WorldWideScience

Sample records for protein baggage toxicity

  1. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage arriving in baggage cars. [T.D. 70-121, 35 FR 8215, May 26, 1970, as amended by T.D. 82-145, 47 FR 35478, Aug. 16, 1982] ...

  2. Subacromial shoulder disorders among baggage handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the influence of cumulative employment as baggage handler on the risk of incident subacromial shoulder disorders. Baggage handling is characterized by repetitive work primarily consisting of heavy lifting in awkward positions and time pressure. METHODS: This cohort study is based...... increased incidence of subacromial shoulder disorders for workers with longer cumulative years of employment. These results support that long-term lifting in awkward positions and time pressure influences the risk of subacromial shoulder disorders....... System. The primary exposure was cumulative years of employment as a baggage handler, and the primary outcome was diagnoses and surgical treatment of subacromial shoulder disorders. RESULTS: The cohort contained 3396 baggage handlers and 63,909 workers in the reference group. Baggage handlers with longer...

  3. 19 CFR 122.102 - Inspection of baggage in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of baggage in transit. 122.102 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Accompanied Baggage in Transit § 122.102 Inspection of baggage in transit. (a) General baggage in transit may be inspected upon arrival, while in transit, and...

  4. 49 CFR 374.307 - Baggage service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service § 374.307 Baggage service. (a... travel on the same schedule. Such baggage must then be placed on the next available bus to its...

  5. Automatic airline baggage counting using 3D image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Deyu; Gao, Qingji; Luo, Qijun

    2017-06-01

    The baggage number needs to be checked automatically during baggage self-check-in. A fast airline baggage counting method is proposed in this paper using image segmentation based on height map which is projected by scanned baggage 3D point cloud. There is height drop in actual edge of baggage so that it can be detected by the edge detection operator. And then closed edge chains are formed from edge lines that is linked by morphological processing. Finally, the number of connected regions segmented by closed chains is taken as the baggage number. Multi-bag experiment that is performed on the condition of different placement modes proves the validity of the method.

  6. Baggage handler seniority and musculoskeletal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bern, Stine Hvid; Brauer, Charlotte; Møller, Karina Lauenborg

    2013-01-01

    Heavy lifting is associated with musculoskeletal disorders but it is unclear whether it is related to acute reversible effects or to chronic effects from cumulated exposure. The aim of this study was to examine whether musculoskeletal symptoms in Danish airport baggage handlers were associated wi...... with their seniority as baggage handler, indicating chronic effects from cumulated workload....

  7. 19 CFR 123.63 - Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. 123...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.63 Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (a) Opening vehicle or compartment to examine baggage. Customs officers are...

  8. 31 CFR 515.569 - Foreign passengers' baggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.569 Foreign passengers' baggage. The importation of Cuban-origin goods, otherwise prohibited by this part, brought into the United States as baggage by any person arriving in the United States other than a citizen or resident of the United States is hereby...

  9. Epidemiological and biomechanical evaluation of airline baggage handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazzol, Alireza; Aref, Samin; Mardani, Majid; Haddad, Omid; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are prevalent among airline baggage handlers due to manual materials handling. In this study, the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ), the revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, and the University of Michigan 3D Static Strength Prediction Program™ (3DSSPP) were used to analyze MSDs among baggage handlers. The NMQ was filled out by 209 baggage handlers and 46 arbitrarily selected baggage handlers were evaluated using the NIOSH method and 3DSSPP. The obtained results showed that the most common MSDs occurred in the lower back region. The next risky regions included knees, neck, and upper back, respectively. The NIOSH results confirmed that the subjects lifted loads heavier than the permitted limit and their lifting postures were inappropriate. The results of the 3DSSPP also indicated that compression forces exceeded the NIOSH limit in these awkward postures. Relying on this study, holding compulsory ergonomic lifting training courses could be proposed for workers and regulations adjusting an upper limit for maximum baggage weight must be also enacted in order to improve occupational health and prevent the prevalence of increasing MSDs.

  10. Mining Risk Factors in RFID Baggage Tracking Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Calders, Toon; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    and frustration to the passengers. To remedy these problems we propose a detailed methodology for mining risk factors from Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) baggage tracking data. The factors should identify potential issues in the baggage management. However, the baggage tracking data are low level...... and not directly accessible for finding such factors. Moreover, baggage tracking data are highly imbalanced, for example, our experimental data, which is a large real-world data set from the Scandinavian countries, contains only 0.8% mishandled bags. This imbalance presents difficulties to most data mining...... techniques. The paper presents detailed steps for pre-processing the unprocessed raw tracking data for higher-level analysis and handling the imbalance problem. We fragment the data set based on a number of relevant factors and find the best classifier for each of them. The paper reports on a comprehensive...

  11. Optimal assignment of incoming flights to baggage carousels at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.

    The problem considered in this report is an assignment problem occurring at airports. This problem concerns the assignment of baggage carousels in baggage claim halls to arriving aircraft (baggage carousel assignment problem). This is a highly dynamic problem since disruptions frequently occur du...... and in general is a substantial support in decision making....

  12. 14 CFR 121.589 - Carry-on baggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (c) and (d). (c) No certificate holder may allow an airplane to take off or land unless each article... holder may allow the boarding of carry-on baggage on an airplane unless each passenger's baggage has been... program in its operations specifications. In addition, no passenger may board an airplane if his/her carry...

  13. A Data Warehouse Solution for Analyzing RFID-Based Baggage Tracking Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    spatio-temporal Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) baggage tracking data. Analysis of this data can yield interesting results on baggage flow, the causes of baggage mishandling, and the parties responsible for the mishandling(airline, airport, handler,...), which can ultimately lead to improved...... with the appropriate tracking data from the data sources. The presented concepts are generalizable to other types of multi-site indoor tracking systems based on Bluetooth and RFID. The system has been tested with large amount of real-world RFID-based baggage tracking data from a major industry initiative...

  14. A model for transfer baggage handling at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.; Timler Holm, Janus; Lindorff Larsen, Jakob

    This work deals with the handling of baggage from passengers changing aircraft at an airport. The transfer baggage problem is to assign the bags from each arriving aircraft to an infeed area into the airport infrastructure. The infrastructure will then distribute the bags to the handling faciliti...... is studied and future approaches for improving robustness are discussed. The presented solution approach runs successfully as part of the operation control systems at Frankfurt Airport since 2008.......This work deals with the handling of baggage from passengers changing aircraft at an airport. The transfer baggage problem is to assign the bags from each arriving aircraft to an infeed area into the airport infrastructure. The infrastructure will then distribute the bags to the handling facilities...... and robustness. The model can be solved with a commercial MIP-solver. Furthermore, the use of the model in the dynamic environment during daily operations is introduced. The model includes two different approaches for increasing the robustness of the generated solutions. The uncertainty of the input data...

  15. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker

    2016-01-01

    and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only...

  16. Three-dimensional imaging of hold baggage for airport security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kolokytha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a cost-effective check-in baggage screening system, based on "on-belt tomosynthesis" (ObT and close-range photogrammetry, that is designed to address the limitations of the most common system used, conventional projection radiography. The latter's limitations can lead to loss of information and an increase in baggage handling time, as baggage is manually searched or screened with more advanced systems. This project proposes a system that overcomes such limitations creating a cost-effective automated pseudo-3D imaging system, by combining x-ray and optical imaging to form digital tomograms. Tomographic reconstruction requires a knowledge of the change in geometry between multiple x-ray views of a common object. This is uniquely achieved using a close range photogrammetric system based on a small network of web-cameras. This paper presents the recent developments of the ObT system and describes recent findings of the photogrammetric system implementation. Based on these positive results, future work on the advancement of the ObT system as a cost-effective pseudo-3D imaging of hold baggage for airport security is proposed.

  17. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.212 Movement of plant pests by baggage...

  18. A fuel cell driven aircraft baggage tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterkenburg, Stefan van [HAN Univ. of Applied Sciences (Netherlands); Rijs, Aart van; Hupkens, Huib [Silent Motor Company, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Silent Motor Company and the HAN University of Applied Science collaborate in the development of an aircraft baggage tractor. The baggage tractor is equipped with an 8kW fuel cell stack connected to a 26kWh battery-pack. The control system implemented minimizes the start-up time of the fuel cell system, protects the fuel cell against overload and underload and controls the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery to its optimum value. A practical SOC-determination method is implemented which does not need detailed knowledge about the batteries applied. This paper presents a description of the fuel cell system, its energy management system and SOC-determination method and the results of first test measurements. (orig.)

  19. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  20. Dynamic Routing of Short Transfer Baggage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    of dispatch. Computational results are presented for real-life passenger data with stochastic bag arrival times and travel times. The results indicate that the algorithm is able to dispatch the baggage considerably better than the manual delivery plans reported in the case study, and due to its fast running...... that arrive continuously during the day. We present an IP model of the problem and describe the problem as a case study from a real life setting. We present a weighted greedy algorithm for dispatching vehicles that works in an dynamic context, meaning that it only considers bags available at the time......We consider a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem that arises in airports when transporting baggage for passengers with connecting flights. Each bag can be delivered in two locations with disjunctive time windows. The task is to define multiple trips for the vehicles in order to deliver bags...

  1. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... detection systems. 25.858 Section 25.858 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If... must be met for each cargo or baggage compartment with those provisions: (a) The detection system must...

  2. A cost-benefit analysis of alternative device configurations for aviation-checked baggage security screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Karnani, Tamana; Kobza, John E; Ritchie, Lynsey

    2006-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 have resulted in dramatic changes in aviation security. As of early 2003, an estimated 1,100 explosive detection systems (EDS) and 6,000 explosive trace detection machines (ETD) have been deployed to ensure 100% checked baggage screening at all commercial airports throughout the United States. The prohibitive costs associated with deploying and operating such devices is a serious issue for the Transportation Security Administration. This article evaluates the cost effectiveness of the explosive detection technologies currently deployed to screen checked baggage as well as new technologies that could be used in the future. Both single-device and two-device systems are considered. In particular, the expected annual direct cost of using these devices for 100% checked baggage screening under various scenarios is obtained and the tradeoffs between using single- and two-device strategies are studied. The expected number of successful threats under the different checked baggage screening scenarios with 100% checked baggage screening is also obtained. Lastly, a risk-based screening strategy proposed in the literature is analyzed. The results reported suggest that for the existing security setup, with current device costs and probability parameters, single-device systems are less costly and have fewer expected number of successful threats than two-device systems due to the way the second device affects the alarm or clear decision. The risk-based approach is found to have the potential to significantly improve security. The cost model introduced provides an effective tool for the execution of cost-benefit analyses of alternative device configurations for aviation-checked baggage security screening.

  3. 14 CFR 234.6 - Baggage-handling statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baggage-handling statistics. 234.6 Section 234.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... statistics. Each reporting carrier shall report monthly to the Department on a domestic system basis...

  4. Risk of subacromial shoulder disorder in airport baggage handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sanne Pagh; Brauer, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2018-01-01

    age,exposure variables showed close to significant associations with subacromial shoulder disorder.Results could not confirm our hypothesis that combined information on work task duration and shoulder load intensity was stronger associated with subacromial shoulder disorder than seniority.......Musculoskeletal shoulder-load among baggage handlers measured by combining duration and intensity based on biomechanical and epidemiological information may be a stronger predictor of subacromial shoulder disordersthanbaggage handler seniority.In 2012, a cohort of baggage handlers employed...... at Copenhagen Airport in 1990-2012, and a cohort of unskilledotherwise employed men answered a survey.Self-reported information on work tasks during employment in the airport in combination with work task specific biomechanically modelled forces in the shoulder joint was used to estimate shoulder-load. Exposure...

  5. 41 CFR 303-70.301 - Are there any limitations on the baggage we may transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there any limitations on the baggage we may transport? 303-70.301 Section 303-70.301 Public Contracts and Property... on the baggage we may transport? Yes. You may only transport government property and the employee's...

  6. Model-Based Control for Postal Automation and Baggage Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarau, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on two specific transportation systems, namely postal automation and baggage handling. Postal automation: During the last decades the volume of magazines, catalogs, and other plastic wrapped mail items that have to be processed by post sorting centers has increased

  7. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker

    2016-01-01

    socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time......Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain...... of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar...

  8. A TNA explosives-detection system in airline baggage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, P.; Gozani, T. (Science Applications International Corp., Santa Clara, CA (USA)); Bozorgmanesh, H. (Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (USA))

    1990-12-20

    Existing technologies that are applied to explosives-detection in passenger baggage are briefly discussed. A system based on thermal-neutron analysis (TNA) is described. The actual performance of the system in the field on passenger bags is given. The application of the TNA in an integrated airport security system is discussed in view of the intense public debate on this issue. (orig.).

  9. Model-based design of supervisory controllers for baggage handling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes, L.; van Beek, D.A.; Fokkink, W.J.; van Eekelen, J.A.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of airport baggage handling systems in combination with the required high level of robustness makes designing supervisory controllers for these systems a challenging task. We show how a state of the art, formal, model-based design framework has been successfully used for model-based

  10. Job satisfaction among aircraft baggage handlers and their exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulduk, Sıdıka; Bulduk, Emre Özgür; Güler, Alpaslan

    2017-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) cause pain and economic loss. Risk of WMSDs is affected by job satisfaction as a psychosocial factor. The aim of this study was to investigate job satisfaction among aircraft baggage handlers and their exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder risk factors. Two data collection tools addressing risk levels (Quick Exposure Check) and psychosocial factors (Job Satisfaction Survey) were answered by 399 male baggage handlers employed in Esenboga International Airport in Ankara, Turkey. Risk exposure scores for WMSDs among baggage handlers were 27±3.4 (high) for the back (static), 42±7.2 (very high) for the back (moving), 42±6.1 (very high) for the shoulder/arm, 44±1.9 (very high) for the wrist/hand, and 13±5.1(high) for the neck. The average job satisfaction levels of the majority was either low (4.2250±1.10184) or moderate (3.1019±0.93352). In addition, low and moderate job satisfaction was significantly associated with higher WMSD risk levels among baggage handlers. Increased WMSD risk levels among baggage handlers are associated with low and moderate job satisfaction, suggesting that it is mandatory to perform intervention methods in this occupation.

  11. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  12. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for High-throughput Toxicity Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    High-throughput screening is extensively applied for identification of drug targets and drug discovery and recently it found entry into toxicity testing. Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs) are used widespread for quantification of protein markers. We reasoned that RPPAs also can be utilized...... beneficially in automated high-throughput toxicity testing. An advantage of using RPPAs is that, in addition to the baseline toxicity readout, they allow testing of multiple markers of toxicity, such as inflammatory responses, which do not necessarily cumulate in cell death. We used transfection of si......RNAs with known killing effects as a model system to demonstrate that RPPA-based protein quantification can serve as substitute readout of cell viability, hereby reliably reflecting toxicity. In terms of automation, cell exposure, protein harvest, serial dilution and sample reformatting were performed using...

  13. Toxicological relationships between proteins obtained from protein target predictions of large toxicity databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigsch, Florian; Mitchell, John B.O.

    2008-01-01

    The combination of models for protein target prediction with large databases containing toxicological information for individual molecules allows the derivation of 'toxiclogical' profiles, i.e., to what extent are molecules of known toxicity predicted to interact with a set of protein targets. To predict protein targets of drug-like and toxic molecules, we built a computational multiclass model using the Winnow algorithm based on a dataset of protein targets derived from the MDL Drug Data Report. A 15-fold Monte Carlo cross-validation using 50% of each class for training, and the remaining 50% for testing, provided an assessment of the accuracy of that model. We retained the 3 top-ranking predictions and found that in 82% of all cases the correct target was predicted within these three predictions. The first prediction was the correct one in almost 70% of cases. A model built on the whole protein target dataset was then used to predict the protein targets for 150 000 molecules from the MDL Toxicity Database. We analysed the frequency of the predictions across the panel of protein targets for experimentally determined toxicity classes of all molecules. This allowed us to identify clusters of proteins related by their toxicological profiles, as well as toxicities that are related. Literature-based evidence is provided for some specific clusters to show the relevance of the relationships identified

  14. Passenger baggage object database (PBOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittinger, Jaxon M.; Suknot, April N.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Spaulding, Terry W.; Wenrich, Steve A.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of anomalies of interest in x-ray images is an ever-evolving problem that requires the rapid development of automatic detection algorithms. Automatic detection algorithms are developed using machine learning techniques, which would require developers to obtain the x-ray machine that was used to create the images being trained on, and compile all associated metadata for those images by hand. The Passenger Baggage Object Database (PBOD) and data acquisition application were designed and developed for acquiring and persisting 2-D and 3-D x-ray image data and associated metadata. PBOD was specifically created to capture simulated airline passenger "stream of commerce" luggage data, but could be applied to other areas of x-ray imaging to utilize machine-learning methods.

  15. Can Radiologists Learn From Airport Baggage Screening?: A Survey About Using Fictional Patients for Quality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Andrew; Callen, Andrew L; Marcovici, Peter; Naeger, David M; Mongan, John; Webb, Emily M

    2018-02-01

    For both airport baggage screeners and radiologists, low target prevalence is associated with low detection rate, a phenomenon known as "prevalence effect." In airport baggage screening, the target prevalence is artificially increased with fictional weapons that are digitally superimposed on real baggage. This strategy improves the detection rate of real weapons and also allows airport supervisors to monitor screener performance. A similar strategy using fictional patients could be applied in radiology. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to review the psychophysics literature regarding low target prevalence and (2) to survey radiologists' attitudes toward using fictional patients as a quality assurance tool. We reviewed the psychophysics literature on low target prevalence and airport x-ray baggage screeners. An online survey was e-mailed to all members of the Association of University Radiologists to determine their attitudes toward using fictional patients in radiology. Of the 1503 Association of University Radiologists member recipients, there were 153 respondents (10% response rate). When asked whether the use of fictional patients was a good idea, the responses were as follows: disagree (44%), neutral (25%), and agree (31%). The most frequent concern was the time taken away from doing clinical work (89% of the respondents). The psychophysics literature supports the use of fictional targets to mitigate the prevalence effect. However, the use of fictional patients is not a popular idea among academic radiologists. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Designing airport checked-baggage-screening strategies considering system capability and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qianmei; Sahin, Hande; Kapur, Kailash C.

    2009-01-01

    Emerging image-based technologies are critical components of airport security for screening checked baggage. Since these new technologies differ widely in cost and accuracy, a comprehensive mathematical framework should be developed for selecting technology or combination of technologies for efficient 100% baggage screening. This paper addresses the problem of setting threshold values of these screening technologies and determining the optimal combination of technologies in a two-level screening system by considering system capability and human reliability. Probability and optimization techniques are used to quantify and evaluate the cost- and risk-effectiveness of various deployment configurations, which is captured by using a system life-cycle cost model that incorporates the deployment cost, operating cost, and costs associated with system decisions. Two system decision rules are studied for a two-level screening system. For each decision rule, two different optimization approaches are formulated and investigated from practitioner's perspective. Numerical examples for different decision rules, optimization approaches and system arrangements are demonstrated

  17. Copper carrier protein in copper toxic sheep liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, A L; Dean, P D.G.

    1973-01-01

    The livers of copper-toxic sheep have been analyzed by gel electrophoresis followed by staining the gels for copper with diethyldithiocarbamate and for protein with amido schwartz. These gels were compared with similar gels obtained from the livers of normal and copper-deficient animals. The copper-toxic livers contained an extra protein band which possessed relatively weakly bound copper. Possible origins of this protein are discussed. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of two x-ray baggage inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenbaum, R.L.

    1979-06-01

    The AS and E Micro-Dose X-ray Baggage Inspection System was designed for high-volume, detailed examination of packages at ultralow x-ray exposure levels. This system is used in airline terminals for the detection of weapons, bombs, and other contraband. It is also employed by security personnel in other facilities to search packages for contraband carried in and out of secured areas. The Micro-Dose system has a unique design concept which includes an Automatic Threat Alert System (ATA) and a zoom display presentation feature

  19. A New Generation of X-ray Baggage Scanners Based on a Different Physical Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Speller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available X-ray baggage scanners play a basic role in the protection of airports, customs, and other strategically important buildings and infrastructures. The current technology of baggage scanners is based on x-ray attenuation, meaning that the detection of threat objects relies on how various objects differently attenuate the x-ray beams going through them. This capability is enhanced by the use of dual-energy x-ray scanners, which make the determination of the x-ray attenuation characteristics of a material more precise by taking images with different x-ray spectra, and combining the information appropriately. However, this still has limitations whenever objects with similar attenuation characteristics have to be distinguished. We describe an alternative approach based on a different x-ray interaction phenomenon, x-ray refraction. Refraction is a familiar phenomenon in visible light (e.g., what makes a straw half immersed in a glass of water appear bent, which also takes place in the x-ray regime, only causing deviations at much smaller angles. Typically, these deviations occur at the boundaries of all objects. We have developed a system that, like other “phase contrast” based instruments, is capable of detecting such deviations, and therefore of creating precise images of the contours of all objects. This complements the material-related information provided by x-ray attenuation, and helps contextualizing the nature of the individual objects, therefore resulting in an increase of both sensitivity (increased detection rate and specificity (reduced rate of false positives of baggage scanners.

  20. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2014-01-01

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity

  1. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David, E-mail: david.ross@ucdenver.edu

    2014-10-15

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  2. Bolevenine, a toxic protein from the Japanese toadstool Boletus venenatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masanori; Yamada, Mina; Saikawa, Yoko; Miyairi, Kazuo; Okuno, Toshikatsu; Konno, Katsuhiro; Uenishi, Jun'ichi; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Nakata, Masaya

    2007-03-01

    A toxic protein, called bolevenine, was isolated from the toxic mushroom Boletus venenatus based on its lethal effects on mice. On SDS-PAGE, in either the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol, this protein showed a single band of approximately 12 kDa. In contrast, based on gel filtration and MALDI-TOFMS, its relative molecular mass was estimated to be approximately 30 kDa and approximately 33 kDa, respectively, indicating that the protein consists of three identical subunits. This toxin exhibited its lethal activity following injection at 10mg/kg into mice. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined up to 18, and found to be similar to the previously reported bolesatine, a toxic compound isolated from Boletus satanas.

  3. Radiation Protection Control Area Around Baggage Control X-ray Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Radalj, Z.; Milkovic-Kraus, S.; Cerovac, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of prompt occupational dose reporting rises when dose is received within a short-time interval or when the radiation source suffers any technical failures. Radiation exposure is to be recognized as a private/or group hazard of each person alone. Actual radiation quality of the source is to be taken into account. To optimize the radiological radiation protection Quality Control measurements of the source are done. We have developed digital dosemeters of type ALARA OD2 for external dosimetry to be used for establishing the real pattern of occupational dose delivered to the workers or/and as the (Ort) professional environmental measuring station. We are using dosemeter to define the control areas and areas of concern - point (Ort) around the source. This upgrade to legal obligatory external (film badge) dosimetry will help us to ease defining the professional stuff and working places which are actually exposed to ionising radiation of concern and for which it is necessary to provide legally required, or even additional, occupational health care programme. This means the analysis of exposure situations for specific jobs near the X-ray equipment used for baggage control in the context of carrying out a detailed study for the optimisation of radiation protection. PC data readout from device forms a real time exposure dose rate pattern that proves that any worker or other employee working nearby the baggage X-ray unit is not obliged to undergo any legal occupational monitoring (dosimetry or health) hence the total dose per year will not exceed 1 mSv under the worst working conditions. (author)

  4. Effects of protein-calorie malnutrition and refeeding on fluorouracil toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamelli, R.L.; Foster, R.S. Jr.

    1983-10-01

    Mice were used to study the effects of protein-calorie malnutrition and its reversal on granulocyte-macrophage production and fluorouracil's toxic effect on bone marrow. An in vitro quantitative clonal culture technique for bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) was used. Animals on a protein-free but otherwise complete diet for ten days had a significant contraction in total marrow cellularity and GM-CFC numbers paralleling the animal's weight loss. The acute toxic effect of fluorouracil on bone marrow was not increased in protein-deprived animals. On refeeding, there was a biphasic response in the degree of toxic effect on marrow. Animals refed for one day had significantly increased fluorouracil-related marrow abnormalities. However, animals refed for four days, when marrows were repleted, were partially protected from the drug's cytotoxic effects. The increased sensitivity in mice refed for one day was related to more GM-CFC in active DNA synthesis.

  5. Evaluation of radiation leaks from an installation of baggage inspection using X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAZAFINDRAMIANDRA, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    This work wase done in the framework of the collaboration between the Madagascar-INSTN and the Civil Aviation of Madagascar (ACM). Due to the importance of the use of the scanner with X-rays for detection of baggages at the International Airport of Ivato, the protection of the workers using these HI-SCAN scanners has to be studied. The work deals with evaluating the dose rate emitted by the detector of baggages (HI SCAN 6040i and HI-SCAN 100100V) with dose rate meters (Graetz and Radiagem). These dosimeters were calibrated at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Madagascar-INSTN before carrying out the inspection. By applying the calibration factor of the dosimeters used during the inspection, it is noted that the evaluated doses during the radiation exposure with the measuring instrument are very variable for low dose, and less than the dose limit according to the regulation on radiation protection in Madagascar. The radiations emitted by the machine with x-rays can involve dangerous effects for health, in order to protect itself, the effectiveness of the means of protection must be kept or taken into account by respecting strictly the time, the distance, and the screen. [fr

  6. Towards an automated checked baggage inspection system augmented with robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonato, Matthew P.; Dimitrov, Velin; Padır, Taskin

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel system for enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of checked baggage screening process at airports. The system requirements address the identification and retrieval of objects of interest that are prohibited in a checked luggage. The automated testbed is comprised of a Baxter research robot designed by Rethink Robotics for luggage and object manipulation, and a down-looking overhead RGB-D sensor for inspection and detection. We discuss an overview of current system implementations, areas of opportunity for improvements, robot system integration challenges, details of the proposed software architecture and experimental results from a case study for identifying various kinds of lighters in checked bags.

  7. How Much Is Enough? Sizing the Deployment of Baggage Screening Equipment to Minimize the Cost of Flying. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaver, Russell

    2004-01-01

    ... mandated that all bags carried onto aircraft be inspected for various contraband (e.g., bombs). Inspection stations already existed for carry-on luggage, but baggage checked at the ticket counter was inspected only on international flights...

  8. Ubiquilin overexpression reduces GFP-polyalanine-induced protein aggregates and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongmin; Monteiro, Mervyn J.

    2007-01-01

    Several human disorders are associated with an increase in a continuous stretch of alanine amino acids in proteins. These so-called polyalanine expansion diseases share many similarities with polyglutamine-related disorders, including a length-dependent reiteration of amino acid induction of protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. We previously reported that overexpression of ubiquilin reduces protein aggregates and toxicity of expanded polyglutamine proteins. Here, we demonstrate a similar role for ubiquilin toward expanded polyalanine proteins. Overexpression of ubiquilin-1 in HeLa cells reduced protein aggregates and the cytotoxicity associated with expression of a transfected nuclear-targeted GFP-fusion protein containing 37-alanine repeats (GFP-A37), in a dose dependent manner. Ubiquilin coimmunoprecipitated more with GFP proteins containing a 37-polyalanine tract compared to either 7 (GFP-A7), or no alanine tract (GFP). Moreover, overexpression of ubiquilin suppressed the increased vulnerability of HeLa cell lines stably expressing the GFP-A37 fusion protein to oxidative stress-induced cell death compared to cell lines expressing GFP or GFP-A7 proteins. By contrast, siRNA knockdown of ubiquilin expression in the GFP-A37 cell line was associated with decreased cellular proliferation, and increases in GFP protein aggregates, nuclear fragmentation, and cell death. Our results suggest that boosting ubiquilin levels in cells might provide a universal and attractive strategy to prevent toxicity of proteins containing reiterative expansions of amino acids involved in many human diseases

  9. The functional range of heat shock proteins to combat environmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.; Mahmood, Q.; Pervez, A.; Nasreen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all the organisms possess a system to cope with the harsh physiochemical factors of environment. Such a system is based on a group of stress genes, which show rapid responses in form of stress proteins, especially heat shock proteins, when cells are confronted with insult. Heat shock proteins are now known to express in response to variety of toxic and stress conditions including diseases. As a molecular chaperone, against cytotoxicity, these ensure the functional ability of cells by repairing the denatured proteins, cellular structures like cytoskeleton and centrosomes and processes dealing with protein synthesis are stabilized or repaired during a second stress in stress tolerant cells and organisms. In unstressed cells these play an imperative role in the synthesis and transport of normal proteins. Their role in certain diseases reveals their potential application in medical field. Certain Hsp are helpful in coping carcinogenicity caused environmental pollutants and have been suggested to have anti-apoptotic, anti stress and anti-allergic function. Their expression is tissue and species specific with respect to type, intensity and duration of a toxicant. These are developmentally regulated and help in process of differentiation and thus their abnormal regulation impairs the normal development. However, their role as bio marker in risk assessment of environmental pollution warrants further research. Due to broad functional range, therefore, present review is embracing the functional aspects of smaller and Hsp 70 families expressing in animals under toxic conditions. (author)

  10. Dynamics of seizure of animal products in international baggage on Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Barros de Melo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Melo C.B., Fino T.C.M., Schwingel F.F., Santiago M.T., de Barros L.F.R., McManus C. & Sá M.E.P. [Dynamics of seizure of animal products in international baggage on Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR.] Dinâmica da apreensão de produtos de origem animal em bagagens internacionais no Aeroporto de Brasília (AIB-PJK/SBBR. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(3:265-276, 2016. Universidade de Brasília, PPGCA, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, ICC Sul, Asa Norte, Brasília, DF 70910-900, Brasil. E-mail: cristianomelo@unb.br The risk of introducing infectious agents increases as the volume of imported products rises. The illegal entry of animal products (POA brought in international passenger baggage is a factor that makes up the risk assessment and that grows proportionally to the intensification of international transit passengers. They evaluated the data on seizures of animal products intercepted in international baggage passengers in Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR between the years 2010 and 2012. The analysis of the dynamics of these seizures considered the POA category, origin, airline and months more frequently and also verified the correlation between these variables. According to retrospective analysis, nearly eight tons of POA were seized from 52 countries throughout the study period. The results showed Portugal (p <0.0001 as the source of passengers who had higher frequency and quantity of seizures, and, added to other European origins, totaled 84.3% of seizures. The months of July, August and September stood out for the highest number of seizures and greater movement of international passengers. The increase in the number of seizures accompanied by a rise in the percentage of inspected passengers (r=0.69, emphasizing the importance of airport surveillance. According to the calculation of relative risk, passengers from African and South American countries showed greater magnitude of risk to bring animal

  11. Persistence of detectable insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry) and toxicity after adsorption on contrasting soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, T.P.; Truong, L.V.; Binh, N.D.; Frutos, R.; Quiquampoix, H.; Staunton, S.

