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Sample records for protein blunts ethanol

  1. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice.

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    Priscila Marianno

    Full Text Available Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h or continuous (24 h EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase. Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC. In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h. In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h. After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress.

  2. Paternal preconception ethanol exposure blunts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity and stress-induced excessive fluid intake in male mice.

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    Rompala, Gregory R; Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of environmental insults have been shown to induce epigenetic effects that persist across generations. For instance, paternal preconception exposures to ethanol or stress have independently been shown to exert such intergenerational effects. Since ethanol exposure is a physiological stressor that activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we hypothesized that paternal ethanol exposure would impact stress responsivity of offspring. Adult male mice were exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol or control conditions for 5 weeks before being mated with ethanol-naïve females to produce ethanol (E)- and control (C)-sired offspring. Adult male and female offspring were tested for plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels following acute restraint stress and the male offspring were further examined for stress-evoked 2-bottle choice ethanol-drinking. Paternal ethanol exposure blunted plasma CORT levels following acute restraint stress selectively in male offspring; females were unaffected. In a stress-evoked ethanol-drinking assay, there was no effect of stress on ethanol consumption. However, C-sired males exhibited increased total fluid intake (polydipsia) in response to stress while E-sired males were resistant to this stress-induced phenotype. Taken together, these data suggest that paternal ethanol exposure imparts stress hyporesponsivity to male offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethanol cellular defense induce unfolded protein response in yeast

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    Elisabet eNavarro-Tapia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, CECT10094 and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus

  4. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

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    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  5. Hepatic protein synthetic activity in vivo after ethanol administration

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    Donohue, T.M. Jr.; Sorrell, M.F.; Tuma, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Hepatic protein synthetic activity in vivo was measured by the incorporation of [ 3 H]puromycin into elongating nascent polypeptides of rat liver to form peptidyl-[ 3 H]puromycin. Our initial experiments showed that saturating doses of [ 3 H]puromycin were achieved at 3-6 mumol/100 g body weight, and that maximum labeling of nascent polypeptides was obtained 30 min after injection of the labeled precursor. Labeled puromycin was found to be suitable for measuring changes in the status of protein synthesis, since the formation of the peptidyl-[ 3 H]puromycin was decreased in fasted animals and was increased in rats pretreated with L-tryptophan. [ 3 H]Puromycin incorporation into polypeptides was then measured after acute ethanol administration as well as after prolonged consumption of ethanol which was administered as part of a liquid diet for 31 days. Acute alcohol treatment caused no significant change in [ 3 H]puromycin incorporation into liver polypeptides. In rats exposed to chronic ethanol feeding, peptidyl-[3H]puromycin formation, when expressed per mg of protein, was slightly lower compared to pair-fed controls, but was unchanged compared to chow-fed animals. When the data were expressed per mg of DNA or per 100 g body wt, no differences in protein synthetic activity were observed among the three groups. These findings indicate that neither acute nor chronic alcohol administration significantly affects protein synthetic activity in rat liver. They further suggest that accumulation of protein in the liver, usually seen after prolonged ethanol consumption, is apparently not reflected by an alteration of hepatic protein synthesis

  6. Aging Is Accompanied by a Blunted Muscle Protein Synthetic Response to Protein Ingestion.

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    Benjamin Toby Wall

    Full Text Available Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass with aging (sarcopenia forms a global health concern. It has been suggested that an impaired capacity to increase muscle protein synthesis rates in response to protein intake is a key contributor to sarcopenia. We assessed whether differences in post-absorptive and/or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates exist between large cohorts of healthy young and older men.We performed a cross-sectional, retrospective study comparing in vivo post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis rates determined with stable isotope methodologies between 34 healthy young (22±1 y and 72 older (75±1 y men, and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between 35 healthy young (22±1 y and 40 older (74±1 y men.Post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis rates did not differ significantly between the young and older group. Post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates were 16% lower in the older subjects when compared with the young. Muscle protein synthesis rates were >3 fold more responsive to dietary protein ingestion in the young. Irrespective of age, there was a strong negative correlation between post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis rates and the increase in muscle protein synthesis rate following protein ingestion.Aging is associated with the development of muscle anabolic inflexibility which represents a key physiological mechanism underpinning sarcopenia.

  7. Enhancement of both salivary protein-enological tannin interactions and astringency perception by ethanol.

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    Obreque-Slíer, Elías; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio

    2010-03-24

    Red wine astringency has been associated with interactions of tannins with salivary proteins. Tannins are active protein precipitants. Not much evidence exists demonstrating contribution of other wine components to astringency. We aimed to investigate an eventual role of ethanol both in astringency and salivary protein-enological tannin interactions. A trained sensory panel scored perceived astringency. Salivary protein-tannin interactions were assessed by observing both tannin-dependent changes in salivary protein diffusion on cellulose membranes and tannin-induced salivary protein precipitation. Proanthocyanidins and gallotannins in aqueous and hydroalcoholic solutions were assayed. A biphasic mode of diffusion on cellulose membranes displayed by salivary proteins was unaffected after dilution with water or enological concentrations of ethanol. At those concentrations ethanol was not astringent. In aqueous solution, tannins provoked both restriction of salivary protein diffusion, protein precipitation, and astringency. Those effects were exacerbated by 13% ethanol. In summary, enological concentrations of ethanol exacerbate astringency and salivary protein-tannin interactions.

  8. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae.

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    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m(3) of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m(3) ethanol/year.

  9. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae

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    Veronika Bátori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m3 of ethanol (22% improvement, around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year.

  10. Effect of adaptation to ethanol on cytoplasmic and membrane protein profiles of Oenococcus oeni

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    Silveira, da M.G.; Baumgärtner, M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    The practical application of commercial malolactic starter cultures of Oenococcus oeni surviving direct inoculation in wine requires insight into mechanisms of ethanol toxicity and of acquired ethanol tolerance in this organism. Therefore, the site-specific location of proteins involved in ethanol

  11. CCL2-ethanol interactions and hippocampal synaptic protein expression in a transgenic mouse model

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    Donna eGruol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to ethanol produces a number of detrimental effects on behavior. Neuroadaptive changes in brain structure or function underlie these behavioral changes and may be transient or persistent in nature. Central to the functional changes are alterations in the biology of neuronal and glial cells of the brain. Recent data show that ethanol induces glial cells of the brain to produce elevated levels of neuroimmune factors including CCL2, a key innate immune chemokine. Depending on the conditions of ethanol exposure, the upregulated levels of CCL2 can be transient or persistent and outlast the period of ethanol exposure. Importantly, results indicate that the upregulated levels of CCL2 may lead to CCL2-ethanol interactions that mediate or regulate the effects of ethanol on the brain. Glial cells are in close association with neurons and regulate many neuronal functions. Therefore, effects of ethanol on glial cells may underlie some of the effects of ethanol on neurons. To investigate this possibility, we are studying the effects of chronic ethanol on hippocampal synaptic function in a transgenic mouse model that expresses elevated levels of CCL2 in the brain through enhanced glial expression, a situation know to occur in alcoholics. Both CCL2 and ethanol have been reported to alter synaptic function in the hippocampus. In the current study, we determined if interactions are evident between CCL2 and ethanol at level of hippocampal synaptic proteins. Two ethanol exposure paradigms were used; the first involved ethanol exposure by drinking and the second involved ethanol exposure in a paradigm that combines drinking plus ethanol vapor. The first paradigm does not produce dependence on ethanol, whereas the second paradigm is commonly used to produce ethanol dependence. Results show modest effects of both ethanol exposure paradigms on the level of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of CCL2 transgenic mice compared with their non

  12. Utilizing protein-lean coproducts from corn containing recombinant pharmaceutical proteins for ethanol production.

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    Paraman, Ilankovan; Moeller, Lorena; Scott, M Paul; Wang, Kan; Glatz, Charles E; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2010-10-13

    Protein-lean fractions of corn (maize) containing recombinant (r) pharmaceutical proteins were evaluated as a potential feedstock to produce fuel ethanol. The levels of residual r-proteins in the coproduct, distillers dry grains with solubles (DDGS), were determined. Transgenic corn lines containing recombinant green fluorescence protein (r-GFP) and a recombinant subunit vaccine of Escherichia coli enterotoxin (r-LTB), primarily expressed in endosperm, and another two corn lines containing recombinant human collagen (r-CIα1) and r-GFP, primarily expressed in germ, were used as model systems. The kernels were either ground and used for fermentation or dry fractionated to recover germ-rich fractions prior to grinding for fermentation. The finished beers of whole ground kernels and r-protein-spent endosperm solids contained 127-139 and 138-155 g/L ethanol concentrations, respectively. The ethanol levels did not differ among transgenic and normal corn feedstocks, indicating the residual r-proteins did not negatively affect ethanol production. r-Protein extraction and germ removal also did not negatively affect fermentation of the remaining mass. Most r-proteins were inactivated during the mashing process used to prepare corn for fermentation. No functionally active r-GFP or r-LTB proteins were found after fermentation of the r-protein-spent solids; however, a small quantity of residual r-CIα1 was detected in DDGS, indicating that the safety of DDGS produced from transgenic grain for r-protein production needs to be evaluated for each event. Protease treatment during fermentation completely hydrolyzed the residual r-CIα1, and no residual r-proteins were detectable in DDGS.

  13. Response of rat brain protein synthesis to ethanol and sodium barbital

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    Tewari, S.; Greenberg, S.A.; Do, K.; Grey, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as ethanol and barbiturates under acute or chronic conditions can induce changes in rat brain protein synthesis. While these data demonstrate the individual effects of drugs on protein synthesis, the response of brain protein synthesis to alcohol-drug interactions is not known. The goal of the present study was to determine the individual and combined effects of ethanol and sodium barbital on brain protein synthesis and gain an understanding of the mechanisms by which these alterations in protein synthesis are produced. Specifically, the in vivo and in vitro effects of sodium barbital (one class of barbiturates which is not metabolized by the hepatic tissue) were examined on brain protein synthesis in rats made physically dependent upon ethanol. Using cell free brain polysomal systems isolated from Control, Ethanol and 24 h Ethanol Withdrawn rats, data show that sodium barbital, when intubated intragastrically, inhibited the time dependent incorporation of 14 C) leucine into protein by all three groups of ribosomes. Under these conditions, the Ethanol Withdrawn group displayed the largest inhibition of the 14 C) leucine incorporation into protein when compared to the Control and Ethanol groups. In addition, sodium barbital when added at various concentrations in vitro to the incubation medium inhibited the incorporation of 14 C) leucine into protein by Control and Ethanol polysomes. The inhibitory effects were also obtained following preincubation of ribosomes in the presence of barbital but not cycloheximide. Data suggest that brain protein synthesis, specifically brain polysomes, through interaction with ethanol or barbital are involved in the functional development of tolerance. These interactions may occur through proteins or polypeptide chains or alterations in messenger RNA components associated with the ribosomal units

  14. Acute effects of ethanol in the control of protein synthesis in isolated rat liver cells

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    Girbes, T.; Susin, A.; Ayuso, M.S.; Parrilla, R.

    1983-01-01

    The acute effect of ethanol on hepatic protein synthesis is a rather controversial issue. In view of the conflicting reports on this subject, the effect of ethanol on protein labeling from L-[ 3 H]valine in isolated liver cells was studied under a variety of experimental conditions. When tracer doses of the isotope were utilized, ethanol consistently decreased the rate of protein labeling, regardless of the metabolic conditions of the cells. This inhibition was not prevented by doses of 4-methylpyrazole large enough to abolish all the characteristic metabolic effects of ethanol, and it was not related to perturbations on the rates of L-valine transport and/or proteolysis. When ethanol was tested in the presence of saturating doses of L-[ 3 H]valine no effect on protein labeling was observed. These observations suggest that the ethanol effect in decreasing protein labeling from tracer doses of the radioactive precursor does not reflect variations in the rate of protein synthesis but reflects changes in the specific activity of the precursor. These changes probably are secondary to variations in the dimensions of the amino acid pool utilized for protein synthesis. Even though it showed a lack of effect when tested alone, in the presence of saturating doses of the radioactive precursor ethanol inhibited the stimulatory effects on protein synthesis mediated by glucose and several gluconeogenic substrates. This effect of ethanol was not prevented by inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase, indicating that a shift of the NAD system to a more reduced state is not the mediator of its action. It is suggested that ethanol probably acted by changing the steady-state levels of some common effector(s) generated from the metabolism of all these fuels or else by preventing the inactivation of a translational repressor

  15. Aerobic exercise training rescues cardiac protein quality control and blunts endoplasmic reticulum stress in heart failure rats.

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    Bozi, Luiz H M; Jannig, Paulo R; Rolim, Natale; Voltarelli, Vanessa A; Dourado, Paulo M M; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brum, Patricia C

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through accumulation of misfolded proteins plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases. In an attempt to reestablish ER homoeostasis, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. However, if ER stress persists, sustained UPR activation leads to apoptosis. There is no available therapy for ER stress relief. Considering that aerobic exercise training (AET) attenuates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and calcium imbalance, it may be a potential strategy to reestablish cardiac ER homoeostasis. We test the hypothesis that AET would attenuate impaired cardiac ER stress after myocardial infarction (MI). Wistar rats underwent to either MI or sham surgeries. Four weeks later, rats underwent to 8 weeks of moderate-intensity AET. Myocardial infarction rats displayed cardiac dysfunction and lung oedema, suggesting heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction in MI rats was paralleled by increased protein levels of UPR markers (GRP78, DERLIN-1 and CHOP), accumulation of misfolded and polyubiquitinated proteins, and reduced chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity. These results suggest an impaired cardiac protein quality control. Aerobic exercise training improved exercise capacity and cardiac function of MI animals. Interestingly, AET blunted MI-induced ER stress by reducing protein levels of UPR markers, and accumulation of both misfolded and polyubiquinated proteins, which was associated with restored proteasome activity. Taken together, our study provide evidence for AET attenuation of ER stress through the reestablishment of cardiac protein quality control, which contributes to better cardiac function in post-MI heart failure rats. These results reinforce the importance of AET as primary non-pharmacological therapy to cardiovascular disease. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. Ethanol Influences on Bax Associations with Mitochondrial Membrane Proteins in Neonatal Rat Cerebellum

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    Heaton, Marieta Barrow; Siler-Marsiglio, Kendra; Paiva, Michael; Kotler, Alexandra; Rogozinski, Jonathan; Kubovec, Stacey; Coursen, Mary; Madorsky, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    These studies investigated interactions taking place at the mitochondrial membrane in neonatal rat cerebellum following ethanol exposure, and focused on interactions between pro-apoptotic Bax and proteins of the permeability transition pore (PTP), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), of the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively. Cultured cerebellar granule cells were used to assess the role of these interactions in ethanol neurotoxicity. Analyses were made at the age of maximal cerebellar ethanol vulnerability (P4), compared to the later age of relative resistance (P7), to determine whether differential ethanol sensitivity was mirrored by differences in these molecular interactions. We found that following ethanol exposure, Bax pro-apoptotic associations with both VDAC and ANT were increased, particularly at the age of greater ethanol sensitivity, and these interactions were sustained at this age for at least two hours post-exposure. Since Bax:VDAC interactions disrupt protective VDAC interactions with mitochondrial hexokinase (HXK), we also assessed VDAC:HXK associations following ethanol treatment, and found such interactions were altered by ethanol treatment, but only at two-hours post-exposure, and only in the P4, ethanol-sensitive cerebellum. Ethanol neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal preparations was abolished by pharmacological inhibition of both VDAC and ANT interactions with Bax, but not by a Bax channel blocker. Therefore, we conclude that at this age, within the constraints of our experimental model, a primary mode of Bax-induced initiation of the apoptosis cascade following ethanol insult involves interactions with proteins of the PTP complex, and not channel formation independent of PTP constituents. PMID:22767450

  17. Ethanol metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase or cytochrome P450 2E1 differentially impairs hepatic protein trafficking and growth hormone signaling.

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    Doody, Erin E; Groebner, Jennifer L; Walker, Jetta R; Frizol, Brittnee M; Tuma, Dean J; Fernandez, David J; Tuma, Pamela L

    2017-12-01

    The liver metabolizes alcohol using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P 450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Both enzymes metabolize ethanol into acetaldehyde, but CYP2E1 activity also results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promote oxidative stress. We have previously shown that microtubules are hyperacetylated in ethanol-treated polarized, hepatic WIF-B cells and livers from ethanol-fed rats. We have also shown that enhanced protein acetylation correlates with impaired clathrin-mediated endocytosis, constitutive secretion, and nuclear translocation and that the defects are likely mediated by acetaldehyde. However, the roles of CYP2E1-generated metabolites and ROS in microtubule acetylation and these alcohol-induced impairments have not been examined. To determine if CYP2E1-mediated alcohol metabolism is required for enhanced acetylation and the trafficking defects, we coincubated cells with ethanol and diallyl sulfide (DAS; a CYP2E1 inhibitor) or N -acetyl cysteine (NAC; an antioxidant). Both agents failed to prevent microtubule hyperacetylation in ethanol-treated cells and also failed to prevent impaired secretion or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Somewhat surprisingly, both DAS and NAC prevented impaired STAT5B nuclear translocation. Further examination of microtubule-independent steps of the pathway revealed that Jak2/STAT5B activation by growth hormone was prevented by DAS and NAC. These results were confirmed in ethanol-exposed HepG2 cells expressing only ADH or CYP2E1. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we further determined that ethanol exposure led to blunted growth hormone-mediated gene expression. In conclusion, we determined that alcohol-induced microtubule acetylation and associated defects in microtubule-dependent trafficking are mediated by ADH metabolism whereas impaired microtubule-independent Jak2/STAT5B activation is mediated by CYP2E1 activity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Impaired growth hormone-mediated signaling is observed in ethanol

  18. Lithium blocks ethanol-induced modulation of protein kinases in the developing brain

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    Chakraborty, Goutam; Saito, Mitsuo; Mao, Rui-Fen; Wang, Ray; Vadasz, Csaba; Saito, Mariko

    2008-01-01

    Lithium has been shown to be neuroprotective against various insults including ethanol exposure. We previously reported that ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the postnatal day 7 (P7) mice is associated with decreases in phosphorylation levels of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and alteration in lipid profiles in the brain. Here, P7 mice were injected with ethanol and lithium, and the effects of lithium on ethanol-induced alterations in phosphorylation levels of protein kinases and lipid profiles in the brain were examined. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that lithium significantly blocked ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation and reduction in phosphorylation levels of Akt, GSK-3β, and AMPK. Further, lithium inhibited accumulation of cholesterol ester (ChE) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) triggered by ethanol in the brain. These results suggest that Akt, GSK-3β, and AMPK are involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and the neuroprotective effects of lithium by modulating both apoptotic and survival pathways

  19. The Heat Shock Protein 26 Gene is Required for Ethanol Tolerance in Drosophila

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    Awoyemi A. Awofala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress plays an important role in drug- and addiction-related behaviours. However, the mechanisms underlying these behavioural responses are still poorly understood. In the light of recent reports that show consistent regulation of many genes encoding stress proteins including heat shock proteins following ethanol exposure in Drosophila , it was hypothesised that transition to alcohol dependence may involve the dysregulation of the circuits that mediate behavioural responses to stressors. Thus, behavioural genetic methodologies were used to investigate the role of the Drosophila hsp26 gene, a small heat shock protein coding gene which is induced in response to various stresses, in the development of rapid tolerance to ethanol sedation. Rapid tolerance was quantified as the percentage difference in the mean sedation times between the second and first ethanol exposure. Two independently isolated P-element mutations near the hsp26 gene eliminated the capacity for tolerance. In addition, RNAi-mediated functional knockdown of hsp26 expression in the glial cells and the whole nervous system also caused a defect in tolerance development. The rapid tolerance phenotype of the hsp26 mutants was rescued by the expression of the wild-type hsp26 gene in the nervous system. None of these manipulations of the hsp26 gene caused changes in the rate of ethanol absorption. Hsp26 genes are evolutionary conserved, thus the role of hsp26 in ethanol tolerance may present a new direction for research into alcohol dependency.

  20. Effects of ethanol on plasma protein shedding in the human stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassinne, A.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma protein shedding in the stomach was measured in 23 normal individuals before and after intragastric administration of a 30% solution of ethyl alcohol. Two different methods were used to assess plasma protein shedding. The first technique utilizes [ 131 I] albumin and requires neutralization of the gastric juice. It was used in 12 subjects and failed to demonstrate any increase of plasma protein shedding under the influence of ethanol. The second technique which utilizes [ 51 Cr] chloride was used in 11 subjects. It demonstrated a significant increase of the gastric clearance of plasma protein which reached 2.5 times the control values. The [ 51 Cr] chloride technique does not require prior neutralization of gastric acidity. It is concluded that, in normal man, ethanol administration increases plasma protein shedding in the stomach when it is given in the presence of an acid gastric juice. The effect is not observed when the gastric acidity is neutralized

  1. Ethanol activation of protein kinase A regulates GABA-A receptor subunit expression in the cerebral cortex and contributes to ethanol-induced hypnosis

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    Sandeep eKumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases are implicated in neuronal cell functions such as modulation of ion channel function, trafficking and synaptic excitability. Both protein kinase C (PKC and A (PKA are involved in regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A receptors through phosphorylation. However, the role of PKA in regulating GABA-A receptors following acute ethanol exposure is not known. The present study investigated the role of PKA in ethanol effects on GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression in the P2 synaptosomal fraction of the rat cerebral cortex. Additionally, GABA-related behaviors were also examined. Rats were administered ethanol (2.0 – 3.5 g/kg or saline and PKC, PKA and GABA-A receptor α1 subunit levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Ethanol (3.5 g/kg transiently increased GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression and PKA RIIβ subunit expression at similar time points whereas PKA RIIα was increased at later time points. In contrast, PKC isoform expression remained unchanged. Notably, the moderate ethanol dose (2.0g/kg had no effect on GABA-A α1 subunit levels although PKA RIIα and RIIβ were increased at 10 and 60 minutes, when PKC isozymes are also known to be elevated. To determine if PKA activation was responsible for the ethanol-induced elevation of GABA-A α1 subunits, the PKA antagonist H89 was administered to rats prior to ethanol exposure. H89 administration prevented ethanol-induced increases in GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression. Moreover, increasing PKA activity intracerebroventricularly with Sp-cAMP prior to a hypnotic dose of ethanol increased ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex duration. This effect appears to be mediated in part by GABA-A receptors as increasing PKA activity also increased the duration of muscimol-induced loss of righting reflex. Overall these data suggest that PKA mediates ethanol-induced GABA-A receptor expression and contributes to ethanol behavioral effects involving GABA-A receptors.

  2. Protein-energy malnutrition during early gestation in sheep blunts fetal renal vascular and nephron development and compromises adult renal function.

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    Lloyd, Louise J; Foster, Thomas; Rhodes, Phillip; Rhind, Stewart M; Gardner, David S

    2012-01-15

    A nutritionally poor maternal diet can reduce nephron endowment and pre-empt premature expression of markers for chronic renal disease in the offspring. A mechanistic pathway from variation in maternal diet through altered fetal renal development to compromised adult kidney structure and function with adult-onset obesity has not been described. We show that maternal protein-energy malnutrition in sheep blunts nephrogenic potential in the 0.44 gestation (65 days gestation, term ∼147 days) fetus by increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis in the nephrogenic zone, effects that were more marked in male fetuses. As adults, the low-protein-exposed sheep had reduced glomerular number and microvascular rarefaction in their kidneys compensated for, respectively, by glomerular hypertrophy and increased angiogenic support. In this study, the long-term mild anatomical deficits in the kidney would have remained asymptomatic in the lean state, but when superimposed on the broad metabolic challenge that obesity represents then microalbuminuria and blunted bilateral renal function revealed a long-term physiological compromise, that is only predicted to worsen with age. In conclusion, maternal protein-energy malnutrition specifically impacts fetal kidney vascular development and prevents full functionality of the adult kidney being achieved; these residual deficits are predicted to significantly increase the expected incidence of chronic kidney disease in prenatally undernourished individuals especially when coupled with a Western obesogenic environment.

  3. Anaerobiosis and ethanol effects on germination, growth, and protein synthesis of five Echinochloa species

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    Dybiec, L.D.; Rumpho, M.E.; Kennedy, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Five Echinochloa species, encompassing a spectrum from flood tolerant to flood intolerant, were studied to determine the mechanisms of anaerobic germination and growth. Seeds were germinated in air or N 2 , plus 0, 1 or 3% ethanol, and germination rates and growth measurements recorded for 7 days. In air or N 2 increasing ethanol levels did not affect total germination per se, although the rate of germination was delayed in N 2 . Shoot/root lengths in air were highest for tolerant species and increased with increasing ethanol, whereas, in intolerant species, shoot/root lengths decreased with increasing ethanol. Aerobic vs. anaerobic polypeptide profiles of each of the species were compared by SDS/PAGE. For all species, the number of polypeptides decreased under anaerobiosis and several quantitative differences were apparent relative to the aerobic profile. In addition, amino acid incorporation into protein was analyzed by [ 35 S]-Met labeling of 3 day old seedlings grown in air or N 2 . Significant protein synthesis was measured in tolerant seedlings under N 2 and several polypeptides were specifically induced. These results are being compared with labeling patterns of the other semi-tolerant and intolerant Echinochloa species to determine their importance in flooding tolerance

  4. Stabilization of Nrf2 protein by D3T provides protection against ethanol-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Dong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that maternal ethanol exposure induces a moderate increase in Nrf2 protein expression in mouse embryos. Pretreatment with the Nrf2 inducer, 3H-1, 2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T, significantly increases the Nrf2 protein levels and prevents apoptosis in ethanol-exposed embryos. The present study, using PC12 cells, was designed to determine whether increased Nrf2 stability is a mechanism by which D3T enhances Nrf2 activation and subsequent antioxidant protection. Ethanol and D3T treatment resulted in a significant accumulation of Nrf2 protein in PC 12 cells. CHX chase analysis has shown that ethanol treatment delayed the degradation of Nrf2 protein in PC12 cells. A significantly greater decrease in Nrf2 protein degradation was observed in the cells treated with D3T alone or with both ethanol and D3T. In addition, D3T treatment significantly reduced ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrate that the stabilization of Nrf2 protein by D3T confers protection against ethanol-induced apoptosis.

  5. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 μM) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, 14 C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively. (author)

  6. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 ..mu..M) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, /sup 14/C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively.

  7. Naltrexone Reverses Ethanol Preference and Protein Kinase C Activation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Koyyada

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder (AUD is a major health, social and economic problem for which there are few effective treatments. The opiate antagonist naltrexone is currently prescribed clinically with mixed success. We have used naltrexone in an established behavioral assay (CAFE in Drosophila melanogaster that measures the flies' preference for ethanol-containing food. We have confirmed that Drosophila exposed to ethanol develop a preference toward this drug and we demonstrate that naltrexone, in a dose dependant manner, reverses the ethanol-induced ethanol preference. This effect is not permanent, as preference for alcohol returns after discontinuing naltrexone. Additionally, naltrexone reduced the alcohol-induced increase in protein kinase C activity. These findings are of interest because they confirm that Drosophila is a useful model for studying human responses to addictive drugs. Additionally because of the lack of a closely conserved opiate system in insects, our results could either indicate that a functionally related system does exist in insects or that in insects, and potentially also in mammals, naltrexone binds to alternative sites. Identifying such sites could lead to improved treatment strategies for AUD.

  8. Naltrexone Reverses Ethanol Preference and Protein Kinase C Activation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyada, Rajeswari; Latchooman, Nilesh; Jonaitis, Julius; Ayoub, Samir S.; Corcoran, Olivia; Casalotti, Stefano O.

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major health, social and economic problem for which there are few effective treatments. The opiate antagonist naltrexone is currently prescribed clinically with mixed success. We have used naltrexone in an established behavioral assay (CAFE) in Drosophila melanogaster that measures the flies' preference for ethanol-containing food. We have confirmed that Drosophila exposed to ethanol develop a preference toward this drug and we demonstrate that naltrexone, in a dose dependant manner, reverses the ethanol-induced ethanol preference. This effect is not permanent, as preference for alcohol returns after discontinuing naltrexone. Additionally, naltrexone reduced the alcohol-induced increase in protein kinase C activity. These findings are of interest because they confirm that Drosophila is a useful model for studying human responses to addictive drugs. Additionally because of the lack of a closely conserved opiate system in insects, our results could either indicate that a functionally related system does exist in insects or that in insects, and potentially also in mammals, naltrexone binds to alternative sites. Identifying such sites could lead to improved treatment strategies for AUD. PMID:29593550

  9. Effect of water and ethanol radicals on the protein part of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Puchala, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper studies the changes in the tryptophan fluorescence in human hemoglobin induced by ·OH, e aq - , H atoms and ethanol radicals. Measurements of irradiated hemoglobin performed in phosphate buffer, pH 7, indicate that the processes of unfolding a protein are induced with the highest efficiency by the ·OH radicals. A destructive action of e aq - is more evident in the absence of the ·OH radicals. Fluorescence measurements carried out after incubation of irradiated hemoglobin in Gdn·HCl solution reveal the tryptophan residues destruction, which is relatively small (at 2.5 kGy maximum fluorescence decrease was about 23%) and caused by the ·OH radicals. Within the dose range, the participation of the e aq - , H atoms and ethanol radicals in hemoglobin tryptophan residue destruction can be neglected. (author)

  10. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-12

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes.

  11. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Borck, Patrícia Cristine; Dos Santos-Silva, Junia Carolina Rebelo; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2017-09-01

    Taurine (Tau) restores β-cell function in obesity; however, its action is lost in malnourished obese rodents. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the lack of effects of Tau in this model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD) (14% protein) or a protein-restricted diet (RD) (6% protein) for 6 wk. Afterward, mice received a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk [CD + HFD (CH) and RD + HFD (RH)] with or without 5% Tau supplementation after weaning on their drinking water [CH + Tau (CHT) and RH + Tau (RHT)]. The HFD increased insulin secretion through mitochondrial metabolism in CH and RH. Tau prevented all those alterations in CHT only. The expression of the taurine transporter (Tau-T), as well as Tau content in pancreatic islets, was increased in CH but had no effect on RH. Protein malnutrition programs β cells and impairs Tau-induced restoration of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis. This may be associated with modulation of the expression of Tau-T in pancreatic islets, which may be responsible for the absence of effect of Tau in protein-malnourished obese mice.-Branco, R. C. S., Camargo, R. L., Batista, T. M., Vettorazzi, J. F., Borck, P. C., dos Santos-Silva, J. C. R., Boschero, A. C., Zoppi, C. C., Carneiro, E. M. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion. © FASEB.

  12. Moderate Ethanol Preconditioning of Rat Brain Cultures Engenders Neuroprotection Against Dementia-Inducing Neuroinflammatory Proteins: Possible Signaling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neafsey, Edward J.; Wang, Kewei; Achille, Nicholas J.; Mitchell, Robert M.; Sivaswamy, Sreevidya

    2010-01-01

    There is no question that chronic alcohol (ethanol) abuse, a leading worldwide problem, causes neuronal dysfunction and brain damage. However, various epidemiologic studies in recent years have indicated that in comparisons with abstainers or never-drinkers, light/moderate alcohol consumers have lower risks of age-dependent cognitive decline and/or dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Such reduced risks have been variously attributed to favorable circulatory and/or cerebrovascular effects of moderate ethanol intake, but they could also involve ethanol “preconditioning” phenomena in brain glia and neurons. Here we summarize our experimental studies showing that moderate ethanol preconditioning (MEP; 20–30 mM ethanol) of rat brain cultures prevents neurodegeneration due to β-amyloid, an important protein implicated in AD, and to other neuroinflammatory proteins such as gp120, the human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope protein linked to AIDS dementia. The MEP neuroprotection is associated with suppression of neurotoxic protein-evoked initial increases in [Ca+2]i and proinflammatory mediators—e.g., superoxide anion, arachidonic acid, and glutamate. Applying a sensor → transducer → effector model to MEP, we find that onset of neuroprotection correlates temporally with elevations in “effector” heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSP27, and phospho-HSP27). The effector status of HSPs is supported by the fact that inhibiting HSP elevations due to MEP largely restores gp120-induced superoxide potentiation and subsequent neurotoxicity. As upstream mediators, synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors may be initial prosurvival sensors of ethanol, and protein kinase C epsilon and focal adhesion kinase are likely transducers during MEP that are essential for protective HSP elevations. Regarding human consumption, we speculate that moderate ethanol intake might counter incipient cognitive deterioration during advanced aging or AD by exerting preconditioning

  13. Moderate ethanol preconditioning of rat brain cultures engenders neuroprotection against dementia-inducing neuroinflammatory proteins: possible signaling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael A; Neafsey, Edward J; Wang, Kewei; Achille, Nicholas J; Mitchell, Robert M; Sivaswamy, Sreevidya

    2010-06-01

    There is no question that chronic alcohol (ethanol) abuse, a leading worldwide problem, causes neuronal dysfunction and brain damage. However, various epidemiologic studies in recent years have indicated that in comparisons with abstainers or never-drinkers, light/moderate alcohol consumers have lower risks of age-dependent cognitive decline and/or dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such reduced risks have been variously attributed to favorable circulatory and/or cerebrovascular effects of moderate ethanol intake, but they could also involve ethanol "preconditioning" phenomena in brain glia and neurons. Here we summarize our experimental studies showing that moderate ethanol preconditioning (MEP; 20-30 mM ethanol) of rat brain cultures prevents neurodegeneration due to beta-amyloid, an important protein implicated in AD, and to other neuroinflammatory proteins such as gp120, the human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope protein linked to AIDS dementia. The MEP neuroprotection is associated with suppression of neurotoxic protein-evoked initial increases in [Ca(+2)](i) and proinflammatory mediators--e.g., superoxide anion, arachidonic acid, and glutamate. Applying a sensor --> transducer --> effector model to MEP, we find that onset of neuroprotection correlates temporally with elevations in "effector" heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSP27, and phospho-HSP27). The effector status of HSPs is supported by the fact that inhibiting HSP elevations due to MEP largely restores gp120-induced superoxide potentiation and subsequent neurotoxicity. As upstream mediators, synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors may be initial prosurvival sensors of ethanol, and protein kinase C epsilon and focal adhesion kinase are likely transducers during MEP that are essential for protective HSP elevations. Regarding human consumption, we speculate that moderate ethanol intake might counter incipient cognitive deterioration during advanced aging or AD by exerting preconditioning

  14. Effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on anti-nutritional factors, protein denaturation and functional properties in raw pea and pea protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on several nutritionally relevant mainly protein-related parameters in raw peas (var. Solara) and ultra-filtrated pea protein isolate was examined. Of all test samples, water absorptive capacity (WAC), weight loss and protein loss owing to the processing

  15. Effect of ethanol on differential protein production and expression of potential virulence functions in the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika C Nwugo

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii persists in the medical environment and causes severe human nosocomial infections. Previous studies showed that low-level ethanol exposure increases the virulence of A. baumannii ATCC 17978. To better understand the mechanisms involved in this response, 2-D gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry was used to investigate differential protein production in bacteria cultured in the presence or absence of ethanol. This approach showed that the presence of ethanol significantly induces and represses the production of 22 and 12 proteins, respectively. Although over 25% of the ethanol-induced proteins were stress-response related, the overall bacterial viability was uncompromised when cultured under these conditions. Production of proteins involved in lipid and carbohydrate anabolism was increased in the presence of ethanol, a response that correlates with increased carbohydrate biofilm content, enhanced biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces and decrease bacterial motility on semi-solid surfaces. The presence of ethanol also induced the acidification of bacterial cultures and the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, a ubiquitous plant hormone that signals bacterial stress-tolerance and promotes plant-bacteria interactions. These responses could be responsible for the significantly enhanced virulence of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 cells cultured in the presence of ethanol when tested with the Galleria mellonella experimental infection model. Taken together, these observations provide new insights into the effect of ethanol in bacterial virulence. This alcohol predisposes the human host to infections by A. baumannii and could favor the survival and adaptation of this pathogen to medical settings and adverse host environments.

  16. Proteins Differentially Expressed in the Pancreas of Hepatic Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Deer Mice Fed Ethanol For 3 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Amer, Samir M; Kaphalia, Lata; Soman, Kizhake V; Wiktorowicz, John E; Shakeel Ansari, Ghulam A; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the pancreatic tissue of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice fed ethanol to understand metabolic basis and mechanism of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Mice were fed liquid diet containing 3.5 g% ethanol daily for 3 months, and differentially expressed pancreatic proteins were identified by protein separation using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification by mass spectrometry. Nineteen differentially expressed proteins were identified by applying criteria established for protein identification in proteomics. An increased abundance was found for ribosome-binding protein 1, 60S ribosomal protein L31-like isoform 1, histone 4, calcium, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding proteins and the proteins involved in antiapoptotic processes and endoplasmic reticulum function, stress, and/or homeostasis. Low abundance was found for endoA cytokeratin, 40S ribosomal protein SA, amylase 2b isoform precursor, serum albumin, and ATP synthase subunit β and the proteins involved in cell motility, structure, and conformation. Chronic ethanol feeding in alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice differentially expresses pancreatic functional and structural proteins, which can be used to develop biomarker(s) of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, particularly amylase 2b precursor, and 60 kDa heat shock protein and those involved in ATP synthesis and blood osmotic pressure.

  17. Extraction of intracellular protein from Chlorella pyrenoidosa using a combination of ethanol soaking, enzyme digest, ultrasonication and homogenization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilin; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xuewu

    2018-01-01

    Due to the rigid cell wall of Chlorella species, it is still challenging to effectively extract significant amounts of protein. Mass methods were used for the extraction of intracellular protein from microalgae with biological, mechanical and chemical approaches. In this study, based on comparison of different extraction methods, a new protocol was established to maximize extract amounts of protein, which was involved in ethanol soaking, enzyme digest, ultrasonication and homogenization techniques. Under the optimized conditions, 72.4% of protein was extracted from the microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, which should contribute to the research and development of Chlorella protein in functional food and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cultivation and utilization of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol, single cell protein, and high-fructose syrup production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, P.K.; Bajpai, Pratima (Thapar Corporate Research and Development Center, Patiala (IN). Div. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    Jerusalem artichoke has one of the highest carbohydrate yields of the known agricultural crops and has many distinct advantages over traditional crops. This brief review presents data on the yield and composition of Jerusalem artichoke, techniques of carbohydrate extraction and its utilization for the production of ethanol, single cell protein (SCP), and high-fructose syrup, along with economic considerations. (author).

  19. A novel heat shock protein alpha 8 (Hspa8) molecular network mediating responses to stress- and ethanol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Kyle R; Zhao, Yinghong; Baker, Jessica A; Lu, Ye; Yan, Lei; Cook, Melloni N; Jones, Byron C; Hamre, Kristin M; Lu, Lu

    2016-04-01

    Genetic differences mediate individual differences in susceptibility and responses to stress and ethanol, although, the specific molecular pathways that control these responses are not fully understood. Heat shock protein alpha 8 (Hspa8) is a molecular chaperone and member of the heat shock protein family that plays an integral role in the stress response and that has been implicated as an ethanol-responsive gene. Therefore, we assessed its role in mediating responses to stress and ethanol across varying genetic backgrounds. The hippocampus is an important mediator of these responses, and thus, was examined in the BXD family of mice in this study. We conducted bioinformatic analyses to dissect genetic factors modulating Hspa8 expression, identify downstream targets of Hspa8, and examined its role. Hspa8 is trans-regulated by a gene or genes on chromosome 14 and is part of a molecular network that regulates stress- and ethanol-related behaviors. To determine additional components of this network, we identified direct or indirect targets of Hspa8 and show that these genes, as predicted, participate in processes such as protein folding and organic substance metabolic processes. Two phenotypes that map to the Hspa8 locus are anxiety-related and numerous other anxiety- and/or ethanol-related behaviors significantly correlate with Hspa8 expression. To more directly assay this relationship, we examined differences in gene expression following exposure to stress or alcohol and showed treatment-related differential expression of Hspa8 and a subset of the members of its network. Our findings suggest that Hspa8 plays a vital role in genetic differences in responses to stress and ethanol and their interactions.

  20. Blunt gastric injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  1. Improved ethanol production at high temperature by consolidated bioprocessing using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain engineered with artificial zinc finger protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, M Mahfuza; Yu, Xinshui; Kondo, Akihiko; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNII/cocδBEC3 was transformed by an artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library to improve its thermal tolerance, and the strain MNII-AZFP with superior growth at 42°C was selected. Improved degradation of acid swollen cellulose by 45.9% led to an increase in ethanol production, when compared to the control strain. Moreover, the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke stalk (JAS) by MNII-AZFP was shortened by 12h at 42°C with a concomitant improvement in ethanol production. Comparative transcriptomics analysis suggested that the AZFP in the mutant exerted beneficial effect by modulating the expression of multiple functional genes. These results provide a feasible strategy for efficient ethanol production from JAS and other cellulosic biomass through CBP based-fermentation at elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence for the involvement of 5-lipoxygenase products in ethanol-induced intestinal plasma protein loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, I.T.; Boyd, A.J.; Dinda, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated whether the products of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) were involved in the jejunal microvascular injury induced by intraluminal ethanol (ETH). A group of rabbits was given orally a selective inhibitor of 5-LO in two 10-mg doses, 24, and 2 h before the experiments. A jejunal segment was perfused with a control solution (control segment) and an adjacent segment with an ETH-containing solution (ETH-perfused segment). In a series of experiments, they measured 5-LO activity of the jejunal segments of both groups using the generation of leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) as an index. In a second series of experiments, they determined the ETH-induced intraluminal protein loss, which was taken as a measure of mucosal microvascular damage. The ETH-induced increase in protein loss was significantly lower in the treated than in the untreated group. These findings suggest that products of 5-LO are involved in the ETH-induced jejunal microvascular injury

  3. Ethanol and Other Short-Chain Alcohols Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Laura R.; Ather, Jennifer L.; Randall, Matthew J.; DePuccio, Daniel P.; Landry, Christopher C.; Wewers, Mark D.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Poynter, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression is a major complication of alcoholism that contributes to increased rates of opportunistic infections and sepsis in alcoholics. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a multi-protein intracellular pattern recognition receptor complex that facilitates the cleavage and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, can be inhibited by ethanol and we sought to better understand the mechanism through which this occurs and whether chemically similar molecules exert comparable effects. We show that ethanol can specifically inhibit activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in attenuated IL-1β and caspase-1 cleavage and secretion, as well as diminished ASC speck formation, without affecting potassium efflux, in a mouse macrophage cell line (J774), mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells, mouse neutrophils, and human PBMCs. The inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome were independent of GABAA receptor activation or NMDA receptor inhibition, but was associated with decreased oxidant production. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased cellular tyrosine phosphorylation, while administration of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate prior to ethanol restored tyrosine phosphorylation and IL-1β secretion subsequent to ATP stimulation. Furthermore, sodium orthovanadate-induced phosphorylation of ASC Y144, necessary and sufficient for Nlrp3 inflammasome activation, and secretion of phosphorylated ASC, were inhibited by ethanol. Finally, multiple alcohol-containing organic compounds exerted inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome, whereas 2-methylbutane (isopentane), the analogous alkane of the potent inhibitor isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), did not. Our results demonstrate that ethanol antagonizes the NLRP3 inflammasome at an apical event in its activation through the stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphatases, an effect shared by other short-chain alcohols. PMID:27421477

  4. Expression of protein engineered NADP{sup +}-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase increases ethanol production from xylose in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Katsuji; Takimura, Osamu; Sawayama, Shigeki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Hiroshima (Japan). Biomass Technology Research Center; Watanabe, Seiya; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy

    2008-11-15

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain transformed with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Pichia stipitis has the ability to convert xylose to ethanol together with the unfavorable excretion of xylitol, which may be due to cofactor imbalance between NADPH-preferring XR and NAD{sup +}-dependent XDH. To reduce xylitol formation, we have already generated several XDH mutants with a reversal of coenzyme specificity toward NADP{sup +}. In this study, we constructed a set of recombinant S. cerevisiae strains with xylose-fermenting ability, including protein-engineered NADP{sup +}-dependent XDH-expressing strains. The most positive effect on xylose-to-ethanol fermentation was found by using a strain named MA-N5, constructed by chromosomal integration of the gene for NADP{sup +}-dependent XDH along with XR and endogenous xylulokinase genes. The MA-N5 strain had an increase in ethanol production and decrease in xylitol excretion compared with the reference strain expressing wild-type XDH when fermenting not only xylose but also mixed sugars containing glucose and xylose. Furthermore, the MA-N5 strain produced ethanol with a high yield of 0.49 g of ethanol/g of total consumed sugars in the nonsulfuric acid hydrolysate of wood chips. The results demonstrate that glucose and xylose present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be efficiently fermented by this redox-engineered strain. (orig.)

  5. Influence of dietary casein or lactalbumin on incorporation of 14C leucine into protein of ethanol-perfused livers of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, K.A.C.; Treloar, B.P.; Hove, E.L.; Sedcole, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Rats were fed diets containing casein or lactalbumin as the sole source of protein (c. 200 g protein/kg diet) for about 4 weeks. At 190-210 g live weight the rats were anaesthetised, and the livers were perfused with ethanol (0-3.7 mL/100 mL perfusate, i.e., 0-625 m ) and 30 minutes later with 14 C leucine (5 micro g Ci) for 60 minutes. The specific radioactivity (dpm/mg protein) of liver and perfusate protein was determined. The log specific radioactivity data of each dietary group were described by a 2-phase linear model: a constant or plateau level up to an ethanol concentration of c. 2 mL ethanol/100 mL perfusate (340 m ), and a linear decrease in log specific radioactivity above that level. For the liver protein the constant log specific radioactivity of the casein dietary group was significantly higher than that for the lactalbumin dietary group. The decreases in log specific radioactivity for both liver and perfusate in the casein dietary group were significantly greater than those in the lactalbumin dietary group. The dietary dependent difference in incorporation with varying ethanol concentrations may result from a combination of control over liver protein synthesis and protein secretion. Predisposing rats to 2 high-quality protein diets results in differences in liver protein metabolism which are maintained against a wide range of ethanol perfusate concentrations. (auths)

  6. Effects of ethanol and/or chloroquine with low protein dietary intake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    filtration rate, aldosterone synthesis and alteration of kidney structure [8]. ... faeces and urine to pass into a lower compartment filled with sawdust preventing any .... Figure 3: Serum levels of urea in ethanol and/or chloroquine-treated rats, fed.

  7. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of a 46 kDa protein is decreased in brains of ethanol-fed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhamburo, P.T.; Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.

    1988-01-01

    The acute in vitro effects of ethanol on cerebral cortical adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptor characteristics suggested a site of action of ethanol at Gs, the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein. After chronic ethanol ingestion, the beta-adrenergic receptor appeared to be uncoupled (i.e., the form of the receptor with high affinity for agonist was undetectable), and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by isoproterenol or guanine nucleotides was reduced, suggesting an alteration in the properties of Gs. To further characterize this change, cholera and pertussis toxin-mediated 32 P-ADP-ribosylation of mouse cortical membranes was assessed in mice that had chronically ingested ethanol in a liquid diet. 32 P-labeled proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantitated by autoradiography. There was a selective 30-50% decrease in cholera toxin-induced labeling of 46 kDa protein band in membranes of ethanol-fed mice, with no apparent change in pertussis toxin-induced labeling. The 46 kDa protein has a molecular weight similar to that of the alpha subunit of Gs, suggesting a reduced amount of this protein or a change in its characteristics as a substrate for cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation in cortical membranes of ethanol-fed mice

  8. Swords with Blunt Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, W. James

    2004-01-01

    Many U.S. educators now wonder whether they're teachers or targets. This mentality stems from the specter of their school being sanctioned for failing the state accountability tests mandated under No Child Left Behind (NCLB). According to this author, most of those tests are like blunt-edged swords: They function badly in two directions. While…

  9. Precipitation of salivary proteins after the interaction with wine: the effect of ethanol, pH, fructose, and mannoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Gambuti, Angelita; Moio, Luigi

    2012-04-01

    Astringency is a complex sensation mainly caused by the precipitation of salivary proteins with polyphenols. In wine it can be enhanced or reduced depending on the composition of the medium. In order to investigate the effect of ethanol, tartaric acid, fructose, and commercial mannoproteins (MPs) addition on the precipitation of salivary proteins, the saliva precipitation index (SPI) was determined by means of the sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of human saliva after the reaction with Merlot wines and model solutions. Gelatin index, ethanol index, and Folin-Ciocalteu index were also determined. As resulted by Pearson's correlation, data on SPI were well correlated with the sensory analysis performed on the same samples. In a second experiment, increasing the ethanol (11%-13%-17%), MPs (0-2-8 g/L), fructose (0-2-6 g/L) level, and pH values (2.9-3.0-3.6), a decrease in the precipitation of salivary proteins was observed. A difference in the SPI between model solution and red wine stated that an influence of wine matrix on the precipitation of salivary proteins occurred. Results provide interesting suggestions for enologists, which could modulate the astringency of red wine by: (i) leaving some residual reducing sugars (such as fructose) in red wine during winemaking of grapes rich in tannins; (ii) avoiding the lowering of pH; (iii) adding commercial mannoproteins or promoting a "sur lie" aging; and (iv) harvesting grapes at high technological maturity in order to obtain wines with a satisfactory alcoholic content when possible. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Comparison of ethanol-soluble proteins from different rye (Secale cereale) varieties by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radzikowski, Louise; Nesic, Ljiljana; Hansen, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    The major storage proteins from six rye varieties, grown under the same conditions in 1997 and 1998 in Ronhave, Denmark, were analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins were extracted from ground rye kernels with 70% ethanol and separated by 2-D electrophor......The major storage proteins from six rye varieties, grown under the same conditions in 1997 and 1998 in Ronhave, Denmark, were analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins were extracted from ground rye kernels with 70% ethanol and separated by 2-D...... electrophoresis. The gels were scanned, compared using ImageMaster(R) software and the data sets were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) using THE UNSCRAMBLER software. Afterwards MATLAB was used to make a cluster analysis of the varieties based on PCA. The analysis of the gels showed...... separately. When the results were combined from the two years five varieties could be differentiated. The results from the PCA confirmed the finding of the unique spots and cluster analysis was made in order to illustrate the results. The combination of the results from 2-D electrophoresis and other grain...

  11. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  12. Blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Daphne J

    2014-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma is associated with a wide range of injuries, many of which are life threatening. This article is a case study demonstrating a variety of traumatic chest injuries, including pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Literature on the diagnosis and treatment was reviewed, including both theoretical and research literature, from a variety of disciplines. The role of the advance practice nurse in trauma is also discussed as it relates to assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with traumatic chest injuries.

