, B. S.

    2003-02-01

    The basic P and ID and fabrication method for IHTS simplification experiment were prepared for the experimental apparatus. In order to investigate the later phase of a SWR event, an experimental apparatus was designed and manufactured. The 620 data set have been obtained in the experiment of free surface fluctuation and an experimental correlation for the critical gas entertainment condition is additionally developed. For development of water into sodium leak detection technology, the properties from leak noises were extracted, and the tools for analyzing acoustic noises were constructed. The state-of-the-art on the flow and differential pressure measuring techniques in the piping system is investigated to develop new techniques which are applicable to high temperature sodium flow environment. The plan for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement was drawn up by analysing the error factors in temperature measurement. And the countermeasures for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement due to complex heat transfer were prepared

  15. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  16. Efeito do cloreto de sódio na produção de proteínas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae em fermentação semi-sólida Effect of sodium chloride on protein production (Saccharomyces cerevisae by semi-solid fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria RODRIGUES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre a produção de biomassa e proteínas extracelulares totais, durante o cultivo de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A levedura foi desenvonvida em fermentador de leito fluidizado, com vazão de ar de 70L/min, temperatura de 33° C, e umidade relativa de 99-100%. Foi utilizado substrato semi-sólido de batatas, previamente hidrolizado, acrescido de cloreto de sódio 0,6M. O crescimento celular foi monitorado por densidade óptica à 595 nm. Observou-se, como resultado, que a adição de cloreto de sódio 0,6M induziu um aumento de 36,86% na produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, mas inibiu o crescimento celular em 27,62% quando os meios com e sem cloreto de sódio foram testados. A produção máxima de biomassa, tanto para os experimentos com adição de cloreto de sódio quanto para o sem adição, ocorreu no período de 7 a 9 horas de fermentacão, enquanto que a produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, independentemente da adição do sal, ocorreu durante o período de 9 a 12 horas de fermentação. As velocidades específicas máximas de crescimento foram de 0,350/h para os experimentos com sal, e de 0,339/h para aqueles sem a adição do sal. A combinação de alta vazão de ar e a presença de cloreto de sódio 0,6M na fermentação parece não ter tido efeito sobre a duração da fase lag na curva de crescimento celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae.The effect of sodium chloride on the cell's growth and total extracellular protein production during fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an air-fluidized bed fermentation, with a 70 L/min air flow at 33° C and 99-100% relative unidity was studied. A semi-solid potato substrate (previously hydrolized with 0.6M sodium chloride was used. Cell's growth was monitored by optical density at 595 nm. Results showed that the addition of 0.6M sodium chloride enhanced total extracellular protein level (36.86%. On the other hand, the addition of

  17. Antioxidant Effects of Sheep Whey Protein on Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthalia Kerasioti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS may cause endothelial dysfunction and consequently vascular disease. In the present study, the possible protective effects of sheep whey protein (SWP from tert-butyl hydroperoxide- (tBHP- induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells (EA.hy926 were assessed using oxidative stress biomarkers. These oxidative stress biomarkers were glutathione (GSH and ROS levels determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, protein carbonyls (CARB, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG were determined spectrophotometrically. The results showed that SWP at 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, and 6.24 mg of protein mL−1 increased GSH up to 141%, while it decreased GSSG to 46.7%, ROS to 58.5%, TBARS to 52.5%, and CARB to 49.0%. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that SWP protected endothelial cells from oxidative stress. Thus, SWP may be used for developing food supplements or biofunctional foods to attenuate vascular disturbances associated with oxidative stress.

  18. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  19. Sodium characterization during the starting period of a sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Parmentier, C.; Soenen, M.

    1976-01-01

    A sodium loop for analytical chemistry studies has been built by S.C.K./C.E.N. at Mol Belgium. Its first working period was used to test analytical methods, to characterize the sodium and to define the operating parameters of the loop. This report covers the working parameters of the loop, the characterization of the filling sodium and its purity evolution during the first working period of the loop

  20. Influencia de la heterogeneidad edáfica y de la topografía en la composición de especies vegetales sobre escombreras mineras de carbón del norte de España

    OpenAIRE

    López Marcos, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    La restauración de escombreras mineras es un reto para los profesionales de este campo y comprender sus limitaciones ecológicas es un requisito para garantizar una restauración exitosa, por ello se plantea evaluar la influencia de la heterogeneidad edáfica y topográfica en la composición de especies vegetales en una ladera de una mina de carbón restaurada, donde se distinguieron dos comunidades vegetales (pastizal-matorral) y se compararon con una comunidad forestal vecina. Se encontraron dif...

  1. Reducción de pentaclorofenol en el agua cruda del río Cauca mediante adsorción con carbón activado en procesos de potabilización

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Patricia; Cruz, Camilo; González, Magally; Gutiérrez, Héctor Mario; Barba, Luz Edith; Escobar, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Luis Germán

    2008-01-01

    La reducción del riesgo químico del agua cruda del río Cauca causado por la presencia de pentaclorofenol y materia orgánica (color real, absorbancia UV254) se evaluó a escala de laboratorio mediante tres secuencias de tratamiento: adsorción con carbón activado en polvo (CAP); adsorción-coagulación y adsorción-desinfección-coagulación. Los resultados mostraron que el CAP es un compuesto adecuado para la remoción del pentaclorofenol y que su uso conjunto con el coagulante (sulfato de aluminio) ...

  2. Reducción de pentaclorofenol en el agua cruda del río cauca mediante adsorción con carbón activado en procesos de potabilización

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Vélez, Camilo Hernán; González, Magally; Gutiérrez, Héctor Mario; Barba, Luz Edith; Escobar, Juan Carlos; Germán Delgado, Luis; Torres, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    La reducción del riesgo químico del agua cruda del río Cauca causado por la presencia de pentaclorofenol y materia orgánica (color real, absorbancia UV254) se evaluó a escala de laboratorio mediante tres secuencias de tratamiento: adsorción con carbón activado en polvo (CAP); adsorción–coagulación y adsorción–desinfección-coagulación. Los resultados mostraron que el CAP es un compuesto adecuado para la remoción del pentaclorofenol y que su uso conjunto con el coagulante (sulfato de aluminio) ...

  3. Modelización matemática de procesos de transporte en carbón activo. Una aplicación práctica en automoción

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Huerta, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se plantean y analizan las ecuaciones de balance de mezclas de fluidos en medios de doble porosidad. Se presta especial atención a la modelización de los fenómenos de adsorción y desorción de hidrocarburos en carbón activo. Se destaca el caso de problemas isotermos e incompresibles, en los que las ecuaciones de gobierno se reducen a una ecuación de convección - difusión - reacción acoplada con las ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias que modelizan el transporte en el interior d...

  4. Estudio de inteligencia de mercados para la importación de tubería de acero carbón para PSA Colombia S.A.S.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Estudio de inteligencia de mercados para la importación de tuberia de acero carbon para PSA Colombia S.A.S, SCH 40 de 2" revisar la viabilidad de la compra local versus la compra en el exterior analizando tres proveedores Estados Unidos, China y Brasil. En el presente trabajo se estudian los mercados para la importación de tubería de Acero Carbón SCH40, se realiza el análisis de cada área del proceso de comercialización y se establece en términos técnicos, comerciales, financieros, logísticos...

  5. Aportes del sector minería del carbón al desarrollo de la región norte de Santander - Colombia, y formulación del plan estratégico

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Rosas, José Agustín; Vargas Rosas, José Agustín

    2011-01-01

    La actividad minera del carbón en el departamento Norte de Santander desde su inicio al final de la década de los 70, ha sido mono dimensional, la parte operativa dentro de su estructura para la producción es la más importante, sin tener en cuenta que estamos en un ambiente más competitivo y cambiante, y que para garantizar la sostenibilidad en los procesos debe involucrar además de la dimensión operativa, la dimensiones estructural, externa y el tiempo. El sector minero enfrenta retos com...

  6. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  7. Double sodium rubidium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhoseev, M.V.; Khal'baeva, K.M.; Khajkina, E.G.; Ogurtsov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    According to ceramic technique double sodium-rubidium molybdates of the compositions Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 (0.5≤x≤0.67) and Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 have been prepared. It is ascertained that Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 is crystallized in glaserite structural type (trigonal crystal system, sp.gr. P3m1, Z=2) and melts incongruently at 640 deg C. Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 at room temperature is unstable and gradually decomposes into Na 2 MoO 4 and Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4

  8. Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haidong; Pollock, Norman K; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodium intake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.

  9. Amendment trials for bioremediation of sodium and chloride contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Western Alfalfa Milling Co. Ltd., Norquay, SK (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Details of a soil amendment experiment was presented. Soil samples from sodium and chloride contaminated soil were taken from a site located in southeastern Alberta. Soil amendments included high protein dehydrated alfalfa pellets, 2 types of Zeolite, and used coconut coir. The aim of the study was to find an effective in-situ method of remediating the soil while establishing the highest possible plant biomass. Preliminary trial data indicated a strong trend for high plant protein pellets to increase plant productivity on sodium and chloride contaminated soil. The addition of alfalfa increased plant height and stem diameter, as well as leaf width, which increased incrementally with higher volumes of alfalfa. Equivalent rates of .5 MT to 4 MT per acre application rates were used in the trial. Coconut coir was used at a rate of 30 per cent of the volume of the growing medium and also showed increased growth. An experiment was conducted using harvested plant matter from the samples to determine the effect of the 3 amendments on sodium uptake by the plants. Results showed that the sodium uptake significantly increased with the application of soil amendments, particularly when alfalfa pellets were applied, with percentages of sodium found in the plant tissue almost twice as high as percentages found in the control sample. Sodium levels also increased in the plant tissues where coconut coir was used, although to a lesser degree than levels found in plants grown with the alfalfa amended soils. Zeolite did not perform as well on its own. However, it was noted that previous trials have shown good performance when Zeolite was mixed into sodium/chloride contaminated soils and combined with water filtration. It was concluded that the soil amendments improved plant growth, and increased the sodium uptake by plants. The consortium is pursuing industry support to plan larger field studies in the 2006 season. 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  11. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  12. Carbon transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Espigares, M.; Lapena, J.; La Torre, M. de

    1983-01-01

    Carbon activities in dynamic non isothermal sodium system are determined using an equilibratium method. Foils of Fe-18 w% Cr-8 W% Ni alloy with low carbon content (in the as received condition) are exposed to dynamic liquid sodium in the temperature range between 450 0 C and 700 0 C. The analysis was used to evaluate the carburization-decarburization behaviour of type 304 stainless steel exposed to sodium. (author)

  13. Effect of maternal excessive sodium intake on postnatal brain development in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-a; Ahn, Young-mo; Lee, Hye-ah; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young-ju; Lee, Hwa-young

    2015-04-01

    Postnatal brain development is affected by the in utero environment. Modern people usually have a high sodium intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium hyperingestion during pregnancy on the postnatal brain development of rat offspring. The sodium-overloaded rats received 1.8% NaCl in their drinking water for 7 days during the last week of gestation. Their body weight, urine, and blood levels of sodium and other parameters were measured. Some rats were sacrificed at pregnancy day 22 and the weight and length of the placenta and foetus were measured. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus were obtained from their offspring at postnatal day 1 and at postnatal weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. Western blot analyses were conducted with brain tissue lysates. The sodium-overloaded animals had decreased weight gain in the last week of gestation as well as decreased food intake, increased water intake, urine volume, urine sodium, and serum sodium. There were no differences in placental weight and length. The foetuses of sodium-overloaded rats showed decreased body weight and size, and this difference was maintained postnatally for 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring, the protein levels of myelin basic protein, calmodulin/calcium-dependent protein kinase II, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were decreased or aberrantly expressed. The present data suggest that increased sodium intake during pregnancy affects the brain development of the offspring.

  14. Direct assessment of substrate binding to the Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter LeuT by solid state NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Simon; Gotfryd, Kamil; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann

    2017-01-01

    The Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters (NSSs) represent an important class of proteins mediating sodium-dependent uptake of neurotransmitters from the extracellular space. The substrate binding stoichiometry of the bacterial NSS protein, LeuT, and thus the principal transport mechanism, has been...

  15. Sodium waste technology: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds

  16. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  17. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  18. Effects of sodium intake on cardiovascular variables in humans during posture changes and ambulatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, M.; Gabrielsenm A.; Heer, M.

    2002-01-01

    and controlled laboratory conditions at the end of two consecutive 5-day periods with sodium intakes of 70 (low) and 250 (high) mmol/24 h or vice versa, respectively. Comparing high and low sodium intake, plasma volume and plasma protein concentrations were 9 and 8% higher in the seated and the supine position...

  19. Operación de hornos altos con inyección de carbón pulverizado en diferentes condiciones tecnológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formoso Prego, Antonio

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of pulverized coal injection (PCI at two blast furnaces (BFs in Spain and Ukraine which operate at different burden and blast conditions has been analyzed using statistical methods, calculation of material and heat balances and a mathematical model. Effect of PCI on the parameters of blast furnace operation, pig iron quality and also on interactions between process parameters has been studied. At high-grade burden and high parameters of the combined blast, dependence of coke consumption rate on PC amount is linear up to a high rate of PCI. At unfavorable burden and technological conditions dependence of the main furnace operating parameters on PC rate has extreme character. High efficiency of PC use can be achieved at the different conditions due to optimization of the technological regime.

    Se analiza la eficiencia de la inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP en dos hornos altos (HAs, en España y Ucrania, que operan en condiciones diferentes de viento y carga, usando un modelo matemático, métodos estadísticos y cálculos de los balances de materias y térmico. Se estudia el efecto de la ICP sobre los parámetros de operación de alto homo, calidad del arrabio y, también, las interacciones entre los parámetros de proceso. Al operar con una carga de calidad y altos parámetros de viento combinado el consumo de coque disminuye linealmente al incrementar, hasta tasas elevadas, la ICP. La dependencia entre los principales índices de fusión y el caudal de CP adquiere un carácter extremo cuando se opera con carga de baja calidad y en condiciones tecnológicas poco favorables. La alta eficiencia en la utilización de la ICP puede lograrse en condiciones diferentes mediante la optimización del régimen tecnológico.

  20. Cavitation erosion in sodium flow, sodium cavitation tunnel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, Pierre.