    2016-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry, or Bt, proteins are produced by the soil-endemic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis and some genetically modified crops. Their environmental fate depends on interactions with soil. Little is known about the toxicity of adsorbed proteins and the change in toxicity over time. We incubated Cry1Ac and Cry2A in contrasting soils subjected to different treatments to inhibit microbial activity. The toxin was chemically extracted and immunoassayed. Manduca sexta was the target insect for biotests. Extractable toxin decreased during incubation for up to four weeks. Toxicity of Cry1Ac was maintained in the adsorbed state, but lost after 2 weeks incubation at 25 °C. The decline in extractable protein and toxicity were much slower at 4 °C with no significant effect of soil sterilization. The major driving force for decline may be time-dependent fixation of adsorbed protein, leading to a decrease in the extraction yield in vitro, paralleled by decreasing solubilisation in the larval gut. - Graphical abstract: Biotest, presenting Cry-contaminated feed to Manduca sexta larvae in individual Perspex boxes. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Toxicity of Cry protein is initially conserved after adsorption on soil. • Toxicity and extractability decline with time, more rapidly at 25 °C than 4 °C. • Similar dynamics of Cry1AC and Cry2A on soil with varying texture and organic C. • Sterilization of soil does not change Cry dynamics or temperature effect in soil. • Cry decline is determined by progressive fixation on soil not microbial breakdown. - Toxicity was initially maintained after adsorption on soil and both extractable Cry and toxicity declined rapidly, more slowly at low temperature, due to different fixation dynamics. Toxicity of Cry protein is initially conserved after adsorption on soil.

  12. Transformation of toxic potential of Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot into protein source: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Shukla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of animal largely depends on supplying of quality feed and proteinaceous supplement to the animals. Jatropha plant can grow in the barren lands, and are used as a source of biodiesel. Besides, the plant may act as a rich proteinaceous source. However, the antinutritional factors present in the seed and seed oil of the plant may hamper the availability and beneficial use of the plant. Curcin and phorbol esters are the major toxic compounds present in the plant; these toxic compounds cause to produce liver and kidney diseases. Detoxification of these toxic compounds by physical and chemical means converting to less toxic seed cake may serve the purpose of using this plant in future as a replacement of costly protein supplement for animals. Therefore, in modern world, it is recommended to utilize the protein source by neutralizing the antinutritional factors. This mini-review describes the updates on how J. curcas can be utilized as a supplementary source of protein for animals by decreasing its toxicity.

  13. Small heat shock proteins protect against α-synuclein-induced toxicity and aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outeiro, Tiago Fleming; Klucken, Jochen; Strathearn, Katherine E.; Liu Fang; Nguyen, Paul; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Hyman, Bradley T.; McLean, Pamela J.

    2006-01-01

    Protein misfolding and inclusion formation are common events in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). α-Synuclein (aSyn) is the main protein component of inclusions called Lewy bodies (LB) which are pathognomic of PD, Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other diseases collectively known as LB diseases. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are one class of the cellular quality control system that mediate protein folding, remodeling, and even disaggregation. Here, we investigated the role of the small heat shock proteins Hsp27 and αB-crystallin, in LB diseases. We demonstrate, via quantitative PCR, that Hsp27 messenger RNA levels are ∼2-3-fold higher in DLB cases compared to control. We also show a corresponding increase in Hsp27 protein levels. Furthermore, we found that Hsp27 reduces aSyn-induced toxicity by ∼80% in a culture model while αB-crystallin reduces toxicity by ∼20%. In addition, intracellular inclusions were immunopositive for endogenous Hsp27, and overexpression of this protein reduced aSyn aggregation in a cell culture model

  14. Protein Nanoscaffolds for Delivering Toxic Inorganic Cargo to Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioloboc, Daniela

    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs or prodrugs to tumors can minimize systemic toxicity and side effects. This study develops platforms for targeted delivery of two potentially less systemically toxic prodrugs by exploiting the native and/or bioinorganic properties of two ferritins, both of which function naturally as iron storage proteins. Two delivery approaches were investigated. The first system was designed to serve as either an enhancement or alternative to traditional photodynamic therapy by generating hydroxyl radical in addition to singlet oxygen as the toxic reactive oxygen species. This system used Escherichia coli bacterioferritin (Bfr) loaded with 2,500 irons and multiple zinc-porphyrin (ZnP) photosensitizers. Ferrous iron was released by photoreduction of ferric iron stored within the Bfr protein shell. Hydroxyl radicals were generated via the Fenton reaction between hydrogen peroxide and the released ferrous iron. The outer surface of the Bfr protein shell was coated with peptides that specifically bind to a receptor known to be overexpressed in many tumor cells and tumor vasculature. The iron-loaded peptide-ZnP-Bfr was endocytosed by melanoma cells, where it showed photo-triggered release of iron and light-dependent cytotoxicity. The second system, built around human heavy chain ferritin (HFn), was loaded with arsenate as a less toxic "prodrug" and designed to release arsenic in its toxic, therapeutically effective reduced form, arsenic trioxide (ATO). The Hfn shell was coated with peptides targeting receptors that are hyperexpressed in triple negative breast cancers. The arsenate/iron-loaded-Hfn was endocytosed by a breast cancer cell line and showed cytotoxicity equivalent to that of free ATO on an arsenic basis, whereas the "empty" or iron-only loaded Hfn showed no cytotoxicity. Although HFn has previously been used to deliver organic drugs and imaging agents, these new results demonstrate that both Bfr and HFn can be manipulated to function

  15. Mitochondrial iron accumulation exacerbates hepatic toxicity caused by hepatitis C virus core protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Konomi; Watanabe, Haruna; Nakano, Takafumi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Moriya, Kyoji; Shintani, Yoshizumi; Fujie, Hajime; Tsutsumi, Takeya; Miyoshi, Hideyuki; Fujinaga, Hidetake; Shinzawa, Seiko; Koike, Kazuhiko [Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Horie, Toshiharu, E-mail: t.horie@thu.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Patients with long-lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at major risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Iron accumulation in the livers of these patients is thought to exacerbate conditions of oxidative stress. Transgenic mice that express the HCV core protein develop HCC after the steatosis stage and produce an excess of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS in the liver is the net result of HCV core protein-induced dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This study examined the impact of ferric nitrilacetic acid (Fe-NTA)-mediated iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing HepG2 (human HCC) cells (Hep39b cells). A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production were observed following Fe-NTA treatment. After continuous exposure to Fe-NTA for six days, cell toxicity was observed in Hep39b cells, but not in mock (vector-transfected) HepG2 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial iron ({sup 59}Fe) uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. This increase in mitochondrial iron uptake was inhibited by Ru360, a mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter inhibitor. Furthermore, the Fe-NTA-induced augmentation of mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and cell toxicity were also inhibited by Ru360 in Hep39b cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by the HCV core protein. - Highlights: • Iron accumulation in the livers of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to exacerbate oxidative stress. • The impact of iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing cells were examined. • Mitochondrial iron uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. • Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates

  16. Recommended safety procedures for the selection, installation and use of baggage inspection x-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Good X-ray equipment alone will not preclude unnecessary exposure to x-radiation. The equipment must be installed, maintained and used by adequately trained personnel, with due regard for the inherent hazards of such equipment and an appreciation of the need to observe proper operational procedures. It is the intent of this Code to define equipment specifications and conditions of installation and use for baggage inspection X-ray equipment, such that the hazard to operating personnel and the general public from such devices remains negligibly small. (auth)

  17. Characterization and evolutionary analysis of tributyltin-binding protein and pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin-binding protein genes in toxic and nontoxic pufferfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Y; Lee, J M; Shiraishi, M; Komatsu, S; Miki, S; Shimasaki, Y; Mochioka, N; Kusakabe, T; Oshima, Y

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of toxin accumulation in pufferfishes has been long-standing problem in toxicology and evolutionary biology. Pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin-binding protein (PSTBP) is involved in the transport and accumulation of tetrodotoxin and is one of the most intriguing proteins related to the toxicity of pufferfishes. PSTBPs are fusion proteins consisting of two tandem repeated tributyltin-binding protein type 2 (TBT-bp2) domains. In this study, we examined the evolutionary dynamics of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes to understand the evolution of toxin accumulation in pufferfishes. Database searches and/or PCR-based cDNA cloning in nine pufferfish species (6 toxic and 3 nontoxic) revealed that all species possessed one or more TBT-bp2 genes, but PSTBP genes were found only in 5 toxic species belonging to genus Takifugu. These toxic Takifugu species possessed two or three copies of PSTBP genes. Phylogenetic analysis of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes suggested that PSTBPs evolved in the common ancestor of Takifugu species by repeated duplications and fusions of TBT-bp2 genes. In addition, a detailed comparison of Takifugu TBT-bp2 and PSTBP gene sequences detected a signature of positive selection under the pressure of gene conversion. The complicated evolutionary dynamics of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes may reflect the diversity of toxicity in pufferfishes. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Risk factors and visual fatigue of baggage X-ray security screeners: a structural equation modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui-Feng; Yang, Lin-Dong; Wu, Xin

    2017-05-01

    This study identified the risk factors influencing visual fatigue in baggage X-ray security screeners and estimated the strength of correlations between those factors and visual fatigue using structural equation modelling approach. Two hundred and five X-ray security screeners participated in a questionnaire survey. The result showed that satisfaction with the VDT's physical features and the work environment conditions were negatively correlated with the intensity of visual fatigue, whereas job stress and job burnout had direct positive influences. The path coefficient between the image quality of VDT and visual fatigue was not significant. The total effects of job burnout, job stress, the VDT's physical features and the work environment conditions on visual fatigue were 0.471, 0.469, -0.268 and -0.251 respectively. These findings indicated that both extrinsic factors relating to VDT and workplace environment and psychological factors including job burnout and job stress should be considered in the workplace design and work organisation of security screening tasks to reduce screeners' visual fatigue. Practitioner Summary: This study identified the risk factors influencing visual fatigue in baggage X-ray security screeners and estimated the strength of correlations between those factors and visual fatigue. The findings were of great importance to the workplace design and the work organisation of security screening tasks to reduce screeners' visual fatigue.

  19. Radiation safety for baggage x-ray inspection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course on radiation safety aimed at technicians responsible for conducting maintenance on baggage x-ray inspection systems used in federally operated facilities. The need for a single reference book became apparent to the instructor in 1984. In an effort to provide a cohesive development of the subject, a set of lecture notes was prepared and revised annually since 1984, from which this book has evolved. This book is intended to present concepts necessary for an elementary but comprehensive knowledge of radiation safety. While some material coverage may appear somewhat detailed, it is a deliberate attempt to strengthen areas of demonstrated weaknesses observed in course attenders and to provide guidance on the numerous questions about man-made radiation asked by course attenders over the years. Numerical examples are included in most chapters for clarity and ease of understanding. The problems given at the end of most chapters provide the reader with the opportunity of applying the material presented in the chapters to situations of practical interest. It is important that these problems be considered an integral part of the course and students attempt to solve them. 36 refs., 9 tabs., 17 figs.

  20. Radiation safety for baggage x-ray inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course on radiation safety aimed at technicians responsible for conducting maintenance on baggage x-ray inspection systems used in federally operated facilities. The need for a single reference book became apparent to the instructor in 1984. In an effort to provide a cohesive development of the subject, a set of lecture notes was prepared and revised annually since 1984, from which this book has evolved. This book is intended to present concepts necessary for an elementary but comprehensive knowledge of radiation safety. While some material coverage may appear somewhat detailed, it is a deliberate attempt to strengthen areas of demonstrated weaknesses observed in course attenders and to provide guidance on the numerous questions about man-made radiation asked by course attenders over the years. Numerical examples are included in most chapters for clarity and ease of understanding. The problems given at the end of most chapters provide the reader with the opportunity of applying the material presented in the chapters to situations of practical interest. It is important that these problems be considered an integral part of the course and students attempt to solve them. 36 refs., 9 tabs., 17 figs

  1. Molecular mechanisms used by chaperones to reduce the toxicity of aberrant protein oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannini, Benedetta; Cascella, Roberta; Zampagni, Mariagioia; Van Waarde-Verhagen, Maria; Meehan, Sarah; Roodveldt, Cintia; Campioni, Silvia; Boninsegna, Matilde; Penco, Amanda; Relini, Annalisa; Kampinga, Harm H.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Wilson, Mark R.; Cecchi, Cristina; Chiti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Chaperones are the primary regulators of the proteostasis network and are known to facilitate protein folding, inhibit protein aggregation, and promote disaggregation and clearance of misfolded aggregates inside cells. We have tested the effects of five chaperones on the toxicity of misfolded

  2. Destabilizing protein polymorphisms in the genetic background direct phenotypic expression of mutant SOD1 toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Gidalevitz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic background exerts a strong modulatory effect on the toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins in conformational diseases. In addition to influencing the misfolding and aggregation behavior of the mutant proteins, polymorphisms in putative modifier genes may affect the molecular processes leading to the disease phenotype. Mutations in SOD1 in a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS cases confer dominant but clinically variable toxicity, thought to be mediated by misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 protein. While the mechanism of toxicity remains unknown, both the nature of the SOD1 mutation and the genetic background in which it is expressed appear important. To address this, we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to systematically examine the aggregation behavior and genetic interactions of mutant forms of SOD1. Expression of three structurally distinct SOD1 mutants in C. elegans muscle cells resulted in the appearance of heterogeneous populations of aggregates and was associated with only mild cellular dysfunction. However, introduction of destabilizing temperature-sensitive mutations into the genetic background strongly enhanced the toxicity of SOD1 mutants, resulting in exposure of several deleterious phenotypes at permissive conditions in a manner dependent on the specific SOD1 mutation. The nature of the observed phenotype was dependent on the temperature-sensitive mutation present, while its penetrance reflected the specific combination of temperature-sensitive and SOD1 mutations. Thus, the specific toxic phenotypes of conformational disease may not be simply due to misfolding/aggregation toxicity of the causative mutant proteins, but may be defined by their genetic interactions with cellular pathways harboring mildly destabilizing missense alleles.

  3. The development of a pseudo-3D imaging system (tomosynthesis) for security screening of passenger baggage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, C.B.; Betcke, M.M.; Chana, D.; Speller, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study investigating the potential of tomosynthesis as a post check-in baggage scanning system. A laboratory system has been constructed consisting of a moveable source and detector, arranged around a mini 90 o bend conveyor system, from which multiple projection images can be collected. Simulation code has been developed to allow the optimum source and detector positions to be determined. Reconstruction methods are being developed to modify the Shift-And-Add (SAA) algorithm to accommodate the non-typical imaging geometry.

  4. The development of a pseudo-3D imaging system (tomosynthesis) for security screening of passenger baggage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, C.B., E-mail: c.reid@medphys.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Betcke, M.M. [Department of Computer Science, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Chana, D. [Department for Transport, London SW1E 6DT (United Kingdom); Speller, R.D. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a study investigating the potential of tomosynthesis as a post check-in baggage scanning system. A laboratory system has been constructed consisting of a moveable source and detector, arranged around a mini 90{sup o} bend conveyor system, from which multiple projection images can be collected. Simulation code has been developed to allow the optimum source and detector positions to be determined. Reconstruction methods are being developed to modify the Shift-And-Add (SAA) algorithm to accommodate the non-typical imaging geometry.

  5. Exploiting translational coupling for the selection of cells producing toxic recombinant proteins from expression vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliavia, Marcello; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    High rates of plasmid instability are associated with the use of some expression vectors in Escherichia coli, resulting in the loss of recombinant protein expression. This is due to sequence alterations in vector promoter elements caused by the background expression of the cloned gene, which leads to the selection of fast-growing, plasmid-containing cells that do not express the target protein. This phenomenon, which is worsened when expressing toxic proteins, results in preparations containing very little or no recombinant protein, or even in clone loss; however, no methods to prevent loss of recombinant protein expression are currently available. We have exploited the phenomenon of translational coupling, a mechanism of prokaryotic gene expression regulation, in order to select cells containing plasmids still able to express recombinant proteins. Here we designed an expression vector in which the cloned gene and selection marker are co-expressed. Our approach allowed for the selection of the recombinant protein-expressing cells and proved effective even for clones encoding toxic proteins.

  6. Dynamic development of the protein corona on silica nanoparticles: composition and role in toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ninell P.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Wang, Wei; Foster, Carmen M.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2013-06-01

    The formation and composition of the protein corona on silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (NP) with different surface chemistries was evaluated over time. Native SiO2, amine (-NH2) and carboxy (-COO-) modified NP were examined following incubation in mammalian growth media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 1, 4, 24 and 48 hours. The protein corona transition from its early dynamic state to the later more stable corona was evaluated using mass spectrometry. The NP diameter was 22.4 +/- 2.2 nm measured by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Changes in hydrodynamic diameter and agglomeration kinetics were studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The initial surface chemistry of the NP played an important role in the development and final composition of the protein corona, impacting agglomeration kinetics and NP toxicity. Particle toxicity, indicated by changes in membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity, was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and tetrazolium reduction (MTT), respectively, in mouse alveolar macrophages (RAW264.7) and mouse lung epithelial cells (C10). SiO2-COO- NP had a slower agglomeration rate, formed smaller aggregates, and exhibited lower cytotoxicity compared to SiO2 and SiO2-NH2. Composition of the protein corona for each of the three NP was unique, indicating a strong dependence of corona development on NP surface chemistry. This work underscores the need to understand all aspects of NP toxicity, particularly the influence of agglomeration on effective dose and particle size. Furthermore, the interplay between materials and local biological environment is emphasized and highlights the need to conduct toxicity profiling under physiologically relevant conditions that provide an appropriate estimation of material modifications that occur during exposure in natural environments.The formation and composition of the protein corona on silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (NP) with different surface chemistries was evaluated

  7. Widespread genetic switches and toxicity resistance proteins for fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jenny L; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Weinberg, Zasha; Roth, Adam; Stockbridge, Randy B; Breaker, Ronald R

    2012-01-13

    Most riboswitches are metabolite-binding RNA structures located in bacterial messenger RNAs where they control gene expression. We have discovered a riboswitch class in many bacterial and archaeal species whose members are selectively triggered by fluoride but reject other small anions, including chloride. These fluoride riboswitches activate expression of genes that encode putative fluoride transporters, enzymes that are known to be inhibited by fluoride, and additional proteins of unknown function. Our findings indicate that most organisms are naturally exposed to toxic levels of fluoride and that many species use fluoride-sensing RNAs to control the expression of proteins that alleviate the deleterious effects of this anion.

  8. How and why do toxic conformers of aberrant proteins accumulate during ageing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefson, Rebecca; Andersson, Rebecca; Nyström, Thomas

    2017-07-15

    Ageing can be defined as a gradual decline in cellular and physical functions accompanied by an increased sensitivity to the environment and risk of death. The increased risk of mortality is causally connected to a gradual, intracellular accumulation of so-called ageing factors, of which damaged and aggregated proteins are believed to be one. Such aggregated proteins also contribute to several age-related neurodegenerative disorders e.g. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, highlighting the importance of protein quality control (PQC) in ageing and its associated diseases. PQC consists of two interrelated systems: the temporal control system aimed at refolding, repairing, and/or removing aberrant proteins and their aggregates and the spatial control system aimed at harnessing the potential toxicity of aberrant proteins by sequestering them at specific cellular locations. The accumulation of toxic conformers of aberrant proteins during ageing is often declared to be a consequence of an incapacitated temporal PQC system-i.e. a gradual decline in the activity of chaperones and proteases. Here, we review the current knowledge on PQC in relation to ageing and highlight that the breakdown of both temporal and spatial PQC may contribute to ageing and thus comprise potential targets for therapeutic interventions of the ageing process. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Cellular Immunity State of Protein-deficient Rats with the Toxic Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Voloshchuk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the role of immunity mechanisms in the emergence and maintenance of inflammatory and destructive processes in the liver under toxic hepatitis and nutrient deficiency are topical. The aim of research – to study the quantitative content and functional activity of leukocytes under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis on the background of nutritional protein deficiency. The most pronounced changes in cell-mediated immunity are observed in protein-deficient animals with toxic hepatitis. The pronounced defects of both specific and non-specific cellular immunity were manifested by the leukocytosis, increase number of segmented neutrophils in blood serum against decrease their phagocytic index and phagocytic number, reduction of total lymphocyte number, and simultaneously lowering of T- and B-lymphocytes was established under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity on the background of protein deficiency. Installed changes indicate the defective formation of functional immunity state which can manifest by decrease the body’s ability to carry out the reaction of cellular and humoral immunity. Research results may be used for the rationale of therapeutic approaches to the elimination and correction of the consequences of immunological status disturbances under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis, aggravated by the alimentary protein deprivation.

  10. Protein profiling as early detection biomarkers for TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Pereira, Paula; Diniz, Mário S; Moita, Liliana; Pinheiro, Teresa; Mendonça, Elsa; Paixão, Susana M; Picado, Ana

    2018-05-01

    The mode of action for nanoparticle (NP) toxicity in aquatic organisms is not yet fully understood. In this work, a strategy other than toxicity testing was applied to Daphnia magna exposed to TiO 2 -NPs: the use of nuclear microscopy and the assessment of protein profile. D. magna is a keystone species broadly used as a model system in ecotoxicology. Titanium (Ti) was found in the D. magna digestive tract, mainly in the gut. The penetration of Ti into the epithelial region was greater at higher exposure levels and also observed in eggs in the brood pouch. The protein profile of individuals exposed to different concentrations showed that 2.8 and 5.6 mg/L TiO 2 -NP concentrations induced an over-expression of the majority of proteins, in particular proteins with molecular weight of ∼120, 85 and 15 kDa, while 11.2 mg/L TiO 2 -NP had an inhibitory effect on protein expression. The Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization with tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of these proteins consistently identified them as vitellogenin (Vtg)-like proteins, associated with enzymes involved in redox balance. These results indicate that Vtg-like proteins are up-regulated in D. magna exposed to TiO 2 -NPs. Vitellogenesis is associated with the reproduction system, suggesting that TiO 2 -NP exposure can impair reproduction by affecting this process. The precise mode of action of TiO 2 -NPs is still unclear and the results from this study are a first attempt to identify specific proteins as potential markers of TiO 2 -NP toxicity in D. magna, providing useful information for future research.

  11. A bacterial view of the periodic table: genes and proteins for toxic inorganic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Simon; Phung, Le T

    2005-12-01

    Essentially all bacteria have genes for toxic metal ion resistances and these include those for Ag+, AsO2-, AsO4(3-), Cd2+ Co2+, CrO4(2-), Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, TeO3(2-), Tl+ and Zn2+. The largest group of resistance systems functions by energy-dependent efflux of toxic ions. Fewer involve enzymatic transformations (oxidation, reduction, methylation, and demethylation) or metal-binding proteins (for example, metallothionein SmtA, chaperone CopZ and periplasmic silver binding protein SilE). Some of the efflux resistance systems are ATPases and others are chemiosmotic ion/proton exchangers. For example, Cd2+-efflux pumps of bacteria are either inner membrane P-type ATPases or three polypeptide RND chemiosmotic complexes consisting of an inner membrane pump, a periplasmic-bridging protein and an outer membrane channel. In addition to the best studied three-polypeptide chemiosmotic system, Czc (Cd2+, Zn2+, and Co2), others are known that efflux Ag+, Cu+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. Resistance to inorganic mercury, Hg2+ (and to organomercurials, such as CH3Hg+ and phenylmercury) involve a series of metal-binding and membrane transport proteins as well as the enzymes mercuric reductase and organomercurial lyase, which overall convert more toxic to less toxic forms. Arsenic resistance and metabolizing systems occur in three patterns, the widely-found ars operon that is present in most bacterial genomes and many plasmids, the more recently recognized arr genes for the periplasmic arsenate reductase that functions in anaerobic respiration as a terminal electron acceptor, and the aso genes for the periplasmic arsenite oxidase that functions as an initial electron donor in aerobic resistance to arsenite.

  12. Golgi Outpost Synthesis Impaired by Toxic Polyglutamine Proteins Contributes to Dendritic Pathology in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Geon Chung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendrite aberration is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases caused by protein toxicity, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we show that nuclear polyglutamine (polyQ toxicity resulted in defective terminal dendrite elongation accompanied by a loss of Golgi outposts (GOPs and a decreased supply of plasma membrane (PM in Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (da (C4 da neurons. mRNA sequencing revealed that genes downregulated by polyQ proteins included many secretory pathway-related genes, including COPII genes regulating GOP synthesis. Transcription factor enrichment analysis identified CREB3L1/CrebA, which regulates COPII gene expression. CrebA overexpression in C4 da neurons restores the dysregulation of COPII genes, GOP synthesis, and PM supply. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-PCR revealed that CrebA expression is regulated by CREB-binding protein (CBP, which is sequestered by polyQ proteins. Furthermore, co-overexpression of CrebA and Rac1 synergistically restores the polyQ-induced dendrite pathology. Collectively, our results suggest that GOPs impaired by polyQ proteins contribute to dendrite pathology through the CBP-CrebA-COPII pathway.

  13. The protein corona protects against size- and dose-dependent toxicity of amorphous silica nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Docter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides the lung and skin, the gastrointestinal (GI tract is one of the main targets for accidental exposure or biomedical applications of nanoparticles (NP. Biological responses to NP, including nanotoxicology, are caused by the interaction of the NP with cellular membranes and/or cellular entry. Here, the physico-chemical characteristics of NP are widely discussed as critical determinants, albeit the exact mechanisms remain to be resolved. Moreover, proteins associate with NP in physiological fluids, forming the protein corona potentially transforming the biological identity of the particle and thus, adding an additional level of complexity for the bio–nano responses.Here, we employed amorphous silica nanoparticles (ASP and epithelial GI tract Caco-2 cells as a model to study the biological impact of particle size as well as of the protein corona. Caco-2 or mucus-producing HT-29 cells were exposed to thoroughly characterized, negatively charged ASP of different size in the absence or presence of proteins. Comprehensive experimental approaches, such as quantifying cellular metabolic activity, microscopic observation of cell morphology, and high-throughput cell analysis revealed a dose- and time-dependent toxicity primarily upon exposure with ASP30 (Ø = 30 nm. Albeit smaller (ASP20, Ø = 20 nm or larger particles (ASP100; Ø = 100 nm showed a similar zeta potential, they both displayed only low toxicity. Importantly, the adverse effects triggered by ASP30/ASP30L were significantly ameliorated upon formation of the protein corona, which we found was efficiently established on all ASP studied. As a potential explanation, corona formation reduced ASP30 cellular uptake, which was however not significantly affected by ASP surface charge in our model. Collectively, our study uncovers an impact of ASP size as well as of the protein corona on cellular toxicity, which might be relevant for processes at the nano–bio interface in general.

  14. Crystal Structure of a Plant Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion Family Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiki; Iwaki, Shigehiro; Tsukazaki, Tomoya

    2017-09-05

    The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family of proteins consists of transporters responsible for multidrug resistance in prokaryotes. In plants, a number of MATE proteins were identified by recent genomic and functional studies, which imply that the proteins have substrate-specific transport functions instead of multidrug extrusion. The three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic MATE proteins, including those of plants, has not been reported, preventing a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of these proteins. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a MATE protein from the plant Camelina sativa at 2.9 Å resolution. Two sets of six transmembrane α helices, assembled pseudo-symmetrically, possess a negatively charged internal pocket with an outward-facing shape. The crystal structure provides insight into the diversity of plant MATE proteins and their substrate recognition and transport through the membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, D.W.; Macler, L.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Unlike radiation effects, pulmonary toxicity following drug treatments may develop soon after exposure. The dose-response relationship between Cyclophosphamide and lung toxicity was investigated using increased breathing frequency assays used successfully for radiation induced injury. The data indicate that release of protein into the alveolus may play a significant role in Cy induced pulmonary toxicity. Although the mechanism responsible for the increased alveolar protein is as yet not identified, the present findings suggest that therapeutic intervention to inhibit protein release may be an approach to protect the lungs from toxic effects. (UK)

  16. Lectin-based food poisoning: a new mechanism of protein toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Katsuya; Tanaka, Toru; McNeil, Paul L

    2007-08-01

    Ingestion of the lectins present in certain improperly cooked vegetables can result in acute GI tract distress, but the mechanism of toxicity is unknown. In vivo, gut epithelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical and other stresses and consequently individual cells frequently experience plasma membrane disruptions. Repair of these cell surface disruptions allows the wounded cell to survive: failure results in necrotic cell death. Plasma membrane repair is mediated, in part, by an exocytotic event that adds a patch of internal membrane to the defect site. Lectins are known to inhibit exocytosis. We therefore tested the novel hypothesis that lectin toxicity is due to an inhibitory effect on plasma membrane repair. Repair of plasma membrane disruptions and exocytosis of mucus was assessed after treatment of cultured cell models and excised segments of the GI tract with lectins. Plasma membrane disruptions were produced by focal irradiation of individual cells, using a microscope-based laser, or by mechanical abrasion of multiple cells, using a syringe needle. Repair was then assessed by monitoring the cytosolic penetration of dyes incapable of crossing the intact plasma membrane. We found that cell surface-bound lectins potently inhibited plasma membrane repair, and the exocytosis of mucus that normally accompanies the repair response. Lectins potently inhibit plasma membrane repair, and hence are toxic to wounded cells. This represents a novel form of protein-based toxicity, one that, we propose, is the basis of plant lectin food poisoning.