  13. Study of a novel agent for TCA precipitated proteins washing - comprehensive insights into the role of ethanol/HCl on molten globule state by multi-spectroscopic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddhif, Balkis; Lange, Justin; Guignard, Nadia; Batonneau, Yann; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Papot, Sébastien; Geffroy-Rodier, Claude; Poinot, Pauline

    2018-02-20

    Sample preparation for mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a key step for ensuring reliable data. In gel-free experimental workflows, protein purification often starts with a precipitation stage using trichloroacetic acid (TCA). In presence of TCA, proteins precipitate in a stable molten globule state making the pellet difficult to solubilize in aqueous buffer for proteolytic digestion and MS analysis. In this context, the objective of this work was to study the suitability of a novel agent, ethanol/HCl, for the washing of TCA-precipitated proteins. This method optimized the recovery of proteins in aqueous buffer (50 to 96%) while current organic solvents led to losses of material. Following a mechanistic study, the effect of ethanol/HCl on the conformation of TCA-precipitated proteins was investigated. It was shown that the reagent triggered the unfolding of TCA-stabilized molten globule into a reversible intermediate, characterized by a specific Raman signature, which favored protein subsequent resolubilization. Finally, the efficiency of ethanol/HCl for the washing of TCA-precipitated proteins extracted from a biofilm, a soil or a mouse liver was demonstrated (data available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008110). Being versatile and simple, it could be of great interest to include an ethanol/HCl wash-step to produce high-quality protein extracts. In mass spectrometry-based proteomics workflows, proteins precipitation and/or washing usually involves the use of acetone. In fact, this solvent is effective for removing both biological interferences (e.g. lipids) and chemicals employed in protein extraction/purification protocols (e.g. TCA, SDS). However, the use of acetone can lead to significant protein losses. Moreover, when proteins are precipitated with TCA, the acetone-treated precipitate remains hard to disperse, leading to poor resolubilization of proteins in aqueous buffers. Here, we investigated the use of ethanol/HCl for washing TCA

  14. Synergetic effect of yeast cell-surface expression of cellulase and expansin-like protein on direct ethanol production from cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have examined the direct fermentation of cellulosic materials by cellulase-expressing yeast; however, ethanol productivity in these systems has not yet reached an industrial level. Certain microorganisms, such as the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei, produce expansin-like proteins, which have a cellulose-loosening effect that may increase the breakdown of cellulose. Here, to improve the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-displaying cellulase and expansin-like protein on the cell surface were constructed and examined for direct ethanol fermentation performance. Results The cellulase and expansin-like protein co-expressing strain showed 246 mU/g-wet cell of phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) degradation activity, which corresponded to 2.9-fold higher activity than that of a cellulase-expressing strain. This result clearly demonstrated that yeast cell-surface expressed cellulase and expansin-like protein act synergistically to breakdown cellulose. In fermentation experiments examining direct ethanol production from PASC, the cellulase and expansin-like protein co-expressing strain produced 3.4 g/L ethanol after 96 h of fermentation, a concentration that was 1.4-fold higher than that achieved by the cellulase-expressing strain (2.5 g/L). Conclusions The PASC degradation and fermentation ability of an engineered yeast strain was markedly improved by co-expressing cellulase and expansin-like protein on the cell surface. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the synergetic effect of co-expressing cellulase and expansin-like protein on a yeast cell surface, which may be a promising strategy for constructing direct ethanol fermenting yeast from cellulose. PMID:23835302

  15. Autophagy Protects against CYP2E1/Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongke Lu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular pathway by which lysosomes degrade and recycle long-lived proteins and cellular organelles. The effects of ethanol on autophagy are complex but recent studies have shown that autophagy serves a protective function against ethanol-induced liver injury. Autophagy was found to also be protective against CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in vitro in HepG2 cells which express CYP2E1 and in vivo in an acute alcohol/CYPE1-dependent liver injury model. The goal of the current report was to extend the previous in vitro and acute in vivo experiments to a chronic ethanol model to evaluate whether autophagy is also protective against CYP2E1-dependent liver injury in a chronic ethanol-fed mouse model. Wild type (WT, CYP2E1 knockout (KO or CYP2E1 humanized transgenic knockin (KI, mice were fed an ethanol liquid diet or control dextrose diet for four weeks. In the last week, some mice received either saline or 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, or rapamycin, which stimulates autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA potentiated the ethanol-induced increases in serum transaminase and triglyceride levels in the WT and KI mice but not KO mice, while rapamycin prevented the ethanol liver injury. Treatment with 3-MA enhanced the ethanol-induced fat accumulation in WT mice and caused necrosis in the KI mice; little or no effect was found in the ethanol-fed KO mice or any of the dextrose-fed mice. 3-MA treatment further lowered the ethanol-decrease in hepatic GSH levels and further increased formation of TBARS in WT and KI mice, whereas rapamycin blunted these effects of ethanol. Neither 3-MA nor rapamycin treatment affected CYP2E1 catalytic activity or content or the induction CYP2E1 by ethanol. The 3-MA treatment decreased levels of Beclin-1 and Atg 7 but increased levels of p62 in the ethanol-fed WT and KI mice whereas rapamycin had the opposite effects, validating inhibition and stimulation of autophagy, respectively. These

  16. Ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis Sims leaves inhibits protein glycation and restores the oxidative burst in diabetic rat macrophages after Candida albicans exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes Ribas Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis leaves on blood glucose, protein glycation, NADPH oxidase activity and macrophage phagocytic capacity after Candida albicans exposure in diabetic rats. The Passiflora edulis Sims leaves were dried to 40°C, powdered, extracted by maceration in 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and lyophilised. The biochemical tests performed were total phenolic content (TP as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, trapping potential DPPH assay and total iron-reducing potential. Diabetes was induced by alloxan injection. Protein glycation was determined by AGE and fructosamine serum concentrations. Extract-treated diabetic animals demonstrated lower fructosamine concentrations compared with the diabetic group. Our results suggest that ethanolic Passiflora edulis Sims leaf extraction may have beneficial effects on diabetes and may improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats.

  17. Co-production of ethanol, biogas, protein fodder and natural fertilizer in organic farming – Evaluation of a concept for a farm-scale biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Kádár, Zsófia; Heiske, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The addition of a biorefinery to an organic farm was investigated, where ethanol was produced from germinated rye grains and whey, and the effluent was separated into two streams: the protein-rich solid fraction, to be used as animal feed, and the liquid fraction, which can be co-digested with cl......The addition of a biorefinery to an organic farm was investigated, where ethanol was produced from germinated rye grains and whey, and the effluent was separated into two streams: the protein-rich solid fraction, to be used as animal feed, and the liquid fraction, which can be co...... to serve as natural fertilizer. A technoeconomic analysis was also performed; total capital investment was estimated to be approximately 4 M USD. Setting a methane selling price according to available incentives for “green electricity” (0.72 USD/m3) led to a minimum ethanol selling price of 1.89 USD...

  18. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  19. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Carolina R; Beckley, Jacob T; Smothers, Thetford C; Lench, Daniel H; Holseberg, Zack L; Fedarovich, Hleb; Gilstrap, Meghin J; Homanics, Gregg E; Woodward, John J

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A) that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl) significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p.) increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg) reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg). In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg) as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  20. Effects of pretreatment of wheat bran on the quality of protein-rich residue for animal feeding and on monosaccharide release for ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Kabel, M.A.; Briens, M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of hydrothermal conditions for pretreating wheat bran on the quality of residual protein for animal feeding, and on monosaccharide release for ethanol production were studied according to a 4 × 2 × 2 design with the factors, temperature (120, 140, 160, and 180 °C), acidity (pH 2.3 and

  1. Induced synthesis of toroid-like lead sulfide nanocomposites in ethanol solution through a protein templating route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Qin, Dezhi; Yang, Guangrui; Du, Xian; Zhang, Qiuxia; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The toroid-like PbS nanocrystals have been prepared in zein ethanol solution based on self-assembly template of protein molecules. From transmission electron microscopy observation, the obtained samples were monodispersed with an average size of about 47 nm. The chemical composition and crystal structure of nanocomposites were determined by X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum measurements. The interaction between PbS and zein was investigated through Fourier transform infrared, photoluminescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectra, and thermogravimetric analysis. The PbS nanocrystals could react with nitrogen and oxygen atoms of zein molecules through coordination and electrostatic force. The CD spectra results suggested that PbS nanocrystals induced the conformational transition of protein from α-helix to β-sheet and then self-assembled into ring or toroid nanostructure. The quenching of zein fluorescence induced by PbS nanocrystals also showed the change in the chemical microenvironments of the fluorescent amino acid residues in the protein structure. The key step of this facile, biomimetic route was the formation of self-assembly nanostructure of zein, which could regulate the nucleation and growth of toroid-like PbS nanocrystals

  2. James Blunt matuselaulude edetabeli tipus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Bereavement Registeri andmetel Suurbritannias matustel tellitavate laulude edetabelis: James Blunt "Goodbye My Lover", Robbie Williams "Angels", Jennifer Warnes ja Bill Medley "I've Had the Time Of My Life", Elton John "Candle in the Wind", Righteous Brothers "Unchained Melody"

  3. GASTROINTESTINAL INJURIES FROM BLUNT ABDOMINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-04-04

    Apr 4, 2004 ... Subjects: Twenty one children managed for gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma ... ileus, urinary tract infection and chest infection, respectively postoperatively. .... predictive value with CT scan, (9) the positive predictive.

  4. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON BLUNT INJURY ABDOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Kopperundevi; Jagadeesan; Kiruthiga

    2016-01-01

    Blunt injury abdomen is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. Blunt trauma differs from penetrating trauma as different organs are characteristically injured by compression from blunt straining. A total of 53 cases of blunt trauma were studied in this study for the period of 1 year. In this study, commonest cause for blunt abdominal trauma was road traffic accident. The maximum incidence was noted in 20-40 middle age group of which 90% male patients were ...

  5. Blunt cerebrovascular injuries in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) includes trauma to the carotid or vertebral vessels and is noted in 0.1% of hospitalized trauma patients without an initial screening system in place. Several important topics must be addressed including determination of the appropriate screening population, the best modality of screening for diagnosis, treatment types, and required follow-up of blunt cerebrovascular injuries. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of an Ethanol-Driven Pressure Cell to Measure Hydrostatic Pressure Response of Protein-Stabilized Gold Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ARL-TR-7577 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Use of an Ethanol-Driven Pressure Cell to Measure Hydrostatic Pressure ...ARL-TR-7577 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Use of an Ethanol-Driven Pressure Cell to Measure Hydrostatic Pressure Response of...DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2014–September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Use of an Ethanol-Driven Pressure Cell to Measure Hydrostatic Pressure

  7. THE UTILISATION OF GRAPE MARC FOR OBTAINING FEED PROTEIN WITH ETHANOL CONSUMING YEASTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steliana RODINO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this work has been directed to achieve an optimal and economic medium, for the protein biosynthesis. The carbon source and the mineral elements are provided by the fresh marc diffusion solution and the source of organic nitrogen and growth factors are provided by proteic wine yeast extract. For the alcoholic fermentation it was used a strain of Saccharomyces ellipsoideus and for obtaining the biomass, a strain of Candida robusta. There were performed two series of experiments in which the alcoholic fermentation progress was monitored as follows: by titration of the carbohydrates, at the beginning and respectively at the end of the fermentation; by determining the optical density of the culture medium and by the determination of alcohol in the fermented solution. Protein biosynthesis was monitored by measurement of the alcohol concentration at the beginning and end of the process, by the determination of the optical density of the culture medium, by the determination of residual sugar, and by determining wet and dry biomass. The wet biomass was used for the protein titration. At the termination of the bioprocess was determined the dry matter in the culture medium.

  8. Ethanol extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa potentiates hippocampal synaptic transmission through mitogen-activated protein kinase, adenylyl cyclase, and protein kinase A pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, So Yeon; Jung, In Ho; Yi, Jee Hyun; Choi, Tae Joon; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Yun, Jeanho; Lee, Young Choon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2017-03-22

    As the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H.F. Chow (Rhamnaceae) has been used to sleep disturbances in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, many previous studies have focused on its sedative effect. Recently, we reported the neuroprotective effect of the effect of Z. jujuba var. spinosa. However, its effects on synaptic function have not yet been studied. In this project, we examined the action of ethanol extract of the seed of Z. jujuba var. spinosa (DHP1401) on synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. To investigate the effects of DHP1401, field recordings were conducted using hippocampal slices (400µm). Object recognition test was introduced to examine whether DHP1401 affect normal recognition memory. DHP1401 (50μg/ml) induced a significant increase in synaptic activity in Shaffer collateral pathway in a concentration-dependent manner. This increase of synaptic responses was blocked by NBQX, a broad spectrum α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist, but not IEM-1460, a Ca 2+ -permeable AMPAR blocker. Moreover, U0126, a mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SQ22536, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, and PKI, a protein kinase A inhibitor, blocked DHP1401-induced increase in synaptic transmission. Finally, DHP1401 facilitated object recognition memory. These results suggest that DHP1401 increase synaptic transmission through increase of synaptic AMPAR transmission via MAPK, AC and PAK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of dietary folic acid on biochemical parameters and gene expression of three heat shock proteins (HSPs) of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fingerling under acute high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesay, Daniella Fatmata; Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Zhou, Qunlan; Ren, Mingchun; Xie, Jun; Liu, Bo; Chen, Ruli; Pan, Liangkun

    2017-08-01

    The effects of dietary folic acid on biochemical parameters and gene expression of three heat shock proteins (HSPs) of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fingerling under acute high temperature stress. Six dietary folic acid groups (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0) mg/kg diets were designed and assigned into 18 tanks in three replicates each (300 l/tank) and were administered for 10 weeks in a re-circulated water system. The fingerlings with an initial weight of 27.0 ± 0.03 g were fed with their respective diets four times daily. At the end of the experiment, samples were collected before challenge, 0, 24, 72 h, and 7 days. Serum total protein (TP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cortisol, glucose, complement C3 (C3), complement C4 (C4, immunoglobulin M (IgM) hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the expression of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), 70 (HSP70), and 90 (HSP90) were studied. The results showed that fish fed with dietary folic acid between 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/kg significantly (P stress, 0, 24, 72 h, and 7 days significantly (P  0.05) of the three HSPs. However, there were statistical significant interactive effect between dietary folic acid inclusion level and temperature duration on serum C3 and C4 (P  0.05). The present results indicate that supplementation of basal diet from 1.0 mg/kg; 2.0 and 5.0 mg/kg can enhance acute high temperature resistance ability in M. amblycephala fingerling to some degree and improve physiological response, immune and antioxidant capacities, and expression level of three HSPs.

  10. Co-production of ethanol, biogas, protein fodder and natural fertilizer in organic farming--evaluation of a concept for a farm-scale biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Kádár, Zsófia; Heiske, Stefan; Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel; Simmons, Blake A; Blanch, Harvey W; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    The addition of a biorefinery to an organic farm was investigated, where ethanol was produced from germinated rye grains and whey, and the effluent was separated into two streams: the protein-rich solid fraction, to be used as animal feed, and the liquid fraction, which can be co-digested with clover grass silage to produce biogas. A method for ethanol production from rye was applied by utilizing inherent amylase activity from germination of the seed. Biogas potential of ethanol fermentation effluent was measured through anaerobic digestion trials. The effluent from the trials was assumed to serve as natural fertilizer. A technoeconomic analysis was also performed; total capital investment was estimated to be approximately 4 M USD. Setting a methane selling price according to available incentives for "green electricity" (0.72 USD/m(3)) led to a minimum ethanol selling price of 1.89 USD/L (project lifetime 25 yr, at a discount rate 10%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Imaging of blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosch, H.; Negrin, L.

    2014-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Consequently, all patients should be evaluated radiologically after blunt chest trauma to allow timely and appropriate treatment. Conventional chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are proven modalities with which to evaluate patients after blunt chest trauma. Over the last several years extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (eFAST) has gained increasing importance for the initial assessment of seriously injured patients. In the acute phase of severely injured patients eFAST examinations are helpful to exclude pneumothorax, hemothorax and hemopericardium. Chest radiographs may also be used to diagnose a pneumothorax or hemothorax; however, the sensitivity is limited and CT is the diagnostic modality of choice to evaluate severely injured patients. (orig.) [de

  12. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  13. Subnational mobility and consumption-based environmental accounting of US corn in animal protein and ethanol supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy M.; Kim, Taegon; Pelton, Rylie E. O.; Suh, Kyo; Schmitt, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Corn production, and its associated inputs, is a relatively large source of greenhouse gas emissions and uses significant amounts of water and land, thus contributing to climate change, fossil fuel depletion, local air pollutants, and local water scarcity. As large consumers of this corn, corporations in the ethanol and animal protein industries are increasingly assessing and reporting sustainability impacts across their supply chains to identify, prioritize, and communicate sustainability risks and opportunities material to their operations. In doing so, many have discovered that the direct impacts of their owned operations are dwarfed by those upstream in the supply chain, requiring transparency and knowledge about environmental impacts along the supply chains. Life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been used to identify hotspots of environmental impacts at national levels, yet these provide little subnational information necessary for guiding firms’ specific supply networks. In this paper, our Food System Supply-Chain Sustainability (FoodS3) model connects spatial, firm-specific demand of corn purchasers with upstream corn production in the United States through a cost minimization transport model. This provides a means to link county-level corn production in the United States to firm-specific demand locations associated with downstream processing facilities. Our model substantially improves current LCA assessment efforts that are confined to broad national or state level impacts. In drilling down to subnational levels of environmental impacts that occur over heterogeneous areas and aggregating these landscape impacts by specific supply networks, targeted opportunities for improvements to the sustainability performance of supply chains are identified. PMID:28874548

  14. Chronic effects of maternal ethanol and low-protein intake on growth and blood measurements of beagle pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switzer, B.R.; Anderson, J.J.B.; Pick, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Pups used in this study were born to nulliparous, purebred female beagles fed either 17% control (CP) or 8.5% low protein (LP) diets and were given twice daily either 1.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or an equivalent isocaloric dose of sucrose (S) throughout pregnancy. After parturition, all mothers were fed the CP diet and no E or S. On day 1 and each week up to 4 weeks, the weight (WT), crown-rump length (LT) and head circumference (HC) of the pups were measured. These measurements were taken for a post-weaning subset at 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected each week. At birth, mean WT, LT and HC were significantly lower in pups from E-mothers as compared to S-mothers with either CP or LP diets. The birth WT, LT and HC were significantly lower when mothers were fed LP as compared to the CP diet with either S or E. The prenatal effects of E and LP were significantly associated with lower pup WT, HT and hematocrit values, but not HC up to 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, the growth measurements and hematocrits were significantly lower with prenatal E exposure but not with LP. Pup red cell levels of folate were significantly lower with prenatal E during the first 4 weeks, whereas the effect of prenatal LP but not E was significant at 10 weeks. These data suggest that growth parameters and hematocrit values of pups prenatally exposed to E do not catch up to those of pups from S-mothers fed either diet

  15. Subnational mobility and consumption-based environmental accounting of US corn in animal protein and ethanol supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy M; Goodkind, Andrew L; Kim, Taegon; Pelton, Rylie E O; Suh, Kyo; Schmitt, Jennifer

    2017-09-19

    Corn production, and its associated inputs, is a relatively large source of greenhouse gas emissions and uses significant amounts of water and land, thus contributing to climate change, fossil fuel depletion, local air pollutants, and local water scarcity. As large consumers of this corn, corporations in the ethanol and animal protein industries are increasingly assessing and reporting sustainability impacts across their supply chains to identify, prioritize, and communicate sustainability risks and opportunities material to their operations. In doing so, many have discovered that the direct impacts of their owned operations are dwarfed by those upstream in the supply chain, requiring transparency and knowledge about environmental impacts along the supply chains. Life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been used to identify hotspots of environmental impacts at national levels, yet these provide little subnational information necessary for guiding firms' specific supply networks. In this paper, our Food System Supply-Chain Sustainability (FoodS 3 ) model connects spatial, firm-specific demand of corn purchasers with upstream corn production in the United States through a cost minimization transport model. This provides a means to link county-level corn production in the United States to firm-specific demand locations associated with downstream processing facilities. Our model substantially improves current LCA assessment efforts that are confined to broad national or state level impacts. In drilling down to subnational levels of environmental impacts that occur over heterogeneous areas and aggregating these landscape impacts by specific supply networks, targeted opportunities for improvements to the sustainability performance of supply chains are identified.

  16. Aqueous ethanol extraction of dietary soy protein isolate improves 59Fe absorption by the rat from a casein-based test meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    A commercial soy protein isolate (SPI) was further processed in an attempt to understand how a diet based on SPI can cause decreased iron retention by the rat from a separately administered casein-based test meal. Groups of eight rats were fed either a casein-based diet or a diet based on SPI. The acid-precipitated SPI was incorporated into diets as such, after neutralization, after 60% (v/v) ethanol extraction and neutralization, or after 60% ethanol exposure and neutralization. All dietary SPI was heat-treated by exposure to steam at 108 degrees C for 30 min. Rats were fed their respective diets, each containing 25 mg Fe/kg, for 13 d, and then all rats were fed a 59 Fe-radiolabeled 2.5-g casein test meal containing 64 micrograms of iron. Ingested radioactivity was determined following the meal, and retained radioactivity over the subsequent 10-d period. Absorption was not distinguishable for groups fed the casein-based (78.3 ± 3.6%) and the ethanol-extracted, SPI-based diet (80.2 ± 5.4%). Absorption was lower (P less than 0.01) for groups fed each of the other SPI-based diets: SPI as such (68.3 ± 8.9%), neutralized SPI (69.8 ± 5.0%) and ethanol-exposed SPI (67.6 ± 4.8%). An ethanol-extractable component of SPI may be responsible for decreased iron absorption by animals fed SPI prior to a radiolabeled test meal

  17. Blunt Head Trauma and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  18. PENGARUH EKSTRAK ETHANOL PROPOLIS TERHADAP EKSPRESI PROTEIN Bcl2, CYCLIN D1 DAN INDUKSI APOPTOSIS PADA KULTUR SEL KANKER KOLON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Yuniarto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kanker kolorektal menempati urutan kejadian kanker ketiga di seluruh dunia, dengan lebih dari 1 juta angka kejadian tiap tahunnya. Berbagai strategi terapi pengobatan kanker kolorektal tetapi relatif belum optimal. Oleh karena itu, terdapat kebutuhan mengembangkan terapi alternatif sebagai pendamping. Propolis menunjukkan aktivitas proapoptosis pada berbagai jenis sel kanker. Mengetahui pengaruh pemberian propolis yang berasal dari Kerjo, Karanganyar, Indonesia terhadap induksi proses apoptosis dan aktivitas antiproliferasi, terutama terkait dengan penekanan ekspresi protein Bcl 2 dan cyclin D1 pada kultur sel WiDr (cell line kanker kolon. Penelitian eksperimental laboratorik menggunakan post test with control group design. Penelitian dilakukan pada kultur sel WiDr (sel kanker kolon dengan pemberian propolis. Pengamatan ekspresi protein Cyclin D1 dan Bcl2 dilakukan dengan metode imunositokimia, sedangkan pengamatan induksi apoptosis dilakukan dengan flowcytometry. Analisis statistik dengan uji Kruskal-Wallis, signifikan bila p <0,05. Rata-rata ekspresi Bcl2 pada kelima kelompok yaitu kontrol 83.40 ± 0.69 μg/ml, EEP 1/2 IC50 60.63 ± 0.40, EEP IC50 33.77 ± 1.08 μg/ml, EEP 2 IC50 24.28 ± 1.91 μg/ml, 5fluorouracil 12.74 ± 2.19 μg/ml. Terdapat perbedaan bermakna ekspresi Bcl2 antara kelompok uji dibandingkan kelompok kontrol (p < 0,001. Rata-rata ekspresi cyclin D1 pada kelima kelompok yaitu kontrol 83.77 ± 0.39 μg/ml, EEP 1/2 IC50 61.44 ± 0.41, EEP IC50 36.67 ± 1.18 μg/ml, EEP 2 IC50 24.50 ± 0.38 μg/ml, 5fluorouracil 13.42 ± 1.04μg/ml. Terdapat perbedaan bermakna ekspresi cyclin D1 antara kelompok uji dibandingkan kelompok kontrol (p < 0,001. Pemberian ekstrak etanol propolis mempunyai pengaruh menekan ekspresi Bcl2, cyclin D1, dan menginduksi apoptosis pada kultur sel kanker kolon (WiDr Cell Line.   Kata Kunci: Ekstrak Ethanol Propolis, Bcl2, cyclin D1, Sel WiDr

  19. Differential Effects of Ethanol on c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase, 14-3-3 Proteins, and Bax in Postnatal Day 4 and Postnatal Day 7 Rat Cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Marieta Barrow; Paiva, Michael; Kubovic, Stacey; Kotler, Alexandra; Rogozinski, Jonathan; Swanson, Eric; Madorsky, Vladimir; Posados, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    These studies investigated ethanol effects on upstream cellular elements and interactions which contribute to Bax-related apoptosis in neonatal rat cerebellum at ages of peak ethanol sensitivity (postnatal day 4 [P4]), compared to later ages of relative resistance (P7). Analyses were made of basal levels of the pro-apoptotic c-jun N-termimal kinase (JNK), Bax, and the 14-3-3 anchoring proteins, as well as the responsiveness of these substances to ethanol at P4 versus P7. Dimerization of Bax with 14-3-3 was also investigated at the two ages following ethanol treatment, a process which sequesters Bax in the cytosol, thus inhibiting its mitochondrial translocation and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Cultured cerebellar granule cells were used to examine the protective potential of JNK inhibition on ethanol-mediated cell death. Basal levels of JNK were significantly higher at P4 than P7, but no differences in the other proteins were found. Activated JNK, and cytosolic and mitochondrially-translocated Bax were increased in P4 but not P7 animals following ethanol exposure, while protective 14-3-3 proteins were increased only at P7. Ethanol treatment resulted in decreases in Bax:14-3-3 heterodimers at P4, but not at P7. Inhibition of JNK activity in vitro provided partial protection against ethanol neurotoxicity. Thus, differential temporal vulnerability to ethanol in this CNS region correlates with differences in both levels of apoptosis-related substances (e.g., JNK), and differential cellular responsiveness, favoring apoptosis at the most sensitive age and survival at the resistant age. The upstream elements contributing to this vulnerability can be targets for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:22169498

  20. Improving the corn-ethanol industry: studying protein separation techniques to obtain higher value added product options for distillers grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Bals, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Dale, B.

    2008-01-01

    Currently in America the biofuel ethanol is primarily being produced by the dry grind technique to obtain the starch contained in the corn grains and subsequently subjected to fermentation. This so-called 1st generation technology has two setbacks; first the lingering debate whether its life cycle

  1. Imaging of blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicky, S.; Wintermark, M.; Schnyder, P.; Capasso, P.; Denys, A.

    2000-01-01

    In western European countries most blunt chest traumas are associated with motor vehicle and sport-related accidents. In Switzerland, 39 of 10,000 inhabitants were involved and severely injured in road accidents in 1998. Fifty two percent of them suffered from blunt chest trauma. According to the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, traumas represented in men the fourth major cause of death (4 %) after cardiovascular disease (38 %), cancer (28 %), and respiratory disease (7 %) in 1998. The outcome of chest trauma patients is determined mainly by the severity of the lesions, the prompt appropriate treatment delivered on the scene of the accident, the time needed to transport the patient to a trauma center, and the immediate recognition of the lesions by a trained emergency team. Other determining factors include age as well as coexisting cardiac, pulmonary, and renal diseases. Our purpose was to review the wide spectrum of pathologies related to blunt chest trauma involving the chest wall, pleura, lungs, trachea and bronchi, aorta, aortic arch vessels, and diaphragm. A particular focus on the diagnostic impact of CT is demonstrated. (orig.)

  2. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The genetic manipulation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aim of converting polysaccharide-rich agricultural crops and industrial waste to single-cell protein and fuel ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Pretorius

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The world’s problem with overpopulation and environmental pollution has created an urgent demand for alternative protein and energy sources. One way of addressing these burning issues is to produce single-cell protein (for food and animal feed supplements and fuel ethanol from polysaccharide-rich agricultural crops and industrial waste by using baker’s yeast.

  4. Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Elaheh; Shirpoor, Alireza; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Association between chronic alcohol intake and cardiac abnormality is well known; however, the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. This study investigated the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) gene expression and monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels and histological changes in rat heart. It was also planned to find out whether Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rat heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated-ethanol (GETE) groups. After 6 weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in CaMKIIδtotal and isoforms δ2 and δ3 of CaMKIIδ gene expression as well as a significant decrease in the MAO levels in the ethanol group compared to that in the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed histological changes, such as fibrosis, heart muscle cells proliferation, myocyte hypertrophy, vacuolization, and focal lymphocytic infiltration. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated CaMKIIδtotal. In addition, compared to the ethanol group, isoforms gene expression changed and increased the reduced MAO levels and mitigated heart structural changes. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may, in part, be associated with Ca 2+ homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of CaMKIIδ gene and the decrease of MAO levels and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  5. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc....

  6. Screening of yeasts associated with food from the Sudan and their possible application for single cell protein and ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, S H

    1986-06-18

    In a screening program carried out in the Sudan, 200 pure yeast cultures were isolated and analysed. In a series of fermentations the kinetic parameters and the chemical composition of C.Kefyr were tested. The kinetic parameters identified for C. Kefyr in a bioreactor with 10 l working volume were used to simulate a fed batch cultivation in a 30 m/sup 3/ bioreactor with different values for the volumetric mass transfer coefficient of oxygen. Heat production and oxygen requirement were under the critical values calculated throughout the simulation. The ability of C. Kefyr to produce and tolerate ethanol at different fermentation temperatures was tested in shake flasks experiments. These experiments showed that C. Kefyr can produce and tolerate up to 10% V/V ethanol at the fermentation temperature of 40/sup 0/C. (MBC)

  7. Ethanol production from xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing protein-engineered NADH-preferring xylose reductase from Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiya; Abu Saleh, Ahmed; Pack, Seung Pil; Annaluru, Narayana; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke

    2007-09-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain transformed with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Pichia stipitis (PsXR and PsXDH, respectively) has the ability to convert xylose to ethanol together with the unfavourable excretion of xylitol, which may be due to intercellular redox imbalance caused by the different coenzyme specificity between NADPH-preferring XR and NAD(+)-dependent XDH. In this study, we focused on the effect(s) of mutated NADH-preferring PsXR in fermentation. The R276H and K270R/N272D mutants were improved 52- and 146-fold, respectively, in the ratio of NADH/NADPH in catalytic efficiency [(k(cat)/K(m) with NADH)/(k(cat)/K(m) with NADPH)] compared with the wild-type (WT), which was due to decrease of k(cat) with NADPH in the R276H mutant and increase of K(m) with NADPH in the K270R/N272D mutant. Furthermore, R276H mutation led to significant thermostabilization in PsXR. The most positive effect on xylose fermentation to ethanol was found by using the Y-R276H strain, expressing PsXR R276H mutant and PsXDH WT: 20 % increase of ethanol production and 52 % decrease of xylitol excretion, compared with the Y-WT strain expressing PsXR WT and PsXDH WT. Measurement of intracellular coenzyme concentrations suggested that maintenance of the of NADPH/NADP(+) and NADH/NAD(+) ratios is important for efficient ethanol fermentation from xylose by recombinant S. cerevisiae.

  8. (PCR) for direct cloning of blunt-end DNA fragments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... Key words: Blunt-end cloning, phosphorylated DNA fragment, dephosphorylated blunt-end vector. INTRODUCTION ... With this method, a lot of steps are saved, which includes restriction .... pBSK-blunt (data not shown).

  9. Hernia Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aghaie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic abdominal wall hernia is a rare type of hernia, which follows blunt trauma to the abdomen, where disruption of the musculature and fascia occurs with the overlying skin remaining intact. Diagnosis of this problem is very difficult and delayed. Traumatic hernia is often diagnosed during laparatomy or laparascopy, but CT scan also has a role in distinguishing this pathology. Delay in diagnosis is very dangerous and can result in gangrene and necrosis of the organs in the hernia. The case report of a 35 years old man with liftruck blunt trauma is reported. His vital signs were stable. On physical examination, tenderness of RUQ was seen. He underwent Dpl for suspected hemoprotein. Dpl was followed up by laparatomy. Laparatomy revealed that the transverse and ascending colon partially herniated in the abdominal wall defect. The colon was reduced in the abdomen and repair of abdominal hernia was done. The patient was discharged after 5 day. The etiology, pathogenesis and management are discussed.

  10. Blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Deborah; Lee, Lois K

    2012-06-01

    This review will examine the current evidence regarding pediatric blunt abdominal trauma and the physical exam findings, laboratory values, and radiographic imaging associated with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries (IAI), as well as review the current literature on pediatric hollow viscus injuries and emergency department disposition after diagnosis. The importance of the seat belt sign on physical examination and screening laboratory data remains controversial, although screening hepatic enzymes are recommended in the evaluation of nonaccidental trauma to identify occult abdominal organ injuries. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has modest sensitivity for hemoperitoneum and IAI in the pediatric trauma patient. Patients with concern for undiagnosed IAI, including bowel injury, may be considered for hospital admission and serial abdominal exams without an increased risk of complications, if an exploratory laparotomy is not performed emergently. Although the FAST exam is not recommended as the sole screening tool to rule out IAI in hemodynamically stable trauma patients, it may be used in conjunction with the physical exam and laboratory findings to identify children at risk for IAI. Children with a normal physical exam and normal abdominal CT may not require routine hospitalization after blunt abdominal trauma.

  11. Management of adult blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Rosemary A; McNutt, Michelle K

    2010-12-01

    To review the nonoperative and operative management of blunt hepatic injury in the adult trauma population. Although liver injury scale does not predict need for surgical intervention, a high-grade complex liver injury should alert the physician to a patient at increased risk of hepatic complications following nonoperative management. Blunt hepatic injury remains a frequent intraabdominal injury in the adult trauma population. The management of blunt hepatic injury has undergone a major paradigm shift from mandatory operative exploration to nonoperative management. Hemodynamic instability with a positive focused abdominal sonography for trauma and peritonitis are indications for emergent operative intervention. Although surgical intervention for blunt hepatic trauma is not as common as in years past, it is imperative that the current trauma surgeon be familiar with the surgical skill set to manage complex hepatic injuries. This study represents a review of both nonoperative and operative management of blunt hepatic injury.

  12. Phosphorylation of protein kinase C sites Ser42/44 decreases Ca2+-sensitivity and blunts enhanced length-dependent activation in response to protein kinase A in human cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, P.J.M.; Sequeira Oliveira, V.; Witjas-Paalberends, E.R.; Foster, D.B.; dos Remedios, C.G.; Murphy, A.M.; Stienen, G.J.M.; van der Velden, J.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of troponin I (cTnI) at Ser42/44 is increased in heart failure. While studies in rodents demonstrated that PKC-mediated Ser42/44 phosphorylation decreases maximal force and ATPase activity, PKC incubation of human cardiomyocytes did not affect maximal

  13. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  14. Effects of Ethanol on the Expression Level of Various BDNF mRNA Isoforms and Their Encoded Protein in the Hippocampus of Adult and Embryonic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Shojaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the effects of oral ethanol (Eth alone or combined with the phytoestrogen resveratrol (Rsv on the expression of various brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF transcripts and the encoded protein pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of pregnant and embryonic rats. A low (0.25 g/kg body weight (BW/day dose of Eth produced an increase in the expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and a decrease in that of the exon IX in embryos, but failed to affect BDNF transcript and pro-BDNF protein expression in adults. However, co-administration of Eth 0.25 g/kg·BW/day and Rsv led to increased expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and to a small but significant increase in the level of pro-BDNF protein in maternal rats. A high (2.5 g/kg·BW/day dose of Eth increased the expression of BDNF exons III and IV in embryos, but it decreased the expression of exon IX containing BDNF mRNAs in the maternal rats. While the high dose of Eth alone reduced the level of pro-BDNF in adults, it failed to change the levels of pro-BDNF in embryos. Eth differentially affects the expression pattern of BDNF transcripts and levels of pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of both adult and embryonic rats.

  15. Blunt carotid and vertebral artery injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Zachary M; Starnes, Benjamin W

    2008-11-01

    The recognition and treatment of blunt cerebrovascular injuries has dramatically evolved over the past two decades. As imaging technology has improved both with respect to the image quality and acquisition times, its use has become a fundamental diagnostic tool in blunt trauma evaluation. The single greatest radiological advance in the past quarter century has been the refinement and increasing use of computed tomographic imaging for the diagnosis of surgical disease. Paralleling advances in noninvasive imaging, a heightened awareness of blunt cerebrovascular injuries has emerged, and the first screening protocols were developed at high volume trauma centres. Through aggressive screening, these injuries have increasingly been recognised before devastating neurological ischaemia and adverse neurocognitive outcomes. The mainstay of treatment for these injuries is antithrombotic therapy. However, all blunt cerebrovascular injuries require short and long-term follow-up. While the majority of injuries will resolve with medical management, a proportion will require further intervention in order to reduce the risk of subsequent stroke.

  16. Acute appendicitis after blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Joudi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Appendecitis is one of the most frequent surgeries. Inflammation of appendix may be due to variable causes such as fecalit, hypertrophy of Peyer’s plaques, seeds of fruits and parasites. In this study we presented an uncommon type of appendicitis which occurred after abdominal blunt trauma. In this article three children present who involved acute appendicitis after blunt abdominal trauma. These patients were 2 boys (5 and 6-year-old and one girl (8-year-old who after blunt abdominal trauma admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain and symptoms of acute abdomen and appendectomy had been done for them.Trauma can induce intramural hematoma at appendix process and may cause appendicitis. Therefore, physicians should be aware of appendicitis after blunt abdominal trauma

  17. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following blunt abdominal trauma and its clinical picture is often ... Here we report a case of complete duodenal ... Key words: Duodenal injury, peritonitis, transection. Department of ... When our patient was brought to the emergency room, he.

  18. Blunt cardiac rupture in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Talving

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac rupture is typically a fatal injury with overall mortality exceeding 90%. Most of the patients never reach the hospital alive. In pediatric patients, only 0.03% of cases following blunt trauma admissions have a cardiac injury. This report presents a rare survivor of 16-months old toddler injured in a domestic accident suffering a right atrial rupture repaired through a median sternotomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in the literature.

  19. Homeopathic potencies of Arnica montana L. change gene expression in a Tamm-Horsfall protein-1 cell line in vitro model: the role of ethanol as a possible confounder and statistical bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Bjørklund, Geir

    2017-07-01

    Marzotto et al. showed that homeopathic preparations of Arnica montana L. acted directly on gene expression of Tamm-Horsfall protein-1 (THP-1) monocyte/macrophage cell lines activated with phorbol12-myristate13-acetate and interleukin-4 (IL-4). A. montana homeopathic dilutions are used in complementary and alternative medicine to treat inflammation disorders and post-traumatic events as well as for wound repair. The French Pharmacopoeia of these remedies uses 0.3% ethanol in each centesimal dilution. In this paper, we discuss how ethanol-containing A. montana homeopathic centesimal dilutions can change gene expression in IL-4-treated monocyte/macrophage THP-1. We assessed the role of ethanol in the Arnica homeopathic dilutions containing this alcohol by investigating its action on gene expression of THP-1 cell. Evidence would strongly suggest that the presence of ethanol in these remedies might play a fundamental role in the dilutions ability to affect gene expression, particularly for doses from 5c to 15c. Where, rather than playing a major role in the mesoscopic structure of water, the ethanol might have a chemical-physical role in the induction of THP-1 gene expression, apoptosis, and deoxyribonucleic acid function. This evidence generates a debate about the suggestion that the use of a binary-mixed solvent in homeopathic chemistry, used by Hahnemann since 1810, may be fundamental to explain the activity of homeopathy on cell models.

  20. Ethanol extracts of black pepper or turmeric down-regulated SIRT1 protein expression in Daudi culture cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yuri; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Yoshida, Hitomi; Okumura, Naoko; Matsuda, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    SIRT1 is a mammalian candidate molecule involved in longevity and diverse metabolic processes. The present study aimed to determine the effects of certain herbs and spices on SIRT1 expression. Human cell lines Daudi, Jurkat, U937 and K562 were cultured in RPMI-1640. Herb and spice powders were prepared and the supernatants were collected. RT-PCR was used to quantify the expression level of the gene. Protein samples were then analyzed by Western blotting. Western blotting revealed the down-regulation of SIRT1 protein expression in Daudi cells treated with extracts of black pepper or turmeric. On the other hand, the effect on the SIRT1 gene expression examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was unaltered. In conclusion, component(s) of certain herbs and spices may induce the down-regulation of SIRT1 protein.

  1. Ethanol dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Uyazán; Iván Dario Gil; J L Aguilar; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis Alfonso Caicedo

    2004-01-01

    This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the op...

  2. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  3. Data on the effects of losartan on protein expression, vascular reactivity and antioxidant capacity in the aorta of ethanol-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. Ceron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the effects of losartan, a selective AT1 receptor antagonist on the alterations induced by treatment with ethanol in the rat aorta. The data shown here are related to the article entitled “Angiotensin type 1 receptor mediates chronic ethanol consumption-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress” (P. Passaglia, C.S. Ceron, A.S. Mecawi, J. Antunes-Rodrigues, E.B. Coelho, C.R. Tirapelli, 2015 [1]. Here we include new data on the protective effect of losartan against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats treated for 2 weeks with ethanol (20%, vol./vol. exhibited increased aortic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and losartan (10 mg/kg/day; p.o. gavage prevented this response. Ethanol did not alter the expression of eNOS in the rat aorta. Losartan prevented ethanol-induced increase in the aortic expression of nNOS. Neither ethanol nor losartan affected superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase (CAT activities in the rat aorta. Treatment with ethanol increased the contraction induced by phenylephrine in both endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas and these responses were prevented by losartan. Conversely, neither ethanol nor losartan affected the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine.

  4. Differential contribution of complement receptor C5aR in myeloid and non-myeloid cells in chronic ethanol-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Rebecca L; McMullen, Megan R; Das, Dola; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Strainic, Michael G; Medof, M Edward; Nagy, Laura E

    2016-07-01

    Complement is implicated in the development of alcoholic liver disease. C3 and C5 contribute to ethanol-induced liver injury; however, the role of C5a receptor (C5aR) on myeloid and non-myeloid cells to progression of injury is not known. C57BL/6 (WT), global C5aR-/-, myeloid-specific C5aR-/-, and non-myeloid-specific C5aR-/- mice were fed a Lieber-DeCarli diet (32%kcal EtOH) for 25 days. Cultured hepatocytes were challenged with ethanol, TNFα, and C5a. Chronic ethanol feeding increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in livers of WT mice; this response was completely blunted in C5aR-/- mice. However, C5aR-/- mice were not protected from other measures of hepatocellular damage, including ethanol-induced increases in hepatic triglycerides, plasma alanine aminotransferase and hepatocyte apoptosis. CYP2E1 and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts were induced in WT and C5aR-/- mice. Myeloid-specific C5aR-/- mice were protected from ethanol-induced increases in hepatic TNFα, whereas non-myeloid-specific C5aR-/- displayed increased hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammation after chronic ethanol feeding. In cultured hepatocytes, cytotoxicity induced by challenge with ethanol and TNFα was completely eliminated by treatment with C5a in cells from WT, but not C5aR-/- mice. Further, treatment with C5a enhanced activation of pro-survival signal AKT in hepatocytes challenged with ethanol and TNFα. Taken together, these data reveal a differential role for C5aR during ethanol-induced liver inflammation and injury, with C5aR on myeloid cells contributing to ethanol-induced inflammatory cytokine expression, while non-myeloid C5aR protects hepatocytes from death after chronic ethanol feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of ethanol in utero on higher nervous activity and protein and lipid metabolism in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabbudovskii, A.L.; Zhulin, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The authors study parameters of protein phosphorylation and glycoprotein and phospholipid synthesis in the neocortex and hippocampus of adult rats and compare the findings with the results of an investigation of formation and preservation of defensive conditioned reflexes. The pattern of changes in these metabolic parameters are studied in response to stress. For the biochemical tests, the animals were lightly anesthetized with ether and injected with a mixture of (P 32)-orthophosphate and (H 3)-fucose. Phospholipids were identified with molybdate reagent and radioactivity of the protein digest and lipids was measured in Bray's scintillator. The study shows that the use of stress brought metabolic differences between the brain of the experimental and control rats more clearly to light

  6. Cardiogenic shock following blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-González Fayna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac contusion, usually caused by blunt chest trauma, has been recognized with increased frequency over the past decades. Traffic accidents are the most frequent cause of cardiac contusions resulting from a direct blow to the chest. Other causes of blunt cardiac injury are numerous and include violent fall impacts, interpersonal aggression, explosions, and various types of high-risk sports. Myocardial contusion is difficult to diagnose; clinical presentation varies greatly, ranging from lack of symptoms to cardiogenic shock and arrhythmia. Although death is rare, cardiac contusion can be fatal. We present a case of cardiac contusion due to blunt chest trauma secondary to a fall impact, which manifested as cardiogenic shock.

  7. Ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolleurp, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end-product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase which removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation, and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique. The model predicts an ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L-h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a dilution rate of 5.0 h . This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. In light of this, a systematic approach to extractive fermentation has been undertaken involving the screening of more than 1,000 solvents for their extractive properties. UNIFAC and UNIQUAC estimates of distribution coefficients and selectivities were compiled and ranked in a database, together with other important physical properties, such as density, surface tension and viscosity. Preliminary shake-flask and chemostat biocompatibility studies on the most promising solvents have been undertaken. The previous predictive, data base and experimental results are discussed.

  8. Innovative inexpensive ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackek, S.

    1991-01-01

    New Energy Company of Indiana which produces 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, avoids the headaches often associated with organic by-products by creating an efficient and profitable sideline business. This paper reports that stretching across 55 acres in South Bend, Ind., New Energy's plant is the largest in the U.S. built specifically for fuel alcohol. The $186-million complex is a dramatic advance in the art of producing ethanol and its co-products. As the demand grows in the coming years for fuel alcohol-proven as an octane booster and a clean-burning alternative fuel. New Energy looks forward to increase production and profits. At the company's six-year-old plant, fuel alcohol is made from 26 million bushels a year of No. 2 yellow dent corn. Left at the bottom of the first column, after the alcohol has been boiled off, is stillage that contains more than 90% of the corn's protein and fat content, and virtually all of its vitamins and minerals, along with the yeast used to make the ethanol. While technically a waste product of the fuel alcohol process, this material's quantity and organic content not only make it difficult and costly to dispose, but its nutritional quality makes it an excellent candidate to be further processed into animal feed

  9. Aerothermodynamics of blunt body entry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  10. [Surgical Repair for Blunt Cardiac Rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiki, Noriyoshi; Yachi, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Tomohiko

    2017-07-01

    Blunt cardiac injury is a life-threatening condition. We report 3 successful cases in which we performed surgery for blunt cardiac injury. Three individuals were injured, 2 in traffic accidents and the other being caught between a crane and a steel frame. Echocardiograms and computed tomography scans revealed pooling of bloody pericardial fluid in all 3 patients, who underwent emergency surgery. Two patients needed sutures to control persistent bleeding. Although a heart-lung machine was prepared at the start of surgery in all 3 cases, we did not need to use it for any patient. Thus, prior to performing such surgery, it is necessary to ascertain its need.

  11. Isolated jejunal perforation following blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Pergel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated perforation of the jejunum, following blunt abdominaltrauma, is extremely rare. These injuries aredifficult to diagnose because initial clinical signs are frequentlynonspecific and a delay in treatment increasesmortality and morbidity of the patients. Conventional radiogramsare often inadequate for diagnosing this subsetof trauma. For an accurate and timely diagnosis, thepossibility of bowel perforation and the need for repeatedexaminations should be kept in mind. Herein, we presenta 28-year-old man with isolated jejunal perforation followingblunt abdominal trauma.Key words: Blunt abdominal trauma, isolated jejunal perforation,early diagnosis

  12. Roentgenologic evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Zoon; Ra, Woo Youn; Woo, Won Hyung [Hankang Sacred heart Hospital, Chung Ang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    This study comprises 25 cases of blunt abdominal trauma proved by surgery. It is concluded that visceral damage by blunt abdominal trauma may be suspected, but can not be satisfactorily diagnosed upon a single plane abdominal roentgenologic examination with clinical support. Contrary to some reports in the literature, rupture of the hallow, viscus is more susceptible than solid organ and ileum is more than jejunum. It is a useful roentgenologic sign denoting distension and small cresent air shadow in the duodenal sweep of the damaged pancreas.

  13. Cellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.......5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw) and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could...... be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher...

  14. 64-MDCT angiography of blunt vascular injuries of the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Falgun H; Munera, Felipe; Rivas, Luis A; Henry, Robert P; Quencer, Robert M

    2011-03-01

    CT angiography (CTA) using 64-MDCT enables timely evaluation of injuries associated with blunt neck trauma. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with the most frequent CTA signs of blunt vascular injury. CTA is a valuable tool to detect blunt vascular injuries, especially using its multiplanar and 3D reconstruction capabilities.

  15. Tetanus after blunt lawn mower trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Normand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient presented with tetanus ten days after blunt trauma with a lawn mower. Our case describes the diagnosis and treatment of this patient with an infectious disease commonly seen in the developing world but rarely seen in the developed world.

  16. Tetanus after blunt lawn mower trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Camilla; Fostervold, Aasmund; Haarr, Elin; Skontorp, Marie; Berg, ?se

    2015-01-01

    A patient presented with tetanus ten days after blunt trauma with a lawn mower. Our case describes the diagnosis and treatment of this patient with an infectious disease commonly seen in the developing world but rarely seen in the developed world.

  17. Tetanus after blunt lawn mower trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Camilla; Fostervold, Aasmund; Haarr, Elin; Skontorp, Marie; Berg, Åse

    2015-01-01

    A patient presented with tetanus ten days after blunt trauma with a lawn mower. Our case describes the diagnosis and treatment of this patient with an infectious disease commonly seen in the developing world but rarely seen in the developed world.

  18. Ventricular septal necrosis after blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ahmadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD after blunt chest trauma is a very rare traumatic affection.We report here a case of blunt chest injury-related VSD and pseudoaneurysm.A 30-year old male truck driver was referred from a trauma center to our hospital seven days after a blunt chest trauma and rib fracture. The patient had severe pulmonary edemaand echocardiography showed large VSD. Several mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of this affection including an acute compression of the heart muscle between the sternum and the spine, leading to excessive changes in the intrathoracic and most likely theintracardiac pressure after blunt chest injury. Traumatical patients with the same symptoms may be at risk of sudden death. Therefore, a high grade of suspicion is mandatory even without solid evidence of myocardial damage on the initial evaluation. In continue somehidden angles of this case was discussed. Given the prognostic implications of traumatic VSD with associated pseudoaneurysm, its detection has critical value for preventing its clinicalsequelae.

  19. OUR EXPERIENCE WITH BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankareddi Vijaya Lakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blunt abdominal trauma is an emergency and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to study incidence, demographic profile, epidemiological factors, mechanism of trauma, treatment modalities, associated injuries, postoperative complications and morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of 72 patients of blunt abdominal trauma who were admitted in government general hospital between May 2013 to April 2015 in Department of General Surgery, Government General Hospital, Guntur, with in a span of 24 months were studied. Demographic data, mechanism of trauma, management and outcome were studied. RESULTS Most of the patients in our study were in the age group of 21-30 years. Spleen was the commonest organ involved and most common procedure performed was splenectomy. Most common extra-abdominal injury was rib fractures. Wound infection was the commonest complication. CONCLUSION Initial resuscitative measures, thorough clinical examination and correct diagnosis forms the vital part of the management. FAST is more useful in blunt abdominal trauma patients who are unstable. X-ray revealed 100% accuracy in hollow viscous perforation in blunt abdominal trauma patients. CT abdomen is more useful in stable patients. Definitive indication for laparotomy was haemodynamic instability and peritonitis. Associated injuries influenced morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can save many lives.

  20. Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-26

    May 26, 2015 ... Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Abstract. Isolated traumatic gallbladder rupture subsequent to blunt abdominal injury is rare. Most literatures on the subjects consist of case reports. We reported a rare case of isolated gallbladder rupture and discussed the possible predisposing factors to ...

  1. Anterior capsular rupture following blunt ocular injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremida, Anas; Kassem, Iris; Traish, Aisha

    2011-01-01

    Summary A 10-year-old boy suffered a large, oblique anterior capsular tear following blunt injury to his right eye. The boy was followed daily for hyphema resolution and progressive traumatic cataract formation. After the hyphema had resolved, the lens was removed using an anterior approach and an intraocular lens was placed with excellent visual outcome. PMID:23362402

  2. An evidence based blunt trauma protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, R. van; Kool, D.R.; Lubeek, S.F.K.; Dekker, H.M.; Brink, M.; Deunk, J.; Edwards, M.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently CT is rapidly implemented in the evaluation of trauma patients. In anticipation of a large international multicentre trial, this study's aim was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a new diagnostic protocol, used for the primary radiological evaluation in adult blunt

  3. A CLINICAL STUDY ON BLUNT INJURY ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kishore Babu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Abdominal trauma continues to account for a large number of trauma-related injuries and deaths. Motor vehicle accidents and urban violence, respectively, are the leading causes of blunt and penetrating trauma to this area of the body. Unnecessary deaths and complications can be minimized by improved resuscitation, evaluation and treatment. The new techniques and diagnostic tools available are important in the management of abdominal trauma. These improved methods, however, still depend on experience and clinical judgment for application and determination of the best care for the injured patient. The aim of the study is to 1. Analyse the incidence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, indications for laparotomy, therapeutic methods and morbidity & mortality rates. 2. To study nature of blunt abdominal trauma. 3. To assess patient for surgical intervention and to avoid negative laparotomy. 4. To assess morbidity rate in different organs injury. 5. To evaluate modalities of treatment, complications and prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study is a prospective study on 97 patients with Blunt injuries to the abdomen admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G. Hospital, Tirupati during October 2013-15. Inclusion Criteria Patients > 13 years, with Blunt injury to abdomen either by RTA, fall, object contact, assault giving written informed consent. Exclusion Criteria Patients <13 yrs. Blunt injuries due to blasts, patients with severe cardiothoracic and head injuries who are hemodynamically unstable. CONCLUSION Blunt Trauma to abdomen is on rise due to excessive use of motor vehicles. It poses a therapeutic and diagnostic dilemma for the attending surgeon due to wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from no early physical findings to progression to shock. So, the Trauma surgeon should rely on his physical findings in association with use of modalities like x-ray abdomen, USG abdomen and abdominal paracentesis. Hollow viscus perforations are

  4. Blunt trauma to the spleen: ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doody, O. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Lyburn, D. [Department of Radiology, Cheltenham General Hospital (United Kingdom); Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Govender, P. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Monk, P.M. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital (Canada); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)]. E-mail: william.torreggiani@amnch.ie

    2005-09-01

    The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in adults who sustain blunt abdominal trauma. Splenic trauma accounts for approximately 25% to 30% of all intra-abdominal injuries. The management of splenic injury has undergone rapid change over the last decade, with increasing emphasis on splenic salvage and non-operative management. Identifying the presence and degree of splenic injury is critical in triaging the management of patients. Imaging is integral in the identification of splenic injuries, both at the time of injury and during follow-up. Although CT remains the gold standard in blunt abdominal trauma, US continues to play an important role in assessing the traumatized spleen. This pictorial review illustrates the various ultrasonographic appearances of the traumatized spleen. Correlation with other imaging is presented and complications that occur during follow-up are described.