    1981-04-01

    The high-volume sodium flows present in fast neutron reactors are liable to induce cavitation phenomena in various portion of the sodium lines and pumps. The absence of sufficient data in this area led the C.E.A. to undertake an erosion research program in cavitating sodium flow. This paper discusses the considerations leading to the definition and execution of sodium cavitation erosion tests, and reviews the tests run with 400 0 C sodium on various steel grades: 316, 316 L, 316 Ti (Z8CNDT17-12), Poral (Z3CND18-12), 304 L and LN2 - clad 316 L (Ni coating-clad 316 L). Acoustic detection and signal processing methods were used with an instrument package designed and implemented at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

  1. Prenatal programming of rat cortical collecting tubule sodium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Lozano, German; Baum, Michel

    2012-03-15

    Prenatal insults have been shown to lead to elevated blood pressure in offspring when they are studied as adults. Prenatal administration of dexamethasone and dietary protein deprivation have demonstrated that there is an increase in transporter abundance for a number of nephron segments but not the subunits of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the cortical collecting duct. Recent studies have shown that aldosterone is elevated in offspring of protein-deprived mothers when studied as adults, but the physiological importance of the increase in serum aldosterone is unknown. As an indirect measure of ENaC activity, we compared the natriuretic response to benzamil in offspring of mothers who ate a low-protein diet (6%) with those who ate a normal diet (20%) for the last half of pregnancy. The natriuretic response to benzamil was greater in the 6% group (821.1 ± 161.0 μmol/24 h) compared with the 20% group (279.1 ± 137.0 μmol/24 h), consistent with greater ENaC activity in vivo (P sodium transport (-1.9 ± 3.1 pmol·mm(-1)·min(-1)), the offspring of rats that ate a 6% protein diet during the last half of pregnancy had a net sodium flux of 10.7 ± 2.6 pmol·mm(-1)·min(-1) (P = 0.01) in tubules perfused in vitro. Sodium transport was measured using ion-selective electrodes, a novel technique allowing measurement of sodium in nanoliter quantities of fluid. Thus we directly demonstrate that there is prenatal programming of cortical collecting duct sodium transport.

  2. RISKGATE, una herramienta diseñada para la minería de carbón en la mejora de la seguridad, eficiencia y a nivel operacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Kirsch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RISKGATE es un proyecto que brinda una herramienta interactiva en línea (página web en la que mineras de carbón en Australia han hecho parte y construido un cuerpo de conocimiento a través de talleres de acción en investigación conformados por expertos industriales en tópicos específicos en áreas involucradas en seguridad y salud ocupacional a los que pueden estar expuestos los trabajadores como principal objetivo, sin embargo también incluye los peligros que pueden afectar la producción y maquinaria. RISKGATE cubre tópicos en el manejo de riesgos en las siguientes áreas: neumáticos, colisiones, incendios, procesos de aislamiento para el control de energía, control de estratos de suelo en las minas subterráneas, control de suelo en las minas de cielo abierto, explosiones, explosivos usados en minas subterráneas, explosivos aplicados en minas de cielo abierto, trabajos manuales, resbalones/tropiezos/caídas, escapes de gas, fallas en los bloques de carbón y erupciones, interface humano-maquina, almacenamiento de escoria, higiene ocupacional, escapes de agua y como último tópico que va a ser lanzado en el año 2014 será salud ocupacional.

  3. Estudio técnico-ambiental de las estructuras principales de fortificación usadas en la minería de carbón de Norte de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bolívar-León

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de las estructuras de fortificación en la minería de carbón en Norte de Santander (Colombia y el aporte de este sector a la deforestación han sido poco estudiados. La pérdida de bosques entre 1990 y 2010 en el departamento fue del 26%, y la contribución a ella de la minería de carbón, es de 0,36%. Se determinaron 17 variables geométricas de la estructura, de las cuales sólo dos influyen en el comportamiento mecánico de la estructura. Mediante una simulación estructural y un diseño de experimentos 25 , se obtuvo un diagrama para la selección del diámetro y el ángulo, el cual garantiza teóricamente un mejor aprovechamiento de la madera. Se podrían aprovechar diámetros de madera tan pequeños como 14 cm. sin detrimento de las propiedades mecánicas del diseño, conllevando un posible menor tiempo de tala de árboles, menor costo de transporte y mayor facilidad de montaje dentro de la mina.

  4. La Zona del Carbón durante el gobierno de la Unidad Popular y la Educación de los Trabajadores: Sedes universitarias UdeC-UTE de 1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cáceres-Correa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Durante el Gobierno de la Unidad Popular en Chile se materializaron una serie de demandas populares que exigían cada día mayores cuotas de mandato en los distintos ámbitos de la sociedad. Una de ellas fue la exigencia de una mejora en la educación de los trabajadores de la  Zona del Carbón para desarrollar con mayor acierto sus funciones laborales. Durante años esta demanda se había incubado en la idea de los sindicatos y autoridades de  la  Zona  provocando que  en  1971  se  unieran las  Universidades de Concepción y Técnica del Estado para llevar a cabo un proyecto educativo y político en el mencionado sector. El texto busca dar cuenta de este hecho concreto y contrastar su olvido intencionado a través de la memoria de quienes vivieron el proceso. Palabras clave: UdeC, UTE, carbón, educación con adultos, educación de trabajadores, Coronel-Lota

  5. The experimental sodium facility NAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, H.; Grunwald, G.; May, R.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of preparations for the introduction of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors an experimental sodium facility was installed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research at Rossendorf. Design, engineering aspects and operation of this facility are described; operating experience is briefly discussed. (author)

  6. Sodium as a reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, S.B.G.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the use of sodium as a reactor coolant, to the advantages and problems related to its use, its mechanical, thermophysics, eletronical, magnetic and nuclear properties. It is mainly a bibliographic review, with the aim of gathering the necessary information to persons initiating in the study of sodium and also as reference source. (author) [pt

  7. Recent progress in sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, W. J.

    1963-10-15

    Progress over the past year in U. S. laboratories studying some of the materials and engineering problems that must be resolved in bringing the technology of sodium to an economically and technically attractive point is reviewed. The status of sodium cooled power reactors in the U. S. is described. (P.C.H.)

  8. Method of processing waste sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety store of waste sodium in the form of intermetallic compounds. Method: Waste sodium used in a reactor is mixed with molten metal under an inert gas atmosphere and resulted intermetallic compounds are stored in a closely sealed container to enable quasi-permanent safety store as inert compound. Used waste sodium particularly, waste sodium in the primary system containing radioactive substances is charged in a waste sodium melting tank having a heater on the side, the tank is evacuated by a vacuum pump and then sealed with gaseous argon supplied from a gaseous argon tank, and waste sodium is melted under heating. The temperature and the amount of the liquid are measured by a thermometer and a level meter respectively. While on the other hand, molten metal such as Sn, Pb and Zn having melting point above 300 0 C are charged in a metal melting tank and heated by a heater. The molten sodium and the molten metals are charged into a mixing tank and agitated to mix by an induction type agitator. Sodium vapors in the tank are collected by traps. The air in the tank is replaced with gaseous argon. The molten mixture is closely sealed in a drum can and cooled to solidify for safety storage. (Seki, T.)

  9. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  10. Friction and wear in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Droher, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the design of a safe and reliable sodium-cooled reactor one of the more important problem areas is that of friction and wear of components immersed in liquid sodium or exposed to sodium vapor. Sodium coolant at elevated temperatures may severely affect most oxide-bearing surface layers which provide corrosion resistance and, to some extent, lubrication and surface hardness. Consequently, accelerated deterioration may be experienced on engaged-motion contact surfaces, which could result in unexpected reactor shutdown from component malfunction or failure due to galling and seizure. An overall view of the friction and wear phenomena encountered during oscillatory rubbing of surfaces in high-temperature, liquid-sodium environments is presented. Specific data generated at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) on this subject is also presented. (U.S.)

  11. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  12. Toxicology of plutonium-sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Scenarios for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) accidents predict the loss of sodium coolant, with subsequent core melt-down and release of mixed sodium-fuel aerosols [Na-(PuU)O 2 ] into the environment. Studies in other laboratories demonstrated that mixed aerosols of Na 2 O-PuO 2 were more readily transported from the lung than PuO 2 aerosols. We therefore devised a continuous aerosol-generating system for animal exposures in which laser-generated fuel aerosols were swept through sodium vapor to form sodium-fuel aerosols. These fuel and sodium-fuel aerosols were compared with regard to their physicochemical properties and their biological behavior following inhalation studies in rats and dogs

  13. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Sodium ionization detector and sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrizo, J.; Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Work conducted on a basic technology development effort with the Westinghouse Sodium Ionization Detector (SID) sensor is reported. Included are results obtained for three task areas: (1) On-line operational response testing - in-situ calibration techniques; (2) Performance-reliability characteristics of aged filaments; and (3) Evaluation of chemical interference effects. The results showed that a calibrator filament coated with a sodium compound, when activated, does supply the necessary sodium atoms to provide a valid operational in-situ test. The life time of new Cr 2 0 3 -protected SID sensor filaments can be extended by operating at a reduced temperature. However, there also is a reduction in the sensitivity. Non-sodium species, such as products from a smoldering fire and organic aerosols, produce an interference response from the sensor comparable to a typical sodium response

  15. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  16. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental ... for maintenance or disposal, need to be cleaned free of sodium for the ... scenario on sodium removal using different alcohols are ... ethoxide and sodium n-propoxide by KBr pellet method.

  17. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  18. Managing Diabetes: Looking Beyond Carbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juice 14 0 0 59 1 cup black coffee 0 5 0 2 Totals 74.5 475 11.5 454 With Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. Diabetes diet, eating, and physical activity. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/ ...

  19. A low carbohydrate, high protein diet suppresses intratumoral androgen synthesis and slows castration-resistant prostate tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokidis, H Bobby; Yieng Chin, Mei; Ho, Victor W; Adomat, Hans H; Soma, Kiran K; Fazli, Ladan; Nip, Ka Mun; Cox, Michael; Krystal, Gerald; Zoubeidi, Amina; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S

    2015-06-01

    Dietary factors continue to preside as dominant influences in prostate cancer prevalence and progression-free survival following primary treatment. We investigated the influence of a low carbohydrate diet, compared to a typical Western diet, on prostate cancer (PCa) tumor growth in vivo. LNCaP xenograft tumor growth was studied in both intact and castrated mice, representing a more advanced castration resistant PCa (CRPC). No differences in LNCaP tumor progression (total tumor volume) with diet was observed for intact mice (P = 0.471) however, castrated mice on the Low Carb diet saw a statistically significant reduction in tumor growth rate compared with Western diet fed mice (P = 0.017). No correlation with serum PSA was observed. Steroid profiles, alongside serum cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels, were significantly altered by both diet and castration. Specifically, DHT concentration with the Low Carb diet was 58% that of the CRPC-bearing mice on the Western diet. Enzymes in the steroidogenesis pathway were directly impacted and tumors isolated from intact mice on the Low Carb diet had higher AKR1C3 protein levels and lower HSD17B2 protein levels than intact mice on the Western diet (ARK1C3: P = 0.074; HSD17B2: P = 0.091, with α = 0.1). In contrast, CRPC tumors from mice on Low Carb diets had higher concentrations of both HSD17B2 (P = 0.016) and SRD5A1 (P = 0.058 with α = 0.1) enzymes. There was no correlation between tumor growth in castrated mice for Low Carb diet versus Western diet and (a) serum insulin (b) GH serum levels (c) insulin receptor (IR) or (d) IGF-1R in tumor tissue. Intact mice fed Western diet had higher serum insulin which was associated with significantly higher blood glucose and tumor tissue IR. We conclude that both diet and castration have a significant impact on the endocrinology of mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors. The observed effects of diet on cholesterol and steroid regulation impact tumor tissue DHT specifically and are

  20. Immobilization of myoglobin in sodium alginate composite membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cecília de Souza Figueiredo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe immobilization of myoglobin in sodium alginate films was investigated with the aim of evaluating the protein stability in an ionic polymeric matrix. Myoglobin was chosen due to the resemblance to each hemoglobin tetramer. Sodium alginate, being a natural polysaccharide, was selected as the polymeric matrix because of its chemical structure and film-forming ability. To improve the mechanical resistance of sodium alginate films, the polymer was deposited over the surface of a cellulose acetate support by means of ultrafiltration. The ionic crosslink of sodium alginate was investigated by calcium ions. Composite membrane characterization comprised water swelling tests, water flux, SEM images and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrostatic interaction between the protein and the polysaccharide did not damage the UV-visible pattern of native myoglobin. A good affinity between sodium alginate and cellulose acetate was observed. The top layer of the dense composite membrane successfully immobilized Myoglobin, retaining the native UV-visible pattern for two months.

  1. Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

  2. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units

  3. Efeitos da correção da acidose metabólica com bicarbonato de sódio sobre o catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica The effects of the correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate on protein catabolism in chronic kidney failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise MAFRA

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A desnutrição protéico-energética constitui problema comum aos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, influenciando diretamente na sua morbi-mortalidade. A acidose metabólica tem papel no catabolismo protéico, ativando a via proteolítica proteasoma-ubiquitina, dependente de adenosina trifosfato, e conjuntamente com glicocorticóides induz uma maior atividade na desidrogenase que degrada os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada. Esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever o mecanismo pelo qual a acidose metabólica nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica promove o catabolismo protéico, favorecendo assim a desnutrição, bem como avaliar os efeitos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio na correção da acidose e conseqüentemente redução do catabolismo protéico. Pesquisas mostram melhora da acidose pelo uso de bicarbonato de sódio e conseqüente redução do catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica, podendo ser esta uma conduta promissora na atenuação da desnutrição nestes pacientes.Protein-Energy Malnutrition is common among patients with chronic kidney failure, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Several studies have shown that metabolic acidosis is a major cause of muscle protein breakdown, and recently it was attributed to ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Acidosis, plus glucocorticoids, also respond to increasing branched-chain amino acids oxidation. In this review, the impact of metabolic acidosis on protein and amino acid metabolism is examined in order to understand its effect on lean body mass and the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney failure. The study also observes whether or not sodium bicarbonate supplementation is beneficial to chronic kidney failure patients. In summary, there is a preliminary evidence suggesting that the correction of acidosis using sodium bicarbonate reduces protein degradation in chronic kidney failure patients, thus emerging as a

  4. Analysis of phloem protein patterns from different organs of Cucurbita maxima Duch. by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy combined with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, J; Haebel, S; Blechschmidt-Schneider, S; Willmitzer, L; Steup, M; Fisahn, J

    1999-02-01

    Sieve tubes mediate the long-distance transport of nutrients and signals between source and sink organs of plants. To detect mobile phloem proteins that are differentially distributed in source and sink organs of Cucurbita maxima, we used both one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Both techniques revealed that phloem protein patterns depend on the sampling site: whilst several proteins were consistently observed in all phloem samples studied others appeared to occur in a organ-specific manner. For a characterization and identification of distinct phloem polypeptides, two approaches were chosen. First, protein bands resolved by SDS-PAGE were eluted from the polyacrylamide gel and the masses of the proteins were then determined by MALDI-TOF MS. Second, proteins resolved by SDS-PAGE were subjected to proteolytic degradation and the resulting peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS: the masses of the proteolytic peptides were used for a database search. By the latter approach, three mobile phloem compounds were identified as the phloem-specific protein PP2 (D.E. Bostwick et al., 1992, The Plant Cell 4, 1539-1548) a chymotrypsin and an aspartic proteinase inhibitor. None of the other polypeptides studied corresponded to any of the protein sequences present in the database. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS analyses indicated that some of the mobile phloem proteins occur in a covalently modified form and that the extent of the modification depends upon the plant organ.