  17. Lectin-based food poisoning: a new mechanism of protein toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Miyake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ingestion of the lectins present in certain improperly cooked vegetables can result in acute GI tract distress, but the mechanism of toxicity is unknown. In vivo, gut epithelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical and other stresses and consequently individual cells frequently experience plasma membrane disruptions. Repair of these cell surface disruptions allows the wounded cell to survive: failure results in necrotic cell death. Plasma membrane repair is mediated, in part, by an exocytotic event that adds a patch of internal membrane to the defect site. Lectins are known to inhibit exocytosis. We therefore tested the novel hypothesis that lectin toxicity is due to an inhibitory effect on plasma membrane repair. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Repair of plasma membrane disruptions and exocytosis of mucus was assessed after treatment of cultured cell models and excised segments of the GI tract with lectins. Plasma membrane disruptions were produced by focal irradiation of individual cells, using a microscope-based laser, or by mechanical abrasion of multiple cells, using a syringe needle. Repair was then assessed by monitoring the cytosolic penetration of dyes incapable of crossing the intact plasma membrane. We found that cell surface-bound lectins potently inhibited plasma membrane repair, and the exocytosis of mucus that normally accompanies the repair response. CONCLUSIONS: Lectins potently inhibit plasma membrane repair, and hence are toxic to wounded cells. This represents a novel form of protein-based toxicity, one that, we propose, is the basis of plant lectin food poisoning.

  18. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins by human bronchial epithelial cells in response to cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Dong-Yang; Wong, Wing-Yan; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Lau, Andy T Y

    2015-09-01

    For years, many studies have been conducted to investigate the intracellular response of cells challenged with toxic metal(s), yet, the corresponding secretome responses, especially in human lung cells, are largely unexplored. Here, we provide a secretome analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ), with the aim of identifying secreted proteins in response to Cd toxicity. Proteins from control and spent media were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. Differentially-secreted proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis and database searching. We characterized, for the first time, the extracellular proteome changes of BEAS-2B dosed with Cd. Our results unveiled that Cd treatment led to the marked upregulation of molecular chaperones, antioxidant enzymes, enzymes associated with glutathione metabolic process, proteins involved in cellular energy metabolism, as well as tumor-suppressors. Pretreatment of cells with the thiol antioxidant glutathione before Cd treatment effectively abrogated the secretion of these proteins and prevented cell death. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Cd causes oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity; and the differentially-secreted protein signatures could be considered as targets for potential use as extracellular biomarkers upon Cd exposure. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Evaluation of Biological Toxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots with Different Coating Reagents according to Protein Expression of Engineering Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained from toxicity assessment of quantum dots (QDs can be used to establish guidelines for the application of QDs in bioimaging. This paper focused on the design of a novel method to evaluate the toxicity of CdTe QDs using engineering Escherichia coli as a model. The toxicity of mercaptoacetic acid (MPA, glutathione (GSH, and L-cysteine (Cys capped CdTe QDs was analyzed according to the heterologous protein expression in BL21/DE3, engineering Escherichia coli extensively used for protein expression. The results showed that the MPA-CdTe QDs had more serious toxicity than the other two kinds of CdTe QDs. The microscopic images and SEM micrographs further proved that both the proliferation and the protein expression of engineering Escherichia coli were inhibited after treatment with MPA-CdTe QDs. The proposed method is important to evaluate biological toxicity of both QDs and other nanoparticles.

  20. Modulation of protein fermentation does not affect fecal water toxicity: a randomized cross-over study in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Windey

    Full Text Available Protein fermentation results in production of metabolites such as ammonia, amines and indolic, phenolic and sulfur-containing compounds. In vitro studies suggest that these metabolites might be toxic. However, human and animal studies do not consistently support these findings. We modified protein fermentation in healthy subjects to assess the effects on colonic metabolism and parameters of gut health, and to identify metabolites associated with toxicity.After a 2-week run-in period with normal protein intake (NP, 20 healthy subjects followed an isocaloric high protein (HP and low protein (LP diet for 2 weeks in a cross-over design. Protein fermentation was estimated from urinary p-cresol excretion. Fecal metabolite profiles were analyzed using GC-MS and compared using cluster analysis. DGGE was used to analyze microbiota composition. Fecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were determined using the Comet assay and the WST-1-assay, respectively, and were related to the metabolite profiles.Dietary protein intake was significantly higher during the HP diet compared to the NP and LP diet. Urinary p-cresol excretion correlated positively with protein intake. Fecal water cytotoxicity correlated negatively with protein fermentation, while fecal water genotoxicity was not correlated with protein fermentation. Heptanal, 3-methyl-2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide and 2-propenyl ester of acetic acid are associated with genotoxicity and indole, 1-octanol, heptanal, 2,4-dithiapentane, allyl-isothiocyanate, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl-benzene, propionic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and decanoic acid with cytotoxicity.This study does not support a role of protein fermentation in gut toxicity. The identified metabolites can provide new insight into colonic health.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01280513.

  1. Differential protein expression of hepatic cells associated with MeHg exposure: deepening into the molecular mechanisms of toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuello, Susana; Madrid, Yolanda; Luque-Garcia, Jose L.; Camara, Carmen [Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Ramos, Sonia [Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MeHg toxicity and the way in which this molecule interacts with living organisms is a critical point since MeHg represents a well-known risk to ecosystems and human health. We used a quantitative proteomic approach based on stable isotopic labeling by amino acids in cell culture in combination with SDS-PAGE and nanoflow LC-ESI-LTQ for analyzing the differential protein expression of hepatic cells associated to MeHg exposure. Seventy-eight proteins were found de-regulated by more than 1.5-fold. We identified a number of proteins involved in different essential biological processes including apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular trafficking and energy production. Among these proteins, we found several molecules whose de-regulation has been already related to MeHg exposure, thus confirming the usefulness of our discovery approach, and new ones that helped to gain a deeper insight into the biomolecular mechanisms related to MeHg-induced toxicity. Overexpression of several HSPs and the proteasome 26S subunit itself showed the proteasome system as a molecular target of toxic MeHg. As for the interaction networks, the top ranked was the nucleic acid metabolism, where many of the identified de-regulated proteins are involved. (orig.)

  2. Toxic effect of visible light on Drosophila lifespan depending upon diet protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Zhu, Xiang; Gu, Yitian; Zhang, Chiqian; Huang, Jiahong; Qing, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the toxic effect of visible light on Drosophila lifespan in both sexes. The toxic effect of ultraviolet (UV) light on organisms is well known. However, the effects of illumination with visible light remain unclear. Here, we found that visible light could be toxic to Drosophila survival, depending on the protein content in diet. In addition, further analysis revealed significant interaction between light and sex, and showed that strong light shortened life span by causing opposite direction changes in mortality rate parameters in females versus males. Our findings suggest that photoageing may be a general phenomenon, and support the theory of sexual antagonistic pleiotropy in aging intervention. The results caution that exposure to visible light could be hazardous to life span and suggest that identification of the underlying mechanism would allow better understanding of aging intervention.

  3. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Massimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4 overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα. In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293 to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin.

  4. Disrupting self-assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic protein oligomers by "molecular tweezers" - from the test tube to animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aida; Bitan, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, therapy for diseases caused by abnormal protein folding and aggregation (amyloidoses) is limited to treatment of symptoms and provides only temporary and moderate relief to sufferers. The failure in developing successful disease-modifying drugs for amyloidoses stems from the nature of the targets for such drugs - primarily oligomers of amyloidogenic proteins, which are distinct from traditional targets, such as enzymes or receptors. The oligomers are metastable, do not have well-defined structures, and exist in dynamically changing mixtures. Therefore, inhibiting the formation and toxicity of these oligomers likely will require out-of-the-box thinking and novel strategies. We review here the development of a strategy based on targeting the combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that are key to the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins using lysine (K)-specific "molecular tweezers" (MTs). Our discussion includes a survey of the literature demonstrating the important role of K residues in the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins and the development of a lead MT derivative called CLR01, from an inhibitor of protein aggregation in vitro to a drug candidate showing effective amelioration of disease symptoms in animal models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  5. Toxic effects of zinc from trout farm sediments on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Tabche, L; Gutiérrez Cabrera, I; Gómez Oliván, L; Galar Martinez, M; Germán Faz, C

    2000-04-14

    Zinc (Zn) is a nutritionally essential metal, and deficiency results in severe health consequences to aquatic organisms. In this study toxicity data for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri produced by Zn in systems using three natural sediments (trout farms: El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero) are presented. Hemoglobin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and protein concentrations were measured in L. hoffmeisteri exposed to spiked sediments, as indicators of exposure. Physicochemical characteristics of water and sediments were also considered. Zn concentrations were measured in water and sediment. El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero pond sediments did not have similar physicochemical characteristics. Zn concentrations of water obtained from the rustic ponds were near 0.4575 mg/L; however, this metal was always found to be higher in the sediments (0.0271-0.9754 mg/kg). The bioassay with worms demonstrated that pond sediments from El Oyamel, El Potrero, and El Truchón produced toxicity since ATP and protein concentrations were low compared to controls (organisms without metal). All spiked sediments had a significant reduction effect on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations. This investigation clearly shows that sediments of El Truchón, El Oyamel, and El Potrero possess toxicity potential. These results suggest the usefulness of these bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of sediments polluted with heavy metals.

  6. Automation in airport security X-ray screening of cabin baggage: Examining benefits and possible implementations of automated explosives detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hättenschwiler, Nicole; Sterchi, Yanik; Mendes, Marcia; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2018-10-01

    Bomb attacks on civil aviation make detecting improvised explosive devices and explosive material in passenger baggage a major concern. In the last few years, explosive detection systems for cabin baggage screening (EDSCB) have become available. Although used by a number of airports, most countries have not yet implemented these systems on a wide scale. We investigated the benefits of EDSCB with two different levels of automation currently being discussed by regulators and airport operators: automation as a diagnostic aid with an on-screen alarm resolution by the airport security officer (screener) or EDSCB with an automated decision by the machine. The two experiments reported here tested and compared both scenarios and a condition without automation as baseline. Participants were screeners at two international airports who differed in both years of work experience and familiarity with automation aids. Results showed that experienced screeners were good at detecting improvised explosive devices even without EDSCB. EDSCB increased only their detection of bare explosives. In contrast, screeners with less experience (tenure automated decision provided better human-machine detection performance than on-screen alarm resolution and no automation. This came at the cost of slightly higher false alarm rates on the human-machine system level, which would still be acceptable from an operational point of view. Results indicate that a wide-scale implementation of EDSCB would increase the detection of explosives in passenger bags and automated decision instead of automation as diagnostic aid with on screen alarm resolution should be considered. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-Protein Adducts: Potential Non-invasive Biomarkers of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-Induced Liver Toxicity and Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Lin, Ge; Beland, Frederick A; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2016-08-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are phytochemicals present in hundreds of plant species from different families widely distributed in many geographical regions around the world. PA-containing plants are probably the most common type of poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. There have been many large-scale human poisonings caused by the consumption of food contaminated with toxic PAs. PAs require metabolic activation to generate pyrrolic metabolites to exert their toxicity. In this study, we developed a novel method to quantify pyrrole-protein adducts present in the blood. This method involves the use of AgNO3 in acidic ethanol to cleave the thiol linkage of pyrrole-protein (DHP-protein) adducts, and the resulting 7,9-di-C2H5O-DHP is quantified by HPLC-ES-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring analysis in the presence of a known quantity of isotopically labeled 7,9-di-C2D5O-DHP internal standard. Using this method, we determined that diester-type PAs administered to rats produced higher levels of DHP-protein adducts than other types of PAs. The results suggest that DHP-protein adducts can potentially serve as minimally invasive biomarkers of PA exposure.

  8. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D.; Davis, Jared H.; Gordon, Patricia B.; Breaker, Ronald R.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Although fluoride is plentiful in the environment and is commonly used at high concentrations in oral hygiene products, little has been known about how biological systems overcome the toxic effects of this anion. We demonstrate that a protein called FEX in many fungi is essential for cell survival in the presence of high fluoride concentrations. The protein is required for the rapid expulsion of cytoplasmic fluoride, indicating that many eukaryotic species that carry FEX genes likely avoid fl...

  9. Amyloid β-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

    2012-11-01

    The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of β-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the β-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of β-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust β-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid β-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-β peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, β2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, α-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

  10. An evaluation of a weightlifting belt and back injury prevention training class for airline baggage handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, C R; Congleton, J J; Dale Huchingson, R; Montgomery, J F

    1992-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a commercially available weightlifting belt in relation to reduction of lumbar injury incident rate and severity of injuries over an 8-month period. The study used 642 baggage handlers working for a major airline company as participants. Four treatment groups were randomly selected: a group receiving the belt only, a group receiving a 1 h training class only, a group receiving both a belt and a 1 h training class, and a control group receiving nothing. Two treatment groups were added which contained participants who discontinued use of the belt prior to the end of an 8-month study period. Results indicated that there were no significant differences for total lumbar injury incident rate, restricted workday case injury incident rate, lost workdays and restricted workdays rate, and worker's compensation rates. There was, however, a marginal significant difference for lost workday case injury incident rate. Groups with participants who wore the belt for a while then discontinued its use had a higher lost day case injury incident rate than did either the group receiving training only or the control group. Compliance was an overriding factor as the belt questionnaire response indicated that 58% of participants in the belt groups discontinued use of the belt before the end of 8 months. Comments made on the survey forms indicated that the belt was too hot. Similarly, comments suggested that the belt rubbed, pinched, and bruised ribs. Based on these results, the weightlifting belt used for this study cannot be recommended for use in aid of lifting during daily work activities of baggage handlers. Results indicate that use of the belts may, in fact, increase the risk of injury when not wearing a belt following a period of wearing a belt. As industries are experimenting with the use of belts, it is recommended that great care be taken in any further evaluation and close attention directed towards injuries which occur when not wearing the

  11. Toxicity and oxidative stress of different forms of organic selenium (Se) and dietary protein in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.; Heinz, G.; Eisemann, J.; Pendleton, G.

    1994-01-01

    High concentrations of Se have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Earlier studies have compared toxicities of Se as selenite and as seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards. This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L was the most toxic, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione with 30 ppm in the diet. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver. In a subsequent experiment with 30% dietary protein Se as L was less toxic.

  12. A fusion protein containing a lepidopteran-specific toxin from the South Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus and snowdrop lectin shows oral toxicity to target insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitches Elaine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence suggesting a role in plant defence, the use of plant lectins in crop protection has been hindered by their low and species-specific insecticidal activity. Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA is transported to the haemolymph of insects after oral ingestion, and can be used as a basis for novel insecticides. Recombinant proteins containing GNA expressed as a fusion with a peptide or protein, normally only toxic when injected into the insect haemolymph, have the potential to show oral toxicity as a result of GNA-mediated uptake. Results A gene encoding a toxin, ButaIT, from the red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus was synthesised and assembled into expression constructs. One construct contained ButaIT alone, whereas the other contained ButaIT fused N-terminally to a GNA polypeptide (ButaIT/GNA. Both recombinant proteins were produced using the yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression host, and purified. Recombinant ButaIT and ButaIT/GNA were acutely toxic when injected into larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea, causing slow paralysis, leading to mortality or decreased growth. ButaIT/GNA was chronically toxic when fed to L. oleracea larvae, causing decreased survival and weight gain under conditions where GNA alone was effectively non-toxic. Intact ButaIT/GNA was detected in larval haemolymph from insects fed the fusion protein orally, demonstrating transport of the linked polypeptide across the gut. Proteolysis of the fusion protein was also observed. ButaIT/GNA was significantly more toxic that GNA alone when fed to the homopteran Nilaparvata lugens (rice brown planthopper in liquid artificial diet. Conclusion The ButaIT/GNA recombinant fusion protein is toxic to lepidopteran larvae both when injected and when fed orally, showing the utility of GNA as a carrier to transport potentially toxic peptides and proteins across the insect gut. Although ButaIT has been claimed to be lepidopteran

  13. Protein aggregation in bacteria: the thin boundary between functionality and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Natalia G; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic; Van Eldere, Johan

    2013-09-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of proteins have a negative impact on all living organisms. In recent years, aggregation has been studied in detail due to its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, and type II diabetes--all associated with accumulation of amyloid fibrils. This research highlighted the central importance of protein homeostasis, or proteostasis for short, defined as the cellular state in which the proteome is both stable and functional. It implicates an equilibrium between synthesis, folding, trafficking, aggregation, disaggregation and degradation. In accordance with the eukaryotic systems, it has been documented that protein aggregation also reduces fitness of bacterial cells, but although our understanding of the cellular protein quality control systems is perhaps most detailed in bacteria, the use of bacterial proteostasis as a drug target remains little explored. Here we describe protein aggregation as a normal physiological process and its role in bacterial virulence and we shed light on how bacteria defend themselves against the toxic threat of aggregates. We review the impact of aggregates on bacterial viability and look at the ways that bacteria use to maintain a balance between aggregation and functionality. The proteostasis in bacteria can be interrupted via overexpression of proteins, certain antibiotics such as aminoglycosides, as well as antimicrobial peptides--all leading to loss of cell viability. Therefore intracellular protein aggregation and disruption of proteostatic balance in bacteria open up another strategy that should be explored towards the discovery of new antimicrobials.

  14. Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in response to acute boron deficiency and toxicity reveals effects on photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Mishra, Sasmita; Heckathorn, Scott A; Frantz, Jonathan M; Krause, Charles

    2014-02-15

    Boron (B) stress (deficiency and toxicity) is common in plants, but as the functions of this essential micronutrient are incompletely understood, so too are the effects of B stress. To investigate mechanisms underlying B stress, we examined protein profiles in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under normal B (30 μM), compared to plants transferred for 60 and 84 h (i.e., before and after initial visible symptoms) in deficient (0 μM) or toxic (3 mM) levels of B. B-responsive polypeptides were sequenced by mass spectrometry, following 2D gel electrophoresis, and 1D gels and immunoblotting were used to confirm the B-responsiveness of some of these proteins. Fourteen B-responsive proteins were identified, including: 9 chloroplast proteins, 6 proteins of photosynthetic/carbohydrate metabolism (rubisco activase, OEC23, photosystem I reaction center subunit II-1, ATPase δ-subunit, glycolate oxidase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase), 6 stress proteins, and 3 proteins involved in protein synthesis (note that the 14 proteins may fall into multiple categories). Most (8) of the B-responsive proteins decreased under both B deficiency and toxicity; only 3 increased with B stress. Boron stress decreased, or had no effect on, 3 of 4 oxidative stress proteins examined, and did not affect total protein. Hence, our results indicate relatively early specific effects of B stress on chloroplasts and protein synthesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioinformatics analysis to assess potential risks of allergenicity and toxicity of HRAP and PFLP proteins in genetically modified bananas resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuan; Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O; Lu, Mei; Tripathi, Leena

    2017-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease threatens banana production and food security throughout East Africa. Natural resistance is lacking among common cultivars. Genetically modified (GM) bananas resistant to BXW disease were developed by inserting the hypersensitive response-assisting protein (Hrap) or/and the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene(s) from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). Several of these GM banana events showed 100% resistance to BXW disease under field conditions in Uganda. The current study evaluated the potential allergenicity and toxicity of the expressed proteins HRAP and PFLP based on evaluation of published information on the history of safe use of the natural source of the proteins as well as established bioinformatics sequence comparison methods to known allergens (www.AllergenOnline.org and NCBI Protein) and toxins (NCBI Protein). The results did not identify potential risks of allergy and toxicity to either HRAP or PFLP proteins expressed in the GM bananas that might suggest potential health risks to humans. We recognize that additional tests including stability of these proteins in pepsin assay, nutrient analysis and possibly an acute rodent toxicity assay may be required by national regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Implementation of an ergonomics intervention in a Swedish flight baggage handling company-A process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, Eva L; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Larsson, Johan; Kwak, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    To conduct a process evaluation of the implementation of an ergonomics training program aimed at increasing the use of loading assist devices in flight baggage handling. Feasibility related to the process items recruitment, reach, context, dose delivered (training time and content); dose received (participants' engagement); satisfaction with training; intermediate outcomes (skills, confidence and behaviors); and barriers and facilitators of the training intervention were assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Implementation proved successful regarding dose delivered, dose received and satisfaction. Confidence among participants in the training program in using and talking about devices, observed use of devices among colleagues, and internal feedback on work behavior increased significantly (pjob insecurity. In identifying important barriers and facilitators for a successful outcome, this study can help supporting the effectiveness of future interventions. Our results suggest that barriers caused by organizational changes may likely be alleviated by recruiting motivated trainees and securing strong organizational support for the implementation.

  17. Recombinant Cry1Ia protein is highly toxic to cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, E S; Aguiar, R W D S; Martins, N F; Melatti, V M; Falcão, R; Gomes, A C M M; Ribeiro, B M; Monnerat, R G

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the activity of cry1Ia gene against cotton pests, Spodoptera frugiperda and Anthonomus grandis. Had isolated and characterized a toxin gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis S1451 strain which have been previously shown to be toxic to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. The toxin gene (cry1Ia) was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and cloned into the genome of a baculovirus. The Cry1Ia protein was expressed in baculovirus infected insect cells, producing protein inclusions in infected cells. The Cry1Ia protein has used in bioassays against to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. Bioassays using the purified recombinant protein showed high toxicity to S. frugiperda and A. grandis larvae. Molecular modelling of the Cry1Ia protein translated from the DNA sequence obtained in this work, showed that this protein possibly posses a similar structure to the Cry3A protein. Ultrastructural analysis of midgut cells from A. grandis incubated with the Cry1Ia toxin, showed loss of microvilli integrity. The results indicate that the cry1Ia is a good candidate for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to these important cotton pests.

  18. Toxic Effects of Fungicides (Penconazole and Triadimenol) on Growth and Protein Amount of Scenedesmus acutus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agirman, N.; Bedil, B.; Kendirlioglu, G.; Cetin, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effects of penconazole and triadimenol to protein amount and growth of the microalgae Scenedesmus acutus were investigated. The culture of S. acutus was exposed to dissimilar concentrations of penconazole and triadimenol (1, 3, 6, 10 and 15 meu g/L) in the climate chamber at 23 ± 1 degree C and 16:8 photoperiod. Cell numbers and growth rates in liquid cultures of S. acutus were calculated for a period of four days. The results indicated toxic effects of penconazole and triadimenol on growth and protein amount of S. acutus. The protein amount and cell number of S. acutus in cultures treated with penconazole and triadimenol were rapidly decreasing at second day. (author)

  19. Pulmonary heat shock protein expression after exposure to a metabolically activated Clara cell toxicant: relationship to protein adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kurt J.; Cruikshank, Michael K.; Plopper, Charles G.

    2003-01-01

    Heat shock proteins/stress proteins (Hsps) participate in regulation of protein synthesis and degradation and serve as general cytoprotectants, yet their role in lethal Clara cell injury is not clear. To define the pattern of Hsp expression in acute lethal Clara cell injury, mice were treated with the Clara cell-specific toxicant naphthalene (NA), and patterns of expression compared to electrophilic protein adduction and previously established organellar degradation and gluathione (GSH) depletion. In sites of lethal injury (distal bronchiole), prior to organellar degradation (1 h post-NA), protein adduction is detectable and ubiquitin, Hsp 25, Hsp 72, and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) are increased. Maximal Hsp expression, protein adduction, and GSH depletion occur simultaneous (by 2-3 h) with early organelle disruption. Hsp expression is higher later (6-24 h), only in exfoliating cells. In airway sites (proximal bronchiole) with nonlethal Clara cell injury elevation of Hsp 25, 72, and HO-1 expression follows significant GSH depletion (greater than 50% 2 h post-NA). This data build upon our previous studies and we conclude that (1) in lethal (terminal bronchiole) and nonlethal (proximal bronchiole) Clara cell injury, Hsp induction is associated with the loss of GSH and increased protein adduction, and (2) in these same sites, organelle disruption is not a prerequisite for Hsp induction

  20. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of nanogold conjugated snake venom protein toxin GNP-NKCT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on nanoparticles has created interest among the biomedical scientists. Nanoparticle conjugation aims to target drug delivery, increase drug efficacy and imaging for better diagnosis. Toxicity profile of the nanoconjugated molecules has not been studied well. In this communication, the toxicity profile of snake venom cytotoxin (NKCT1, an antileukemic protein toxin, was evaluated after its conjugation with gold nanoparticle (GNP-NKCT1. Gold nanoparticle conjugation with NKCT1 was done with NaBH4 reduction method. The conjugated product GNP-NKCT1 was found less toxic than NKCT1 on isolated rat lymphocyte, mice peritoneal macrophage, in culture, which was evident from the MTT/Trypan blue assay. Peritoneal mast cell degranulation was in the order of NKCT1 > GNP-NKCT1. The in vitro cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity were increased in case of NKCT1 than GNP-NKCT1. On isolated kidney tissue, NKCT1 released significant amount of ALP and γ-GT than GNP-NKCT1. Gold nanoconjugation with NKCT1 also reduced the lethal activity in mice. In vivo acute/sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice showed significant increase in molecular markers due to NKCT1 treatment, which was reduced by gold nanoconjugation. Histopathology study showed decreased toxic effect of NKCT1 in kidney tissue after GNP conjugation. The present study confirmed that GNP conjugation significantly decreased the toxicity profile of NKCT1. Further studies are in progress to establish the molecular mechanism of GNP induced toxicity reduction.

  1. Peculiarities of the free radical processes in rat liver mitochondria under toxic hepatitis on the background of alimentary protein deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Kopylchuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rate of superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, the level of oxidative modification of mitochondrial proteins in the liver of rats with toxic hepatitis was investigated on the background of alimentary protein deficiency. We did not find significant increases of the intensity of free radical processes in liver mitochondria of rats maintained on the protein-deficient ration. The most significant intensification of free radical processes in liver mitochondria is observed under the conditions of toxic hepatitis, induced on the background of alimentary protein deprivation. Under these conditions the aggravation of all studied forms of reactive oxygen species generation was observed in liver mitochondria. The generation rates were increased as follows: O2 – by 1.7 times, Н2О2 – by 1.5 times, •ОН – practically double on the background of accumulation of oxidized mitochondria-derived proteins. The established changes in thiol groups’ redox status of respiratory chain proteins insoluble in 0.05 M sodium-phosphate buffer (pH 11.5, and changes of their carbonyl derivatives content may be considered as one of the regulatory factors of mitochondrial energy-generating function.

  2. Delayed Toxicity Associated with Soluble Anthrax Toxin Receptor Decoy-Ig Fusion Protein Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Christopher; Welkos, Susan; Manchester, Marianne; Young, John A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Soluble receptor decoy inhibitors, including receptor-immunogloubulin (Ig) fusion proteins, have shown promise as candidate anthrax toxin therapeutics. These agents act by binding to the receptor-interaction site on the protective antigen (PA) toxin subunit, thereby blocking toxin binding to cell surface receptors. Here we have made the surprising observation that co-administration of receptor decoy-Ig fusion proteins significantly delayed, but did not protect, rats challenged with anthrax lethal toxin. The delayed toxicity was associated with the in vivo assembly of a long-lived complex comprised of anthrax lethal toxin and the receptor decoy-Ig inhibitor. Intoxication in this system presumably results from the slow dissociation of the toxin complex from the inhibitor following their prolonged circulation. We conclude that while receptor decoy-Ig proteins represent promising candidates for the early treatment of B. anthracis infection, they may not be suitable for therapeutic use at later stages when fatal levels of toxin have already accumulated in the bloodstream. PMID:22511955

  3. Protein alkylation, transcriptional responses and cytochrome c release during acrolein toxicity in A549 cells: influence of nucleophilic culture media constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Colin A; Burcham, Philip C

    2008-06-01

    Acrolein is a toxic combustion product that elicits apoptotic and/or necrotic cell death depending on the conditions under which exposure occurs. As a strong electrophile, side-reactions with nucleophilic media constituents seem likely to accompany study of its toxicity in vitro, but these reactions are poorly characterized. We have thus examined the effect of media composition on the toxicity of acrolein in A549 cells. Cells were exposed to acrolein in either Dulbecco's buffered saline (DBS) or F12 supplemented with various concentrations of fetal bovine serum. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay, while heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and cytoplasmic cytochrome c were measured as respective markers of transcriptional response and apoptosis. Protein damage was evaluated using the protein carbonyl assay. Compared to F12 media (with or without serum), maximal cell death as evaluated using the MTT assay, as well as adduction of intracellular proteins, occurred when cells were exposed to acrolein in DBS. In contrast, cytochrome c release was maximal in cells exposed to acrolein in serum-containing F12, conditions which inhibited protein modification and overt cell death. These findings highlight the need for careful attention to experimental conditions when conducting in vitro toxicological studies of reactive substances.