  5. Predictors of abdominal injuries in blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrath, Samiris; Parreira, José Gustavo; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Solda, Silvia C; Assef, José Cesar

    2012-01-01

    To identify predictors of abdominal injuries in victims of blunt trauma. retrospective analysis of trauma protocols (collected prospectively) of adult victims of blunt trauma in a period of 15 months. Variables were compared between patients with abdominal injuries (AIS>0) detected by computed tomography or/and laparotomy (group I) and others (AIS=0, group II). Student's t, Fisher and qui-square tests were used for statistical analysis, considering p3) in head (18.5% vs. 7.9%), thorax (29.2% vs. 2.4%) and extremities (40.0% vs. 13.7%). The highest odds ratios for the diagnosis of abdominal injuries were associated flail chest (21.8) and pelvic fractures (21.0). Abdominal injuries were more frequently observed in patients with hemodynamic instability, changes in Glasgow coma scale and severe lesions to the head, chest and extremities.

  6. Myocardial contusion following nonfatal blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.A.; Puri, V.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Cortez, J.

    1983-01-01

    Currently available diagnostic techniques for myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma were evaluated. We investigated 30 patients prospectively over a period of 1 year for the presence of myocardial contusion. Among the 30 patients, eight were found to have myocardial contusion on the basis of abnormal electrocardiograms, elevated creatine phosphokinase MB fraction (CPK-MB), and positive myocardial scan. Myocardial scan was positive in seven of eight patients (87.5%). CPK-MB fraction was elevated in four of eight patients (50%). Definitive electrocardiographic changes were seen in only two of eight patients (25%). It appears that myocardial scan using technetium pyrophosphate and CPK-MB fraction determinations are the most reliable aids in diagnosis of myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma

  7. Hepatic hydrothorax after blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chiung Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a successful treatment result in a rare case of hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis, who had sustained hydrothorax after blunt thoracoabdominal trauma. This was a female patient with liver cirrhosis, Child–Turcotte–Pugh class A, without ascites before injury. She sustained blunt thoracoabdominal trauma with a left clavicle fracture dislocation and right rib fractures. There was no hemopneumothorax at initial presentation. However, dyspnea and right pleural effusion developed gradually. We inserted a chest tube to relieve the patient's symptoms, and the daily drainage amount remained consistent. Hepatic hydrothorax was confirmed by the intraperitoneal injection of radioisotope 99mTc-sulfur colloid that demonstrated one-way transdiaphragmatic flow of fluid from the peritoneal cavity to pleural cavities. Finally, the hydrothorax was treated successfully by minocycline-induced pleural symphysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hepatic hydrothorax developed after thoracoabdominal trauma.

  8. ACR appropriateness criteria blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jonathan H; Cox, Christian W; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Kirsch, Jacobo; Brown, Kathleen; Dyer, Debra Sue; Ginsburg, Mark E; Heitkamp, Darel E; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Kazerooni, Ella A; Ketai, Loren H; Ravenel, James G; Saleh, Anthony G; Shah, Rakesh D; Steiner, Robert M; Suh, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    Imaging is paramount in the setting of blunt trauma and is now the standard of care at any trauma center. Although anteroposterior radiography has inherent limitations, the ability to acquire a radiograph in the trauma bay with little interruption in clinical survey, monitoring, and treatment, as well as radiography's accepted role in screening for traumatic aortic injury, supports the routine use of chest radiography. Chest CT or CT angiography is the gold-standard routine imaging modality for detecting thoracic injuries caused by blunt trauma. There is disagreement on whether routine chest CT is necessary in all patients with histories of blunt trauma. Ultimately, the frequency and timing of CT chest imaging should be site specific and should depend on the local resources of the trauma center as well as patient status. Ultrasound may be beneficial in the detection of pneumothorax, hemothorax, and pericardial hemorrhage; transesophageal echocardiography is a first-line imaging tool in the setting of suspected cardiac injury. In the blunt trauma setting, MRI and nuclear medicine likely play no role in the acute setting, although these modalities may be helpful as problem-solving tools after initial assessment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustainably produced ethanol. A premium fuel component; Nachhaltig produziertes Ethanol. Eine Premium Kraftstoffkomponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Joerg [Suedzucker AG, Obrigheim/Pfalz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Ethanol is the most used biofuel in the world. It is part of the European biofuel strategy, which is intended to preserve finite fossil resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and strengthen European agriculture. In addition to its traditional use in E5 fuel, ethanol most recently features in new fuels for petrol engines in Europe: as E10 as an expansion of the already existing concept of ethanol blends, such as in E5, or as ethanol fuel E85, a blend made up primarily of ethanol. There is already extensive international experience for both types of fuel for example in the USA or Brazil. The use of ethanol as a biofuel is linked to sustainability criteria in Europe which must be proven through a certification scheme. In addition to ethanol, the integrated production process also provides vegetable protein which is used in food as well as in animal feed and therefore provides the quality products of processed plants used for sustainable energy and in animal and human food. Ethanol has an effect on the vapour pressure, boiling behaviour and octane number of the fuel blend. Adjusting the blend stock petrol to fulfil the quality requirements of the final fuel is therefore necessary. Increasing the antiknock properties, increasing the heat of evaporation of the fuel using ethanol and the positive effects this has on the combustion efficiency of the petrol engine are particularly important. Investigations on cars or engines that were specifically designed for fuel with a higher ethanol content show significant improvements in using the energy from the fuel and the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions if fuels containing ethanol are used. The perspective based purely on an energy equivalent replacement of fossil fuels with ethanol is therefore misleading. Ethanol can also contribute to increasing the energy efficiency of petrol engines as well as being a replacement source of energy. (orig.)

  10. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  11. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  12. Transcatheter Treatment of Liver Laceration from Blunt Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Andrew Hal; Phan, Ho; Khanna, Pavan; Nolan, Timothy; Dong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Blunt hepatic trauma is a fairly common pathology seen in trauma centers. We describe a pediatric patient who suffered blunt hepatic trauma that was managed successfully with a combination of exploratory laparotomy and liver packing, followed by hepatic artery embolization by interventional radiology (IR) after he continued to have significant arterial extravasation. Also discussed are trends in overall blunt hepatic trauma management and the technique of IR management.

  13. Ethanol-Induced Changes in PKCε: From Cell to Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakri Mohamed, Rashidi M; Mokhtar, Mohd H; Yap, Ernie; Hanim, Athirah; Abdul Wahab, Norhazlina; Jaffar, Farah H F; Kumar, Jaya

    2018-01-01

    The long-term binge intake of ethanol causes neuroadaptive changes that lead to drinkers requiring higher amounts of ethanol to experience its effects. This neuroadaptation can be partly attributed to the modulation of numerous neurotransmitter receptors by the various protein kinases C (PKCs). PKCs are enzymes that control cellular activities by regulating other proteins via phosphorylation. Among the various isoforms of PKC, PKCε is the most implicated in ethanol-induced biochemical and behavioral changes. Ethanol exposure causes changes to PKCε expression and localization in various brain regions that mediate addiction-favoring plasticity. Ethanol works in conjunction with numerous upstream kinases and second messenger activators to affect cellular PKCε expression. Chauffeur proteins, such as receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs), cause the translocation of PKCε to aberrant sites and mediate ethanol-induced changes. In this article, we aim to review the following: the general structure and function of PKCε, ethanol-induced changes in PKCε expression, the regulation of ethanol-induced PKCε activities in DAG-dependent and DAG-independent environments, the mechanisms underlying PKCε-RACKε translocation in the presence of ethanol, and the existing literature on the role of PKCε in ethanol-induced neurobehavioral changes, with the goal of creating a working model upon which further research can build.

  14. Ethanol-Induced Changes in PKCε: From Cell to Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi M. Pakri Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The long-term binge intake of ethanol causes neuroadaptive changes that lead to drinkers requiring higher amounts of ethanol to experience its effects. This neuroadaptation can be partly attributed to the modulation of numerous neurotransmitter receptors by the various protein kinases C (PKCs. PKCs are enzymes that control cellular activities by regulating other proteins via phosphorylation. Among the various isoforms of PKC, PKCε is the most implicated in ethanol-induced biochemical and behavioral changes. Ethanol exposure causes changes to PKCε expression and localization in various brain regions that mediate addiction-favoring plasticity. Ethanol works in conjunction with numerous upstream kinases and second messenger activators to affect cellular PKCε expression. Chauffeur proteins, such as receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs, cause the translocation of PKCε to aberrant sites and mediate ethanol-induced changes. In this article, we aim to review the following: the general structure and function of PKCε, ethanol-induced changes in PKCε expression, the regulation of ethanol-induced PKCε activities in DAG-dependent and DAG-independent environments, the mechanisms underlying PKCε-RACKε translocation in the presence of ethanol, and the existing literature on the role of PKCε in ethanol-induced neurobehavioral changes, with the goal of creating a working model upon which further research can build.

  15. Kuula. Kellele ei meeldiks James Blunt? / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: James Blunt "Back To Bedlam", Enrique Iglesias "Insomniac", Prince "Planet Earth", Garbage "Absolut Garbage", Justice "Cross", Interpol "Our Love To Admire", Rufus Wainwright "Release The Stars"

  16. Blunt splenic trauma: Assessment, management and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouly, Moamena; Jabbour, Gaby; El-Menyar, Ayman; Peralta, Ruben; Abdelrahman, Husham; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-02-01

    The approach for diagnosis and management of blunt splenic injury (BSI) has been considerably shifted towards non-operative management (NOM). We aimed to review the current practice for the evaluation, diagnosis and management of BSI. A traditional narrative literature review was carried out using PubMed, MEDLINE and Google scholar search engines. We used the keywords "Traumatic Splenic injury", "Blunt splenic trauma", "management" between December 1954 and November 2014. Most of the current guidelines support the NOM or minimally approaches in hemodynamically stable patients. Improvement in the diagnostic modalities guide the surgeons to decide the timely management pathway Though, there is an increasing shift from operative management (OM) to NOM of BSI; NOM of high grade injury is associated with a greater rate of failure, prolonged hospital stay, risk of delayed hemorrhage and transfusion-associated infections. Some cases with high grade BSI could be successfully treated conservatively, if clinically feasible, while some patients with lower grade injury might end-up with delayed splenic rupture. Therefore, the selection of treatment modalities for BSI should be governed by patient clinical presentation, surgeon's experience in addition to radiographic findings. About one-fourth of the blunt abdominal trauma accounted for BSI. A high index of clinical suspicion along with radiological diagnosis helps to identify and characterize splenic injuries with high accuracy and is useful for timely decision-making to choose between OM or NOM. Careful selection of NOM is associated with high success rate with a lower rate of morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Endovascular repair of blunt popliteal arterial injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Xiquan; Chen, Zhong; Zhu, Wei; Pan, Xiaolin [Dept. of nterventional Vascular, The 148th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Zibo (China); Dong, Peng; Sun, Yequan [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Weifang Medical University, Weifang (China); Qi, Deming [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Qilu Medical University, Zibo (China)

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of endovascular repair for blunt popliteal arterial injuries. A retrospective analysis of seven patients with clinical suspicion of popliteal arterial injuries that were confirmed by arteriography was performed from September 2009 to July 2014. Clinical data included demographics, mechanism of injury, type of injury, location of injury, concomitant injuries, time of endovascular procedures, time interval from trauma to blood flow restoration, instrument utilized, and follow-up. All patients were male (mean age of 35.9 ± 10.3 years). The type of lesion involved intimal injury (n = 1), partial transection (n = 2), complete transection (n = 2), arteriovenous fistula (n = 1), and pseudoaneurysm (n = 1). All patients underwent endovascular repair of blunt popliteal arterial injuries. Technical success rate was 100%. Intimal injury was treated with a bare-metal stent. Pseudoaneurysm and popliteal artery transections were treated with bare-metal stents. Arteriovenous fistula was treated with bare-metal stent and coils. No perioperative death and procedure-related complication occurred. The average follow-up was 20.9 ± 2.3 months (range 18–24 months). One patient underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis due to stent thrombosis at 18 months after the procedure. All limbs were salvaged. Stent migration, deformation, or fracture was not found during the follow-up. Endovascular repair seems to be a viable approach for patients with blunt popliteal arterial injuries, especially on an emergency basis. Endovascular repair may be effective in the short-term. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of endovascular repair.

  18. Optimization of fermentation conditions for ethanol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, F J; Izaguirre, M F; Michelena, V; Moreno, B

    1982-01-01

    Optimal conditions for ethanol production in 7% whey solutions by the yeast Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619 included an initial pH of 4.57 and 30 degrees. Complete fermentation of the available lactose took place without supplementary nutrients; additions of N and P salts, yeast extract, or corn steep liquor resulted in increased yeast production and lower ethanol yields. A possible correlation was observed between increases in yeast inocula and lactose utilization and ethanol production rates; 8.35 g ethanol/L was obtained within 22 hours by using a yeast inoculum of 13.9 g/L. No differences in fermentation rates or ethanol yields were observed when whole or deproteinized whey solutions were used. Concentrated whey permeates, obtained after removal of the valuable proteins from whey, can be effectively fermented for ethanol production.

  19. Transdiaphragmatic Intercostal Herniation following Blunt Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debkumar Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercostal herniation is very rarely and sporadically reported in the literature. Intercostal hernia can occur following blunt trauma and may be associated with rib fractures. We present a case of a patient who presented with rib fractures, diaphragmatic rupture, and intrathoracic herniation of abdominal contents with subsequent herniation of both lung and abdominal contents through an intercostal defect. The patient was successfully treated with primary surgical repair of the diaphragm and intercostal hernia. The presentation, pathophysiology, and management of this rare clinical entity are discussed.

  20. Atrioventricular Dissociation following Blunt Chest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Surani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt chest trauma (BCT is a common clinical presentation seen in emergency departments. Few cases of cardiac conduction abnormalities due to BCT have been reported in the medical literature. This dysrhythmias may present as permanent conduction defects requiring permanent pacemaker or may have temporary conduction abnormalities requiring temporary pacemaker or supportive care. We present the case of a young woman who suffered from BCT after being kicked by a horse with the development of a significant substernal hematoma. She developed temporary atrioventricular block, which was completely resolved with the decrease in the size of the substernal hematoma suffered.

  1. Fatigue crack growth from blunt notches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of methods have been proposed, by which the formation and early growth of fatigue cracks at blunt notches may be predicted. In this report, four methods are compared - i.e. analysis of the crack tip plastic deformation, the cyclic contour integral, δJ, the strain in a critical volume of material, and the notch root plastic strain range. It is shown that these approaches have fundamental elements in common, and that all are compatable with linear elastic fracture mechanics. Early results from a continuing experimental programme are reported. (orig.) [de

  2. CT of blunt hepatic trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Omura, Makoto; Nishio, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Shinsuke.

    1991-01-01

    CT findings of blunt hepatic trauma were studied in 27 children. Liver injury was classified into 3 types from mild to severe. Liver contusion was observed in 1, liver laceration in 21, and liver rupture in 5. Only 2 patients (7.4%) required surgery, and the others could be managed by conservative therapy. CT, which accurately reveals not only the severity of liver injury but also injuries of other abdominal organs and intraperitoneal bleeding, is important for the diagnosis of liver injury and determination of its treatment. (author)

  3. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  4. Splenic abscess after splenic blunt injury angioembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Dario; Galatioto, Christian; Lippolis, Piero Vincenzo; Modesti, Matteo; Gianardi, Desirée; Bertolucci, Andrea; Cucinotta, Monica; Zocco, Giuseppe; Seccia, Massimo

    2014-11-03

    Splenic Angioembolization (SAE), during Nonoperative Management (NOM) of Blunt Splenic Injury (BSI), is an effective therapy for hemodynamically stable patients with grade III, IV, and V OIS splenic injuries. We report a case of a patient with a blunt abdominal trauma due to an accidental fall, who presented splenic abscess a week after SAE and a review of the literature. A 38-year-old male arrived at Emergency after an accidental fall with contusion of the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT scan revealed the fracture of the lower splenic pole with intraparenchymal pseudoaneurysms (OIS spleen injury scale IV). Considering the hemodynamic stability, NOM was undertaken and SAE was performed. After a week, the patient developed a splenic abscess confirmed by Abdominal CT; therefore, splenectomy was performed. There was no evidence of bacterial growing in the perisplenic hematoma cultures but the histological examination showed multiple abscess and hemorrhagic areas in the spleen. Splenic abscess after SAE during NOM of BSI is a rare major complication. The most frequently cultured organisms include Clostridium perfringens, Alpha-Hemoliticus Streptococcus, gram-positive Staphylococcus, gram-negative Salmonella, Candida, and Aspergillus. This case represents our first reported splenic abscess after SAE. SAE is a very useful tool for BSI managing; splenic abscess can occur in a short time, even if it is a rare major complication, so it may be useful to monitor patients undergoing SAE, focusing not only on the hemodynamic parameters but also on the inflammatory and infectious aspects.

  5. CT of blunt chest trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, D.; Babyn, P.S.; Palder, S.; Bergmann, K.

    1993-01-01

    While trauma is still the leading cause of death in the pediatric age range, it is surprising how little the CT appearances of pediatric chest injury have been investigated in the literature. We have reviewed the CT findings of blunt chest trauma in 44 children for whom chest CT examinations were requested to investigate the extent of intrathoracic injury. We noted a propensity for pulmonary contusions to be located posteriorly or posteromedially, and for them to be anatomically nonsegmental and crescentic in shape. This is possibly attributable to the relatively compliant anterior chest wall in children. The CT appearances of other major thoracic injuries are described, including pulmonary lacerations, pneumothoraces, malpositioned chest tubes, mediastinal hematomas, aortic injury, tracheobronchial injury, hemopericardium, and spinal injuries with paraspinal fluid collections. Children demonstrating findings incidental to the actual injury yet important to the subsequent therapy are also presented. We conclude that, in the event of clinically significant blunt chest trauma, the single supine chest examination in the trauma room is insufficient to adequately identify the extent of intrathoracic injury. With the exception of concern for aortic injury for which aortography is indicated, a dynamically enhanced CT scan of the thorax should be performed as clinically significant findings may result in altered therapy. (orig.)

  6. Multiple subfailures characterize blunt aortic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Brasel, Karen J

    2007-05-01

    Blunt aortic injuries result from rapid deceleration of the thorax as may occur during automotive impacts and falls from extreme heights. Pathological findings can range from failure of specific vessel layers to immediate vessel wall rupture. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the sequence of local structural events that may lead to aortic wall disruption. Fourteen porcine aorta specimens were opened to expose the intima and longitudinally distracted until rupture. Longitudinal mechanics were quantified and subfailures were identified. Histology was used to examine internal layer subfailure. Videography demonstrated that subfailures propagated into complete vessel wall rupture. Subfailures occurred before complete vessel rupture in 93% of specimens. Intimal and medial subfailures were present at 74% of the stress and 82% of the strain to rupture. Multiple subfailures were evident in 79% of specimens. Present results supported the clinical theory that nonimmediate death as a result of blunt aortic injury is commonly caused by propagation of lesser lesions, initiating on the intimal layer, into complete vessel rupture including the adventitial layer. This finding, along with histologic evidence of subfailure pathological findings, confirms the presence of an acute window during which recognition and initiation of permissive hypotension may be lifesaving.

  7. Role of CT in blunt hepatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Joo; Yang, Dal Mo; Kang, Sook Wook; Kim, Hyung Sik; Chung, Hyo Sun; Lee, Young Seok

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of the CT scan in blunt hepatic injury and the significance of CT degree of hepatic injury in the decision making of treatment plan. We retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of 22 patients with hepatic injury. We graded hepatic injury on CT scan into five according to the severity. Clinical records, type of management and clinical outcome of the patients were also reviewed. Of the 22 patients, 17 had conservative treatment and five had surgery. The numbers of patients treated conservatively were 0, 4, 11, 2 and 0 in the grade 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, retrospectively and the numbers of surgically treated cases were 0, 0, 3, 2 and 0 respectively. There was no significant statistical difference between surgically and conservatively treated groups(p-value > 0.05). All patients with conservatively treated group were hemodynamically stable and had no complication during hospitalization. Hemoperitoneum was observed in 11 of 22 patients. In blunt hepatic injury, CT plays an important role in the demonstration of location and extent of the hepatic injury, size of hemoperitoneum and the post operative course. However, we believe that physiologic status of the patients may be more important than the extent of CT based hepatic injury for determining a mode of treatment

  8. Evidence-Based Management and Controversies in Blunt Splenic Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, D. C.; van der Vlies, C. H.; Goslings, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to describe the evidence-based management and controversies in blunt splenic trauma. A shift from operative management to non-operative management (NOM) has occurred over the past decades where NOM has now become the standard of care in haemodynamically stable patients with blunt

  9. Acquired ventricular septal defect: A rare sequel of blunt chest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital cardiac lesion encountered worldwide. Only very rarely is it acquired, and causation through blunt injury in a child is extremely rare. A previously healthy 7‑year‑old boy suffered blunt chest trauma while at play. He presented 11 days later with features of acute ...

  10. Remetabolism of transpired ethanol by Populus deltoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.C.; Kimmerer, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ethanol is present in the transpiration stream of flooded and unflooded trees in concentrations up to 0.5mM. Transpired ethanol does not evaporate but is remetabolized by foliage and upper stems in Populus deltoides. 14 C-ethanol was supplied in the transpiration stream to excised leaves and shoots; more than 98% was incorporated. Less than 1% was respired as CO 2 . Organic and amino acids were labelled initially, with eventual accumulations in water- and chloroform-soluble fractions and into protein. Much of the label was incorporated into stem tissue, with little reaching the lamina. These experiments suggest that ethanol is not lost transpirationally through the leaves, but is efficiently recycled in a manner resembling lactate recycling in mammals

  11. VALIDITY OF PARACENTESIS IN DIAGNOSING BLUNT TRAUMA ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Bin Abdul Majeed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blunt abdominal trauma is a common case that comes to an emergency department and it is the most easily missed diagnosis resulting in catastrophic consequences. Delay in diagnosing a case is due to the nonspecific character of the symptoms with which it presents. Clinical signs that could be elicited in blunt trauma abdomen are equally nonspecific. Thus, to avoid delay and save the life of the patient, a doctor has to depend on various investigations to rule out blunt trauma abdomen. The modalities which help include paracentesis, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, Focused Abdominal Sonography for Trauma (FAST and ContrastEnhanced Computed Tomography (CECT. To choose the right investigation for the right patient helps in saving precious lives. Validity of each investigation, availability, condition of the patient are the main points to look into before deciding on the right investigative modality. Paracentesis is the simplest investigation that could be done in emergency department and also at the site of accident to triage the patient. Paracentesis has low sensitivity to detect blunt trauma. FAST is a better investigation with higher validity rates than paracentesis. This study aims to validate paracentesis, which is the simplest and commonest investigation used to identify blunt abdominal trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, 106 patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed up by detailed history, clinical examination, paracentesis and FAST to identify blunt abdominal trauma and then compared with a gold standard investigation, which was assigned as CECT for haemodynamically stable patients and laparotomy for haemodynamically unstable patients. Commonest organs injured in blunt trauma and their management was noted. Patients were followed up till discharge or death. Subsequently, the data were compiled using excel sheet and evaluated using tables and charts. RESULTS Paracentesis is found to have a

  12. Ethanol: the promise and the peril : Should Manitoba expand ethanol subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopuck, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Ethanol is produced through the fermentation of wheat. Blending ethanol with gasoline results in an ethanol-blended gasoline (EBG). Manitoba has already established an ethanol industry in the province and the government of the province is studying the feasibility of expansion. Every year in Manitoba, approximately 90 million litres of EBG are consumed, and the province's ethanol facility also produces a high protein cattle feed called distillers dry grain. Controversies surround the ethanol industry over both the economics and the environmental benefits and impacts. At issue is the economic efficiency of the production of ethanol, where opponents claim that the final product contains less energy than that required to produce it. A small gain is obtained, as revealed by a recent study. It is difficult to quantify the environmental effects of the ethanol industry, whether they be negative or positive. The author indicates that no matter what happens, the gasoline market in Manitoba is so small when compared to the rest of the world that the effect will not be significant. The three methods for the production of ethanol are: (1) the most risky and expensive method is the stand alone ethanol production facility, (2) integrated facilities where other products are produced, such as wet mash or nutraceuticals, and (3) integrated facilities where dry mash can be exported as a high protein feed. The production of a wide range of products is clearly the best option to be considered during the design of an ethanol facility. Price collapse and the capitalizing of subsidies into prices are the main risks facing the expansion of ethanol production in Manitoba. The author states that direct subsidies and price supports should be avoided, since subsidies would encourage the conversion of more feed grain into ethanol. The feed shortage would worsen especially as Manitoba does not currently produce enough feed to support its growing livestock industry. The author concludes that

  13. Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eGoldowitz*

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses. Tissue was collected 7 hours after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol

  14. Sex and Adolescent Ethanol Exposure Influence Pavlovian Conditioned Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madayag, Aric C; Stringfield, Sierra J; Reissner, Kathryn J; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Robinson, Donita L

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is widespread and a growing concern due to long-term behavioral deficits, including altered Pavlovian behavior, that potentially contribute to addiction vulnerability. We tested the hypothesis that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters Pavlovian behavior in males and females as measured by a shift from goal-tracking to sign-tracking. Additionally, we investigated GLT-1, an astrocytic glutamate transporter, as a potential contributor to a sign-tracking phenotype. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to AIE (5 g/kg, intragastric) or water intermittently 2 days on and 2 days off from postnatal day (P) 25 to 54. Around P70, animals began 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA), where they learned that a cue predicted noncontingent reward delivery. Lever pressing indicated interaction with the cue, or sign-tracking, and receptacle entries indicated approach to the reward delivery location, or goal-tracking. To test for effects of AIE on nucleus accumbens (NAcc) excitatory signaling, we isolated membrane subfractions and measured protein levels of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 after animals completed behavior as a measure of glutamate homeostasis. Females exhibited elevated sign-tracking compared to males with significantly more lever presses, faster latency to first lever press, and greater probability to lever press in a trial. AIE significantly increased lever pressing while blunting goal-tracking, as indicated by fewer cue-evoked receptacle entries, slower latency to receptacle entry, and lower probability to enter the receptacle in a trial. No significant sex-by-exposure interactions were observed in sign- or goal-tracking metrics. Moreover, we found no significant effects of sex or exposure on membrane GLT-1 expression in the NAcc. Females exhibited enhanced sign-tracking compared to males, while AIE decreased goal-tracking compared to control exposure. Our findings support the

  15. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  16. Gastrointestinal Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Traumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönüllü, D; Ilgun, S; Gedik, M L; Demiray, O; Öner, Z; Er, M; Köksoy, F N

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the efficiency of RTS (Revised TraumaScore), ISS (Injury Severity Score), and factors that affect mortality and morbidity in gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma.Method and methods: Patients with gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma operated within the last six years have been studied retrospectively in terms of demographics,injury mechanism and localization, additional injuries, RTS and ISS, operative technique, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization. Of the eighteen cases, cause of injury was a traffic accident for 11 (61.1%), fall from height for 5 (27%) and physical attack for 2 (11%). Among the eighteen patients,there were 21 gastrointestinal injuries (11 intestinal, 6 colon,3 duodenum, 1 stomach). 10 (55.6%) had additional intraabdominal injuries while the number for extra-abdominal injuries were 12 (66.7%). Primary suture (10), segmentary resection (9) and pyloric exclusion (2) were the operations performed for the twenty-one gastrointestinal injuries.Although statistically not significant, 13(72.2%) patients with additional injuries compared with 5 (27.8%) patients with isolated gastrointestinal injuries, were found to have lower RTS (7.087/7.841), higher ISS (19.4/12.2), longer duration of hospitalization (11.5/8.4 day) as well as higher morbidity (7/1) and mortality (2/0) rates. Comparing the RTS (7.059/7.490) of patients who have and have not developed morbidity revealed no significant difference.However, ISS (23.9/12.2) was significantly higher in patients who have developed morbidity (p=0.003). RTS (6.085 7.445) and ISS (39.5/14.6) of patients who have survived were significantly different than patients who have not(p=0.037 and p=0.023, respectively) Additional injuries in patients with gastrointestinal injury due blunt abdominal traumas increases, although not significantly, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization even when operated early. High ISS is significantly related to the risk of both

  17. Plant-based food and feed protein structure changes induced by gene-transformation, heating and bio-ethanol processing: a synchrotron-based molecular structure and nutrition research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-11-01

    Unlike traditional "wet" analytical methods which during processing for analysis often result in destruction or alteration of the intrinsic protein structures, advanced synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy has been developed as a rapid and nondestructive and bioanalytical technique. This cutting-edge synchrotron-based bioanalytical technology, taking advantages of synchrotron light brightness (million times brighter than sun), is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry or structure of a biological tissue without destruction inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions. In this article, a novel approach is introduced to show the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to study plant-based food or feed protein molecular structure in relation to nutrient utilization and availability. Recent progress was reported on using synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and diffused reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy to detect the effects of gene-transformation (Application 1), autoclaving (Application 2), and bio-ethanol processing (Application 3) on plant-based food and feed protein structure changes on a molecular basis. The synchrotron-based technology provides a new approach for plant-based protein structure research at ultra-spatial resolutions at cellular and molecular levels.

  18. Ethanol Transportation Backgrounder

    OpenAIRE

    Denicoff, Marina R.

    2007-01-01

    For the first 6 months of 2007, U.S. ethanol production totaled nearly 3 billion gallons—32 percent higher than the same period last year. As of August 29, there were 128 ethanol plants with annual production capacity totaling 6.78 billion gallons, and an additional 85 plants were under construction. U.S. ethanol production capacity is expanding rapidly and is currently expected to exceed 13 billion gallons per year by early 2009, if not sooner. Ethanol demand has increased corn prices and le...

  19. Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of Mentha arvensis Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of Mentha arvensis Ethanol Extract against ... the antibacterial effect of ethanol extract of Mentha arvensis against multi-drug ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and protein leakage from the ... A. baumannii and acts by inducing lethal cellular damage to the bacterium.

  20. Chronic ethanol feeding modulates the synthesis of digestive enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponnappa, B.C.; Hoek, J.B.; Rubin, E.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on pancreatic protein synthesis were investigated. Protein synthesis was assessed by studying the rate of incorporation of 3 H-leucine into TCA-precipitable proteins in isolated pancreatic acini from rats. Chronic ethanol ingestion increased the rate of pancreatic protein synthesis by 2-4 fold. The onset of the increase in protein synthesis was detectable two days after ethanol feeding, reached a maximum after 7 days and remained unchanged after 4 months on the ethanol-containing diet. The rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes was studied by SDS-PAGE on extracts obtained from purified zymogen granules. Ethanol feeding induced an increase in the rate of synthesis of most of the digestive enzymes; chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen and an unidentified protein were increased to a greater extent than other digestive enzymes. By contrast, the synthesis of amylase was selectively decreased after ethanol feeding. These results suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion has specific effects on the rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes in the exocrine pancreas

  1. Aerothermodynamic shape optimization of hypersonic blunt bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyi, Sinan; Yumuşak, Mine

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a reliable and efficient design tool that can be used in hypersonic flows. The flow analysis is based on the axisymmetric Euler/Navier-Stokes and finite-rate chemical reaction equations. The equations are coupled simultaneously and solved implicitly using Newton's method. The Jacobian matrix is evaluated analytically. A gradient-based numerical optimization is used. The adjoint method is utilized for sensitivity calculations. The objective of the design is to generate a hypersonic blunt geometry that produces the minimum drag with low aerodynamic heating. Bezier curves are used for geometry parameterization. The performances of the design optimization method are demonstrated for different hypersonic flow conditions.

  2. Primary nasal tuberculosis following blunt trauma nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary nasal tuberculosis is a rare disease with nearly 40 cases reported. Our patient was a young male presented with left sided nasal obstruction, anosmia and occasional epistaxis for last 7 weeks after 6 months of blunt trauma nose. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the para nasal sinuses showed increased soft-tissue density with contrast enhancement in the left maxillary antrum with extension through left osteomeatal foramen to the left nasal cavity along with further extension through choana to nasopharynx resulting in partial obliteration of the nasopharyngeal airway. Nasal endoscopy revealed a sessile polypoidal pinkish mass arising from the left osteomeatal foramen. Histopathological examination of excisional biopsy of that area showed caseating granuloma. Our patient diagnosed as primary nasal tuberculosis following trauma and treated with anti-tubercular chemotherapy.

  3. Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Hemodynamically Stable Blunt Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gregory S; Chance, Elisha A; Hileman, Barbara M; Emerick, Eric S; Gianetti, Emily A

    2017-01-01

    No criteria define indications for laparoscopic splenectomy in trauma. This investigation compared characteristics of trauma patients and outcomes between laparoscopic and open splenectomies. Patients were identified retrospectively by using ICD-9 codes. Included patients were 18 or older, with a blunt splenic injury from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2014, and required splenectomy. Excluded patients had penetrating trauma, successful nonoperative management, or successful embolization. Variables included demographics, presenting characteristics, injury severity scores, abdominal abbreviated injury scores, splenic injury grade, surgical indication and approach (open or laparoscopic), surgery length, intra-operative blood loss, transfusions, length of stay, complications, mortality, and discharge disposition. Forty-one patients underwent open splenectomy, and 11 underwent laparoscopic splenectomy. The mean age was 48.7 years, and men comprised the sample majority (36/52). The groups were well matched for age, abdominal injury scores, and admission vital signs. The open group had a significantly lower level of consciousness and more acidosis compared with the laparoscopic group. Most laparoscopic splenectomies were performed after failed nonoperative management or embolization. The indications for open splenectomy were a positive focused assessment with sonography for trauma and computed tomography results. Laparoscopic patients had significantly longer times between presentation and surgery and longer operations, but had significantly less blood loss and fewer transfusions compared with the open group. There were no differences in mortality, length of stay, complications, or discharge dispositions. Laparoscopic splenectomy is useful in patients with blunt trauma in whom conservative management produced no improvement and who do not have other injuries to preclude laparoscopy.

  4. CT diagnosis of blunt laryngeal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Fanbin; Xia Ruigan; Hu Libin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT findings of blunt laryngeal trauma (BLT) and evaluate the value of CT in the diagnosis of BLT. Methods: CT diagnosis and treatment of 16 patients with BLT were reviewed. Results: Soft-tissue injuries were detected in five cases including swelling of the aryepiglottic folds, the false or true vocal cords and airway narrowing in four, and left cricoarytenoid dislocation and card paralysis in one. Supraglottic injuries in two cases including c fractures of the epiglottis in 2 and associated with a laceration of the aryepiglottic folds and the hypopharynx. Glottic injuries in four cases including ventricle fracture of the right thyroid ala in one and midline ventricle or comminute fractures of the thyroid cartilage in three, a square segment of cartilage was depressed into the larynx, and the true vocal cords and the anterior commissure were disrupted in one of this series. Subglottic injuries in five cases including cricoid ring fracture on the opposite side following a lateral force in one, with the fragment depressed into the larynx. Two showed marked comminution of the cricoid ring. Midline vertical fracture of the posterior cricoid plate associated with the laceration of the first tracheal ring in one, and one presented marked disruption of the right cricothyroid joint. Conclusion: CT clearly shows the extent of cartilaginous injury and displacement, related soft-tissue changes and the degree of resulting airway encroachment, and it may be successfully used to determine the need for open exploration and repair in selected cases of blunt trauma to the larynx

  5. Blunted stress reactivity in chronic cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Spradlin, Alexander; Nusbaum, Amy T; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2017-08-01

    One of the most commonly cited reasons for chronic cannabis use is to cope with stress. Consistent with this, cannabis users have shown reduced emotional arousal and dampened stress reactivity in response to negative imagery. To our knowledge, the present study represents the first to examine the effects of an acute stress manipulation on subjective stress and salivary cortisol in chronic cannabis users compared to non-users. Forty cannabis users and 42 non-users were randomly assigned to complete either the stress or no stress conditions of the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). The stress condition of the MAST manipulates both physiological (placing hand in ice bath) and psychosocial stress (performing math under conditions of social evaluation). Participants gave baseline subjective stress ratings before, during, and after the stress manipulation. Cortisol was measured from saliva samples obtained before and after the stress manipulation. Further, cannabis cravings and symptoms of withdrawal were measured. Subjective stress ratings and cortisol levels were significantly higher in non-users in the stress condition relative to non-users in the no stress condition. In contrast, cannabis users demonstrated blunted stress reactivity; specifically, they showed no increase in cortisol and a significantly smaller increase in subjective stress ratings. The stress manipulation had no impact on cannabis users' self-reported cravings or withdrawal symptoms. Chronic cannabis use is associated with blunted stress reactivity. Future research is needed to determine whether this helps to confer resiliency or vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology as well as the mechanisms underlying this effect.

  6. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  7. Characterizing substance use and mental health profiles of cigar, blunt, and non-blunt marijuana users from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Johnson, Amanda; Ehlke, Sarah; Villanti, Andrea C

    2016-03-01

    Smoking marijuana in a cigar (blunt use) is gaining popularity in the U.S. Research suggests that blunt users differ from exclusive cigar or marijuana users on a variety of demographic and substance use factors. Misreporting of blunts and cigars is also common, particularly among young people, and may lead to inaccurate prevalence estimates. To determine subtype differences, this study investigated the prevalence and demographic, mental health, and substance use correlates of four mutually-exclusive groups of blunt, cigar, and marijuana past 30-day users (cigar-only, blunt-only, non-blunt marijuana, or dual cigar-blunt). Data were analyzed from the 2013 National Survey of Drug Use and Health. In weighted multinomial logistic regression models, respondents who were younger, Black, and who had used tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs in the past 30-days had the highest odds of reporting blunt-only or dual cigar-blunt use. Those reporting blunt-only and dual cigar-blunt use also endorsed a greater number of marijuana and alcohol use disorder symptoms compared to those reporting cigar-only and non-blunt marijuana use. Lower marijuana risk perceptions were associated with increased odds of marijuana use with or without blunts. Major depressive episode was uniquely associated with non-blunt marijuana use. With respect to misclassifiers, respondents who reported past 30-day blunt use but not past 30-day marijuana use were younger, Black, female, and had lower education and income. Those who report blunt-only and dual cigar-blunt use showed the most severe risk profiles. Communicating health consequences and risks of blunt use should be directed toward specific subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of high temperature and ethanol on thermostable lignocellulolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Jørgensen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    the influence of temperature and ethanol on enzyme activity and stability in the distillation step, where most enzymes are inactivated due to high temperatures. Two enzyme mixtures, a mesophilic and a thermostable mixture, were exposed to typical process conditions [temperatures from 55 to 65 °C and up to 5...... % ethanol (w/v)] followed by specific enzyme activity analyses and SDS-PAGE. The thermostable and mesophilic mixture remained active at up to 65 and 55 °C, respectively. When the enzyme mixtures reached their maximum temperature limit, ethanol had a remarkable influence on enzyme activity, e.g., the more...... ethanol, the faster the inactivation. The reason could be the hydrophobic interaction of ethanol on the tertiary structure of the enzyme protein. The thermostable mixture was more tolerant to temperature and ethanol and could therefore be a potential candidate for recycling after distillation....

  9. Canadian ethanol retailers' directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This listing is a directory of all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listing includes the name and address of the retailer. Bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels are also included, but in a separate listing

  10. Canada's ethanol retail directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A directory was published listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included

  11. Posttraumatic True Aneurysm of the Axillary Artery Following Blunt Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugrul Goncu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the axillary artery aneurysm cases arise as pseudoaneurysms secondary to blunt or iatrogenic trauma. Isolated traumatic true axillary artery aneurysm is a relatively unusual disorder and generally occurs with repetitive blunt trauma. A 22-year-old female patient with distal axillary artery true aneurysm due to simple blunt axillothoracic trauma is presented. The aneurysm was excised with subpectoral-axillary approach and saphenous vein graft interposition was applied. Long-term follow-up with the patient was uneventful.

  12. Alveolar macrophage phagocytosis is enhanced after blunt chest trauma and alters the posttraumatic mediator release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Daniel H; Palmer, Annette; Niesler, Ulrike; Fröba, Janine S; Heidemann, Vera; Rittlinger, Anne; Braumüller, Sonja T; Zhou, Shaoxia; Gebhard, Florian; Knöferl, Markus W

    2011-12-01

    Blunt chest trauma is known to induce a pulmonary invasion of short-lived polymorphonuclear neutrophils and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial type 2 (AT2) cells. Apoptotic cells are removed by alveolar macrophages (AMΦ). We hypothesized that chest trauma alters the phagocytic response of AMΦ as well as the mediator release of AMΦ during phagocytosis. To study this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to blunt chest trauma. Phagocytosis assays were performed in AMΦ isolated 2 or 24 h after trauma with apoptotic cells or opsonized beads. Phagocytosis of apoptotic AT2 cells by unstimulated AMΦ was significantly increased 2 h after trauma. At 24 h, AMΦ from traumatized animals, stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, ingested significantly more apoptotic polymorphonuclear neutrophils than AMΦ from sham animals. Alveolar macrophages after trauma released significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor α, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 when they incorporated latex beads, but significantly lower levels of interleukin 1β and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α when they ingested apoptotic cells. In vivo, phagocytosis of intratracheally instilled latex beads was decreased in traumatized rats. The bronchoalveolar lavage concentrations of the phagocytosis-supporting surfactant proteins A and D after blunt chest trauma were slightly decreased, whereas surfactant protein D mRNA expression in AT2 cells was significantly increased after 2 h. These findings indicate that chest trauma augments the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by AMΦ. Phagocytosis of opsonized beads enhances and ingestion of apoptotic cells downregulates the immunologic response following lung contusion. Our data emphasize the important role of phagocytosis during posttraumatic inflammation after lung contusion.

  13. Prospects for ethanol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, K R

    1978-05-01

    Whey is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese and casein. Casein whey is not as fully utilized as cheese whey although in the last five years commercial processes have been developed to recover the whey proteins, either in denatured form as lactalbumin or in their soluble form as Solac. The removal of the whey proteins makes little difference to the polluting strength or volume of the whey and a crude lactose solution - serum or permeate - remains to be processed. Many processes have been evaluated for the use of this crude lactose solution; one is microbial transformation to produce products such as methane, ethanol, acetone and butanol and etc. The technologies for these processes are well known and it is the economic evaluation which ultimately determines the feasibility of the process being considered. For the purposes of this paper, the prospects for ethanol production have been evaluated. Unless there is a significant reduction in capital costs, it is concluded that ethanol production from whey is not a viable proposition as an energy source for New Zealand. Industrial ethanol (annual imports; 3.5 x 10/sup 6/ 1 CIF value 32 c/1) and potable ethanol production may be worth contemplating.

  14. Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Senna Fistula on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of chronic administration of ethanolic leave extract of Senna ... Diabetes is a disorder in the metabolism of protein, .... Acute toxicity study .... pancreatic beta cells, however, further study could be.

  15. Base Deficit as an Indicator of Significant Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    important cause of morbidity and mortality among trauma patients. ... the use of BD as an indicator of significant BAT. Methods: ... Key words: Base deficit, Blunt abdominal trauma,. Predictor. ..... Delineate Risk for Torso Injury in Stable Patients.

  16. Blunt chest trauma: bony injury in the thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreik, Nasri H; Francis, Irene; Ray, Arun; Rogers, Benedict A; Ricketts, David M

    2016-02-01

    The management of blunt chest trauma is an evolving concept with no clear current guidelines. This article explores the bony injuries associated with this, focusing on rib fractures and flail segments and the themes around investigation and best management.

  17. Pectus excavatum in blunt chest trauma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liodakis Emmanouil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Blunt cardiac rupture is an exceedingly rare injury. Case presentation We report a case of blunt cardiac trauma in a 43-year-old Caucasian German mother with pectus excavatum who presented after a car accident in which she had been sitting in the front seat holding her two-year-old boy in her arms. The mother was awake and alert during the initial two hours after the accident but then proceeded to hemodynamically collapse. The child did not sustain any severe injuries. Intraoperatively, a combined one-cm laceration of the left atrium and right ventricle was found. Conclusion Patients with pectus excavatum have an increased risk for cardiac rupture after blunt chest trauma because of compression between the sternum and spine. Therefore, patients with pectus excavatum and blunt chest trauma should be admitted to a Level I Trauma Center with a high degree of suspicion.

  18. Factors for failure of nonoperative management of blunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors for failure of nonoperative management of blunt hepatosplenic trauma in children. ... Annals of Pediatric Surgery ... However, other than hemodynamic instability, the other factors mentioned above deserve further evaluation to ...

  19. Pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema secondary to blunt chest injury

    OpenAIRE

    Porhomayon, Jahan; Doerr, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This is the case of a patient with a history of blunt chest trauma associated with subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax. The patient complained of inspiratory stridor on presentation. Anatomical relationships can explain the pathophysiological process.

  20. Isolated gallbladder injury in a case of blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Jeffrey; Jung, Melissa; Dearing, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of blunt injury to the gallbladder may constitute a significant challenge to the diagnostician. There is often a delay in presentation with non-specific clinical symptoms. In the absence of reliable clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging becomes an invaluable tool in the rapid identification of gallbladder injury. We present a case of isolated gallbladder injury following blunt abdominal trauma which was diagnosed by computed tomography and subsequently confirmed by cholecystectomy.

  1. Isolated Gallbladder Injury in a Case of Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Birn, Jeffrey; Jung, Melissa; Dearing, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of blunt injury to the gallbladder may constitute a significant challenge to the diagnostician. There is often a delay in presentation with non-specific clinical symptoms. In the absence of reliable clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging becomes an invaluable tool in the rapid identification of gallbladder injury. We present a case of isolated gallbladder injury following blunt abdominal trauma which was diagnosed by computed tomography and subsequently confirmed by cholecystectomy.

  2. Clinical value of different detection methods in blunt ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Blunt ocular can cause persistent change of eye structure and function, the method of detection which is closely related to eye injury including B-can ultrasonography, UBM, OCT, FFA, scanning laser polarimetry, fundus autofluorescence, each examination with particular emphasis. This paper aims to review the advantages and disadvantages of different inspection methods in order to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of blunt ocular trauma.

  3. Unrecognized blunt tracheal trauma with massive pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt neck trauma with an associated laryngotracheal injury is rare. We report a patient with blunt neck trauma who came to the emergency room and was sent to ward without realizing the seriousness of the situation. He presented later with respiratory distress and an anesthesiologist was called in for emergency airway management. Airway management in such a situation is described in this report.

  4. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S.; Hamid, Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the ...

  5. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on hepatic glycoprotein secretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, M.F.; Nauss, J.M.; Donohue, T.M. Jr.; Tuma, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion were studied in rat liver slices. Liver slices from rats fed ethanol for 4-5 wk showed a decreased ability to incorporate [ 14 C]glucosamine into medium trichloracetic acid-precipitable proteins when compared to the pair-fed controls; however, the labeling of hepatocellular glycoproteins was unaffected by chronic ethanol treatment. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled secretory (serum) glycoproteins with antiserum against rat serum proteins showed a similar marked inhibition in the appearance of glucosamine-labeled proteins in the medium of slices from ethanol-fed rats. Minimal effects, however, were noted in the labeling of intracellular secretory glycoproteins. Protein synthesis, as determined by measuring [ 14 C]leucine incorporation into medium and liver proteins, was decreased in liver slices from ethanol-fed rats as compared to the pair-fed controls. This was the case for both total proteins as well as immunoprecipitable secretory proteins, although the labeling of secretory proteins retained in the liver slices was reduced to a lesser extent than total radiolabeled hepatic proteins. When the terminal sugar, [ 14 C]fucose, was employed as a precursor in order to more closely focus on the final steps of hepatic glycoprotein secretion, liver slices obtained from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibited impaired secretion of fucose-labeled proteins into the medium. When ethanol (5 or 10 mM) was added to the incubation medium containing liver slices from the ethanol-fed rats, the alterations in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion caused by the chronic ethanol treatment were further potentiated. The results of this study indicate that liver slices prepared from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibit both impaired synthesis and secretion of proteins and glycoproteins, and these defects are further potentiated by acute ethanol administration

  6. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  7. Pediatric blunt splenic trauma: a comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, Karen N.; Werder, Gabriel M.; Callaghan, Rachel M.; Jafri, Zafar H. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Sullivan, Ashley N. [St. George' s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies (Grenada); Bloom, David A. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States); William Beaumont Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Abdominal trauma is a leading cause of death in children older than 1 year of age. The spleen is the most common organ injured following blunt abdominal trauma. Pediatric trauma patients present unique clinical challenges as compared to adults, including different mechanisms of injury, physiologic responses, and indications for operative versus nonoperative management. Splenic salvage techniques and nonoperative approaches are preferred to splenectomy in order to decrease perioperative risks, transfusion needs, duration/cost of hospitalization, and risk of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection. Early and accurate detection of splenic injury is critical in both adults and children; however, while imaging findings guide management in adults, hemodynamic stability is the primary determinant in pediatric patients. After initial diagnosis, the primary role of imaging in pediatric patients is to determine the level and duration of care. We present a comprehensive literature review regarding the mechanism of injury, imaging, management, and complications of traumatic splenic injury in pediatric patients. Multiple patients are presented with an emphasis on the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury grading system. Clinical practice guidelines from the American Pediatric Surgical Association are discussed and compared with our experience at a large community hospital, with recommendations for future practice guidelines. (orig.)

  8. Pediatric blunt splenic trauma: a comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, Karen N.; Werder, Gabriel M.; Callaghan, Rachel M.; Jafri, Zafar H.; Sullivan, Ashley N.; Bloom, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal trauma is a leading cause of death in children older than 1 year of age. The spleen is the most common organ injured following blunt abdominal trauma. Pediatric trauma patients present unique clinical challenges as compared to adults, including different mechanisms of injury, physiologic responses, and indications for operative versus nonoperative management. Splenic salvage techniques and nonoperative approaches are preferred to splenectomy in order to decrease perioperative risks, transfusion needs, duration/cost of hospitalization, and risk of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection. Early and accurate detection of splenic injury is critical in both adults and children; however, while imaging findings guide management in adults, hemodynamic stability is the primary determinant in pediatric patients. After initial diagnosis, the primary role of imaging in pediatric patients is to determine the level and duration of care. We present a comprehensive literature review regarding the mechanism of injury, imaging, management, and complications of traumatic splenic injury in pediatric patients. Multiple patients are presented with an emphasis on the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury grading system. Clinical practice guidelines from the American Pediatric Surgical Association are discussed and compared with our experience at a large community hospital, with recommendations for future practice guidelines. (orig.)

  9. Ascending aortic injuries following blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiumei; Hong, Jenny; Lowery, Robert; Goldstein, Steven; Wang, Zuyue; Lindsay, Joseph; Hill, Peter C; Corso, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    The diagnosis and the management of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries have undergone significant changes due to new technology and improved prehospital care. Most of the discussions have focused on descending aortic injuries. In this review, we discuss the recent management of ascending aortic injuries. We found 5 cohort studies on traumatic aortic injuries and 11 case reports describing ascending aortic injuries between 1998 to the present through Medline research. Among case reports, 78.9% of cases were caused by motor vehicle accidents (MVA). 42.1% of patients underwent emergent open repair and the operative mortality was 12.5%. 36.8% underwent delayed repair. Associated injuries occurred in 84.2% of patients. Aortic valve injury was concurrent in 26.3% of patients. The incidence of ascending aortic injury ranged 1.9-20% in cohort studies. Traumatic injuries to the ascending aorta are relatively uncommon among survivors following blunt trauma. Aortography has been replaced by computed tomography and echocardiography as a diagnostic tool. Open repair, either emergent or delayed, remains the treatment of choice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Tracheobronchial injuries in blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid Montazeri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tracheobronchial injuries are uncommon but potentially fatal complication of blunt thoracic trauma harboring a high morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed early . A recent series gleaning cases from four major Trauma Center in Los Angeles nine cases in a seven- year period , but the incidence of these injuries has been increasing recently. This has been attributed to improvement in hospital care and advanced Trauma Centers and earlier diagnosis of such injuries. Disruption of tight main bronchus is more common, such injuries are often associated with rib or clavicular fractures. Findings: Clinical and paraclinical data gathered from records of three patients referred with tracheobronchial injuries during the recent ten years have been reviewed .These include clinical manifestations, diagnostic findings, treatment modality and clinical course. The outcome has been satisfactory in all three patients who have undergone operation 2-5 hours after sustaining the injury. We have not had any mortality. Conclusion: These results are similar to those of other series emphasizing over early diagnosis and treatment of such injuries .