  5. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tran, Jennifer L; Clarkson, Michael R

    2003-11-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium. Primary literature was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-June 2003). Abstracts were obtained from the manufacturer and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium in solid organ transplantation were considered for inclusion. English-language studies and abstracts were selected for inclusion, but were limited to those consisting of human subjects. Mycophenolate sodium, a mycophenolic acid prodrug, is an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolic acid reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. Mycophenolate sodium is enteric coated and has been suggested as a potential method to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse events seen with mycophenolate mofetil. Both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium have been shown to be therapeutically equivalent at decreasing the incidence of allograft rejection and loss. The frequency of adverse events is similar between both compounds, with the most common events being diarrhea and leukopenia. Mycophenolate sodium is effective in preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. At doses of 720 mg twice daily, the efficacy and safety profiles are similar to those of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg twice daily. Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in Switzerland; approval in the US is pending.

  6. Ancient Systems of Sodium/Potassium Homeostasis as Predecessors of Membrane Bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, D V; Galperin, M Y; Koonin, E V; Mulkidjanian, A Y

    2015-05-01

    Cell cytoplasm of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes contains substantially more potassium than sodium, and potassium cations are specifically required for many key cellular processes, including protein synthesis. This distinct ionic composition and requirements have been attributed to the emergence of the first cells in potassium-rich habitats. Different, albeit complementary, scenarios have been proposed for the primordial potassium-rich environments based on experimental data and theoretical considerations. Specifically, building on the observation that potassium prevails over sodium in the vapor of inland geothermal systems, we have argued that the first cells could emerge in the pools and puddles at the periphery of primordial anoxic geothermal fields, where the elementary composition of the condensed vapor would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. Marine and freshwater environments generally contain more sodium than potassium. Therefore, to invade such environments, while maintaining excess of potassium over sodium in the cytoplasm, primordial cells needed means to extrude sodium ions. The foray into new, sodium-rich habitats was the likely driving force behind the evolution of diverse redox-, light-, chemically-, or osmotically-dependent sodium export pumps and the increase of membrane tightness. Here we present a scenario that details how the interplay between several, initially independent sodium pumps might have triggered the evolution of sodium-dependent membrane bioenergetics, followed by the separate emergence of the proton-dependent bioenergetics in archaea and bacteria. We also discuss the development of systems that utilize the sodium/potassium gradient across the cell membranes.

  7. Water simulation of sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, S.S.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic simulation of a large sodium reactor by a scaled water model is examined. The Richardson Number, friction coefficient and the Peclet Number can be closely matched with the water system at full power and the similarity is retained for buoyancy driven flows. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a reactor vessel provided by a scaled water experiment is better than that by a scaled sodium test. Results from a correctly scaled water test can be tentatively extrapolated to a full size sodium system

  8. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...

  9. Analytical study of sodium combustion phenomena under sodium leak accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, J. Y.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2001-12-01

    The rise of temperature and pressure, the release of aerosol in the buildings as a result of sodium fire must be considered for the safety measures of LMR. Therefore for the safety of the LMR, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of sodium fire, resulting from the various type of leakage. ASSCOPS(Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustion in Pool and Spray) is the computer code for the analysis of the thermal consequence of sodium leak and fire in LMR that has been developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) in Japan. In this study, a preliminary analysis of sodium leak and fire accidents in S/G building of KALIMER is made by using ASSCOPS code. Various phenomena of interest are spray and pool burning, peak pressure, temperature change, local structure temperature, aerosol behavior, drain system into smothering tank, ventilation characteristics at each cell with the safety venting system and nitrogen injection system. In this calculation, the dimension of the S/G building was chosen in accordance with the selected options of LMR name KALIMER(Korea). As a result of this study, it was shown that subsequent effect of sodium fire depended upon whether the sodium continued to leak from the pipe or not, whether the ventilation system was running, whether the inert gas injection system was provided, whether the sodium on floor was drained into the smothering tank or not, whether the building was sealed or not, etc. Specially the excessive rise of pressure into each cell was prevented by installing the pressure release plates on wall of the building

  10. Promediando curvas de permeabilidad relativa en yacimientos de metano en mantos de carbón con flujo bifásico en Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ordóñez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se propone el uso de un único set de curvas de permeabilidad a ser empleado en los estudios de simulación y caracterización de yacimientos de gas en mantos de carbón (CBM, en vez del uso común de un set de curvas para cada estrato individual. Para comprobar la aplicabilidad de este procedimiento, se simula un yacimiento usando ambos métodos: el resultado de producción debe ser similar en ambas simulacionesEl modelo para promediar la permeabilidad absoluta en un flujo monofásico, fue usado para el caso de predecir un promedio de permeabilidad relativa para un yacimiento con flujo bifásico. Luego de correr varios casos y corroborar que la ecuación propuesta no cumplía las expectativas, el enfoque del trabajo fue explicar el por qué del no funcionamiento de la ecuación propuesta. Una posible explicación fue la no consideración de la gravedad, que acorde a varias simulaciones presentadas, es un parámetro principal en las curvas de producción. La saturación de agua tampoco puede excluirse de la ecuación que prediga este promedio.  Por tanto si se quiere presentar una ecuación para el cálculo de promedio de permeabilidades relativas, es fundamental que tanto la gravedad como la saturación de agua estén incluidas en esta ecuación. Abstract  This paper tries to average relative permeability in a way that instead of using different sets of relative permeability curves to different layers, one single set could be used in one single layer, and to get similar production results as if different layers and different relative permeability were used instead. The model to average absolute permeability in a single-phase flow system was used to predict two-phase flow average relative permeability. After running different cases and corroborating that the equation proposed did not match the expectations. The focus of this work was changed in order to explain why the equation was not working. A possible explanation of

  11. Physicochemical characterization of native and modified sodium caseinate- Vitamin A complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chitra; Arora, Sumit; Syama, M A; Sharma, Apurva

    2018-04-01

    Native and modified sodium caseinate- Vitamin A complexes {Sodium caseinate- Vit A complex by stirring (NaCas-VA ST), succinylated sodium caseinate- Vit A complex by stirring (SNaCas-VA ST), reassembled sodium caseinate- Vit A complex (RNaCas-VA) and reassembled succinylated sodium caseinate- Vit A complex (RSNaCas-VA)} were prepared and characterized for their physicochemical characteristics e.g. particle size, zeta potential, turbidity analysis and tryptophan intensities which confirmed structural modification of both native (NaCas-VA ST) and modified (SNaCas-VA ST, RNaCas-VA and RSNaCas- VA) proteins upon complex formation with vitamin A. Binding of vitamin A to milk protein reduced the turbidity caused by vitamin A, however, the particle size and zeta potential of milk protein increased after complexation. Microstructure details of NaCas (spray dried) showed uniform spherical structure, however, other milk proteins and milk protein- Vit A complexes (freeze dried) showed broken glass and flaky structures. Tiny particles were observed on the surface of reassembled protein and reassembled protein- Vit A complexes. Binding of vitamin A to milk protein did not have an influence on the electrophoretic mobility and elution profile (RP-HPLC). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhki Yui; Masahiko Hayashi; Jiro Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called ?dead sodium? broke a...

  13. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    OpenAIRE

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  14. Caracterización de las condiciones de salud respiratoria de los trabajadores expuestos a polvo de carbón en minería subterránea en Boyacá, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina F. Garrote-Wilches

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la neumoconiosis de los mineros de carbón es una enfermedad pulmonar ocupacional asociada a factores individuales y condiciones laborales específicas. Se manifiesta progresiva e irreversiblemente, afectando la salud de los trabajadores y la productividad laboral. Objetivo: caracterizar las condiciones de salud respiratoria e identificar los factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de neumoconiosis en trabajadores que han laborado expuestos a polvo de carbón en minas de socavón en Boyacá, 2013. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en trabajadores de minería de socavón expuestos a polvo de carbón en el departamento de Boyacá. Se llevó a cabo un registro completo de historia clínica ocupacional, examen físico completo, toma de radiografía de tórax, prueba de tuberculina y espirometría. Resultados: participaron 170 trabajadores masculinos. 75% de la población tenía antigüedad en el sector minero mayor a 12,5 años. Roncus, sibilancias y estertores predominaron en trabajadores con más de 20 años de antigüedad. Expectoración y tos se encontraron más frecuentemente en quienes realizaban la extracción mecanizada. El 15,9% de las radiografías de tórax fueron compatibles con neumoconiosis, 17,1% de las pruebas de tuberculina se encontraron positivas. 5,3% de las espirometrías mostraron alteraciones de vía aérea periférica y 2,4% mostraron patrón obstructivo. Discusión y conclusión: Los cambios radiológicos sugestivos de neumoconiosis fueron más frecuentes en trabajadores con antigüedad menor de 20 años. Los hallazgos espirométricos anormales predominaron en el grupo con antigüedad mayor a 20 años. Es necesario revisar protocolos de vigilancia epidemiológica y realizar seguimiento por medicina laboral.

  15. Modificación de ambientes lóticos para la extracción de carbón a cielo abierto: efectos sobre la biota y recomendaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Roa-Fuentes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La minería a cielo abierto de carbón posibilitará una serie de modificaciones a diferentes ambientes lóticos en Colombia. En este artículo analizamos el caso de una mina de carbón a cielo abierto ubicada en el departamento de La Guajira, Colombia, centrándonos en el estado de conocimiento de la ictiofauna, los potenciales efectos de las modificaciones sobre las comunidades acuáticas y la efectividad de las medidas de restauración/compensación. Para valorar el estado del conocimiento de la ictiofauna, revisamos bibliografía pertinente y utilizamos el estimador de riqueza de especies ICE. Para identificar los potenciales efectos de las modificaciones sobre la biota acuática y la efectividad de las medidas de restauración/compensación realizamos una revisión bibliográfica. Encontramos que cerca del 42 % de las especies de peces de la cuenca del río Ranchería y del área de concesión minera aún son desconocidas. Además, estudios relacionados indican que las transformaciones afectarán de manera negativa las características físicas de los cauces y, en consecuencia, la estructura y función de la biota acuática. Aunque aconsejamos la no intervención de los cuerpos de agua, planteamos algunas recomendaciones bajo un escenario de intervención, como realizar investigación abordando diferentes facetas de la biodiversidad, publicación de los resultados en medios arbitrados, acceso público a los datos, entre otras. Concluimos que si prevalece el beneficio económico derivado de la explotación de carbón sobre la preservación de los ambientes acuáticos habrá una pérdida de funciones y servicios ecológicos indispensables para el ser humano y el equilibrio del ecosistema.

  16. Sodium concrete reaction - Structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferskakis, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structuralchemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  17. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-01-01

    ISU's Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents

  18. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  19. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  20. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  1. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  2. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid...

  4. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  5. Cation gating and selectivity in a purified, reconstituted, voltage-dependent sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchi, R.L.; Tanaka, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    In excitable membranes, the voltage-dependent sodium channel controls the primary membrane conductance change necessary for the generation of an action potential. Over the past four decades, the time- and voltage-dependent sodium currents gated by this channel have been thoroughly documented with increasingly sophisticated voltage-clamp techniques. Recent advances in the biochemistry of membrane proteins have led to the solubilization and purification of this channel protein from nerve (6) and from muscle (4) or muscle-derived (1) membranes, and have provided an approach to the correlation of the channel's molecular structure with its functional properties. Each of these sodium channel preparations appears to contain a large glycoprotein either as its sole component (2) or in association with several small subunits (6, 3). Evidence that these purified proteins represent the excitable membrane sodium channel is presented. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    Sodium-reduced packaged food products are increasingly available to consumers; however, it is not clear whether they are suitable for inclusion in a potassium-reduced diet. For individuals with impaired renal potassium excretion caused by chronic kidney disease and for those taking certain medications that interfere with the rennin-angiotensin aldosterone axis, the need to limit dietary potassium is important in view of the risk for development of hyperkalemia and fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of the reduction of sodium in packaged meat and poultry products (MPPs) on the content of potassium and phosphorus from food additives. This was a cross-sectional study comparing chemically analyzed MPPs (n=38, n=19 original, n=19 sodium-reduced), selected from the top three grocery chains in Canada, based on market share sales. All MPPs with a package label containing a reduced sodium content claim together with their non-sodium-reduced packaged MPP counterparts were selected for analysis. The protein, sodium, phosphorus, and potassium contents of sodium-reduced MPPs and the non-sodium-reduced (original) MPP counterparts were chemically analyzed according to the Association of Analytical Communities official methods 992.15 and 984.27 and compared by using a paired t test. The frequency of phosphorus and potassium additives appearing on the product labels' ingredient lists were compared between groups by using McNemar's test. Sodium-reduced MPPs (n=19) contained 44% more potassium (mg/100 g) than their non-sodium-reduced counterparts (n=19) (mean difference [95% CI): 184 [90-279]; P=0.001). The potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs varied widely and ranged from 210 to 1,500 mg/100 g. Potassium-containing additives were found on the ingredient list in 63% of the sodium-reduced products and 26% of the non-sodium-reduced products (P=0.02). Sodium-reduced MPPs contained 38% less sodium (mg/100 g) than their non-sodium

  7. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  8. The dismantling of fast reactors: sodium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Berte, M.; Serpante, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fast reactors require a coolant that does not slow down neutrons so water can not be used. Metallic sodium has been chosen because of its outstanding neutronic and thermal properties but sodium reacts easily with air and water and this implies that sodium-smeary components can not be considered as usual nuclear wastes. A stage of sodium neutralizing is necessary in the processing of wastes from fast reactors. Metallic sodium is turned into a chemically stable compound: soda, carbonates or sodium salts. This article presents several methods used by Framatome in an industrial way when dismantling sodium-cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  9. Comparison of the orogenic displacement of sodium caseinate with the caseins from the air-water interface by nonionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, N C; Gunning, A P; Mackie, A R; Wilde, P J; Morris, V J

    2009-06-16

    Displacement of sodium caseinate from the air-water interface by nonionic surfactants Tween 20 and Tween 60 was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interfacial structure was sampled by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition onto freshly cleaved mica substrates. Protein displacement occurred through an orogenic mechanism: it involved the nucleation and growth of surfactant domains within the protein network, followed by failure of the protein network. The surface pressure at which failure of the protein network occurred was essentially independent of the type of surfactant. The major component of sodium caseinate is beta-casein, and previous studies at the air-water interface have shown that beta-casein networks are weak, failing at surface pressures below that observed for sodium caseinate. The other components of sodium caseinate are alpha(s)- and kappa-caseins. Studies of the displacement of alpha(s)-caseins from air-water interfaces show that these proteins also form weak networks that fail at surface pressures below that observed for sodium caseinate. However, kappa-casein was found to form strong networks that resisted displacement and failed at surface pressures comparable to those observed for sodium caseinate. The AFM images of the displacement suggest that, despite kappa-casein being a minor component, it dominates the failure of sodium caseinate networks: alpha(s)-casein and beta-casein are preferentially desorbed at lower surface pressures, allowing the residual kappa-casein to control the breakdown of the sodium caseinate network at higher surface pressures.