  4. Regulation of lead toxicity by heat shock protein 90 (daf-21) is affected by temperature in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunbiao; Xu, Songbai; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yanhui; Guo, Tai L

    2014-06-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, stress resistance can be regulated by dauer formation (daf) genes. In the present study, regulation of heavy metal lead (Pb) toxicity by the 90-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90; daf-21) was investigated in both wild-type C. elegans and daf-21/Hsp90 mutants by focusing on the effects of varied temperatures below (15°C) or above (25 and 30°C) the presumptive optimum growth temperature (20°C). More acute toxicity of Pb, indicated by the 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50), was observed in wild-type adults than in the daf-21 mutant adults at 15, 20 and 25°C; however, the daf-21 mutant adults showed more sensitivity at 30°C. Enhanced Pb sensitivity (e.g., decrease LC50) in both types of C. elegans was observed with both increased and decreased temperatures when compared to that at 20°C. Additional examined endpoints included time course of toxicity at LC50s, pharyngeal pumping, reproduction, life span, and Hsp90 expression. Collective results showed that temperatures both above and below 20°C exacerbated Pb toxicity, and that the protein level of daf-21/Hsp90 was one of the most sensitive indicators of Pb toxicity in wild-type C. elegans, while pharyngeal pumping was more Pb sensitive in daf-21 mutants. Therefore, the expression of daf-21/Hsp90 has apparent utility for the prediction and assessment of Pb-induced toxicity in nematodes. Further, the stress responses related to Hsp90 expression in C. elegans may have considerable potential as sensitive biomarkers for the monitoring of environmental Pb contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular and immunological characterization of gluten proteins isolated from oat cultivars that differ in toxicity for celiac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Real

    Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Traditionally, treatment with a GFD has excluded wheat, barley and rye, while the presence of oats is a subject of debate. The most-recent research indicates that some cultivars of oats can be a safe part of a GFD. In order to elucidate the toxicity of the prolamins from oat varieties with low, medium, and high CD toxicity, the avenin genes of these varieties were cloned and sequenced, and their expression quantified throughout the grain development. At the protein level, we have accomplished an exhaustive characterization and quantification of avenins by RP-HPLC and an analysis of immunogenicity of peptides present in prolamins of different oat cultivars. Avenin sequences were classified into three different groups, which have homology with S-rich prolamins of Triticeae. Avenin proteins presented a lower proline content than that of wheat gliadin; this may contribute to the low toxicity shown by oat avenins. The expression of avenin genes throughout the development stages has shown a pattern similar to that of prolamins of wheat and barley. RP-HPLC chromatograms showed protein peaks in the alcohol-soluble and reduced-soluble fractions. Therefore, oat grains had both monomeric and polymeric avenins, termed in this paper gliadin- and glutenin-like avenins. We found a direct correlation between the immunogenicity of the different oat varieties and the presence of the specific peptides with a higher/lower potential immunotoxicity. The specific peptides from the oat variety with the highest toxicity have shown a higher potential immunotoxicity. These results suggest that there is wide range of variation of potential immunotoxicity of oat cultivars that could be due to differences in the degree of immunogenicity in their sequences.

  6. Nuclear resonance absorption (NRA): method and application to detection of contraband in a baggage, cargo and vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, M.B.; Vartsky, D.; Engler, G.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear Resonance Absorption (NRA) has played a prominent role in nuclear spectroscopy for almost 5 decades, but found only few and marginal applications outside the laboratory before 1985. In that year the situation changed markedly when scientists from this laboratory proposed to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the U.S. to study its suitability for detecting explosives in passenger baggage via nitrogen-specific radiographic imaging (explosives, as a category, have inordinately high nitrogen densities). Following a basic feasibility study and the first laboratory demonstration of explosives detection in 1989, this project has attained the stage of a pre-industrial prototype that exhibited excellent performance characteristics in a 1993 blind test conducted by the FAA. In terms of NRA operational system concept, data taking methodology, development of dedicated detectors and image analysis algorithms, the Soreq group has made a major, if not exclusive, contribution over the years. (authors)

  7. Formation of toxic peptides in irradiated rats and binding thereof with blood serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomatin, V.V.; Efimenko, G.P.; Lifshits, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    Whole-body γ-irradiation of rats with a dose of 9.0 Gy caused a 1.5-fold and a 5-fold increase in excretion of bas peptides (molecular mass of 500-2000) in urea on the 2nd and 5th postirradiation days, respectively. These peptides possessed toxic activity and ability to form complexes with macroglobulins, immunoglobulins, and blood serum albumins, in particular. Irradiation decreased binding ability of serum proteins, and preliminary washing thereof by ultrafiltration increased it

  8. Development and Preliminary Assessment of Hemoperfusion Cartridge with Tannic Acid for Toxic Proteins' Precipitation: An In Vitro Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Miwa Hanai Yoshida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP is one of the extracorporeal removal techniques that are used to remove toxins from the body. CHP generally is considered the preferred method for extracorporeal extraction of several toxins—toxins that are adsorbed by activated charcoal. Assessments of the tannic acid's protective effects on ophidian poisoning are associated with the toxic proteins' precipitation by tannic acid. The challenge in treating a snakebite lies in removing the injected poison with minimal damage to blood constituent proteins. An alternative is CHP, and this investigation proposed to develop a column for hemoperfuser cartridge, combining charcoal granules trapped between layers of polymeric material conjugated to tannic acid, using an in vitro model scaled to the Wistar rat, which can be tested in an animal model. The cartridge was evaluated using the 22 full factorial design, in duplicate, as a method to study the effects of granulated-charcoal size and tannic acid concentration on the hematologic profile (platelet and leukocyte counts and biochemical profile (total serum protein and albumin dosages of sheep blood. The results demonstrate that charcoal in hemoperfuser cartridge: (1 decreases the serum in sheep blood volume, as consequence, (2 increases the serum proteins' concentration, and (iii exerts slight influence on albumin. The inclusion of tannic acid in hemoperfuser column precipitates some of serum proteins and albumin, decreasing their concentrations in the plasma serum. In conclusion, based on these effects we can suggest the use of 0.02 g tannic acid concentration and 8–20 mesh granulated charcoal in hemoperfuser cartridge for precipitating toxic proteins from snake venoms.

  9. A systems-level approach for investigating organophosphorus pesticide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingbo; Wang, Jing; Ding, Yan; Liu, Baoyue; Xiao, Wei

    2018-03-01

    The full understanding of the single and joint toxicity of a variety of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is still unavailable, because of the extreme complex mechanism of action. This study established a systems-level approach based on systems toxicology to investigate OP pesticide toxicity by incorporating ADME/T properties, protein prediction, and network and pathway analysis. The results showed that most OP pesticides are highly toxic according to the ADME/T parameters, and can interact with significant receptor proteins to cooperatively lead to various diseases by the established OP pesticide -protein and protein-disease networks. Furthermore, the studies that multiple OP pesticides potentially act on the same receptor proteins and/or the functionally diverse proteins explained that multiple OP pesticides could mutually enhance toxicological synergy or additive on a molecular/systematic level. To the end, the integrated pathways revealed the mechanism of toxicity of the interaction of OP pesticides and elucidated the pathogenesis induced by OP pesticides. This study demonstrates a systems-level approach for investigating OP pesticide toxicity that can be further applied to risk assessments of various toxins, which is of significant interest to food security and environmental protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of benchmark dose modeling to protein expression data in the development and analysis of mode of action/adverse outcome pathways for testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Meek, M E Bette; Yauk, Carole Lyn

    2014-11-01

    Reliable quantification of gene and protein expression has potential to contribute significantly to the characterization of hypothesized modes of action (MOA) or adverse outcome pathways for critical effects of toxicants. Quantitative analysis of gene expression by benchmark dose (BMD) modeling has been facilitated by the development of effective software tools. In contrast, protein expression is still generally quantified by a less robust effect level (no or lowest [adverse] effect levels) approach, which minimizes its potential utility in the consideration of dose-response and temporal concordance for key events in hypothesized MOAs. BMD modeling is applied here to toxicological data on testicular toxicity to investigate its potential utility in analyzing protein expression relevant to the proposed MOA to inform human health risk assessment. The results illustrate how the BMD analysis of protein expression in animal tissues in response to toxicant exposure: (1) complements other toxicity data, and (2) contributes to consideration of the empirical concordance of dose-response relationships, as part of the weight of evidence for hypothesized MOAs to facilitate consideration and application in regulatory risk assessment. Lack of BMD analysis in proteomics has likely limited its use for these purposes. This paper illustrates the added value of BMD modeling to support and strengthen hypothetical MOAs as a basis to facilitate the translation and uptake of the results of proteomic research into risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Applied Toxicology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cellulose/soy protein isolate composite membranes: evaluations of in vitro cytocompatibility with Schwann cells and in vivo toxicity to animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lihua; Gong, Wenrong; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Lin; Li, Daokun; Huselstein, Celine; Wang, Xiong; He, Xiaohua; Li, Yinping; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro cytocompatibility of cellulose/soy protein isolate composite membranes (CSM) with Schwann cells and in vivo toxicity to animals. A series of cellulose/soy protein isolate composite membranes (CSM) were prepared by blending, solution casting and coagulation process. The cytocompatibility of the CSM to Schwann cells were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and by direct cells culture of Schwann cells on the surfaces of the CSM, respectively. The in vivo toxicity of the CSM to animals were also evaluated by acute toxicity testing, skin sensitization testing, pyrogen testing and intracutaneous stimulation testing, respectively, according to the ISO 10993 standard. The MTT assay showed that the cell viability of Schwann cells cultured in extracts from the CSM was higher than that from the neat cellulose membrane without containing SPI component. The direct cells culture indicated that the Schwann cells could attach and grow well on the surface of the CSM and the incorporation of SPI into cellulose contributed to improvement of cell adhesion and proliferation. The evaluations of in vivo biological safety suggested that the CSM showed no acute toxicity, no skin sensitization and no intracutaneous stimulation to the experimental animals. The CSM had in vitro cytocompatibility with Schwann cells and biological safety to animals, suggesting potential for the applications as nerve conduit for the repair of nerve defect.

  12. Implementation of an ergonomics intervention in a Swedish flight baggage handling company—A process evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Larsson, Johan; Kwak, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    Objective To conduct a process evaluation of the implementation of an ergonomics training program aimed at increasing the use of loading assist devices in flight baggage handling. Methods Feasibility related to the process items recruitment, reach, context, dose delivered (training time and content); dose received (participants’ engagement); satisfaction with training; intermediate outcomes (skills, confidence and behaviors); and barriers and facilitators of the training intervention were assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Results Implementation proved successful regarding dose delivered, dose received and satisfaction. Confidence among participants in the training program in using and talking about devices, observed use of devices among colleagues, and internal feedback on work behavior increased significantly (p<0.01). Main facilitators were self-efficacy, motivation, and perceived utility of training among the trainees. Barriers included lack of peer support, opportunities to observe and practice behaviors, and follow-up activities; as well as staff reduction and job insecurity. Conclusions In identifying important barriers and facilitators for a successful outcome, this study can help supporting the effectiveness of future interventions. Our results suggest that barriers caused by organizational changes may likely be alleviated by recruiting motivated trainees and securing strong organizational support for the implementation. PMID:29513671

  13. The neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NANT blocks acetaminophen toxicity and protein nitration in freshly isolated hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sudip; Melnyk, Stepan B; Krager, Kimberly J; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Letzig, Lynda G; James, Laura P; Hinson, Jack A

    2015-12-01

    3-Nitrotyrosine (3NT) in liver proteins of mice treated with hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen (APAP) has been postulated to be causative in toxicity. Nitration is by a reactive nitrogen species formed from nitric oxide (NO). The source of the NO is unclear. iNOS knockout mice were previously found to be equally susceptible to APAP toxicity as wildtype mice and iNOS inhibitors did not decrease toxicity in mice or in hepatocytes. In this work we examined the potential role of nNOS in APAP toxicity in hepatocytes using the specific nNOS inhibitor NANT (10 µM)(N-[(4S)-4-amino-5-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]pentyl]-N'-nitroguanidinetris (trifluoroacetate)). Primary hepatocytes (1 million/ml) from male B6C3F1 mice were incubated with APAP (1mM). Cells were removed and assayed spectrofluorometrically for reactive nitrogen and oxygen species using diaminofluorescein (DAF) and Mitosox red, respectively. Cytotoxicity was determined by LDH release into media. Glutathione (GSH, GSSG), 3NT, GSNO, acetaminophen-cysteine adducts, NAD, and NADH were measured by HPLC. APAP significantly increased cytotoxicity at 1.5-3.0 h. The increase was blocked by NANT. NANT did not alter APAP mediated GSH depletion or acetaminophen-cysteine adducts in proteins which indicated that NANT did not inhibit metabolism. APAP significantly increased spectroflurometric evidence of reactive nitrogen and oxygen formation at 0.5 and 1.0 h, respectively, and increased 3NT and GSNO at 1.5-3.0 h. These increases were blocked by NANT. APAP dramatically increased NADH from 0.5-3.0 h and this increase was blocked by NANT. Also, APAP decreased the Oxygen Consumption Rate (OCR), decreased ATP production, and caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which were all blocked by NANT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein-protein interaction networks identify targets which rescue the MPP+ cellular model of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Harriet; Ryan, Brent J.; Jackson, Brendan; Whitmore, Alan; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are complex multifactorial disorders characterised by the interplay of many dysregulated physiological processes. As an exemplar, Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves multiple perturbed cellular functions, including mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation in preferentially-sensitive dopamine neurons, a selective pathophysiology recapitulated in vitro using the neurotoxin MPP+. Here we explore a network science approach for the selection of therapeutic protein targets in the cellular MPP+ model. We hypothesised that analysis of protein-protein interaction networks modelling MPP+ toxicity could identify proteins critical for mediating MPP+ toxicity. Analysis of protein-protein interaction networks constructed to model the interplay of mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation (key aspects of MPP+ toxicity) enabled us to identify four proteins predicted to be key for MPP+ toxicity (P62, GABARAP, GBRL1 and GBRL2). Combined, but not individual, knockdown of these proteins increased cellular susceptibility to MPP+ toxicity. Conversely, combined, but not individual, over-expression of the network targets provided rescue of MPP+ toxicity associated with the formation of autophagosome-like structures. We also found that modulation of two distinct proteins in the protein-protein interaction network was necessary and sufficient to mitigate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings validate our network science approach to multi-target identification in complex neurological diseases.

  15. Signal peptide of eosinophil cationic protein is toxic to cells lacking signal peptide peptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-M.; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a toxin secreted by activated human eosinophils. The properties of mature ECP have been well studied but those of the signal peptide of ECP (ECPsp) are not clear. In this study, several chimeric proteins containing N-terminal fusion of ECPsp were generated, and introduced into Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris, and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 to study the function of ECPsp. We found that expression of ECPsp chimeric proteins inhibited the growth of E. coli and P. pastoris but not A431 cells. Primary sequence analysis and in vitro transcription/translation of ECPsp have revealed that it is a potential substrate for human signal peptide peptidase (hSPP), an intramembrane protease located in endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, knockdown of the hSPP mRNA expression in ECPsp-eGFP/A431 cells caused the growth inhibitory effect, whereas complementally expression of hSPP in P. pastoris system rescued the cell growth. Taken together, we have demonstrated that ECPsp is a toxic signal peptide, and expression of hSPP protects the cells from growth inhibition

  16. High concentrations of protein test substances may have non-toxic effects on Daphnia magna: implications for regulatory study designs and ecological risk assessments for GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Burns, Andrea; Hamer, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory testing for possible adverse effects of insecticidal proteins on non-target organisms (NTOs) is an important part of many ecological risk assessments for regulatory decision-making about the cultivation of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops. To increase confidence in the risk assessments, regulatory guidelines for effects testing specify that representative surrogate species for NTOs are exposed to concentrations of insecticidal proteins that are in excess of worst-case predicted exposures in the field. High concentrations in effects tests are achieved by using protein test substances produced in microbes, such as Escherichia coli. In a study that exposed Daphnia magna to a single high concentration of a microbial test substance containing Vip3Aa20, the insecticidal protein in MIR162 maize, small reductions in growth were observed. These effects were surprising as many other studies strongly suggest that the activity of Vip3Aa20 is limited to Lepidoptera. A plausible explanation for the effect on growth is that high concentrations of test substance have a non-toxic effect on Daphnia, perhaps by reducing its feeding rate. A follow-up study tested that hypothesis by exposing D. magna to several concentrations of Vip3Aa20, and a high concentration of a non-toxic protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Vip3Aa20 and BSA had sporadic effects on the reproduction and growth of D. magna. The pattern of the effects suggests that they result from non-toxic effects of high concentrations of protein, and not from toxicity. The implications of these results for regulatory NTO effects testing and ERA of IRGM crops are discussed.

  17. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z A; Smith, L M

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  18. Molecular toxicity mechanism of nanosilver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle McShan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver is an ancient antibiotic that has found many new uses due to its unique properties on the nanoscale. Due to its presence in many consumer products, the toxicity of nanosilver has become a hot topic. This review summarizes recent advances, particularly the molecular mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. The surface of nanosilver can easily be oxidized by O2 and other molecules in the environmental and biological systems leading to the release of Ag+, a known toxic ion. Therefore, nanosilver toxicity is closely related to the release of Ag+. In fact, it is difficult to determine what portion of the toxicity is from the nano-form and what is from the ionic form. The surface oxidation rate is closely related to the nanosilver surface coating, coexisting molecules, especially thiol-containing compounds, lighting conditions, and the interaction of nanosilver with nucleic acids, lipid molecules, and proteins in a biological system. Nanosilver has been shown to penetrate the cell and become internalized. Thus, nanosilver often acts as a source of Ag+ inside the cell. One of the main mechanisms of toxicity is that it causes oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species and causes damage to cellular components including DNA damage, activation of antioxidant enzymes, depletion of antioxidant molecules (e.g., glutathione, binding and disabling of proteins, and damage to the cell membrane. Several major questions remain to be answered: (1 the toxic contribution from the ionic form versus the nano-form; (2 key enzymes and signaling pathways responsible for the toxicity; and (3 effect of coexisting molecules on the toxicity and its relationship to surface coating.

  19. C9orf72 poly GA RAN-translated protein plays a key role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis via aggregation and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn-Bok; Baskaran, Pranetha; Gomez-Deza, Jorge; Chen, Han-Jou; Nishimura, Agnes L; Smith, Bradley N; Troakes, Claire; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Stepto, Alan; Petrucelli, Leonard; Gallo, Jean-Marc; Hirth, Frank; Rogelj, Boris; Guthrie, Sarah; Shaw, Christopher E

    2017-12-15

    An intronic GGGGCC (G4C2) hexanucleotide repeat expansion inC9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD). Repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation of G4C2 RNA can result in five different dipeptide repeat proteins (DPR: poly GA, poly GP, poly GR, poly PA, and poly PR), which aggregate into neuronal cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions in affected patients, however their contribution to disease pathogenesis remains controversial. We show that among the DPR proteins, expression of poly GA in a cell culture model activates programmed cell death and TDP-43 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Dual expression of poly GA together with other DPRs revealed that poly GP and poly PA are sequestered by poly GA, whereas poly GR and poly PR are rarely co-localised with poly GA. Dual expression of poly GA and poly PA ameliorated poly GA toxicity by inhibiting poly GA aggregation both in vitro and in vivo in the chick embryonic spinal cord. Expression of alternative codon-derived DPRs in chick embryonic spinal cord confirmed in vitro data, revealing that each of the dipeptides caused toxicity, with poly GA being the most toxic. Further, in vivo expression of G4C2 repeats of varying length caused apoptotic cell death, but failed to generate DPRs. Together, these data demonstrate that C9-related toxicity can be mediated by either RNA or DPRs. Moreover, our findings provide evidence that poly GA is a key mediator of cytotoxicity and that cross-talk between DPR proteins likely modifies their pathogenic status in C9ALS/FTD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recombinant heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1) protects against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Olmedo, Daiana G; Biaggio, Veronica S; Koumbadinga, Geremy A; Gómez, Nidia N; Shi, Chunhua; Ciocca, Daniel R; Batulan, Zarah; Fanelli, Mariel A; O'Brien, Edward R

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogen with several well-described toxicological effects in humans, but its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Overexpression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1)-a multifunctional protein chaperone-has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage and apoptosis triggered by Cd exposure. The aims of this work were to investigate the potential use of extracellular recombinant HSP27 to prevent/counteract Cd-induced cellular toxicity and to evaluate if peroxynitrite was involved in the development of Cd-induced toxicity. Here, we report that the harmful effects of Cd correlated with changes in oxidative stress markers: upregulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, increment in lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite (PN), and protein nitration; intracellular HSP27 was reduced. Treatments with Cd (100 μM) for 24 h or with the peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1, decreased HSP27 levels (~50%), suggesting that PN formation is responsible for the reduction of HSP27. Pre-treatments of the cells either with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (a pharmacological inhibitor of NO synthase) or with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) attenuated the disruption of the cellular metabolism induced by Cd, increasing in a 55 and 52%, respectively, the cell viability measured by CCK-8. Cd induced necrotic cell death pathways, although apoptosis was also activated; pre-treatment with L-NAME or rHSP27 mitigated cell death. Our findings show for the first time a direct relationship between Cd-induced toxicity and PN production and a role for rHSP27 as a potential therapeutic agent that may counteract Cd toxicity.

  2. Rapid simulation of X-ray transmission imaging for baggage inspection via GPU-based ray-tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Stoian, Razvan-Ionut; Coccarelli, David S.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Vera, Esteban; Gehm, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    We present a pipeline that rapidly simulates X-ray transmission imaging for arbitrary system architectures using GPU-based ray-tracing techniques. The purpose of the pipeline is to enable statistical analysis of threat detection in the context of airline baggage inspection. As a faster alternative to Monte Carlo methods, we adopt a deterministic approach for simulating photoelectric absorption-based imaging. The highly-optimized NVIDIA OptiX API is used to implement ray-tracing, greatly speeding code execution. In addition, we implement the first hierarchical representation structure to determine the interaction path length of rays traversing heterogeneous media described by layered polygons. The accuracy of the pipeline has been validated by comparing simulated data with experimental data collected using a heterogenous phantom and a laboratory X-ray imaging system. On a single computer, our approach allows us to generate over 400 2D transmission projections (125 × 125 pixels per frame) per hour for a bag packed with hundreds of everyday objects. By implementing our approach on cloud-based GPU computing platforms, we find that the same 2D projections of approximately 3.9 million bags can be obtained in a single day using 400 GPU instances, at a cost of only 0.001 per bag.

  3. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  4. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  5. Toxic compound, anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of protein isolated from detoxified Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Donlaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-12-28

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  6. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Hinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available High doses of acetaminophen (APAP result in hepatotoxicity that involves metabolic activation of the parent compound, covalent binding of the reactive intermediate N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI to liver proteins, and depletion of hepatic glutathione. Impaired fatty acid β-oxidation has been implicated in previous studies of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To better understand relationships between toxicity and fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver in APAP toxicity, metabolomic assays for long chain acylcarnitines were examined in relationship to established markers of liver toxicity, oxidative metabolism, and liver regeneration in a time course study in mice. Male B6C3F1 mice were treated with APAP (200 mg/kg IP or saline and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 or 48 h after APAP. At 1 h, hepatic glutathione was depleted and APAP protein adducts were markedly increased. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels were elevated at 4 and 8 h, while proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression, indicative of hepatocyte regeneration, was apparent at 24 h and 48 h. Elevations of palmitoyl, oleoyl and myristoyl carnitine were apparent by 2–4 h, concurrent with the onset of Oil Red O staining in liver sections. By 8 h, acylcarnitine levels were below baseline levels and remained low at 24 and 48 h. A partial least squares (PLS model suggested a direct association of acylcarnitine accumulation in serum to APAP protein adduct and hepatic glutathione levels in mice. Overall, the kinetics of serum acylcarnitines in APAP toxicity in mice followed a biphasic pattern involving early elevation after the metabolism phases of toxicity and later depletion of acylcarnitines.

  7. The putative multidrug resistance protein MRP-7 inhibits methylmercury-associated animal toxicity and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDuyn, Natalia; Nass, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative motor disorder worldwide, and results in the progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Gene-environment interactions are believed to play a significant role in the vast majority of PD cases, yet the toxicants and the associated genes involved in the neuropathology are largely ill-defined. Recent epidemiological and biochemical evidence suggests that methylmercury (MeHg) may be an environmental toxicant that contributes to the development of PD. Here, we report that a gene coding for the putative multidrug resistance protein MRP-7 in Caenorhabditis elegans modulates whole animal and DA neuron sensitivity to MeHg. In this study, we demonstrate that genetic knockdown of MRP-7 results in a twofold increase in Hg levels and a dramatic increase in stress response proteins associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, and mitochondria, as well as an increase in MeHg-associated animal death. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of MeHg induces MRP-7 gene expression, while exposures in MRP-7 genetic knockdown animals results in a loss of DA neuron integrity without affecting whole animal viability. Furthermore, transgenic animals expressing a fluorescent reporter behind the endogenous MRP-7 promoter indicate that the transporter is expressed in DA neurons. These studies show for the first time that a multidrug resistance protein is expressed in DA neurons, and its expression inhibits MeHg-associated DA neuron pathology. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. [Elimination of toxic compounds, biological evaluation and partial characterization of the protein from jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Juárez, L A; Trejo González, A

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a new methodology to remove the toxic compounds present in jojoba meal and flour. Also, to perform the biological evaluation of the detoxified products and to chemically characterize the protein fractions. Jojoba meal and seed without testa were deffated with hexane and detoxified with a 7:3 isopropanol-water mixture which removed 86% of total phenolic compounds and 100% of simmondsins originally present, the resulting products had reduced bitterness and caused no deaths on experimental animals. NPR values obtained for diets containing such products were significantly different from those obtained with the casein control (p less than 0.05). Total protein was made up of three different fractions: the water-soluble fraction was the most abundant (61.8%), followed by the salt-soluble (23.6%), and the alkaline soluble fraction (14.6%). The nitrogen solubility curves showed that the isoelectric point for the water-soluble and salt-soluble fractions was pH 3.0, while that of the alkaline fraction fell in the range of 4.5-5.0. All fractions had a maximum solubility at pH 7.0. The methodology reported here, offers a viable solution to eliminate toxic compounds from jojoba meal or seeds, and upgrades the potential use of products such as animal feed or raw material for the production of protein isolates.

  9. Nitrotyrosine formation in splenic toxicity of aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Firoze; Wu Xiaohong; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Splenic toxicity of aniline is characterized by vascular congestion, hyperplasia, fibrosis and development of a variety of sarcomas in rats. However, the mechanisms of this selective splenic toxicity are not well understood. Previously we showed that aniline exposure causes oxidative damage to spleen. To further explore the oxidative mechanisms of aniline toxicity, we evaluated the contributions of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide reacts with superoxide anion to form peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidant that converts the tyrosine residues of proteins to nitrotyrosine (NT). Therefore, aim of this study was to establish the role of nitric oxide through the formation and localization of NT in the spleen of rats exposed to aniline. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given 1 mmol/kg per day aniline hydrochloride in water by gavage for 7 days, while the controls received water only. Immunohistochemical analysis for NT showed an intense staining in the red pulp areas of spleen from aniline-treated rats, localized in macrophages and sinusoidal cells. Occasionally mild NT immunostaining was also evident in the white pulp. Western blot analyses of the post-nuclear fraction of the spleens showed major nitrated proteins with molecular weights of 49, 30 and 18 kDa. Immunohistochemical analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) also showed increased expression in the red pulp of the spleens from aniline-treated rats; the cellular localization was similar to nitrated proteins. These studies suggest that oxidative stress in aniline toxicity also includes aberration in nitric oxide production leading to nitration of proteins. Functional consequences of such nitration will further elucidate the contribution of nitric oxide to the splenic toxicity of aniline

  10. Acclimation-induced changes in toxicity and induction of metallothionein-like proteins in the fathead minnow following sublethal exposure to cobalt, silver, and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Increases in tolerance and resistance to metal toxicity by aquatic organisms have been linked to elevated levels of low-molecular-weight metal-binding proteins (e.g., metallothioneins). Acclimation-induced changes in toxic response and the concentration of metallothionein-like proteins (MTP) were studied in laboratory populations of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, following sublethal exposure to Co, Ag, and Zn. Following 7 and 14 days of sublethal exposure, tolerance and resistance, as measured by acute toxicity values, were altered in a dose dependent fashion. Acute toxicity values returned to control levels after 21 days of continuous exposure. Tolerance and resistance of Co- and Zn-acclimated animals were depressed after a 7-day post-acclimation period in control water. Tolerance and resistance of Ag-acclimated animals were temporarily enhanced after 7 days post-acclimation and returned to control levels after 14 days. Accumulation of Co, Ag, and Zn measured as wholebody residues appeared to be regulated in 4 of 6 exposure regimes with residues reaching stable levels after 7 to 14 days of exposure. MTP was induced by exposure to 1.8 mg Zn/L and 0.01 mg Ag/L, however, no sustained (i.e., post 21 days) tolerance or resistance were observed at these dose levels indicating that these two biological responses may not be directly related

  11. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic

  12. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya, Rama [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic.

  13. Machine learning can differentiate venom toxins from other proteins having non-toxic physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Gacesa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ascribing function to sequence in the absence of biological data is an ongoing challenge in bioinformatics. Differentiating the toxins of venomous animals from homologues having other physiological functions is particularly problematic as there are no universally accepted methods by which to attribute toxin function using sequence data alone. Bioinformatics tools that do exist are difficult to implement for researchers with little bioinformatics training. Here we announce a machine learning tool called ‘ToxClassifier’ that enables simple and consistent discrimination of toxins from non-toxin sequences with >99% accuracy and compare it to commonly used toxin annotation methods. ‘ToxClassifer’ also reports the best-hit annotation allowing placement of a toxin into the most appropriate toxin protein family, or relates it to a non-toxic protein having the closest homology, giving enhanced curation of existing biological databases and new venomics projects. ‘ToxClassifier’ is available for free, either to download (https://github.com/rgacesa/ToxClassifier or to use on a web-based server (http://bioserv7.bioinfo.pbf.hr/ToxClassifier/.

  14. Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, R; Prasad, R; Palinal, V K; Chopra, R K

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs. The kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in the cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.

  15. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Worapot Suntornsuk; Donlaporn Saetae

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The ob...