  11. Blunt pancreatic trauma. Role of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procacci, C.; Graziani, R.; Bicego, E.; Mainardi, P.; Bassi, C.; Bergamo Andreis, I.A.; Valdo, M.; Guarise, A.; Girelli, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To define the evolution patterns of blunt pancreatic trauma, and to point out the CT features most significant for the diagnosis. Material and Methods: Ten cases of pancreatic trauma, observed over a period of about 10 years, were analyzed in retrospect. The cases were divided into 3 groups according to the time that had elapsed between trauma and first CT: Early phase (within 72 h: n=3/10); late phase (after 10 days: n=3/10); and following pancreatic drainage (n=4/10). Results: In the early phase, one case showed a blood collection surrounding the pancreatic head and duodenum, and displacing the mesenteric vessels to the left. In the 2 other cases it was possible to demonstrate a tear in the pancreas at the neck, perpendicular to the main pancreatic axis. In the late phase in all 3 cases, one cystic lesion was present at the site of the tear, either surrounding the gland or embedded - more or less deeply - within the parenchyma. One of the lesions subsided spontaneously; the 2 others required surgery. In the postoperative phase, an external fistula was demonstrated in 2 cases following percutaneous drainage of pancreatic cysts; the fistula was fed by a cystic lesion in the pancreatic neck. In the 2 other cases a pseudocyst developed. (orig.)

  12. Blunt pancreatic trauma. Role of CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procacci, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Graziani, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Bicego, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Mainardi, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Bassi, C. [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Bergamo Andreis, I.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Valdo, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Guarise, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy); Girelli, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Verona (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Purpose: To define the evolution patterns of blunt pancreatic trauma, and to point out the CT features most significant for the diagnosis. Material and Methods: Ten cases of pancreatic trauma, observed over a period of about 10 years, were analyzed in retrospect. The cases were divided into 3 groups according to the time that had elapsed between trauma and first CT: Early phase (within 72 h: n=3/10); late phase (after 10 days: n=3/10); and following pancreatic drainage (n=4/10). Results: In the early phase, one case showed a blood collection surrounding the pancreatic head and duodenum, and displacing the mesenteric vessels to the left. In the 2 other cases it was possible to demonstrate a tear in the pancreas at the neck, perpendicular to the main pancreatic axis. In the late phase in all 3 cases, one cystic lesion was present at the site of the tear, either surrounding the gland or embedded - more or less deeply - within the parenchyma. One of the lesions subsided spontaneously; the 2 others required surgery. In the postoperative phase, an external fistula was demonstrated in 2 cases following percutaneous drainage of pancreatic cysts; the fistula was fed by a cystic lesion in the pancreatic neck. In the 2 other cases a pseudocyst developed. (orig.).

  13. Simplified pancreatoduodenectomy for complex blunt pancreaticoduodenal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Xin-fu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】A 34-year-old man admitted to our department with complex blunt pancreaticoduodenal injury after a car accident. The wall of the first, second, and third portions of the duodenum was extensively lacerated, and the pancreas was longitudinally transected along the superior mesenteric vein-portal vein trunk. The pancreatic head and the uncinate process were devitalized and the distal common bile duct and the proximal main pancreatic duct were completely detached from the Vater ampulla. The length of the stump of distal common bile located at the cut surface of remnant pancreas was approximately 0.6 cm. A simplified Kausch-Whipple’s procedure was performed after debridement of the devitalized pancreatic head and resection of the damaged duodenum in which the stump of distal common bile duct and the pancreatic remnant were embedded into the jejunal loop. Postoperative wound abscess appeared that eventually recovered by conservative treatment. During 16 months follow-up the patient has been stable and healthy. A simplified pancreaticoduodenectomy is a safe alternative for the Whipple procedure in managing complex pancreaticoduodenal injury in a hemodynamically stable patient. Key words: Pancreaticoduodenectomy; Abdominal injuries; Pancreas; Duodenum

  14. TREATMENT OF BLUNT LIVER INJURIES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kostić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Liver is the largest parenchymatous organ, well vascularized, weighing approximately 1.8-3.0% of the whole body weight. Among all abdominal traumas liver injuries account for 25%. For more serious liver injuries the mortality is around 40% in children below 10 years of age. For lesions of the juxtahepatic veins (three major hepatic veins or the retrohepatic portion of v. cava or for complex, combined intraabdominal injuries, the mortality is even up to 70%.This work analyzed the period 1988-2000 during which there were 19 children admitted and treated for blunt liver injuries at the Clinic of Pediatric Surgery and Orthopedics in Nis; I, II and III scale injuries prevailed (17 cases; 89.4%. These injuries were surgically treated for the most part (17 cases; 89.4%. In 7 children (36.8% there were combined injuries. The lethality was 26.3%-5 cases, with three major complications: two intrahepatic hematomas and one biliary fistula associated with biliary peritonitis and biloma formation.

  15. Speichim cuts ethanol energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-08

    France's Speichim has reported low-pressure steam consumption of only 0.7kg/l in the production of industrial-grade ethanol. Mechanical compression of distillation vapours can reduce this energy demand even more.

  16. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure causes more severe pancreatic injury and inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhenhua [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China 230032 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Fanmuyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yongchao; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A. [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-ji [Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin [Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia, E-mail: jialuo888@uky.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol abuse increases the risk for pancreatitis. The pattern of alcohol drinking may impact its effect. We tested a hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption in combination with binge exposure imposes more severe damage to the pancreas. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control, chronic ethanol exposure, binge ethanol exposure and chronic plus binge ethanol exposure. For the control group, mice were fed with a liquid diet for two weeks. For the chronic ethanol exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. In the binge ethanol exposure group, mice were treated with ethanol by gavage (5 g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 3 days. For the chronic plus binge exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks and exposed to ethanol by gavage during the last 3 days. Chronic and binge exposure alone caused minimal pancreatic injury. However, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure induced significant apoptotic cell death. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure altered the levels of alpha-amylase, glucose and insulin. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure caused pancreatic inflammation which was shown by the macrophages infiltration and the increase of cytokines and chemokines. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased the expression of ADH1 and CYP2E1. It also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which was demonstrated by the unfolded protein response. In addition, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative stress. Therefore, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure is more detrimental to the pancreas. - Highlights: • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking causes more pancreatic injury. • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking induces more pancreatic inflammation. • Chronic plus binge alcohol causes more endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress.

  17. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure causes more severe pancreatic injury and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhenhua; Yang, Fanmuyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yongchao; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Ke, Zun-ji; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse increases the risk for pancreatitis. The pattern of alcohol drinking may impact its effect. We tested a hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption in combination with binge exposure imposes more severe damage to the pancreas. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control, chronic ethanol exposure, binge ethanol exposure and chronic plus binge ethanol exposure. For the control group, mice were fed with a liquid diet for two weeks. For the chronic ethanol exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. In the binge ethanol exposure group, mice were treated with ethanol by gavage (5 g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 3 days. For the chronic plus binge exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks and exposed to ethanol by gavage during the last 3 days. Chronic and binge exposure alone caused minimal pancreatic injury. However, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure induced significant apoptotic cell death. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure altered the levels of alpha-amylase, glucose and insulin. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure caused pancreatic inflammation which was shown by the macrophages infiltration and the increase of cytokines and chemokines. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased the expression of ADH1 and CYP2E1. It also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which was demonstrated by the unfolded protein response. In addition, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative stress. Therefore, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure is more detrimental to the pancreas. - Highlights: • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking causes more pancreatic injury. • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking induces more pancreatic inflammation. • Chronic plus binge alcohol causes more endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress.

  18. Environmental benefits of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The environmental benefits of ethanol blended fuels in helping to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is one way of addressing air pollution concerns such as ozone formation. The state of California has legislated stringent automobile emissions standards in an effort to reduce emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Several Canadian cities also record similar hazardous exposures to carbon monoxide, particularly in fall and winter. Using oxygenated fuels such as ethanol, is one way of addressing the issue of air pollution. The net effect of ethanol use is an overall decrease in ozone formation. For example, use of a 10 per cent ethanol blend results in a 25-30 per cent reduction in carbon monoxide emissions by promoting a more complete combustion of the fuel. It also results in a 6-10 per cent reduction of carbon dioxide, and a seven per cent overall decrease in exhaust VOCs (volatile organic compounds). The environmental implications of feedstock production associated with the production of ethanol for fuel was also discussed. One of the Canadian government's initiatives to address the climate change challenge is its FleetWise initiative, in which it has agreed to a phased-in acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles by the year 2005. 9 refs

  19. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  20. Comparative polygenic analysis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and tolerance to high ethanol levels of cell proliferation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M Pais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance.

  1. Emotional blunting with antidepressant treatments: A survey among depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, G M; Price, J; De Bodinat, C; Laredo, J

    2017-10-15

    Emotional blunting is regularly reported in depressed patients on antidepressant treatment but its actual frequency is poorly understood. We have previously used qualitative methods to develop an appropriate scale, the Oxford Questionnaire on the Emotional Side-Effects of Antidepressants (OQESA). Six hundred and sixty nine depressed patients on treatment and 150 recovered (formerly depressed) controls (aged ≥18 years) participated in this internet-based survey. The rate of emotional blunting in treated depressed patients was 46%, slightly more frequent in men than women (52% versus 44%) and in those with higher Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale scores. There was no difference according to antidepressant agent, though it appeared less frequent with bupropion. Depressed patients with emotional blunting had much higher total blunting scores on OQESA than controls (42.83 ± 14.73 versus 25.73 ± 15.00, p 7 (n = 170) had a higher total questionnaire score, 49.23±12.03, than those with HAD-D score ≤7 (n = 140), 35.07 ± 13.98, and the difference between the two groups was highly significant. However, patients with HAD-D score ≤7 (n = 140) had a higher total score (35.07 ± 13.98) than the recovered controls (n = 150) (25.73 ± 15.00), and the difference between the two groups was significant. Among the patients with emotional blunting, 37% had a negative perception of their condition and 38% positive. Men reported a more negative perception than women (p=0.008), and patients with a negative perception were more likely to have higher HAD scores. Higher levels of emotional blunting are associated with a more negative perception of it by the patient (r = -0.423). Include self-evaluation and the modest size of the sample for detection of differences between antidepressants. Emotional blunting is reported by nearly half of depressed patients on antidepressants. It appears to be common to all monoaminergic antidepressants. The OQESA scores are highly

  2. Multidetector CT findings of bowel Transection in blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Suk; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Park, Mee Hyun; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young; Hwang, Ji Young; Ha, Hong Il

    2013-01-01

    Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity.

  3. The Role of Computed Tomography in Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, O B

    2015-01-01

    Blunt injury trauma is regularly encountered in the emergency department. Diagnostic tools that help in optimum management of blunt abdominal trauma include; Focussed Assessment Sonography for Trauma scan, Diagnostic peritoneal lavage and Computed Tomography scan. The aim of this study is to determine the validity of CT scan as an accurate diagnostic tool and its role in management of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. A prospective analysis of 80 patients of blunt abdomen trauma who were admitted in Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal within a span of 15 months was done. Demographic data, mechanism of trauma, management and outcomes were studied. Organ injuries were graded using the Organ Injury Scale guidelines. Most of the patients in our study were in the age group of 21-40 years with an M: F ratio of 2.3:1. Road traffic accident (47.5%) was the most common mechanism of injury. Spleen (27.5%) was the commonest organ injured. CT scan was superior to FAST scan and had sensitivity of 97.3% specificity 75% positive predictive value 98.6%. FAST scan had sensitivity of 78.9%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 96% with p- value of 0.0034. 81% of patients were conservatively managed. In conjunction with close clinical monitoring, CT scan is reliable in the evaluation and management of blunt abdominal trauma patients. Our study also shows CT as a superior diagnostic modality compared to FAST scan.

  4. Role of computed tomography in blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Chan Wha; Kim, Hae Kyoon

    1994-01-01

    In patient with blunt trauma of chest, supine AP x-ray cannot differentiate the lung contusion, laceration, atelectasis, and hemothorax definitely. Therefore, computed tomographic evaluation is needed for accurate evaluation of the injuries. In our knowledge, there are few reports about CT findings of blunt chest trauma, in our country, therefore we tried to fluid the characteristic CT findings in patients with blunt trauma. We analyzed the plain x-ray and CT image of 4 patients with blunt chest trauma. Location and morphology of lung parenchymal contusion and laceration, hemopneumothorax, chest wall injuries and location of chest tube. Lung parenchymal contusion was noted in 53 segments., of 16 patients infiltration(n=27 segment), and multiple nodular pattern was noted in 15 segment, pattern of consolidation along the lung periphery was seen in 11 segment. Laceration was noted in 18 lesion and most commonly located in paravertebral area(b=8). CT scan of chest in patient with blunt chest trauma, provides accurate information of the pattern of injuries, and localization, therefore, should be performed as possible

  5. Independent predictors of morbidity and mortality in blunt colon trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, R; Paterson, C A; Islam, S; Sweeney, W B; Baker, S P; Counihan, T C

    2004-01-01

    We sought to determine the impact of (1) grade of the colon injury, (2) the formation of an ostomy, and (3) associated injuries on outcomes such as morbidity and mortality after blunt colon injuries. We retrospectively reviewed 16,814 cases of blunt abdominal trauma. Patients with colonic injuries were selected and charts reviewed for demographic, clinical, and outcomes data. Injuries were grouped by the Colon Injury Scale (grades I-V). Independent risk factors of morbidity included spine and lung injuries, as well as increased age. A higher grade of colon injury trended toward a significant association with intra-abdominal complications. Independent risk factors of mortality included liver, heart, and lung injuries, as well as intracerebral blood and female gender. The grade of colon injury, the formation of an ostomy, and management of the colon trauma did not independently predict increased intra-abdominal complications, morbidity, or mortality. These results indicate that patients afflicted with blunt colon trauma experience a high rate of morbidity and mortality from associated injuries and or increased age. Treatment regimens directed at these factors will be most helpful in reducing the high morbidity and mortality after blunt colon trauma. Factors such as ostomy formation and management strategy are not associated with increased morbidity or mortality after blunt colon trauma.

  6. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jun Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989. It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model.

  7. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  8. Management of diaphragmatic rupture from blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K K; Yan, Z Y; Vijayan, A; Chiu, M T

    2009-12-01

    Diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture is difficult, and delays could result in a catastrophic outcome. We reviewed our institution's management of patients with diaphragmatic rupture after blunt trauma. All patients in this study were treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, from March 2002 to October 2008. Patients with penetrating injuries were excluded. The parameters included age, mechanism of injury, haemodynamic status at admission, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS), imaging studies, location of diaphragmatic injuries, associated injuries and outcome. 14 patients with a median age of 38 years formed the study group. Vehicular-related incidents accounted for 71.4 percent of the injuries. The median GCS score on admission was 14 (range 3-15), while the median systolic blood pressure and heart rate were 94 (range 50-164) mmHg and 110 (range 76-140) beats per minute, respectively. The median ISS was 41 (range 14-66). All had chest radiographs performed in the emergency department, six (42.9 percent) had computed tomography performed before surgery, while the remaining eight (57.1 percent) were sent straight to the operating theatre from the emergency department. There were five (35.7 percent) right-sided and nine (64.3 percent) left-sided diaphragmatic ruptures. The mortality rate was 35.7 percent. Some of the associated injuries included eight (57.1 percent) splenic lacerations, five (35.7 percent) haemothorax and lung injuries, four (28.6 percent) bone fractures and three (21.4 percent) liver lacerations. 12 (85.7 percent) patients underwent repair of the diaphragmatic rupture using interrupted polypropylene suture, while the remaining two (14.3 percent) were too haemodynamically unstable to undergo definitive treatment. Advanced age, haemodynamic instability and raised ISS were associated with mortality. An accurate diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in trauma patients is difficult, and a thorough examination of both the

  9. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with ethanol (alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Anderson, Gail D

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 drug-metabolizing enzyme that is also responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics and fatty acids. Drugs that inhibit ADH or CYP2E1 are the most likely theoretical compounds that would lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, which include only a limited number of drugs. Acute ethanol primarily alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs by changing the rate and extent of absorption, with more limited effects on clearance. Both acute and chronic ethanol use can cause transient changes to many physiologic responses in different organ systems such as hypotension and impairment of motor and cognitive functions, resulting in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Evaluating drug interactions with long-term use of ethanol is uniquely challenging. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of long-term ethanol use on liver pathology and chronic malnutrition. Ethanol-induced liver disease results in decreased activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes and changes in protein binding. Clinical studies that include patients with chronic alcohol use may be evaluating the effects of mild cirrhosis on liver metabolism, and not just ethanol itself. The definition of chronic alcohol use is very inconsistent, which greatly affects the quality of the data and clinical application of the results. Our study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs. The data on pharmacodynamic interactions are more limited and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed.

  10. Effects of Ethanol on the Cerebellum: Advances and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jia

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol abuse causes cerebellar dysfunction and cerebellar ataxia is a common feature in alcoholics. Alcohol exposure during development also impacts the cerebellum. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) show many symptoms associated specifically with cerebellar deficits. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are unclear. This special issue discusses the most recent advances in the study of mechanisms underlying alcoholinduced cerebellar deficits. The alteration in GABAA receptor-dependent neurotransmission is a potential mechanism for ethanol-induced cerebellar dysfunction. Recent advances indicate ethanol-induced increases in GABA release are not only in Purkinje cells (PCs), but also in molecular layer interneurons and granule cells. Ethanol is shown to disrupt the molecular events at the mossy fiber - granule cell - Golgi cell (MGG) synaptic site and granule cell parallel fibers - PCs (GPP) synaptic site, which may be responsible for ethanol-induced cerebellar ataxia. Aging and ethanol may affect the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) of PC dendrites and cause dendritic regression. Ethanol withdrawal causes mitochondrial damage and aberrant gene modifications in the cerebellum. The interaction between these events may result in neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Ethanol activates doublestranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) and PKR activation is involved ethanolinduced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in the developing cerebellum. Ethanol alters the development of cerebellar circuitry following the loss of PCs, which could result in modifications of the structure and function of other brain regions that receive cerebellar inputs. Lastly, choline, an essential nutrient is evaluated for its potential protection against ethanol-induced cerebellar damages. Choline is shown to ameliorate ethanol-induced cerebellar dysfunction when given before ethanol exposure.

  11. The cigar as a drug delivery device: youth use of blunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldz, Stephen; Huyser, Dana Joy; Dorsey, Elizabeth

    2003-10-01

    Blunts are hollowed-out cigars used to smoke marijuana (and perhaps other substances) in the United States. We investigated rates of blunt use; whether cigar use reported in surveys may actually be blunt use; the relationship of blunt to cigar use; characteristics of blunt users; brands of cigars used to make blunts; and drugs added to blunts. A school-based survey of youth, the Cigar Use Reasons Evaluation (CURE). Eleven schools across Massachusetts. A total of 5016 students in grades 7-12. CURE items assessing blunt, cigar and cigarette use, brands used to make blunts, drugs added to blunts and demographics were used. Life-time blunt use was reported by 20.0% of the sample, with use greater among high school (25.6%) than middle school (11.4%) students, and among males (23.7%) than females (16.6%). Self-reported cigar use rates were not influenced strongly by blunt use being misreported as cigar use. In a multivariate model, blunt use was associated with male gender, higher grade in school, lower GPA, truancy, lower school attachment, not living in a two-parent family, being of 'other' race/ethnicity and current use of both cigarettes and cigars. 'Phillies' was the most popular brand of cigar for making blunts, used by 59% of users. 'Garcia y Vega' (18.0%) was the second most popular. Twenty-eight per cent of blunt users had added drugs other than marijuana to blunts. The use of blunts as a drug delivery device is a serious problem. Efforts to address it will require the cooperation of the tobacco control and substance abuse prevention systems.

  12. MAIN CONTROVERSIES IN THE NONOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF BLUNT SPLENIC INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Jorge Roberto Marcante; Lopes-Filho, Gaspar de Jesus; Colleoni-Neto, Ramiro

    2016-03-01

    The nonoperative management of traumatic spleen injuries is the modality of choice in patients with blunt abdominal trauma and hemodynamic stability. However, there are still questions about the treatment indication in some groups of patients, as well as its follow-up. Update knowledge about the spleen injury. Was performed review of the literature on the nonoperative management of blunt injuries of the spleen in databases: Cochrane Library, Medline and SciELO. Were evaluated articles in English and Portuguese, between 1955 and 2014, using the headings "splenic injury, nonoperative management and blunt abdominal trauma". Were selected 35 articles. Most of them were recommendation grade B and C. The spleen traumatic injuries are frequent and its nonoperative management is a worldwide trend. The available literature does not explain all aspects on treatment. The authors developed a systematization of care based on the best available scientific evidence to better treat this condition.

  13. [The theory of cardiac lesions from blunt chest injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, E V; Sokolova, Z Iu

    2010-01-01

    The main theories of myocardial lesions associated with a blunt chest injury proposed starting from the XIXth century till the present time are considered based on the overview of the literature data. It is shown that the theory of selective mechanical activation of ATP-dependent K+ channels is most promising for further investigations into the mechanisms of myocardial dysfunction resulting from blunt chest injuries. The authors emphasize the absence of the universally accepted theory explaining the mechanism behind traumatic cardiac troubles and its fatal outcome despite numerous studies of cardiac lesions in patients with a blunt chest injury. It dictates the necessity of further research, both clinical and experimental, for a deeper insight into the problem.

  14. About Usefulness of Kalemia Monitoring after Blunt Liver Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Meriggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the evidence of hypokalemia as a suitable parameter for therapeutic decision making after severe blunt liver trauma. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of 11 patients (9 M, 2 F, mean age 32 years admitted to San Matteo Hospital of Pavia between 2007–2009. All of them were victims of road accidents hospitalized for blunt liver injury and submitted to surgery. Results. Hypokalemia was observed in 7/11 (63.6% patients during the preoperative period (mean value 2.91 mEq/L. Serum potassium concentration normalized in all patients at the 7th postoperative day only (<0.01. Conclusions. According to literature results, our study confirms that after blunt hepatic injury serum potassium levels may decrease significantly. Therefore, kalemia must be carefully monitored in order to establish appropriate treatment and avoid any complications.

  15. Control of Biofilm Formation in Fungi Using Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sebaey, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of fungi in biotechnology requires that no cell loss takes place; a maximal level of cell-nutrient interaction is required to achieve efficient performance and avoid cell loss. The main aim of the present study is to use ethanol to control cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion through manipulating cell surface properties. A Fungal isolate with a phenol oxidase activity (43.2 U/ml) was chosen out of twelve isolates belonging to two main genera: Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. The fungus isolate, assigned as the highest phenol oxidase producer, was morphologically identified as Penicillium purpurogenum. Penicillium purpurogenum formed a ring around the bottle in static and shaking conditions, therefore, a number of different stress conditions, such as ph, temperature, different nitrogen sources, gamma radiation and ethanol, were employed separately to control biofilm formation in the fungus under study. The fungus was tested for its morphology, mycelia weight, stress response (catalase, lipid peroxidation and red pigment synthesis) and extracellular and surface bound protein and exo polysaccharides. The obtained results correlate the biofilm formation to stress response and surface bound protein. Combining all types of stress did not result in more biofilm formation control; on the contrary, it posed more stress on the fungus and affected the biomass. Ethanol on its own was successively used to control biofilm, which was inhibited in the presence of 2.5% v/v ethanol without affecting the growth. The addition of ethanol also increased the intracellular phenol oxidase activity from 43.2 to 228.43 U/ml. scanning electron microscopy showed that the addition of ethanol resulted in the formation of loose mycelia network as compared to a tight mycelia network in ethanol free cultures. The presence of Yap1p gene, the detection of an oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG) and catalase after ethanol addition all suggest that a stress response might be involved in the

  16. Effect of nose bluntness on boundary layer stability and transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. R.; Spall, R. E.; Chang, C.-L.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of nose bluntness on boundary layer instability is studied theoretically for a Mach 8 flow past a 7 degree semivertex cone. The basic flow is computed by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. Linear stability analysis of the basic flow reveals that, with small amount of bluntness, the critical Reynolds number for the onset of instability increases by an order of magnitude compared to the sharp cone value. The computed second mode frequencies are also in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The results are used to explain the effect of unit Reynolds number on transition present in the quiet aeroballistic range data.

  17. Aerothermodynamics of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  18. Multidetector Computer Tomography: Evaluation of Blunt Chest Trauma in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palas, J.; Matos, A.P.; Ramalho, M.; Mascarenhas, V.; Heredia, V.

    2014-01-01

    Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall.

  19. INTER LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-26

    data by Instrumentation for Impact  Test , SAE standard J211‐1 [4]. Although the entire curve is collected, the interest of this  project  team  solely...HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON by Tony J. Kayhart Charles A. Hewitt and Jonathan Cyganik March 2018 Final...INTER-LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  20. Multidetector Computer Tomography: Evaluation of Blunt Chest Trauma in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Palas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall.

  1. Prioritized expression of BTN2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under pronounced translation repression induced by severe ethanol stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukina Yamauchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe ethanol stress (>9% ethanol, v/v as well as glucose deprivation rapidly induces a pronounced repression of overall protein synthesis in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, transcriptional activation in yeast cells under severe ethanol stress does not always indicate the production of expected protein levels. Messenger RNAs of genes containing heat shock elements can be intensively translated under glucose deprivation, suggesting that some mRNAs are preferentially translated even under severe ethanol stress. In the present study, we tried to identify the mRNA that can be preferentially translated under severe ethanol stress. BTN2 encodes a v-SNARE binding protein, and its null mutant shows hypersensitivity to ethanol. We found that BTN2 mRNA was efficiently translated under severe ethanol stress but not under mild ethanol stress. Moreover, the increased Btn2 protein levels caused by severe ethanol stress were smoothly decreased with the elimination of ethanol stress. These findings suggested that severe ethanol stress extensively induced BTN2 expression. Further, the BTN2 promoter induced protein synthesis of non-native genes such as CUR1, GIC2, and YUR1 in the presence of high ethanol concentrations, indicating that this promoter overcame severe ethanol stress-induced translation repression. Thus, our findings provide an important clue about yeast response to severe ethanol stress and suggest that the BTN2 promoter can be used to improve the efficiency of ethanol production and stress tolerance of yeast cells by modifying gene expression in the presence of high ethanol concentration.

  2. Spleen artery embolization increases the success of nonoperative management following blunt splenic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Chun-Jen Chen

    2011-08-01

    Conclusion: Performance of SAE for the patients with blunt splenic injury could increase the successful rate of NOM significantly and safely. An algorithm including the angioembolization might be beneficial in the management of patients with blunt spleen trauma.

  3. Yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from different whole cassava flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, F T; Mepba, H D

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash point of ethanol produced differ slightly for different cultivars, while the yield of ethanol and electrical conductivity of ethanol from the different cassava cultivars varies significantly. The variation in mineral composition of the different whole cassava flours could also lead to variation in the electrical conductivity of ethanol produced from the different cassava cultivars. The differences in ethanol yield are attributed to differences in starch content, protein content, and dry matter of cassava cultivars. High yield of ethanol from whole cassava flour is best produced from cultivars with high starch content, low protein content, and low fiber.

  4. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  5. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  6. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  7. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......-ethanol production will not lead to reduction but to increase in CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Both first and second generation bio-ethanol suffer from a biomass-to-ethanol energy conversion efficiency as low as 30-40 %, and moreover external fossil fuels are used to run the conversion. There is only......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  8. A Combined CFD/Characteristic Method for Prediction and Design of Hypersonic Inlet with Nose Bluntness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenzhi; Li, Zhufei; Yang, Jiming

    Leading edge bluntness is widely used in hypersonic inlet design for thermal protection[1]. Detailed research of leading edge bluntness on hypersonic inlet has been concentrated on shock shape correlation[2], boundary layer flow[3], inlet performance[4], etc. It is well known that blunted noses cause detached bow shocks which generate subsonic regions around the noses and entropy layers in the flowfield.

  9. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  10. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  11. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  12. Effect of subchronic administration of ethanolic leaf extract of croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemical effcts of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus on serum alkaline phosphatase(SAP),aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ,alanine aminotransferase(ALT),serum total protein and albumin were studied.The levels of these enzymes and that of total protein and albumin in the extract treated rats were not ...

  13. Blunt Splenic Trauma in Children : Are We Too Careful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, W. J. J.; Nellensteijn, D. R.; ten Duis, H. J.; Albers, M. J. I. J.; El Moumni, M.; Hulscher, J. B. F.

    Introduction: There has been a shift from operative treatment (OT) to non-operative treatment (NOT) of splenic injury. We evaluated the outcomes of treatment of pediatric patients with blunt splenic trauma in our hospital, with special focus on the outcomes after NOT. Patients and Methods: The data

  14. Delayed splenic rupture presenting 70 days following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resteghini, Nancy; Nielsen, Jonpaul; Hoimes, Matthew L; Karam, Adib R

    2014-01-01

    Delayed splenic rupture following conservative management of splenic injury is an extremely rare complication. We report a case of an adult patient who presented with delayed splenic rupture necessitating splenectomy, 2 months following blunt abdominal trauma. Imaging at the initial presentation demonstrated only minimal splenic contusion and the patient was discharge following 24 hours of observation. © 2014.

  15. Determinants of splenectomy in splenic injuries following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkuolie, A A; Lawal, O O; Arowolo, O A; Agbakwuru, E A; Adesunkanmi, A R K

    2010-02-01

    The management of splenic injuries has shifted from splenectomy to splenic preservation owing to the risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). This study aimed to identify the factors that determine splenectomy in patients with isolated splenic injuries, with a view to increasing the rate of splenic preservation. Files of 55 patients managed for isolated splenic injuries from blunt abdominal trauma between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively analysed using a pro forma. Management options were classified into nonoperative, operative salvage and splenectomy. The majority of patients suffered splenic injury as a result of motor vehicle accident (MVA) trauma or falls. Splenectomy was undertaken in 33 (60%) patients, 12 (22%) had non-operative management, and operative salvage was achieved in 10 (18%) patients. Significant determinants of splenectomy were grade of splenic injury, hierarchy of the surgeon, and hierarchy of the assistant. MVA injury and falls accounted for the vast majority of blunt abdominal trauma in this study. The rate and magnitude of energy transferred versus splenic protective mechanisms at the time of blunt abdominal trauma seems to determine the grade of splenic injury. Interest in splenic salvage surgery, availability of technology that enables splenic salvage surgery, and the experience of the surgeon and assistant appear to determine the surgical management. Legislation on vehicle safety and good parental control may reduce the severity of splenic injury in blunt abdominal trauma. When surgery is indicated, salvage surgery should be considered in intermediate isolated splenic injury to reduce the incidence of OPSI.

  16. Microstructural modelling of creep crack growth from a blunted crack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.; Giessen, E. van der

    1998-01-01

    The effect of crack tip blunting on the initial stages of creep crack growth is investigated by means of a planar microstructural model in which grains are represented discretely. The actual linking-up process of discrete microcracks with the macroscopic crack is simulated, with full account of the

  17. The Role of Computed Tomography in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Bahadur Karki

    2016-10-01

    aim of this study is to determine the validity of CT scan as an accurate diagnostic tool and its role in management of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Methods: A prospective analysis of 80 patients of blunt abdomen trauma who were admitted in Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal within a span of 15 months was done. Demographic data, mechanism of trauma, management and outcomes were studied. Organ injuries were graded using the Organ Injury Scale guidelines. Results: Most of the patients in our study were in the age group of 21-40 years with an M: F ratio of 2.3:1. Road traf c accident (47.5% was the most common mechanism of injury. Spleen (27.5% was the commonest organ injured. CT scan was superior to FAST scan and had sensitivity of 97.3% speci city 75% positive predictive value 98.6%. FAST scan had sensitivity of 78.9%, speci city 50%, positive predictive value 96% with p- value of 0.0034. 81% of patients were conservatively managed. Conclusion: In conjunction with close clinical monitoring, CT scan is reliable in the evaluation and management of blunt abdominal trauma patients. Our study also shows CT as a superior diagnostic modality compared to FAST scan. Keywords: blunt abdominal trauma; CT scan; FAST scan; road traf c accident.

  18. Factors for failure of nonoperative management of blunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim is to evaluate factors for failure of NOM for blunt abdominal ... and contrast blush on the CT scan increase the risk of failure of NOM .... Lung contusion. 23 (16.1) .... abscesses, delayed hepatic or splenic bleeding, bilomas, and missed ...

  19. Effects of imposed monitoring and blunting strategies on emotional reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, Peter; Jong, de Peter; Merckelbach, Harald; van Zuuren, Florence J.

    1994-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of imposed monitoring and blunting coping strategies on emotional reactivity in 40 subjects who prepared themselves for upcoming neutral and aversive slides. Besides subjective indices, electrodermal measures and eye blink startle responses were used to

  20. Unusual blunt force wound produced by a gun muzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlick, R; Zaki, S A

    1986-09-01

    Most blunt force injuries produced by guns are associated with gun butts, and patterned, muzzle/sight impressions are usually produced by discharging firearms. An unusual and distinct forehead laceration produced by a blow with the muzzle end of a .32 caliber revolver is presented.

  1. Use of urethral catheters for diagnostic peritoneal lavage in blunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) has been reported to be a reliable diagnostic tool in assessing the need for liparotomy in blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) with a diagnostic accuracy of more thin 95% when using a peritoneal lavage catheter (PLC). The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic ...

  2. Transient electrocardiographic abnormalities following blunt chest trauma in a child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udink ten Cate, Floris; Heerde, van Marc; Rammeloo, Lukas; Hruda, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Blunt cardiac injury may occur in patients after suffering nonpenetrating trauma of the chest. It encompasses a wide spectrum of cardiac injury with varied severity and clinical presentation. Electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequently encountered. This article presents a case of a child

  3. Blunt injuries to the abdomen in Makurdi, Benue State: Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Splenic rupture was the commonest intra abdominal injury and was managed by splenectomy in all cases. Delay in presentation and slow reaction time were observed. These worsened the haemodynamic instability and further accounted for the high mortality rate of 26.6%. Keywords: blunt injuries, road traffic accidents

  4. Evaluation and Management of Blunt Solid Organ Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan G; Shah, Jay; Robinson, Craig; Dariushnia, Sean

    2017-12-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death in patients under the age of 45 and generally associated with a high kinetic energy event such as a motor vehicle accident or fall from extreme elevations. Blunt trauma can affect every organ system and major vascular structure with potentially devastating effect. When we consider abdominal solid organ injury from blunt trauma, we usually think of the liver, spleen, and kidneys. However, all of the abdominal organs, including the pancreas and adrenal glands, may be involved. Blunt hepatic trauma is more commonly associated with venous bleeding rather than arterial injury. Stable venous injury is often managed conservatively; when the patient is hemodynamically unstable from venous hepatic injury, operative management should be first-line therapy. When the injury is arterial, endovascular therapy should be initiated. Blunt trauma to the spleen is the most common cause of traumatic injury to the spleen. Management is controversial. In our institution unstable patients are taken to the operating room, and stable patients with Grades IV-V injuries and patients with active arterial injury are taken for endovascular treatment. Renal injuries are less common, and evidence of arterial injury such as active extravasation or pseudoaneurysm is warranted before endovascular therapy. Pancreatic trauma is uncommon and usually secondary to steering wheel/handlebar mechanism injuries. Adrenal injuries are rare in the absence of megatrauma or underlying adrenal abnormality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pancreatic injuries after blunt abdominal trauma: an analysis of 110 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objective. Injuries to the pancreas are uncommon, but may result in considerable morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the management of blunt pancreatic injuries using a previously defined protocol to determine which factors predicted morbidity and mortality. Methods. The study design was a ...

  6. Gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, E A; Nmadu, P T

    2004-04-01

    To determine the pattern, presentation and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children. A retrospective study. Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Twenty one children managed for gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma from 1984-2002. The pattern, presentation, management and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma. In the 19 year period, 1984-2002, 92 children were treated for blunt abdominal trauma, 21(23%) of who had injuries to the gastrointestinal tract. Three presenting after 24 hours had evidence of peritonitis. In six children with isolated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) injury who presented within two hours, abdominal signs were vague at initial evaluation but became marked over a few hours at repeated examination. In eight with associated intraabdominal injuries, abdominal signs were marked at initial examination and five presented with shock. Free peritoneal air was present on plain abdominal and chest radiograph in three of ten patients, dilated bowel loops in six and fluid levels in one. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage or paracentesis was positive in four patients with isolated GIT injuries and eight with associated intraabdominal injuries. There were 24 injuries in the 21 patients consisting of 15 perforations, five contusions, two seromuscular tears, and two gangrene from mesenteric injury. The small intestine was involved in 11 patients, colon six, stomach five, duodenum one and rectum one. Seven (35%) patients had associated extraabdominal injuries. Treatment consisted of simple closure of perforations, over sewing of contusions, resection and anastomosis for gangrene and repair with protective stoma for the rectal injury. One patient each developed prolonged ileus, urinary tract infection and chest infection, respectively postoperatively. Mortality was 28%, all of who had associated intraabdominal or extraabdominal injuries. Gastrointestinal injury from blunt abdominal trauma in

  7. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine production by primary airway smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Kalita, Mridul [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Calhoun, William J., E-mail: William.Calhoun@utmb.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Both chronic and binge alcohol abuse can be significant risk factors for inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, metabolic basis of alcohol-related lung disease is not well defined, and may include key metabolites of ethanol [EtOH] in addition to EtOH itself. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EtOH, acetaldehyde [ACE], and fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB p65 in primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated to produce cytokines using LPS exposure. Both FAEEs and ACE induced evidence of cellular oxidative stress and ER stress, and increased p-NF-κB in nuclear extracts. EtOH and its metabolites decreased p-AMPKα activation, and induced expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of sirtuin 1. In general, EtOH decreased secretion of IP-10, IL-6, eotaxin, GCSF, and MCP-1. However, FAEEs and ACE increased these cytokines, suggesting that both FAEEs and ACE as compared to EtOH itself are proinflammatory. A direct effect of EtOH could be consistent with blunted immune response. Collectively, these two features of EtOH exposure, coupled with the known inhibition of innate immune response in our model might explain some clinical manifestations of EtOH exposure in the lung. - Highlights: • Metabolic basis for EtOH toxicity was studied in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. • In HASM cells, EtOH metabolites were found to be relatively more toxic than EtOH itself. • EtOH metabolites mediate deactivation of AMPK via oxidative stress and ER stress. • EtOH metabolites were found to be more proinflammatory than EtOH itself in HASM cells.

  8. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine production by primary airway smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Kalita, Mridul; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Both chronic and binge alcohol abuse can be significant risk factors for inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, metabolic basis of alcohol-related lung disease is not well defined, and may include key metabolites of ethanol [EtOH] in addition to EtOH itself. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EtOH, acetaldehyde [ACE], and fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB p65 in primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated to produce cytokines using LPS exposure. Both FAEEs and ACE induced evidence of cellular oxidative stress and ER stress, and increased p-NF-κB in nuclear extracts. EtOH and its metabolites decreased p-AMPKα activation, and induced expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of sirtuin 1. In general, EtOH decreased secretion of IP-10, IL-6, eotaxin, GCSF, and MCP-1. However, FAEEs and ACE increased these cytokines, suggesting that both FAEEs and ACE as compared to EtOH itself are proinflammatory. A direct effect of EtOH could be consistent with blunted immune response. Collectively, these two features of EtOH exposure, coupled with the known inhibition of innate immune response in our model might explain some clinical manifestations of EtOH exposure in the lung. - Highlights: • Metabolic basis for EtOH toxicity was studied in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. • In HASM cells, EtOH metabolites were found to be relatively more toxic than EtOH itself. • EtOH metabolites mediate deactivation of AMPK via oxidative stress and ER stress. • EtOH metabolites were found to be more proinflammatory than EtOH itself in HASM cells.

  9. Rolling and scrolling: The portrayal of marijuana cigars (blunts) on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, LaTrice; Yockey, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Blunts are partially or fully hollowed-out cigars or cigarillos that are filled with marijuana. Despite the high prevalence of blunt use, very few studies assess this specific method of cannabis administration. YouTube, a popular video-sharing website, has the potential to provide insights into blunt use. The purpose of this study was to examine the content of YouTube videos that discuss blunts. A sample of 41 videos was coded for content. The 41 videos had a total of 27,579,636 views. Most of the individuals in the videos were male (85%) and many appeared to be White (80%) and under the age of 25 (46%). Only 34% of the videos had an age restriction. The majority of messages in the videos promoted blunt use (93%) and showed at least one person rolling (76%) and/or smoking (66%) a blunt. The videos mainly consisted of introductions to blunt use (76%) and tips and personal experiences with blunt use (73%). YouTube videos on blunt use are readily available and primarily promote the use of blunts. Future research should continue to monitor YouTube content and develop videos on social media platforms that inform consumers of the health effects associated with blunt use.

  10. Effect of ethanol on placenta and liver of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarachand, U.; Eapen, Jacob

    1977-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of ethanol in drinking water for 15 days induces fatty liver in non-pregnant female mice. A similar regimen fails to produce the same effect in liver and placenta of pregnant mice. In vivo incorporation of 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolysate into hepatic proteins, however, is impaired in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant mice following ethanol treatment. Placental and foetal liver protein syntheses remain unaffected by the treatment. A single intraperitoneal dose of ethanol in fed and fasted non-pregnant mice elicits a differential response with respect to incorporation of the labelled precursor. The results are discussed with reference to the apparent metabolic alterations due to pregnancy. (author)

  11. In vivo blunt-end cloning through CRISPR/Cas9-facilitated non-homologous end-joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Jonathan M.; Turan, Sören; Hernandez, Sophia; Spector, Laura P.; Calos, Michele P.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system facilitates precise DNA modifications by generating RNA-guided blunt-ended double-strand breaks. We demonstrate that guide RNA pairs generate deletions that are repaired with a high level of precision by non-homologous end-joining in mammalian cells. We present a method called knock-in blunt ligation for exploiting these breaks to insert exogenous PCR-generated sequences in a homology-independent manner without loss of additional nucleotides. This method is useful for making precise additions to the genome such as insertions of marker gene cassettes or functional elements, without the need for homology arms. We successfully utilized this method in human and mouse cells to insert fluorescent protein cassettes into various loci, with efficiencies up to 36% in HEK293 cells without selection. We also created versions of Cas9 fused to the FKBP12-L106P destabilization domain in an effort to improve Cas9 performance. Our in vivo blunt-end cloning method and destabilization-domain-fused Cas9 variant increase the repertoire of precision genome engineering approaches. PMID:26762978

  12. Subacute ethanol consumption reverses p-xylene-induced decreases in axonal transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, S.; Lyerly, D.L.; Pope, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    Organic solvants, as a class, have been implicated as neurotoxic agents in humans and laboratory animals. The study was designed to assess the interaction between subacute ingestion of moderate levels of ethanol and the p-xylene-induced decreases in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and axonal transport in the rat optic system. The results indicated that animals maintained on 10% ethanol as a drinking liquid show less p-xylene-induced neurotoxicity than animals receiving no ethanol supplement.

  13. Operant ethanol self-administration in ethanol dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2014-05-01

    While rats have been predominantly used to study operant ethanol self-administration behavior in the context of dependence, several studies have employed operant conditioning procedures to examine changes in ethanol self-administration behavior as a function of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in mice. This review highlights some of the advantages of using operant conditioning procedures for examining the motivational effects of ethanol in animals with a history of dependence. As reported in rats, studies using various operant conditioning procedures in mice have demonstrated significant escalation of ethanol self-administration behavior in mice rendered dependent via forced chronic ethanol exposure in comparison to nondependent mice. This paper also presents a summary of these findings, as well as suggestions for future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-10

    Ethanol is produced by fermentation with a photohardening resin-immobilized yeast preparation. The ethanol producing yeast may be selected from Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, or Schizosaccharomyces. The photohardening resin for yeast immobilization is a hydrophilic unsaturated compound, especially polyurethane acrylate, with an average molecular weight of 300-80,000 and containing at least 2 photopolymerizable ethylene groups. The immobilized yeast preparation is prepared by irradiating an aqueous suspension of yeast and a photohardening resin with UV light; the average size of the immobilized yeast is 0.1-3.0 mm and with various shapes. Thus, an aqueous suspension containing Saccharomyces formosensis cells (5 parts), a poly(ethylene glycol)isopharone diisocyanate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer (50 parts), and benzoin ethyl ether (0.5 parts) was homogenized, spread on a polypropylene tray (1.0 mm depth), and irradiated with a 3600 A Hg lamp for 5-10 minutes to form a yeast-containing polyurethane acrylate sheet (1.0 mm thickness), which was then sliced into bits of approximately 1.0 mm. When a molasses substrate solution (pH 4.5-5.0) was passed through a column (200 x 20 mm) packed with the polyurethane acrylate-immobilized yeast preparation, eluates containing 7% (weight/volume) ethanol were produced for >3000 hours.

  15. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  16. Effects of ethanol and NAP on cerebellar expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon M Fitzgerald

    Full Text Available The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is critical for brain development and plays a role in learning and memory in the adult. Ethanol inhibits L1-mediated cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs, and these actions might underlie the cerebellar dysmorphology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The peptide NAP potently blocks ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and prevents ethanol teratogenesis. We used quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting of extracts of cerebellar slices, CGNs, and astrocytes from postnatal day 7 (PD7 rats to investigate whether ethanol and NAP act in part by regulating the expression of L1. Treatment of cerebellar slices with 20 mM ethanol, 10(-12 M NAP, or both for 4 hours, 24 hours, and 10 days did not significantly affect L1 mRNA and protein levels. Similar treatment for 4 or 24 hours did not regulate L1 expression in primary cultures of CGNs and astrocytes, the predominant cerebellar cell types. Because ethanol also damages the adult cerebellum, we studied the effects of chronic ethanol exposure in adult rats. One year of binge drinking did not alter L1 gene and protein expression in extracts from whole cerebellum. Thus, ethanol does not alter L1 expression in the developing or adult cerebellum; more likely, ethanol disrupts L1 function by modifying its conformation and signaling. Likewise, NAP antagonizes the actions of ethanol without altering L1 expression.

  17. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  18. Deficient PKR in RAX/PKR Association Ameliorates Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Jian; Qi, Yuanlin; Dai, Lu; Zhang, Mingfang; Frank, Jacqueline A; Handshoe, Jonathan W; Cui, Jiajun; Xu, Wenhua; Chen, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Ethanol-induced neuronal loss is closely related to the pathogenesis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The cerebellum is one of the brain areas that are most sensitive to ethanol. The mechanism underlying ethanol neurotoxicity remains unclear. Our previous in vitro studies have shown that the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) regulates neuronal apoptosis upon ethanol exposure and ethanol activates PKR through association with its intracellular activator RAX. However, the role of PKR and its interaction with RAX in vivo have not been investigated. In the current study, by utilizing N-PKR-/- mice, C57BL/6J mice with a deficient RAX-binding domain in PKR, we determined the critical role of RAX/PKR association in PKR-regulated ethanol neurotoxicity in the developing cerebellum. Our data indicate that while N-PKR-/- mice have a similar BAC profile as wild-type mice, ethanol induces less brain/body mass reduction as well as cerebellar neuronal loss. In addition, ethanol promotes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion, and IL-1β is a master cytokine regulating inflammatory response. Importantly, ethanol-promoted IL-1β secretion is inhibited in the developing cerebellum of N-PKR-/- mice. Thus, RAX/PKR interaction and PKR activation regulate ethanol neurotoxicity in the developing cerebellum, which may involve ethanol-induced neuroinflammation. Further, PKR could be a possible target for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).

  19. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Shinsuke.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author)

  20. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Watanabe, Shinsuke

    1991-09-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author).

  1. Transcatheter Embolization for Delayed Hemorrhage Caused by Blunt Splenic Trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohmer, Steven J.; Hoffer, Eric K.; Burchard, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    Although the exact benefit of adjunctive splenic artery embolization (SAE) in the nonoperative management (NOM) of patients with blunt splenic trauma has been debated, the role of transcatheter embolization in delayed splenic hemorrhage is rarely addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SAE in the management of patients who presented at least 3 days after initial splenic trauma with delayed hemorrhage. During a 24-month period 4 patients (all male; ages 19-49 years) presented with acute onset of pain 5-70 days after blunt trauma to the left upper quadrant. Two had known splenic injuries that had been managed nonoperatively. All had computed axial tomography evidence of active splenic hemorrhage or false aneurysm on representation. All underwent successful SAE. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 370 days. These cases and a review of the literature indicate that SAE is safe and effective for NOM failure caused by delayed manifestations of splenic arterial injury.

  2. CT of blunt pancreatic trauma-A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, Sudhakar Kundapur; Wan, John Mun Chin

    2008-01-01

    Blunt trauma to pancreas is uncommon and clinical features are often non-specific and unreliable leading to possible delays in diagnosis and therefore increased morbidity. CT has been established as the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of abdominal solid-organ injury in the blunt trauma patient. The introduction of multidetector-row CT allows for high resolution scans and multiplanar reformations that improve diagnosis. Detection of pancreatic injuries on CT requires knowledge of the subtle changes produced by pancreatic injury. The CT appearance of pancreatic injury ranges from a normal initial appearance of the pancreas to active pancreatic bleeding. Knowledge of CT signs of pancreatic trauma and a high index of suspicion is required in diagnosing pancreatic injury

  3. Blunt apical dissection during anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Saif

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meticulous apical dissection during a radical prostatectomy is imperative to achieve desirable pathologic and quality of life outcomes. Findings We describe a novel technique using careful blunt dissection to better delineate the apex of the prostate, providing a simple means to potentially lessen positive surgical margins at the apex and promote better continence and erectile function in men undergoing an anatomic radical prostatectomy. Median operative time and blood loss were 190 minutes and 675 mL, respectively. Only 10 percent of the patients with positive surgical margins were found to have apical positive surgical margins. Ninety-three percent of patients reported no urinary leakage. Conclusion We believe our technique of isolating the DVC with blunt dissection and then ligating and transecting the DVC to be feasible approach that requires larger studies to truly confirm its utility.

  4. Physiological blunting during pregnancy extends to induced relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A; Mendelson, Tamar; Williams, Erica L; Costigan, Kathleen A

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that pregnancy is accompanied by hyporesponsivity to physical, cognitive, and psychological challenges. This study evaluates whether observed autonomic blunting extends to conditions designed to decrease arousal. Physiological and psychological responsivity to an 18-min guided imagery relaxation protocol in healthy pregnant women during the 32nd week of gestation (n=54) and non-pregnant women (n=28) was measured. Data collection included heart period (HP), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), tonic and phasic measures of skin conductance (SCL and NS-SCR), respiratory period (RP), and self-reported psychological relaxation. As expected, responses to the manipulation included increased HP, RSA, and RP and decreased SCL and NS-SCR, followed by post-manipulation recovery. However, responsivity was attenuated for all physiological measures except RP in pregnant women, despite no difference in self-reported psychological relaxation. Findings support non-specific blunting of physiological responsivity during pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-detector row computed tomography and blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaglione, Mariano; Pinto, Antonio; Pedrosa, Ivan; Sparano, Amelia; Romano, Luigia

    2008-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. The clinical presentation of trauma patients varies widely from one individual to another and ranges from minor reports of pain to shock. Knowledge of the mechanism of injury, the time of injury, estimates of motor vehicle accident velocity and deceleration, and evidence of associated injury to other systems are all salient features to provide for an adequate assessment of chest trauma. Multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanning and MDCT-angiography are being used more frequently in the diagnosis of patients with chest trauma. The high sensitivity of MDCT has increased the recognized spectrum of injuries. This new technology can be regarded as an extremely valuable adjunct to physical examination to recognize suspected and unsuspected blunt chest trauma

  6. Canada's directory of ethanol retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This document is a directory listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer by province from west to east. Appendices providing a list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels was also included, as well as a list of ethanol-blended gasoline retailers

  7. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Boroumand, Nahal [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Hyunsu, Ju [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Calhoun, William J. [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  8. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  9. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybholt, Lasse Gliemann; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    on atherosclerosis marker VCAM-1. Sirtuin 1 protein levels were not affected by resveratrol supplementation. These findings indicate that, whereas exercise training effectively improves several cardiovascular health parameters in aged men, concomitant resveratrol supplementation blunts most of these effects.......Aging is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which, in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1.......02) and muscle TBX synthase was higher in the resveratrol group after training (P effects of exercise on LDL, TC/HDL ratio and triglycerides concentrations in blood (P effect of exercise training...

  10. T1r3 taste receptor involvement in gustatory neural responses to ethanol and oral ethanol preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Susan M; Norman, Meghan B; Lemon, Christian H

    2010-05-01

    Elevated alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced preference for sweet substances across species and may be mediated by oral alcohol-induced activation of neurobiological substrates for sweet taste. Here, we directly examined the contribution of the T1r3 receptor protein, important for sweet taste detection in mammals, to ethanol intake and preference and the neural processing of ethanol taste by measuring behavioral and central neurophysiological responses to oral alcohol in T1r3 receptor-deficient mice and their C57BL/6J background strain. T1r3 knockout and wild-type mice were tested in behavioral preference assays for long-term voluntary intake of a broad concentration range of ethanol, sucrose, and quinine. For neurophysiological experiments, separate groups of mice of each genotype were anesthetized, and taste responses to ethanol and stimuli of different taste qualities were electrophysiologically recorded from gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Mice lacking the T1r3 receptor were behaviorally indifferent to alcohol (i.e., ∼50% preference values) at concentrations typically preferred by wild-type mice (5-15%). Central neural taste responses to ethanol in T1r3-deficient mice were significantly lower compared with C57BL/6J controls, a strain for which oral ethanol stimulation produced a concentration-dependent activation of sweet-responsive NTS gustatory neurons. An attenuated difference in ethanol preference between knockouts and controls at concentrations >15% indicated that other sensory and/or postingestive effects of ethanol compete with sweet taste input at high concentrations. As expected, T1r3 knockouts exhibited strongly suppressed behavioral and neural taste responses to sweeteners but did not differ from wild-type mice in responses to prototypic salt, acid, or bitter stimuli. These data implicate the T1r3 receptor in the sensory detection and transduction of ethanol taste.