  10. Predicción de las curvas de ruptura para la remoción de plomo (II en disolución acuosa sobre carbón activado en una columna empacada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Valencia Ríos

    2013-01-01

    mejora cuando se incrementa la altura del lecho de carbón activado y disminuye el ̄ujo volumétrico y la concentración inicial. Los datos experimentales de las curvas de ruptura se ajustaron a los modelos BDST (Bed Depth Service Time, Clark y Wolborska. El modelo BDST proporciona el mejor ajuste para describir el comportamiento dinámico en todas las condiciones de operación estudiadas. El modelo de Clark para relaciones de C /Co entre 0,05 y 0,5 y el modelo de Wolborska para C /Co < 0,2 describen de manera satisfactoria el rendimiento de la columna.

  11. Resultados de estudios en mecánica de terrenos aplicados a la minería del carbón mediante métodos numéricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Correa Arroyave

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available La primera parte de este artículo, al que referimos al lector interesado, fue publicada en la entrega número 25 de esta misma revista. En él se dieron los fundamentos de los métodos empleados en la Geomecánica Minera. En esta segunda parte nos hemos concentrado en los métodos numéricos para estudiar tres tipos de problemas generados por la explotación de minas, que si bien, en el texto insistimos en minas de carbón, sus resultados son igualmente válidos para otros yacimientos como los de caliza, yeso y mineral de hierro, entre otros.

  12. Ecología de laderas restauradas de la minería de carbón a cielo abierto: interacciones ecohidrológicas. [Ecology of restored slopes from opencast coal mining : ecohydrologycal interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Martín, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Textos en español e inglés, y resúmenes en español e inglés La restauración de espacios afectados por la minería de carbón a cielo abierto es una labor muy compleja. La creación de nuevos ecosistemas implica la activación de numerosos procesos naturales en el marco de la sucesión ecológica. Los procesos ecohidrológicos resultan claves en el funcionamiento de estos nuevos sistemas. Son ya conocidas las claves de la dinámica ecohidrológica de laderas mineras restauradas con régimen de escor...

  13. Relación entre parámetros texturales y energéticos de monolitos de carbón activado a partir de cáscara de coco

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Diana Paola; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Se realizaron comparaciones entre las características estructurales y parámetros energéticos de cinco muestras de monolitos de carbón activado tipo disco, obtenidos a partir de cáscara de coco, mediante activación química con ácido fosfórico con diferentes concentraciones. Las muestras se caracterizaron por adsorción física de N2 a 77K, CO2 a 273 K, y calorimetrías de inmersión en benceno. A partir de los datos obtenidos, se calcularon volúmenes de microporo, mesoporo, microporosidad estrecha...

  14. Caracterización estructural por adsorción y difracción de rayos X de monolitos de carbón activado a partir de cáscara de coco y cuesco de palma africana

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Delgadillo, Diana; Giraldo-Gutiérrez, Liliana; Moreno-Piraján, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Se prepararon monolitos de carbón activado tipo disco utilizando como precursores por separado cáscara de coco y cuesco de palma africana mediante la activación química con ácido fosfórico, utilizando diferentes concentraciones, sin el uso de ningún aglomerante. Se presentan el rendimiento del proceso, así como los parámetros estructurales determinados por adsorción de N2 a 77 K y CO2 a 273 K, y se comparan con algunos parámetros cristalográficos determinados por difracción de rayos X. Se obt...

  15. Chronic activation of plasma renin is log-linearly related to dietary sodium and eliminates natriuresis in response to a pulse change in total body sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjolby, Mads; Bie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    rate, urine flow, plasma potassium, and plasma renin activity did not change. The results indicate that sodium excretion is controlled by neurohumoral mechanisms that are quite resistant to acute changes in plasma volume and colloid osmotic pressure and are not down-regulated within 2 h. With previous......Cl administration increased PV (+6.3-8.9%) and plasma sodium concentration (~2%) and decreased plasma protein concentration (-6.4-8.1%). Plasma ANG II and aldosterone concentrations decreased transiently. Potassium excretion increased substantially. Sodium excretion, arterial blood pressure, glomerular filtration...

  16. Effect of sodium fluoride and sodium nitroprouside on Cicer arietinum and Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the individual and combine effect of sodium fluoride (NaF and sodium nitroprouside (SNP on germination and biochemical parameters (pigments, sugar, protein, amino acid, and phenol of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum and peas (Pisum sativum has been studied. After three days of NaF treatment, reductions were observed in percentage of seed germination, root and shoot length, and pigment content with increasing concentration of NaF (1 to 4 mg L-1. Seedlings treated with SNP, both alone and in combination of NaF, showed enhancement in seed germination as well as other growth parameters. NaF-treated seedlings were found to accumulate more soluble sugars and phenols, which were further increased by SNP treatment thereby indicating a synergistic effect of the possible reasons for the ameliorative effects of SNP in seedlings of Pisum sativum growing under NaF stress. Results also demonstrated that SNP application did not show any improvement in both morpho-physiologically and biochemically under sodium fluoride stress condition.

  17. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  18. Some techniques for sodium removal in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Waimai; Ding Dejun; Guo Huanfang; Hong Shuzhang; Zhou Shuxia; Shen Fenyang; Yang Zhongmin; Xu Yongxing

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the experiment and application on sodium removal and sodium disposal are presented. Steam-nitrogen process was used in CIAE for cleaning cold traps, sodium vapor traps, a sodium tank. Atomized water-nitrogen process was used for cleaning dummy fuel assembly for CEFR and a sintered stainless steel filter. Sprinkle process was used for cleaning some tubes. Bultylcellosolve was used for cleaning sintered stainless steel filter and sodium flow measurement device. Ethanol alcohol was used for cleaning electromagnetic pump. Paraffin, transformer-oil or their mixture was used for cleaning sodium valves, a sodium vapor trap and sodium-potassium alloy absorber. A small sintered stainless steel filter was distillated in vacuum. A simple sodium disposal device has been served for several years in CIA.E. It can dispose about 10 Kg sodium each time and the disposal process is no-aerosol. It operates in open air for non-radioactive sodium. In recent years a small sodium cleaning plant has been built. It can use atomized water, steam or organic alcohol to removal of sodium. The LAVEL cleaning plant and SLAPSO cleaning plant were introduced from Italy. And CEFR preliminary design on sodium cleaning for spent fuel assembly and on sodium removal-decontamination for large reactor components is introduced. Vapour-nitrogen process is planned to use in them. (author)

  19. Heteroaggregation of lipid droplets coated with sodium caseinate and lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Furtado, Guilherme; Michelon, Mariano; de Oliveira, Davi Rocha Bernardes; da Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

    2016-11-01

    Formation and characterization of droplet heteroaggregates were investigated by mixing two emulsions previously stabilized by proteins oppositely charged. Emulsions were composed of 5vol.% of sunflower oil and 95vol.% of sodium caseinate or lactoferrin aqueous dispersions. They were produced using ultrasound with fixed power (300W) and sonication time (6min). Different volume ratios (0-100%) of sodium caseinate-stabilized emulsion (droplet diameter around 1.75μm) to lactoferrin-stabilized emulsion (droplet diameter around 1.55μm) were mixed under conditions that both proteins showed opposite charges (pH7). Influence of ionic strength (0-400mM NaCl) on the heteroaggregates stability was also evaluated. Creaming stability, zeta potential, microstructure, mean particle diameter and rheological properties of the heteroaggregates were measured. These properties depended on the volume ratio (0-100%) of sodium caseinate to lactoferrin-stabilized emulsion (C:L) and the ionic strength. In the absence of salt, different zeta potential values were obtained, rheological properties (viscosity and elastic moduli) were improved and the largest heteroaggregates were formed at higher content of lactoferrin-stabilized emulsion (60-80%). The system containing 40 and 60vol.% of sodium caseinate and lactoferrin stabilized emulsion, respectively, presented good stability against phase separation besides showing enhanced rheological and size properties due to extensive droplets aggregation. Phase separation was observed only in the absence of sodium caseinate, demonstrating the higher susceptibility of lactoferrin to NaCl. The heteroaggregates produced may be useful functional agents for texture modification and controlled release since different rheological properties and sizes can be achieved depending on protein concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanisms of membrane protein insertion into liposomes during reconstitution procedures involving the use of detergents. 1. Solubilization of large unilamellar liposomes (Prepared by reverse-phase evaporation) by Triton X-100 octyl glucoside, and sodium cholate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paternostre, M.T.; Roux, M.; Rigaud, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms governing the solubilization by Triton X-100, octyl glucoside, and sodium cholate of large unilamellar liposomes prepared by reverse-phase evaporation were investigated. The solubilization process is described by the three-stage model previously proposed for the detergents. In stage I, detergent monomers are incorporated into the phospholipid bilayers until they saturate the liposomes. At this point, i.e., stage II, mixed phospholipid-detergent micelles begin to form. By stage III, the lamellar to micellar transition is complete and all the phospholipids are present as mixed micelles. The turbidity of liposome preparations was systematically measured as a function of the amount of detergent added for a wide range of phospholipid concentrations. The results allowed a quantitative determination of the effective detergent to lipid molar ratios in the saturated liposomes. The monomer concentrations of the three detergents in the aqueous phase were also determined at the lamellar to micellar transitions. These transitions were also investigated by 31 P NMR spectroscopy, and complete agreement was found with turbidity measurements. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy and permeability studies in the sublytic range of detergent concentrations indicated that during stage I of solubilization detergent partitioning between the aqueous phase and the lipid bilayer greatly affects the basic permeability of the liposomes without significantly changing the morphology of the preparations. A rough approximation of the partition coefficients was derived from the turbidity and permeability data. It is concluded that when performed systematically, turbidity measurements constitute a very convenient and powerful technique for the quantitative study of the liposome solubilization process by detergents

  1. Ability of self-reported estimates of dietary sodium, potassium and protein to detect an association with general and abdominal obesity: comparison with the estimates derived from 24 h urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-28

    As under-reporting of dietary intake, particularly by overweight and obese subjects, is common in dietary surveys, biases inherent in the use of self-reported dietary information may distort true diet-obesity relationships or even create spurious ones. However, empirical evidence of this possibility is limited. The present cross-sectional study compared the relationships of 24 h urine-derived and self-reported intakes of Na, K and protein with obesity. A total of 1043 Japanese women aged 18-22 years completed a 24 h urine collection and a self-administered diet history questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, 24 h urine-derived Na intake was associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥80 cm; both P for trend=0·04). For 24 h urine-derived protein intake, positive associations with general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·02 and 0·053, respectively). For 24 h urine-derived K intake, there was an inverse association with abdominal obesity (P for trend=0·01). Conversely, when self-reported dietary information was used, only inverse associations between K intake and general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with no associations of Na or protein intake. In conclusion, we found positive associations of Na and protein intakes and inverse associations of K intake with obesity when using 24 h urinary excretion for estimating dietary intakes. However, no association was observed based on using self-reported dietary intakes, except for inverse association of K intake, suggesting that the ability of self-reported dietary information using the diet history questionnaire for investigating diet-obesity relationships is limited.

  2. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  3. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  4. Modification of Sodium Release Using Porous Corn Starch and Lipoproteic Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Josephine; Lee, Youngsoo

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sodium consumption can result in hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, and kidney diseases. Various chips and extruded snacks, where salt is mainly applied on the product surface, accounted for almost 56% of snacks retail sales in 2010. Hence, it is important to target sodium reduction for those snack products. Past studies had shown that modifying the rate-release mechanism of sodium is a promising strategy for sodium reduction in the food industry. Encapsulation of salt can be a possible technique to control sodium release rate. Porous corn starch (PCS), created by enzymatic treatment and spray drying and lipoproteic matrix, created by gelation and freeze drying, were evaluated as carriers for controlled sodium release targeting topically applied salts. Both carriers encapsulated salt and their in vitro sodium release profiles were measured using a conductivity meter. The sodium release profiles of PCS treated with different enzymatic reaction times were not significantly different. Protein content and fat content altered sodium release profile from the lipoproteic matrix. The SEM images of PCS showed that most of the salt crystals coated the starch instead of being encapsulated in the pores while the SEM images and computed tomography scan of lipoproteic matrix showed salt dispersed throughout the matrix. Hence, PCS was found to have limitations as a sodium carrier as it could not effectively encapsulate salt inside its pores. The lipoproteic matrix was found to have a potential as a sodium carrier as it could effectively encapsulate salt and modify the sodium release profile. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Sodium aerosol formation in an argon flow over hot sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.; Dolias, M.J.; UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Thermal Hydraulics Div.)

    1987-01-01

    Vapour evaporation, which partly forms aerosol, occurs when a cold gas flows over a hot liquid. A previous well-mixed model is extended to predict the final vapour plus aerosol content of such a flow in terms of its initial and final temperatures. The predictions are compared to results of the Copacabana II experiment in which argon passed over a sodium pool. Agreement is obtained for the final sodium density at moderate flow rates, and physical reasons are given as to why deviations occur at low and high flow rates. (author)

  6. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel trafficking and function by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Planès, Carole; Escudier, Estelle; Fanen, Pascale; Coste, André; Clerici, Christine

    2007-11-23

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) has been shown to correct the cellular trafficking of several mutant or nonmutant plasma membrane proteins such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator through the expression of 70-kDa heat shock proteins. The objective of the study was to determine whether 4-PBA may influence the functional expression of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). Using primary cultures of HNEC, we demonstrate that 4-PBA (5 mm for 6 h) markedly stimulated amiloride-sensitive sodium channel activity and that this was related to an increased abundance of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits in the apical membrane. The increase in ENaC cell surface expression (i) was due to insertion of newly ENaC subunits as determined by brefeldin A experiments and (ii) was not associated with cell surface retention of ENaC subunits because endocytosis of ENaC subunits was unchanged. In addition, we find that ENaC co-immunoprecipitated with the heat shock protein constitutively expressed Hsc70, that has been reported to modulate ENaC trafficking, and that 4-PBA decreased Hsc70 protein level. Finally, we report that in cystic fibrosis HNEC obtained from two cystic fibrosis patients, 4-PBA increased functional expression of ENaC as demonstrated by the increase in amiloride-sensitive sodium transport and in alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunit expression in the apical membrane. Our results suggest that in HNEC, 4-PBA increases the functional expression of ENaC through the insertion of new alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits into the apical membrane and also suggest that 4-PBA could modify ENaC trafficking by reducing Hsc70 protein expression.

  7. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Brown, R C; Spurlock, G; Southgate, K; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  8. Combination of sodium caseinate and succinylated alginate improved stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yesiltas, Betül; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Sodium caseinate (CAS) and commercial sodium alginate (CA), long chain modified alginate (LCMA) or short chain modified alginate (SCMA) were used in combination for emulsifying and stabilizing high fat (50–70%) fish oil-in-water emulsions. Physical (creaming, droplet size, viscosity and protein...