  16. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura James

    Full Text Available Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001, glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001. Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Microcystin Toxicity in Animal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MC are potent hepatotoxins produced by the cyanobacteria of the genera Planktothrix, Microcystis, Aphanizomenon, Nostoc and Anabaena. These cyclic heptapeptides have strong affinity to serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs thereby acting as an inhibitor of this group of enzymes. Through this interaction a cascade of events responsible for the MC cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in animal cells may take place. Moreover MC induces oxidative stress in animal cells and together with the inhibition of PPs, this pathway is considered to be one of the main mechanisms of MC toxicity. In recent years new insights on the key enzymes involved in the signal-transduction and toxicity have been reported demonstrating the complexity of the interaction of these toxins with animal cells. Key proteins involved in MC up-take, biotransformation and excretion have been identified, demonstrating the ability of aquatic animals to metabolize and excrete the toxin. MC have shown to interact with the mitochondria. The consequences are the dysfunction of the organelle, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell apoptosis. MC activity leads to the differential expression/activity of transcriptional factors and protein kinases involved in the pathways of cellular differentiation, proliferation and tumor promotion activity. This activity may result from the direct inhibition of the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A. This review aims to summarize the increasing data regarding the molecular mechanisms of MC toxicity in animal systems, reporting for direct MC interacting proteins and key enzymes in the process of toxicity biotransformation/excretion of these cyclic peptides.

  18. Heavy metal toxicity and iron chlorosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeKock, P C

    1956-01-01

    The toxicity of copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, chromium, and manganese to mustard was studied in water culture, utilizing either the ionic form or the EDTA chelate of the metal in the presence of either ferric chloride or ferric EDTA. In presence of ferric chloride the activity of the metals in producing chlorosis was as given above, i.e. in the order of stability of their chelates. In the presence of ferric versenate, toxicity of the ionic metal was much reduced. The metal chelates gave very little indication of toxicity with either form of iron. It was found that the ratio of total phosphorus to total iron was higher in chlorotic plants than in green plants, irrespective of which metal was causing the toxicity. Copper could be demonstrated in the phloem cells of the root using biscyclohexanone-oxalydihydrazone as histochemical reagent. It is postulated that transport of iron probably takes place in the phloem as an active process. It would appear that as a major part of the iron in plant cells is attached to nucleo- or phospho-proteins, the heavy metals must be similarly attached to phospho-proteins.

  19. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  20. Why are Functional Amyloids Non-Toxic in Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Jackson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids were first identified in association with amyloidoses, human diseases in which proteins and peptides misfold into amyloid fibrils. Subsequent studies have identified an array of functional amyloid fibrils that perform physiological roles in humans. Given the potential for the production of toxic species in amyloid assembly reactions, it is remarkable that cells can produce these functional amyloids without suffering any obvious ill effect. Although the precise mechanisms are unclear, there are a number of ways in which amyloid toxicity may be prevented. These include regulating the level of the amyloidogenic peptides and proteins, minimising the production of prefibrillar oligomers in amyloid assembly reactions, sequestrating amyloids within membrane bound organelles, controlling amyloid assembly by other molecules, and disassembling the fibrils under physiological conditions. Crucially, a better understanding of how toxicity is avoided in the production of functional amyloids may provide insights into the prevention of amyloid toxicity in amyloidoses.

  1. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Acute lymphoid and gastrointestinal toxicity induced by selective p38alpha map kinase and map kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2) inhibitors in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Dale L; O'Neil, Shawn P; Devraj, Rajesh V; Portanova, Joseph P; Gilles, Richard W; Gross, Cindy J; Curtiss, Sandra W; Komocsar, Wendy J; Garner, Debra S; Happa, Fernando A; Kraus, Lori J; Nikula, Kristen J; Monahan, Joseph B; Selness, Shaun R; Galluppi, Gerald R; Shevlin, Kimberly M; Kramer, Jeffrey A; Walker, John K; Messing, Dean M; Anderson, David R; Mourey, Robert J; Whiteley, Laurence O; Daniels, John S; Yang, Jerry Z; Rowlands, Philip C; Alden, Carl L; Davis, John W; Sagartz, John E

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to moderately selective p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors in the Beagle dog results in an acute toxicity consisting of mild clinical signs (decreased activity, diarrhea, and fever), lymphoid necrosis and depletion in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen, and linear colonic and cecal mucosal hemorrhages. Lymphocyte apoptosis and necrosis in the GALT is the earliest and most prominent histopathologic change observed, followed temporally by neutrophilic infiltration and acute inflammation of the lymph nodes and spleen and multifocal mucosal epithelial necrosis and linear hemorrhages in the colon and cecum. These effects are not observed in the mouse, rat, or cynomolgus monkey. To further characterize the acute toxicity in the dog, a series of in vivo, in vitro, and immunohistochemical studies were conducted to determine the relationship between the lymphoid and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and p38 MAPK inhibition. Results of these studies demonstrate a direct correlation between p38alpha MAPK inhibition and the acute lymphoid and gastrointestinal toxicity in the dog. Similar effects were observed following exposure to inhibitors of MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2), further implicating the role of p38alpha MAPK signaling pathway inhibition in these effects. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that p38alpha MAPK inhibition results in acute lymphoid and GI toxicity in the dog and is unique among the species evaluated in these studies.

  3. An investigation of boron-toxicity in leaves of two citrus species differing in boron-tolerance using comparative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Wen; Huang, Zeng-Rong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Guo, Peng; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-06-18

    Limited data are available on boron (B)-toxicity-responsive proteins in plants. We first applied 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to compare the effects of B-toxicity on leaf protein profiles in B-tolerant Citrus sinensis and B-intolerant Citrus grandis seedlings, and identified 27 (20) protein species with increased abundances and 23 (25) protein species with decreased abundances from the former (latter). Generally speaking, B-toxicity increased the abundances of protein species involved in antioxidation and detoxification, proteolysis, cell transport, and decreased the abundances of protein species involved in protein biosynthesis in the two citrus species. The higher B-tolerance of C. sinensis might include following several aspects: (a) protein species related to photosynthesis and energy metabolism in C. sinensis leaves were more adaptive to B-toxicity than in C. grandis ones, which was responsible for the higher photosynthesis and for the better maintenance of energy homeostasis in the former; and (b) the increased requirement for detoxification of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxic compounds due to decreased photosynthesis was less in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves than in B-toxic C. grandis ones. B-toxicity-responsive protein species involved in coenzyme biosynthesis differed between the two species, which might also contribute to the higher B-tolerance of C. sinensis. B-toxicity occurs in many regions all over the world, especially in arid and semiarid regions due to the raising of B-rich water tables with high B accumulated in topsoil. In China, B-toxicity often occurs in some citrus orchards. However, the mechanisms of citrus B-tolerance are still not fully understood. Here, we first used 2-DE to identify some new B-toxicity-responsive-proteins involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, antioxidation and detoxification, signal transduction and nucleotide metabolism. Our results showed that proteins involved in photosynthesis and energy metabolism

  4. Role of uptake of [14C]valine into protein in the development of tolerance to diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Dettbarn, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    In a subchronic toxicity study male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily treated with diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) (0.5 mg/kg, sc) for 14 days. Maximum signs of anticholinesterase toxicity were observed during Days 4 and 5 comparable to those seen 10-15 min following a single sublethal dosage (1.5 mg DFP/kg, sc). Signs disappeared after Days 6-7 of exposure and rats became apparently normal during the remainder of the treatment period. Significant hypothermia was seen following the second to fifth doses with maximum effect after the fifth injection. Subsequent injections of DFP did not cause any reduction in temperature. Incorporation of [ 14 C]valine was measured 24 hr after the 5th and 14th injections of DFP, at a time when body temperature had recovered to control values. The rate of in vivo incorporation of [ 14 C]valine was measured 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 hr after a subcutaneous injection of L-[1- 14 C]valine at a dose of 5 microCi/mmol/100 g body wt. After five injections the rate of L-[1- 14 C]valine uptake into the free amino acid pool and the incorporation into the protein bound pool was significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced in discrete brain regions, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles. At the end of the 14-day treatment, protein synthesis in all the skeletal muscles tested had recovered completely (p greater than 0.01) to the values of nontreated control animals. In brain, liver, and kidney, however, no recovery was seen during this period. The recovery of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle may be one of the mechanisms that lead to tolerance development during prolonged administration of subacute concentrations of DFP

  5. Human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein as an early diagnostic marker of doxorubicin cardiac toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf H. ElGhandour

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cardiotoxicity following treatment with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL may lead to late onset cardiomyopathy. So, early prediction of toxicity can lead to prevention of heart failure in these patients. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of H-FABP as an early diagnostic marker of anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity together with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP as an indication of ventricular dysfunction in such patients. Our study was conducted on 40 NHL patients who received 6 cycles of a doxorubicin containing chemotherapy protocol (CHOP, not exceeding the total allowed dose of doxorubicin (500 mg/m2. Ten healthy controls were included in our study. Human heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was assessed 24 hours after the first cycle of CHOP. Plasma levels of BNP were estimated both before starting chemotherapy and after the last cycle of CHOP. Resting echocardiography was also performed before and at the end of chemotherapy cycles. The ejection fraction (EF of 8 of our patients decreased below 50% at the end of the sixth cycle. Elevated levels of both H-FABP and BNP were found in all patients wth EF below 50% and both markers showed a positive correlation with each other. We concluded that H-FABP may serve as a reliable early marker for prediction of cardiomyopathy induced by doxorubicin. Thus, in patients with elevated H-FABP, alternative treatment modalities with no cardiac toxicity may be considered in order to prevent subsequent heart failure in these patients.

  6. Amyloid-linked cellular toxicity triggered by bacterial inclusion bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Montalban, Nuria; Villaverde, Antonio; Aris, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The aggregation of proteins in the form of amyloid fibrils and plaques is the characteristic feature of some pathological conditions ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidoses. The mechanisms by which the aggregation processes result in cell damage are under intense investigation but recent data indicate that prefibrillar aggregates are the most proximate mediators of toxicity rather than mature fibrils. Since it has been shown that prefibrillar forms of the nondisease-related misfolded proteins are highly toxic to cultured mammalian cells we have studied the cytoxicity associated to bacterial inclusion bodies that have been recently described as protein deposits presenting amyloid-like structures. We have proved that bacterial inclusion bodies composed by a misfolding-prone β-galactosidase fusion protein are clearly toxic for mammalian cells but the β-galactosidase wild type enzyme forming more structured thermal aggregates does not impair cell viability, despite it also binds and enter into the cells. These results are in the line that the most cytotoxic aggregates are early prefibrilar assemblies but discard the hypothesis that the membrane destabilization is Key event to subsequent disruption of cellular processes, such as ion balance, oxidative state and the eventually cell death

  7. A review of reproductive toxicity of microcystins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Xuezhen; Xie, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reproductive toxicity of MCs on mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds is reviewed. • PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress are important toxic mechanisms of MCs. • Reproductive toxicity of MCs may be closely related to endocrine-disrupting effects. • The trans-generational toxicity of microcystins is a matter of concern. • Data concerning female reproductive and sex-specific effects of MCs are lacking. - Abstract: Animal studies provide strong evidence of positive associations between microcystins (MCs) exposure and reproductive toxicity, representing a threat to human reproductive health and the biodiversity of wild life. This paper reviews current knowledge of the reproductive toxicity of MCs, with regard to mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds, mostly in males. Toxicity of MCs is primarily governed by the inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) and disturbance of cellular phosphorylation balance. MCs exposure is related to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, leading to cytoskeleton disruption, mitochondria dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and DNA damage. MCs induce cell apoptosis mediated by the mitochondrial and ROS and ER pathways. Through PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress, MCs lead to differential expression/activity of transcriptional factors and proteins involved in the pathways of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and tumor promotion. MC-induced DNA damage is also involved in carcinogenicity. Apart from a direct effect on testes and ovaries, MCs indirectly affect sex hormones by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and liver. Parental exposure to MCs may result in hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity of offspring. We also summarize the current research gaps which should be addressed by further studies.

  8. A review of reproductive toxicity of microcystins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang, E-mail: chan91@yeah.net [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jun, E-mail: chenjun@ihb.ac.cn [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Xuezhen, E-mail: xuezhen@mail.hzau.edu.cn [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xie, Ping, E-mail: xieping@ihb.ac.cn [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Reproductive toxicity of MCs on mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds is reviewed. • PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress are important toxic mechanisms of MCs. • Reproductive toxicity of MCs may be closely related to endocrine-disrupting effects. • The trans-generational toxicity of microcystins is a matter of concern. • Data concerning female reproductive and sex-specific effects of MCs are lacking. - Abstract: Animal studies provide strong evidence of positive associations between microcystins (MCs) exposure and reproductive toxicity, representing a threat to human reproductive health and the biodiversity of wild life. This paper reviews current knowledge of the reproductive toxicity of MCs, with regard to mammals, fishes, amphibians, and birds, mostly in males. Toxicity of MCs is primarily governed by the inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) and disturbance of cellular phosphorylation balance. MCs exposure is related to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, leading to cytoskeleton disruption, mitochondria dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and DNA damage. MCs induce cell apoptosis mediated by the mitochondrial and ROS and ER pathways. Through PP1/2A inhibition and oxidative stress, MCs lead to differential expression/activity of transcriptional factors and proteins involved in the pathways of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and tumor promotion. MC-induced DNA damage is also involved in carcinogenicity. Apart from a direct effect on testes and ovaries, MCs indirectly affect sex hormones by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and liver. Parental exposure to MCs may result in hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity of offspring. We also summarize the current research gaps which should be addressed by further studies.

  9. Host cell proteins in biologics development: Identification, quantitation and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Hunter, Alan K; Mozier, Ned M

    2009-06-15

    Host cell proteins (HCPs) are those produced or encoded by the organisms and unrelated to the intended recombinant product. Some are necessary for growth, survival, and normal cellular processing whereas others may be non-essential, simply carried along as baggage. Like the recombinant product, HCPs may also be modified by the host with a number of post-translational modifications. Regardless of the utility, or lack thereof, HCPs are undesirable in the final drug substance. Though commonly present in small quantities (parts per million expressed as nanograms per milligrams of the intended recombinant protein) much effort and cost is expended by industry to remove them. The purpose of this review is to summarize what is of relevance in regards to the biology, the impact of genomics and proteomics on HCP evaluation, the regulatory expectations, analytical approaches, and various methodologies to remove HCPs with bioprocessing. Historical data, bioinformatics approaches and industrial case study examples are provided. Finally, a proposal for a risk assessment tool is provided which brings these facets together and proposes a means for manufacturers to classify and organize a control strategy leading to meaningful product specifications. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Methoxsalen-induced macular toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Maitray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoralen compounds such as methoxsalen are photosensitizer agents used in conjunction with ultraviolet A (UVA radiation exposure as photochemotherapy (Psoralens and ultraviolet-A therapy [PUVA therapy] for certain epidermal skin disorders such as psoriasis and vitiligo. Methoxsalen has been shown to be associated with premature cataract formation by forming adducts with lens proteins following oral administration and subsequent UVA exposure. Hence, the use of UV-filtering glasses is recommended during PUVA therapy sessions. Ocular tissues can be exposed to its photosensitizing effect with subsequent UV radiation exposure through sunlight if the patient was to be without protective eye glasses, potentially causing macular toxicity. Till date, there have been no reports in the literature of any posterior segment ocular toxicity arising from methoxsalen use. Here, we describe a case of a bilateral macular toxicity in a middle-aged male treated with methoxsalen for vitiligo.

  11. Anaerobic Copper Toxicity and Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guoqiang; Yang, Jing; Li, Tang; Zhao, Jin; Sun, Shujuan; Li, Xiaokang; Lin, Chuxian; Li, Jianghui; Zhou, Huaibin; Lyu, Jianxin; Ding, Huangen

    2017-08-15

    While copper is an essential trace element in biology, pollution of groundwater from copper has become a threat to all living organisms. Cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity, however, are still not fully understood. Previous studies have shown that iron-sulfur proteins are among the primary targets of copper toxicity in Escherichia coli under aerobic conditions. Here, we report that, under anaerobic conditions, iron-sulfur proteins in E. coli cells are even more susceptible to copper in medium. Whereas addition of 0.2 mM copper(II) chloride to LB (Luria-Bertani) medium has very little or no effect on iron-sulfur proteins in wild-type E. coli cells under aerobic conditions, the same copper treatment largely inactivates iron-sulfur proteins by blocking iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in the cells under anaerobic conditions. Importantly, proteins that do not have iron-sulfur clusters (e.g., fumarase C and cysteine desulfurase) in E. coli cells are not significantly affected by copper treatment under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, indicating that copper may specifically target iron-sulfur proteins in cells. Additional studies revealed that E. coli cells accumulate more intracellular copper under anaerobic conditions than under aerobic conditions and that the elevated copper content binds to the iron-sulfur cluster assembly proteins IscU and IscA, which effectively inhibits iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. The results suggest that the copper-mediated inhibition of iron-sulfur proteins does not require oxygen and that iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is the primary target of anaerobic copper toxicity in cells. IMPORTANCE Copper contamination in groundwater has become a threat to all living organisms. However, cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity have not been fully understood up to now. The work described here reveals that iron-sulfur proteins in Escherichia coli cells are much more susceptible to copper in medium under anaerobic conditions than they

  12. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) inhibits agglomeration and macrophage uptake of toxic amine modified nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Zofi; Kendall, Michaela; Mackay, Rose-Marie; Whitwell, Harry; Elgy, Christine; Ding, Ping; Mahajan, Sumeet; Morgan, Cliff; Griffiths, Mark; Clark, Howard; Madsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The lung provides the main route for nanomaterial exposure. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an important respiratory innate immune molecule with the ability to bind or opsonise pathogens to enhance phagocytic removal from the airways. We hypothesised that SP-A, like surfactant protein D, may interact with inhaled nanoparticulates, and that this interaction will be affected by nanoparticle (NP) surface characteristics. In this study, we characterise the interaction of SP-A with unmodified (U-PS) and amine-modified (A-PS) polystyrene particles of varying size and zeta potential using dynamic light scatter analysis. SP-A associated with both 100 nm U-PS and A-PS in a calcium-independent manner. SP-A induced significant calcium-dependent agglomeration of 100 nm U-PS NPs but resulted in calcium-independent inhibition of A-PS self agglomeration. SP-A enhanced uptake of 100 nm U-PS into macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner but in contrast inhibited A-PS uptake. Reduced association of A-PS particles in RAW264.7 cells following pre-incubation of SP-A was also observed with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. Consistent with these findings, alveolar macrophages (AMs) from SP-A(-/-) mice were more efficient at uptake of 100 nm A-PS compared with wild type C57Bl/6 macrophages. No difference in uptake was observed with 500 nm U-PS or A-PS particles. Pre-incubation with SP-A resulted in a significant decrease in uptake of 100 nm A-PS in macrophages isolated from both groups of mice. In contrast, increased uptake by AMs of U-PS was observed after pre-incubation with SP-A. Thus we have demonstrated that SP-A promotes uptake of non-toxic U-PS particles but inhibits the clearance of potentially toxic A-PS particles by blocking uptake into macrophages.

  13. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Vijay Anand, K.G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein

  14. Potential disruption of protein-protein interactions by graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Mei; Kang, Hongsuk; Luan, Binquan; Yang, Zaixing; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising novel nanomaterial with a wide range of potential biomedical applications due to its many intriguing properties. However, very little research has been conducted to study its possible adverse effects on protein-protein interactions (and thus subsequent toxicity to human). Here, the potential cytotoxicity of GO is investigated at molecular level using large-scale, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interaction mechanism between a protein dimer and a GO nanosheet oxidized at different levels. Our theoretical results reveal that GO nanosheet could intercalate between the two monomers of HIV-1 integrase dimer, disrupting the protein-protein interactions and eventually lead to dimer disassociation as graphene does [B. Luan et al., ACS Nano 9(1), 663 (2015)], albeit its insertion process is slower when compared with graphene due to the additional steric and attractive interactions. This study helps to better understand the toxicity of GO to cell functions which could shed light on how to improve its biocompatibility and biosafety for its wide potential biomedical applications.

  15. Potential disruption of protein-protein interactions by graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mei [Department of Physics, Institute of Quantitative Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kang, Hongsuk; Luan, Binquan [Computational Biological Center, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Yang, Zaixing [Institute of Quantitative Biology and Medicine, SRMP and RAD-X, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhou, Ruhong, E-mail: ruhong@us.ibm.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Quantitative Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Computational Biological Center, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising novel nanomaterial with a wide range of potential biomedical applications due to its many intriguing properties. However, very little research has been conducted to study its possible adverse effects on protein-protein interactions (and thus subsequent toxicity to human). Here, the potential cytotoxicity of GO is investigated at molecular level using large-scale, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interaction mechanism between a protein dimer and a GO nanosheet oxidized at different levels. Our theoretical results reveal that GO nanosheet could intercalate between the two monomers of HIV-1 integrase dimer, disrupting the protein-protein interactions and eventually lead to dimer disassociation as graphene does [B. Luan et al., ACS Nano 9(1), 663 (2015)], albeit its insertion process is slower when compared with graphene due to the additional steric and attractive interactions. This study helps to better understand the toxicity of GO to cell functions which could shed light on how to improve its biocompatibility and biosafety for its wide potential biomedical applications.

  16. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rats and mice: Comparison of protein adducts, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the mechanism of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Williams, C. David; Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the West. In mice, APAP hepatotoxicity can be rapidly induced with a single dose. Because it is both clinically relevant and experimentally convenient, APAP intoxication has become a popular model of liver injury. Early data demonstrated that rats are resistant to APAP toxicity. As a result, mice are the preferred species for mechanistic studies. Furthermore, recent work has shown that the mechanisms of APAP toxicity in humans are similar to mice. Nevertheless, some investigators still use rats. New mechanistic information from the last forty years invites a reevaluation of the differences between these species. Comparison may provide interesting insights and confirm or exclude the rat as an option for APAP studies. To this end, we treated rats and mice with APAP and measured parameters of liver injury, APAP metabolism, oxidative stress, and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Consistent with earlier data, we found that rats were highly resistant to APAP toxicity. Although overall APAP metabolism was similar in both species, mitochondrial protein adducts were significantly lower in rats. Accordingly, rats also had less oxidative stress. Finally, while mice showed extensive activation and mitochondrial translocation of JNK, this could not be detected in rat livers. These data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is critical for the development of necrosis after APAP treatment. Because mitochondrial damage also occurs in humans, rats are not a clinically relevant species for studies of APAP hepatotoxicity. Highlights: ► Acetaminophen overdose causes severe liver injury only in mice but not in rats. ► APAP causes hepatic GSH depletion and protein adduct formation in rats and mice. ► Less protein adducts were measured in rat liver mitochondria compared to mouse. ► No oxidant stress, peroxynitrite formation or JNK activation was present in rats. ► The

  17. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.S; Rocha, T.L. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, E.A.R [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Grossi-de-Sa, M.F. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil.

  18. Fragile X protein mitigates TDP-43 toxicity by remodeling RNA granules and restoring translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Alyssa N; Yamada, Shizuka B; Siddegowda, Bhavani Bagevalu; Estes, Patricia S; Zaepfel, Benjamin L; Johannesmeyer, Jeffrey S; Lockwood, Donovan B; Pham, Linh T; Hart, Michael P; Cassel, Joel A; Freibaum, Brian; Boehringer, Ashley V; Taylor, J Paul; Reitz, Allen B; Gitler, Aaron D; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2015-12-15

    RNA dysregulation is a newly recognized disease mechanism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we identify Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein (dFMRP) as a robust genetic modifier of TDP-43-dependent toxicity in a Drosophila model of ALS. We find that dFMRP overexpression (dFMRP OE) mitigates TDP-43 dependent locomotor defects and reduced lifespan in Drosophila. TDP-43 and FMRP form a complex in flies and human cells. In motor neurons, TDP-43 expression increases the association of dFMRP with stress granules and colocalizes with polyA binding protein in a variant-dependent manner. Furthermore, dFMRP dosage modulates TDP-43 solubility and molecular mobility with overexpression of dFMRP resulting in a significant reduction of TDP-43 in the aggregate fraction. Polysome fractionation experiments indicate that dFMRP OE also relieves the translation inhibition of futsch mRNA, a TDP-43 target mRNA, which regulates neuromuscular synapse architecture. Restoration of futsch translation by dFMRP OE mitigates Futsch-dependent morphological phenotypes at the neuromuscular junction including synaptic size and presence of satellite boutons. Our data suggest a model whereby dFMRP is neuroprotective by remodeling TDP-43 containing RNA granules, reducing aggregation and restoring the translation of specific mRNAs in motor neurons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Membrane toxicity of abnormal prion protein in adrenal chromaffin cells of scrapie infected sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are associated with accumulations of disease specific PrP (PrP(d in the central nervous system (CNS and often the lymphoreticular system (LRS. Accumulations have additionally been recorded in other tissues including the peripheral nervous system and adrenal gland. Here we investigate the effect of sheep scrapie on the morphology and the accumulation of PrP(d in the adrenal medulla of scrapie affected sheep using light and electron microscopy. Using immunogold electron microscopy, non-fibrillar forms of PrP(d were shown to accumulate mainly in association with chromaffin cells, occasional nerve endings and macrophages. PrP(d accumulation was associated with distinctive membrane changes of chromaffin cells including increased electron density, abnormal linearity and invaginations. Internalisation of PrP(d from the chromaffin cell plasma membrane occurred in association with granule recycling following hormone exocytosis. PrP(d accumulation and internalisation from membranes is similarly associated with perturbations of membrane structure and trafficking in CNS neurons and tingible body macrophages of the LRS. These data suggest that a major toxic effect of PrP(d is at the level of plasma membranes. However, the precise nature of PrP(d-membrane toxicity is tissue and cell specific suggesting that the normal protein may act as a multi-functional scaffolding molecule. We further suggest that the co-localisation of PrP(d with exocytic granules of the hormone trafficking system may provide an additional source of infectivity in blood.

  20. Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Root Extract of Albizzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    drugs commonly used today are of herbal origin. Higher ... stored in small, capped plastic container at ... Acute Toxicity Studies: The limit test dose, ..... may be due to factors other than kidney problem ... Protein (total protein) in serum, urine.

  1. Toxicity of radiation-resistant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berl.) to larval Plutella xylostella (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jangi, M.S.; Ibrahim, Hasan

    1983-01-01

    A total of 24 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), resistant to a γ-radiation dose of 100 krad, were screened for their toxicity to larval silkworms, Bombyxmori(L.), and 15 of them were subsequently tested for their toxicity to larval diamond-back moth, Plutella xylostella(L.). The LC 50 's of these isolates to B. mori ranged from 1.6 X 10 5 to 6.0 X 10 3 spores/mL or from 5.9 to 0.3 μg cellular protein/mL. The irradiation treatment produced isolates which were significantly more toxic to P. xylostella (LC 50 4 spores/mL or 3.7 μg cellular protein/mL) and/ or less toxic to B. mori (LC 50 > 2.3 X 10 4 spores/mL or 1.0 μg cellular protein/mL) than the parent commercial strain

  2. Cytosolic PrP Can Participate in Prion-Mediated Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alana M.; Zhang, Chang; Arndt, Tina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion diseases are characterized by a conformational change in the normal host protein PrPC. While the majority of mature PrPC is tethered to the plasma membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, topological variants of this protein can arise during its biosynthesis. Here we have generated Drosophila transgenic for cytosolic ovine PrP in order to investigate its toxic potential in flies in the absence or presence of exogenous ovine prions. While cytosolic ovine PrP expressed in Drosophila was predominantly detergent insoluble and showed resistance to low concentrations of proteinase K, it was not overtly detrimental to the flies. However, Drosophila transgenic for cytosolic PrP expression exposed to classical or atypical scrapie prion inocula showed a faster decrease in locomotor activity than similar flies exposed to scrapie-free material. The susceptibility to classical scrapie inocula could be assessed in Drosophila transgenic for panneuronal expression of cytosolic PrP, whereas susceptibility to atypical scrapie required ubiquitous PrP expression. Significantly, the toxic phenotype induced by ovine scrapie in cytosolic PrP transgenic Drosophila was transmissible to recipient PrP transgenic flies. These data show that while cytosolic PrP expression does not adversely affect Drosophila, this topological PrP variant can participate in the generation of transmissible scrapie-induced toxicity. These observations also show that PrP transgenic Drosophila are susceptible to classical and atypical scrapie prion strains and highlight the utility of this invertebrate host as a model of mammalian prion disease. IMPORTANCE During prion diseases, the host protein PrPC converts into an abnormal conformer, PrPSc, a process coupled to the generation of transmissible prions and neurotoxicity. While PrPC is principally a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein, the role of topological variants, such as cytosolic PrP, in prion-mediated toxicity and

  3. Response of nitrogen metabolism to boron toxicity in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervilla, L M; Blasco, B; Ríos, J J; Rosales, M A; Rubio-Wilhelmi, M M; Sánchez-Rodríguez, E; Romero, L; Ruiz, J M

    2009-09-01

    Boron (B) toxicity has become important in areas close to the Mediterranean Sea where intensive agriculture has been developed. The objective of this research was to study the effects of B toxicity (0.5 mM and 2.0 mM B) on nitrogen (N) assimilation of two tomato cultivars that are often used in these areas. Leaf biomass, relative leaf growth rate (RGR(L)), concentration of B, nitrate (NO(3) (-)), ammonium (NH(4) (+)), organic N, amino acids and soluble proteins, as well as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthase (GS), glutamate synthetase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities were analysed in leaves. Boron toxicity significantly decreased leaf biomass, RGR(L), organic N, soluble proteins, and NR and NiR activities. The lowest NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+) concentration in leaves was recorded when plants were supplied with 2.0 mM B in the root medium. Total B, amino acids, activities of GS, GOGAT and GDH increased under B toxicity. Data from the present study prove that B toxicity causes inhibition of NO(3) (-) reduction and increases NH(4) (+) assimilation in tomato plants.