  11. MANAGEMENT OF SPLENIC INJURY AFTER BLUNT INJURY TO ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bharath Prakash Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The spleen is an important organ in the body’s immune system. It is the most frequently injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. 1 Over the past several decades, diagnosis and management of splenic trauma has been evolved. The conservative, operative approach has been challenged by several reports of successful non-operative management aided by the power of modern diagnostic imaging. The aim of our prospective study was to compare non-operative management with surgery for cases of splenic injury. METHODS We conducted a prospective study of patients admitted with blunt splenic injury to our regional hospital over a three-year period (2012-2015. Haemodynamic status upon admission, FAST examination, computed tomography 2 grade of splenic tear, presence and severity of associated injuries have been taken into account to determine the treatment of choice. Therapeutic options were classified into non-operative and splenectomy. RESULTS Over a 3-year period, 24 patients were admitted with blunt splenic injury. Sixteen patients were managed operatively and eight patients non-operatively. 3,4 Non-operative management failed in one patient due to continued bleeding. The majority of grades I, II, and III splenic injuries were managed non-operatively and grades IV and V were managed operatively. Blood transfusion requirement was significantly higher among the operative group, but the operative group had a significantly longer hospital stay. Among those managed non-operatively (median age 24.5 years, a number of patients were followed up with CT scans with significant radiation exposure and unknown longterm consequences. CONCLUSION In our experience, NOM is the treatment of choice for grade I, II and III blunt splenic injuries. Splenectomy was the chosen technique in patients who met exclusion criteria for NOM, as well as for patients with grade IV and V injury.

  12. Are routine pelvic radiographs in major pediatric blunt trauma necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagisetty, Jyothi; Slovis, Thomas; Thomas, Ronald; Knazik, Stephen; Stankovic, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Screening pelvic radiographs to rule out pelvic fractures are routinely used for the initial evaluation of pediatric blunt trauma. Recently, the utility of routine pelvic radiographs in certain subsets of patients with blunt trauma has been questioned. There is a growing amount of evidence that shows the clinical exam is reliable enough to obviate the need for routine screening pelvic radiographs in children. To identify variables that help predict the presence or absence of pelvic fractures in pediatric blunt trauma. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 to January 2010 using the trauma registry at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. We analyzed all level 1 and level 2 trauma victims, evaluating history, exam and mechanism of injury for association with the presence or absence of a pelvic fracture. Of 553 level 1 and 2 trauma patients who presented during the study period, 504 were included in the study. Most of these children, 486/504 (96.4%), showed no evidence of a pelvic fracture while 18/504 (3.6%) had a pelvic fracture. No factors were found to be predictive of a pelvic fracture. However, we developed a pelvic fracture screening tool that accurately rules out the presence of a pelvic fracture P = 0.008, NPV 99, sensitivity 96, 8.98 (1.52-52.8). This screening tool combines eight high-risk clinical findings (pelvic tenderness, laceration, ecchymosis, abrasion, GCS <14, positive urinalysis, abdominal pain/tenderness, femur fracture) and five high-risk mechanisms of injury (unrestrained motor vehicle collision [MVC], MVC with ejection, MVC rollover, auto vs. pedestrian, auto vs. bicycle). Pelvic fractures in pediatric major blunt trauma can reliably be ruled out by using our pelvic trauma screening tool. Although no findings accurately identified the presence of a pelvic fracture, the screening tool accurately identified the absence of a fracture, suggesting that pelvic radiographs are not warranted in this subset of patients. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of Secondary Ultrasound Exam in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabzadeh Kanafi, Alireza; Giti, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Mohammad Hossein; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Pourghorban, Ramin; Shekarchi, Babak

    2014-01-01

    In stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma, accurate diagnosis of visceral injuries is crucial. To determine whether repeating ultrasound exam will increase the sensitivity of focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) through revealing additional free intraperitoneal fluid in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. We performed a prospective observational study by performing primary and secondary ultrasound exams in blunt abdominal trauma patients. All ultrasound exams were performed by four radiology residents who had the experience of more than 400 FAST exams. Five routine intraperitoneal spaces as well as the interloop space were examined by ultrasound in order to find free fluid. All patients who expired or were transferred to the operating room before the second exam were excluded from the study. All positive ultrasound results were compared with intra-operative and computed tomography (CT) findings and/or the clinical status of the patients. Primary ultrasound was performed in 372 patients; 61 of them did not undergo secondary ultrasound exam; thus, were excluded from the study.Three hundred eleven patients underwent both primary and secondary ultrasound exams. One hundred and two of all patients were evaluated by contrast enhanced CT scan and 31 underwent laparotomy. The sensitivity of ultrasound exam in detecting intraperitoneal fluid significantly increased from 70.7% for the primary exam to 92.7% for the secondary exam. Examining the interloop space significantly improved the sensitivity of ultrasonography in both primary (from 36.6% to 70.7%) and secondary (from 65.9% to 92.7%) exams. Performing a secondary ultrasound exam in stable blunt abdominal trauma patients and adding interloop space scan to the routine FAST exam significantly increases the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting intraperitoneal free fluid

  14. Are routine pelvic radiographs in major pediatric blunt trauma necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisetty, Jyothi; Slovis, Thomas; Thomas, Ronald; Knazik, Stephen; Stankovic, Curt

    2012-07-01

    Screening pelvic radiographs to rule out pelvic fractures are routinely used for the initial evaluation of pediatric blunt trauma. Recently, the utility of routine pelvic radiographs in certain subsets of patients with blunt trauma has been questioned. There is a growing amount of evidence that shows the clinical exam is reliable enough to obviate the need for routine screening pelvic radiographs in children. To identify variables that help predict the presence or absence of pelvic fractures in pediatric blunt trauma. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 to January 2010 using the trauma registry at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. We analyzed all level 1 and level 2 trauma victims, evaluating history, exam and mechanism of injury for association with the presence or absence of a pelvic fracture. Of 553 level 1 and 2 trauma patients who presented during the study period, 504 were included in the study. Most of these children, 486/504 (96.4%), showed no evidence of a pelvic fracture while 18/504 (3.6%) had a pelvic fracture. No factors were found to be predictive of a pelvic fracture. However, we developed a pelvic fracture screening tool that accurately rules out the presence of a pelvic fracture P = 0.008, NPV 99, sensitivity 96, 8.98 (1.52-52.8). This screening tool combines eight high-risk clinical findings (pelvic tenderness, laceration, ecchymosis, abrasion, GCS blunt trauma can reliably be ruled out by using our pelvic trauma screening tool. Although no findings accurately identified the presence of a pelvic fracture, the screening tool accurately identified the absence of a fracture, suggesting that pelvic radiographs are not warranted in this subset of patients.

  15. Blunt Facial Trauma Causing Isolated Optic Nerve Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Parab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic optic neuropathy is an uncommon, yet serious, result of facial trauma. The authors present a novel case of a 59-year-old gentleman who presented with an isolated blunt traumatic left optic nerve hematoma causing vision loss. There were no other injuries or fractures to report. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of this rare injury and reviews the current literature and management of traumatic optic neuropathy.

  16. Physiological blunting during pregnancy extends to induced relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Mendelson, Tamar; Williams, Erica L.; Costigan, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that pregnancy is accompanied by hyporesponsivity to physical, cognitive, and psychological challenges. This study evaluates whether observed autonomic blunting extends to conditions designed to decrease arousal. Physiological and psychological responsivity to an 18-minute guided imagery relaxation protocol in healthy pregnant women during the 32nd week of gestation (n = 54) and non-pregnant women (n = 28) was measured. Data collection included heart period (HP)...

  17. Penetrating cardiac injuries in blunt chest wall trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Sirohi, Parmendra

    2012-08-01

    The present photocase illustrates the possible mechanism of direct cardiac injuries from broken sharp jagged fractured ends of ribs in blunt force trauma to the chest in run over traffic mishaps. We propose that the projecting fractured ends of the ribs penetrate the underlying thoracic organs due to the transient phenomenon of deformation of chest cavity under pressure in run over traffic mishaps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Combat Helmet-Headform Coupling Characterized from Blunt Impact Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Testing was completed on a monorail drop tower to analyze the effect of helmet/headform coupling on the blunt impact behavior of ACH helmets using FMVSS...designates its own methods and test equipment: a drop tower ( monorail or twin- wire), headform (DOT, ISO, NOCSAE), headform CG accelerometer (single or...the more anthropomorphic International Standard Organization (ISO) half headform. Testing was completed on a monorail drop tower to analyze the effect

  19. Homicide by blunt force in 2 Scandinavian capitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogde, Sidsel; Hougen, Hans P; Poulsen, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In the Oslo and Copenhagen areas, 77 instances of blunt force homicides were committed from 1985-1994, accounting for 18% of all homicides in that 10-year period. Fifty-four (70%) of the victims were male, often killed by an acquaintance during a fight. Almost 70% of the female victims were kille...... were battered children. Many of the victims with a blood alcohol level of 0 turned out to have lived for some time after the injury....

  20. Are routine pelvic radiographs in major pediatric blunt trauma necessary?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagisetty, Jyothi [Memorial Hermann Medical Center, Emergency Medicine Department, Houston, TX (United States); Slovis, Thomas [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Thomas, Ronald [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Knazik, Stephen; Stankovic, Curt [Wayne State University of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Screening pelvic radiographs to rule out pelvic fractures are routinely used for the initial evaluation of pediatric blunt trauma. Recently, the utility of routine pelvic radiographs in certain subsets of patients with blunt trauma has been questioned. There is a growing amount of evidence that shows the clinical exam is reliable enough to obviate the need for routine screening pelvic radiographs in children. To identify variables that help predict the presence or absence of pelvic fractures in pediatric blunt trauma. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 to January 2010 using the trauma registry at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. We analyzed all level 1 and level 2 trauma victims, evaluating history, exam and mechanism of injury for association with the presence or absence of a pelvic fracture. Of 553 level 1 and 2 trauma patients who presented during the study period, 504 were included in the study. Most of these children, 486/504 (96.4%), showed no evidence of a pelvic fracture while 18/504 (3.6%) had a pelvic fracture. No factors were found to be predictive of a pelvic fracture. However, we developed a pelvic fracture screening tool that accurately rules out the presence of a pelvic fracture P = 0.008, NPV 99, sensitivity 96, 8.98 (1.52-52.8). This screening tool combines eight high-risk clinical findings (pelvic tenderness, laceration, ecchymosis, abrasion, GCS <14, positive urinalysis, abdominal pain/tenderness, femur fracture) and five high-risk mechanisms of injury (unrestrained motor vehicle collision [MVC], MVC with ejection, MVC rollover, auto vs. pedestrian, auto vs. bicycle). Pelvic fractures in pediatric major blunt trauma can reliably be ruled out by using our pelvic trauma screening tool. Although no findings accurately identified the presence of a pelvic fracture, the screening tool accurately identified the absence of a fracture, suggesting that pelvic radiographs are not warranted in this subset of patients. (orig.)

  1. Pneumoperitoneum in a patient with pneumothorax and blunt neck trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Yaqoob Hakim

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Free air in the abdomen after blunt traumatic neck injury is very rare. If pneumoperitoneum is suspected in the presence of pneumothorax, exploratory laparotomy should be performed to rule out intraabdominal injury. As, there is no consensus for this plan yet, further prospective studies are warrant. Conservative management for pneumoperitoneum in the absence of viscus perforation is still a safe option in carefully selected cases.

  2. Development of a murine model of blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A; Hwang, Haejin; Hampel, Joseph A; Yu, Bi; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2013-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of blunt hepatic trauma in humans, there are few rodent models of blunt trauma that can be used to study the associated inflammatory responses. We present a mouse model of blunt hepatic trauma that was created by using a cortical contusion device. Male mice were anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine-buprenorphine and placed in left lateral recumbency. A position of 2 mm ventral to the posterior axillary line and 5 mm caudal to the costal margin on the right side was targeted for impact. An impact velocity of 6 m/s and a piston depth of 12 mm produced a consistent pattern of hepatic injury with low mortality. All mice that recovered from anesthesia survived without complication for the length of the study. Mice were euthanized at various time points (n = 5 per group) until 7 d after injury for gross examination and collection of blood and peritoneal lavage fluids. Some mice were reanesthetized for serial monitoring of hepatic lesions via MRI. At 2 h after trauma, mice consistently displayed laceration, hematoma, and discoloration of the right lateral and caudate liver lobes, with intraabdominal hemorrhage but no other gross injuries. Blood and peritoneal lavage fluid were collected from all mice for cytokine analysis. At 2 h after trauma, there were significant increases in plasma IL10 as well as peritoneal lavage fluid IL6 and CXCL1/KC; however, these levels decreased within 24 h. At 7 d after trauma, the mice had regained body weight, and the hepatic lesions, which initially had increased in size during the first 48 h, had returned to their original size. In summary, this technique produced a reliable, low mortality, murine model that recreates features of blunt abdominal liver injury in human subjects with similar acute inflammatory response.

  3. Thyroid gland rupture caused by blunt trauma to the neck

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Hirotaka; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid rupture following blunt trauma is extremely rare, and neck pain without swelling may be the only presenting symptom. However, hemorrhage and hematoma subsequently causes severe tracheal compression and respiratory distress. Case presentation A 71-year-old Japanese woman visited our emergency room with a complaint of increasing right-sided neck pain at the thyroid cartilage level after she tripped and accidentally hit her neck against a pole 3?h back. On admission, her vital...

  4. Non-operative management of adult blunt splenic injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; GAO Jin-mou; Jean-Claude Baste

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the indication of nonoperative management of adult blunt splenic injuries.Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all adult patients (age > 15 years ) with blunt splenic injuries admitted to the department of vascular surgery of Pellegrin hospital in France from 1999 to 2003. We managed splenic injuries non-operatively in all appropriate patients without regard to age.Results: During the 4 years, 54 consecutive adult patients with blunt splenic injuries were treated in the hospital. A total of 27 patients with stable hemodynamic status were treated non-operatively at first, of which 2 patients were failed to non-operative treatment. The successful percentage of non-operative management was 92.6 %. In the 54 patients, 7 of 8 patients older than 55 years were treated with non-operative management. Two cases developing postoperatively subphrenic infection were healed by proper treatment. In the series, there was no death.Conclusions: Non-operative management of low-grade splenic injuries can be accomplished with an acceptable low-failure rate. If the clinical and laboratory parameters difficult for surgeons to make decisions, they can depend on Resciniti' s CT (computed tomography)scoring system to select a subset of adults with splenic trauma who are excellent candidates for a trial of nonoperative management. The patients older than 55 years are not absolutely inhibited to receive non-operative management.

  5. A rare case of traumatic chylothorax after blunt thoracic trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chylothorax is an accumulation of chyle in the pleural cavity due to a disruption of the thoracic duct. Traumatic chylothoraces are usually a result of a penetrating trauma and disruption of the thoracic duct, but blunt traumatic chylothorax is a rare condition. The aim of this paper is to present a rare case of traumatic chylothorax after blunt thoracic trauma. Case Outline. We present a case of traumatic chylothorax after blunt thoracic trauma in a patient injured in a motor vehicle accident. The patient had a right-sided fracture of rib XI, hydropneumothorax, lung contusion, and signs of pneumomediastinum. We performed thoracic drainage, but a few days later, according to the increase of amount of the fluid daily drained, and the confirmation of laboratory findings of the analyzed fluid, we made a diagnosis of chylothorax and the patient underwent a thoracotomy, where we sutured the thoracic duct. Conclusion. Chylothorax should be considered in patients after chest trauma if they develop a milky pleural effusion. Analysis of pleural fluid and level of triglycerides is important for the diagnosis and treatment of chylothorax. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III41007

  6. Diagnostic imaging of blunt abdominal trauma in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Vittorio; Piccolo, Claudia Lucia; Trinci, Margherita; Galluzzo, Michele; Ianniello, Stefania; Brunese, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood, and blunt trauma accounts for 80-90 % of abdominal injuries. The mechanism of trauma is quite similar to that of the adults, but there are important physiologic differences between children and adults in this field, such as the smaller blood vessels and the high vasoconstrictive response, leading to the spreading of a non-operative management. The early imaging of children undergoing a low-energy trauma can be performed by CEUS, a valuable diagnostic tool to demonstrate solid organ injuries with almost the same sensitivity of CT scans; nevertheless, as for as urinary tract injuries, MDCT remains still the technique of choice, because of its high sensitivity and accuracy, helping to discriminate between an intra-peritoneal form a retroperitoneal urinary leakage, requiring two different managements. The liver is the most common organ injured in blunt abdominal trauma followed by the spleen. Renal, pancreatic, and bowel injuries are quite rare. In this review we present various imaging findings of blunt abdominal trauma in children.

  7. Computed tomography and nonoperative treatment for blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shinsuke; Ishi, Takashi; Kamachi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine if computed tomography (CT) could reliably assist physical examination in the initial assessment of blunt abdominal trauma, and also to examine how various abdominal injuries were managed with the guidance of CT. A total of 255 patients underwent emergency abdominal CT following blunt abdominal trauma over a period of seven years. One hundred and fifty two patients had abnormal CT scans, including 58 hepatic, 36 renal, 25 splenic and 9 pancreatic injuries as well as 67 patients with intra-abdominal hemorrhage and 21 patients with free abdominal air. A comparative study on the detection of pneumoperitoneum revealed CT to be far superior to plain radiography. One hundred and three patients had normal CT scans, all of whom were managed nonoperatively, except for three false-negative cases and two nontherapeutic cases. The patients with injury to the parenchymal organs were given nonoperative treatment if they had stable vital signs and no evidence of associated injuries demanding immediate surgery and the majority of these patients were managed well nonoperatively. CT was thus found to be a useful adjunct in the management of victims of blunt abdominal trauma, since in a rapid and noninvasive fashion, CT accurately defined the extent of parenchymal organ injury and also disclosed any other abdominal injuries. (author)

  8. Computed tomography and nonoperative treatment for blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Shinsuke; Ishi, Takashi; Kamachi, Masahiro [Saiseikai Shiga Hospital, Shiga (Japan); Takahashi, Toshio

    1990-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine if computed tomography (CT) could reliably assist physical examination in the initial assessment of blunt abdominal trauma, and also to examine how various abdominal injuries were managed with the guidance of CT. A total of 255 patients underwent emergency abdominal CT following blunt abdominal trauma over a period of seven years. One hundred and fifty two patients had abnormal CT scans, including 58 hepatic, 36 renal, 25 splenic and 9 pancreatic injuries as well as 67 patients with intra-abdominal hemorrhage and 21 patients with free abdominal air. A comparative study on the detection of pneumoperitoneum revealed CT to be far superior to plain radiography. One hundred and three patients had normal CT scans, all of whom were managed nonoperatively, except for three false-negative cases and two nontherapeutic cases. The patients with injury to the parenchymal organs were given nonoperative treatment if they had stable vital signs and no evidence of associated injuries demanding immediate surgery and the majority of these patients were managed well nonoperatively. CT was thus found to be a useful adjunct in the management of victims of blunt abdominal trauma, since in a rapid and noninvasive fashion, CT accurately defined the extent of parenchymal organ injury and also disclosed any other abdominal injuries. (author).

  9. Factors Associated with ICU Admission following Blunt Chest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bellone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blunt chest wall trauma accounts for over 10% of all trauma patients presenting to emergency departments worldwide. When the injury is not as severe, deciding which blunt chest wall trauma patients require a higher level of clinical input can be difficult. We hypothesized that patient factors, injury patterns, analgesia, postural condition, and positive airway pressure influence outcomes. Methods. The study population consisted of patients hospitalized with at least 3 rib fractures (RF and at least one pulmonary contusion and/or at least one pneumothorax lower than 2 cm. Results. A total of 140 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Ten patients (7.1% were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU within the first 72 hours, because of deterioration of the clinical conditions and gas exchange with worsening of chest X-ray/thoracic ultrasound/chest computed tomography. On univariable analysis and multivariable analysis, obliged orthopnea (p=0.0018 and the severity of trauma score (p<0.0002 were associated with admission to ICU. Conclusions. Obliged orthopnea was an independent predictor of ICU admission among patients incurring non-life-threatening blunt chest wall trauma. The main therapeutic approach associated with improved outcome is the prevention of pulmonary infections due to reduced tidal volume, namely, upright postural condition and positive airway pressure.

  10. Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic trauma: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Hackl, Michael; Müller, Lars Peter; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Frink, Michael; Lechler, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) has become the standard treatment in hemodynamically stable patients with blunt hepatic injuries. While the reported overall success rates of NOM are excellent, there is a lack of consensus regarding the risk factors predicting the failure of NOM. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the incidence and prognostic factors for failure of NOM in adult patients with blunt hepatic trauma. Prospective studies reporting prognostic factors for the failure of nonoperative treatment of blunt liver injuries were identified by searching MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We screened 798 titles and abstracts, of which 8 single-center prospective observational studies, reporting 410 patients, were included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis. No randomized controlled trials were found. The pooled failure rate of NOM was 9.5% (0-24%). Twenty-six prognostic factors predicting the failure of NOM were reported, of which six reached statistical significance in one or more studies: blood pressure (p hepatic injuries. Systematic review, level III.

  11. Primary hepatic artery embolization in pediatric blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Caroline C P; Toh, Luke; Lo, Richard H G; Yap, Te-Lu; Narasimhan, Kannan

    2012-12-01

    Non-operative management of isolated blunt hepatic trauma is recommended except when hemodynamic instability requires immediate laparotomy. Hepatic artery angioembolization is increasingly used for hepatic injuries with ongoing bleeding as demonstrated by contrast extravasation on the CT scan. It is used primarily or after laparotomy to control ongoing hemorrhage. Hepatic angioembolization as part of multimodality management of hepatic trauma is reported mainly in adults, with few pediatric case reports. We describe our institution experience with primary pediatric hepatic angioembolization and review the literature with regard to indications and complications. Two cases (3 and 8 years old), with high-grade blunt hepatic injuries with contrast extravasation on the CT scan were successfully managed by emergency primary hepatic angioembolization with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. To date, the only reports of pediatric hepatic angioembolization for trauma are 5 cases for acute bleeding and 15 delayed cases for pseudoaneurysm. The role of hepatic angioembolization in the presence of an arterial blush on CT in adults is accepted, but contested in a pediatric series, despite higher transfusion rate and mortality rate. We propose that hepatic angioembolization should be considered adjunct treatment, in lieu of, or in addition to emergency laparotomy for hemostasis in pediatric blunt hepatic injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethanol Production from Waste Potato Mash by Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Izmirlioglu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio-ethanol is one of the energy sources that can be produced by renewable sources. Waste potato mash was chosen as a renewable carbon source for ethanol fermentation because it is relatively inexpensive compared with other feedstock considered as food sources. However, a pretreatment process is needed: specifically, liquefaction and saccharification processes are needed to convert starch of potato into fermentable sugars before ethanol fermentation. In this study, hydrolysis of waste potato mash and growth parameters of the ethanol fermentation were optimized to obtain maximum ethanol production. In order to obtain maximum glucose conversions, the relationship among parameters of the liquefaction and saccharification process was investigated by a response surface method. The optimum combination of temperature, dose of enzyme (α-amylase and amount of waste potato mash was 95 °C, 1 mL of enzyme (18.8 mg protein/mL and 4.04 g dry-weight/100 mL DI water, with a 68.86% loss in dry weight for liquefaction. For saccharification, temperature, dose of enzyme and saccharification time were optimized and optimum condition was determined as 60 °C-72 h-0.8 mL (300 Unit/mL of amyloglucosidase combination, yielded 34.9 g/L glucose. After optimization of hydrolysis of the waste potato mash, ethanol fermentation was studied. Effects of pH and inoculum size were evaluated to obtain maximum ethanol. Results showed that pH of 5.5 and 3% inolculum size were optimum pH and inoculum size, respectively for maximum ethanol concentration and production rate. The maximum bio-ethanol production rate was obtained at the optimum conditions of 30.99 g/L ethanol. Since yeast extract is not the most economical nitrogen source, four animal-based substitutes (poultry meal, hull and fines mix, feather meal, and meat and bone meal were evaluated to determine an economical alternative nitrogen source to yeast extract. Poultry meal and feather meal were able to produce 35 g/L and

  13. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure fueling stations by location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about ethanol fueling infrastructure; codes, standards, and safety; and ethanol equipment options. Maps & Data E85 Fueling Station

  15. Ethanol induces MAP2 changes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    1998-01-01

    loss of CA3 pyramidal cells and moderate loss of dentate granule cells, as seen in vivo. The results indicate that brain slice cultures combined with immunostaining for cytoskeleton and neuronal markers can be used for studies of ethanol and organic solvent neurotoxicity.......Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific protein (NeuN) immunostains were used to demonstrate neurotoxic effects in mature hippocampal slice cultures exposed to ethanol (50, 100, 200 mM) for 4 weeks. At the low dose the density of MAP2 immunostaining in the dentate molecular...... layer was 118% of the control cultures, with no detectable changes in CA1 and CA3. At 100 mM no changes were detected, while 200 mM ethanol significantly reduced the MAP2 density in both dentate (19%) and hippocampal dendritic fields (CA3, 52%; CA1, 55%). At this dose NeuN staining showed considerable...

  16. Feeding rates affect stress and non-specific immune responses of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala subjected to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding rates on stress response, innate immunity and hypoxia resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding rates (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% of body weight/day) for 60 days. Then, fish were subjected to hypoxic conditions and haemato-immunological parameters were analyzed pre- and post-challenge. Low feed ration resulted in decreased liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione contents. Inadequate feeding also adversely affected the immune functions of fish, as was characterized by the relatively low haemato-immunological parameters (including alternative complement (ACH50), myeloperoxidase (MPO), plasma protein profiles and transferring) and high hypoxia-induced mortality. High feed ration did not lead to the improvement in antioxidant capability, immune responses and survival. In addition, plasma cortisol, glucose and transferrin levels as well as lysozyme activities all increased significantly after hypoxia challenge, whereas the opposite was true for plasma ACH50 and MPO activities as well as protein profiles in terms of hypoxia challenge. An interaction between feeding rate and hypoxia was also observed in plasma cortisol, glucose and protein profiles. In conclusion, a feeding rate of 4-5% of body weight/day is optimal to boost the innate immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. Low ration resulted in decreased antioxidant capability, compromised immune functions and reduced hypoxia resistance, while over feeding did not benefit the health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of ethanol-lysozyme interactions using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, M.S.; Mason, S.A.; McIntyre, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction has been used to observe the interactions between deuterated ethanol (CD3CD2OH) and lysozyme in triclinic crystals of hen egg white lysozyme soaked in 25% (v/v) ethanol solutions. A total of 6047 observed reflections to a resolution of 2 A were used, and 13 possible ethanol sites were identified. The three highest occupied sites are close to locations for bromoethanol found in an earlier study by Yonath et al. [Yonath, A., Podjarny, A., Honig, B., Traub, W., Sielecki, A., Herzberg, O., and Moult, J. (1978) Biophys. Struct. Mech. 4, 27-36]. Structure refinements including a model for the flat solvent lead to a final crystallographic agreement factor of 0.097. Comparison with earlier neutron studies on triclinic lysozyme showed that neither the molecular structure nor the thermal motions were affected significantly by the ethanol. A detailed analysis of the ethanol-lysozyme contacts showed 61% of these to be with hydrophobic sites, in agreement with the dominant hydrophobic nature of ethanol. This, together with the fact that the molecular structure of lysozyme is not perturbed, suggests a model for denaturation of lysozyme by alcohol, which proceeds via a dehydration of the protein at high alcohol concentration

  18. Transcriptome analysis of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7735 under ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Raphael Hermano Santos; Villada, Juan C; Alvim, Mariana Caroline Tocantins; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; Vieira, Nívea Moreira; Lamas-Maceiras, Mónica; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel; Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; da Silveira, Wendel Batista

    2017-09-01

    The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displays a potential to be used for ethanol production from both whey and lignocellulosic biomass at elevated temperatures, which is highly alluring to reduce the cost of the bioprocess. Nevertheless, contrary to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, K. marxianus cannot tolerate high ethanol concentrations. We report the transcriptional profile alterations in K. marxianus under ethanol stress in order to gain insights about mechanisms involved with ethanol response. Time-dependent changes have been characterized under the exposure of 6% ethanol and compared with the unstressed cells prior to the ethanol addition. Our results reveal that the metabolic flow through the central metabolic pathways is impaired under the applied ethanol stress. Consistent with these results, we also observe that genes involved with ribosome biogenesis are downregulated and gene-encoding heat shock proteins are upregulated. Remarkably, the expression of some gene-encoding enzymes related to unsaturated fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis decreases upon ethanol exposure, and free fatty acid and ergosterol measurements demonstrate that their content in K. marxianus does not change under this stress. These results are in contrast to the increase previously reported with S. cerevisiae subjected to ethanol stress and suggest that the restructuration of K. marxianus membrane composition differs in the two yeasts which gives important clues to understand the low ethanol tolerance of K. marxianus compared to S. cerevisiae.

  19. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayelly López-Islas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  20. [Optimization of fuel ethanol production from kitchen waste by Plackett-Burman design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Zhi; Gong, Li-Juan; Wang, Qun-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Yu; Xu, Wen-Long

    2008-05-01

    Kitchen garbage was chosen to produce ethanol through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Zymomonas mobilis. Plackett-Burman design was employed to screen affecting parameters during SSF process. The parameters were divided into two parts, enzymes and nutritions. None of the nutritions added showed significant effect during the experiment, which demonstrated that the kitchen garbage could meet the requirement of the microorganism without extra supplementation. Protease and glucoamylase were determined to be affecting factors for ethanol production. Single factor experiment showed that the optimum usage of these two enzymes were both 100 U/g and the corresponding maximum ethanol was determined to be 53 g/L. The ethanol yield could be as high as 44%. The utilization of kitchen garbage to produce ethanol could reduce threaten of waste as well as improve the protein content of the spent. This method could save the ethanol production cost and benefit for the recycle of kitchen garbage.

  1. Brazilian third world ethanol pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P

    1981-01-01

    A financial cost model has been developed in Brazil, under contract from th United Nations Industrial Development Organization, for fermentation ethanol production based on sugar cane molasses, sugar cane juice and cassava. The model is designed to help in analysing the feasibility and implementation of ethanol programs in developing countries.

  2. Ethanol from mixed waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstetter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable

  3. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperatureprogrammed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. Heating to 250 K resulted in formation of ethoxy groups, which undergo

  4. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of nociceptin/orphanin FQ increases food and ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifani, Carlo; Guerrini, Remo; Massi, Maurizio; Polidori, Carlo

    2006-11-01

    Central administration of low doses of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand of the opioid-like orphan receptor NOP, have been shown to reduce ethanol consumption, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior in alcohol preferring rats. The present study evaluated the effect of continuous (7 days) lateral brain ventricle infusions of N/OFQ (0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 8 microg/h), by means of osmotic mini-pumps, on 10% ethanol intake in Marchigian-Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats provided 2h or 24h access to it. N/OFQ dose-dependently increased food intake in msP rats. On the other hand, in contrast to previous studies with acute injections, continuous lateral brain ventricle infusion of high doses of N/OFQ increased ethanol consumption when the ethanol solution was available for 24h/day or 2h/day. The present study demonstrates that continuous activation of the opioidergic N/OFQ receptor does not blunt the reinforcing effects of ethanol. Moreover, the data suggest that continuous activation of the opioidergic N/OFQ receptor is not a suitable way to reduce alcohol abuse.

  5. Isolated Multiple Fragmented Cricoid Fracture Associated with External Blunt Neck Trauma: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, Yong Hoon; Seo, Jung Wook; Cho, Hyeon Je; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2010-01-01

    Blunt laryngeal trauma is a relatively uncommon but possibly life-threatening injury. An isolated cricoid fracture associated with blunt trauma is rare. We report a case of an isolated multiple fragmented cricoid cartilage fracture that developed in a 20-year-old man after a blunt neck trauma that occurred during a baseball game and was diagnosed by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

  6. MeCP2 regulates ethanol sensitivity and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Chen, Jihuan; Lefebvre, Celine; Kawamura, Tomoya; Kreifeldt, Max; Basson, Oan; Roberts, Amanda J; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated the expression of chromatin-regulating genes in the prefrontal cortex and in the shell subdivision of the nucleus accumbens during protracted withdrawal in mice with increased ethanol drinking after chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure and in mice with a history of non-dependent drinking. We observed that the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) was one of the few chromatin-regulating genes to be differentially regulated by a history of dependence. As MeCP2 has the potential of acting as a broad gene regulator, we investigated sensitivity to ethanol and ethanol drinking in MeCP2(308/) (Y) mice, which harbor a truncated MeCP2 allele but have a milder phenotype than MeCP2 null mice. We observed that MeCP2(308/) (Y) mice were more sensitive to ethanol's stimulatory and sedative effects than wild-type (WT) mice, drank less ethanol in a limited access 2 bottle choice paradigm and did not show increased drinking after induction of dependence with exposure to CIE vapors. Alcohol metabolism did not differ in MeCP2(308/) (Y) and WT mice. Additionally, MeCP2(308/) (Y) mice did not differ from WT mice in ethanol preference in a 24-hour paradigm nor in their intake of graded solutions of saccharin or quinine, suggesting that the MeCP2(308/) (Y) mutation did not alter taste function. Lastly, using the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis algorithm, we found a significant overlap in the genes regulated by alcohol and by MeCP2. Together, these results suggest that MeCP2 contributes to the regulation of ethanol sensitivity and drinking. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Production, transport, and metabolism of ethanol in eastern cottonwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    In plant tissues, the production of acetaldehyde and ethanol are usually thought to occur as a mechanism to allow tolerance of hypoxic conditions. Acetaldehyde and ethanol were found to be common in vascular cambium and the transpiration stream of trees. Ethanol concentrations in the vascular cambium of Populus deltoides were not changed by placing logs from nonflooded trees in a pure oxygen environment for as long as 96 h, but increased by almost 3 orders of magnitude when exposed to low external pO 2 s. Ethanol is present in the xylem sap of flooded and nonflooded trees. Because of the constitutive presence of alcohol dehydrogenase in the mature leaves of woody plants, it was hypothesized that the leaves and shoots of trees had the ability to metabolize ethanol supplied by the transpiration stream. 1-[ 14 C]ethanol was supplied to excised leaves and shoots of Populus deltoides Bartr. in short- and long-term experiments. Greater than 99% of the radiolabel was incorporated into plant tissue in short-term experiments, with more than 95% of the label remaining in plant tissue after 24 h. Very little label reached the leaf mesophyll cells of excised shoots, as revealed by autoradiography. Radiolabel appeared primarily in the water- and chloroform-soluble fractions in short-term experiments, while in long-term experiments, label was also incorporated into protein. When labelled ethanol was supplied to excised petioles in a 5 min pulse, 41% of the label was incorporated into organic acids. Some label was also incorporated into amino acids, protein, and the chloroform-soluble fraction, with very little appearing in neutral sugars, starch, or the insoluble pellet. Labelled organic acids were separated by HPLC, and were comprised of acetate, isocitrate, α-ketoglutarate, and succinate. There was no apparent incorporation of label into phosphorylated compounds

  8. Effect of ethanol concentrations on temperature driven structural changes of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanta, Dayanidhi; Jana, Madhurima, E-mail: janam@nitrkl.ac.in [Molecular Simulation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769008 (India)

    2016-04-28

    A series of atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a small enzymatic protein Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 (CI2) in water-ethanol mixed solutions were carried out to explore the underlying mechanism of ethanol driven conformational changes of the protein. Efforts have been made to probe the influence of ethanol concentrations ranging from 0% to 75% (v/v) at ambient condition (300 K (T1)) and at elevated temperatures (375 K (T2) and 450 K (T3)) to investigate the temperature induced conformational changes of the protein further. Our study showed that the effect of varying ethanol concentrations on protein’s structure is almost insignificant at T1 and T2 temperatures whereas at T3 temperature, partial unfolding of CI2 in 10% ethanol solution followed by full unfolding of the protein at ethanol concentrations above 25% occurs. However, interestingly, at T3 temperature CI2’s native structure was found to be retained in pure water (0% ethanol solution) indicating that the cosolvent ethanol do play an important role in thermal denaturation of CI2. Such observations were quantified in the light of root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) and radius of gyration. Although higher RMSD values of β-sheet over α-helix indicate complete destruction of the β-structure of CI2 at high ethanol concentrations, the associated time scale showed that the faster melting of α-helix happens over β-sheet. Around 60%-80% of initial native contacts of the protein were found broken with the separation of hydrophobic core consisting eleven residues at ethanol concentrations greater than 25%. This leads protein to expand with the increase in solvent accessible surface area. The interactions between protein and solvent molecules showed that protein’s solvation shell preferred to accommodate ethanol molecules as compared to water thereby excluded water molecules from CI2’s surface. Further, concentration dependent differential self-aggregation behavior of ethanol is likely to regulate

  9. Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture: therapeutic options and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yu-Yun; Lu, Ming-Shian; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Yao-Kuang; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Chu, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Pyng Jing

    2009-09-01

    Cardiac rupture following blunt thoracic trauma is rarely encountered by clinicians, since it commonly causes death at the scene. With advances in traumatology, blunt cardiac rupture had been increasingly disclosed in various ways. This study reviews our experience of patients with suspected blunt traumatic cardiac rupture and proposes treatment protocols for the same. This is a 5-year retrospective study of trauma patients confirmed with blunt traumatic cardiac rupture admitted to a university-affiliated tertiary trauma referral centre. The following information was collected from the patients: age, sex, mechanism of injury, initial effective diagnostic tool used for diagnosing blunt cardiac rupture, location and size of the cardiac injury, associated injury and injury severity score (ISS), reversed trauma score (RTS), survival probability of trauma and injury severity scoring (TRISS), vital signs and biochemical lab data on arrival at the trauma centre, time elapsed from injury to diagnosis and surgery, surgical details, hospital course and final outcome. The study comprised 8 men and 3 women with a median age of 39 years (range: 24-73 years) and the median follow-up was 5.5 months (range: 1-35 months). The ISS, RTS, and TRISS scores of the patients were 32.18+/-5.7 (range: 25-43), 6.267+/-1.684 (range: 2.628-7.841), and 72.4+/-25.6% (range: 28.6-95.5%), respectively. Cardiac injuries were first detected using focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) in 4 (36.3%) patients, using transthoracic echocardiography in 3 (27.3%) patients, chest CT in 1 (9%) patient, and intra-operatively in 3 (27.3%) patients. The sites of cardiac injury comprised the superior vena cava/right atrium junction (n=4), right atrial auricle (n=1), right ventricle (n=4), left ventricular contusion (n=1), and diffuse endomyocardial dissection over the right and left ventricles (n=1). Notably, 2 had pericardial lacerations presenting as a massive haemothorax, which initially masked

  10. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Effects of exogenous ubiquitin in a polytrauma model with blunt chest trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Todd A.; Romero, Jacqueline; Bach, Harold H.; Strom, Joel A.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Majetschak, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether treatment with the CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 agonist ubiquitin results in beneficial effects in a polytrauma model consisting of bilateral femur fractures plus blunt chest trauma (Injury Severity Score 18-25). Design Treatment study. Setting Research Laboratory. Subjects Seventeen Yorkshire pigs. Interventions Intravenous (i.v.) injection of 1.5 mg/kg ubiquitin or albumin (=control) at 60 min after polytrauma. Measurements and Main Results Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs underwent polytrauma, followed by a simulated 60 min shock phase. At the end of the shock phase ubiquitin or albumin were administered and animals were resuscitated to a mean arterial blood pressure of 70 mmHg until t = 420 min. After i.v. ubiquitin, ubiquitin plasma concentrations increased sixteen-fold to 2870 ± 1015 ng/mL at t = 90 min and decreased with t1/2 = 60 min. Endogenous plasma ubiquitin increased two-fold in the albumin group with peak levels of 359 ± 210 ng/mL. Plasma levels of the cognate CXCR4 ligand stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α were unchanged in both groups. Ubiquitin treatment reduced arterial lactate levels and prevented a continuous decrease in arterial oxygenation, which occurred in the albumin group during resuscitation. Wet weight to dry weight ratios of the lung contralateral from the injury, heart, spleen and jejunum were lower with ubiquitin. With ubiquitin treatment, tissue levels of IL-8, IL-10, TNFα and SDF-1α were reduced in the injured lung and of IL-8 in the contralateral lung, respectively. Conclusions Administration of exogenous ubiquitin modulates the local inflammatory response, improves resuscitation, reduces fluid shifts into tissues and preserves arterial oxygenation after blunt polytrauma with lung injury. This study further supports the notion that ubiquitin is a promising protein therapeutic and implies CXCR4 as a drug target after polytrauma. PMID:22622399

  12. Diagnosis and management of colonic injuries following blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi-Xiong; Chen, Li; Tao, Si-Feng; Song, Ping; Xu, Shao-Ming

    2007-01-28

    To retrospectively evaluate the preoperative diagnostic approaches and management of colonic injuries following blunt abdominal trauma. A total of 82 patients with colonic injuries caused by blunt trauma between January 1992 and December 2005 were enrolled. Data were collected on clinical presentation, investigations, diagnostic methods, associated injuries, and operative management. Colonic injury-related mortality and abdominal complications were analyzed. Colonic injuries were caused mainly by motor vehicle accidents. Of the 82 patients, 58 (70.3%) had other associated injuries. Laparotomy was performed within 6 h after injury in 69 cases (84.1%), laparoscopy in 3 because of haemodynamic instability. The most commonly injured site was located in the transverse colon. The mean colon injury scale score was 2.8. The degree of faecal contamination was classified as mild in 18 (22.0%), moderate in 42 (51.2%), severe in 14 (17.1%), and unknown in 8 (9.8%) cases. Sixty-seven patients (81.7%) were treated with primary repair or resection and anastomosis. Faecal stream diversion was performed in 15 cases (18.3%). The overall mortality rate was 6.1%. The incidence of colonic injury-related abdominal complications was 20.7%. The only independent predictor of complications was the degree of peritoneal faecal contamination (P = 0.02). Colonic injuries following blunt trauma are especially important because of the severity and complexity of associated injuries. A thorough physical examination and a combination of tests can be used to evaluate the indications for laparotomy. One stage management at the time of initial exploration is most often used for colonic injuries.

  13. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Yuliya I; Assaf, Naomi; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Fiksdal, Alexander; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR). Healthy adults aged 18-65 ( n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R 2 = 0.21), as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R 2 = 0.22), but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R 2 = 0.12). Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  14. Aetiology, epidemiology and management strategies for blunt scrotal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, D M; Davis, N F; O'Neill, D C; Brady, C M; Kiely, E A; O'Brien, M F

    2016-02-01

    To describe our experience of all patients presenting to a tertiary referral centre over a 3 year time period with blunt scrotal trauma and to describe a methodical approach for managing this group of patients. A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of a level 1 trauma centre with blunt scrotal trauma from 2010 to 2013 inclusive. Inclusion criteria included a recent history of blunt scrotal trauma with associated pain and/or swelling of the affected testis on clinical examination. Twenty-seven male patients with a median age of 19 (range 8-65) years were included and all but 1 patient underwent scrotal ultrasonography upon presentation. Sixteen patients (59%) presented with scrotal trauma secondary to a sports related injury. Fifteen patients were managed conservatively and of the 12 who underwent urgent exploration 9 had a testicular rupture, including 1 who had an emergency orchidectomy due to a completely shattered testis. Four patients had >30% of the testis replaced by necrotic tissue/haematoma; of which 2 ultimately underwent orchidectomy and insertion of testicular prosthesis. Our findings demonstrate that the necessity for scrotal protection in sports that predispose to scrotal trauma should be reviewed. We also demonstrate the importance of scrotal ultrasonography for determining an appropriate management strategy (i.e., conservative versus surgical treatment) in this young patient cohort. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Behind armour blunt trauma--an emerging problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, L

    2001-02-01

    Behind Armour Blunt Trauma (BABT) is the non-penetrating injury resulting from the rapid deformation of armours covering the body. The deformation of the surface of an armour in contact with the body wall arises from the impact of a bullet or other projectile on its front face. The deformation is part of the retardation and energy absorbing process that captures the projectile. In extreme circumstances, the BABT may result in death, even though the projectile has not perforated the armour. An escalation of the available energy of bullets and the desire of armour designers to minimise the weight and bulk of personal armour systems will increase the risk of BABT in military and security forces personnel. In order to develop materials that can be interposed between the armour and the body wall to attenuate the transfer of energy into the body, it is essential that the mechanism of BABT is known. There is a great deal of activity within UK and NATO to unravel the interactions; the mechanism is likely to be a combination of stress (pressure) waves generated by the rapid initial motion of the rear of the armour, and shear deformation to viscera produced by gross deflection of the body wall. Physical and computer model systems are under development to characterise the biophysical processes and provide performance targets for materials to be placed between armours and the body wall in order to attenuate the injuries (trauma attenuating backings-TABs). The patho-physiological consequences of BABT are being clarified by research, but the injuries will have some of the features of blunt chest trauma observed in road traffic accidents and other forms of civilian blunt impact injury. The injuries also have characteristics of primary blast injury. An overview diagnosis and treatment is described.

  16. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya I. Kuras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR. Healthy adults aged 18–65 (n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R2 = 0.21, as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R2 = 0.22, but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R2 = 0.12. Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  17. Imaging of blunt chest trauma; Bildgebung des stumpfen Thoraxtraumas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosch, H. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Negrin, L. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Univ.-Klinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Wien (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Blunt chest trauma is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Consequently, all patients should be evaluated radiologically after blunt chest trauma to allow timely and appropriate treatment. Conventional chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are proven modalities with which to evaluate patients after blunt chest trauma. Over the last several years extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (eFAST) has gained increasing importance for the initial assessment of seriously injured patients. In the acute phase of severely injured patients eFAST examinations are helpful to exclude pneumothorax, hemothorax and hemopericardium. Chest radiographs may also be used to diagnose a pneumothorax or hemothorax; however, the sensitivity is limited and CT is the diagnostic modality of choice to evaluate severely injured patients. (orig.) [German] Stumpfe Thoraxtraumen gehen mit einer hohen Morbiditaet und Mortalitaet einher. Daher sollten Patienten mit Verdacht auf ein stumpfes Thoraxtrauma rasch radiologisch untersucht werden, damit die entsprechenden therapeutischen Schritte zeitgerecht eingeleitet werden koennen. Zur Abklaerung von Patienten nach einem stumpfen Thoraxtrauma sind seit Jahren das konventionelle Lungenroentgen und die Computertomographie bewaehrte Verfahren. In den letzten Jahren hat die fokussierte Ultraschalluntersuchung (eFAST, Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma) von schwerverletzten Patienten vermehrt an Bedeutung gewonnen. Durch eine eFAST-Untersuchung kann in der Akutphase rasch geklaert werden, ob bei dem Patienten ein therapiebeduerftiger Pneumothorax, Haematoperikard oder Haematothorax vorliegen. Auch das Lungenroentgen wird zur Diagnose eines Pneumothorax oder Haematothorax eingesetzt, wenngleich seine Sensitivitaet deutlich eingeschraenkt ist. Die CT ist das diagnostische Verfahren der Wahl, um v. a. Patienten mit einem schweren Thoraxtrauma abzuklaeren. (orig.)

  18. Pediatric blunt cerebrovascular injury: the McGovern screening score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Joseph P; Venkataraman, Sidish S; Turkmani, Ali H; Zhu, Liang; Kerr, Marcia L; Patel, Rajan P; Ugalde, Irma T; Fletcher, Stephen A; Sandberg, David I; Cox, Charles S; Kitagawa, Ryan S; Day, Arthur L; Shah, Manish N

    2018-03-16

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) at a busy Level 1 trauma center and to develop a tool for accurately predicting pediatric BCVI and the need for diagnostic testing. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of a prospectively collected database of pediatric patients who had sustained blunt trauma (patient age range 0-15 years) and were treated at a Level 1 trauma center between 2005 and 2015. Digital subtraction angiography, MR angiography, or CT angiography was used to confirm BCVI. Recently, the Utah score has emerged as a screening tool specifically targeted toward evaluating BCVI risk in the pediatric population. Using logistical regression and adding mechanism of injury as a logit, the McGovern score was able to use the Utah score as a starting point to create a more sensitive screening tool to identify which pediatric trauma patients should receive angiographic imaging due to a high risk for BCVI. RESULTS A total of 12,614 patients (mean age 6.6 years) were admitted with blunt trauma and prospectively registered in the trauma database. Of these, 460 (3.6%) patients underwent angiography after blunt trauma: 295 (64.1%), 107 (23.3%), 6 (1.3%), and 52 (11.3%) patients underwent CT angiography, MR angiography, digital subtraction angiography, and a combination of imaging modalities, respectively. The BCVI incidence (n = 21; 0.17%) was lower than that in a comparable adult group (p tools for BCVI, misclassified 6 (28.6%), 6 (28.6%), 7 (33.3%), and 10 (47.6%) patients with BCVI, respectively, as "low risk" and not in need of subsequent angiographic imaging. By incorporating the mechanism of injury into the score, the McGovern score only misclassified 4 (19.0%) children, all of whom were managed conservatively with no treatment or aspirin. CONCLUSIONS With a low incidence of pediatric BCVI and a nonsurgical treatment paradigm, a more conservative approach

  19. Blunt dissection in augmentation mammaplasty-an instrumental aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R C; Pedroza, L V; Smith, R C; Smith, K F

    1981-11-01

    The iconoclast is an instrument that facilitates blunt dissection in areas where this basic technique is difficult because of anatomical or postsurgical adherence. Medical and inferior undermining in augmentation mammaplasty in primary and revisional cases is described. The instrument capitalizes on the gripping rather than the spreading strength of the surgeon's hand, allows easy penetration of tissues to be spread apart, and diminished severance of blood vessels. We have used the iconoclast for almost two years in selected cases and have had no problems or complications attributable to it.

  20. CT diagnosis of unsuspected pneumothorax after blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.D. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.; Brett, C.M.

    1983-11-01

    Review of abdominal CT scans for evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma yielded 35 cases of pneumothorax, 10 of which had not been diagnosed before CT by clinical examination of plain radiographs. Of the 10 cases initially diagnosed on CT, seven required tube thoracostomy for treatment of the pneumothorax. CT detection of pneumothorax is especially important if mechanical assisted ventilation or general anesthesia is used. Demonstration of pneumothorax requires viewing CT scans of the upper abdomen (lower thorax) at lung windows in addition to the usual soft-tissue windows.

  1. CT diagnosis of unsuspected pneumothorax after blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, S.D.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.; Brett, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Review of abdominal CT scans for evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma yielded 35 cases of pneumothorax, 10 of which had not been diagnosed before CT by clinical examination of plain radiographs. Of the 10 cases initially diagnosed on CT, seven required tube thoracostomy for treatment of the pneumothorax. CT detection of pneumothorax is especially important if mechanical assisted ventilation or general anesthesia is used. Demonstration of pneumothorax requires viewing CT scans of the upper abdomen (lower thorax) at lung windows in addition to the usual soft-tissue windows

  2. Occult pneumomediastinum in blunt chest trauma: clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende-Neto, J B; Hoffmann, J; Al Mahroos, M; Tien, H; Hsee, L C; Spencer Netto, F; Speers, V; Rizoli, S B

    2010-01-01

    Thoracic injuries are potentially responsible for 25% of all trauma deaths. Chest X-ray is commonly used to screen patients with chest injury. However, the use of computed tomography (CT) scan for primary screening is increasing, particularly for blunt trauma. CT scans are more sensitive than chest X-ray in detecting intra-thoracic abnormalities such as pneumothoraces and pneumomediastinums. Pneumomediastinum detected by chest X-ray or "overt pneumomediastinum", raises the concern of possible aerodigestive tract injuries. In contrast, there is scarce information on the clinical significance of pneumomediastinum diagnosed by CT scan only or "occult pneumomediastinum". Therefore we investigated the clinical consequences of occult pneumomediastinum in our blunt trauma population. A 2-year retrospective chart review of all blunt chest trauma patients with initial chest CT scan admitted to a level I trauma centre. Data extracted from the medical records include; demographics, occult, overt, or no pneumomediastinum, the presence of intra-thoracic aerodigestive tract injuries (trachea, bronchus, and/or esophagus), mechanism and severity of injury, endotracheal intubation, chest thoracostomy, operations and radiological reports by an attending radiologist. All patients with intra-thoracic aerodigestive tract injuries from 1994 to 2004 were also investigated. Of 897 patients who met the inclusion criteria 839 (93.5%) had no pneumomediastinum. Five patients (0.6%) had overt pneumomediastinum and 53 patients (5.9%) had occult pneumomediastinum. Patients with occult pneumomediastinum had significantly higher ISS and AIS chest (pchest thoracostomy tube was more common (ppneumothorax. None of the patients with occult pneumomediastinum had aerodigestive tract injuries (95%CI 0-0.06). Follow up CT scan of patients with occult pneumomediastinum showed complete resolution in all cases, in average 3 h after the initial exam. Occult pneumomediastinum occurred in approximately 6% of

  3. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks......, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989). It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed...