  9. LMFBR safety and sodium boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, W.D.; Tschamper, P.M.; Fontana, M.H.; Henry, R.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Within the U.S. Fast Breeder Reactor Safety R and D Work Breakdown Structure for Line of Assurance 2, Limit Core Damage, the influence of sodium boiling upon the progression and termination of accidents is being studied in loss of flow, transient overpower, loss of piping integrity, loss of shutdown heat removal system and local fault situations. The pertinent analytical and experimental results of this research to date are surveyed and compared with the requirements for demonstrating the effectiveness of this line of assurance. A discussion of specific technical issues concerned with sodium boiling and the need for future development work is also presented.

  10. Neutronic spectrometry measurements in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlini, G.; Acerbis, S.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of neutronic penetration in sodium, which could serve as a reference and as a benchmark for computer codes. The model employed consisted of an assembly of 7 containers full of sodium for a total of 10 tons and a useful length of almost 4 metres. Measurements were performed at various depths along the central axis of the structure with proton recoil proportional counters. The energy band explored was between 100 and 650 keV. Here we report not only the original spectra of the impulses but also the neutronic spectra found by unfolding with the SPEC-4 code

  11. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  12. The effect of dietary protein restriction on the secretory dynamics of 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone and urea in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula: a possible role for 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone in sodium retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; O'Toole, L B; Hazon, N

    1993-08-01

    The putative osmoregulatory role of the unique elasmobranch corticosteroid, 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone (1 alpha-OH-B), was investigated using dietary protein restriction as a means of limiting urea biosynthetic ability. Groups of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were adapted to either a high or a low protein diet (HPD and LPD respectively) and the secretory dynamics of urea and 1 alpha-OH-B were determined following acclimation to normal (100%), 130% and 50% sea water. In normal sea water, LPD fish showed significantly decreased blood production of urea compared with fish fed a HPD (P strategy adopted by these animals was the retention of high plasma concentrations of Na+ and Cl-, which increased plasma osmolality and tended to decrease osmotic water loss. Concomitant with the increased ion concentrations, plasma 1 alpha-OH-B concentration was also greatly elevated in LPD fish indicating that the steroid may be acting to minimize Na+ (and Cl-) excretion at osmoregulatory sites such as the rectal gland, kidney and gills. This and a previous study have also demonstrated that 1 alpha-OH-B concentration is elevated in 50% sea water. Decreases in plasma Na+ concentration are tolerated down to 75% sea water, whereafter Na+ is preferentially retained and further decreases in osmolality are achieved by reductions in plasma urea concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Raman Spectroscopy of Conformational Changes in Membrane-Bound Sodium Potassium ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus; Abdali, Salim; Lundbæk, Jens August

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation we assess the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a tool for probing conformational changes in membrane-spanning proteins — in this case, the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase). Spectral analysis of protein-lipid complexes is complicated by the presence...

  14. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  15. High-pressure sodium lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  16. Cavitation problems in sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, X.

    1976-01-01

    Cavitation poses few problems for sodium valves, in spite of the fact that the loops are not pressurized. This is no doubt due to the low flow velocities in the pipes. For auxiliary loop valves we are attempting to standardize performances with respect to cavitation. For economic reasons cavitation thresholds are approached with large diameter valves. (author)

  17. Structure of sodium perbromate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, A.C.; Gallucci, J.C.; Gerkin, R.E.; Reppart, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    NaBrO 4 .H 2 O, M r =184.90, monoclinic, C2/c, a=15.7575(19), b=5.7373(15), c=11.3390(19) A, β=111.193(10)deg. In this structure, there are two inequivalent Na ions, each coordinated by six O atoms. In each of the two types of distorted octahedra, there are three inequivalent Na-O distances; the average Na(1)-O and Na(2)-O distances are 2.379(10) and 2.405(23) A, respectively. The perbromate ion in this structure displays very nearly regular tetrahedral geometry, although it is subject to no symmetry constraints; the average observed Br-O distance is 1.601(4) A, while the average observed O-Br-O angle is 109.5(9)deg. These values agree well with previously reported values. The perbromate ion, but neither of the sodium coordination polyhedra, shows rigid-body behavior. The average rigid-body corrected Br-O distance in the perbromate ion is 1.624(3) A. Refinement of the two inequivalent H atoms permitted detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonding, which is slightly different from that reported for the isomorphic sodium perchlorate monohydrate. Dynamic disordering of the H atoms as detailed by magnetic resonance methods for sodium perchlorate monohydrate is not clearly indicated in our X-ray study of sodium perbromate monohydrate. (orig./GSCH)

  18. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; L'homme, A.; Lhiaubet, G.; Himeno, Y.; Kirby, C.R.; Mitsutsuka, N.

    1984-01-01

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in medical costs. Problem Not all foods are created equal Understanding sodium in foods can be confusing ... for lower sodium choices. About 25% comes from restaurants and it can be hard for a person ...

  20. ELTA: Cita{sup trademark}: Sodium measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauvais, O. [Water Analysis Line Mgr, ELTA (France)

    2002-07-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  1. Downregulation of surface sodium pumps by endocytosis during meiotic maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalzing, G.; Eckard, P.; Kroener, S.P.; Passow, H.

    1990-01-01

    During meiotic maturation, plasma membranes of Xenopus laevis oocytes completely lose the capacity to transport Na and K and to bind ouabain. To explore whether the downregulation might be due to an internalization of the sodium pump molecules, the intracellular binding of ouabain was determined. Selective permeabilization of the plasma membrane of mature oocytes (eggs) by digitonin almost failed to disclose ouabain binding sites. However, when the eggs were additionally treated with 0.02% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to permeabilize inner membranes, all sodium pumps present before maturation were recovered. Phosphorylation by [gamma-32P]ATP combined with SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and autoradiography showed that sodium pumps were greatly reduced in isolated plasma membranes of eggs. According to sucrose gradient fractionation, maturation induced a shift of sodium pumps from the plasma membrane fraction to membranes of lower buoyant density with a protein composition different from that of the plasma membrane. Endocytosed sodium pumps identified on the sucrose gradient from [3H]ouabain bound to the cell surface before maturation could be phosphorylated with inorganic [32P]phosphate. The findings suggest that downregulation of sodium pumps during maturation is brought about by translocation of surface sodium pumps to an intracellular compartment, presumably endosomes. This contrasts the mechanism of downregulation of Na-dependent cotransport systems, the activities of which are reduced as a consequence of a maturation-induced depolarization of the membrane without a removal of the corresponding transporter from the plasma membrane

  2. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  3. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  4. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a...

  5. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at 0.1...

  6. Clinical impact of nonosmotic sodium storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, R.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the

  7. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations provided...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i) Amount...

  9. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  10. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  11. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg. No... ore calcined to impure soda ash and then purified; or (3) synthesized from limestone by the Solvay...

  14. Sodium fires and nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.N.; Zubin, A.; Drobyshev, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The danger of sodium aerosol release at a design basis accident (DBA) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor that involves coolant leakage and burning, is being analyzed. It has been shown that radioactive and toxic releases at DBA do not exceed permissible values. Some means of sodium fire fighting are described. (author)

  15. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  17. Influencia de la concentración de hierro y pH iniciales en un proceso de biodesulfurización de carbón – ensayos a nivel de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Caicedo Pineda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Particle size, iron concentration and pH influence in biodesulfurization process of coal – laboratory tests   Resumen   A un carbón proveniente del municipio de Puerto Libertador, Córdoba-Colombia (2.34% de azufre total, con 1.34% pirítico, 0.90% orgánico y 0.10% de sulfatos, se le aplicó un cultivo mixto de Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans y Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, con el fin de evaluar procesos de biodesulfurización en suspensión, a partir de variables que influyen en el proceso: concentración inicial de hierro y pH de la solución lixiviante, bajo dos configuraciones de tamaño de partícula: pasante malla 8 (-malla 8 y pasante malla 60 (-malla 60, acorde con la serie Tyler de tamices. Los procesos de biodesulfurización se evaluaron cada dos días, mediante mediciones de la concentración de hierro, pH, potencial de óxido-reducción y crecimiento celular, en la solución. A partir de los ensayos realizados, se alcanzaron oxidaciones de azufre pirítico por encima del 50%, después de 12 días de proceso. Se pudo constatar que tanto el tipo de carbón tratado, como de las condiciones evaluadas, inciden en el grado de lixiviación alcanzado. La mejor eficiencia del proceso se observó al utilizar concentraciones de hierro iniciales menores a 1200 ppm y un pH inicial entre 1.5 y 1.3.   Palabras clave: Acidithiobacillus, biodesulfurización, carbón, hierro removido, pirita.   Abstract   Biodesulfurization process for Colombian coal (2.34% total sulfur: 1.34% as pyritic, 0.90% as organic and 0.10% from sulfates from municipality of Puerto Libertador (Córdoba, Colombia was carried out. A mixed culture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans was used. The study was mainly focused on the influence of pH, and iron concentration in coal leaching process. Two mineral particle sizes were evaluated: less 8 mesh (-malla 8 and less 60 mesh (-malla 60, Tyler series. Biodesulfurization processes were determined by

  18. Sodium purification in Rapsodie; La purification du sodium a Rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [French] Ce rapport fait partie d'une serie de publications presentant l'essentiel des resultats des essais effectues a l'occasion du demarrage du premier reacteur francais a neutrons rapides: RAPSODIE. Cet article expose les techniques de la purification du sodium utilise dans les circuits de refroidissement du reacteur tant au point de vue de leur realisation technologique, que des resultats obtenus pendant la premiere annee de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  19. Relación entre los hallazgos radiográficos y la sintomatología respiratoria en trabajadores expuestos a polvo de carbón en minería de socavón en el departamento de Boyacá, Colombia 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Diana C; Hernández, Gilma

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La inhalación de polvo de carbón favorece el desarrollo de neumoconiosis, causa daños irreversibles al pulmón que se identifican radiológicamente. Los síntomas son tardíos y la patología se puede desarrollar tras varios años de exposición. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hallazgos radiográficos según la metodología de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) 2000 y relacionarlos con la sintomatología respiratoria en trabajadores expuestos a polvo de carbón en las labores de mi...

  20. Mechanisms of Sodium Transport in Plants—Progresses and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Keisham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of sodium (Na+ influx, effective compartmentalization, and efflux in higher plants is crucial to manipulate Na+ accumulation and assure the maintenance of low Na+ concentration in the cytosol and, hence, plant tolerance to salt stress. Na+ influx across the plasma membrane in the roots occur mainly via nonselective cation channels (NSCCs. Na+ is compartmentalized into vacuoles by Na+/H+ exchangers (NHXs. Na+ efflux from the plant roots is mediated by the activity of Na+/H+ antiporters catalyzed by the salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1 protein. In animals, ouabain (OU-sensitive Na+, K+-ATPase (a P-type ATPase mediates sodium efflux. The evolution of P-type ATPases in higher plants does not exclude the possibility of sodium efflux mechanisms similar to the Na+, K+-ATPase-dependent mechanisms characteristic of animal cells. Using novel fluorescence imaging and spectrofluorometric methodologies, an OU-sensitive sodium efflux system has recently been reported to be physiologically active in roots. This review summarizes and analyzes the current knowledge on Na+ influx, compartmentalization, and efflux in higher plants in response to salt stress.

  1. Valoración del impacto de efluentes minero industriales del carbón en el arroyo San José de Río Turbio en Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucia Caballero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los efluentes descargados al arroyo San José de Río Turbio al sudoeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz (República Argentina quedaron caracterizados mediante un análisis estadístico multivariado realizado con parámetros fisicoquímicos determinados sobre ellos (Caballero A. Dicho análisis permitió su diferenciación cualitativa y la identificación de los aportes que ocasiona cada uno de ellos. En éste trabajo se ha procedido en primer lugar a determinar la calidad de los vertidos y del agua del arroyo a partir de una escala de valoración. Dicha escala se confeccionó usando las conclusiones del análisis estadístico mencionado y la comparación de los valores obtenidos con los límites máximos de vuelco establecidos para la provincia de Santa Cruz (ley N° 2658, los Niveles guía argentinos de calidad de agua ambiente y los Niveles guía de la ley de protección Ambiental Nº 24585 (Código de minería argentino. Finalmente para valorar el impacto ocasionado por los efluentes minero industriales, se tomó en consideración además de la calidad, otros factores relevantes tales como caudal, tipo de vertido, intermitencia y peligrosidad; adoptando un modelo matemático particular que permitió asignar un puntaje asociado a una escala cualitativa. Como conclusión se pudo determinar mediante una metodología científica que el impacto ocasionado por las descargas minero industrial de carbón al curso de agua varía en un rango de alto a muy alto y esta determinada principalmente por aquellas provenientes de la planta depuradora de carbón y la central térmica.

  2. Transformation of sodium from the Rapsodie fast breeder reactor into sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, J.; Latge, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major problems raised by decommissioning a fast breeder reactor (FBR) concerns the disposal of the sodium coolant. The Desora operation was undertaken to eliminate the Rapsodie primary sodium as part of the partial decommissioning program, and to develop an operational sodium treatment unit for other needs. The process involves reacting small quantities of sodium in water inside a closed vessel, producing aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is described in this work. (O.L.). 4 figs

  3. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400°C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 lm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  4. Sodium-concrete reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1982-07-01

    Major observations have been formulated after reviewing test results for over 100 sodium-concrete reaction tests. The observations form the basis for developing a mechanistic model to predict the transient behavior of sodium-concrete reactions. The major observations are listed. Mechanisms associated with sodium and water transport to the reaction zone are identified, and represented by appropriate mathematical expressions. The model attempts to explain large-scale, long-term (100 h) test results were sodium-concrete reactions terminated even in the presence of unreacted sodium and concrete

  5. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  6. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  7. Comparative study on the mechanisms of rotavirus inactivation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.L. (Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes a comparative study on the effects of the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate on purified rotavirus SA-11 particles. Both chemicals readily inactivated rotavirus at quite low concentrations and under very mild conditions. In addition, both agents modified the viral capsid and prevented the adsorption of inactivated virions to cells. Capsid damage by ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused a shift in the densities of rotavirions from about l.35 to about 1.37 g/ml and a reduction in their sedimentation coefficients. Sodium dodcyl sulfate, on the other hand, did not detectably alter either of these physical properties of rotavirions. Both agents caused some alteration of the isoelectric points of the virions. Finally, analysis of rotavirus proteins showed that ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused the loss of two protein peaks from the electrophoretic pattern of virions but sodium dodecyl sulfate caused the loss of only one of these same protein peaks.