  4. Activity of the Respiratory Chain Enzymes of Blood Leucocytes’ Mitochondria Under the Conditions of Toxic Hepatitis Induced Against the Background Alimentary Deprivation of Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Voloshchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Full functioning of the leucocytes’ energy supply system is one of the essential factors for the immune surveillance system effective work. The pivotal enzymes of the leucocytes’ energy biotransformation system are NADH-ubiquitin reductase, a marker of the Complex I of respiratory chain activity, and succinate dehydrogenase, key enzyme of the Complex II of respiratory chain. The aim of research – to study the NADH-ubiquitin reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the blood leucocytes’ mitochondria under the conditions of toxic hepatitis induced against the background alimentary deprivation of protein. It is shown, that under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis a reduction of the NADH-ubiquitin reductase enzymatic activity is observed on the background activation of the succinate-dependent way of the mitochondrial oxidation. Conclusion was made that alimentary deprivation or protein is a factor, aggravating the misbalance of the energy biotransformation system in the leucocytes of rats with toxic hepatitis. Established activity changes of the leucocytes’ mitochondria respiratory chain key enzymes may be considered as one of the mechanisms, directed on the maintenance of leucocytes energy supply on a level, sufficient for their functioning. Research results may be used for the biochemical rationale of the therapeutic approaches to the elimination and correction of the leucocytes’ energy metabolism disturbances consequences under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis, aggravated by the alimentary protein deprivation.

  5. Haloacetonitriles: metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, John C; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    The haloacetonitriles (HANs) exist in drinking water exclusively as byproducts of disinfection. HANs are found in drinking water more often, and in higher concentrations, when surface water is treated by chloramination. Human exposure occurs through consumption of finished drinking water; oral and dermal contact also occurs, and results from showering, swimming and other activities. HANs are reactive and are toxic to gastrointestinal tissues following oral administration. Such toxicity is characterized by GSH depletion, increased lipid peroxidation, and covalent binding of HAN-associated radioactivity to gut tissues. The presence of GSH in cells is an important protective mechanism against HAN toxicity; depletion of cellular GSH results in increased toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated an apparently synergistic effect between ROS and HAN administration, that may help explain effects observed in GI tissues. ROS are produced in gut tissues, and in vitro evidence indicates that ROS may contribute to the degradation and formation of reactive intermediates from HANs. The rationale for ROS involvement may involve HAN-induced depletion of GSH and the role of GSH in scavenging ROS. In addition to effects on GI tissues, studies show that HAN-derived radiolabel is found covalently bound to proteins and DNA in several organs and tissues. The addition of antioxidants to biologic systems protects against HAN-induced DNA damage. The protection offered by antioxidants supports the role of oxidative stress and the potential for a threshold in han-induced toxicity. However, additional data are needed to substantiate evidence for such a threshold. HANs are readily absorbed from the GI tract and are extensively metabolized. Elimination occurs primarily in urine, as unconjugated one-carbon metabolites. Evidence supports the involvement of mixed function oxidases, the cytochrome P450 enzyme family and GST, in HAN metabolism. Metabolism represents either a detoxification or

  6. Doxorubicin-Induced Gut Toxicity in Piglets fed Bovine Milk and Colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René Liang; Rathe, Mathias; Jiang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy-induced intestinal toxicity is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We hypothesized that a milk diet containing bovine colostrum (BC) would reduce intestinal toxicity in doxorubicin-treated piglets. METHODS: Study 1 investigated intestinal parameters nine days after...... Colostrum supplementation had limited effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in milk-fed piglets suggesting that colostrum and a bovine milk diet enriched with whey protein provided similar...

  7. Toxicity of radiation-resistant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berl. ) to larval Plutella xylostella (L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jangi, M.S.; Ibrahim, H. (Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan, Malysia, Bangi, Selangor)

    1983-05-01

    A total of 24 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), resistant to a ..gamma..-radiation dose of 100 krad, were screened for their toxicity to larval silkworms, Bombyxmori(L.), and 15 of them were subsequently tested for their toxicity to larval diamond-back moth, Plutella xylostella(L.). The LC/sub 50/'s of these isolates to B. mori ranged from 1.6 X 10/sup 5/ to 6.0 X 10/sup 3/ spores/mL or from 5.9 to 0.3 ..mu..g cellular protein/mL. The irradiation treatment produced isolates which were significantly more toxic to P. xylostella (LC/sub 50/ < 8.1 X 10/sup 4/ spores/mL or 3.7 ..mu..g cellular protein/mL) and/ or less toxic to B. mori (LC/sub 50/ > 2.3 X 10/sup 4/ spores/mL or 1.0 ..mu..g cellular protein/mL) than the parent commercial strain.

  8. Effects of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) produced by genetically modified maize (Bt maize) on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höss, Sebastian; Menzel, Ralph; Gessler, Frank; Nguyen, Hang T.; Jehle, Johannes A.; Traunspurger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The genetically modified maize MON89034 × MON88017 expresses different crystal (Cry) proteins with pesticidal activity against the European corn borer (Cry1.105; Cry2Ab2) and the Western corn root worm (Cry3Bb1). Non-target organisms, such as soil nematodes, might be exposed to the Cry proteins that enter the soil in course of crop growing. Therefore, the risk of those proteins for nematodes was assessed by testing their toxic effects on Caenorhabditis elegans. All three insecticidal Cry proteins showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on C. elegans reproduction (EC50: 0.12–0.38 μmol L −1 ), however, at concentrations that were far above the expected soil concentrations. Moreover, a reduced toxicity was observed when Cry proteins were added jointly. A C. elegans mutant strain deficient for receptors for the nematicidal Cry5B was also resistant against Cry1.105 and Cry2Ab2, suggesting that these Cry proteins bound to the same or similar receptors as nematicidal Cry proteins and thereby affect the reproduction of C. elegans. -- Highlights: •Insecticidal Cry proteins dose-dependently inhibited the reproduction of C. elegans. •Mixture toxicity was lower than expected from concentration-additive single effects. •Genes for MAPK-defense-pathway were up-regulated in presence of Cry protein mixture. •Knock-out strains deficient for Cry5B-receptors showed lower susceptibility to insecticidal Cry proteins. •Toxicity of insecticidal Cry-proteins on C. elegans occurred at concentrations far above expected field concentrations. -- Insecticidal Cry proteins expressed by genetically modified maize act on nematodes via a similar mode of action as nematicidal Cry proteins, however, at concentrations far above expected soil levels

  9. Proteomic Assessment of Biochemical Pathways That Are Critical to Nickel-Induced Toxicity Responses in Human Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue; Bruno, Maribel; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wallace, Kathleen; Andrews, Debora; Swank, Adam; Winnik, Witold; Ross, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying toxicity initiated by nickel, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known human carcinogen is necessary for proper assessment of its risks to human and environment. Among a variety of toxic mechanisms, disruption of protein responses and protein response-based biochemical pathways represents a key mechanism through which nickel induces cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis. To identify protein responses and biochemical pathways that are critical to nickel-induced toxicity responses, we measured cytotoxicity and changes in expression and phosphorylation status of 14 critical biochemical pathway regulators in human BEAS-2B cells exposed to four concentrations of nickel using an integrated proteomic approach. A subset of the pathway regulators, including interleukin-6, and JNK, were found to be linearly correlated with cell viability, and may function as molecular determinants of cytotoxic responses of BEAS-2B cells to nickel exposures. In addition, 128 differentially expressed proteins were identified by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analyses, and ingenuity signaling pathway analysis (IPA) identified putative nickel toxicity pathways. Some of the proteins and pathways identified have not previously been linked to nickel toxicity. Based on the consistent results obtained from both ELISA and 2-DE proteomic analysis, we propose a core signaling pathway regulating cytotoxic responses of human BEAS-2B cells to nickel exposures, which integrates a small set of proteins involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways, apoptosis, protein degradation, and stress responses including inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:27626938

  10. Star Polymers Reduce Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Toxicity via Accelerated Amyloid Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Emily H; Lai, May; Ge, Xinwei; Stanley, William J; Wang, Bo; Wang, Miaoyi; Kakinen, Aleksandr; Sani, Marc-Antonie; Whittaker, Michael R; Gurzov, Esteban N; Ding, Feng; Quinn, John F; Davis, Thomas P; Ke, Pu Chun

    2017-12-11

    Protein aggregation into amyloid fibrils is a ubiquitous phenomenon across the spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders and type 2 diabetes. A common strategy against amyloidogenesis is to minimize the populations of toxic oligomers and protofibrils by inhibiting protein aggregation with small molecules or nanoparticles. However, melanin synthesis in nature is realized by accelerated protein fibrillation to circumvent accumulation of toxic intermediates. Accordingly, we designed and demonstrated the use of star-shaped poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) nanostructures for promoting aggregation while ameliorating the toxicity of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), the peptide involved in glycemic control and the pathology of type 2 diabetes. The binding of PHEA elevated the β-sheet content in IAPP aggregates while rendering a new morphology of "stelliform" amyloids originating from the polymers. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the PHEA arms served as rodlike scaffolds for IAPP binding and subsequently accelerated IAPP aggregation by increased local peptide concentration. The tertiary structure of the star nanoparticles was found to be essential for driving the specific interactions required to impel the accelerated IAPP aggregation. This study sheds new light on the structure-toxicity relationship of IAPP and points to the potential of exploiting star polymers as a new class of therapeutic agents against amyloidogenesis.

  11. Protein corona: a new approach for nanomedicine design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen VH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Van Hong Nguyen, Beom-Jin Lee Department of Pharmacy, Bioavailability Control Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: After administration of nanoparticle (NP into biological fluids, an NP–protein complex is formed, which represents the “true identity” of NP in our body. Hence, protein–NP interaction should be carefully investigated to predict and control the fate of NPs or drug-loaded NPs, including systemic circulation, biodistribution, and bioavailability. In this review, we mainly focus on the formation of protein corona and its potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences such as prediction modeling based on NP-adsorbed proteins, usage of active proteins for modifying NP to achieve toxicity reduction, circulation time enhancement, and targeting effect. Validated correlative models for NP biological responses mainly based on protein corona fingerprints of NPs are more highly accurate than the models solely set up from NP properties. Based on these models, effectiveness as well as the toxicity of NPs can be predicted without in vivo tests, while novel cell receptors could be identified from prominent proteins which play important key roles in the models. The ungoverned protein adsorption onto NPs may have generally negative effects such as rapid clearance from the bloodstream, hindrance of targeting capacity, and induction of toxicity. In contrast, controlling protein adsorption by modifying NPs with diverse functional proteins or tailoring appropriate NPs which favor selective endogenous peptides and proteins will bring promising therapeutic benefits in drug delivery and targeted cancer treatment. Keywords: protein-nanoparticle interaction, protein corona, exchange of adsorbed protein, toxicity reduction, predictive modeling, targeting drug delivery

  12. Role of oxidative stress in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity mediated by protein kinase Cδ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Duong, Chu Xuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Li, Zhengyi; Bing, Guoying; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Park, Dae Hun; Nakayama, Keiichi; Ali, Syed F; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Cadet, Jean Lud; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2012-06-15

    This study examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Multiple-dose administration of MA did not significantly alter PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, or PKCζ expression in the striatum, but did significantly increase PKCδ expression. Gö6976 (a co-inhibitor of PKCα and -β), hispidin (PKCβ inhibitor), and PKCζ pseudosubstrate inhibitor (PKCζ inhibitor) did not significantly alter MA-induced behavioral impairments. However, rottlerin (PKCδ inhibitor) significantly attenuated behavioral impairments in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MA-induced behavioral impairments were not apparent in PKCδ knockout (-/-) mice. MA-induced oxidative stress (i.e., lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice and was not apparent in PKCδ (-/-) mice. Consistent with this, MA-induced apoptosis (i.e., terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive apoptotic cells) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice. Furthermore, MA-induced increases in the dopamine (DA) turnover rate and decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and the expression of TH, dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were not significantly observed in rottlerin-treated or PKCδ (-/-) mice. Our results suggest that PKCδ gene expression is a key mediator of oxidative stress and dopaminergic damage induced by MA. Thus, inhibition of PKCδ may be a useful target for protection against MA-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lung inflammation caused by inhaled toxicants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available John Wong, Bruce E Magun, Lisa J Wood School of Nursing, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Exposure of the lungs to airborne toxicants from different sources in the environment may lead to acute and chronic pulmonary or even systemic inflammation. Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, although wood smoke in urban areas of underdeveloped countries is now recognized as a leading cause of respiratory disease. Mycotoxins from fungal spores pose an occupational risk for respiratory illness and also present a health hazard to those living in damp buildings. Microscopic airborne particulates of asbestos and silica (from building materials and those of heavy metals (from paint are additional sources of indoor air pollution that contributes to respiratory illness and is known to cause respiratory illness in experimental animals. Ricin in aerosolized form is a potential bioweapon that is extremely toxic yet relatively easy to produce. Although the aforementioned agents belong to different classes of toxic chemicals, their pathogenicity is similar. They induce the recruitment and activation of macrophages, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, inhibition of protein synthesis, and production of interleukin-1 beta. Targeting either macrophages (using nanoparticles or the production of interleukin-1 beta (using inhibitors against protein kinases, NOD-like receptor protein-3, or P2X7 may potentially be employed to treat these types of lung inflammation without affecting the natural immune response to bacterial infections. Keywords: cigarette, mycotoxin, trichothecene, ricin, inflammasome, macrophage, inhibitors

  14. Polyglutamine toxicity in yeast induces metabolic alterations and mitochondrial defects

    KAUST Repository

    Papsdorf, Katharina

    2015-09-03

    Background Protein aggregation and its pathological effects are the major cause of several neurodegenerative diseases. In Huntington’s disease an elongated stretch of polyglutamines within the protein Huntingtin leads to increased aggregation propensity. This induces cellular defects, culminating in neuronal loss, but the connection between aggregation and toxicity remains to be established. Results To uncover cellular pathways relevant for intoxication we used genome-wide analyses in a yeast model system and identify fourteen genes that, if deleted, result in higher polyglutamine toxicity. Several of these genes, like UGO1, ATP15 and NFU1 encode mitochondrial proteins, implying that a challenged mitochondrial system may become dysfunctional during polyglutamine intoxication. We further employed microarrays to decipher the transcriptional response upon polyglutamine intoxication, which exposes an upregulation of genes involved in sulfur and iron metabolism and mitochondrial Fe-S cluster formation. Indeed, we find that in vivo iron concentrations are misbalanced and observe a reduction in the activity of the prominent Fe-S cluster containing protein aconitase. Like in other yeast strains with impaired mitochondria, non-fermentative growth is impossible after intoxication with the polyglutamine protein. NMR-based metabolic analyses reveal that mitochondrial metabolism is reduced, leading to accumulation of metabolic intermediates in polyglutamine-intoxicated cells. Conclusion These data show that damages to the mitochondrial system occur in polyglutamine intoxicated yeast cells and suggest an intricate connection between polyglutamine-induced toxicity, mitochondrial functionality and iron homeostasis in this model system.

  15. A toxic imbalance of Hsp70s in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is caused by competition for cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Kathryn M; True, Heather L

    2017-09-01

    Molecular chaperones are responsible for managing protein folding from translation through degradation. These crucial machines ensure that protein homeostasis is optimally maintained for cell health. However, 'too much of a good thing' can be deadly, and the excess of chaperones can be toxic under certain cellular conditions. For example, overexpression of Ssa1, a yeast Hsp70, is toxic to cells in folding-challenged states such as [PSI+]. We discovered that overexpression of the nucleotide exchange factor Sse1 can partially alleviate this toxicity. We further argue that the basis of the toxicity is related to the availability of Hsp70 cofactors, such as Hsp40 J-proteins and nucleotide exchange factors. Ultimately, our work informs future studies about functional chaperone balance and cautions against therapeutic chaperone modifications without a thorough examination of cofactor relationships. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gossypol Toxicity from Cottonseed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cristina N. Gadelha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gossypol is a phenolic compound produced by pigment glands in cotton stems, leaves, seeds, and flower buds (Gossypium spp.. Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton that is used for animal feeding because it is rich in oil and proteins. However, gossypol toxicity limits cottonseed use in animal feed. High concentrations of free gossypol may be responsible for acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning which include respiratory distress, impaired body weight gain, anorexia, weakness, apathy, and death after several days. However, the most common toxic effects is the impairment of male and female reproduction. Another important toxic effect of gossypol is its interference with immune function, reducing an animal’s resistance to infections and impairing the efficiency of vaccines. Preventive procedures to limit gossypol toxicity involve treatment of the cottonseed product to reduce the concentration of free gossypol with the most common treatment being exposure to heat. However, free gossypol can be released from the bound form during digestion. Agronomic selection has produced cotton varieties devoid of glands producing gossypol, but these varieties are not normally grown because they are less productive and are more vulnerable to attacks by insects.

  17. Monitoring the effects of toxic chemicals on protein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giometti, C.S.; Taylor, J.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with computer-assisted image and data analysis was used to monitor protein populations for both qualitative and quantitative changes induced by exposure to chemicals. For mutagenesis studies designed to screen for heritable mutations, a computer-assisted search of the optical density data from 2DE patterns was used to look for (a) new protein spots, (b) missing protein spots and/or (c) altered expression of normal protein spots. Using this approach, 320 mice were screened for mutations induced by treatment of sires with 150 mg/kg body weight of ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and four different mutations were identified. Protein patterns from 105 offspring from untreated male mice (controls) and 369 offspring from irradiated male mice (3 Gy gamma) were also screened. No heritable mutations were found in those data sets, however. In addition, protein changes were observed in livers of animals exposed to the hepatocellular peroxisomal proliferation agents (and carcinogens) Wy-14,643 and DEHP. The de novo synthesis of a new protein by these agents was demonstrated and quantitated

  18. Thermochemical Wastewater Valorization via Enhanced Microbial Toxicity Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thelhawadigedara, Lahiru Niroshan Jayakody [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Christopher W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pleitner, Brenna P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cleveland, Nicholas S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitham, Jason M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Giannone, Richard J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Klingeman, Dawn M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State University; Brown, Steven D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; LanzaTech, Inc.; Hettich, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Guss, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-04-17

    Thermochemical (TC) biomass conversion processes such as pyrolysis and liquefaction generate considerable amounts of wastewater, which often contains highly toxic compounds that are incredibly challenging to convert via standard wastewater treatment approaches such as anaerobic digestion. These streams represent a cost for TC biorefineries, and a potential valorization opportunity, if effective conversion methods are developed. The primary challenge hindering microbial conversion of TC wastewater is toxicity. In this study, we employ a robust bacterium, Pseudomonas putida, with TC wastewater streams to demonstrate that aldehydes are the most inhibitory compounds in these streams. Proteomics, transcriptomics, and fluorescence-based immunoassays of P. putida grown in a representative wastewater stream indicate that stress results from protein damage, which we hypothesize is a primary toxicity mechanism. Constitutive overexpression of the chaperone genes, groEL, groES, and clpB, in a genome-reduced P. putida strain improves the tolerance towards multiple TC wastewater samples up to 200-fold. Moreover, the concentration ranges of TC wastewater are industrially relevant for further bioprocess development for all wastewater streams examined here, representing different TC process configurations. Furthermore, we demonstrate proof-of-concept polyhydroxyalkanoate production from the usable carbon in an exemplary TC wastewater stream. Overall, this study demonstrates that protein quality control machinery and repair mechanisms can enable substantial gains in microbial tolerance to highly toxic substrates, including heterogeneous waste streams. When coupled to other metabolic engineering advances such as expanded substrate utilization and enhanced product accumulation, this study generally enables new strategies for biological conversion of highly-toxic, organic-rich wastewater via engineered aerobic monocultures or designer consortia.

  19. Toxicity of shoti (Indian arrowroot: Curcuma zedoaria) for rats and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M A; Morris, T R; Miah, A H; Hewitt, D; Ford, J E

    1979-01-01

    1. A flour was prepared from rhizomes of shoti(Curcuma zedoaria) in such a way that most of the protein was retained. The crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) content in this product was 155 g/kg, compared with approximately 10 g/kg in commercial shoti flour. 2. The high-protein flour proved highly toxic to 5-week-old rats and caused 100% mortality within 6 d when given at 320 g/kg diet. 3. Fresh rhizomes were minced and dried, and the resulting meal was given to weanling rats at 400 g/kg diet. All the animals lost weight rapidly, and two of the five rats died within 4 d. 4. This same shoti meal was given to 1-d-old chicks at 100 and 200 g/kg diet. All the chicks survived the test period (20 d), but body-weight, food intake and efficiency of food conversion decreased with increase in the level of shoti meal in the diet. 5. The traditional method of preparing shoti involves prolonged washing in changes of water, which removes most of the protein and other water-soluble nutrients and, presumably, a toxic constituent. Further investigation is needed to identify the toxic principle, and to discover a less wasteful procedure for removing it.

  20. Oxaliplatin-induced Oxidative Stress Provokes Toxicity in Isolated Rat Liver Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Heena; Waseem, Mohammad; Parvez, Suhel; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2015-11-01

    Oxaliplatin is a widely employed platinum-derived chemotherapeutic agent commonly used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, the benefit of this important drug is compromised by severe side effects such as neuropathy, ototoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, and hematological toxicity. Recently, few studies have also suggested the occurrence of hepatotoxicity in oxaliplatin-treated patients. Mitochondria have emerged as targets for anticancer drugs in various kinds of toxicity including hepatotoxicity that can lead to neoplastic disease. Oxidative stress is a well-established biomarker of mitochondrial toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent damage caused by oxaliplatin on isolated liver mitochondria under in vitro conditions. The study was conducted in mitochondria isolated from liver of Wistar rats. Oxaliplatin was incubated with mitochondria in a dose-dependent manner under in vitro conditions. Oxidative stress indexes, non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants were evaluated, looking at the overall armamentarium against the toxicity induced by oxaliplatin. Oxaliplatin caused a significant rise in the mitochondrial oxidative stress indexes lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. Alterations in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and activities of enzymatic antioxidants were also observed. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the mitochondrial toxicity of oxaliplatin. The integrity of the hepatic tissue is compromised by the reactive oxygen species-mediated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation on the toxicity of nanoAg to bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Rutao, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Sun Feng; Zhang Lijun; Zong Wansong; Zhao Xingchen; Wang Li; Wu Ruolin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Hao Xiaopeng [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Measuring protein damage by nanomaterials may give insight into the mechanisms of toxicity of nanomaterials. The toxic effects of nanoAg on bovine serum albumin (BSA) were thoroughly studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering spectroscopy (RLS), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). NanoAg had obvious toxic effects on BSA: nanoAg could increase the amount of helix and decrease the beta sheet structure, leading to a loosening of the protein skeleton. In the loose structure, internal hydrophobic amino acids are exposed and the characteristic fluorescence of BSA is obviously quenched. When the ratio of nanoAg and BSA increased to 1: 96 (wt/wt), the impact of nanoAg on the spectral properties leveled off. The RLS spectrum, TEM, CD spectra and electrophoresis results showed that BSA had destroyed the double-layer structure of nanoAg and covered its surface, generating a BSA-nanoAg complex held together by van der Waals and electrostatic forces. This paper provides a new perspective and method for determining the toxic effects of nanoAg on biological macromolecules.

  2. Histidine protects against zinc and nickel toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T Murphy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace element involved in a wide range of biological processes and human diseases. Zinc excess is deleterious, and animals require mechanisms to protect against zinc toxicity. To identify genes that modulate zinc tolerance, we performed a forward genetic screen for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that were resistant to zinc toxicity. Here we demonstrate that mutations of the C. elegans histidine ammonia lyase (haly-1 gene promote zinc tolerance. C. elegans haly-1 encodes a protein that is homologous to vertebrate HAL, an enzyme that converts histidine to urocanic acid. haly-1 mutant animals displayed elevated levels of histidine, indicating that C. elegans HALY-1 protein is an enzyme involved in histidine catabolism. These results suggest the model that elevated histidine chelates zinc and thereby reduces zinc toxicity. Supporting this hypothesis, we demonstrated that dietary histidine promotes zinc tolerance. Nickel is another metal that binds histidine with high affinity. We demonstrated that haly-1 mutant animals are resistant to nickel toxicity and dietary histidine promotes nickel tolerance in wild-type animals. These studies identify a novel role for haly-1 and histidine in zinc metabolism and may be relevant for other animals.

  3. For a better control of the greenhouse gases emissions of the international maritime and aerial baggage holds: evaluation and possible actions; Pour une maitrise des emissions de gaz a effet de serre des soutes internationales aeriennes et maritimes: constat et actions possibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassi, O. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)

    2003-07-01

    The greenhouse gases emissions resulting from the aerial and marine baggage holds, are not taken into account in the national objectives of greenhouse gases reduction, defined by the Kyoto protocol. Thus they have to be controlled separately by each country concerned by the Kyoto protocol and urgent actions to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions are necessary. This study brings in first parts information on the context (legislation, traffic), the emission inventories and the options of allocation. It proposes then control methods and analyzes the possible measures. (A.L.B.)

  4. Influence of protein deficiency on cadmium toxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, P C; Jain, V K; Ashquin, M; Tandon, S K

    1986-07-01

    The effects of a low protein diet on the body uptake and retention of cadmium, levels of essential trace elements, and cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in liver and kidneys of the rat were investigated. Low dietary protein disturbs cadmium induced alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, essential trace elements metabolism and offsets the hepatic and renal process of cadmium detoxification. Protein malnutrition enhances the susceptibility to cadmium intoxication.

  5. 76 FR 41726 - Reporting Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...., third checked bag or more) Overweight/Oversized Baggage/Sports Equipment Carry-On Baggage 4. In-Flight Medical Equipment 5. In-Flight Entertainment/Internet Access 6. Sleep Sets 7. In-Flight Food/Non Alcoholic... baggage performance is outdated. Airline passengers would [[Page 41728

  6. General aspects of metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, H; Kolkowska, P; Watly, J; Krzywoszynska, K; Potocki, S

    2014-01-01

    This review is focused on the general mechanisms of metal toxicity in humans. The possible and mainly confirmed mechanisms of their action are discussed. The metals are divided into four groups due to their toxic effects. First group comprises of metal ions acting as Fenton reaction catalyst mainly iron and copper. These types of metal ions participate in generation of the reactive oxygen species. Metals such as nickel, cadmium and chromium are considered as carcinogenic agents. Aluminum, lead and tin are involved in neurotoxicity. The representative of the last group is mercury, which may be considered as a generally toxic metal. Fenton reaction is a naturally occurring process producing most active oxygen species, hydroxyl radical: Fe(2+) + He2O2 ↔ Fe(3+) + OH(-) + OH(•) It is able to oxidize most of the biomolecules including DNA, proteins, lipids etc. The effect of toxicity depends on the damage of molecules i.e. production site of the hydroxyl radical. Chromium toxicity depends critically on its oxidation state. The most hazardous seems to be Cr(6+) (chromates) which are one of the strongest inorganic carcinogenic agents. Cr(6+) species act also as oxidative agents damaging among other nucleic acids. Redox inactive Al(3+), Cd(2+) or Hg(2+) may interfere with biology of other metal ions e.g. by occupying metal binding sites in biomolecules. All these aspects will be discussed in the review.

  7. Surface ligand dependent toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in HepG2 cell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartczak, D; Baradez, M-O; Merson, S; Goenaga-Infante, H; Marshall, D

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NP) strongly affect their influence on cell behaviour, but can be significantly distorted by interactions with the proteins present in biological solutions. In this study we show how different surface functionalities of zinc oxide (ZnO) NP lead to changes in the size distribution and dissolution of the NP in serum containing cell culture media and how this impacts on NP toxicity. NPs capped with weakly bound large proteins undergo substantial transformations due to the exchange of the original surface ligands to the components of the cell culture media. Conversely, NP capped with a tight monolayer of small organic molecules or with covalently conjugated proteins show significantly higher stability. These differences in ligand exchange also affect the toxicity of the NP to the HepG2 liver cell model, with the NP capped with small organic molecules being more toxic than those capped with large proteins. This study highlights the importance of characterising NPs in biological media and the effect the media has during in-vitro analysis.

  8. Protein degradation and protection against misfolded or damaged proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2003-12-01

    The ultimate mechanism that cells use to ensure the quality of intracellular proteins is the selective destruction of misfolded or damaged polypeptides. In eukaryotic cells, the large ATP-dependent proteolytic machine, the 26S proteasome, prevents the accumulation of non-functional, potentially toxic proteins. This process is of particular importance in protecting cells against harsh conditions (for example, heat shock or oxidative stress) and in a variety of diseases (for example, cystic fibrosis and the major neurodegenerative diseases). A full understanding of the pathogenesis of the protein-folding diseases will require greater knowledge of how misfolded proteins are recognized and selectively degraded.

  9. DOPA Decarboxylase Modulates Tau Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kow, Rebecca L; Sikkema, Carl; Wheeler, Jeanna M; Wilkinson, Charles W; Kraemer, Brian C

    2018-03-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau accumulates into toxic aggregates in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. We found previously that loss of D 2 -family dopamine receptors ameliorated tauopathy in multiple models including a Caenorhabditis elegans model of tauopathy. To better understand how loss of D 2 -family dopamine receptors can ameliorate tau toxicity, we screened a collection of C. elegans mutations in dopamine-related genes (n = 45) for changes in tau transgene-induced behavioral defects. These included many genes responsible for dopamine synthesis, metabolism, and signaling downstream of the D 2 receptors. We identified one dopamine synthesis gene, DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), as a suppressor of tau toxicity in tau transgenic worms. Loss of the C. elegans DDC gene, bas-1, ameliorated the behavioral deficits of tau transgenic worms, reduced phosphorylated and detergent-insoluble tau accumulation, and reduced tau-mediated neuron loss. Loss of function in other genes in the dopamine and serotonin synthesis pathways did not alter tau-induced toxicity; however, their function is required for the suppression of tau toxicity by bas-1. Additional loss of D 2 -family dopamine receptors did not synergize with bas-1 suppression of tauopathy phenotypes. Loss of the DDC bas-1 reduced tau-induced toxicity in a C. elegans model of tauopathy, while loss of no other dopamine or serotonin synthesis genes tested had this effect. Because loss of activity upstream of DDC could reduce suppression of tau by DDC, this suggests the possibility that loss of DDC suppresses tau via the combined accumulation of dopamine precursor levodopa and serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Seeking a Mechanism for the Toxicity of Oligomeric α-Synuclein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel L. Roberts

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a number of neurological diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD, α‑synuclein is aberrantly folded, forming abnormal oligomers, and amyloid fibrils within nerve cells. Strong evidence exists for the toxicity of increased production and aggregation of α-synuclein in vivo. The toxicity of α-synuclein is popularly attributed to the formation of “toxic oligomers”: a heterogenous and poorly characterized group of conformers that may share common molecular features. This review presents the available evidence on the properties of α-synuclein oligomers and the potential molecular mechanisms of their cellular disruption. Toxic α-synuclein oligomers may impact cells in a number of ways, including the disruption of membranes, mitochondrial depolarization, cytoskeleton changes, impairment of protein clearance pathways, and enhanced oxidative stress. We also examine the relationship between α-synuclein toxic oligomers and amyloid fibrils, in the light of recent studies that paint a more complex picture of α-synuclein toxicity. Finally, methods of studying and manipulating oligomers within cells are described.