  4. Computed tomographic diagnosis of the blunt hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Funaki, Hiromi; Kanno, Seiichi; Ushitani, Kenji; Tabuchi, Makoto.

    1982-01-01

    In this report, the CT appearances of three cases of the blunt hepatic trauma are presented. The hepatic hematomas are displayed as the poorly demarcated, uneven low density area on plain CT. Post-contrast study makes their margin more clearly. The intrapertioneal hemorrhage is shown as a fluid collection around the liver and/or spleen. As CT is non-invasively and quickly performed, it is useful for the evaluation of the hepatic injury in emergency. The concomitant other organ injuries may be accurately detected by CT. The follow-up study is useful for estimating the therapeutic effect and considering the treatment plan. (author)

  5. Ethanol Concentration Influences the Mechanisms of Wine Tannin Interactions with Poly(L-proline) in Model Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Ziora, Zyta M; Kassara, Stella; Cooper, Matthew A; Smith, Paul A

    2015-05-06

    Changes in ethanol concentration influence red wine astringency, and yet the effect of ethanol on wine tannin-salivary protein interactions is not well understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the binding strength between the model salivary protein, poly(L-proline) (PLP) and a range of wine tannins (tannin fractions from a 3- and a 7-year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine) across different ethanol concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 40% v/v). Tannin-PLP interactions were stronger at 5% ethanol than at 40% ethanol. The mechanism of interaction changed for most tannin samples across the wine-like ethanol range (10-15%) from a combination of hydrophobic and hydrogen binding at 10% ethanol to only hydrogen binding at 15% ethanol. These results indicate that ethanol concentration can influence the mechanisms of wine tannin-protein interactions and that the previously reported decrease in wine astringency with increasing alcohol may, in part, relate to a decrease tannin-protein interaction strength.

  6. Quantitative transcription dynamic analysis reveals candidate genes and key regulators for ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Menggen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Derived from our lignocellulosic conversion inhibitor-tolerant yeast, we generated an ethanol-tolerant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-50316 by enforced evolutionary adaptation. Using a newly developed robust mRNA reference and a master equation unifying gene expression data analyses, we investigated comparative quantitative transcription dynamics of 175 genes selected from previous studies for an ethanol-tolerant yeast and its closely related parental strain. Results A highly fitted master equation was established and applied for quantitative gene expression analyses using pathway-based qRT-PCR array assays. The ethanol-tolerant Y-50316 displayed significantly enriched background of mRNA abundance for at least 35 genes without ethanol challenge compared with its parental strain Y-50049. Under the ethanol challenge, the tolerant Y-50316 responded in consistent expressions over time for numerous genes belonging to groups of heat shock proteins, trehalose metabolism, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, pleiotropic drug resistance gene family and transcription factors. The parental strain showed repressed expressions for many genes and was unable to withstand the ethanol stress and establish a viable culture and fermentation. The distinct expression dynamics between the two strains and their close association with cell growth, viability and ethanol fermentation profiles distinguished the tolerance-response from the stress-response in yeast under the ethanol challenge. At least 82 genes were identified as candidate and key genes for ethanol-tolerance and subsequent fermentation under the stress. Among which, 36 genes were newly recognized by the present study. Most of the ethanol-tolerance candidate genes were found to share protein binding motifs of transcription factors Msn4p/Msn2p, Yap1p, Hsf1p and Pdr1p/Pdr3p. Conclusion Enriched background of transcription abundance

  7. Market for ethanol feed joint products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzmark, D.; Gould, B.

    1979-10-01

    This report presents results of econometric estimations and mathematical simulations of markets for joint feed products of motor ethanol. The major issues considered are the nature of current market price relationships, effects on prices, including feed substitutes prices, and effects of demands for increased use of distillers' grains and gluten meal. The econometric section shows that soybean meal was by far the dominant force in the pricing of the two products. However, neither one could be adequately explained without the inclusion of corn in the estimating equations. Later research shows that this was due to the importance of both feeds for metabolizable energy as well as for protein in livestock diets. Current ration formulations would require some discounting of the value of the protein content of the two feeds. Careful siting of the ethanol facilities, and flexible design of the plants so that a maximum number of products may be extracted from the feedstock, seem necessary. Finally, the analysis indicates that substitution in animal diets of these joint products for the corn or milo used originally requires that additional energy be supplied to the animal by some type of forage crop. This implies that additional land may be required for energy production, for such marginal crops as hay and alfalfa, rather than for row crops.

  8. Grain sorghum is a viable feedstock for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Bean, S; McLaren, J; Seib, P; Madl, R; Tuinstra, M; Shi, Y; Lenz, M; Wu, X; Zhao, R

    2008-05-01

    Sorghum is a major cereal crop in the USA. However, sorghum has been underutilized as a renewable feedstock for bioenergy. The goal of this research was to improve the bioconversion efficiency for biofuels and biobased products from processed sorghum. The main focus was to understand the relationship among "genetics-structure-function-conversion" and the key factors impacting ethanol production, as well as to develop an energy life cycle analysis model (ELCAM) to quantify and prioritize the saving potential from factors identified in this research. Genetic lines with extremely high and low ethanol fermentation efficiency and some specific attributes that may be manipulated to improve the bioconversion rate of sorghum were identified. In general, ethanol yield increased as starch content increased. However, no linear relationship between starch content and fermentation efficiency was found. Key factors affecting the ethanol fermentation efficiency of sorghum include protein digestibility, level of extractable proteins, protein and starch interaction, mash viscosity, amount of phenolic compounds, ratio of amylose to amylopectin, and formation of amylose-lipid complexes in the mash. A platform ELCAM with a base case showed a positive net energy value (NEV) = 25,500 Btu/gal EtOH. ELCAM cases were used to identify factors that most impact sorghum use. For example, a yield increase of 40 bu/ac resulted in NEV increasing from 7 million to 12 million Btu/ac. An 8% increase in starch provided an incremental 1.2 million Btu/ac.

  9. Blunt Traumatic Extracranial Cerebrovascular Injury and Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Foreman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic stroke occurs in a significant subset of patients with blunt traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI. The patients are victims of motor vehicle crashes, assaults or other high-energy collisions, and suffer ischemic stroke due to injury to the extracranial carotid or vertebral arteries. Summary: An increasing number of patients with TCVI are being identified, largely because of the expanding use of computed tomography angiography for screening patients with blunt trauma. Patients with TCVI are particularly challenging to manage because they often suffer polytrauma, that is, numerous additional injuries including orthopedic, chest, abdominal, and head injuries. Presently, there is no consensus about optimal management. Key Messages: Most literature about TCVI and stroke has been published in trauma, general surgery, and neurosurgery journals; because of this, and because these patients are managed primarily by trauma surgeons, patients with stroke due to TCVI have been essentially hidden from view of neurologists. This review is intended to bring this clinical entity to the attention of clinicians and investigators with specific expertise in neurology and stroke.

  10. Rib fractures in blunt chest trauma - associated thoracic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Dimitrov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE. The aim of our retrospective study was to analyze the patterns of associated thoracic injuries in patients underwent blunt chest trauma and rib fractures. METHODS. The study included 212 patients with rib fractures due to blunt thoracic trauma. The mechanism of trauma, the type of rib fracture and the type of associated injuries were analyzed. RESULTS. The patients were divided in two groups according to the number of fractured ribs-group I included the patients with up to two fractured ribs (72 patients-33,9%, and group II – with ≥3 fractured ribs (140 patients-66,1%. Associated chest injuries were present in 36 of the patients from group I (50%, and in 133 patients from group II (95%. Pulmonary contusion was the most common intrathoracicinjurie-65,6% of the cases. The mean hospital stay was 8, 7 days. The lethality rate was 16,9% -all of them due to the associated chest injuries. CONCLUSIONS. The mortality related to rib fractures is affected by the associated thoracic injuries, the advanced age, and the number of fractured ribs.

  11. Non-equilibrium blunt body flows in ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Michio

    1981-01-01

    The behaviors of electrons and electronically excited atoms in non-equilibrium and partially ionized blunt-body-flows are described. Formulation has been made separately in a shock layer and in a free stream, and then the free stream solution has been connected with the shock layer solution by matching the two solutions at the shock layer edge. The method of this matching is described here. The partially ionized gas is considered to be composed of neutral atoms, ions and electrons. Furthermore, the neutral atoms are divided into atoms in excited levels. Therefore, it is considered that electron energy released due to excitation, and that gained due to de-excitation, contribute to electron energy. Thus, the electron energy equation including these contributions is solved, coupled with the continuity equations of the excited atoms and the electrons. An electron temperature distribution from a free stream to a blunt body wall has been investigated for a case when the electrons are in thermal non-equilibrium with heavy particles in the free stream. In addition, the distributions of the excited atom density are discussed in the present analysis. (author)

  12. CT analysis of pulmonary injuries from blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Shoko

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the CT findings of pulmonary parenchymal injuries due to blunt chest trauma and to categorize CT findings on the basis of their outcome. The materials of this study consist of 62 patients who had pulmonary injuries on CT obtained within 6 hours after blunt chest trauma. CT findings were analysed with regards to the shape, size, and distribution of the lesions. Follow-up CT scans were obtained in 35 patients at intervals from 1 day to 1 month after the initial CT study. CT showed ill-defined opacities in 59 patients (64 lesions in the peripheral area and 95 in the non-peripheral area) and pulmonary nodules with or without cavitary lesions in 30 patients (7 lesions in the peripheral area and 31 in the non-peripheral area). Follow-up CT allowed the classification of these pulmonary injuries into 3 types; the non-peripheral, ill-defined opacities showing immediate clearing, nodules with or without cavitary lesions over 1 cm in diameter showing prolongation, and the peripheral ill-defined opacities adjacent to the thoracic cage, and small nodules with or without cavitary lesions within 1 cm in diameter, showing various courses. CT has marked advantage over plain chest radiographs not only in the detection rate but in accurate estimation of the prognosis of the lesions. (author)

  13. Value of Multidetector Computed Tomography in Assessing Blunt Multitrauma Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahvenjaervi, L.; Mattila, L.; Ojala, R.; Tervonen, O. [Oulu Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To find out if multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), using a dedicated trauma protocol, provides sufficient diagnostic information of the injuries of blunt multitrauma patients to enable the planning of treatment for all body compartments. Material and Methods: One-hundred-and-thirty-three patients exposed to high-energy trauma were referred and scanned with the standardized MDCT multitrauma protocol. The imaging protocol consisted of axial scanning of the head and helical scanning of the facial bones, cervical spine, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. The scanning times were 12 s for the head, 19-21 s for the facial bones and cervical spine (1 mm collimation), and 32-50 s for the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis (2 mm collimation). One-hundred-and-forty milliliters of non-iodinated contrast material (300 mg I/ml) was administered intravenously at 3 ml/s. Results: Ninety-nine of the patients (74%) had at least one finding consistent with trauma. The most frequent findings were in the thorax in 58 patients (44%). Nineteen false-negative findings and two false-positive findings were made. The overall sensitivity of MDCT was 94%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 97%. Conclusion: MDCT is accurate in the assessment of blunt multitrauma patients. The decision to treat the patient can be made on the basis of MDCT with a reasonable level of certainty.

  14. Total transverse rupture of the duodenum after blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzi, Cesare; Di Marco, Carluccio; Loponte, Margherita; Savino, Grazia

    2014-05-11

    Complete transverse rupture of the duodenum as an isolated lesion in blunt trauma can be considered as exceptional. The aim of this report is to discuss diagnostic procedures and surgical options in such an infrequent presentation. We report on a 37 year old man who had a total transverse rupture of the duodenum after blunt abdominal trauma. Diagnosis was suspected after contrast enhanced CT scan and confirmed at laparotomy; duodenal rupture was repaired by an end to end duodenal-duodenal anastomosis, after Kocher maneuver. The patient had fast and complete recovery. A high index of suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis. Multi detector contrast enhanced CT scan is the gold standard for that aim. Surgical management must be tailored on an individual basis, since many techniques are available for both reconstruction and duodenum decompression. Kocher maneuver is essential for complete inspection of the pancreatic duodenal block and for appropriate reconstruction. Management of isolated duodenal rupture can be difficult. Contrast enhanced TC scans is essential for timely diagnosis. Primary repair can be achieved by an end to end duodenum anastomosis after Kocher maneuver, although alternative techniques are available for tailored solutions. Complex duodenum decompression techniques are not mandatory.

  15. Blunt hepatic trauma: comparison between surgical and nonoperative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Thiago Messias; Pereira, Bruno Monteiro; Calderan, Thiago Rodrigues Araujo; Hirano, Elcio Shiyoiti; Rizoli, Sandro; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira

    2012-01-01

    To examine the outcomes of blunt hepatic trauma, and compare surgical and non-surgical treatment in patients admitted with hemodynamic stability and with no obvious indications of laparotomy. This is a retrospective study of cases admitted to a university teaching hospital between the years 2000 and 2010. Patients undergoing surgical treatment were divided into two groups: (a) all patients undergoing surgical treatment, and (b) patients with obvious need for surgery. In this period, 120 patients were admitted with blunt hepatic trauma. Sixty five patients (54.1%) were treated non-operatively and fifty five patients were operated upon. Patients treated non-operatively had better physiologic conditions on admission, demonstrated less severe injuries (except the grade of hepatic injury), received less blood components and had lower morbidity and mortality than the patients operated upon. Patients who underwent non-operative treatment had a lower need for blood transfusion but higher rates of complications and mortality than the patients operated upon. Patients who were operated upon, with no obvious indications for surgery, had higher rates of complication and mortality than patients not operated upon. A non-operative approach resulted in lower complications, a lower need for blood transfusions and lower mortality.

  16. Pneumoscrotum as Complication of Blunt Thoracic Trauma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychios Lostoridis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pneumoscrotum is a rare clinical entity. It presents with swollen scrotal sac and sometimes with palpable crepitus. It has many etiologies. One of them is due to blunt trauma of the thoracic cage, causing pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum. Case Presentation. We report the case of an 82-year-old male who was transferred to the Emergency Department with signs of respiratory distress after a blunt chest trauma. A CT scan was obtained, and bilateral pneumothoraces with four broken ribs were disclosed. Subcutaneous emphysema expanding from the eyelids to the scrotum was observed, and a chest tube was inserted on the right side with immediate improvement of the vital signs of the patient. Discussion. Pneumoscrotum has three major etiologies: (a local introduction of air or infection from gas-producing bacteria, (b pneumoperitoneum, and (c air accumulation from lungs, mediastinum, or retroperitoneum. These sources account for most of the cases described in the literature. Treatment should be individualized, and surgical consultation should be obtained in all cases. Conclusion. Although pneumoscrotum itself is a benign entity, the process by which air accumulates in the scrotum must be clarified, and treatment must target the primary cause.

  17. Nonoperative management for major blunt hepatic trauma. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingoli, Andrea; Saracino, Andrea; Brachini, Gioia; Mariotta, Giovanni; Migliori, Emanuele; Silvestri, Vania

    2015-03-16

    Over the past 20 years the management of blunt liver trauma has evolved from a primary operative approach to a nonoperative one, for both low and high grade injuries, only on the basis of hemodynamic stability. However, in spite of a high success rate of non operative management, it is frequently observed, also in our country, an old fashioned way to approach these patients, based on habit more than observation and evidence based medicine. We present a case of successful nonoperative treatment of a grade IV blunt liver trauma (lacero-contusive injury of V, VI and VII segments) in a 34-year-old woman. Nowadays more than 85% of liver injuries are managed without operative intervention, irrespective of the injury grade. Success rate of the conservative approach ranges from 82% to 100% and almost all complications (14% in high grade injuries) can be managed with interventional radiology procedures, still avoiding major surgery. Today, in the absence of other abdominal injuries requiring surgical exploration, hemodynamic instability from ongoing hemorrhage after primary evaluation and resuscitative treatment, is the only indication to an operative management of traumatic liver injuries.

  18. The role of computed tomography in blunt hepatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Tatsumi

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images and medical records of 283 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were reviewed. There were 67 patients with hepatic injury. Liver was the most frequently injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Most hepatic injuries occurred in the right lobe of the liver. Of the 67 patients with hepatic injury, 60 patients had associated other injuries. There was a high incidence of associated lung injuries (35.8 %). Of importance is the high incidence of associated head injuries (22.4 %), because, in some patients such as those with concomitant head trauma, abdominal symptom is not obvious. The associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs. nonoperative). 32 patients with hepatic injury but no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. 9 patients with hepatic injury and little hemoperitoneum were also managed conservatively. 22 patients with high density hemoperitoneum were surgically treated. By combining information on the clinical state of the patient and CT finding, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased. (author)

  19. Thyroid gland rupture caused by blunt trauma to the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hirotaka; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2016-02-19

    Thyroid rupture following blunt trauma is extremely rare, and neck pain without swelling may be the only presenting symptom. However, hemorrhage and hematoma subsequently causes severe tracheal compression and respiratory distress. A 71-year-old Japanese woman visited our emergency room with a complaint of increasing right-sided neck pain at the thyroid cartilage level after she tripped and accidentally hit her neck against a pole 3 h back. On admission, her vital signs were stable. There was no swelling or subcutaneous emphysema. Laryngeal endoscopy revealed mild laryngeal edema, although there was no impairment in vocal fold mobility on either side. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed rupture of the right lobe of the thyroid gland accompanied by a large hematoma extending from the neck to the mediastinum. Under general anesthesia, the right lobe was resected and the hematoma was evacuated. Only a few isolated cases of thyroid rupture caused by blunt neck trauma have been reported in patients with normal thyroid glands and neck pain without swelling may be the only presenting symptom. When suspected, CT should be performed to confirm the diagnosis determine the optimal treatment.

  20. Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration and Glial Activation in the Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Saito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol induces neurodegeneration in the developing brain, which may partially explain the long-lasting adverse effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. While animal models of FASD show that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration is associated with glial activation, the relationship between glial activation and neurodegeneration has not been clarified. This review focuses on the roles of activated microglia and astrocytes in neurodegeneration triggered by ethanol in rodents during the early postnatal period (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy. Previous literature indicates that acute binge-like ethanol exposure in postnatal day 7 (P7 mice induces apoptotic neurodegeneration, transient activation of microglia resulting in phagocytosis of degenerating neurons, and a prolonged increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. In our present study, systemic administration of a moderate dose of lipopolysaccharides, which causes glial activation, attenuates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. These studies suggest that activation of microglia and astrocytes by acute ethanol in the neonatal brain may provide neuroprotection. However, repeated or chronic ethanol can induce significant proinflammatory glial reaction and neurotoxicity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate whether acute or sustained glial activation caused by ethanol exposure in the developing brain can affect long-lasting cellular and behavioral abnormalities observed in the adult brain.

  1. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  2. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. DIESEL ... diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were determine .... heated on an electric stove and stirred continuously.

  3. Establishing an ethanol production business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Many Saskatchewan communities are interested in the potential benefits of establishing an ethanol production facility. A guide is presented to outline areas that communities should consider when contemplating the development of an ethanol production facility. Political issues affecting the ethanol industry are discussed including environmental impacts, United States legislation, Canadian legislation, and government incentives. Key success factors in starting a business, project management, marketing, financing, production, physical requirements, and licensing and regulation are considered. Factors which must be taken into consideration by the project manager and team include markets for ethanol and co-products, competent business management staff, equity partners for financing, production and co-product utilization technologies, integration with another facility such as a feedlot or gluten plant, use of outside consultants, and feedstock, water, energy, labour, environmental and site size requirements. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Hepatic Enzyme Decline after Pediatric Blunt Trauma: A Tool for Timing Child Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amy L.; Lindberg, Daniel M.; Burke, Bonnie L.; Shults, Justine; Holmes, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research in adult patients with blunt hepatic injuries has suggested a pattern of serum hepatic transaminase concentration decline. Evaluating this decline after pediatric blunt hepatic trauma could establish parameters for estimating the time of inflicted injuries. Deviation from a consistent transaminase resolution pattern…

  5. Blunt injury of the infrarenal inferior vena cava — imaging and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blunt injury of the infrarenal inferior vena cava — imaging and conservative management. Ian C Duncan, Basil J Sher, Leslie M Fingleson. Abstract. Isolated rupture of the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava due to blunt trauma is relatively rare. It may be missed clinically and even diagnostic peritoneal lavage may ...

  6. Blunted lipolytic response to fasting in abdominally obese women: evidence for involvement of hyposomatotropism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Madelon M.; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Wijbrandts, Carla; de Kam, Marieke L.; Frölich, Marijke; Cohen, Adam F.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Meinders, A. Edo; Pijl, Hanno

    2003-01-01

    Background: Abdominal obesity is associated with a blunted lipolytic response to fasting that may contribute to the preservation of adipose tissue mass. Objective: To further explore the pathophysiology of blunted lipolysis during fasting in obesity, we simultaneously measured lipolysis and distinct

  7. Blunt bilateral diaphragmatic rupture—A right side can be easily missed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Michailidou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blunt diaphragmatic rupture (BDR is uncommon with a reported incidence range of 1%–2%. The true incidence is not known. Bilateral BDR is particularly rare. We presented a case of bilateral BDR and we think that the incidence is under-recognised thanks to an easily missed and difficult to diagnose right sided injury. Keywords: Blunt, Diaphragm, Bilateral, Injury

  8. Predictors of abnormal chest CT after blunt trauma: a critical appraisal of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Kool, D.R.; Dekker, H.M.; Deunk, J.; Jager, G.J.; Kuijk, C. van; Edwards, M.J.R.; Blickman, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify and to evaluate predictors that determine whether chest computed tomography (CT) is likely to reveal relevant injuries in adult blunt trauma patients. METHODS: After a comprehensive literature search for original studies on blunt chest injury diagnosis, two independent observers

  9. Computed tomography of the chest in blunt thoracic trauma: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blostein, P.; Hodgman, C.

    1998-01-01

    Blunt thoracic injuries detected by computed tomography of the chest infrequently require immediate therapy. If immediate therapy is needed, findings will be visible on plain roentgenograms or on clinical exam. Routine Computed Tomography of the chest in blunt trauma is not recommended but may be helpful in selected cases. (N.C.)

  10. Transection of the inferior vena cava from blunt thoracic trauma: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzman, A B; Udekwu, A O; Pevec, W; Albrink, M

    1989-04-01

    Blunt thoracic trauma is a frequent cause of death in multiple trauma victims. Myocardial rupture may occur in up to 65% of patients who die with thoracic injuries. Two cases are presented with intrapericardial transection of the inferior vena cava, pericardial rupture, and myocardial rupture from blunt thoracic trauma. Both patients died.

  11. Aerodynamic performance investigation on waverider with variable blunt radius in hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibin; Wang, Zhenguo; Huang, Wei; Xu, Shenren; Yan, Li

    2017-08-01

    Waverider is an important candidate for the design of hypersonic vehicles. However, the ideal waverider cannot be manufactured because of its sharp leading edge, so the leading edge should be blunted. In the paper, the HMB solver and laminar flow model have been utilized to obtain the flow field properties around the blunt waverider with the freestream Mach number being 8.0, and several novel strategies have been suggested to improve the aerodynamic performance of blunt waverider. The numerical method has been validated against experimental data, and the Stanton number(St) of the predicted result has been analyzed. The obtained results show good agreement with the experimental data. Stmax decreases by 58% and L/D decreases by 8.2% when the blunt radius increases from 0.0002 m to 0.001 m. ;Variable blunt waverider; is a good compromise for aerodynamic performance and thermal insulation. The aero-heating characteristics are very sensitive to Rmax. The position of the smallest blunt radius has a great effect on the aerodynamic performance. In addition, the type of blunt leading edge has a great effect on the aero-heating characteristics when Rmax is fixed. Therefore, out of several designs, Type 4is the best way to achieve the good overall performance. The ;Variable blunt waverider; not only improves the aerodynamic performance, but also makes the aero-heating become evenly-distributed, leading to better aero-heating characteristics.

  12. A pair of dopamine neurons target the D1-like dopamine receptor DopR in the central complex to promote ethanol-stimulated locomotion in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Kong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a mediator of the stimulant properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol, in mammals and in the fruit fly Drosophila. The neural substrates for the stimulant actions of ethanol in flies are not known. We show that a subset of dopamine neurons and their targets, through the action of the D1-like dopamine receptor DopR, promote locomotor activation in response to acute ethanol exposure. A bilateral pair of dopaminergic neurons in the fly brain mediates the enhanced locomotor activity induced by ethanol exposure, and promotes locomotion when directly activated. These neurons project to the central complex ellipsoid body, a structure implicated in regulating motor behaviors. Ellipsoid body neurons are required for ethanol-induced locomotor activity and they express DopR. Elimination of DopR blunts the locomotor activating effects of ethanol, and this behavior can be restored by selective expression of DopR in the ellipsoid body. These data tie the activity of defined dopamine neurons to D1-like DopR-expressing neurons to form a neural circuit that governs acute responding to ethanol.

  13. Production of ethanol from cellulose (sawdust)

    OpenAIRE

    Otulugbu, Kingsley

    2012-01-01

    The production of ethanol from food such as corn, cassava etc. is the most predominate way of producing ethanol. This has led to a shortage in food, inbalance in food chain, increased food price and indirect land use. This thesis thus explores using another feed for the production of ethanol- hence ethanol from cellulose. Sawdust was used to carry out the experiment from the production of ethanol and two methods were considered: SHF (Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation) and SSF (Simultaneous...

  14. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  15. Adverse effects associated with ethanol catheter lock solutions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermel, Leonard A; Alang, Neha

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial lock therapy has been widely utilized internationally for the prevention and management of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infections. One of the agents commonly utilized for lock therapy is ethanol. However, a systematic review of adverse events associated with ethanol locks has not been published. PubMed was searched to collect articles published from May 2003 through March 2014. The bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. In vitro studies of the mechanical properties of catheters after ethanol immersion have revealed changes predominantly in polyurethane catheters and to a lesser extent in silicone and Carbothane catheters. An elution of polymers from polyurethane and Carbothane catheters has been observed at the ethanol concentrations used in ethanol lock therapy. Ethanol above a concentration of 28% leads to plasma protein precipitation. Ethanol locks were associated with catheter occlusion in 11 studies and independently increased the risk of thrombosis compared with heparin lock in a randomized trial. Six studies noted abnormalities in catheter integrity, including one case leading to catheter embolization. Of note, five of these studies involved silicone catheters. Ethanol lock use was associated with systemic side effects in 10 studies and possible side effects in one additional study. Four studies noted liver function test abnormalities, predominantly transaminase elevation, related to ethanol lock use. However, a prospective study did not find any difference in the risk of doubling the transaminase level above the normal range during use of ethanol locks compared with not using an ethanol lock. The use of ethanol locks has been associated with structural changes in catheters, as well as the elution of molecules from the catheter polymers. Clinical studies have revealed systemic toxicity, increased catheter occlusion and breaches in catheter integrity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on

  16. Induction of brain CYP2E1 by chronic ethanol treatment and related oxidative stress in hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yanjun; Dong, Guicheng; Luo, Haiguang; Cao, Jie; Wang, Chang; Wu, Jianyuan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yue, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is one of the most commonly abused substances, and oxidative stress is an important causative factor in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in ethanol metabolism in the brain. This study investigates the role of brain CYP2E1 in the susceptibility of certain brain regions to ethanol neurotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were intragastrically treated with ethanol (3.0 g/kg, 30 days). CYP2E1 protein, mRNA expression, and catalytic activity in various brain regions were respectively assessed by immunoblotting, quantitative quantum dot immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR, and LC–MS. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed using a laser confocal scanning microscope. The hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem were selectively damaged after ethanol treatment, indicated by both lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and histopathological analysis. Ethanol markedly increased the levels of CYP2E1 protein, mRNA expression, and activity in the hippocampus and cerebellum. CYP2E1 protein and activity were significantly increased by ethanol in the brainstem, with no change in mRNA expression. ROS levels induced by ethanol paralleled the enhanced CYP2E1 proteins in the hippocampus, granular layer and white matter of cerebellum as well as brainstem. Brain CYP2E1 activity was positively correlated with the damage to the hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem. These results suggest that the selective sensitivity of brain regions to ethanol neurodegeneration may be attributed to the regional and cellular-specific induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol. The inhibition of CYP2E1 levels may attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative stress via ROS generation.

  17. Prior blunt chest trauma may be a cause of single vessel coronary disease; hypothesis and review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Nielsen, PE; Sleight, P

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by a case where a patient (with no risk factors, and single vessel disease) developed angina pectoris after previous blunt chest trauma, we searched Medline for blunt chest trauma and myocardial ischaemia. We found 77 cases describing AMI after blunt chest trauma, but only one reporting...... angina pectoris. We focused on the age and sex distribution, type of trauma, the angiography findings and the time interval between the trauma and the angiography. The age distribution was atypical, compared to AMI in general; 82% of the patients with AMI after blunt chest trauma were less than 45 years......, which strongly suggested a causal relation between the trauma and subsequent occlusion. AMI should therefore be considered in patients suffering from chest pain after blunt chest trauma. Because traumatic AMI might often be the result of an intimal tear or dissection, thrombolytic therapy might worsen...

  18. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal leads to adaptations in nucleus accumbens core postsynaptic density proteome and dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Joachim D; McGuier, Natalie S; Gass, Justin T; Griffin, William C; Ball, Lauren E; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by the loss of ability to control alcohol (ethanol) intake despite knowledge of detrimental health or personal consequences. Clinical and pre-clinical models provide strong evidence for chronic ethanol-associated alterations in glutamatergic signaling and impaired synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the neural mechanisms that contribute to aberrant glutamatergic signaling in ethanol-dependent individuals in this critical brain structure remain unknown. Using an unbiased proteomic approach, we investigated the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on neuroadaptations in postsynaptic density (PSD)-enriched proteins in the NAc of ethanol-dependent mice. Compared with controls, CIE exposure significantly changed expression levels of 50 proteins in the PSD-enriched fraction. Systems biology and functional annotation analyses demonstrated that the dysregulated proteins are expressed at tetrapartite synapses and critically regulate cellular morphology. To confirm this latter finding, the density and morphology of dendritic spines were examined in the NAc core of ethanol-dependent mice. We found that CIE exposure and withdrawal differentially altered dendrite diameter and dendritic spine density and morphology. Through the use of quantitative proteomics and functional annotation, these series of experiments demonstrate that ethanol dependence produces neuroadaptations in proteins that modify dendritic spine morphology. In addition, these studies identified novel PSD-related proteins that contribute to the neurobiological mechanisms of ethanol dependence that drive maladaptive structural plasticity of NAc neurons. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cuna, D.

    2001-01-01

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 220 0 C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw [it

  20. Effect of acute ethanol on beta-endorphin secretion from rat fetal hypothalamic neurons in primary cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, D.K.; Minami, S. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-01-01

    To characterize the effect of ethanol on the hypothalamic {beta}-endorphin-containing neurons, rat fetal hypothalamic neurons were maintained in primary culture, and the secretion of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-EP) was determined after ethanol challenges. Constant exposure to ethanol at doses of 6-50 mM produced a dose-dependent increase in basal secretion of {beta}-EP from these cultured cells. These doses of ethanol did not produce any significant effect on cell viability, DNA or protein content. The stimulated secretion of {beta}-EP following constant ethanol exposure is short-lasting. However, intermittent ethanol exposures maintained the ethanol stimulatory action on {beta}-EP secretion for a longer time. The magnitude of the {beta}-EP response to 50 mM ethanol is similar to that of the {beta}-EP response to 56 mM of potassium. Ethanol-stimulated {beta}-EP secretion required extracellular calcium and was blocked by a calcium channel blocker; a sodium channel blocker did not affect ethanol-stimulated secretion. These results suggest that the neuron culture system is a useful model for studying the cellular mechanisms involved in the ethanol-regulated hypothalamic opioid secretion.

  1. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  2. Blunt Cardiac Injury in the Severely Injured - A Retrospective Multicentre Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Hanschen

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac injury is a rare trauma entity. Here, we sought to evaluate the relevance and prognostic significance of blunt cardiac injury in severely injured patients.In a retrospective multicentre study, using data collected from 47,580 patients enrolled to TraumaRegister DGU (1993-2009, characteristics of trauma, prehospital / hospital trauma management, and outcome analysis were correlated to the severity of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of cardiac injury was assessed according to the abbreviated injury score (AIS score 1-6, the revised injury severity score (RISC allowed comparison of expected outcome with injury severity-dependent outcome. N = 1.090 had blunt cardiac trauma (AIS 1-6 (2.3% of patients.Predictors of blunt cardiac injury could be identified. Sternal fractures indicate a high risk of the presence of blunt cardiac injury (AIS 0 [control]: 3.0%; AIS 1: 19.3%; AIS 2-6: 19.1%. The overall mortality rate was 13.9%, minor cardiac injury (AIS 1 and severe cardiac injury (AIS 2-6 are associated with higher rates. Severe blunt cardiac injury (AIS 4 and AIS 5-6 is associated with a higher mortality (OR 2.79 and 4.89, respectively as compared to the predicted average mortality (OR 2.49 of the study collective.Multiple injured patients with blunt cardiac trauma are at high risk to be underestimated. Careful evaluation of trauma patients is able to predict the presence of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of blunt cardiac injury needs to be stratified according to the AIS score, as the patients' outcome is dependent on the severity of cardiac injury.

  3. From Ethanol to Salsolinol: Role of Ethanol Metabolites in the Effects of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra T. Peana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound. The present review recapitulates, in a perspective manner, the major and most recent advances that in the last decades boosted a significant growth in the understanding on the role of ethanol metabolism, in particular, in the neurobiological basis of its central effects.

  4. Social opportunity and ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Burger, Kelly M; Di Poce, Jason; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of pairings of ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) with social opportunity unconditioned stimulus (US) on ethanol sipper CS-directed drinking in rats. In both experiments, rats were deprived of neither food nor water, and initiation of drinking of unsweetened 3% ethanol was evaluated, as were the effects of increasing the concentration of unsweetened ethanol (3-10%) across sessions. In Experiment 1, Group Paired (n=8) received 35 trials per session wherein the ethanol sipper CS was presented for 10 s immediately prior to 15 s of social opportunity US. All rats initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol. Increasing the concentration of ethanol in the sipper CS [(3%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% (vol./vol.)] across sessions induced escalation of daily g/kg ethanol intake. To evaluate the hypothesis that the drinking in Group Paired was due to autoshaping, Experiment 2 included a pseudoconditioning control that received sipper CS and social opportunity US randomly with respect to one another. All rats in Group Paired (n=6) and in Group Random (n=6) initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol and daily mean g/kg ethanol intake in the two groups was comparable. Also comparable was daily g/kg ethanol intake, which increased for both groups with the availability of higher concentrations of ethanol in the sipper CS, up to a maximum of approximately 0.8 g/kg ethanol intake of 10% ethanol. Results indicate that random presentations of ethanol sipper CS and social opportunity US induced reliable initiation and escalation of ethanol intake, and close temporally contiguous presentations of CS and US did not induce still additional ethanol intake. This may indicate that autoshaping CR performance is not induced by these procedures, or that high levels of ethanol intake induced by factors related to pseudoconditioning produces a ceiling effect. Implications for ethanol drinking in humans are discussed.

  5. Chronic ethanol consumption in rats produces opioid antinociceptive tolerance through inhibition of mu opioid receptor endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    Full Text Available It is well known that the mu-opioid receptor (MOR plays an important role in the rewarding properties of ethanol. However, it is less clear how chronic ethanol consumption affects MOR signaling. Here, we demonstrate that rats with prolonged voluntary ethanol consumption develop antinociceptive tolerance to opioids. Signaling through the MOR is controlled at many levels, including via the process of endocytosis. Importantly, agonists at the MOR that promote receptor endocytosis, such as the endogenous peptides enkephalin and β-endorphin, show a reduced propensity to promote antinociceptive tolerance than do agonists, like morphine, which do not promote receptor endocytosis. These observations led us to examine whether chronic ethanol consumption produced opioid tolerance by interfering with MOR endocytosis. Indeed, here we show that chronic ethanol consumption inhibits the endocytosis of MOR in response to opioid peptide. This loss of endocytosis was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 protein levels after chronic drinking, suggesting that loss of this component of the trafficking machinery could be a mechanism by which endocytosis is lost. We also found that MOR coupling to G-protein was decreased in ethanol-drinking rats, providing a functional explanation for loss of opioid antinociception. Together, these results suggest that chronic ethanol drinking alters the ability of MOR to endocytose in response to opioid peptides, and consequently, promotes tolerance to the effects of opioids.

  6. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic ethanol production by Mucor circinelloides during submerged growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbehuesen, T.L.; Nielsen, J.; McIntyre, M. [Center for Process Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The dimorphic organism Mucor circinelloides is currently being investigated as a potential host for heterologous protein production. The production of ethanol on pentose and hexose sugars was studied in submerged batch cultivations to further the general knowledge of Mucor physiology, with a view to the minimisation or elimination of the by-product ethanol for future process design. Large amounts of ethanol were produced during aerobic growth on glucose under non-oxygen limiting conditions, which is indicative of M. circinelloides being a Crabtree-positive organism. Ethanol production on galactose or xylose was less significant. The response of the organism to increased ethanol concentrations, both as the sole carbon source and in the presence of a sugar, was investigated in terms of biomass formation and morphology. (orig.)

  8. Changes in carbon footprint when integrating production of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancoli, Pedro; Ferreira, Jorge A; Bolton, Kim; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-02-01

    Integrating the cultivation of edible filamentous fungi in the thin stillage from ethanol production is presently being considered. This integration can increase the ethanol yield while simultaneously producing a new value-added protein-rich biomass that can be used for animal feed. This study uses life cycle assessment to determine the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in ethanol production. The result shows that the integration performs better than the current scenario when the fungal biomass is used as cattle feed for system expansion and when energy allocation is used. It performs worse if the biomass is used as fish feed. Hence, integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants combined with proper use of the fungi can lead to a reduction of GHG emissions which, considering the number of existing ethanol plants, can have a significant global impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrophysiology of blunted emotional bias in psychopathic personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Patrick L; Jaspers-Fayer, Fern; Asmaro, Deyar T; Douglas, Kevin S; Liotti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Diminished emotional capacity is a core characteristic of psychopathic personality. We examined behavioral and electrophysiological differences in attentional bias to emotional material in 34 healthy individuals rated high or low in psychopathic traits using the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (18 high-trait, 16 low-trait). While performing an emotional Stroop task, high-trait participants displayed reduced emotional modulation of the late positive potential (LPP, 400-600 ms), and early anterior positivity (EAP, 200-300 ms) amplitudes. Results suggest blunted bias to affective content in psychopathic personality, characterized by diminished early capture to emotional salience (EAP) and dampened cognitive emotional processing (LPP). Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Mitral valve plasty for mitral regurgitation after blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H; Hamanaka, Y; Hirai, S; Mitsui, N; Kobayashi, T

    2001-06-01

    A 21 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of chest and back pain after blunt chest trauma. On admission, consciousness was clear and a physical examination showed labored breathing. Her vital signs were stable, but her breathing gradually worsened, and artificial respiration was started. The chest roentgenogram and a subsequent chest computed tomographic scans revealed contusions, hemothorax of the left lung and multiple rib fractures. A transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed normal left ventricular wall motion and mild mitral regurgitation (MR). TTE was carried out repeatedly, and revealed gradually progressive MR and prolapse of the posterior medial leaflet, although there was no congestive heart failure. After her general condition had recovered, surgery was performed. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed torn chordae at the posterior medial leaflet. The leaflet where the chorda was torn was cut and plicated, and posterior mitral annuloplasty was performed using a prosthetic ring. One month later following discharge, the MR had disappeared on TTE.

  11. Blunt Cerebrovascular Injuries: Advances in Screening, Imaging, and Management Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, P; Policeni, B A; Bathla, G; Khandelwal, A; Derdeyn, C; Skeete, D

    2017-10-12

    Blunt cerebrovascular injury is a relatively uncommon but sometimes life-threatening injury, particularly in patients presenting with ischemic symptoms in that vascular territory. The decision to pursue vascular imaging (generally CT angiography) is based on clinical and imaging findings. Several grading scales or screening criteria have been developed to guide the decision to pursue vascular imaging, as well as to recommend different treatment options for various injuries. The data supporting many of these guidelines and options are limited however. The purpose of this article is to review and compare these scales and criteria and the data supporting clinical efficacy and to make recommendations for future research in this area. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. A large ventricular septal defect complicating resuscitation after blunt trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry D I De′Ath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A young adult pedestrian was admitted to hospital after being hit by a car. On arrival to the Accident and Emergency Department, the patient was tachycardic, hypotensive, hypoxic, and acidotic with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 3. Despite initial interventions, the patient remained persistently hypotensive. An echocardiogram demonstrated a traumatic ventricular septal defect (VSD with right ventricular strain and increased pulmonary artery pressure. Following a period of stabilization, open cardiothoracic surgery was performed and revealed an aneurysmal septum with a single large defect. This was repaired with a bovine patch, resulting in normalization of right ventricular function. This case provides a vivid depiction of a large VSD in a patient following blunt chest trauma with hemodynamic compromise. In all thoracic trauma patients, and particularly those poorly responsive to resuscitation, VSDs should be considered. Relevant investigations and management strategies are discussed.

  13. Transition and Turbulence Modeling for Blunt-Body Wake Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Robert P.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Hassan, H. A.

    1997-01-01

    This study attempts t o improve the modeling and computational prediction of high- speed transitional wake flows. The recently developed kappa - zeta (Enstrophy) turbulence model is coupled with a newly developed transition prediction method and implemented in an implicit flow solver well-suited to hypersonic flows. In this model, transition onset is determined as part of the solution. Results obtained using the new model for a 70- deg blunted cone/sting geometry demonstrate better agreement with experimental heat- transfer measurements when compared to laminar calculations as well as solutions using the kappa - omega model. Results are also presented for the situation where transition onset is preselected. It is shown that, in this case, results are quite sensitive to location of the transition point.

  14. Open pneumothorax resulting from blunt thoracic trauma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintick, Colleen M

    2008-01-01

    Cases of open pneumothorax have been documented as early as 326 BC. Until the last 50 years, understanding of the epidemiology and treatment of penetrating chest trauma has arisen from military surgery. A better understanding of cardiopulmonary dynamics, advances in ventilatory support, and improvement in surgical technique have drastically improved treatment and increased the survival rate of patients with penetrating thoracic trauma. Open pneumothorax is rare in blunt chest trauma, but can occur when injury results in a substantial loss of the chest wall. This case study presents an adolescent who sustained a large open pneumothorax as a result of being run over by a car. Early and appropriate surgical intervention coupled with coordinated efforts by all members of the trauma team resulted in a positive outcome for this patient.

  15. Clinical features and outcomes of blunt splenic injury in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaiying; Li, Yanan; Wang, Chuan; Xiang, Bo; Chen, Siyuan; Ji, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Although the spleen is the most commonly injured intra-abdominal organ after blunt trauma, there are limited data available in China. The objectives of this study were to investigate the clinical features and determine the risk factors for operative management (OM) in children with blunt splenic injury (BSI). A review of the medical records of children diagnosed with BSI between January 2010 and September 2016 at West China Hospital of Sichuan University was performed. A total of 101 patients diagnosed with BSI were recruited, including 76 patients transferred from other hospitals. The male-to-female ratio was 2.06:1, with a mean age of 7.8 years old. The most common injury season was summer and the most common injury mechanism was road traffic accidents. Sixty-eight patients suffered multiple injuries. Thirty-four patients received blood transfusions. Two patients died from multiple organ failure or hemorrhagic shock. Significant differences were observed in the injury season, injury mechanism, injury date, and hemoglobin levels between the isolated injury group and the multiple injuries group. The overall operative rate was 29.7%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that age, blood transfusion, and grade of injury were independent risk factors for OM. Our study provided evidence that the management of pediatric BSI was variable. The operative rate in pediatric BSI may be higher in certain patient groups. Although nonoperative management is one of the standard treatment options, our data suggest that OM is an appropriate way to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable. PMID:29390566

  16. Blunt trauma induced splenic blushes are not created equal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlew Clay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, evidence of contrast extravasation on computed tomography (CT scan is regarded as an indication for intervention in splenic injuries. In our experience, patients transferred from other institutions for angioembolization have often resolved the blush upon repeat imaging at our hospital. We hypothesized that not all splenic blushes require intervention. Methods During a 10-year period, we reviewed all patients transferred with blunt splenic injuries and contrast extravasation on initial postinjury CT scan. Results During the study period, 241 patients were referred for splenic injuries, of whom 16 had a contrast blush on initial CT imaging (88% men, mean age 35 ± 5, mean ISS 26 ± 3. Eight (50% patients were managed without angioembolization or operation. Comparing patients with and without intervention, there was a significant difference in admission heart rate (106 ± 9 vs 83 ± 6 and decline in hematocrit following transfer (5.3 ± 2.0 vs 1.0 ± 0.3, but not in injury grade (3.9 ± 0.2 vs 3.5 ± 0.3, systolic blood pressure (125 ± 10 vs 115 ± 6, or age (38.5 ± 8.2 vs 30.9 ± 4.7. Of the 8 observed patients, 3 underwent repeat imaging immediately upon arrival with resolution of the blush. In the intervention group, 4 patients had ongoing extravasation on repeat imaging, 2 patients underwent empiric embolization, and 2 patients underwent splenectomy for physiologic indications. Conclusions For blunt splenic trauma, evidence of contrast extravasation on initial CT imaging is not an absolute indication for intervention. A period of observation with repeat imaging could avoid costly, invasive interventions and their associated sequelae.

  17. Criteria for nonoperative management of blunt splenic trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmast Shoushtary MH

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Although nonoperative management is as an alternative method for surgery in the management of blunt splenic trauma, there are many contraversies in criteria for appropriate selection of the best method of management in patients. This study was conducted to find clinical and diagnostic criteria for selection of patients for surgery. "nMethods: One hundred and one patients with blunt splenic injury entered in our prospective observational and cross sectional study. Patients with unstable hemodyna-mics and obvious abdominal symptoms underwent emergency splenectomy was performed. In stable patients, abdominal and pelvic CT scan with IV contrast was performed. Patients with stable hemodynamics who lack obvious abdominal symptoms, admitted in ICU ward. Patients' demographics, blood pressure changes, hemoglobin concertration, severity of trauma with injury severity score (ISS scoring system, CT scan findings, amount of blood transfusion; Hospitalization time and mechanism of injury were recorded. "nResults: From 101 patients, 61(60.3% underwent early laparotomy. 40 patients were planned for conservative management. In 30 patients (29.7% nonoperative management was successful. In 10 patients (9.9% This management failed and they underwent surgery. Hypotension, hemoglobin concentration dropping more than one episode and blood transfusion requirement more than one time, increased the risk of operation. Higher ISS number and ISS≥16 had a direct relation with operative management. In patients who underwent early laparotomy CT grade of injury was higher. CT findings correlated well with laparotomy findings. "nConclusion: Nonoperative management was successful in 75% of selected patients. With correct selection of patients and concerning to homodynamic status, hemoglobin concentration changes and injury severity score in conjunction with CT findings, we can use this management in greater number of patients.

  18. Nonoperative management for patients with grade IV blunt hepatic trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago Thiago

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The treatment of complex liver injuries remains a challenge. Nonoperative treatment for such injuries is increasingly being adopted as the initial management strategy. We reviewed our experience, at a University teaching hospital, in the nonoperative management of grade IV liver injuries with the intent to evaluate failure rates; need for angioembolization and blood transfusions; and in-hospital mortality and complications. Methods This is a retrospective analysis conducted at a single large trauma centre in Brazil. All consecutive, hemodynamically stable, blunt trauma patients with grade IV hepatic injury, between 1996 and 2011, were analyzed. Demographics and baseline characteristics were recorded. Failure of nonoperative management was defined by the need for surgical intervention. Need for angioembolization and transfusions, in-hospital death, and complications were also assessed Results Eighteen patients with grade IV hepatic injury treated nonoperatively during the study period were included. The nonoperative treatment failed in only one patient (5.5% who had refractory abdominal pain. However, no missed injuries and/or worsening of bleeding were observed during the operation. None of the patients died nor need angioembolization. No complications directly related to the liver were observed. Unrelated complications to the liver occurred in three patients (16.7%; one patient developed a tracheal stenosis (secondary to tracheal intubation; one had pleural effusion; and one developed an abscess in the pleural cavity. The hospital length of stay was on average 11.56 days. Conclusions In our experience, nonoperative management of grade IV liver injury for stable blunt trauma patients is associated with high success rates without significant complications.

  19. Nonoperative management for patients with grade IV blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Thiago Messias; Tavares Pereira, Bruno Monteiro; Araujo Calderan, Thiago Rodrigues; Godinho, Mauricio; Nascimento, Bartolomeu; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira

    2012-08-22

    The treatment of complex liver injuries remains a challenge. Nonoperative treatment for such injuries is increasingly being adopted as the initial management strategy. We reviewed our experience, at a University teaching hospital, in the nonoperative management of grade IV liver injuries with the intent to evaluate failure rates; need for angioembolization and blood transfusions; and in-hospital mortality and complications. This is a retrospective analysis conducted at a single large trauma centre in Brazil. All consecutive, hemodynamically stable, blunt trauma patients with grade IV hepatic injury, between 1996 and 2011, were analyzed. Demographics and baseline characteristics were recorded. Failure of nonoperative management was defined by the need for surgical intervention. Need for angioembolization and transfusions, in-hospital death, and complications were also assessed Eighteen patients with grade IV hepatic injury treated nonoperatively during the study period were included. The nonoperative treatment failed in only one patient (5.5%) who had refractory abdominal pain. However, no missed injuries and/or worsening of bleeding were observed during the operation. None of the patients died nor need angioembolization. No complications directly related to the liver were observed. Unrelated complications to the liver occurred in three patients (16.7%); one patient developed a tracheal stenosis (secondary to tracheal intubation); one had pleural effusion; and one developed an abscess in the pleural cavity. The hospital length of stay was on average 11.56 days. In our experience, nonoperative management of grade IV liver injury for stable blunt trauma patients is associated with high success rates without significant complications.

  20. Endothelial Fcγ Receptor IIB Activation Blunts Insulin Delivery to Skeletal Muscle to Cause Insulin Resistance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Chambliss, Ken L.; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Ahmed, Mohamed; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Huang, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Modest elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with type 2 diabetes. We previously revealed in mice that increased CRP causes insulin resistance and mice globally deficient in the CRP receptor Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) were protected from the disorder. FcγRIIB is expressed in numerous cell types including endothelium and B lymphocytes. Here we investigated how endothelial FcγRIIB influences glucose homeostasis, using mice with elevated CRP expressing or lacking endothelial FcγRIIB. Whereas increased CRP caused insulin resistance in mice expressing endothelial FcγRIIB, mice deficient in the endothelial receptor were protected. The insulin resistance with endothelial FcγRIIB activation was due to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake caused by attenuated insulin delivery, and it was associated with blunted endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in skeletal muscle. In culture, CRP suppressed endothelial cell insulin transcytosis via FcγRIIB activation and eNOS antagonism. Furthermore, in knock-in mice harboring constitutively active eNOS, elevated CRP did not invoke insulin resistance. Collectively these findings reveal that by inhibiting eNOS, endothelial FcγRIIB activation by CRP blunts insulin delivery to skeletal muscle to cause insulin resistance. Thus, a series of mechanisms in endothelium that impairs insulin movement has been identified that may contribute to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:27207525

  1. Effects of toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia on flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Chuanyue; Liu, Wanjing; Xia, Hu; Li, Jian; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2017-03-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms result in the production of an organic biomass containing cyanotoxins (e.g. microcystins) and an elevated ammonia concentration in the water environment. The ingestion of toxic cyanobacteria and exposure to ammonia are grave hazards for fish. The present study assessed the effects of dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on the flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure had no impact on fish growth performance, fillet proximate composition and drip loss, whereas it significantly decreased fillet total amino acids, total essential amino acids, hardness and gumminess, and increased fillet ultimate pH as well as malondialdehyde content. However, there was no significant interaction between dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on these parameters. Additionally, dietary toxic cyanobacteria significantly increased fillet initial pH, thaw loss and protein carbonyl content, whereas ammonia exposure did not. The results of the present study indicate that dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure reduced the quality of blunt snout bream fillet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Emergency ultrasound-based algorithms for diagnosing blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Dirk; Rademacher, Grit; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Güthoff, Claas; Mutze, Sven

    2015-09-14

    Ultrasonography (performed by means of a four-quadrant, focused assessment of sonography for trauma (FAST)) is regarded as a key instrument for the initial assessment of patients with suspected blunt abdominal and thoraco-abdominal trauma in the emergency department setting. FAST has a high specificity but low sensitivity in detecting and excluding visceral injuries. Proponents of FAST argue that ultrasound-based clinical pathways enhance the speed of primary trauma assessment, reduce the number of unnecessary multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scans, and enable quicker triage to surgical and non-surgical care. Given the proven accuracy, increasing availability of, and indication for, MDCT among patients with blunt abdominal and multiple injuries, we aimed to compile the best available evidence of the use of FAST-based assessment compared with other primary trauma assessment protocols. To assess the effects of diagnostic algorithms using ultrasonography including in FAST examinations in the emergency department in relation to the early, late, and overall mortality of patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma. The most recent search was run on 30th June 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S, and CPSI-SSH), clinical trials registers, and screened reference lists. Trial authors were contacted for further information and individual patient data. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were patients with blunt torso, abdominal, or multiple trauma undergoing diagnostic investigations for abdominal organ injury. The intervention was diagnostic algorithms comprising emergency ultrasonography (US). The control was diagnostic algorithms without US examinations (for example, primary computed tomography (CT) or diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL)). Outcomes were mortality, use of CT or invasive procedures (DPL

  3. A hybrid CFD/characteristics method for fast characterization of hypersonic blunt forebody/inlet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, WenZhi; Li, ZhuFei; Yang, JiMing

    2015-10-01

    A hybrid CFD/characteristic method (CCM) was proposed for fast design and evaluation of hypersonic inlet flow with nose bluntness, which targets the combined advantages of CFD and method of characteristics. Both the accuracy and efficiency of the developed CCM were verified reliably, and it was well demonstrated for the external surfaces design of a hypersonic forebody/inlet with nose bluntness. With the help of CCM method, effects of nose bluntness on forebody shock shapes and the flowfield qualities which dominate inlet performance were examined and analyzed on the two-dimensional and axisymmetric configurations. The results showed that blunt effects of a wedge forebody are more substantial than that of related cone cases. For a conical forebody with a properly blunted nose, a recovery of the shock front back to that of corresponding sharp nose is exhibited, accompanied with a gradually fading out of entropy layer effects. Consequently a simplification is thought to be reasonable for an axisymmetric inlet with a proper compression angle, and a blunt nose of limited radius can be idealized as a sharp nose, as the spillage and flow variations at the entrance are negligible, even though the nose scale increases to 10% cowl lip radius. Whereas for two-dimensional inlets, the blunt effects are substantial since not only the inlet capturing/starting capabilities, but also the flow uniformities are obviously degraded.