  8. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig, E-mail: cgerardi@anl.gov; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Distributed temperature sensors measured high-resolution liquid-sodium temperatures. • DTSs worked well up to 400 °C. • A single DTS simultaneously detected sodium level and temperature. - Abstract: Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400 °C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 μm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  10. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Development of the immersed sodium flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1994-09-01

    An immersed sodium flowmeter of the range 3 m 3 /h is developed. It is a flowmeter of entire-sealed construction, it can be operated in sodium. Its construction, the theoretical calculation of the calibration characteristic and the pressure loss, the test facility and the calibration test are presented in detail. It analytical expression of the calibration characteristic in the temperature limit 200∼600 degree C and the error analysis are given. The basic error of this immersed sodium flowmeter is below +-2.3% of the measuring range. The immersed sodium flowmeter can be used to resolve the sodium flowrate measuring problems of the in-reactor component of LMFBR, for example, the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor sodium purification loop, the flowrate measuring of the immersed sodium pump and the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor test component

  12. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  13. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  14. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  15. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  16. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daolong Chen

    1996-01-01

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  17. The extraction of proteins from the neem seed ( Indica azadirachta A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques for maximizing the extraction of protein from the neem seed (Indica azadirachta A. Juss) were investigated. Extractants used were sodium chloride and sodium sulphate solutions of varying concentration and pH. Maximum extractions of 17.86 g of extractable protein was obtained from 1 kg of crude protein, using ...

  18. Instrumentation for Sodium Circuits; Instrumentation des Circuits de Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambillard, E. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lions, N. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache (France)

    1967-06-15

    Electromagnetic flow meters, level gauges and differential pressure gauges are among the main measurement instruments designed and tested at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for sodium reactors. The main characteristics of the flow meters used with RAPSODIE are indicated. The instruments used in this connection are of the permanent -magnet or electromagnet type (in the primary circuits). A description is given of the calibration methods employed - use is made of diaphragms or Venturi tubes as standard flow meters - and information is given on the results measured for maximum sodium flows of 400 m{sup 3}/h. Three types of continuous level gauge have been studied. Resistance gauge. Two varieties used for the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of RAPSODIE are described. In one there is a compensation resistance along the whole height of the measuring element (the continuous gauges used with the RAPSODIE reactor are at present of this type). In the other type of gauge a device is incorporated to heat the measurement element and prevent the formation of conducting deposits (prototype sodium tests have been completed). Induction gauge. This type has two coupled coils and is fitted with a device to compensate for temperature effects. A description is given of a prototype which has been built and the results obtained in the course of sodium tests are described. Ultrasonic gauge. With this type, a transmitter is fitted on top of the outside of the sodium container; there is also a vertical wave guide, the bottom of which is immersed in the liquid metal and possesses a reflector system which returns the ultrasonic beam towards the surface. Fixed reference marks provide a permanent means of calibration and the whole apparatus is welded. This type of gauge is now being constructed. The differential pressure gauges that have been built, and used in particular with Venturi tube flow meters, are modified versions of the devices employed with the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of

  19. Relación entre la petrografía del carbón y el contenido de gases en la cuenca de Amagá (Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Mariño-Martínez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la influencia de los macerales con contenido de gas en muestras de tres pozos. Además de estudiar la composición maceral, se determinó la reflectancia de la vitrinita (Ro y los análisis próximos. Se concluyó que el contenido de vitrinita en los pozos excede a los de la inertinita y a la liptinita, alcanzando un valor del 94%, con el rango de carbón bituminoso de alta volatilidad. Por su parte, el contenido de gas va de unos mínimos valores hasta alcanzar los 100 pies3/ton. En los pozos con presencia de intrusivos se observa una dispersión y una relación no lineal entre las variables. Cerca de los intrusivos aumentan los valores de Ro hasta cerca de 5. Donde no hay intrusivos se nota un incremento lineal entre contenidos de gas y Ro con el aumento de la profundidad. Los factores más influyentes en la cueca son Ro, % de vitrinita e intrusiones.

  20. Efecto del carbón activado y ácido indol acético en el desarrollo de protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea Linden ex Lindl. y Maxillaria nutans Lindl.. In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alonso Pedroza-Manrique

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Effect of activated charcoal indol and acetic acid in the development of Masdevallia coccinea Linden ex Lindl y Maxillaria nutans Lindl. protocorm like bodies under in vitro. Resumen En esta investigación se pretende estimular el desarrollo de protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea y Maxillaria nutans bajo condiciones in vitro utilizando diferentes concentraciones de ácido indol acético y carbón activado. El protocolo obtenido es una alternativa de la conservación de orquídeas que se encuentran en vías de extinción, y además permite contribuir con el mejoramiento medioambiental. En la evaluación del desarrollo vegetativo bajo condiciones in vitro de los protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea y Maxillaria nutans, orquídeas en vías de extinción, se obtuvo que solamente Maxillaria nutans alcanzará su desarrollo exitoso mediante el cultivo in vitro en el medio Murashige y Skoog (1962, donde se evaluó el efecto de la interacción entre el carbón activado (0,0; 0,5, 1,0 % (p/v y el ácido indol acético (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 mg/L-1. El medio de cultivo empleado fue enriquecido con sacarosa al 3% y el Myo inositol al 0,1 g/L-1. Los protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea evidenciaron que se encontraban inmaduros, situación por la cual no lograron su desarrollarlo vegetativo en el experimento planteado, en atención a que se encontraban en el periodo de latencia. Por esta razón, es de gran importancia tener en cuenta que las cápsulas de las orquídeas deben estar bien maduras, a fin de garantizar que los protocormos que se forman in vitro sean maduros y completen con facilidad su morfofisiológía. Mientras que los protocormos de Maxillaria nutans dieron un mayor rendimiento en su desarrollo vegetativo. En esta investigación se determinó que el efecto de la interacción de 0,5% de carbón activado con 0,5 mg/L-1 de AIA es positivo sobre la tasa de crecimiento para el desarrollo de los protocormos de Maxillaria nutans bajo

  1. Efecto del carbón activado y ácido indol acético en el desarrollo de protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea Linden ex Lindl. y Maxillaria nutans Lindl.. In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alonso Pedroza-Manrique

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Effect of activated charcoal indol and acetic acid in the development of Masdevallia coccinea Linden ex Lindl y Maxillaria nutans Lindl. protocorm like bodies under in vitro. Resumen En esta investigación se pretende estimular el desarrollo de protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea y Maxillaria nutans bajo condiciones in vitro utilizando diferentes concentraciones de ácido indol acético y carbón activado. El protocolo obtenido es una alternativa de la conservación de orquídeas que se encuentran en vías de extinción, y además permite contribuir con el mejoramiento medioambiental. En la evaluación del desarrollo vegetativo bajo condiciones in vitro de los protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea y Maxillaria nutans, orquídeas en vías de extinción, se obtuvo que solamente Maxillaria nutans alcanzará su desarrollo exitoso mediante el cultivo in vitro en el medio Murashige y Skoog (1962, donde se evaluó el efecto de la interacción entre el carbón activado (0,0; 0,5, 1,0 % (p/v y el ácido indol acético (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 mg/L-1. El medio de cultivo empleado fue enriquecido con sacarosa al 3% y el Myo inositol al 0,1 g/L-1. Los protocormos de Masdevallia coccinea evidenciaron que se encontraban inmaduros, situación por la cual no lograron su desarrollarlo vegetativo en el experimento planteado, en atención a que se encontraban en el periodo de latencia. Por esta razón, es de gran importancia tener en cuenta que las cápsulas de las orquídeas deben estar bien maduras, a fin de garantizar que los protocormos que se forman in vitro sean maduros y completen con facilidad su morfofisiológía. Mientras que los protocormos de Maxillaria nutans dieron un mayor rendimiento en su desarrollo vegetativo. En esta investigación se determinó que el efecto de la interacción de 0,5% de carbón activado con 0,5 mg/L-1 de AIA es positivo sobre la tasa de crecimiento para el desarrollo de los protocormos de Maxillaria nutans bajo

  2. Influence of puerperium on the serum proteins of Saanen goats, obtained by the analysis of electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel / Influência do puerpério sobre o proteinograma sérico de caprinos da raça Saanen obtido por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Harry Birgel Junior

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the puerperal influence on the proteinogram of Saanen goats, 108 samples of blood serum from 12 goats were collected, and the results were presented at nine times: just after parturition, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 21 and 30 days after parturition. Total amount of serum proteins were determined by the biuret technique, and the sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was used to the protein fractionation. In this last method, 17 protein bands were observed, from which molecular weights varied between 25 KDa and 275 KDa. In addition, it was possible to identify the following protein fractions: immunoglobulin A (180 KDa, ceruloplasmin (115 KDa, transferrin (79 KDa, albumin (65 KDa, heavy-chain immunoglobulin G (58 KDa, haptoglobin (45 KDa, acid glycoprotein (37 KDa and light-chain immunoglobulin G (28 KDa. Another 9 nonidentified protein fractions presented, each molecular weights equal to 275 KDa, 140 KDa, 125 KDa, 103 KDa, 95 KDa, 41 KDa, 35 KDa, 30 Kda and 25 KDa. The results allow us to conclude that by the first week of puerperium, an improvement of acid glycoprotein occurs, whereas those others protein fractions do not suffer any puerperal influence.Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do puerpério no proteinograma de caprinos da raça Saanen foram colhidas 108 amostras de soro sangüíneo de 12 cabras, sendo os resultados apresentados em nove momentos: imediatamente após a parição, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 21 e 30 dias após o parto. Os teores séricos de proteína total foram determinados pela técnica do biureto, e para o fracionamento das proteínas foi realizada a eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida contendo dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE. No método utilizado foram observadas 17 bandas protéicas, cujos pesos moleculares (PM variaram de 25 KDa a 275 KDa, sendo possível a identificação das seguintes frações protéicas: imunoglobulina A (180 KDa, ceruloplasmina (115 KDa, transferrina

  3. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium vapour and sodium mist in the cover gas of a sodium system of a fast breeder reactor cause various problems. In this report, with the results of measurements of sodium mist concentration, the distribution of sodium mist diameter in cover gas was analytically obtained. The analysis was made by using the different nucleus model B. The measurement of the concentration of sodium mist was carried out with a sodium mist pot designed by the author. The experiment was done at the sodium temperature of 400 and 500 degree centigrade. The relations among sodium temperature, upper wall temperature, and the sodium mist concentration in cover gas were obtained. Evaluation of effective condensed nuclear radius in the cover gas was made by the comparison of analysis and experimental results. The results of this evaluation shows the following conclusions. It is impossible to express the distribution of sodium mist diameter by normal distribution or logarithmic normal distribution. Drop of sodium temperature results in the decrease of weight mean radius of generated sodium mist. Drop of upper wall temperature causes the decrease of weight mean radius, and increases sodium mist concentration. (Kato, T.)

  4. [Sodium and potassium content of various Chilean foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez de Araya, C; Farah, M; Zuccarelli, M T; Masson, L

    1981-03-01

    Sodium and potassium contents of 40 high-protein dietary products were determined in order to complete the Table de Composición Química se Alimentos Chilenos (Chemical Composition Table of Chilean Foods). These cations' level must be strictly controlled in diets of many renal and heart patients. In Chile, Nutritionists who are in charge of preparing these diets, do not have a national composition table related to the sodium and potassium content for most of the food products. Samples of fluid cow's milk, dried milk with different fat contents, some cheeses, hen eggs, bovine entrails, some meat derivates and several meat cuts, including bovine, pork, lamb and chicken were studied.

  5. Improvement of a sample preparation method assisted by sodium deoxycholate for mass-spectrometry-based shotgun membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Kunbo; Yan, Yujun

    2014-11-01

    In current shotgun-proteomics-based biological discovery, the identification of membrane proteins is a challenge. This is especially true for integral membrane proteins due to their highly hydrophobic nature and low abundance. Thus, much effort has been directed at sample preparation strategies such as use of detergents, chaotropes, and organic solvents. We previously described a sample preparation method for shotgun membrane proteomics, the sodium deoxycholate assisted method, which cleverly circumvents many of the challenges associated with traditional sample preparation methods. However, the method is associated with significant sample loss due to the slightly weaker extraction/solubilization ability of sodium deoxycholate when it is used at relatively low concentrations such as 1%. Hence, we present an enhanced sodium deoxycholate sample preparation strategy that first uses a high concentration of sodium deoxycholate (5%) to lyse membranes and extract/solubilize hydrophobic membrane proteins, and then dilutes the detergent to 1% for a more efficient digestion. We then applied the improved method to shotgun analysis of proteins from rat liver membrane enriched fraction. Compared with other representative sample preparation strategies including our previous sodium deoxycholate assisted method, the enhanced sodium deoxycholate method exhibited superior sensitivity, coverage, and reliability for the identification of membrane proteins particularly those with high hydrophobicity and/or multiple transmembrane domains. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchangers design problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the calculation methods adapted, in working-out the stresses due to fluid pressures (normal as well as transient), weights, piping-reactions, vibration in the tube-bundle and also the thermal stresses during normal and transient conditions, for the mechanical design of intermediate heat-exchanger. The thermal stress evaluation of the tube-sheet is given particular emphasis. A brief outline of the design problems connected with the Na-Na exchangers of large size sodium cooled fast reactor plants is also given. (author)

  7. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  8. Wireless sensor network for sodium leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Raj, Baldev; Sivalingam, Krishna M.; Ebenezer, Jemimah; Chandran, T.; Shanmugavel, M.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Early detection of sodium leak is mandatory in any reactor handling liquid sodium. ► Wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced for detecting sodium leak. ► We designed and developed a wireless sensor node in-house. ► We deployed a pilot wireless sensor network for handling nine sodium leak signals. - Abstract: To study the mechanical properties of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor component materials under the influence of sodium, the IN Sodium Test (INSOT) facility has been erected and commissioned at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Sodium reacts violently with air/moisture leading to fire. Hence early detection of sodium leak if any is mandatory for such plants and almost 140 sodium leak detectors are placed throughout the loop. All these detectors are wired to the control room for data collection and monitoring. To reduce the cost, space and maintenance that are involved in cabling, the wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced in the sodium leak detection system of INSOT. This paper describes about the deployment details of the pilot wireless sensor network and the measures taken for the successful deployment.

  9. Containment Sodium Chemistry Models in MELCOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    To meet regulatory needs for sodium fast reactors’ future development, including licensing requirements, Sandia National Laboratories is modernizing MELCOR, a severe accident analysis computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Specifically, Sandia is modernizing MELCOR to include the capability to model sodium reactors. However, Sandia’s modernization effort primarily focuses on the containment response aspects of the sodium reactor accidents. Sandia began modernizing MELCOR in 2013 to allow a sodium coolant, rather than water, for conventional light water reactors. In the past three years, Sandia has been implementing the sodium chemistry containment models in CONTAIN-LMR, a legacy NRC code, into MELCOR. These chemistry models include spray fire, pool fire and atmosphere chemistry models. Only the first two chemistry models have been implemented though it is intended to implement all these models into MELCOR. A new package called “NAC” has been created to manage the sodium chemistry model more efficiently. In 2017 Sandia began validating the implemented models in MELCOR by simulating available experiments. The CONTAIN-LMR sodium models include sodium atmosphere chemistry and sodium-concrete interaction models. This paper presents sodium property models, the implemented models, implementation issues, and a path towards validation against existing experimental data.