  11. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification induces the conversion of recombinant prion protein to PrP oligomers causing neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Yang, Lifeng; Chen, Baian; Zhu, Ting; Hassan, Mohammad Farooque; Yin, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiangmei; Zhao, Deming

    2015-06-01

    The formation of neurotoxic prion protein (PrP) oligomers is thought to be a key step in the development of prion diseases. Recently, it was determined that the sonication and shaking of recombinant PrP can convert PrP monomers into β-state oligomers. Herein, we demonstrate that β-state oligomeric PrP can be generated through protein misfolding cyclic amplification from recombinant full-length hamster, human, rabbit, and mutated rabbit PrP, and that these oligomers can be used for subsequent research into the mechanisms of PrP-induced neurotoxicity. We have characterized protein misfolding cyclic amplification-induced monomer-to-oligomer conversion of PrP from three species using western blotting, circular dichroism, size-exclusion chromatography, and resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion. We have further shown that all of the resulting β-oligomers are toxic to primary mouse cortical neurons independent of the presence of PrP(C) in the neurons, whereas the corresponding monomeric PrP were not toxic. In addition, we found that this toxicity is the result of oligomer-induced apoptosis via regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 in both wild-type and PrP(-/-) cortical neurons. It is our hope that these results may contribute to our understanding of prion transformation within the brain. We found that β-state oligomeric PrPs can be generated through protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) from recombinant full-length hamster, human, rabbit, and mutated rabbit PrP. β-oligomers are toxic to primary mouse cortical neurons independent of the presence of PrP(C) in the neurons, while the corresponding monomeric PrPs were not toxic. This toxicity is the result of oligomers-induced apoptosis via regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3. These results may contribute to our understanding of prion transformation within the brain. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  13. Cell-free protein synthesis for structure determination by X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Endo, Yaeta; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2010-01-01

    Structure determination has been difficult for those proteins that are toxic to the cells and cannot be prepared in a large amount in vivo. These proteins, even when biologically very interesting, tend to be left uncharacterized in the structural genomics projects. Their cell-free synthesis can bypass the toxicity problem. Among the various cell-free systems, the wheat-germ-based system is of special interest due to the following points: (1) Because the gene is placed under a plant translational signal, its toxic expression in a bacterial host is reduced. (2) It has only little codon preference and, especially, little discrimination between methionine and selenomethionine (SeMet), which allows easy preparation of selenomethionylated proteins for crystal structure determination by SAD and MAD methods. (3) Translation is uncoupled from transcription, so that the toxicity of the translation product on DNA and its transcription, if any, can be bypassed. We have shown that the wheat-germ-based cell-free protein synthesis is useful for X-ray crystallography of one of the 4-bp cutter restriction enzymes, which are expected to be very toxic to all forms of cells retaining the genome. Our report on its structure represents the first report of structure determination by X-ray crystallography using protein overexpressed with the wheat-germ-based cell-free protein expression system. This will be a method of choice for cytotoxic proteins when its cost is not a problem. Its use will become popular when the crystal structure determination technology has evolved to require only a tiny amount of protein.

  14. Effect of trifluoperazine on toxicity, HIF-1α induction and hepatocyte regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Shubhra, E-mail: SCHAUDHURI@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); McCullough, Sandra S., E-mail: mcculloughsandras@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hennings, Leah, E-mail: lhennings@uams.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Brown, Aliza T., E-mail: brownalizat@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Li, Shun-Hwa [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Simpson, Pippa M., E-mail: psimpson@mcw.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Hinson, Jack A., E-mail: hinsonjacka@uams.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); James, Laura P., E-mail: jameslaurap@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are important mechanisms in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. The MPT inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP) reduced MPT, oxidative stress, and toxicity in freshly isolated hepatocytes treated with APAP. Since hypoxia inducible factor-one alpha (HIF-1α) is induced very early in APAP toxicity, a role for oxidative stress in the induction has been postulated. In the present study, the effect of TFP on toxicity and HIF-1α induction in B6C3F1 male mice treated with APAP was examined. Mice received TFP (10 mg/kg, oral gavage) prior to APAP (200 mg/kg IP) and at 7 and 36 h after APAP. Measures of metabolism (hepatic glutathione and APAP protein adducts) were comparable in the two groups of mice. Toxicity was decreased in the APAP/TFP mice at 2, 4, and 8 h, compared to the APAP mice. At 24 and 48 h, there were no significant differences in toxicity between the two groups. TFP lowered HIF-1α induction but also reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of hepatocyte regeneration. TFP can also inhibit phospholipase A{sub 2}, and cytosolic and secretory PLA{sub 2} activity levels were reduced in the APAP/TFP mice compared to the APAP mice. TFP also lowered prostaglandin E{sub 2} expression, a known mechanism of cytoprotection. In summary, the MPT inhibitor TFP delayed the onset of toxicity and lowered HIF-1α induction in APAP treated mice. TFP also reduced PGE{sub 2} expression and hepatocyte regeneration, likely through a mechanism involving PLA{sub 2}. -- Highlights: ► Trifluoperazine reduced acetaminophen toxicity and lowered HIF-1α induction. ► Trifluoperazine had no effect on the metabolism of acetaminophen. ► Trifluoperazine reduced hepatocyte regeneration. ► Trifluoperazine reduced phospholipase A{sub 2} activity and prostaglandin E{sub 2} levels.

  15. Toxicological evaluation of proteins introduced into food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kough, John; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Jez, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on the toxicological evaluation of proteins introduced into GM crops to impart desired traits. In many cases, introduced proteins can be shown to have a history of safe use. Where modifications have been made to proteins, experience has shown that it is highly unlikely that modification of amino acid sequences can make a non-toxic protein toxic. Moreover, if the modified protein still retains its biological function, and this function is found in related proteins that have a history of safe use (HOSU) in food, and the exposure level is similar to functionally related proteins, then the modified protein could also be considered to be “as-safe-as” those that have a HOSU. Within nature, there can be considerable evolutionary changes in the amino acid sequence of proteins within the same family, yet these proteins share the same biological function. In general, food crops such as maize, soy, rice, canola etc. are subjected to a variety of processing conditions to generate different food products. Processing conditions such as cooking, modification of pH conditions, and mechanical shearing can often denature proteins in these crops resulting in a loss of functional activity. These same processing conditions can also markedly lower human dietary exposure to (functionally active) proteins. Safety testing of an introduced protein could be indicated if its biological function was not adequately characterized and/or it was shown to be structurally/functionally related to proteins that are known to be toxic to mammals. PMID:24164515

  16. Toxicity of diuron in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Marjo; Loikkanen, Jarkko; Naarala, Jonne; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    Diuron is a substituted phenylurea used as a herbicide to control broadleaf and grass weeds and as a biocidal antifouling agent. Diuron is carcinogenic in rat urinary bladder and toxic to the reproductive system of oysters, sea urchins and lizards. The few studies carried out in human cells do not include the genotoxicity of diuron. We have investigated the toxicity of diuron in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was statistically significantly increased in both cell lines but only at the highest 200 μM concentration. Diuron clearly reduced the viability of BeWo, but not MCF-7 cells. The relative cell number was decreased in both cell lines indicative of inhibition of cell proliferation. In the Comet assay, diuron increased DNA fragmentation in MCF-7 but not in BeWo cells. The expressions of p53 protein, a marker for cell stress, and p21 protein, a transcriptional target of p53, were increased, but only in MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that diuron is cytotoxic and potentially genotoxic in a tissue-specific manner and that ROS play a role in its toxicity. Thus, exposure to diuron may exert harmful effects on fetal development and damage human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gluten - Not a Friendly Protein

    OpenAIRE

    E Tafreshi; A Jafarzade Noghani; B Khairkhah; M Yazdani; S Seddighi; S khayam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gluten is a protein found in grains.  Research has shown that the gluten that is in grains of wheat, barley, rye, and oats (to a lesser degree) is toxic to many individuals.  While gluten is essential for the make-up of these 4 grains, our bodies do not need it. Is it healthful?  The protein in today’s wheat is poorly digested and can be harmful.  An estimated 95% of prepared foods on the grocery shelves contain the toxic forms of gluten.   Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivit...

  18. In vivo characterization of fusion protein comprising of A1 subunit of Shiga toxin and human GM-CSF: Assessment of its immunogenicity and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloomi, Mana; Bouzari, Saeid; Shariati, Elaheh

    2010-10-01

    Most cancer cells become resistant to anti-cancer agents. In the last few years, a new approach for targeted therapy of human cancer has been developed using immunotoxins which comprise both the cell targeting and the cell killing moieties. In the present study, the recombinant Shiga toxin A1 subunit fused to human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (A1-GM-CSF), previously produced in E. coli, was further characterized. The recombinant protein could cause 50% cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in cells bearing GM-CSF receptors. The non-specific toxicity of the fusion protein was assessed in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. No mortality was observed in either group of mice, with different concentration of fusion protein. The lymphocyte proliferation assay, induction of specific IgG response and a mixed (Th1/Th2) response were observed only in BALB/c mice. The mixed response in BALB/c mice (Th1/Th2) could be explained on the basis of the two components of the fusion protein i.e. A1 and GM-CSF.

  19. Oxidative stress in chemical toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappus, H.

    1986-05-01

    The toxic effect of compounds which undergo redox cycling enzymatic one-electron reduction are reviewed. First of all, the enzymatic reduction of these compounds leads to reactive intermediates, mainly radicals which react with oxygen, whereby superoxide anion radicals are formed. Further oxygen metabolites are hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals. The role of these oxygen metabolites in toxicity is discussed. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation during redox cycling of quinonoide compounds, e.g., adriamycin, and the possible relationship to their toxicity is critically evaluated. It is shown that iron ions play a crucial role in lipid peroxidation induced by redox cycling compounds. DNA damage by metal chelates, e.g., bleomycin, is discussed on the basis of findings that enzymatic redox cycling of a bleomycin-iron complex has been observed. The involvement of hydroxyl radicals in bleomycin-induced DNA damage occurring during redox cycling in cell nuclei is claimed. Redox cycling of other substances, e.g., aromatic amines, is discussed in relation to carcinogenesis. Other chemical groups, e.g., nitroaromatic compounds, hydroxylamines and azo compounds are included. Other targets for oxygen radical attack, e.g., proteins, are also dealt with. It is concluded that oxygen radical formation by redox cycling may be a critical event in toxic effects of several compounds if the protective mechanisms of cells are overwhelmed.

  20. Evaluation on the Toxic Effects of NanoAg to Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhai, Wenxin; Liu, Rutao; Yu, Zehua; Shen, Hengmei; Hu, Xinxin

    2015-02-01

    Protein is the functional actor of life. Research on protein damage induced by nanomaterials may give insight into the toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles. Studying nano silver over the impact of the structure and function of catalase (CAT) at the molecular level, is of great significance for a comprehensive evaluation of their toxic effects. The toxic effects of nanoAg on catalase were thoroughly investigated using steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching measurements, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering spectroscopy (RLS), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). NanoAg could decrease the amount of alpha-helix and increase the beta sheet structure, leading to loose the skeleton structure of catalase. The characteristic fluorescence of catalase was obviously quenched, which showed the exposal of internal hydrophobic amino acids enhanced, and its quenching type is dynamic quenching. The result of RLS and TEM showed that the distribution and size of nanoAg become more uniform and smaller after their interaction, resulting in a decrease of RLS intensity. NanoAg could make the activity of catalase rise. By changing the structure of catalase, nanoAg increases its enzymatic activity to a certain extent, breaking down its balance in vivo, thereby affecting the normal physiological activities. NanoAg has obvious toxic effects on catalase. This paper provided a new perspective and method for the toxic effects of nanoAg to biological macromolecules; provided basic data and reference gist for the hygienics and toxicology studies of nanoAg. It is conducive to the toxicity prevention and control work of nanoAg, promoting nano-technology applied to human production and living better.

  1. Prion Protein Does Not Confer Resistance to Hippocampus-Derived Zpl Cells against the Toxic Effects of Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Co2+ Not Supporting a General Protective Role for PrP in Transition Metal Induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingaram, Pradeep Kumar Reddy; Nyeste, Antal; Dondapati, Divya Teja; Fodor, Elfrieda; Welker, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of transition metals with the prion protein (PrP) are well-documented and characterized, however, there is no consensus on their role in either the physiology of PrP or PrP-related neurodegenerative disorders. PrP has been reported to protect cells from the toxic stimuli of metals. By employing a cell viability assay, we examined the effects of various concentrations of Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Co2+ on Zpl (Prnp-/-) and ZW (Prnp+/+) hippocampus-derived mouse neuronal cells. Prnp-/- Zpl cells were more sensitive to all four metals than PrP-expressing Zw cells. However, when we introduced PrP or only the empty vector into Zpl cells, we could not discern any protective effect associated with the presence of PrP. This observation was further corroborated when assessing the toxic effect of metals by propidium-iodide staining and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. Thus, our results on this mouse cell culture model do not seem to support a strong protective role for PrP against transition metal toxicity and also emphasize the necessity of extreme care when comparing cells derived from PrP knock-out and wild type mice.

  2. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  3. A method for comparison of animal and human alveolar dose and toxic effect of inhaled ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, G.E.; Koren, H.; Aissa, M.

    1989-01-01

    Present models for predicting the pulmonary toxicity of O 3 in humans from the toxic effects observed in animals rely on dosimetric measurements of O 3 mass balance and species comparisons of mechanisms that protect tissue against O 3 . The goal of the study described was to identify a method to directly compare O 3 dose and effect in animals and humans using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid markers. The feasibility of estimating O 3 dose to alveoli of animals and humans was demonstrated through assay of reaction products of 18 O-labeled O 3 in lung surfactant and macrophage pellets of rabbits. The feasibility of using lung lavage fluid protein measurements to quantify the O 3 toxic response in humans was demonstrated by the finding of significantly increased lung lavage protein in 10 subjects exposed to 0.4 ppm O 3 for 2 h with intermittent periods of heavy exercise. The validity of using the lavage protein marker to quantify the response in animals has already been established. The positive results obtained in both the 18 O 3 and the lavage protein studies reported here suggest that it should be possible to obtain a direct comparison of both alveolar dose and toxic effect of O 3 to alveoli of animals or humans

  4. Alkylation damage by lipid electrophiles targets functional protein systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G; Ullery, Jody C; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A; Beavers, William N; Porter, Ned A; Marnett, Lawrence J; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C

    2014-03-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions.

  5. Alkylation Damage by Lipid Electrophiles Targets Functional Protein Systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G.; Ullery, Jody C.; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A.; Beavers, William N.; Porter, Ned A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions. PMID:24429493

  6. hepatorenal toxicity studies of sub-chronic administration of calyx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    significant (p>0.05) increase in concentrations of total protein and albumin were observed in ... suggest that high dose of calyx extracts of H.sabdariffa may be toxic to liver and kidney. .... monitoring liver damage (Wada and Snell, 1962).

  7. NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the liver of rats with acetaminophen-induced toxic hepatitis on the background of alimentary protein deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Kopylchuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The ratio between the redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes and key enzymatic activity of the I and II respiratory chain complexes in the liver cells mitochondria of rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis under the conditions of alimentary deprivation of protein was studied. It was estimated, that under the conditions of acute acetaminophen-induced hepatitis of rats kept on a low-protein diet during 4 weeks a significant decrease of the NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity with simultaneous increase of the ratio between redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes (NAD+/NADН is observed compared to the same indices in the liver cells of animals with experimental hepatitis kept on the ration balanced by all nutrients. Results of research may become basic ones for the biochemical rationale for the approaches directed to the correction and elimination of the consequences­ of energy exchange in the toxic hepatitis, induced on the background of protein deficiency.

  8. assessment of the toxicity of radiographic developer effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephen

    ASSESSMENT OF THE TOXICITY OF RADIOGRAPHIC DEVELOPER ... as a source of food (protein), sporting tools for anglers; and a vital part of the ecosystem (tertiary ... in estuaries and coastal waters which because of the ... particularly vulnerable (Dicks, 1983; Health 1987). .... discharges into the marine and coastal.

  9. Multiwall carbon nanotubes modulate paraquat toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoji; Xu, Jiahui; Lavoie, Michel; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Zhu, Youchao; Lu, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei; Zhu, Tingheng; Qian, Haifeng

    2018-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes can be either toxic or beneficial to plant growth and can also modulate toxicity of organic contaminants through surface sorption. The complex interacting toxic effects of carbon nanotubes and organic contaminants in plants have received little attention in the literature to date. In this study, the toxicity of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 50 mg/L) and paraquat (MV, 0.82 mg/L), separately or in combination, were evaluated at the physiological and the proteomic level in Arabidopsis thaliana for 7-14 days. The results revealed that the exposure to MWCNT had no inhibitory effect on the growth of shoots and leaves. Rather, MWCNT stimulated the relative electron transport rate and the effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII value as compared to the control by around 12% and lateral root production up to nearly 4-fold as compared to the control. The protective effect of MWCNT on MV toxicity on the root surface area could be quantitatively explained by the extent of MV adsorption on MWCNT and was related to stimulation of photosynthesis, antioxidant protection and number and area of lateral roots which in turn helped nutrient assimilation. The influence of MWCNT and MV on photosynthesis and oxidative stress at the physiological level was consistent with the proteomics analysis, with various over-expressed photosynthesis-related proteins (by more than 2 folds) and various under-expressed oxidative stress related proteins (by about 2-3 folds). This study brings new insights into the interactive effects of two xenobiotics (MWCNT and MV) on the physiology of a model plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytán, Brandon D.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds—information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

  11. Biofabrication of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle from Ochradenus baccatus Leaves: Broad-Spectrum Antibiofilm Activity, Protein Binding Studies, and In Vivo Toxicity and Stress Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser A. Al-Shabib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are complex aggregation of cells that are embedded in EPS matrix. These microcolonies are highly resistant to drugs and are associated with various diseases. Biofilms have greatly affected the food safety by causing severe losses due to food contamination and spoilage. Therefore, novel antibiofilm agents are needed. This study investigates the antibiofilm and protein binding activity of zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs synthesized from leaf extract of Ochradenus baccatus. Standard physical techniques, including UV-visible spectroscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, were used to characterize the synthesized OB-ZnNPs. Synthesized OB-ZnNPs demonstrated significant biofilm inhibition in human and food-borne pathogens (Chromobacterium violaceum, Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Listeria monocytogenes at subinhibitory concentrations. OB-ZnNPs significantly reduced the virulence factors like violacein, prodigiosin, and alginate and impaired swarming migration and EPS production. OB-ZnNPs demonstrated efficient binding with HSA protein and no change in their structure or stability was observed. In addition, in vivo toxicity evaluation confirmed that OB-ZnNPs possessed no serious toxic effect even at higher doses. Moreover, they were found to have excellent antioxidant properties that can be employed in the fields of food safety and medicine. Hence, it is envisaged that the OB-ZnNPs can be used as potential nanomaterials to combat drug resistant bacterial infections and prevent contamination/spoilage of food.

  12. Proteome Profiling of BEAS-2B Cells Treated with Titanium Dioxide Reveals Potential Toxicity of and Detoxification Pathways for Nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is known to play important roles in nanomaterial-induced toxicities. However, the proteins and signaling pathways associated with nanomaterial-mediated oxidative stress and toxicity are largely unknown. To identify oxidative stress-responding toxicity pathways an...

  13. Proteome Profiling Reveals Potential Toxicity and Detoxification Pathways Following Exposure of BEAS-2B Cells to Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is known to play important roles in engineered nanomaterial induced cellular toxicity. However, the proteins and signaling pathways associated with the engineered nanomaterial mediated oxidative stress and toxicity are largely unknown. To identify these toxicity ...

  14. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: From Cluster Ions to Toxic metal Ions in Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Nicholas B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focused on using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to study cluster ions and toxic metal ions in biology. In Chapter 2, it was shown that primary, secondary and quarternary amines exhibit different clustering characteristics under identical instrument conditions. Carbon chain length also played a role in cluster ion formation. In Chapters 3 and 4, the effects of solvent types/ratios and various instrumental parameters on cluster ion formation were examined. It was found that instrument interface design also plays a critical role in the cluster ion distribution seen in the mass spectrum. In Chapter 5, ESI-MS was used to investigate toxic metal binding to the [Gln11]-amyloid β-protein fragment (1-16). Pb and Cd bound stronger than Zn, even in the presence of excess Zn. Hg bound weaker than Zn. There are endless options for future work on cluster ions. Any molecule that is poorly ionized in positive ion mode can potentially show an increase in ionization efficiency if an appropriate anion is used to produce a net negative charge. It is possible that drug protein or drug/DNA complexes can also be stabilized by adding counter-ions. This would preserve the solution characteristics of the complex in the gas phase. Once in the gas phase, CID could determine the drug binding location on the biomolecule. There are many research projects regarding toxic metals in biology that have yet to be investigated or even discovered. This is an area of research with an almost endless future because of the changing dynamics of biological systems. What is deemed safe today may show toxic effects in the future. Evolutionary changes in protein structures may render them more susceptible to toxic metal binding. As the understanding of toxicity evolves, so does the demand for new toxic metal research. New instrumentation designs and software make it possible to perform research that could not be done in the past. What was undetectable yesterday will

  15. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sandeep K.; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Christen, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC 50 in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far

  16. Supplementary Material for: Polyglutamine toxicity in yeast induces metabolic alterations and mitochondrial defects

    KAUST Repository

    Papsdorf, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Protein aggregation and its pathological effects are the major cause of several neurodegenerative diseases. In Huntingtonâ s disease an elongated stretch of polyglutamines within the protein Huntingtin leads to increased aggregation propensity. This induces cellular defects, culminating in neuronal loss, but the connection between aggregation and toxicity remains to be established. Results To uncover cellular pathways relevant for intoxication we used genome-wide analyses in a yeast model system and identify fourteen genes that, if deleted, result in higher polyglutamine toxicity. Several of these genes, like UGO1, ATP15 and NFU1 encode mitochondrial proteins, implying that a challenged mitochondrial system may become dysfunctional during polyglutamine intoxication. We further employed microarrays to decipher the transcriptional response upon polyglutamine intoxication, which exposes an upregulation of genes involved in sulfur and iron metabolism and mitochondrial Fe-S cluster formation. Indeed, we find that in vivo iron concentrations are misbalanced and observe a reduction in the activity of the prominent Fe-S cluster containing protein aconitase. Like in other yeast strains with impaired mitochondria, non-fermentative growth is impossible after intoxication with the polyglutamine protein. NMR-based metabolic analyses reveal that mitochondrial metabolism is reduced, leading to accumulation of metabolic intermediates in polyglutamine-intoxicated cells. Conclusion These data show that damages to the mitochondrial system occur in polyglutamine intoxicated yeast cells and suggest an intricate connection between polyglutamine-induced toxicity, mitochondrial functionality and iron homeostasis in this model system.

  17. Heat shock protein 90 in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodina Anna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone with important roles in regulating pathogenic transformation. In addition to its well-characterized functions in malignancy, recent evidence from several laboratories suggests a role for Hsp90 in maintaining the functional stability of neuronal proteins of aberrant capacity, whether mutated or over-activated, allowing and sustaining the accumulation of toxic aggregates. In addition, Hsp90 regulates the activity of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1, the master regulator of the heat shock response, mechanism that cells use for protection when exposed to conditions of stress. These biological functions therefore propose Hsp90 inhibition as a dual therapeutic modality in neurodegenerative diseases. First, by suppressing aberrant neuronal activity, Hsp90 inhibitors may ameliorate protein aggregation and its associated toxicity. Second, by activation of HSF-1 and the subsequent induction of heat shock proteins, such as Hsp70, Hsp90 inhibitors may redirect neuronal aggregate formation, and protect against protein toxicity. This mini-review will summarize our current knowledge on Hsp90 in neurodegeneration and will focus on the potential beneficial application of Hsp90 inhibitors in neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. The chemical toxicity of cesium in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Jin-long; Tao, Zong-ya; Fu, Qian; Han, Na; Wu, Guo; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hong; Luo, Xue-gang

    2016-01-01

    To distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium, we study the chemical toxicity of cesium in the seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). In this study, the experiment was designed in two factors and five levels random block design to investigate the interaction effects of Cs and K. Results showed that excessive Cs was one of the main factors influence the growth of Brassica juncea seedlings. And the toxicity of Cs in Brassica juncea is likely to be caused by Cs interacts with K-binding sites in essential K-dependent protein, either competes with K for essential biochemical functions, causing intracellular metabolic disturbance. To test the hypothesis that the toxicity of Cs might cause intracellular metabolic disturbance, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based Illumina paired-end Solexa sequencing platform was employed to analysis the changes in gene expression, and understand the key genes in B. juncea seedlings responding to the toxicity of Cs. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to the toxicity of Cs were identified. Further analysis showed that excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway, and inhibited the indoleacetic acid-induced protein (AUX/IAA) genes expression eventually lead the seedlings growth and development be inhibited. The results suggest that disturbances to tryptophan metabolism might be linked to changes in growth. - Highlights: • Analyze the chemical toxicity of cesium in seedlings of Indian mustard. • Distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium. • 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to Cs toxicity were identified. • Excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway.

  19. Pb(II) and Hg(II) binding to $\\textit{de novo}$ designed proteins studied by $^{204m}$Pb- and $^{199m}$Hg-Perturbed Angular Correlation of $\\gamma$-rays (PAC) spectroscopy : Clues to heavy metal toxicity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    $\\textit{De novo}$ design of proteins combined with PAC spectroscopy offers a unique and powerful approach to the study of fundamental chemistry of heavy metal-protein interactions, and thus of the mechanisms underlying heavy metal toxicity. In this project we focus on Pb(II) and Hg(II) binding to designed three stranded coiled coil proteins with one or two binding sites, mimicking a variety of naturally occurring thiolate-rich metal ion binding sites in proteins. The $^{204m}$Pb- and $^{199m}$Hg-PAC experiments will complement data already recorded with EXAFS, NMR, UV-Vis and CD spectroscopies.

  20. Toxicity assessment of modified Cry1Ac1 proteins and genetically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Key words: Modified Cry1Ac1, food safety assessment, toxicity, insect- resistant rice Agb0101. INTRODUCTION. Genetically modified (GM) crops are becoming an increasingly important feature of the agricultural land- scapes. In 2013, approximately 175 million hectares of. GM crops were planted by 18 ...

  1. Systemic toxicity of ropivacaine during ovine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A C; Arthur, G R; Pedersen, H; Morishima, H O; Finster, M; Covino, B G

    1991-07-01

    Ropivacaine is a new amide local anesthetic structurally related to bupivacaine and mepivacaine. Its potency and duration of action are similar to those of bupivacaine but its therapeutic index may be greater. Since pregnancy enhances the cardiotoxicity of bupivacaine, the current study was devised to compare the toxicity of ropivacaine in chronically instrumented nonpregnant and pregnant ewes during continuous intravenous infusion of the drug at the rate of 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1. In all animals, symptoms of local anesthetic toxicity occurred in the usual order--convulsions, hypotension, apnea, and circulatory collapse. There were no significant differences between the two groups of animals in the doses and plasma concentrations of ropivacaine associated with each toxic manifestations. For example, circulatory collapse occurred at a mean dose of 11.3 +/- 1.1 mg.kg-1 in nonpregnant and 12.4 +/- 0.9 mg.kg-1 in pregnant animals, with corresponding plasma concentrations of 7.3 +/- 0.3 and 9.6 +/- 2.1 micrograms.ml-1 (P = not significant). Protein binding of ropivacaine in the concentration range associated with toxic manifestations was similar in sera obtained from nonpregnant and pregnant ewes. In conclusion, ovine pregnancy does not enhance the systemic toxicity of ropivacaine, possibly because of an absence of gestation-related increase in the availability of free drug.

  2. Identification of novel human damage response proteins targeted through yeast orthology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Peter Svensson

    Full Text Available Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that many proteins influence cellular survival upon exposure to DNA damaging agents. We hypothesized that human orthologs of these S. cerevisiae proteins would also be required for cellular survival after treatment with DNA damaging agents. For this purpose, human homologs of S. cerevisiae proteins were identified and mapped onto the human protein-protein interaction network. The resulting human network was highly modular and a series of selection rules were implemented to identify 45 candidates for human toxicity-modulating proteins. The corresponding transcripts were targeted by RNA interference in human cells. The cell lines with depleted target expression were challenged with three DNA damaging agents: the alkylating agents MMS and 4-NQO, and the oxidizing agent t-BuOOH. A comparison of the survival revealed that the majority (74% of proteins conferred either sensitivity or resistance. The identified human toxicity-modulating proteins represent a variety of biological functions: autophagy, chromatin modifications, RNA and protein metabolism, and telomere maintenance. Further studies revealed that MMS-induced autophagy increase the survival of cells treated with DNA damaging agents. In summary, we show that damage recovery proteins in humans can be identified through homology to S. cerevisiae and that many of the same pathways are represented among the toxicity modulators.