  4. Junk food diet-induced obesity increases D2 receptor autoinhibition in the ventral tegmental area and reduces ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason B; Hendrickson, Linzy M; Garwood, Grant M; Toungate, Kelsey M; Nania, Christina V; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Similar to drugs of abuse, the hedonic value of food is mediated, at least in part, by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Prolonged intake of either high calorie diets or drugs of abuse both lead to a blunting of the DA system. Most studies have focused on DAergic alterations in the striatum, but little is known about the effects of high calorie diets on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Since high calorie diets produce addictive-like DAergic adaptations, it is possible these diets may increase addiction susceptibility. However, high calorie diets consistently reduce psychostimulant intake and conditioned place preference in rodents. In contrast, high calorie diets can increase or decrease ethanol drinking, but it is not known how a junk food diet (cafeteria diet) affects ethanol drinking. In the current study, we administered a cafeteria diet consisting of bacon, potato chips, cheesecake, cookies, breakfast cereals, marshmallows, and chocolate candies to male Wistar rats for 3-4 weeks, producing an obese phenotype. Prior cafeteria diet feeding reduced homecage ethanol drinking over 2 weeks of testing, and transiently reduced sucrose and chow intake. Importantly, cafeteria diet had no effect on ethanol metabolism rate or blood ethanol concentrations following 2g/kg ethanol administration. In midbrain slices, we showed that cafeteria diet feeding enhances DA D2 receptor (D2R) autoinhibition in VTA DA neurons. These results show that junk food diet-induced obesity reduces ethanol drinking, and suggest that increased D2R autoinhibition in the VTA may contribute to deficits in DAergic signaling and reward hypofunction observed with obesity.

  5. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  6. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  7. Ethanol fuel gets the hangover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Corn, wheat, sugar cane.. The multiplication of biofuel refineries has led to a rise of the prices of agriculture products. The question is: do we need ethanol? The US situation gives an answer: the offer exceeds the demand and ethanol prices have dropped down. Other environmental and socio-economical consequences of biofuels development are put forward by the UNO, the IMF and by non-governmental organizations who foresee a dramatic rise of food products prices and an aggravation of starvation in developing countries. (J.S.)

  8. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  9. Effect of mechanical vs dilute ethanol epithelial removal on keratocyte apoptosis and polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurelik, G; Bilgihan, K; Sezer, C; Akyol, G; Hasanreisoglu, B

    2002-03-01

    To investigate keratocyte apoptosis and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell infiltration to the corneal stroma after mechanical epithelial scraping and chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol solution. Twelve New Zealand Albino rabbits (24 eyes) were randomly divided into three groups. Group A was the control group with no epithelial removal. Group B underwent a 7.5-mm mechanical epithelial removal with a blunt spatula. Group C underwent 7.5-mm chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol-balanced salt solution. Corneas were stained with terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay after 24 h. Only nuclear staining in keratocytes was counted. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte densities were also assessed by light microscopy. Mechanical de-epithelialization (group B) and chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol (group C) showed no difference in keratocyte apoptosis compared with the control group. There was also no difference between groups B and C. Group B showed no difference in PMN leukocyte counts compared with the control group. But the number of PMN leukocytes observed in group C was significantly higher than those encountered in the corneas of the control group (P < 0.05) and group B (P < 0.05). Dilute alcohol induces more PMN cell infiltration when compared with mechanical de-epithelialization although there is no difference in the apoptosis rates.

  10. Ventilatory chemosensory drive is blunted in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Mosqueira

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is caused by mutations in the DMD gene resulting in an absence of dystrophin in neurons and muscle. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of mortality and previous studies have largely concentrated on diaphragmatic muscle necrosis and respiratory failure component. Here, we investigated the integrity of respiratory control mechanisms in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Whole body plethysmograph in parallel with phrenic nerve activity recordings revealed a lower respiratory rate and minute ventilation during normoxia and a blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory reflex in response to mild levels of hypoxia together with a poor performance on a hypoxic stress test in mdx mice. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed low PaO2 and pH and high PaCO2 in mdx mice. To investigate chemosensory respiratory drive, we analyzed the carotid body by molecular and functional means. Dystrophin mRNA and protein was expressed in normal mice carotid bodies however, they are absent in mdx mice. Functional analysis revealed abnormalities in Dejours test and the early component of the hypercapnic ventilatory reflex in mdx mice. Together, these results demonstrate a malfunction in the peripheral chemosensory drive that would be predicted to contribute to the respiratory failure in mdx mice. These data suggest that investigating and monitoring peripheral chemosensory drive function may be useful for improving the management of DMD patients with respiratory failure.

  11. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  12. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestani, Carlos C. [Department of Natural Active Principles and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ. Estadual Paulista—UNESP (Brazil); Lopes da Silva, Andréia [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Scopinho, América A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ruginsk, Silvia G.; Uchoa, Ernane T. [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Correa, Fernando M.A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Resstel, Leonardo B.M., E-mail: leoresstel@yahoo.com.br [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α{sub 1}-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β{sub 2}-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT{sub 1A} receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity

  13. Production of Ethanol and Biomass from Thin Stillage Using Food-Grade Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A starch-based ethanol facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year also produces ca. 2 million m3 thin stillage, which can be used to improve the entire process. In this work, five food-grade filamentous fungi, including a Zygomycete and four Ascomycetes were successfully grown in thin stillage containing 9% solids. Cultivation with Neurospora intermedia led to the production of ca. 16 g·L−1 biomass containing 56% (w/w crude protein, a reduction of 34% of the total solids, and 5 g·L−1 additional ethanol. In an industrial ethanol production process (200,000 m3 ethanol/year, this can potentially lead to the production of 11,000 m3 extra ethanol per year. Cultivation with Aspergillus oryzae resulted in 19 g·L−1 biomass containing 48% (w/w crude protein and the highest reduction of the thin stillage glycerol (54% among the Ascomycetes. Cultivation with Rhizopus sp. produced up to 15 g·L−1 biomass containing 55% (w/w crude protein. The spent thin stillage had been reduced up to 85%, 68% and 21% regarding lactic acid, glycerol and total solids, respectively. Therefore, N. intermedia, in particular, has a high potential to improve the ethanol process via production of additional ethanol and high-quality biomass, which can be considered for animal feed applications such as for fish feed.

  14. Non-Operative Management of Isolated Pneumoperitoneum Due to Severe Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kilic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonoperative management of blunt abdominal trauma is the treatment of choice for hemodynamically stable patients. The results of nonoperative management are more successful in isolated solid organ injuries such as the liver and spleen than hollow viscus injury. In this approach, both the clinical course of the patient and the computed tomography findings play an important role. Isolated pneumoperitoneum in blunt abdominal trauma may be a surgical challenge for clinicians because it is usually a significant radiological sign for hallow viscus perforations. Here, we report a case of isolated pneumoperitoneum detected on computed tomography and managed non-surgically, in a young man suffered from a severe blunt abdominal trauma. Our aim is to attract the attention of surgeons to the management problems of the presence of pneumoperitoneum in the absence of other radiological findings in blunt abdominal trauma.

  15. Hepatic arterial pseudoaneurysm: a rare complication of blunt abdominal trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, K.E.; Sivit, C.J.; Sachs, P.B.; Stallion, A.

    1999-01-01

    We report a child who developed a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following blunt hepatic injury. This is a rare complication of hepatic trauma in children. The imaging evaluation and clinical management of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are presented. (orig.)

  16. The effect of resuscitation strategy on the longitudinal immuno-inflammatory response to blunt trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Alexander; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Kirial, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Resuscitation strategies following blunt trauma have been linked to immuno-inflammatory complications leading to systemic inflammatory syndrome (SIRS), sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). The effect of resuscitation strategy on longitudinal inflammation marker trajectories is...

  17. Early detection of myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma by computed tomography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thung-Lip; Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Shih, Chen-Hsiang; Liang, Huai-Wen; Tsai, Hsing-Shan; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Hsu, Kwan-Lih

    2017-02-10

    Blunt cardiac trauma encompasses a wide range of clinical entities, including myocardial contusion, cardiac rupture, valve avulsion, pericardial injuries, arrhythmia, and even myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery dissection after blunt chest trauma is rare and may be life threatening. Differential diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from cardiac contusion at this setting is not easy. Here we demonstrated a case of blunt chest trauma, with computed tomography detected myocardium enhancement defect early at emergency department. Under the impression of acute myocardial infarction, emergent coronary angiography revealed left anterior descending artery occlusion. Revascularization was performed and coronary artery dissection was found after thrombus aspiration. Finally, the patient survived after coronary stenting. Perfusion defects of myocardium enhancement on CT after blunt chest trauma can be very helpful to suggest myocardial infarction and facilitate the decision making of emergent procedure. This valuable sign should not be missed during the initial interpretation.

  18. The behavioural, cognitive, and neural corollaries of blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Whittaker, Anna C; Lovallo, William R; de Rooij, Susanne R

    Recent research shows that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress are associated with adverse behavioural and health outcomes: depression, obesity, bulimia, and addictions. These outcomes may reflect suboptimal functioning of the brain's fronto-limbic systems

  19. Annular pigment band on the posterior capsule following blunt ocular trauma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Rosalind J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report an unusual case of annular pigment band on the posterior capsule following blunt ocular trauma. Case presentation We describe an annular pigment band on the posterior capsule following blunt ocular trauma in a 28-year old male patient. Repeat examinations revealed no evidence of other signs of blunt ocular trauma or pigment dispersion syndrome in either eye. Conclusion The annular pigment band in this case corresponds to the adherence of the hyaloideocapsulare ligament to the posterior capsule and reconfirms its rare visualization in the living eye. This finding may be an isolated sign of blunt ocular trauma and a compromised integrity of the vitreolenticular interface should be strongly suspected. We recommend careful documentation in context of future cataract surgery in these eyes.

  20. External air compression: A rare cause of blunt esophageal injury, managed by a stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muneer

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: High index of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis of esophageal perforation after blunt trauma. Appropriate drainage, antibiotic and temporary endoscopic esophageal stenting may be an optimal approach in selected patients, especially with delayed diagnosis.

  1. Associated injuries, management, and outcomes of blunt abdominal aortic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestral, Charles; Dueck, Andrew D; Gomez, David; Haas, Barbara; Nathens, Avery B

    2012-09-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic injury (BAAI) is very rare, and current literature is limited to case series of single-center experience. Through an analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank, the largest aggregation of United States trauma registry data, our aim was to characterize the associated injury pattern, contemporary management, and in-hospital outcomes of patients with BAAI. We used a nested case-control design. The overall cohort consisted of adult patients (age ≥ 16 years) severely injured (Injury Severity Score ≥ 16) after blunt trauma who were treated at a level 1 or 2 trauma center in years 2007 to 2009. Cases were patients with BAAI and were frequency-matched by age group and mechanism to randomly selected controls at a one-to-five ratio. Multivariable matched analysis (conditional logistic regression) was used to derive adjusted measures of association between BAAI and adjacent arterial, intra-abdominal, and bony injuries. We identified 436 patients with BAAI from 180 centers. The mean Injury Severity Score was 35 ± 14, and most patients were injured in motor vehicle crashes (84%). Multivariable analysis showed injury to the thoracic aorta, renal and iliac artery, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, and kidney, as well as lumbar spine fractures were independently associated with BAAI. A total of 394 patients (90%) were managed nonoperatively, and 42 (10%) underwent repair. Of these 42 patients, 29 (69%) underwent endovascular repair, with 11 patients undergoing open aortic repair and two extra-anatomic bypasses. Median time from admission to repair was 1 day (interquartile range, 1-2 days). Overall mortality was 29%. A total of 271 (69%) patients managed nonoperatively survived to hospital discharge. The index of suspicion for BAAI should be raised in severely injured patients by the presence of injuries to the lumbar spine, bowel, retroperitoneal organs, and adjacent major arteries. Although endovascular repair is the most common intervention, most

  2. Which pediatric blunt trauma patients do not require pelvic imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasz, Maya; Simone, Laura A; Wales, Paul W; Stimec, Jennifer; Stephens, Derek; Beno, Suzanne; Schuh, Suzanne

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to develop a tool in identifying traumatized children at low risk of pelvic fracture and to determine the sensitivity of this low-risk model for pelvic fractures. We hypothesized that the proportion of children without predictors with pelvic fracture is less than 1%. This is a retrospective trauma registry analysis of previously healthy children 1 year to 17 years old presenting to the pediatric emergency department with blunt trauma. Postulated predictors of pelvic fracture on radiograph or computed tomography included pain/abnormal examination result of the pelvis/hip, femur deformity, hematuria, abdominal pain/tenderness, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13 or lower, and hemodynamic instability. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify independent predictors of fracture. Of 1,121 eligible patients (mean [SD] age, 8.5 [4.6] years), 87 (7.8%) had pelvic fracture. Independent predictors included pain/abnormal examination result of the pelvis/hip (odds ratio [OR], 16.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.6-29.1), hematuria (OR, 6.6; 95% CI, 3.0-14.6), femoral deformity (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 3.1-11.3), GCS score of 13 or lower (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3), and hemodynamic instability (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.7-6.9). One of 590 children (0.2%; 95% CI, 0-0.5%) without predictors had pelvic fractures versus 86 (16.2%) of 531 in those with one or more predictors (OR, 119; 95% CI, 16.6-833). One of 87 children with pelvic fractures had no predictors (1.1%; 95% CI, 0-3%). When assuming a 100% radiography rate, this tool saves 53% pelvic radiographs. Children with multiple blunt trauma without pain/abnormal examination result of the pelvis/hip, femur deformity, hematuria, abdominal pain/tenderness, GCS score of 13 or lower, or hemodynamic instability constitute a low-risk population for pelvic fracture, with less than 0.5% risk rate. This population does not require routine pelvic imaging. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  3. Blunt body near wake flow field at Mach 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Hannemann, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    Tests were conducted in a Mach 6 flow to examine the reattachment process of an axisymmetric free shear layer associated with the near wake of a 70 deg. half angle, spherically blunted cone with a cylindrical after body. Model angle of incidence was fixed at 0 deg. and free-stream Reynolds numbers based on body diameter ranged from 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4 x 10(exp 6). The sensitivity of wake shear layer transition on reattachment heating was investigated. The present perfect gas study was designed to compliment results obtained previously in facilities capable of producing real gas effects. The instrumented blunted cone model was designed primarily for testing in high enthalpy hypervelocity shock tunnels in both this country and abroad but was amenable for testing in conventional hypersonic blowdown wind tunnels as well. Surface heating rates were inferred from temperature - time histories from coaxial surface thermocouples on the model forebody and thin film resistance gages along the model base and cylindrical after body. General flow feature (bow shock, wake shear layer, and recompression shock) locations were visually identified by schlieren photography. Mean shear layer position and growth were determined from intrusive pitot pressure surveys. In addition, wake surveys with a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer were utilized to qualitatively characterize the state of the shear layer prior to reattachment. Experimental results were compared to laminar perfect gas predictions provided by a 3-D Navier Stokes code (NSHYP). Shear layer impingement on the instrumented cylindrical after body resulted in a localized heating maximum that was 21 to 29 percent of the forebody stagnation point heating. Peak heating resulting from the reattaching shear layer was found to be a factor of 2 higher than laminar predictions, which suggested a transitional shear layer. Schlieren flow visualization and fluctuating voltage time histories and spectra from the hot wire surveys

  4. Big increase in US ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-10

    US ethanol capacity is expected to reach 600 million US gal/year by the end of 1982, according to a report from the AIChE. Although this is a six-fold increase over capacity installed in 1979 it is still less than 1% of US domestic motor fuel supply.

  5. Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-06

    The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

  6. Heat integrated ethanol dehydration flowsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutahaean, L.S.; Shen, W.H.; Brunt, V. Van [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    zA theoretical evaluation of heat-integrated heterogeneous-azeotropic ethanol-water distillation flowsheets is presented. Simulations of two column flowsheets using several different hydrocarbon entrainers reveal a region of potential heat integration and substantial reduction in operating energy. In this paper, methods for comparing hydrocarbon entrainers are shown. Two aspects of entrainers are related to operating and capital costs. The binary azeotropic composition of the entrainer-ethanol mixture is related to the energy requirements of the flowsheet. A temperature difference in the azeotrophic column is related to the size of the column and overall process staging requirements. Although the hydrophobicity of an entrainer is essential for specification of staging in the dehydration column, no substantial increase in operating energy results from an entrainer that has a higher water content. Likewise, liquid-liquid equilibria between several entrainer-ethanol-water mixtures have no substantial effect on either staging or operation. Rather, increasing the alcohol content of the entrainer-ethanol azeotrope limits its recovery in the dehydration column, and increases the recycle and reflux streams. These effects both contribute to increasing the separation energy requirements and reducing the region of potential heat integration. A cost comparison with a multieffect extractive distillation flowsheet reveals that the costs are comparable; however, the extractive distillation flowsheet is more cost effective as operating costs increase.

  7. The ontogeny of ethanol aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2016-03-15

    Recent work has suggested separate developmental periods within the broader framework of adolescence, with data suggesting distinct alterations and vulnerabilities within these intervals. While previous research has suggested reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol in adolescence relative to adults, a more detailed ontogeny of this effect has yet to be conducted. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion. The current study aimed to determine the ontogeny of ethanol aversion by utilizing a conditioned taste aversion procedure at six different ages to test the hypothesis that the transitions into, through, and out of adolescence are associated with ontogenetic alterations in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol. Non-deprived animals given Boost® as the conditioned stimulus (CS) were used in Experiment 1, whereas Experiment 2 used water-restricted animals provided with a saccharin/sucrose solution as the CS. In both experiments, an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol was evident in adolescents compared to adults, although more age differences were apparent in water deprived animals than when a highly palatable CS was given to ad libitum animals. Overall, the data suggest an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of ethanol as a co-solvent on the aerosol performance and stability of spray-dried lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Shuying; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Mu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    In the spray drying process, organic solvents can be added to facilitate drying, accommodate certain functional excipients, and modify the final particle characteristics. In this study, lysozyme was used as a model pharmaceutical protein to study the effect of ethanol as a co...... the spray drying process. The enzymatic activities of the spray-dried lysozyme showed no significant impact of ethanol; however, the lysozyme enzymatic activity was ca. 25% lower compared to the starting material. In conclusion, the addition of ethanol as a co-solvent in the spray drying feed for lysozyme......-solvent on the stability and aerosol performance of spray-dried protein. Lysozyme was dissolved in solutions with various ratios of ethanol and water, and subsequently spray-dried. A change from spherical particles into wrinkled and folded particles was observed upon increasing the ratio of ethanol in the feed...

  9. The Houdini effect--an unusual case of blunt abdominal trauma resulting in perforative appendicitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, F

    2012-03-01

    We present a unique case of perforative appendicitis that occurred in an adult following blunt abdominal trauma. This case represents the first such reported case from Ireland. It also represents a modern practical example of Laplace\\'s theory of the effect of increased pressure on colonic wall tension leading to localized perforation, and serves to highlight not only the importance in preoperative imaging for blunt abdominal trauma, but also the importance of considering appendiceal perforation.

  10. Delayed presentation of a sigmoid colon injury following blunt abdominal trauma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ertugrul, Gokhan; Coskun, Murat; Sevinc, Mahsuni; Ertugrul, Fisun; Toydemir, Toygar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The low incidence of colon injury due to blunt abdominal trauma and the lack of a definitive diagnostic method for the same can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment, subsequently resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Case presentation A 66-year-old woman with sigmoid colon injury was admitted to our emergency department after sustaining blunt abdominal trauma. Her physical examination findings and laboratory results led to a decision to perform a laparotomy; ex...

  11. A patient education tool for nonoperative management of blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, Julie Marie

    2007-01-01

    Blunt trauma is the primary mechanism of injury seen at Charleston Area Medical Center, a rural level I trauma center. Blunt abdominal trauma occurs as a result of various mechanisms. It can be safely managed nonoperatively and is considered to be the standard of care in hemodynamically stable patients. Appropriate patient education before discharge will enable patients to identify complications early and seek appropriate medical care.

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging of Injuries from Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Pictorial Essay

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Radhiana; Abd. Aziz, Azian

    2010-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma can cause multiple internal injuries. However, these injuries are often difficult to accurately evaluate, particularly in the presence of more obvious external injuries. Computed tomography (CT) imaging is currently used to assess clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma. CT can provide a rapid and accurate appraisal of the abdominal viscera, retroperitoneum and abdominal wall, as well as a limited assessment of the lower thoracic region and bony pelvis. T...

  13. Characteristics of female patients with sexual dysfunction who also had a history of blunt perineal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munarriz, Ricardo; Talakoub, Lily; Somekh, Nir N; Lehrfeld, Todd; Chudnovsky, Aleksander; Flaherty, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Irwin

    2002-01-01

    Perineal trauma can occur in both genders, however, data supporting the relationship between sexual dysfunction and blunt perineal trauma in women is lacking. This study reviewed the patient characteristics of women with sexual dysfunction who also had a history of blunt perineal trauma. A neurogenic form of sexual dysfunction has been implicated, with primary complaints of orgasm disorder and abnormalities noted on genital sensory testing. Further research in this area is needed.

  14. Temporal bone fracture following blunt trauma caused by a flying fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, D; Karam, M; Danino, J; Flax-Goldenberg, R; Joachims, H Z

    1998-10-01

    Blunt trauma to the temporal region can cause fracture of the skull base, loss of hearing, vestibular symptoms and otorrhoea. The most common causes of blunt trauma to the ear and surrounding area are motor vehicle accidents, violent encounters, and sports-related accidents. We present an obscure case of a man who was struck in the ear by a flying fish while wading in the sea with resulting temporal bone fracture, sudden deafness, vertigo, cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea, and pneumocephalus.

  15. Two weeks delayed bleeding in blunt liver injury: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsky Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most cases of blunt hepatic trauma are treated nowadays non-operatively. This type of conservative treatment has resulted in increased complication rate. Delayed complications occur in cases that didn't require surgical intervention during the first 24 hours. The most common late complication is hemorrhage. We report a case of two weeks delayed hemorrhage after blunt hepatic trauma in an adult. We describe the diagnostic procedures, the surgical treatment and review the relevant literature.

  16. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO 2 eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  17. Neuroprotection with metformin and thymoquinone against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in prenatal rat cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah Ikram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to ethanol during early development triggers severe neuronal death by activating multiple stress pathways and causes neurological disorders, such as fetal alcohol effects or fetal alcohol syndrome. This study investigated the effect of ethanol on intracellular events that predispose developing neurons for apoptosis via calcium-mediated signaling. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity are not completely determined, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered calcium homeostasis and apoptosis-related proteins have been implicated in ethanol neurotoxicity. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective mechanisms of metformin (Met and thymoquinone (TQ during ethanol toxicity in rat prenatal cortical neurons at gestational day (GD 17.5. Results We found that Met and TQ, separately and synergistically, increased cell viability after ethanol (100 mM exposure for 12 hours and attenuated the elevation of cytosolic free calcium [Ca2+]c. Furthermore, Met and TQ maintained normal physiological mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔψM, which is typically lowered by ethanol exposure. Increased cytosolic free [Ca2+]c and lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential after ethanol exposure significantly decreased the expression of a key anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2, increased expression of Bax, and stimulated the release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria. Met and TQ treatment inhibited the apoptotic cascade by increasing Bcl-2 expression. These compounds also repressed the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and reduced the cleavage of PARP-1. Morphological conformation of cell death was assessed by TUNEL, Fluoro-Jade-B, and PI staining. These staining methods demonstrated more cell death after ethanol treatment, while Met, TQ or Met plus TQ prevented ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion These findings suggested that Met and TQ are strong protective agents against ethanol

  18. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Ganti S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for

  19. The Use of Chest Computed Tomographic Angiography in Blunt Trauma Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasadia, Rabea; DuBose, Joseph; Peleg, Kobi; Stephenson, Jacob; Givon, Adi; Kessel, Boris

    2018-02-05

    Blunt chest trauma in children is common. Although rare, associated major thoracic vascular injuries (TVIs) are lethal potential sequelae of these mechanisms. The preferred study for definitive diagnosis of TVI in stable patients is computed tomographic angiography imaging of the chest. This imaging modality is, however, associated with high doses of ionizing radiation that represent significant carcinogenic risk for pediatric patients. The aim of the present investigation was to define the incidence of TVI among blunt pediatric trauma patients in an effort to better elucidate the usefulness of computed tomographic angiography use in this population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted including all blunt pediatric (age blunt trauma victims, 119,821patients were younger than 14 years. Twelve (0.0001%, 12/119821) of these children were diagnosed with TVI. The most common mechanism in this group was pedestrian hit by a car. Mortality was 41.7% (5/12). Thoracic vascular injury is exceptionally rare among pediatric blunt trauma victims but does contribute to the high morbidity and mortality seen with blunt chest trauma. Computed tomographic angiography, with its associated radiation exposure risk, should not be used as a standard tool after trauma in injured children. Clinical protocols are needed in this population to minimize radiation risk while allowing prompt identification of life-threatening injuries.

  20. Weapon Use in Korean Homicide: Differences Between Homicides Involving Sharp and Blunt Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisun; Son, Hyeonseo

    2017-10-23

    On the basis of information regarding 276 homicides committed in South Korea between 1987 and 2008, we compared offenders' and victims' characteristics, injury locations, weapon-related behavior, and offending behavior between homicides involving sharp and blunt instruments. The victims of sharp-force homicide were much younger relative to those of blunt-force homicide. In addition, homicides involving blunt instruments were more likely to be committed by offenders who lived with the victims. Most sharp-force homicides involved injuries to the torso, while blunt-force homicides involved mainly head injuries. Furthermore, perpetrators of sharp-force homicides tended to preselect their weapons, while those of blunt-force homicides were likely to use weapons of opportunity. Logistic regression analysis identified a number of factors, including injury location and body transportation, which significantly predicted weapon type. As this was the first South Korean study to compare sharp- and blunt-force homicides, the results have practical implications for homicide investigations. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the sigma-1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Marta; DiLeo, Alyssa; Steardo, Luca; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2016-01-15

    The Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a chaperone protein that has been implicated in drug abuse and addiction. Multiple studies have characterized the role the Sig-1R plays in psychostimulant addiction; however, fewer studies have specifically investigated its role in alcohol addiction. We have previously shown that antagonism of the Sig-1R reduces excessive drinking and motivation to drink, whereas agonism induces binge-like drinking in rodents. The objectives of these studies were to investigate the impact of Sig-1R gene deletion in C57Bl/6J mice on ethanol drinking and other ethanol-related behaviors. We used an extensive panel of behavioral tests to examine ethanol actions in male, adult mice lacking Oprs1, the gene encoding the Sig-1R. To compare ethanol drinking behavior, Sig-1 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice were subject to a two-bottle choice, continuous access paradigm with different concentrations of ethanol (3-20% v/v) vs. water. Consumption of sweet and bitter solutions was also assessed in Sig-1R KO and WT mice. Finally, motor stimulant sensitivity, taste aversion and ataxic effects of ethanol were assessed. Sig-1R KO mice displayed higher ethanol intake compared to WT mice; the two genotypes did not differ in their sweet or bitter taste perception. Sig-1R KO mice showed lower sensitivity to ethanol stimulant effects, but greater sensitivity to its taste aversive effects. Ethanol-induced sedation was instead unaltered in the mutants. Our results prove that the deletion of the Sig-1R increases ethanol consumption, likely by decreasing its rewarding effects, and therefore indicating that the Sig-1R is involved in modulation of the reinforcing effects of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitochondrial ROS induced by chronic ethanol exposure promote hyper-activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Hoyt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders are common both in the United States and globally, and are associated with a variety of co-morbid, inflammation-linked diseases. The pathogenesis of many of these ailments are driven by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a multi-protein intracellular pattern recognition receptor complex that facilitates the cleavage and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. We hypothesized that protracted exposure of leukocytes to ethanol would amplify inflammasome activation, which would help to implicate mechanisms involved in diseases associated with both alcoholism and aberrant NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here we show that long-term ethanol exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a mouse macrophage cell line (J774 amplifies IL-1β secretion following stimulation with NLRP3 agonists, but not with AIM2 or NLRP1b agonists. The augmented NRLP3 activation was mediated by increases in iNOS expression and NO production, in conjunction with increases in mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxygen consumption rate, and ROS generation in J774 cells chronically exposed to ethanol (CE cells, effects that could be inhibited by the iNOS inhibitor SEITU, the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO, and the mitochondrial ROS scavenger MitoQ. Chronic ethanol exposure did not alter K+ efflux or Zn2+ homeostasis in CE cells, although it did result in a lower intracellular concentration of NAD+. Prolonged administration of acetaldehyde, the product of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH mediated metabolism of ethanol, mimicked chronic ethanol exposure, whereas ADH inhibition prevented ethanol-induced IL-1β hypersecretion. Together, these results indicate that increases in iNOS and mitochondrial ROS production are critical for chronic ethanol-induced IL-1β hypersecretion, and that protracted exposure to the products of ethanol metabolism are probable mediators of NLRP3 inflammasome hyperactivation. Keywords: Inflammasome, IL

  3. Imaging gastrointestinal perforation in pediatric blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.H.; Babyn, P.S.; Pearl, R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To assess the role of imaging, in particular CT, in the early detection of GI perforation. Subjects and methods. In a 10-year period, 43 patients with surgically confirmed GI perforation were identified from hospital records; 22 of these had preoperative CT evaluation. Medical records and radiology were retrospectively reviewed and CT studies were particularly assessed for extraluminal air, free intraperitoneal fluid, bowel wall thickening, bowel wall enhancement, and bowel dilatation. During the study period an additional 12 trauma patients were identified who had CT studies demonstrating the above findings, but who had hypovolemic shock bowel or nondisrupting bowel injury without perforation evident. Results. Extraluminal air was demonstrated in 47 % of the imaged perforations. There was one false-positive extraluminal air. Perforation was confirmed in patients who had all five of the above CT findings, but this was the case for only 18 % of patients with perforation. One or more of the five specified CT findings were present in all CT studies reviewed. No false-negative CT study was performed in the study period. Conclusion. Separating nondisrupting bowel injury from perforation is diagnostically difficult; however, CT remains a good modality for assessing GI perforation in pediatric blunt trauma, but it cannot replace diligent and repeated clinical evaluation of all potential perforation victims. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Evisceration of the intestine following blunt force impact: Highlighting management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikki Singal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: Evisceration of the abdominal parts following traumatic injury with high velocity impact is a rare entity. We are reporting five cases of high velocity injury with different findings. Our objectives are to present the potential clinical impact of injury and requirement of early management. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Surgery at Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana, from March 2010 to March 2013. A total of 150 cases were admitted, diagnosed with blunt and penetrating abdominal wall injury. We are presenting five cases diagnosed as eviscerated abdominal injury. Ultrasonography (USG and computed tomography was done which helped us in their management. Results: A total of five cases were admitted with evisceration of the abdominal parts. One case presented with a rare finding as the stomach and intestine were lying outside and on surgery, multiple perforations of the small intestine were seen. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT helped in the management of the patient. Conclusion: High velocity impact due to road side accidents can lead to severe abdominal organ injury or evisceration of the abdominal parts. It can cause morbidity and mortality, if not treated on time. USG and CT scans are the important diagnostic tools for diagnosing and preventing further complications. We came out with better prognosis as cases were operated on time. We treated the patients successfully without any mortality.

  5. Isolated right atrial appendage rupture following blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Rakesh; Lafayette, Nathan; Sywak, Michael; Ricketts, Gregory; Otero, Jorge; Kurtzman, Scott; Zhang, Zhongqiu

    2018-02-01

    Right sided tears or rupture are the most common injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. The majority of these injuries are to the thin walled atrium. Reports of localized right atrial appendage rupture are rare. The classical features of Beck's triad are unreliable in the trauma bay. With the advent of EFAST (Focused assessment with sonography for trauma extended to thorax), Beck's triad should be considered but not used as the primary clinical tool for diagnosis of cardiac tamponade [1]. EFAST aids in rapid diagnosis and definitive care [3]. Our patient was a 17 year old male who presented with hypotension after a rollover motor vehicle accident. He presented with a grossly negative physical exam and positive EFAST for pericardial effusion with tamponade physiology. We performed an emergency pericardiocentesis and expedited transportation for operative exploration. A Right atrial appendage injury was identified and repaired and patient recovered uneventfully. EFAST examination aids in rapid diagnosis of cardiac tamponade in the trauma setting. Pericardiocentesis facilitates temporizing the hemodynamics in preparation for operative exploration.

  6. Early endoscopic treatment of blunt traumatic pancreatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsson, Bergthor; Kullman, Eric; Gasslander, Thomas; Sandström, Per

    2015-01-01

    Blunt pancreatic trauma is a rare and challenging situation. In many cases, there are other associated injuries that mandate urgent operative treatment. Morbidity and mortality rates are high and complications after acute pancreatic resections are common. The diagnosis of pancreatic injuries can be difficult and often requires multimodal approach including Computed Tomography scans, Magnetic resonance imaging and Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). The objective of this paper is to review the application of endoprothesis in the settings of pancreatic injury. A review of the English literature available was conducted and the experience of our centre described. While the classical recommended treatment of Grade III pancreatic injury (transection of the gland and the pancreatic duct in the body/tail) is surgical resection this approach carries high morbidity. ERCP was first reported as a diagnostic tool in the settings of pancreatic injury but has in recent years been used increasingly as a treatment option with promising results. This article reviews the literature on ERCP as treatment option for pancreatic injury and adds further to the limited number of cases reported that have been treated early after the trauma.

  7. Emergency CT in blunt abdominal trauma of multiple injury patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Kivioja, A.; Poussa, K.; Laasonen, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple injury patients with blunt abdominal trauma (n = 110) were examined by abdominal CT. An i.v., but not peroral, contrast medium was used, thereby eliminating the delay caused by administering peroral contrast medium and any subsequent delay in making the diagnoses and beginning operative treatment. Eighteen patients underwent emergency laparotomy after the initial CT examination. The preoperative CT findings were compared to the laparotomy findings. CT revealed all but one of the severe parenchymal organ lesions requiring surgery. The one liver laceration that went undetected had caused hemoperitoneum, which was diagnosed by CT. The bowel and mesenteric lesions presented as intra-abdominal blood, and the hemoperitoneum was discovered in every patient with these lesions. Fourteen patients also initially had positive abdominal CT findings; 10 of them underwent an additional abdominal CT within 3 days, but the repeat studies did not reveal any lesions in need of surgery. Omission of the oral contrast medium did not jeopardize making the essential diagnoses, but it did save time. (orig.)

  8. Protocol compliance and time management in blunt trauma resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjersberg, W R; Bergs, E A; Mushkudiani, N; Klimek, M; Schipper, I B

    2009-01-01

    To study advanced trauma life support (ATLS) protocol adherence prospectively in trauma resuscitation and to analyse time management of daily multidisciplinary trauma resuscitation at a level 1 trauma centre, for both moderately and severely injured patients. All victims of severe blunt trauma were consecutively included. Patients with a revised trauma score (RTS) of 12 were resuscitated by a "minor trauma" team and patients with an RTS of less than 12 were resuscitated by a "severe trauma" team. Digital video recordings were used to analyse protocol compliance and time management during initial assessment. From 1 May to 1 September 2003, 193 resuscitations were included. The "minor trauma" team assessed 119 patients, with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 7 (range 1-45). Overall protocol compliance was 42%, ranging from 0% for thoracic percussion to 93% for thoracic auscultation. The median resuscitation time was 45.9 minutes (range 39.7-55.9). The "severe team" assessed 74 patients, with a mean ISS of 22 (range 1-59). Overall protocol compliance was 53%, ranging from 4% for thoracic percussion to 95% for thoracic auscultation. Resuscitation took 34.8 minutes median (range 21.6-44.1). Results showed the current trauma resuscitation to be ATLS-like, with sometimes very low protocol compliance rates. Timing of secondary survey and radiology and thus time efficiency remains a challenge in all trauma patients. To assess the effect of trauma resuscitation protocols on outcome, protocol adherence needs to be improved.

  9. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity in dysphoria during reward and punishment anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jessica; Brinkmann, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    Hyposensitivity to reward in depression and dysphoria has been found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. For punishment responsiveness, some studies showed hyposensitivity to punishment while other studies demonstrated hypersensitivity. Only few studies have addressed the motivational question as to whether depressed individuals mobilize less effort in anticipation of a positive or a negative consequence. The present study aimed at investigating reward and punishment responsiveness in subclinical depression from an effort mobilization perspective. Working on a recognition memory task, one third of the participants could earn small amounts of money, one third could lose small amounts of money, and one third could neither earn nor lose money. Effort mobilization was operationalized as participants' cardiovascular reactivity during task performance. As expected, reactivity of cardiac pre-ejection period and heart rate was higher in both incentive conditions compared to the neutral condition for nondysphorics, while it was blunted across conditions for dysphorics. Moreover, the present study found that dysphorics show an altered behavioral response to punishment. These findings thus show that dysphorics present a reduced motivation to obtain a reward or to avoid a punishment in terms of reduced effort-related cardiac reactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Blunt Cardiac Injury in Trauma Patients with Thoracic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathachai Kaewlai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma patients with thoracic aortic injury (TAI suffer blunt cardiac injury (BCI at variable frequencies. This investigation aimed to determine the frequency of BCI in trauma patients with TAI and compare with those without TAI. All trauma patients with TAI who had admission electrocardiography (ECG and serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB from January 1999 to May 2009 were included as a study group at a level I trauma center. BCI was diagnosed if there was a positive ECG with either an elevated CK-MB or abnormal echocardiography. There were 26 patients (19 men, mean age 45.1 years, mean ISS 34.4 in the study group; 20 had evidence of BCI. Of 52 patients in the control group (38 men, mean age 46.9 years, mean ISS 38.7, eighteen had evidence of BCI. There was a significantly higher rate of BCI in trauma patients with TAI versus those without TAI (77% versus 35%, P<0.001.

  11. Conservative Management of Azygous Vein Rupture in Blunt Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cian McDermott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of successful conservative management of acute traumatic rupture of the azygous vein. A 48-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle collision. Primary survey revealed acute right intrathoracic haemorrhage. He remained haemodynamically stable with rapid infusion of warmed crystalloid solution and blood. Computed tomographic imaging showed a contained haematoma of the azygous vein. The patient was managed conservatively in the intensive care. Azygous vein laceration resulting from blunt thoracic trauma is a rare condition that carries a universally poor prognosis unless the appropriate treatment is instituted. Clinical features include acute hypovolaemic shock, widened mediastinum on chest radiograph, and a right-sided haemothorax. Haemodynamic collapse necessitates immediate resuscitative thoracotomy. Interest in this injury stems from the severity of the clinical condition, difficulty in diagnosis, the onset of a rapidly deteriorating clinical course all of which can be promptly reversed by timely and appropriate treatment. Although it is a rare cause of intramediastinal haemorrhage, it is proposed that a ruptured azygous vein should be considered in every trauma case causing a right-sided haemothorax or widened mediastinum. All cases described in the literature to date involved operative management. We present a case of successful conservative management of this condition.

  12. The Effect of Sarcopenia on Outcomes in Geriatric Blunt Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Bridgham, Kelly; Jaap, Kathryn; Erwin, Ryan; Widom, Kenneth; Rapp, Megan; Leonard, Diane; Baro, Susan; Dove, James; Hunsinger, Marie; Blansfield, Joseph; Shabahang, Mohsen; Torres, Denise; Wild, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    Elderly patients are at a higher risk of morbidity and mortality after trauma, which is reflected through higher frailty indices. Data collection using existing frailty indices is often not possible because of brain injury, dementia, or inability to communicate with the patient. Sarcopenia is a reliable objective measure for frailty that can be readily assessed in CT imaging. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of sarcopenia on the outcomes of geriatric blunt trauma patients. Left psoas area (LPA) was measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on the axial CT images. LPA was normalized for height (LPA mm2/m2) and after stratification by gender, sarcopenia was defined as LPA measurements in the lowest quartile. A total of 1175 patients consisting of 597 males and 578 females were studied. LPAs below 242.6 mm2/m2 in males and below 187.8 mm2/m2 in females were considered to be sarcopenic. We found sarcopenia in 149 males and 145 females. In multivariate analysis, sarcopenia was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.56) and a higher risk of discharge to less favorable destinations (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05-1.97). Lastly, sarcopenic patients had an increased risk of prolonged hospitalization (hazard ratio: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.04-1.40).

  13. Wake of a blunt planetary probe model under hypervelocity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastell, D.; Hannemann, D.; Eitelberg, G. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik

    1998-12-31

    The flow in the wake of a planetary probe under hypervelocity re-entry conditions has two idiosyncrasies not present in the conventional (cold) hypersonic flows: the strong dissociation reaction occurring behind the bow shock wave, and the freezing of the chemical reactions of the flow by the rapid expansion at the shoulder of the probe. The aim of the present study was to both understand the relative importance of the two phenomena upon the total heat and pressure loads on a planetary probe and its possible payload as well as to provide experimental validation data for those developing numerical codes for planetary probe design and analysis. For the experimental study an instrumented blunted 140 cone was tested in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel in Goettingen (HEG). The numerical calculations were performed with a Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes code which is capable of simulating chemical and thermal nonequilibrium flows. For the forebody loads the prediction methods were very reliable and capable of accounting for the kinetic effects caused by the high specific enthalpy of the flow. On the other side considerable discrepancies between experimental and numerical results for the wake of the model have been observed. (orig.)

  14. Wake of a blunt planetary probe model under hypervelocity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastell, D.; Hannemann, D.; Eitelberg, G. (DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik)

    1998-01-01

    The flow in the wake of a planetary probe under hypervelocity re-entry conditions has two idiosyncrasies not present in the conventional (cold) hypersonic flows: the strong dissociation reaction occurring behind the bow shock wave, and the freezing of the chemical reactions of the flow by the rapid expansion at the shoulder of the probe. The aim of the present study was to both understand the relative importance of the two phenomena upon the total heat and pressure loads on a planetary probe and its possible payload as well as to provide experimental validation data for those developing numerical codes for planetary probe design and analysis. For the experimental study an instrumented blunted 140 cone was tested in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel in Goettingen (HEG). The numerical calculations were performed with a Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes code which is capable of simulating chemical and thermal nonequilibrium flows. For the forebody loads the prediction methods were very reliable and capable of accounting for the kinetic effects caused by the high specific enthalpy of the flow. On the other side considerable discrepancies between experimental and numerical results for the wake of the model have been observed. (orig.)

  15. Effects of Chemistry on Blunt-Body Wake Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Virendra K.; Moss, James N.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Hassan, H. A.

    1995-01-01

    Results of a numerical study are presented for hypersonic low-density flow about a 70-deg blunt cone using direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and Navier-Stokes calculations. Particular emphasis is given to the effects of chemistry on the near-wake structure and on the surface quantities and the comparison of the DSMC results with the Navier-Stokes calculations. The flow conditions simulated are those experienced by a space vehicle at an altitude of 85 km and a velocity of 7 km/s during Earth entry. A steady vortex forms in the near wake for these freestream conditions for both chemically reactive and nonreactive air gas models. The size (axial length) of the vortex for the reactive air calculations is 25% larger than that of the nonreactive air calculations. The forebody surface quantities are less sensitive to the chemistry than the base surface quantities. The presence of the afterbody has no effect on the forebody flow structure or the surface quantities. The comparisons of DSMC and Navier-Stokes calculations show good agreement for the wake structure and the forebody surface quantities.

  16. Multidetector CT of blunt cervical spine trauma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, David; Letzing, Michael; Sliker, Clint W; Chokshi, Falgun H; Bodanapally, Uttam; Mirvis, Stuart E; Quencer, Robert M; Munera, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    A number of new developments in cervical spine imaging have transpired since the introduction of 64-section computed tomographic (CT) scanners in 2004. An increasing body of evidence favors the use of multidetector CT as a stand-alone screening test for excluding cervical injuries in polytrauma patients with obtundation. A new grading scale that is based on CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, the cervical spine Subaxial Injury Classification and Scoring (SLIC) system, is gaining acceptance among spine surgeons. Radiographic measurements described for the evaluation of craniocervical distraction injuries are now being reevaluated with the use of multidetector CT. Although most patients with blunt trauma are now treated nonsurgically, evolution in the understanding of spinal stability, as well as the development of new surgical techniques and hardware, has driven management strategies that are increasingly favorable toward surgical intervention. It is therefore essential that radiologists recognize findings that distinguish injuries with ligamentous instability or a high likelihood of nonfusion that require surgical stabilization from those that are classically stable and can be treated with a collar or halo vest alone. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of cervical spine injuries, from the craniocervical junction through the subaxial spine, and present the most widely used grading systems for each injury type. ©RSNA, 2014.

  17. Delayed Occipital Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Blunt Force Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changa, Abhinav R; Meleis, Ahmed M; Bassani, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    Occipital artery pseudoaneurysms are extremely rare pathologies that manifest after traumatic injury; only 11 cases have been reported in the literature. Because of their low incidence and vague symptoms, the initial diagnosis can be difficult. However, for correctly diagnosed occipital artery pseudoaneurysms, many successful treatment modalities exist. We review the pathology of occipital pseudoaneurysms, elucidate the reasons for their rarity, discuss effective diagnostic measures, and discuss the currently available treatment options. We also present a case of a 16-year-old boy who sustained blunt force trauma in May 2014 and presented 6 months later with a painful, pulsatile mass in the occipital region. The patient underwent surgical resection to alleviate the pain and the potential risk of hemorrhage. He experienced complete resolution of pain and associated symptoms. Our case highlights the fact that occipital swelling, a significant initial sign of pseudoaneurysm development, can be delayed. Therefore, occipital artery pseudoaneurysms cannot be ruled out of the differential diagnosis based on time course alone. Surgical resection is a quick and effective method for relief of severe pain resulting from occipital artery pseudoaneurysms. Although they are rare entities, occipital artery pseudoaneurysms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cases of pulsatile mass lesions in the posterior scalp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolated posterior capsular rupture following blunt head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour AM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mansour, Mahmoud O Jaroudi, Rola N Hamam, Fadi C Maalouf Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract: Closed-globe traumatic cataract is not uncommon in males in the pediatric age group. However, there is a relative paucity of literature on isolated posterior lens capsule rupture associated with closed-globe traumatic cataract. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with white cataract 1 day after blunt trauma to the forehead associated with posterior capsular rupture that was detected by B-scan ultrasonography preoperatively. No stigmata of trauma outside the posterior capsule could be detected by slit-lamp exam, funduscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implant was performed 24 hours after trauma, with the patient achieving 6/6 visual acuity 1 week and 6 months after surgery. Our case is unique, being the youngest (amblyogenic age to be reported, with prompt surgical intervention, and with no signs of trauma outside the posterior capsule. Keywords: posterior capsule rupture, forehead trauma, traumatic cataract, pediatric cataract

  19. CT diagnosis of intraperitoneal bladder rupture with blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Fanbin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT examination in the diagnosis of intraperitoneal bladder rupture (IPBR) caused by blunt abdominal trauma. Methods: All CT and clinical data of 9 patients with IPBR were reviewed retrospectively. Results: IPBR was detected on CT scans in all 9 patients. CT findings of IPBR included low -attenuation free intraperitoneal fluid collections in the lateral paravesical fossae, the pericolic space, the culde-sac of the pelvis, Morison's pouch, the peri-hepatic space, the perisplenic space and interspace of bowel loops in 9 cases with a lower CT density compared with pure blood. The disruption of the bladder wall was located by CT scan in 5 cases: high-attenuation bladder wall with focal defect in 3 cases and a tear drop-like deformity of the bladder in 2 cases. Other CT findings supporting the diagnosis of IPBR included an underfilled bladder in 8 cases, bladder contusion in 4 cases, and blood clots within the bladder in 6 cases. Conclusion: The presence of intraperitoneal fluid with a CT density less than that of pure blood strongly suggests extravasated urine in the trauma. Intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal rupture can be distinguished based on location of extravasated urine seen on CT scans. The precise localization of the ruptured bladder wall may be demonstrated by CT scan, which is valuable for surgical treatment

  20. Single Versus Multiple Solid Organ Injuries Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; AbdelAziz, Hiba; Latifi, Rifat; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to describe the pattern of solid organ injuries (SOIs) and analyze the characteristics, management and outcomes based on the multiplicity of SOIs. A retrospective study in a Level 1 trauma center was conducted and included patients admitted with blunt abdominal trauma between 2011 and 2014. Data were analyzed and compared for patients with single versus multiple SOIs. A total of 504 patients with SOIs were identified with a mean age of 28 ± 13 years. The most frequently injured organ was liver (45%) followed by spleen (30%) and kidney (18%). One-fifth of patients had multiple SOIs, of that 87% had two injured organs. Patients with multiple SOIs had higher frequency of head injury and injury severity scores (p hepatic injuries (13%) than the other SOIs. SOIs represent one-tenth of trauma admissions in Qatar. Although liver was the most frequently injured organ, the rate of mortality was higher in pancreatic injury. Patients with multiple SOIs had higher morbidity which required frequent operative management. Further prospective studies are needed to develop management algorithm based on the multiplicity of SOIs.

  1. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30–45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance. PMID:22698870

  2. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  3. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1...... to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5...

  4. Delta receptor antagonism, ethanol taste reactivity, and ethanol consumption in outbred male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Amanda E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2006-11-01

    Naltrexone, a nonspecific opioid antagonist, produces significant changes in ethanol responsivity in rats by rendering the taste of ethanol aversive as well as producing a decrease in voluntary ethanol consumption. The present study investigated the effect of naltrindole, a specific antagonist of delta opioid receptors, on ethanol taste reactivity and ethanol consumption in outbred rats. In the first experiment, rats received acute treatment of naltrexone, naltrindole, or saline followed by the measurement of ethanol consumption in a short-term access period. The second experiment involved the same treatments and investigated ethanol palatability (using the taste-reactivity test) as well as ethanol consumption. Results indicated that treatment with 3 mg/kg naltrexone significantly affected palatability (rendered ethanol more aversive, Experiment 2) and decreased voluntary ethanol consumption (Experiments 1 and 2). The effects of naltrindole were inconsistent. In Experiment 1, 8 mg/kg naltrindole significantly decreased voluntary ethanol consumption but this was not replicated in Experiment 2. The 8 mg/kg dose produced a significant increase in aversive responding (Experiment 2) but did not affect ingestive responding. Lower doses of naltrindole (2 and 4 mg/kg) were ineffective in altering rats' taste-reactivity response to and consumption of ethanol. While these data suggest that delta receptors are involved in rats' taste-reactivity response to ethanol and rats' ethanol consumption, it is likely that multiple opioid receptors mediate both behavioral responses.