  10. Alginate/sodium caseinate aqueous-core capsules: a pH-responsive matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Messaoud, Ghazi; Sánchez-González, Laura; Jacquot, Adrien; Probst, Laurent; Desobry, Stéphane

    2015-02-15

    Alginate capsules have several applications. Their functionality depends considerably on their permeability, chemical and mechanical stability. Consequently, the creation of composite system by addition of further components is expected to control mechanical and release properties of alginate capsules. Alginate and alginate-sodium caseinate composite liquid-core capsules were prepared by a simple extrusion. The influence of the preparation pH and sodium caseinate concentration on capsules physico-chemical properties was investigated. Results showed that sodium caseinate influenced significantly capsules properties. As regards to the membrane mechanical stability, composite capsules prepared at pH below the isoelectric point of sodium caseinate exhibited the highest surface Young's modulus, increasing with protein content, explained by potential electrostatic interactions between sodium caseinate amino-groups and alginate carboxylic group. The kinetic of cochineal red A release changed significantly for composite capsules and showed a pH-responsive release. Sodium caseinate-dye mixture studied by absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed complex formation at pH 2 by electrostatic interactions between sodium caseinate tryptophan residues and cochineal red sulfonate-groups. Consequently, the release mechanism was explained by membrane adsorption process. This global approach is useful to control release mechanism from macro and micro-capsules by incorporating guest molecules which can interact with the entrapped molecule under specific conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Productive performance and milk protein fraction composition of dairy cows supplemented with sodium monensin Desempenho produtivo e composição da fração protéica do leite em vacas sob suplementação com monensina sódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Rodrigues Gandra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the levels of sodium monensin on lactating cows and their effects on productive performance and milk protein fraction composition. It was used 12 Holstein cows, distributed in four balanced 3 × 3 Latin squares, and fed three diets: one control without monensin, and two diets with monensin at the levels of 24 or 48 mg/kg DM added to the concentrate. Milk production was daily measured throughout the entire experimental period. The samples used for analysis of milk composition were collected on two alternated days from the two daily milking. Non-protein nitrogen, total nitrogen and non-casein nitrogen contents were directly evaluated in the milk, and casein, whey protein and true protein contents were indirectly determined. The use of monensin in the rations reduced dry matter and nutrient intake, especially when diet with 48 mg/kg of dry matter was given. The ration with 24 mg/kg of DM increased milk production, with or without correction, and also fat and lactose yield, and it improved productive efficiency. The levels of monensin in the ratios did not influence contents of milk crude protein, non-protein nitrogen, non-casein nitrogen, true protein, casein, casein/true protein ratio, whey protein, and of all those fractions expressed as percentage of crude protein. The utilization of monensin in the ratio at the dose of 24 mg/kg of DM influences positively the productive performance of lactating cows, and it does not influence the composition of milk protein fractions.Objetivou-se avaliar níveis de monensina sódica para vacas em lactação e seus efeitos no desempenho produtivo e na composição da fração protéica do leite. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandesa, distribuídas em quatro quadrados latinos 3 × 3 balanceados e alimentadas com três rações: uma controle sem monensina, e duas com monensima nos níveis de 24 mg/kg de matéria seca ou 48 mg/kg MS adicionada ao concentrado. A

  12. Excessive sodium ions delivered into cells by nanodiamonds: implications for tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Li, Wenxin; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jing; Liang, Le; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Chen, Nan; Sun, Yanhong; Chen, Wen; Tai, Renzhong; Fan, Chunhai; Huang, Qing

    2012-06-11

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) possess many excellent physical and chemical properties that make them attractive materials for applications in biomedicine. In this paper, the adsorption and delivery of a large amount of sodium ions into the cell interior by NDs in serum-free medium is demonstrated. The excess sodium ions inside the cells induce osmotic stresses followed by cell swelling and an increase in the intracellular levels of calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to severe cellular damage. In complete culture medium, however, serum proteins wrapped around the NDs effectively prevent the sodium ions from adsorbing onto the NDs, and thus the NDs show no cytotoxicity. This work is the first to elaborate on the correlation between the sodium ions adsorbed on the nanomaterials and their bio-effects. Excessive ions delivered into cells by NDs might have potential applications in tumor therapy. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Structural, textural and sensory impact of sodium reduction on long fermented pizza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, Isabelle; Neußer, Christian; Moroni, Alice V; Gysler, Christof; Spagnolello, Alessandro; Chung, Wookyung; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the microstructural, textural, and sensory impact of sodium reduction and its partial replacement by potassium chloride in pizza dough and crusts prepared by a traditional long fermentation process. For the first time, macrostructural changes in texture were elucidated and quantified by a novel protein network analysis. The fermentation process exerted a strengthening effect in the doughs, allowing to reduce sodium up to 25% without any negative impact on texture. Sodium reduction by 15% did not cause any significant textural changes in pizza crusts and partial replacement by KCl resulted in a strengthened dough and firmer pizza crust. The use of toppings masked the effect of lowering the sodium content, allowing to increase the reduction level from 15% to 35%. A reduction of NaCl by 25% with an addition of KCl achieved high acceptance in the sensory evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  15. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  16. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  17. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  18. Interaction of oil and paraffin with sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Lamykin, E V; Alekseev, V V; Sergeev, G P [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the investigation results on the kinetics of a gaseous oil pyrolysis product composition change in the presence of sodium under static conditions at 350 deg. C, 550 deg. C and 700 deg. C as well as the behaviour of oil and paraffin within the sodium circulating loops. The calculated estimations of the critical oil physical state parameters in sodium flows are given. (author)

  19. Interaction of oil and paraffin with sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kovalev, Yu.P.; Lamykin, E.V.; Alekseev, V.V.; Sergeev, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the investigation results on the kinetics of a gaseous oil pyrolysis product composition change in the presence of sodium under static conditions at 350 deg. C, 550 deg. C and 700 deg. C as well as the behaviour of oil and paraffin within the sodium circulating loops. The calculated estimations of the critical oil physical state parameters in sodium flows are given. (author)

  20. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, R K [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1979-03-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  1. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  2. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillard, R.K.

    1978-10-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking

  3. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Casteels, F.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  4. Cosmic ray produced sodium and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Barbosa, A.

    1981-07-01

    The following topics were presented: calculations of the theoretical production rate of sodium-22 in the atmosphere in order to estimate its activity in rain water; description of the method of chemical separation of sodium and of counting of various radionuclide samples; results obtained for 22 Na, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 7 Be and 210 Pb and seasonal variations of these radionuclides in rain and river waters; seasonal variations of natural elements, sodium, potassium and uranium in rain and river waters [fr

  5. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lievens, F; Casteels, F [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1980-05-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  6. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Zhang

    Full Text Available Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells.Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29 were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5-5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining, and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot.Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II, beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin and genetic

  7. Sodium cleaning from sodium contaminated components and operation for experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, T. J.; Nam, H. Y.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.; Choi, J. H

    2007-11-15

    An objective of washing technology development for sodium contaminated equipment is to clean and reuse safely and effectively the used equipment through a washing and maintenance, and recovery of the sodium wastes generated during washing.

  8. Sodium pool fire analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor by calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Xu Mi; Jin Degui

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical models were established according to the characteristic of sodium pool fire, and the SPOOL code was created independently. Some transient processes in sodium pool fire were modeled, including chemical reaction of sodium and oxygen; sodium combustion heat transfer modes in several kids of media; production, deposition and discharge of sodium aerosol; mass and energy exchange between different media in different ventilating conditions. The important characteristic parameters were calculated, such as pressure and temperature of gas, temperature of building materials, mass concentration of sodium aerosol, and so on. The SPOOL code, which provided available safety analysis tool for sodium pool fire accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactor, was well demonstrated with experimental data

  9. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  10. Measurement of carbon thermodynamic activity in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Alekseev, V V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    The report presents the brief outline on system of carbon activity detecting system in sodium (SCD), operating on the carbon-permeable membrane, of the methods and the results of testing it under the experimental circulating loop conditions. The results of carbon activity sensor calibration with the use of equilibrium samples of XI8H9, Fe -8Ni, Fe -12Mn materials are listed. The behaviour of carbon activity sensor signals in sodium under various transitional conditions and hydrodynamic perturbation in the circulating loop, containing carbon bearing impurities in the sodium flow and their deposits on the surfaces flushed by sodium, are described. (author)

  11. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  12. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, M; Kanbe, M; Yagisawa, H; Sasaki, S; Kataoka, H; Fukada, T; Ishii, Y; Saito, R; Mimoto, Y [O-arai Engineering Centre, PNC, Ibaraki-ken, Tokio (Japan)

    1978-08-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  13. Dissolution of LMFBR fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Moss, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide, normally insoluble in biological fluids, becomes much more soluble when mixed with sodium as the aerosol is formed. Sodium-fuel aerosols are approximately 20 times less soluble in simulated lung fluid than in distilled water. Solubility of sodium-fuel aerosols increases when Na 2 CO 3 are added to the distilled-water dissolution fluid. Mixed-oxide fuel aerosols without sodium present are relatively insoluble in distilled water, simulated lung fluid, and distilled water with Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 added

  14. Sodium-blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M

    1999-03-01

    In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.

  15. Methods and means of sodium fire fighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemskij, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Methods and means for coaling sodium fire fighting are analyzed. Their advantages and drawbacks are considered. Comparative data on sodium fire fighting using some of considered compositions are presented. High efficiency of self-expanding compositions (Grafeks SK-23 and RS) is noted. Properties of MGS new composition for sodium fire fighting are considered. High fighting ability of the composition independent of burning metal layer width is shown. It is noted that fire fighting MGS efficiency decreases with growth of time of free fire burning which affects fire fighting methods. Technical means of powder delivery to burning sodium are reported

  16. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1996-07-01

    The constructions and performances of lots of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of good linearity. The accurate measurement data of sodium process parameters (flowrate, pressure and level) can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, mutual isolative the 0∼10 V direct-current analogue output and the CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. Theses intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFBR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic errors of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge are +-2%, +-2.3%, +-0.3% and +-1.9% of measuring ranges respectively. (9 figs.)

  17. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.; Fukada, T.; Ishii, Y.; Saito, R.; Mimoto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  18. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.

    1978-02-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of ''JOYO'' and Dummy fuel assembly of ''JOYO'', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of ''JOYO'', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of ''JOYO'' and a proto-type Isolation valve of ''JOYO'' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental subassemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of ''MONJU'' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of Sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a ''JOYO'' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  19. Method for processing radioactive wastes containing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Takeshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To bake, solidify and process even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium. Structure: H and or NH 4 zeolites of more than 90g per chemical equivalent of sodium present in the waste is added to and left in radioactive wastes containing sodium, after which they are fed to a baker such as rotary cylindrical baker, spray baker and the like to bake and solidify the wastes at 350 to 800 0 C. Thereby, it is possible to bake and solidify even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium, which has been impossible to do so previously. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Sodium butyrate protects against severe burn-induced remote acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Liang

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1 sham group, sham burn treatment; 2 burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution for resuscitation; 3 burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  1. Profile of sodium phenylbutyrate granules for the treatment of urea-cycle disorders: patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Quintana, Luis; Llarena, Marta; Reyes-Suárez, Desiderio; Aldámiz-Echevarria, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Urea-cycle disorders are a group of rare hereditary metabolic diseases characterized by deficiencies of one of the enzymes and transporters involved in the urea cycle, which is necessary for the removal of nitrogen produced from protein breakdown. These hereditary metabolic diseases are characterized by hyperammonemia and life-threatening hyperammonemic crises. Pharmacological treatment of urea-cycle disorders involves alternative nitrogen-scavenging pathways. Sodium benzoate combines with glycine and phenylacetate/phenylbutyrate with glutamine, forming, respectively, hippuric acid and phenylacetylglutamine, which are eliminated in the urine. Among the ammonia-scavenging drugs, sodium phenylbutyrate is a well-known long-term treatment of urea-cycle disorders. It has been used since 1987 as an investigational new drug, and was approved for marketing in the US in 1996 and the EU in 1999. However, sodium phenylbutyrate has an aversive odor and taste, which may compromise patients' compliance, and many patients have reported difficulty in taking this drug. Sodium phenylbutyrate granules are a new tasteless and odor-free formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate, which is indicated in the treatment of urea-cycle disorders. This recently developed taste-masked formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate granules was designed to overcome the considerable issues that taste has on adherence to therapy. Several studies have reported the clinical experience of patients with urea-cycle disorders treated with this new tasteless formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate. Analysis of the data indicated that this taste-masked formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate granules improved quality of life for urea-cycle disorder patients. Furthermore, a postmarketing report on the use of the product has confirmed the previous observations of improved compliance, efficacy, and safety with this taste-masked formulation of sodium phenylbutyrate.

  2. Sodium-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammers, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a sodium-cooled nuclear reactor, whose reactor tank contains the primary circuit, shielding surrounding the reactor core and a primary/secondary heat exchanger, particularly a fast breeder reactor on the module principle. In order to achieve this module principle it is proposed to have electromagnetic circulating pumps outside the reactor tank, where the heat exchanger is accomodated in an annular case above the pumps. This case has several openings at the top end to the space above the reactor core, some smaller openings in the middle to the same space and is connected at the bottom to an annular space between the tank wall and the reactor core. As a favoured variant, it is proposed that the annular electromagnetic pumps should be arranged concentrically to the reactor tank, where there is an annual duct on the inside of the reactor tank. In this way the sodium-cooled nuclear reactor is made suitable as a module with a large number of such elements. (orig.) [de

  3. On conduction in a bacterial sodium channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Furini

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Na⁺-channels are transmembrane proteins that are responsible for the fast depolarizing phase of the action potential in nerve and muscular cells. Selective permeability of Na⁺ over Ca²⁺ or K⁺ ions is essential for the biological function of Na⁺-channels. After the emergence of the first high-resolution structure of a Na⁺-channel, an anionic coordination site was proposed to confer Na⁺ selectivity through partial dehydration of Na⁺ via its direct interaction with conserved glutamate side chains. By combining molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations, a low-energy permeation pathway for Na⁺ ion translocation through the selectivity filter of the recently determined crystal structure of a prokaryotic sodium channel from Arcobacter butzleri is characterised. The picture that emerges is that of a pore preferentially occupied by two ions, which can switch between different configurations by crossing low free-energy barriers. In contrast to K⁺-channels, the movements of the ions appear to be weakly coupled in Na⁺-channels. When the free-energy maps for Na⁺ and K⁺ ions are compared, a selective site is characterised in the narrowest region of the filter, where a hydrated Na⁺ ion, and not a hydrated K⁺ ion, is energetically stable.

  4. Sodium caseinate stabilized zein colloidal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Bouwens, Elisabeth C M; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2010-12-08

    The present work deals with the preparation and stabilization of zein colloidal particles using sodium caseinate as electrosteric stabilizer. Colloidal particles with well-defined size range (120-150 nm) and negative surface potential (-29 to -47 mV) were obtained using a simple antisolvent precipitation method. Due to the presence of caseinate, the stabilized colloidal particles showed a shift of isoelectric point (IEP) from 6.0 to around pH 5.0 and thus prevent the aggregation of zein near its native IEP (pH 6.2). The particles also showed good stability to varying ionic strength (15 mM-1.5 M NaCl). Furthermore, stabilized particles retained the property of redispersibility after drying. In vitro protein hydrolysis study confirmed that the presence of caseinate did not alter the digestibility of zein. Such colloidal particles could potentially serve as all-natural delivery systems for bioactive molecules in food, pharmaceutical, and agricultural formulations.

  5. Operating experience with sodium valves in the TNO-sodium test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasselt, M.L.G. van

    1974-01-01

    The development of sodium components for the SNR-300 in Holland has reached the stage where full scale testing in sodium has almost been finished and construction is at its height. It is against this background that a review is given of the weaknesses in one area or the other of the commercially available types of sodium valves used in TNO's smaller test facilities at Apeldoorn and TNO's 50 MW sodium components test facility at Hengelo. (U.S.)

  6. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA; Olusegun Olusoji SOREMEKUN; Olakunle Wasiu SUBAIR; Atinuke OLADOYE

    2008-01-01

    The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel i...

  7. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Effect of plaster cast immobilization on the turnover rates of soluble proteins and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of rabbit M. soleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edes, I.; Dosa, E.; Sohar, I.; Guba, F. (Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary). Biokemiai Tanszek)

    1982-01-01

    In atrophized muscle the decreases of the activity of LDH isoenzymes can be explained partly by a 15 per cent decrease of the enzyme synthesis and partly by a 25 per cent increase in catabolism. The quantities of the soluble proteins and LDH were measured after intravenously administered /sup 3/H-leucin incorporation, from the musculus soleus. LDH was isolated by means of affinity chromatography. Radioactivity was determined in a Packard Tri-Carb scintillation counter. The synthesis rate of soluble proteins barely changed during immobilization. In the atrophized muscle the decrease of the amount of soluble proteins could be almost exclusively interpreted in terms of a 25 per cent enchancement of degradative process. The accelerated catabolism is most probably due to the proteolytic enzymes activated by immobilization.

  9. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (<115 mmol), usual sodium (low usual so...

  10. Control of sodium fires and sodium-water reactions in breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, K.; Ruloff, G.; Voss, J.

    1985-01-01

    The excellent neutronic and thermodynamic properties of sodium as a fast-reactor coolant are somewhat counterbalanced by its high oxygen affinity. Because incidents like sodium fires and sodium-water reactions cannot be absolutely excluded, their effects and preventive measures have to be investigated. Characteristics and counter-measures are discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Sodium ordering and the control of magnetism in sodium cobaltate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.J.P.; Roger, M.; Tennant, D.A.; Goff, J.P.; Gutmann, M.J.; Hoffmann, J.-U.; Prabhakaran, D.; Shannon, N.; Lake, B.; Deen, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The long-range three-dimensional ordering of Na + ions was studied in a sample of composition Na 0.75 CoO 2 using single-crystal neutron diffraction. Large-scale numerical simulations reveal the ordering principle for this system, the formation of multi-vacancy charged droplets then order long range, and the structure factors from these defect clusters are in good agreement with the observed neutron diffraction intensities. The electrostatic potential is found to be the dominant factor in determining the sodium ordering and its associated distortion field. The superstructures induce a periodic potential in the CoO 2 , giving potential wells that are larger than the single-particle hopping frequency and so able to localize holes. The results readily explain many of the observed electrical and magnetic properties, including the three dimensionality of the magnetic excitations

  12. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely... specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate [CH2(CH2...

  13. Sodium fires. Progress achieved in research and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Casselman, C.; Charpenel, J.; Natta, M.; Devillers, C.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes the sodium fire programs undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department. Experimental results concerning sodium ignition and combustion, sodium fire suppression, sodium aerosol filtration and sodium-concrete contact reactions are given and the applications of these results in the Super-Phenix reactor is discussed

  14. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  15. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morewith, H A; Johnson, R P; Nelson, C T; Otter, J M [Energy System Group, Rockwell International, Rockwell (United States)

    1979-03-01

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, {approx}23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-{mu}m sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 {mu}m) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m{sup 2} burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglomerates fell out as they moved downwind, depositing 1 kg/m{sup 2} at 1 m downwind from the edge of the pan. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that the sodium fires produced mainly Na{sub 2}O, and that the conversion of NaOH was slow. Comparison were made with COMRADEX-IV code models, which are appropriate for calculating deposition and concentrations for downwind distances between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} m. (author)

  16. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morewith, H.A.; Johnson, R.P.; Nelson, C.T.; Otter, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, ∼23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-μm sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 μm) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m 2 burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglomerates fell out as they moved downwind, depositing 1 kg/m 2 at 1 m downwind from the edge of the pan. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that the sodium fires produced mainly Na 2 O, and that the conversion of NaOH was slow. Comparison were made with COMRADEX-IV code models, which are appropriate for calculating deposition and concentrations for downwind distances between 10 2 and 10 4 m. (author)

  17. Efecto del tratamiento térmico en la morfología y conductividad térmica de cenizas volantes de la combustión de carbón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peña-Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el efecto del tratamiento térmico en la conductividad térmica efectiva (ke a temperatura ambiente de polvos de cenizas volantes provenientes de la combustión de carbón de la Central Termoeléctrica de Termotasajero S.A. Dicho parámetro termofísico fue medido usando el sistema KD2Pro® Thermal Properties Analyzer, el cual funciona con el principio físico de flujo lineal transitorio de calor. El tratamiento térmico de las muestras se realizó usando una mufla eléctrica Ney® Vulcan D-130 para el rango de temperaturas de 1050, 1100, 1130, 1200, 1250 y 1300 °C. La porosidad y densidad aparente fue hallada usando la norma NTC 4321-3. La morfología superficial de las muestras fue analizada usando Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (MEB. Los resultados muestran que a medida que se incrementó la temperatura en el tratamiento térmico, las muestras cambiaron de color de gris oscuro a beige; disminuyó el porcentaje de porosidad, debido a su proceso de vitrificación, y se aumentó la densidad y, por ende, la conductividad térmica efectiva. Los valores reportados de ke son muy importantes en los cálculos del coeficiente de transmitancia térmica en los procesos de transferencia de calor donde se utilicen estas cenizas.

  18. Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

  19. Efecto del contenido de azufre sobre la meteorización del carbón: comparación de dos mantos en Hato de la Virgen (Fm. Carbonera, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galarraga, F.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten bituminous coal samples, showing several weathering levels, were collected at different depths into two subsurface galleries: G-l1, where coalbed 20 is mining, with a sulfur content ≻ 5 %; and G-24, where coalbed 24 is present, with a sulfur content less than 1.5 %. Both mines are located in Hato de la Virgen, State of Táchira, Venezuela. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of sulfur on the weathering extent in coal. For comparative purposes, fresh samples were collected from cored intervals of four different wells near of the galleries. The following analysis were done: proximate (moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash, calorific power, free swelling index (FSI elemental analysis (C, H, N, O total and different sulfur species (pyritic, sulfate and organic sulfur, FT-IR infrared spectroscopy, and major composition of ash (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, K, Na, Cl, P. Only coal samples from core wells are absolutely fresh: those collected within galleries show evidence of low or remarkable oxidation, detected by several parameters (moisture, calorific power, elemental and ash composition and by infrared spectroscopy (appearance of carbonyl signal, decrease in C-H strength absorption. Sulfur content in a high proportion does not modify the style or extension of the oxidation in the organic matrix of coal. However, sulfur is responsible of an important variation in the alteration style of the inorganic matrix of coal, modifying the scheme of leaching in some elements (mainly Fe, and in lesser extent, Si, K, P. These elements are preferentially removed from coal, immobilizing other species (Ca, Mg, Mn by precipitation as insoluble sulfates.Diez muestras de carbón bituminoso, presentando diferentes niveles de meteorización, fueron colectadas a diferentes profundidades de dos minas subterráneas ubicadas en la localidad de Hato de la Virgen, Estado Táchira, Venezuela: la galería G-ll, donde se explota el manto 20, con un

  20. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to formulate sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B by controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a “passive carrier” in targeted antifungal therapy. Methods: Sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B were prepared by controlled ...

  1. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  2. Development of industrial utilization of metallic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhara, Shunichi

    1995-01-01

    Sodium exists in large quantity, being ranked to 6th in the existence proportion of elements, and takes 2.83% of the matters composing earth crust. Sodium is an alkali metal which is light weight, chemically very active and a strong reducing substance. It is excellent in the compatibility with iron and steel materials, and it possesses good heat conduction and flow characteristics and stable nuclear characteristics. Since the industrial production of sodium became practical, its utilization was developed as the reducing agent and catalyst in chemical industry, the core coolant and heat transport medium for nuclear reactors, the material composing the secondary batteries for storing electric power, and the auxiliaries for metal refining and so on. The industrial production of metallic sodium is carried out by the electrolysis of melted salt, namely Downs process. The production of metallic sodium in Japan is 3000-6000 t yearly, and its import is 300-350 t. Its main use is for organic chemical industry including dye production. The grades of metallic sodium products and their uses are shown. The utilization of sodium for large fast reactors, the utilization of NaK as the heat transport and cooling medium for space use nuclear reactors and deep sea fast reactor system, and the utilization of sodium as the catalyst in dye production, for silicon carbide fiber production and for agricultural and medical chemical production are reported. (K.I.)

  3. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the finished meat product, and the amount of...

  4. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... finished product. (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions... finished meat product and the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the...

  5. Eclampsia despite strict dietary sodium restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delemarre, F.M.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Berendes, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The classic indication for prescribing dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy has been the prevention of eclampsia. We describe a case of intrapartum eclampsia in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman. A strongly sodium restricted diet was prescribed because of pre-eclampsia. Compliance to the diet was

  6. PG BN 1600 sodium fire protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Urbancik, L.

    1978-12-01

    A design was developed of a fire protection system for steam generator of a 1600 MW sodium cooled fast reactor (BN-1600). Chemical reactions are described of liquid sodium with atmospheric components and solid materials coming into contact with sodium in its release from the steam generator, and in safeguarding protection against sodium fires. The requirements for the purity of nitrogen as an atmosphere inert to liquid sodium are given. Characteristics and basic parameters are shown of level and spray fires, elementary terms are explained concerning the properties of aerosols formed during fires, the methods and means of release signalling and fire alarm are described as are fire precautions using fire-fighting equipment, modifying the support tank and the cell bottom and building sewage pits. The design of the system comprises an alarm system for liquid sodium using point and line electric contact sensors and flame photometer based aerosol sensors as well as a fire-fighting system based on the system of channelling liquid sodium into emergency discharge tanks filled with an inert gas, a set of fire extinguishers and other fire fighting material, and measures for the elimination of sodium fire consequences. (J.B.)

  7. Visualizing individual sodium channels on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Stefan H

    2012-07-27

    Visualization of voltage-gated sodium channels at work is an important requirement for the understanding of rapid electrical signaling in nerve cells. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Ondrus and colleagues have mastered this challenge by chemical synthesis of a fluorescent antagonist and by monitoring single sodium channels in living cells with unprecedented optical resolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging. (author)

  9. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  10. Sodium removal, storage, and requalification of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.; Shimazaki, T.; Oliva, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to devise, develop, test, and evaluate techniques for sodium removal and storage of test specimens and components, and to expand and refine, by test and analysis, the sodium removal and storage techniques and procedures for use in processing typical LMFBR components

  11. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product....

  12. Molecular Basis of Paraltyic Neurotoxin Action on Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-14

    of 9,700 daltons isolated from the coral Goni2oora gy. (1). The toxin enhances neurally mediated contraction of blood vessels and taenia coli of the...sites on the solium channel and to identify the site of GPT action within the structure of the sodium channel protein. 2. Site of Action of Brvyetoxin

  13. Transition metal ion FRET uncovers K(+) regulation of a neurotransmitter/sodium symporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billesbølle, Christian B; Mortensen, Jonas S; Sohail, Azmat

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter/sodium symporters (NSSs) are responsible for Na(+)-dependent reuptake of neurotransmitters and represent key targets for antidepressants and psychostimulants. LeuT, a prokaryotic NSS protein, constitutes a primary structural model for these transporters. Here we show that K...

  14. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF PSEUDOMONAS GENES DETERMINING SODIUM DODECYL-SULFATE BIODEGRADATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAVISON, J; BRUNEL, F; PHANOPOULOS, A; PROZZI, D; TERPSTRA, P

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of two genes involved in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) degradation, by Pseudomonas, have been determined. One of these, sdsA, codes for an alkyl sulfatase (58 957 Da) and has similarity (31.8% identity over a 201-amino acid stretch) to the N terminus of a predicted protein of

  15. Effects of mixed volatile fatty acid sodium salt on insulin-like growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of mixed volatile fatty acid sodium salt on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in plasma and rumen tissue, and rumen epithelium development in lambs.

  16. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  17. Sodium technology at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.T.; Smith, C.R.F.; Olson, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Since the installation of purity monitoring systems in 1967, the control of the purity of the primary and secondary sodium and cover gas systems at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been excellent. A rigorous monitoring program is being used to assure that operating limits for more than 25 chemical and radioactive impurities are not exceeded. The program involves the use of sophisticated sampling and analysis techniques and on-line monitors for both sodium and cover gas systems. Sodium purity control is accomplished by essentially continuous cold trapping of a small side stream of the total circulating sodium. The cold traps have been found to be very effective for the removal of the major chemical impurities (oxygen and hydrogen) and tritium but are almost ineffective for 131 I and 137 Cs that enter the sodium from fuel cladding breaks. Purging with pure argon maintains the cover gas purity

  18. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochlorite (bleach is commonly used as an irrigant during dental proce-dures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI. In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  19. Destruction of mechanical structures by sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.

    1992-01-01

    With respect to pipe ruptures and leakages in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors, it can be assumed that relatively large amounts of liquid sodium will be poured or sprayed into an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Under reactor conditions, the sodium will burn immediately, leading to temperature and pressure rises in the containment, and the strong aerosol release may influence ventilation and filter systems. In addition to these consequences, which are well known, it must be taken into account that the sodium fire also attacks mechanical structures like steel and concrete. In the frame work of the sodium fire research program (FAUNA) at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, extensive experiments were performed to investigate the consequences of sodium pool, spray, and combined fires

  20. Sodium evaporation into a forced argon flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki; Kasahara, Fumio; Ishiguro, Ryoji

    1975-01-01

    Evaporation from a rectangular sodium free surface into an argon flow was measured. Tests were carried out with varying sodium temperature, argon velocity and argon temperature respectively under conditions of fog formation being possible. In order to clarify the enhancement of evaporation by fog formation, convection heat transfer from a plate of the same geometry into an air flow was also measured. The evaporation rate and Sherwood number were compared with those predicted by both the heat transfer experiment and the theory proposed by Hill and Szekely, and also a comparison was run with the previously reported experimental results of sodium evaporation. As a result it was shown that the sodium evaporation rate in this experiment is at least four times as large as that predicted by the heat transfer experiment and varies almost linearly with the heat transfer rate and the sodium vapour pressure. (auth.)