  5. Phenolic Compounds Protect Cultured Hippocampal Neurons against Ethanol-Withdrawal Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna E. Jung

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol withdrawal is linked to elevated oxidative damage to neurons. Here we report our findings on the contribution of phenolic antioxidants (17β-estradiol, p-octyl-phenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol to counterbalance sudden ethanol withdrawal-initiated oxidative events in hippocampus-derived cultured HT-22 cells. We showed that ethanol withdrawal for 4 h after 24-h ethanol treatment provoked greater levels of oxidative damage than the preceding ethanol exposure. Phenolic antioxidant treatment either during ethanol exposure or ethanol withdrawal only, however, dose-dependently reversed cellular oxidative damage, as demonstrated by the significantly enhanced cell viability, reduced malondialdehyde production and protein carbonylation, compared to untreated cells. Interestingly, the antioxidant treatment schedule had no significant impact on the observed neuroprotection. In addition, the efficacy of the three phenolic compounds was practically equipotent in protecting HT-22 cells in spite of predictions based on an in silico study and a cell free assay of lipid peroxidation. This finding implies that free-radical scavenging may not be the sole factor responsible for the observed neuroprotection and warrants further studies to establish, whether the HT-22 line is indeed a suitable model for in vitro screening of antioxidants against EW-related neuronal damage.

  6. Beer Is Less Harmful for the Liver than Plain Ethanol: Studies in Male Mice Using a Binge-Drinking Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Marianne; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Kanuri, Giridhar; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms involved in the less damaging effects of beer in comparison to hard spirits have not yet been fully understood. The aim of the study was to determine if the effect of beer intake on the liver differs from that of plain ethanol and if so to determine mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or iso-caloric maltodextrin solution. Markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade and lipid export in liver and tight junction proteins in duodenum were measured 6 and 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Alcohol ingestion resulted in a significant increase of hepatic triglyceride accumulation 6 and 12 h after ingestion, respectively, being markedly lower in mice fed beer. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA was significantly lower 12 h after alcohol or beer exposure, while fatty acid synthase mRNA expression was induced in livers of ethanol-fed mice and to a lesser extent in mice fed beer 6 h after acute alcohol ingestion. Protein levels of tight junction proteins in the small intestine were similar between groups while expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in livers was significantly induced in ethanol- but not in beer-fed mice. Concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein were also only induced in livers of mice fed ethanol. Protein levels of apolipoprotein B were induced in livers of beer-fed mice only. Our data suggest that beer is less harmful on the development of acute alcohol-induced liver damage than plain ethanol in male mice. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecklonia cava Polyphenol Has a Protective Effect against Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in a Cyclic AMP-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Yamashita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed that Ecklonia cava polyphenol (ECP treatment suppressed ethanol-induced increases in hepatocyte death by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and maintaining intracellular glutathione levels. Here, we examined the effects of ECP on the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and their regulating mechanisms in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Isolated hepatocytes were incubated with or without 100 mM ethanol. ECP was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. ECP was added to cultured cells that had been incubated with or without ethanol. The cells were incubated for 0–24 h. In cultured hepatocytes, the ECP treatment with ethanol inhibited cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1 expression and activity, which is related to the production of ROS when large quantities of ethanol are oxidized. On the other hand, ECP treatment with ethanol increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These changes in activities of CYP2E1 and ADH were suppressed by treatment with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. ECP treatment with ethanol enhanced cyclic AMP concentrations compared with those of control cells. ECP may be a candidate for preventing ethanol-induced liver injury via regulating alcohol metabolic enzymes in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner.

  8. Protective effect of treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine on liver oxidative damage in rat model of acute ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Deminice, Rafael; Jordão, Alceu Afonso

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible beneficial effects of treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine in an animal model of acute ethanol intoxication. Thirty male Wistar rats were separated at random into three groups of 10 animals each: Ethanol (E), Ethanol treated with thiamine (T) and Ethanol treated with benfotiamine (BE). Rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol (5g/kg, 40% v:v). After 30min of ethanol gavage the animals were treated with thiamine or benfotiamine. Six hours after first gavage, the animals were euthanized and blood and liver samples were collected for ethanol and oxidative stress biomarkers quantification. Serum ethanol levels were higher in animals treated with thiamine or benfotiamine while hepatic alcohol levels were higher in animals of the group treated with benfotiamine comparing to controls or thiamine treated groups. The lipid peroxidation biomarkers were diminished for the groups treated with thiamine or benfotiamine comparing to E animals. Concerning protein oxidative damage parameters, they were enhanced for animals treated with benfotiamine in relation to other groups. In conclusion, the treatment with thiamine or benfotiamine even 30min after the massive dose of ethanol has proven to be beneficial against liver damage. Improved results were obtained with benfotiamine in relation to oxidative damage from aqueous compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo evolutionary engineering for ethanol-tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells triggers diploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turanlı-Yıldız, Burcu; Benbadis, Laurent; Alkım, Ceren; Sezgin, Tuğba; Akşit, Arman; Gökçe, Abdülmecit; Öztürk, Yavuz; Baykal, Ahmet Tarık; Çakar, Zeynep Petek; François, Jean M

    2017-09-01

    Microbial ethanol production is an important alternative energy resource to replace fossil fuels, but at high level, this product is highly toxic, which hampers its efficient production. Towards increasing ethanol-tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the so far best industrial ethanol-producer, we evaluated an in vivo evolutionary engineering strategy based on batch selection under both constant (5%, v v -1 ) and gradually increasing (5-11.4%, v v -1 ) ethanol concentrations. Selection under increasing ethanol levels yielded evolved clones that could tolerate up to 12% (v v -1 ) ethanol and had cross-resistance to other stresses. Quite surprisingly, diploidization of the yeast population took place already at 7% (v v -1 ) ethanol level during evolutionary engineering, and this event was abolished by the loss of MKT1, a gene previously identified as being implicated in ethanol tolerance (Swinnen et al., Genome Res., 22, 975-984, 2012). Transcriptomic analysis confirmed diploidization of the evolved clones with strong down-regulation in mating process, and in several haploid-specific genes. We selected two clones exhibiting the highest viability on 12% ethanol, and found productivity and titer of ethanol significantly higher than those of the reference strain under aerated fed-batch cultivation conditions. This higher fermentation performance could be related with a higher abundance of glycolytic and ribosomal proteins and with a relatively lower respiratory capacity of the evolved strain, as revealed by a comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analysis between the evolved and the reference strains. Altogether, these results emphasize the efficiency of the in vivo evolutionary engineering strategy for improving ethanol tolerance, and the link between ethanol tolerance and diploidization. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of ethanol on 35-S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of 35 S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ( 35 S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl (100 mM) containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal 35 S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action (stimulation followed by inhibition) on 35 S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of 35 S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. 35 S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl - channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol (≤ 100 mM ethanol). Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on 35 S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of 35 S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit 35 S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal 35 S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of 35 S-TBPS binding by diazepam. (author)

  11. Modifications in adrenal hormones response to ethanol by prior ethanol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaza, C; Borrell, S

    1985-03-01

    Ethanol was administered to rats by means of a liquid diet for 16 days; after an ethanol-free interval of four weeks, animals received a test (IP) dose of ethanol (2 g/kg), and the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary responses were evaluated. Chronically ethanol-exposed animals showed tolerance to the stimulatory effect of ethanol in the pituitary-adrenal axis. Likewise, previously dependent rats showed tolerance to the increase in the activity of the adrenomedullary function induced by acute administration of the drug. Our results indicate that chronic ethanol ingestion can induce persistent changes after complete alcohol abstinence.

  12. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  14. Analysis of fractionation in corn-to-ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Camille

    As the dry grind ethanol industry has grown, the research and technology surrounding ethanol production and co-product value has increased. Including use of back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation. Front-end fractionation is pre-fermentation separation of the corn kernel into 3 fractions: endosperm, bran, and germ. The endosperm fraction enters the existing ethanol plant, and a high protein DDGS product remains after fermentation. High value oil is extracted out of the germ fraction. This leaves corn germ meal and bran as co-products from the other two streams. These 3 co-products have a very different composition than traditional corn DDGS. Installing this technology allows ethanol plants to increase profitability by tapping into more diverse markets, and ultimately could allow for an increase in profitability. An ethanol plant model was developed to evaluate both back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation technology and predict the change in co-products based on technology installed. The model runs in Microsoft Excel and requires inputs of whole corn composition (proximate analysis), amino acid content, and weight to predict the co-product quantity and quality. User inputs include saccharification and fermentation efficiencies, plant capacity, and plant process specifications including front-end fractionation and backend oil extraction, if applicable. This model provides plants a way to assess and monitor variability in co-product composition due to the variation in whole corn composition. Additionally the co-products predicted in this model are entered into the US Pork Center of Excellence, National Swine Nutrition Guide feed formulation software. This allows the plant user and animal nutritionists to evaluate the value of new co-products in existing animal diets.

  15. Time-dependent solution for axisymmetric flow over a blunt body with ideal gas, CF4, or equilibrium air chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H. H., II; Spall, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    A time-asymptotic method has been used to obtain steady-flow solutions for axisymmetric inviscid flow over several blunt bodies including spheres, paraboloids, ellipsoids, and spherically blunted cones. Comparisons with experimental data and results of other computational methods have demonstrated that accurate solutions can be obtained using this approach. The method should prove useful as an analysis tool for comparing with experimental data and for making engineering calculations for blunt reentry vehicles.

  16. Complications following blunt and penetrating injuries in 216 victims of chest trauma requiring tube thoracostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, T S; Gyles, N R; Eisenstein, C L; Soracco, C A

    1989-10-01

    Tube thoracostomy (TT) is required in the treatment of many blunt and penetrating injuries of the chest. In addition to complications from the injuries, TT may contribute to morbidity by introducing microorganisms into the pleural space or by incomplete lung expansion and evacuation of pleural blood. We have attempted to assess the impact of TT following penetrating and blunt thoracic trauma by examining a consecutive series of 216 patients seen at two urban trauma centers with such injuries who required TT over a 30-month period. Ninety-four patients suffered blunt chest trauma; 122 patients were victims of penetrating wounds. Patients with blunt injuries had longer ventilator requirements (12.6 +/- 14 days vs. 3.7 +/- 7.1 days, p = 0.003), longer intensive care stays (12.2 +/- 12.5 days vs. 4.1 +/- 7.5 days, p = 0.001), and longer periods of TT, (6.5 +/- 4.9 days vs. 5.2 +/- 4.5 days, p = 0.018). Empyema occurred in six patients (3%). Residual hemothorax was found in 39 patients (18%), seven of whom required decortication. Recurrent pneumothorax developed in 51 patients (24%) and ten required repeat TT. Complications occurred in 78 patients (36%). Patients with blunt trauma experienced more complications (44%) than those with penetrating wounds (30%) (p = 0.04). However, only seven of 13 patients developing empyema or requiring decortication had blunt trauma. Despite longer requirements for mechanical ventilation, intensive care, and intubation, victims of blunt trauma seemed to have effective drainage of their pleural space by TT without increased risk of infectious complications.

  17. Value of ultrasound in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, Shri Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in an age group including from teenagers to young adults, in a male dominant proportion, resulting in great economic and social impact. Within the complex of trauma, blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is frequent event and presents difficulty in the evaluation and management since the clinical examination shows low sensitivity and specificity. The detection of hemo peritoneum is one of the methods of evaluation of possible indirect intra-abdominal injuries, initially using direct diagnostic abdominal paracentesis and posteriorly the diagnostic peritoneal lavage, that despite the effectiveness, have drawbacks such as invasiveness and the inability of hemo peritoneum quantification and the lesion staging, resulting in non-therapeutic laparotomies. Imaging methods provide useful information in the investigation of abdominal injuries, such as conventional and contrast radiology, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), which is the best effective method, but has its own drawbacks, such as cost, accessibility, use of ionizing radiation and contrast media and the displacement of the patient to the machine. US presents itself as an alternative in the initial evaluation of these patients as noninvasive method, with lack of harmfulness, low cost, fast answer and portability. Nevertheless, this method also has its limitations, as in cases of abdominal injuries without free fluid. This study was conducted in order to establish the performance of the US in this setting, allowing to rationalise the use of CT. For this purpose we studied 163 patients treated in the ER of HC/FMUSP, with the completion of consecutive US and CT. The population fits the usual profile of trauma victims, with 83% male, 56% in the age group between 20 and 39 years and in 73% of cases victims of traffic accidents. They were brought to the service in an average time of 51 minutes, mainly stable and with satisfactory level of consciousness. US took on

  18. An experience with blunt abdominal trauma: evaluation, management and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Mehta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT is a frequent emergency and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in spite of improved recognition, diagnosis and management. Trauma is the second largest cause of disease accounting for 16% of global burden. The World Health Organization estimates that, by 2020, trauma will be the first or second leading cause of years of productive life lost for the entire world population. This study endeavors to evaluate 71 cases of BAT with stress on early diagnosis and management, increase use of non operative management, and time of presentation of patients. A retrospective analysis of 71 patients of BAT who were admitted in Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences hospital (KIMS, Bangalore, India within a span of 18 months was done. Demographic data, mechanism of trauma, management and outcomes were studied. Most of the patients in our study were in the age group of 21-30 years with an M:F ratio of 3.7:1. Motor vehicle accident (53% was the most common mechanism of injury. Spleen (53% was the commonest organ injured and the most common surgery performed was splenectomy (30%. Most common extra abdominal injury was rib fracture in 20%. Mortality rate was 4%. Wound sepsis (13% was the commonest complication. Initial resuscitation measures, thorough clinical examination and correct diagnosis forms the most vital part of management. 70% of splenic, liver and renal injuries can be managed conservatively where as hollow organs need laparotomy in most of the cases. The time of presentation of patients has a lot to do with outcome. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can save many lives.

  19. Management of blunt liver trauma in 134 severely injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, Martijn; Navsaria, Pradeep H; Schipper, Inger B; Krige, J E J; Kahn, D; Nicol, Andrew John

    2015-05-01

    In haemodynamic stable patients without an acute abdomen, nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt liver injuries (BLI) has become the standard of care with a reported success rate of between 80 and 100%. Concern has been expressed about the potential overuse of NOM and the fact that failed NOM is associated with higher mortality rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors that might indicate the need for surgical intervention, and to assess the efficacy of NOM. A single centre prospective study between 2008 and 2013 in a level-1 Trauma Centre. One hundred thirty four patients with BLI were diagnosed on CT-scan or at laparotomy. The median ISS was 25 (range 16-34). Thirty five (26%) patients underwent an early exploratory laparotomy. The indication for surgery was haemodynamic instability in 11 (31%) patients, an acute abdomen in 16 (46%), and 8 (23%) patients had CT findings of intraabdominal injuries, other than the hepatic injury, that required surgical repair. NOM was initiated in 99 (74%) patients, 36 patients had associated intraabdominal solid organ injuries. Seven patients developed liver related complications. Five (5%) patients required a delayed laparotomy (liver related (3), splenic injury (2)). NOM failure was not related to the presence of shock on admission (p=1000), to the grade of liver injury (p=0.790) or associated intraabdominal injuries (p=0.866). Physiologic behaviour or CT findings dictated the need for operative intervention. NOM of BLI has a high success rate (95%). Nonoperative management of BLI should be considered in patients who respond to resuscitation, irrespective of the grade of liver trauma. Associated intraabdominal solid organ injuries do not exclude NOM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Severe Blunt Hepatic Trauma in Polytrauma Patient - Management and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doklestić, Krstina; Djukić, Vladimir; Ivančević, Nenad; Gregorić, Pavle; Lončar, Zlatibor; Stefanović, Branislava; Jovanović, Dušan; Karamarković, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that treatment of liver injuries has dramatically evolved, severe liver traumas in polytraumatic patients still have a significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the options for surgical management of severe liver trauma as well as the outcome. In this retrospective study 70 polytraumatic patients with severe (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma [AAST] grade III-V) blunt liver injuries were operated on at the Clinic for Emergency Surgery. Mean age of patients was 48.26±16.80 years; 82.8% of patients were male. Road traffic accident was the leading cause of trauma, seen in 63 patients (90.0%). Primary repair was performed in 36 patients (51.4%), while damage control with perihepatic packing was done in 34 (48.6%). Complications related to the liver occurred in 14 patients (20.0%). Liver related mortality was 17.1%. Non-survivors had a significantly higher AAST grade (p=0.0001), higher aspartate aminotransferase level (p=0.01), lower hemoglobin level (p=0.0001), associated brain injury (p=0.0001), perioperative complications (p=0.001) and higher transfusion score (p=0.0001). The most common cause of mortality in the "early period" was uncontrolled bleeding, in the "late period" mortality was caused by sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patients with high-grade liver trauma who present with hemorrhagic shock and associated severe injury should be managed operatively. Mortality from liver trauma is high for patients with higher AAST grade of injury, associated brain injury and massive transfusion score.

  1. Management of blunt and penetrating biliary tract trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Benjamin N J; Nardino, Benson; Gumm, Kellie; Robertson, Amanda J; Knowles, Brett P; Collier, Neil A; Judson, Rodney

    2012-06-01

    Penetrating or blunt injury to the biliary tree remains a rare complication of trauma occurring in 0.1% of trauma admissions. Because of the different presentations, sites of biliary tract injury, and associated organ injury, there are many possible management pathways to be considered. A retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered data was performed for all gallbladder and biliary tract injuries presenting to the trauma service or hepatobiliary unit of the Royal Melbourne Hospital between January 1, 1999, and March 30, 2011. There were 33 biliary injuries in 30 patients (0.1%) among 26,014 trauma admissions. Three of the 30 patients (10%) died. Of 10 gallbladder injuries, 8 were managed with cholecystectomy. There were 23 injuries to the biliary tree. Fourteen patients had injuries to the intrahepatic biliary tree of which seven involved segmental ducts. Of these, four segmental duct injuries required hepatic resection or debridement. Nine patients had injury to the extrahepatic biliary tree of which five required T-tube placement ± bilioenteric anastomosis and one a pancreaticoduodenectomy. Biliary injury is a rare but important consequence of abdominal trauma, and good outcomes are possible when a major trauma center and hepatopancreaticobiliary service coexist. Cholecystectomy remains the gold standard for gallbladder injury. Drainage with or without endoscopic stenting will resolve the majority of intrahepatic and partial biliary injuries. Hepaticojejunostomy remains the gold standard for complete extrahepatic biliary disruption. Hepatic and pancreatic resection are only required in the circumstances of unreconstructable biliary injury. Therapeutic study, level V. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  2. Anhydrous ethanol: A renewable source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Neetu; Prasad, Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Anhydrous ethanol is one of the biofuels produced today and it is a subset of renewable energy. It is considered to be an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to gasoline. Anhydrous ethanol is commercially produced by either catalytic hydration of ethylene or fermentation of biomass. Any biological material that has sugar, starch or cellulose can be used as biomass for producing anhydrous ethanol. Since ethanol-water solution forms a minimum-boiling azeotrope of composition of 89.4 mol% ethanol and 10.6 mol% water at 78.2 C and standard atmospheric pressure, the dilute ethanol-water solutions produced by fermentation process can be continuously rectified to give at best solutions containing 89.4 mol% ethanol at standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, special process for removal of the remaining water is required for manufacture of anhydrous ethanol. Various processes for producing anhydrous ethanol have been used/suggested. These include: (i) chemical dehydration process, (ii) dehydration by vacuum distillation process, (iii) azeotropic distillation process, (iv) extractive distillation processes, (v) membrane processes, (vi) adsorption processes and (vii) diffusion distillation process. These processes of manufacturing anhydrous ethanol have been improved continuously due to the increasingly strict requirements for quantity and quality of this product. The literature available on these processes is reviewed. These processes are also compared on the basis of energy requirements. (author)

  3. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ruibing [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Lihui [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Luo, Zheng; Guo, Xiaolan [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Ming, E-mail: ymylh@163.com [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca{sup 2+} and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases.

  4. Composição centesimal e valor protéico de levedura residual da fermentação etanólica e de seus derivados Centesimal composition and protein nutritive value of yeast from ethanol fermentation and of yeast derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Akemi Yamada

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo promover a autólise e o fracionamento da levedura (Saccharomyces sp. para produção de autolisado e extrato, bem como para produção de concentrado protéico fosforilado, a partir da levedura residual das destilarias de álcool etílico. Foram estudados a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos essenciais e o valor protéico dos três derivados comparativamente à levedura íntegra não processada. Proteína e carboidrato (fibra alimentar foram os principais componentes da levedura íntegra e do autolisado. No extrato e no concentrado protéico predominaram proteína e minerais (cinzas. O autolisado e a levedura íntegra apresentaram os melhores índices de aminoácidos essenciais, seguidos pelo concentrado protéico e pelo extrato. A digestibilidade da proteína variou de 68% para a levedura íntegra a 91% para o extrato. Os índices de quociente de utilização líquida da proteína variaram de 2,1 para a levedura íntegra a 4,3 para a caseína (referência. Não houve diferença estatística no quociente de utilização líquida da proteína entre o autolisado (4,1, o extrato (3,9 e o concentrado protéico (4,2. O concentrado protéico promoveu o maior crescimento no período (21 dias, seguido do extrato e o autolisado. As células íntegras apresentaram a menor capacidade para promover crescimento em rato.The objective of this work was to promote the autolysis and the fractionation of the yeast (Saccharomyces sp. for the production of autolysate and extract, as well as phosphorylated protein concentrate, from ethanol distillery yeast. Comparative studies of centesimal composition, essential amino acid profiles and protein nutritive value were performed for the unprocessed integral cells, and for autolysate, extract and phosphorylated protein concentrate. Protein and carbohydrate (dietary fiber were the main components for the integral cells and autolysate. For the extract and the protein

  5. Ameliorative effect of Opuntia ficus indica juice on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice (OFIj) on reversing oxidative damages induced by chronic ethanol intake in rat erythrocytes. OFIj was firstly analyzed with HPLC for phenolic and flavonoids content. Secondly, 40 adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups and treated for 90 days as follows: control (C), ethanol-only 3 g/kg body weight (b.w) (E), low dose of OFIj 2 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Ldj+E), high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Hdj+E), and only a high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100g b.w (Hdj). HPLC analysis indicated high concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OFIj. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Changes in the erythrocyte's antioxidant ability were accompanied by enhanced oxidative modification of lipids (increase of malondialdeyde level) and proteins (increase in carbonyl groups). Interestingly, pre-administration of either 2 ml/100 g b.w or 4 ml/100 g b.w of OFIj to ethanol-intoxicated rats significantly reversed decreases in enzymatic as well as non enzymatic antioxidants parameters in erythrocytes. Also, the administration of OFIj significantly protected lipids and proteins against ethanol-induced oxidative modifications in rat erythrocytes. The beneficial effect of OFIj can result from the inhibition of ethanol-induced free radicals chain reactions in rat erythrocytes or from the enhancement of the endogenous antioxidants activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  7. Quantitative iTRAQ LC-MS/MS proteomics reveals metabolic responses to biofuel ethanol in cyanobacterial Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianjun; Wang, Jiangxin; Chen, Lei; Tian, Xiaoxu; Huang, Siqiang; Ren, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Weiwen

    2012-11-02

    Recent progress in metabolic engineering has led to autotrophic production of ethanol in various cyanobacterial hosts. However, cyanobacteria are known to be sensitive to ethanol, which restricts further efforts to increase ethanol production levels in these renewable host systems. To understand the mechanisms of ethanol tolerance so that engineering more robust cyanobacterial hosts can be possible, in this study, the responses of model cyanobacterial Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to ethanol were determined using a quantitative proteomics approach with iTRAQ LC-MS/MS technologies. The resulting high-quality proteomic data set consisted of 24,887 unique peptides corresponding to 1509 identified proteins, a coverage of approximately 42% of the predicted proteins in the Synechocystis genome. Using a cutoff of 1.5-fold change and a p-value less than 0.05, 135 and 293 unique proteins with differential abundance levels were identified between control and ethanol-treated samples at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Functional analysis showed that the Synechocystis cells employed a combination of induced common stress response, modifications of cell membrane and envelope, and induction of multiple transporters and cell mobility-related proteins as protection mechanisms against ethanol toxicity. Interestingly, our proteomic analysis revealed that proteins related to multiple aspects of photosynthesis were up-regulated in the ethanol-treated Synechocystis cells, consistent with increased chlorophyll a concentration in the cells upon ethanol exposure. The study provided the first comprehensive view of the complicated molecular mechanisms against ethanol stress and also provided a list of potential gene targets for further engineering ethanol tolerance in Synechocystis PCC 6803.

  8. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  9. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  10. Accuracy of chest radiography versus chest computed tomography in hemodynamically stable patients with blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardoli Mojtaba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: Thoracic injuries are respon- sible for 25% of deaths of blunt traumas. Chest X-ray (CXR is the first diagnostic method in patients with blunt trauma. The aim of this study was to detect the accuracy of CXR versus chest computed tomograpgy (CT in hemodynami- cally stable patients with blunt chest trauma. Methods: Study was conducted at the emergency department of Sina Hospital from March 2011 to March 2012. Hemodynamically stable patients with at least 16 years of age who had blunt chest trauma were included. All patients underwent the same diagnostic protocol which consisted of physical examination, CXR and CT scan respectively. Results: Two hundreds patients (84% male and 16% female were included with a mean age of (37.9±13.7 years. Chin J Traumatol 2013;16(6:351-354 Rib fracture was the most common finding of CXR (12.5% and CT scan (25.5%. The sensitivity of CXR for hemothorax, thoracolumbar vertebra fractures and rib fractures were 20%, 49% and 49%, respectively. Pneumothorax, foreign body, emphysema, pulmonary contusion, liver hematoma and ster- num fracture were not diagnosed with CXR alone. Conclusion: Applying CT scan as the first-line diag- nostic modality in hemodynamically stable patients with blunt chest trauma can detect pathologies which may change management and outcome. Key words: Radiography; Thoracic injuries; Tomography, X-ray computed

  11. Studying morbidity and predicting mortality in patients with blunt chest trauma using a novel clinical score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini Manay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A departmental audit in March 2015 revealed significant mortality rate of 40% in blunt chest trauma patients (much greater than the global 25%. A study was thus planned to study morbidity and predictors of mortality in blunt chest trauma patients admitted to our hospital. Methods: This study was a prospective observational study of 139 patients with a history of blunt chest trauma between June 2015 and November 2015 after the Institutional Ethics Committee approval in April 2015. The sample size was calculated from the prevalence rate in our institute from the past medical records. Results: The morbidity factors following blunt chest injuries apart from pain were need for Intensive Care Unit stay, mechanical ventilation, and pneumonia/acute respiratory distress syndrome. Significant predictors of mortality in our study were SpO2 16, and need for mechanical ventilation. By calculating the likelihood ratios of each respiratory sign, a clinical score was devised. Conclusion: The modifiable factors affecting morbidity and mortality were identified. Mild to moderate chest injury due to blunt trauma is difficult to diagnose. The restoration of respiratory physiology has not only significant implications on recovery from chest injury but also all other injuries. It is our sincere hope that the score we have formulated will help reduce mortality and morbidity after further trials.

  12. Screening ultrasonography of 2,204 patients with blunt abdominal trauma in the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jixiang; Huang, Jiwei; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Heqing; Prasoon, Pankaj; Xu, Yinglong; Bai, Yannan; Qiu, Jianguo; Zeng, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Abdominal injuries constitute a small proportion of all earthquake-related traumas; however, it often resulted in fatal hemorrhage. Ultrasonography has been described as an effective triage tool in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. We aimed to present an overview of the diagnostic accuracy of screening ultrasonography for patients with blunt abdominal trauma admitted to various hospitals during the Wenchuan earthquake in China. We retrospectively analyzed the patients with blunt abdominal trauma who underwent ultrasonography after admission to various hospitals. Ultrasonography findings were considered positive if evidence of free fluid or a parenchymal injury was identified. Ultrasonography findings were compared with the findings of computed tomography, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, repeated ultrasonography, cystography, operation, and/or the clinical course. Findings from 2,204 ultrasonographic examinations were evaluated. Findings of 199 ultrasonographic examinations (9.0%) were considered positive. Of the patients, 12 (0.5%) had a false-negative ultrasonographic findings; of this group, 3 (25%) required exploratory laparotomy. Ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 91.9%, specificity of 96.9%, and an accuracy of 96.6% for detection of abdominal injuries. Positive predictive value was 68.3%, and negative predictive value was 99.4%. Screening ultrasonography is highly reliable in the setting of blunt abdominal trauma after earthquake. It should be used as an initial diagnostic modality in the evaluation of most blunt abdominal trauma. Diagnostic study, level III.

  13. Role of Postmortem Multislice Computed Tomography Scan in Close Blunt Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prijo Sidipratomo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional autopsy in Indonesia is not well accepted as it is contrary to religion and culture. New radiological imaging method such as multislice computed tomography (MSCT scan has potential to be a diagnostic tool in forensic pathology. The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of MSCT scan in finding abnormalities in close blunt head injury compared with autopsy. METHODS: This study used descriptive qualitative method. Postmortem cases in Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were selected based on inclusion criteria. Then MSCT scan and autopsy were conducted. MSCT scan and autopsy results were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 491 postmortem cases of blunt head injury. However, only 10 cases fulfilled inclusion criteria. Subarachnoid haemorrhages were identified 100% with MSCT scan and 80% with autopsy. Cerebral oedemas were identified 100% either with MSCT scan and autopsy. Subdural haemorrhages were identified 100% with MSCT scan, while 50% with autopsy. Multiple fractures were identified 80% with MSCT scan, while 40% with auto. CONCLUSIONS: MSCT scan showed a sensitive detection in finding abnormalities in close blunt head injury. Therefore it could be as an alternative choice of examination in close blunt head injury cases. KEYWORDS: multislice computed tomography scan, postmortem, blunt head injury, autopsy.

  14. Spontaneous Recanalization of the Obstructed Right Coronary Artery Caused by Blunt Chest Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yumiko; Sakakura, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Kei; Taniguchi, Yousuke; Nakashima, Ikue; Wada, Hiroshi; Sanui, Masamitsu; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Fujita, Hideo

    2018-03-30

    Blunt chest trauma can cause a wide variety of injuries including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although AMI due to coronary artery dissection caused by blunt chest trauma is very rare, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In the vast majority of patients with AMI, primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are performed to recanalize obstructed arteries, but PCI carries a substantial risk of hemorrhagic complications in the acute phase of trauma. We report a case of AMI due to right coronary artery (RCA) dissection caused by blunt chest trauma. The totally obstructed RCA was spontaneously recanalized with medical therapy. We could avoid primary PCI in the acute phase of blunt chest trauma because electrocardiogram showed early reperfusion signs. We performed an elective PCI in the subacute phase when the risk of bleeding subsided. Since the risk of severe hemorrhagic complications is greater in the acute phase of blunt chest trauma as compared with the late phase, deferring emergency PCI is reasonable if signs of recanalization are observed.

  15. Multidetector CT of blunt traumatic venous injuries in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Brian P; Steenburg, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    Venous injuries as a result of blunt trauma are rare. Even though current protocols for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of patients with trauma are designed to evaluate primarily the solid organs and arteries, blunt venous injuries may nevertheless be identified, or at least suspected, on the basis of the multidetector CT findings. Venous injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Diagnosis of a possible venous injury is crucial because the physical findings of a venous injury are nonspecific and may be absent. This article aims to make the radiologist aware of various venous injuries caused by blunt trauma and to provide helpful hints to aid in the identification of venous injuries. Multidetector CT technology, in combination with interactive manipulation of the raw dataset, can be useful in the creation of multiplanar reconstructed images and in the identification of a venous injury caused by blunt trauma. Familiarity with direct and indirect signs of venous injuries, as well as with examples of blunt traumatic venous injuries in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, will help in the diagnosis of these injuries.

  16. Utility of MRI for cervical spine clearance in blunt trauma patients after a negative CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Ajay; Durand, David; Wu, Xiao; Geng, Bertie; Abbed, Khalid; Nunez, Diego B; Sanelli, Pina

    2018-07-01

    To determine the utility of cervical spine MRI in blunt trauma evaluation for instability after a negative non-contrast cervical spine CT. A review of medical records identified all adult patients with blunt trauma who underwent CT cervical spine followed by MRI within 48 h over a 33-month period. Utility of subsequent MRI was assessed in terms of findings and impact on outcome. A total of 1,271 patients with blunt cervical spine trauma underwent both cervical spine CT and MRI within 48 h; 1,080 patients were included in the study analysis. Sixty-six percent of patients with a CT cervical spine study had a negative study. Of these, the subsequent cervical spine MRI had positive findings in 20.9%; 92.6% had stable ligamentous or osseous injuries, 6.0% had unstable injuries and 1.3% had potentially unstable injuries. For unstable injury, the NPV for CT was 98.5%. In all 712 patients undergoing both CT and MRI, only 1.5% had unstable injuries, and only 0.42% had significant change in management. MRI for blunt trauma evaluation remains not infrequent at our institution. MRI may have utility only in certain patients with persistent abnormal neurological examination. • MRI has limited utility after negative cervical CT in blunt trauma. • MRI is frequently positive for non-specific soft-tissue injury. • Unstable injury missed on CT is infrequent.

  17. Computed tomography arterial portography for assessment of portal vein injury after blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chen Ju; Wong, Yon Cheong; Tsang, Yuk Ming; Wang, Li Jen; Chen, Huan Wu; Ku, Yi Kang; Wu, Cheng Hsien; Chen, Huan Wen; Kang, Shih Ching

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic portal vein injuries secondary to blunt abdominal trauma are difficult to diagnose and can result in insidious bleeding. We aimed to compare computed tomography arterial portography (CTAP), reperfusion CTAP (rCTAP), and conventional computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing portal vein injuries after blunt hepatic trauma. Patients with blunt hepatic trauma, who were eligible for nonoperative management, underwent CTAP, rCTAP, and CT. The number and size of perfusion defects observed using the three methods were compared. A total of 13 patients (seven males/six females) with a mean age of 34.5±14.1 years were included in the study. A total of 36 hepatic segments had perfusion defects on rCTAP and CT, while there were 47 hepatic segments with perfusion defects on CTAP. The size of perfusion defects on CT (239 cm3; interquartile range [IQR]: 129.5, 309.5) and rCTAP (238 cm3; IQR: 129.5, 310.5) were significantly smaller compared with CTAP (291 cm3; IQR: 136, 371) (both, P = 0.002). Perfusion defects measured by CTAP were significantly greater than those determined by either rCTAP or CT in cases of blunt hepatic trauma. This finding suggests that CTAP is superior to rCTAP and CT in evaluating portal vein injuries after blunt liver trauma.

  18. Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-associated missense mutation in HSPD1 blunts mitochondrial dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yuki [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Eguchi, Takahiro [The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Kawahara, Kazuko [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Hasegawa, Nanami [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Minato, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuaki [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi [Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Minato, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Tanoue, Akito [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Tamura, Hiroomi [Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Minato, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Yamauchi, Junji, E-mail: yamauchi-j@ncchd.go.jp [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan)

    2015-07-03

    Myelin-forming glial cells undergo dynamic morphological changes in order to produce mature myelin sheaths with multiple layers. In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes differentiate to insulate neuronal axons with myelin sheaths. Myelin sheaths play a key role in homeostasis of the nervous system, but their related disorders lead not only to dismyelination and repeated demyelination but also to severe neuropathies. Hereditary hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HLDs) are a group of such diseases affecting oligodendrocytes and are often caused by missense mutations of the respective responsible genes. Despite increasing identification of gene mutations through advanced nucleotide sequencing technology, studies on the relationships between gene mutations and their effects on cellular and subcellular aberrance have not followed at the same rapid pace. In this study, we report that an HLD4-associated (Asp-29-to-Gly) mutant of mitochondrial heat shock 60-kDa protein 1 (HSPD1) causes short-length morphologies and increases the numbers of mitochondria due to their aberrant fission and fusion cycles. In experiments using a fluorescent dye probe, this mutation decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential. Also, mitochondria accumulate in perinuclear regions. HLD4-associated HSPD1 mutant blunts mitochondrial dynamics, probably resulting in oligodendrocyte malfunction. This study constitutes a first finding concerning the relationship between disease-associated HSPD1 mutation and mitochondrial dynamics, which may be similar to the relationship between another disease-associated HSPD1 mutation (MitCHAP-60 disease) and aberrant mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial fission frequency. • The HLD4 mutant decreases mitochondrial fusion frequency. • Mitochondria harboring the HLD4 mutant exhibit slow motility. • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial membrane potential. • HLD4-related diseases may

  19. Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-associated missense mutation in HSPD1 blunts mitochondrial dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Eguchi, Takahiro; Kawahara, Kazuko; Hasegawa, Nanami; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Tanoue, Akito; Tamura, Hiroomi; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-01-01

    Myelin-forming glial cells undergo dynamic morphological changes in order to produce mature myelin sheaths with multiple layers. In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes differentiate to insulate neuronal axons with myelin sheaths. Myelin sheaths play a key role in homeostasis of the nervous system, but their related disorders lead not only to dismyelination and repeated demyelination but also to severe neuropathies. Hereditary hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HLDs) are a group of such diseases affecting oligodendrocytes and are often caused by missense mutations of the respective responsible genes. Despite increasing identification of gene mutations through advanced nucleotide sequencing technology, studies on the relationships between gene mutations and their effects on cellular and subcellular aberrance have not followed at the same rapid pace. In this study, we report that an HLD4-associated (Asp-29-to-Gly) mutant of mitochondrial heat shock 60-kDa protein 1 (HSPD1) causes short-length morphologies and increases the numbers of mitochondria due to their aberrant fission and fusion cycles. In experiments using a fluorescent dye probe, this mutation decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential. Also, mitochondria accumulate in perinuclear regions. HLD4-associated HSPD1 mutant blunts mitochondrial dynamics, probably resulting in oligodendrocyte malfunction. This study constitutes a first finding concerning the relationship between disease-associated HSPD1 mutation and mitochondrial dynamics, which may be similar to the relationship between another disease-associated HSPD1 mutation (MitCHAP-60 disease) and aberrant mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial fission frequency. • The HLD4 mutant decreases mitochondrial fusion frequency. • Mitochondria harboring the HLD4 mutant exhibit slow motility. • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial membrane potential. • HLD4-related diseases may

  20. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevich, M. R.; Korchagin, O. V.; Kuzov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references.

  1. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  2. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, M R; Korchagin, O V; Kuzov, A V

    2013-01-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references

  3. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de, E-mail: lucianofreitas@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Kaneko, Shinji [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: {yields} Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. {yields} It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. {yields} Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. {yields} Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  4. Autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats: effects of ethanol concentration and trial spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Wong, Karlvin; Apor, Khristine; Patterson-Buckendahl, Patricia; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2003-11-01

    In two studies, we evaluated the effects of ethanol concentration and trial spacing on Pavlovian autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats. In these studies, the brief insertion of an ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) was followed by the response-independent presentation of food unconditioned stimulus (US), inducing sipper CS-directed drinking conditioned responses (CRs) in all rats. In Experiment 1, the ethanol concentration in the sipper CS [0%-16% volume/volume (vol./vol.), in increments of 1%] was systematically increased within subjects across autoshaping sessions. Groups of rats received sipper CS-food US pairings (Paired/Ethanol), a CS-US random procedure (Random/Ethanol), or water sipper CS paired with food US (Paired/Water). In Experiment 2, saccharin-fading procedures were used to initiate, in the Ethanol group, drinking of 6% (vol./vol.) ethanol in 0.1% saccharin or, in the Water group, drinking of tap water in 0.1% saccharin. After elimination of saccharin, and across days, the duration of access to the sipper CS during each autoshaping trial was increased (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 s), and subsequently, across days, the duration of the mean intertrial interval (ITI) was increased (60, 90, 120, and 150 s). In Experiment 1, Paired/Ethanol and Random/Ethanol groups showed higher intake of ethanol, in terms of grams per kilogram of body weight, at higher ethanol concentrations, with more ethanol intake recorded in the Paired/Ethanol group. In Experiment 2, the Ethanol group drank more than was consumed by the Water group, and, for both groups, fluid intake increased with longer ITIs. Results support the suggestion that autoshaping contributes to sipper CS-directed ethanol drinking.

  5. Ethanol-Induced Upregulation of 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase Helps Relieve Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Tsun-Hsien; Lin, Chia-Jen; Chung, Yi-Shao; Lee, Gang-Hui; Kao, Tseng-Ting; Chang, Wen-Ni; Chen, Bing-Hung; Hung, Jan-Jong; Fu, Tzu-Fun

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism induces folate deficiency and increases the risk for embryonic anomalies. However, the interplay between ethanol exposure and embryonic folate status remains unclear. To investigate how ethanol exposure affects embryonic folate status and one-carbon homeostasis, we incubated zebrafish embryos in ethanol and analyzed embryonic folate content and folate enzyme expression. Exposure to 2% ethanol did not change embryonic total folate content but increased the tetrahydrofolate level app...

  6. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  7. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  8. Compound list: ethanol [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethanol ETN 00137 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_v...itro/ethanol.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/et...hanol.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single.../ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  9. Characterization of wine yeasts for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

    1986-11-01

    Selected wine yeasts were tested for their ethanol and sugar tolerance, and for their fermentative capacity. Growth (..mu..) and fermentation rates (..nu..) were increasingly inhibited by increasing ethanol and glucose concentrations, ''flor'' yeasts being the least inhibited. Except in the latter strains, the ethanol production rate was accelerated by adding the glucose stepwise. The best fermenting strains selected in laboratory medium were also the best at fermenting molasses. Invertase activity was not a limiting step in ethanol production, ..nu.. being accelerated by supplementing molasses with ammonia and biotine, and by cell recycle.

  10. Blunt splenic trauma in children: are we too careful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, W J J; Nellensteijn, D R; Ten Duis, H J; Albers, M J I J; Moumni, M El; Hulscher, J B F

    2011-08-01

    There has been a shift from operative treatment (OT) to non-operative treatment (NOT) of splenic injury. We evaluated the outcomes of treatment of pediatric patients with blunt splenic trauma in our hospital, with special focus on the outcomes after NOT. The data of all patients splenic injury admitted between 1988 and 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. Mechanism of injury, type of treatment, ICU stay, total hospital stay, morbidity and mortality were assessed. Patients suffering isolated splenic injuries were assessed separately from patients with multiple injuries. Patients were subsequently divided into those admitted before and after 2000. There were 64 patients: 49 males and 15 females with a mean age of 13 years (range 0-18). 3 patients died shortly after admission due to severe neurological injury and were excluded. In the remaining 61 patients concomitant injuries, present in 62%, included long bone fractures (36%), chest injuries (16%), abdominal injuries (33%) and head injuries (30%). Mechanisms of injury were: car accidents (26%), motorcycle (20%), bicycle (19%), fall from height (17%) and pedestrians struck by a moving vehicle (8%). A change in treatment strategy was evident for the pre- and post-2000 periods. Significantly more patients had NOT after 2000 in both the isolated splenic injury group and the multi-trauma group [4/11 (36%) before vs. 10/11 (91%) after (p=0.009); 15/19 (79%) before vs. 8/20 (40%) after 2000 (p=0.03)]. There was also a significant shift to spleen-preserving operations. All life-threatening complications occurred within trauma group. Splenic injury in children is associated with substantial mortality. This is due to concomitant injuries and not to the splenic injury. Non-operative treatment is increasingly preferred to operative procedures when treating splenic injuries in hemodynamically, stable children. ICU and hospital stay have, despite the change from OT to NOT, remained the same. Complications after NOT are rare. We

  11. Non-operative management of blunt abdominal trauma: positive predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pankratov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last years a non-operative management (NOM of blunt  abdominal  trauma has been included into the standard treatment guidelines  in leading  trauma  centers  all over the world.  The  success  of NOM is based  on  careful patient  selection. Nevertheless, the selection  criteria have not been clearly determined up to now.Aim: To identify predictors of successful NOM and to  create  a diagnostic  and  treatment algorithm for its implementation.Materials and methods: 209 patients  with abdominal  trauma  who underwent  laparoscopy  or NOM from January 2006 to September 2015 were included  in the  study. The hemoperitoneum volume  and  organ  injury rate evaluated   by  using  ultrasonography  and  computed  tomography scan, as well as hemoglobin level, blood  pressure,  and  peripheral  pulse  were analyzed. We performed  comparative  analysis of prognostic  values of various selection  criteria for NOM, such as: 1 Huang and McKenney ultrasound scoring systems for hemoperitoneum quantification; 2 hemodynamic parameters; 3 hemoglobin levels;  4 various combinations  of the  above mentioned factors; 5 Sonographic  Scoring for Operating  Room Triage in Trauma (SSORTT scoring system.Results: Positive prognostic  values of parameters included into the study varied from 88 to 91.7% when used separately or in combination with other scored factors. Furthermore, there was no  significant  difference  between positive  predictive value  of all combinations of factors  and McKenney ultrasound hemoperitoneum scoring system used alone.Conclusion: The proposed predictors  as  well as  diagnostic  and  treatment algorithm are easy-to-use  and available in clinical practice.

  12. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  13. PERFORATION OF THE COLON AS A RESULT OF BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA: A CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Ivanecz

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blunt trauma to the abdomen is more likely to damage solid organs. Blunt injuries to the colon are uncommon and usually they follows a direct blow to the abdomen. Physical findings suggesting peritoneal iritation can be present early in the postinjury period but there is usually a delay in the manifestation of colonic injury. If the colonic perforation is present as a solitary injury, signs of peritoneal iritation are easier to recognize and they lead to further evaluation and operation. Because of the force required to injure the colon, associated injuries often coexist, consequently physical findings may be masked, diagnosis delayed, and outcome compromised.Conclusions. Additionaly, the recent trend for conservative management of blunt abdominal trauma may lead to delay in diagnosis. Perioperative antibiotics and early laparotomy with complete intra-abdominal exploration and primary repair of the colon injury usually provide excellent results.

  14. Blunted cortisol response to stress in patients with eating disorders: Its association to bulimic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Leal, Francisco J; Ramos-Fuentes, María I; Rodríguez-Santos, Laura; Chimpén-López, Carlos; Fernández-Sánchez, Nieves; Zamora-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Guisado-Macías, Juan A

    2018-05-01

    Clinical research on cortisol response to stress in patients with eating disorders has provided controversial and even contradictory results. As this might be the consequence of the inclusion in the studies of heterogeneous clinical populations, 3 highly selected samples were studied. Dexamethasone suppression test was performed on 15 restricting anorexia nervosa patients without history of bulimia nervosa (BN), 17 BN patients with normal weight and no history of anorexia nervosa, and 22 healthy controls. Three days later, the Trier Social Stress Test was applied, and 8 saliva samples were collected along the trial for cortisol assessment. When the patients were considered as a single group, a slightly blunted cortisol response to stress was observed, but when the 3 groups were considered separately, the blunted response was observed only in the BN patients. The results support the association between blunted cortisol response and bulimic features. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Biliary stricture due to neuroma after an innocent blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinelos, P; Dimiropoulos, S; Galanis, I; Tsolkas, P; Paroutoglu, G; Arvaniti, M; Katsiba, D; Baltaglannis, S; Pilpilidis, I; Papagiannis, A; Vaslliadis, I

    2002-10-01

    A traumatic neuroma of the biliary tract is rarely associated with biliary obstruction. However, when it arises in the common bile duct (CBD) and is associated with obstructive jaundice, it is difficult to distinguish it from bile duct cancer. We describe a patient who developed obstructive jaundice and itching, due to CBD stricture, 8 years after innocent blunt abdominal trauma. The stricture was resected and hepatico-jejunal anastomosis was performed. Histological examination revealed a traumatic neuroma and a fibrous scar around the common bile duct. Symptoms disappeared following surgical removal of the lesion. Blunt abdominal injury may cause the late onset of a fibrous scar and traumatic neuroma in the common bile duct. To our knowledge, a traumatic neuroma of the biliary tract after blunt abdominal trauma has not been reported previously. We review the clinical picture of this relatively rare problem, along with its diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment.

  16. Biofilm reactors for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-07-01

    Whole cell immobilization has been studied in the laboratory during the last few years as a method to improve the performance and economics of most fermentation processes. Among the various techniques available for cell immobilization, methods that provide generation of a biofilm offer reduced diffusional resistance, high productivities, and simple operation. This paper reviews some of the important aspects of biofilm reactors for ethanol production, including reactor start-up, steady state behavior, process stability, and mathematical modeling. Special emphasis is placed on covalently bonded Saccharomyces cerevisiae in packed bed reactors.

  17. Ultrasound surface probe as a screening method for evaluating the patients with blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasr-Esfahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blunt abdominal trauma is one of the causes of mortality in emergency department. Free fluid in the abdomen due to intra-abdominal blunt trauma can be determined by the surface probe of ultrasound. Since the importance of this free fluid in hemodynamic stable patients with blunt trauma is associated with the unknown outcome for surgeons, this study was performed to evaluate the role of ultrasound surface probe as a screening method in evaluating the patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Materials and Methods: A descriptive-analytical study was done on 45 patients with blunt abdominal trauma and hemodynamic stability. The patients were evaluated twice during the three-hours, including repeated ultrasound surface probe and clinical examinations. Computerized tomography was also performed. The patients were divided based on the amount of the free fluid in the abdomen during the evaluations into two groups: Fixed or increased, and decreased free fluid. The results of the different evaluated methods were compared using the sensitivity and specificity. Results: From 17 patients with CT abnormalities, free fluid increased in 14 patients (82.4%. Free fluid was decreased in three patients who were discharged well from the surgery service without any complication. Surface probe in prognosis detection had a sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 92.9%. The percentage of false positive and negative ultrasound compared with CT scan was 7.1% and 17.6%. Also, positive and negative predictive value of the ultrasound with surface probe was 87.5% and 89.7% respectively. Conclusion: The use of the ultrasound with surface probe in the diagnosis of free fluid in blunt abdominal trauma in hemodynamic stable patients can be considered as a useful screening method.

  18. Process analysis and optimization of simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of ethylenediamine-pretreated corn stover for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Zhao, Xiong; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Liu, Li; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Improving ethanol concentration and reducing enzyme dosage are main challenges in bioethanol refinery from lignocellulosic biomass. Ethylenediamine (EDA) pretreatment is a novel method to improve enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulose. In this study, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process using EDA-pretreated corn stover was analyzed and optimized to verify the constraint factors on ethanol production. Highest ethanol concentration was achieved with the following optimized SSCF conditions at 6% glucan loading: 12-h pre-hydrolysis, 34 °C, pH 5.4, and inoculum size of 5 g dry cell/L. As glucan loading increased from 6 to 9%, ethanol concentration increased from 33.8 to 48.0 g/L, while ethanol yield reduced by 7%. Mass balance of SSCF showed that the reduction of ethanol yield with the increasing solid loading was mainly due to the decrease of glucan enzymatic conversion and xylose metabolism of the strain. Tween 20 and BSA increased ethanol concentration through enhancing enzymatic efficiency. The solid-recycled SSCF process reduced enzyme dosage by 40% (from 20 to 12 mg protein/g glucan) to achieve the similar ethanol concentration (~ 40 g/L) comparing to conventional SSCF. Here, we established an efficient SSCF procedure using EDA-pretreated biomass. Glucose enzymatic yield and yeast viability were regarded as the key factors affecting ethanol production at high solid loading. The extensive analysis of SSCF would be constructive to overcome the bottlenecks and improve ethanol production in cellulosic ethanol refinery.

  19. In Vivo Acute on Chronic Ethanol Effects in Liver: A Mouse Model Exhibiting Exacerbated Injury, Altered Metabolic and Epigenetic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivendra D. Shukla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcoholics who also binge drink (i.e., acute on chronic are prone to an exacerbated liver injury but its mechanism is not understood. We therefore investigated the in vivo effects of chronic and binge ethanol ingestion and compared to chronic ethanol followed by three repeat binge ethanol on the liver of male C57/BL6 mice fed ethanol in liquid diet (4% for four weeks followed by binge ethanol (intragastric administration, 3.5 g/kg body weight, three doses, 12h apart. Chronic followed by binge ethanol exacerbated fat accumulation, necrosis, decrease in hepatic SAM and SAM:SAH ratio, increase in adenosine levels, and elevated CYP2E1 levels. Histone H3 lysine acetylation (H3AcK9, dually modified phosphoacetylated histone H3 (H3AcK9/PS10, and phosphorylated H2AX increased after binge whereas phosphorylation of histone H3 ser 10 (H3S10 and H3 ser 28 (H3S28 increased after chronic ethanol-binge. Histone H3 lysine 4 and 9 dimethylation increased with a marked dimethylation in H3K9 in chronic ethanol binge group. Trimethylated histone H3 levels did not change. Nuclear levels of histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and histone deacetylase HDAC3 were elevated whereas phospho-CREB decreased in a distinctive manner. Taken together, acute on chronic ethanol ingestion caused amplification of liver injury and elicited characteristic profiles of histone modifications, metabolic alterations, and changes in nuclear protein levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic ethanol exposure renders liver more susceptible to repeat acute/binge ethanol induced acceleration of alcoholic liver disease.

  20. The effect of ethanol on sup 35 -S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B. (Laboratory for Studies of Neuroadaptive Processes, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of {sup 35}S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ({sup 35}S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. {sup 35}S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl{sup -} channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol. Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding by diazepam.