  3. IMPROVING STRUCTURE-LINKED ACCESS TO PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CHEMICAL TOXICITY INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatotoxicity of the Herbicide Alachlor Associated with Glutathione Depletion, Oxidative Damage and Protein S-Cysteinyl Adduction.Toxicity of the herbicide alachlor (2-chloro-2',6'-diethtl-N-[methoxtmethtl]-acetanilide) has been attributed to cytochrome P450-dependent me...

  4. Accumulation, subcellular distribution and toxicity of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in marine phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yun [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-10-15

    We examined the accumulation, subcellular distribution, and toxicity of Hg(II) and MeHg in three marine phytoplankton (the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, the green alga Chlorella autotrophica, and the flagellate Isochrysis galbana). For MeHg, the inter-species toxic difference could be best interpreted by the total cellular or intracellular accumulation. For Hg(II), both I. galbana and T. pseudonana exhibited similar sensitivity, but they each accumulated a different level of Hg(II). A higher percentage of Hg(II) was bound to the cellular debris fraction in T. pseudonana than in I. galbana, implying that the cellular debris may play an important role in Hg(II) detoxification. Furthermore, heat-stable proteins were a major binding pool for MeHg, while the cellular debris was an important binding pool for Hg(II). Elucidating the different subcellular fates of Hg(II) and MeHg may help us understand their toxicity in marine phytoplankton at the bottom of aquatic food chains. - Highlights: > The inter-species toxic difference of methylmercury in marine phytoplankton can be explained by its total cellular or intracellular accumulation. > The inter-species toxic difference of inorganic mercury in marine phytoplankton can be explained by its subcellular distribution. > Heat-stable protein was a major binding pool for MeHg, while the cellular debris was an important binding pool for Hg(II). - The inter-species difference in methylmercury and inorganic mercury toxicity in phytoplankton can be explained by cellular accumulation and subcellular distribution.

  5. Accumulation, subcellular distribution and toxicity of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in marine phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yun; Wang Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    We examined the accumulation, subcellular distribution, and toxicity of Hg(II) and MeHg in three marine phytoplankton (the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, the green alga Chlorella autotrophica, and the flagellate Isochrysis galbana). For MeHg, the inter-species toxic difference could be best interpreted by the total cellular or intracellular accumulation. For Hg(II), both I. galbana and T. pseudonana exhibited similar sensitivity, but they each accumulated a different level of Hg(II). A higher percentage of Hg(II) was bound to the cellular debris fraction in T. pseudonana than in I. galbana, implying that the cellular debris may play an important role in Hg(II) detoxification. Furthermore, heat-stable proteins were a major binding pool for MeHg, while the cellular debris was an important binding pool for Hg(II). Elucidating the different subcellular fates of Hg(II) and MeHg may help us understand their toxicity in marine phytoplankton at the bottom of aquatic food chains. - Highlights: → The inter-species toxic difference of methylmercury in marine phytoplankton can be explained by its total cellular or intracellular accumulation. → The inter-species toxic difference of inorganic mercury in marine phytoplankton can be explained by its subcellular distribution. → Heat-stable protein was a major binding pool for MeHg, while the cellular debris was an important binding pool for Hg(II). - The inter-species difference in methylmercury and inorganic mercury toxicity in phytoplankton can be explained by cellular accumulation and subcellular distribution.

  6. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS

  7. Targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of serum acylcarnitines in acetaminophen toxicity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Yan, Ke; Pence, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa M; Gill, Pritmohinder; Letzig, Lynda G; Beger, Richard D; Sullivan, Janice E; Kearns, Gregory L; Reed, Michael D; Marshall, James D; Van Den Anker, John N; James, Laura P

    2014-01-01

    Aim Long-chain acylcarnitines have been postulated to be sensitive biomarkers of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in mouse models. In the following study, the relationship of acylcarnitines with other known indicators of APAP toxicity was examined in children receiving low-dose (therapeutic) and high-dose (‘overdose’ or toxic ingestion) exposure to APAP. Materials & methods The study included three subject groups: group A (therapeutic dose, n = 187); group B (healthy controls, n = 23); and group C (overdose, n = 62). Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected for each subject. Serum samples were used for measurement of APAP protein adducts, a biomarker of the oxidative metabolism of APAP and for targeted metabolomics analysis of serum acylcarnitines using ultra performance liquid chromatography–triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Results Significant increases in oleoyl- and palmitoyl-carnitines were observed with APAP exposure (low dose and overdose) compared with controls. Significant increases in serum ALT, APAP protein adducts and acylcarnitines were observed in overdose children that received delayed treatment (time to treatment from overdose >24 h) with the antidote N-acetylcysteine. Time to peak APAP protein adducts in serum was shorter than that of the acylcarnitines and serum ALT. Conclusion Perturbations in long-chain acylcarnitines in children with APAP toxicity suggest that mitochrondrial injury and associated impairment in the β-oxidation of fatty acids are clinically relevant as biomarkers of APAP toxicity. PMID:24521011

  8. Enzymatic Mercury Detoxification: The Regulatory Protein MerR

    CERN Multimedia

    Ctortecka, B; Walsh, C T; Comess, K M

    2002-01-01

    Mercury ions and organomercurial reagents are extremely toxic due to their affinity for thiol groups. Many bacteria contain an elaborate detoxification system for a metabolic conversion of toxic Hg$^{2+}$ or organomercurials to less toxic elemental Hg$^0$. The main components of the enzymatic mercury detoxification (see Fig. 1) are the regulatory protein MerR (mercury responsive genetic switch), the organomercurial lyase MerB (cleavage of carbon mercury bonds), and the mercuric ion reductase MerA (reduction of mercuric ions). In these proteins Hg$^{2+}$ is usually coordinated by the thiol groups of cysteines. We utilize the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg detected by time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to identify the Hg metal site geometries in these proteins in order to elucidate the molecular origin of the ultrasensitivity, selectivity and reaction mechanism of this detoxification system. The short lived TDPAC probe ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg ($\\tau_{1/2} =$ 43 min) is su...

  9. Proteomic Assessment of Biochemical Pathways That Are Critical to Nickel-Induced Toxicity Responses in Human Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying toxicity initiated by nickel, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known human carcinogen is necessary for proper assessment of its risks to human and environment. Among a variety of toxic mechanisms, disruption of protein responses a...

  10. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of the original drug FS-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Kalykova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in iodine complexes has increased significantly in recent years because of their wide spectrum of biological activity. The FS-1 is an ion nanostructured complex formed by proteins and/or polypeptides, carbohydrates, salts of alkali and alkaline earth metals with intercalated iodine. Patented in 2014, it is intended for the treatment of infectious diseases of bacterial origin including nosocomial infections and multidrug resistant tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to determine its acute and subchronic toxicity. The study of acute and subchronic toxicity was performed on adult Wistar rats according to OECD guidelines. The data on acute toxicity showed LD50 > 2,000 mg/kg after a single intragastric administration. Twenty-eight days of FS-1 administration at a dose of 500 mg/kg resulted in toxic effects. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, the toxic effects were temporary and a return to normal followed after the recovery period. Doses of 100 mg/kg had no adverse effects on the rats.

  11. Toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol to mice: depression of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.R.; Meuten, D.J.; King, M.W.; Tove, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Mice given propylthiouracil, a thyroid inhibitor, and fed a diet containing a nontoxic level of rac-1(3)-palmitoyl glycerol showed the hypothermia and mortality expected for a toxic dose, but did not show these signs when linoleate or oleate was added to the diet. Loss of radioiodine from the whole animal and thyroid gland was slower when mice were fed the toxic palmitoyl glycerol diet than when fed the same diet containing 4% safflower oil. However, mice fed the two diets did not differ in the extent of the incorporation of radioiodine, and essentially all was bound to protein in each case. Follicular thyroid cells from mice fed the potentially toxic diet that contained unsaturated fat were normal in appearance. Conversely, cells from mice fed the toxic diet were smaller and more densely stained, showing evidence of glycoprotein inside the cell. These findings show that the thyroid gland is affected by the palmitoyl glycerol diet. However, the thyroid is not the only organ affected, because giving either thyroxine or triiodothyronine had no effect on the toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol

  12. Delaying aging and the aging-associated decline in protein homeostasis by inhibition of tryptophan degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Goot, Annemieke T.; Zhu, Wentao; Vázquez-Manrique, Rafael P.; Seinstra, Renée I.; Dettmer, Katja; Michels, Helen; Farina, Francesca; Krijnen, Jasper; Melki, Ronald; Buijsman, Rogier C.; Ruiz Silva, Mariana; Thijssen, Karen L.; Kema, Ido P.; Neri, Christian; Oefner, Peter J.; Nollen, Ellen A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins is thought to play an important role in aging and age-related neurological diseases like Parkinson and Alzheimer’s diseases. Here, we identify tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (tdo-2), the first enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, as a metabolic regulator of age-related α-synuclein toxicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. Depletion of tdo-2 also suppresses toxicity of other heterologous aggregation-prone proteins, including amyloid-β and polyglutamine proteins, and endogenous metastable proteins that are sensors of normal protein homeostasis. This finding suggests that tdo-2 functions as a general regulator of protein homeostasis. Analysis of metabolite levels in C. elegans strains with mutations in enzymes that act downstream of tdo-2 indicates that this suppression of toxicity is independent of downstream metabolites in the kynurenine pathway. Depletion of tdo-2 increases tryptophan levels, and feeding worms with extra l-tryptophan also suppresses toxicity, suggesting that tdo-2 regulates proteotoxicity through tryptophan. Depletion of tdo-2 extends lifespan in these worms. Together, these results implicate tdo-2 as a metabolic switch of age-related protein homeostasis and lifespan. With TDO and Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase as evolutionarily conserved human orthologs of TDO-2, intervening with tryptophan metabolism may offer avenues to reducing proteotoxicity in aging and age-related diseases. PMID:22927396

  13. Non-food applications of Jatropha protein

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how to gain more value per hectare Jatropha curcas by utilizing Jatropha protein for various applications. Specifically, this research investigated the extractability and functional properties of Jatropha protein for non-food/technical applications. Jatropha press cake and leaves are the potential sources of protein. Jatropha proteins can be extracted from Jatropha seed press cake or leaves, with or without detoxification to remove the toxic phorbol esters...

  14. Understanding curcumin-induced modulation of protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Basir; Borana, Mohanish S; Chaudhary, Ankur P

    2017-07-01

    Curcumin, a diarylheptanoid compound, found in spice turmeric is known to alter the aggregation of proteins and reduce the toxicity of the aggregates. This review looks at the molecular basis of modulating protein aggregation and toxicity of the aggregates. Foremost, we identify the interaction of curcumin and its derivatives with proteins/peptides and the effect of their interaction on the conformational stability and unfolding/folding pathway(s). The unfolding/folding processes generate partially folded/unfolded intermediate, which serve as aggregation precursor state. Secondly, we discuss the effect of curcumin binding on the kinetics parameters of the aggregation process, which give information about the mechanism of the aggregation inhibition. We describe, in addition, that curcumin can accelerate/promote fibril formation by binding to oligomeric intermediate(s) accumulated in the aggregation pathway. Finally, we discuss the correlation of curcumin-induced monomeric and/or oligomeric precursor states with aggregate structure and toxicity. On the basis of these discussions, we propose a model describing curcumin-induced inhibition/promotion of formation of amyloid-like fibrils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Latex constituents from Calotropis procera (R. Br. display toxicity upon egg hatching and larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viana Ramos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae is a well-known medicinal plant with leaves, roots, and bark being exploited by popular medicine to fight many human and animal diseases. This work deals with the fractionation of the crude latex produced by the green parts of the plant and aims to evaluate its toxic effects upon egg hatching and larval development of Aedes aegypti. The whole latex was shown to cause 100% mortality of 3rd instars within 5 min. It was fractionated into water-soluble dialyzable (DF and non-dialyzable (NDF rubber-free materials. Both fractions were partially effective to prevent egg hatching and most of individuals growing under experimental conditions died before reaching 2nd instars or stayed in 1st instars. Besides, the fractions were very toxic to 3rd instars causing 100% mortality within 24 h. When both fractions were submitted to heat-treatment the toxic effects were diminished considerably suggesting low thermostability of the toxic compounds. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of both fractions and their newly fractionated peaks obtained through ion exchange chromatography or desalting attested the presence of proteins in both materials. When submitted to protease digestion prior to larvicidal assays NDF lost most of its toxicity but DF was still strongly active. It may be possible that the highly toxic effects of the whole latex from C. procera upon egg hatching and larvae development should be at least in part due to its protein content found in NDF. However the toxicity seems also to involve non protein molecules present in DF.

  16. A new Caenorhabditis elegans model of human huntingtin 513 aggregation and toxicity in body wall muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Lee

    Full Text Available Expanded polyglutamine repeats in different proteins are the known determinants of at least nine progressive neurodegenerative disorders whose symptoms include cognitive and motor impairment that worsen as patients age. One such disorder is Huntington's Disease (HD that is caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the human huntingtin protein (htt. The polyglutamine expansion destabilizes htt leading to protein misfolding, which in turn triggers neurodegeneration and the disruption of energy metabolism in muscle cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie htt proteotoxicity have been somewhat elusive, and the muscle phenotypes have not been well studied. To generate tools to elucidate the basis for muscle dysfunction, we engineered Caenorhabditis elegans to express a disease-associated 513 amino acid fragment of human htt in body wall muscle cells. We show that this htt fragment aggregates in C. elegans in a polyglutamine length-dependent manner and is toxic. Toxicity manifests as motor impairment and a shortened lifespan. Compared to previous models, the data suggest that the protein context in which a polyglutamine tract is embedded alters aggregation propensity and toxicity, likely by affecting interactions with the muscle cell environment.

  17. Noncoding RNAs in protein clearance pathways: implications in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several studies from model organisms suggest upregulation of pathways that clear this toxic protein may provide .... part of UPS have been genetically linked to neurodegener- ... tionally modified or any other misfolded protein are poten-.

  18. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerci C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

  19. MBNL Sequestration by Toxic RNAs and RNA Misprocessing in the Myotonic Dystrophy Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Goodwin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For some neurological disorders, disease is primarily RNA mediated due to expression of non-coding microsatellite expansion RNAs (RNAexp. Toxicity is thought to result from enhanced binding of proteins to these expansions and depletion from their normal cellular targets. However, experimental evidence for this sequestration model is lacking. Here, we use HITS-CLIP and pre-mRNA processing analysis of human control versus myotonic dystrophy (DM brains to provide compelling evidence for this RNA toxicity model. MBNL2 binds directly to DM repeat expansions in the brain, resulting in depletion from its normal RNA targets with downstream effects on alternative splicing and polyadenylation. Similar RNA processing defects were detected in Mbnl compound-knockout mice, highlighted by dysregulation of Mapt splicing and fetal tau isoform expression in adults. These results demonstrate that MBNL proteins are directly sequestered by RNAexp in the DM brain and introduce a powerful experimental tool to evaluate RNA-mediated toxicity in other expansion diseases.

  20. Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity of Pereskia aculeata, a Highly Nutritious Cactaceae Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Debora O; Seifert, Mauricio; Nora, Fabiana R; Bobrowski, Vera L; Freitag, Rogerio A; Kucera, Heidi R; Nora, Leonardo; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2017-04-01

    Pereskia aculeata is a Cactaceae plant with valuable nutritional properties, including terrific amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins, and fiber. However, P. aculeata is reported to contain antinutrients and alkaloids in its leaves. In addition, in a study on growth and development, Wistar rats fed with P. aculeata and casein as protein source grew less than the control group (fed with casein only). Therefore, in this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the oral acute toxicity of P. aculeata in rats and also the cytotoxicity behavior of the plant on lettuce seeds. The acute toxicity research was carried out using dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract, in three different doses, administered by gavage to 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were then examined for signs of toxicity, food intake, body weight, and fecal excretion fluctuations, as well as histopathological alterations, using eight different body tissues. The acute toxicity study did not show any difference among the groups in either clinical evaluation or histopathological analyses. For the cytotoxicity study, dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract was applied on lettuce seeds in five different concentrations. These seeds were evaluated for germination, root and shoot length, and mitotic index. The results show that P. aculeata extract affects lettuce root and shoot growth, but not germination or mitotic index. In conclusion, the acute toxicity on rats and the cytogenotoxicity on lettuce of P. aculeata are neglectable, validating the potential of this plant to be used as a functional food.

  1. Selenium-Induced Toxicity Is Counteracted by Sulfur in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ming; Hui, Maixia; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Pan, Siyi; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to enhance the consumption of Se in human diets. A thoroughly understanding of the effects of Se on plant growth is important for Se biofortification in food crops. Given that Se is an analog of sulfur (S) and can be toxic to plants, its effect on plant growth is expected to be greatly affected by S nutrition. However, this remains to be further understood. Here, we evaluated the influence of Se treatments on broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. var. italica ) growth when S was withheld from the growth nutrient solution. We found that Se was highly toxic to plants when S nutrition was poor. In contrast to Se treatments with adequate S nutrition that slightly reduced broccoli growth, the same concentration of Se treatments without S supplementation dramatically reduced plant sizes. Higher Se toxicity was observed with selenate than selenite under low S nutrition. We examined the bases underlying the toxicity. We discovered that the high Se toxicity in low S nutrition was specifically associated with an increased ratio of Se in proteins verse total Se level, enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, elevated lipid peroxidation causing increased cell membrane damage, and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities. Se toxicity could be counteracted with increased supplementation of S, which is likely through decreasing non-specific integration of Se into proteins and altering the redox system. The present study provides information for better understanding of Se toxicity and shows that adequate S nutrition is important to prevent Se toxicity during biofortification of crops by Se fertilization.

  2. Selenium-Induced Toxicity Is Counteracted by Sulfur in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient for humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to enhance the consumption of Se in human diets. A thoroughly understanding of the effects of Se on plant growth is important for Se biofortification in food crops. Given that Se is an analog of sulfur (S and can be toxic to plants, its effect on plant growth is expected to be greatly affected by S nutrition. However, this remains to be further understood. Here, we evaluated the influence of Se treatments on broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica growth when S was withheld from the growth nutrient solution. We found that Se was highly toxic to plants when S nutrition was poor. In contrast to Se treatments with adequate S nutrition that slightly reduced broccoli growth, the same concentration of Se treatments without S supplementation dramatically reduced plant sizes. Higher Se toxicity was observed with selenate than selenite under low S nutrition. We examined the bases underlying the toxicity. We discovered that the high Se toxicity in low S nutrition was specifically associated with an increased ratio of Se in proteins verse total Se level, enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, elevated lipid peroxidation causing increased cell membrane damage, and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities. Se toxicity could be counteracted with increased supplementation of S, which is likely through decreasing non-specific integration of Se into proteins and altering the redox system. The present study provides information for better understanding of Se toxicity and shows that adequate S nutrition is important to prevent Se toxicity during biofortification of crops by Se fertilization.

  3. A tacrolimus-related immunosuppressant with reduced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, F J; Koprak, S; Staruch, M J; Talento, A; Koo, G; DaSilva, C; Sinclair, P J; Wong, F; Woods, J; Barker, J; Pivnichny, J; Singer, I; Sigal, N H; Williamson, A R; Parsons, W H; Wyvratt, M

    1998-01-15

    Tacrolimus (FK506) has potent immunosuppressive properties reflecting its ability to block the transcription of lymphokine genes in activated T cells through formation of a complex with FK506 binding protein-12, which inhibits the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. The clinical usefulness of tacrolimus is limited, however, by severe adverse effects, including neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Although this toxicity, like immunosuppression, appears mechanistically related to the calcineurin inhibitory action of the drug, a large chemistry effort has been devoted to search for tacrolimus analogs with reduced toxicity but preserved immunosuppressive activity that might have enhanced therapeutic utility. Here, we report on the identification of such an analog, which was synthetically derived from ascomycin (ASC), the C21 ethyl analog of tacrolimus, by introducing an indole group at the C32 position. The profile of biological activity of indolyl-ASC was characterized in rodent models of immunosuppression and toxicity. Indolyl-ASC was found to exhibit an immunosuppressive potency equivalent to that of tacrolimus in T-cell activation in vitro and in murine transplant models, even though indolyl-ASC bound about 10 times less to intracellular FK506 binding protein-12 than tacrolimus or ASC. Further evaluation of indolyl-ASC revealed that it is threefold less potent than tacrolimus in inducing hypothermia, a response that may reflect neurotoxicity, and in causing gastrointestinal transit alterations in mice. Moreover, indolyl-ASC was at least twofold less nephrotoxic than tacrolimus upon 3-week oral treatment in rats. Altogether, these data indicate a modest but definite improvement in the therapeutic index for indolyl-ASC compared with tacrolimus in rodent models.

  4. Plant responses to metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briat, J.F. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Biochimie et physiologie moleculaire des plantes, CNRS, URA 2133; Lebrun, M. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Biochimie et physiologie vegetale appliquee

    1999-01-01

    Increased metal concentration in the soils, up to toxic levels, is becoming an important environmental problem. Safety rule evolution will require solutions in order to cope with food safety rules, and to freeze metal leakage from heavily metal-poisoned soils, such as those from industrial fallows. In this context, plants could serve to develop bio-assays in order to promote new standards, more realistic than the mass of a given metal per kg of soil, that does not consider the metal bio-disponibility. Plants could also be used for phyto-extraction and/or phyto-stabilization. To reach these objectives, a genetic approach could be useful to generate metal-tolerant plants with enough biomass. In this work is more particularly studied the plant responses to metal toxicity. Metal toxicity for living organisms involves oxidative and /or genotoxic mechanisms. Plant protection against metal toxicity occurs, at least in part, through control of root metal uptake and of long distance metal transport. Inside cells, proteins such as ferritins and metallothioneins, and glutathione-derived peptides named phyto-chelatins, participate in excess metal storage and detoxification. Low molecular weight organic molecules, mainly organic acids and amino acids and their derivatives, also play an important role in plant metal homeostasis. When these systems are overloaded, oxidative stress defense mechanisms are activated. Molecular and cellular knowledge of these processes will be necessary to improve plant metal resistance. Occurrence of naturally tolerant plants which hyper accumulate metals provides helpful tools for this research. (authors) 130 refs.

  5. Ultrathin Graphene-Protein Supercapacitors for Miniaturized Bioelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Islam M; Pattammattel, Ajith; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Pande, Paritosh; El-Kady, Maher F; Bishop, Gregory W; Novak, Marc; Kaner, Richard B; Basu, Ashis K; Kumar, Challa V; Rusling, James F

    2017-09-06

    Nearly all implantable bioelectronics are powered by bulky batteries which limit device miniaturization and lifespan. Moreover, batteries contain toxic materials and electrolytes that can be dangerous if leakage occurs. Herein, an approach to fabricate implantable protein-based bioelectrochemical capacitors (bECs) employing new nanocomposite heterostructures in which 2D reduced graphene oxide sheets are interlayered with chemically modified mammalian proteins, while utilizing biological fluids as electrolytes is described. This protein-modified reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite material shows no toxicity to mouse embryo fibroblasts and COS-7 cell cultures at a high concentration of 1600 μg mL -1 which is 160 times higher than those used in bECs, unlike the unmodified graphene oxide which caused toxic cell damage even at low doses of 10 μg mL -1 . The bEC devices are 1 μm thick, fully flexible, and have high energy density comparable to that of lithium thin film batteries. COS-7 cell culture is not affected by long-term exposure to encapsulated bECs over 4 d of continuous charge/discharge cycles. These bECs are unique, protein-based devices, use serum as electrolyte, and have the potential to power a new generation of long-life, miniaturized implantable devices.

  6. Methods for production of proteins in host cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2004-01-13

    The present invention provides methods for the production of proteins, particularly toxic proteins, in host cells. The invention provides methods which use a fusion protein comprising a chaperonin binding domain in host cells induced or regulated to have increased levels of chaperonin which binds the chaperonin binding domain.

  7. The reactive metabolite target protein database (TPDB)--a web-accessible resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlik, Robert P; Koen, Yakov M; Theertham, Bhargav; Dong, Yinghua; Fang, Jianwen

    2007-03-16

    The toxic effects of many simple organic compounds stem from their biotransformation to chemically reactive metabolites which bind covalently to cellular proteins. To understand the mechanisms of cytotoxic responses it may be important to know which proteins become adducted and whether some may be common targets of multiple toxins. The literature of this field is widely scattered but expanding rapidly, suggesting the need for a comprehensive, searchable database of reactive metabolite target proteins. The Reactive Metabolite Target Protein Database (TPDB) is a comprehensive, curated, searchable, documented compilation of publicly available information on the protein targets of reactive metabolites of 18 well-studied chemicals and drugs of known toxicity. TPDB software enables i) string searches for author names and proteins names/synonyms, ii) more complex searches by selecting chemical compound, animal species, target tissue and protein names/synonyms from pull-down menus, and iii) commonality searches over multiple chemicals. Tabulated search results provide information, references and links to other databases. The TPDB is a unique on-line compilation of information on the covalent modification of cellular proteins by reactive metabolites of chemicals and drugs. Its comprehensiveness and searchability should facilitate the elucidation of mechanisms of reactive metabolite toxicity. The database is freely available at http://tpdb.medchem.ku.edu/tpdb.html.

  8. Binding Sites for Amyloid-β Oligomers and Synaptic Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Levi M.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), insoluble and fibrillary amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide accumulates in plaques. However, soluble Aβ oligomers are most potent in creating synaptic dysfunction and loss. Therefore, receptors for Aβ oligomers are hypothesized to be the first step in a neuronal cascade leading to dementia. A number of cell-surface proteins have been described as Aβ binding proteins, and one or more are likely to mediate Aβ oligomer toxicity in AD. Cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a high-affinity Aβ oligomer binding site, and a range of data delineates a signaling pathway leading from Aβ complexation with PrPC to neuronal impairment. Further study of Aβ binding proteins will define the molecular basis of this crucial step in AD pathogenesis. PMID:27940601

  9. Differential protein expression in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to nano and ionic Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina G.; Cardoso, Cátia; Bebianno, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Different protein expression profiles between tissues and Ag forms. •Ag NPs and Ag + presented different mechanisms of toxic action. •Ag NPs toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress-induced cell signalling cascades. •New biomarkers for Ag NPs were proposed, i.e. MVP, ras partial and precol-P. -- Abstract: Ag NPs are one of the most commonly used NPs in nanotechnology whose environmental impacts are to date unknown and the information about bioavailability, mechanisms of biological uptake and toxic implications in organisms is scarce. So, the main objective of this study was to investigate differences in protein expression profiles in gills and digestive gland of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Ag NPs and Ag + (10 μg L −1 ) for a period of 15 days. Protein expression profiles of exposed gills and digestive glands were compared to those of control mussels using two–dimensional electrophoresis to discriminate differentially expressed proteins. Different patterns of protein expression were obtained for exposed mussels, dependent not only on the different redox requirements of each tissue but also to the Ag form used. Unique sets of differentially expressed proteins were affected by each silver form in addition to proteins that were affected by both Ag NPs and Ag + . Fifteen of these proteins were subsequently identified by MALDI–TOF–TOF and database search. Ag NPs affected similar cellular pathways as Ag + , with common response mechanisms in cytoskeleton and cell structure (catchin, myosin heavy chain), stress response (heat shock protein 70), oxidative stress (glutathione s-transferase), transcriptional regulation (nuclear receptor subfamily 1G), adhesion and mobility (precollagen-P) and energy metabolism (ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2). Exposure to Ag NPs altered the expression of two proteins associated with stress response (major vault protein and ras partial) and one protein involved in

  10. Differential protein expression in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to nano and ionic Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina G.; Cardoso, Cátia; Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Different protein expression profiles between tissues and Ag forms. •Ag NPs and Ag{sup +} presented different mechanisms of toxic action. •Ag NPs toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress-induced cell signalling cascades. •New biomarkers for Ag NPs were proposed, i.e. MVP, ras partial and precol-P. -- Abstract: Ag NPs are one of the most commonly used NPs in nanotechnology whose environmental impacts are to date unknown and the information about bioavailability, mechanisms of biological uptake and toxic implications in organisms is scarce. So, the main objective of this study was to investigate differences in protein expression profiles in gills and digestive gland of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Ag NPs and Ag{sup +} (10 μg L{sup −1}) for a period of 15 days. Protein expression profiles of exposed gills and digestive glands were compared to those of control mussels using two–dimensional electrophoresis to discriminate differentially expressed proteins. Different patterns of protein expression were obtained for exposed mussels, dependent not only on the different redox requirements of each tissue but also to the Ag form used. Unique sets of differentially expressed proteins were affected by each silver form in addition to proteins that were affected by both Ag NPs and Ag{sup +}. Fifteen of these proteins were subsequently identified by MALDI–TOF–TOF and database search. Ag NPs affected similar cellular pathways as Ag{sup +}, with common response mechanisms in cytoskeleton and cell structure (catchin, myosin heavy chain), stress response (heat shock protein 70), oxidative stress (glutathione s-transferase), transcriptional regulation (nuclear receptor subfamily 1G), adhesion and mobility (precollagen-P) and energy metabolism (ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2). Exposure to Ag NPs altered the expression of two proteins associated with stress response (major vault protein and ras partial) and one

  11. Protein Corona Prevents TiO2 Phototoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Garvas

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles have generally low toxicity in the in vitro systems although some toxicity is expected to originate in the TiO2-associated photo-generated radical production, which can however be modulated by the radical trapping ability of the serum proteins. To explore the role of serum proteins in the phototoxicity of the TiO2 nanoparticles we measure viability of the exposed cells depending on the nanoparticle and serum protein concentrations.Fluorescence and spin trapping EPR spectroscopy reveal that the ratio between the nanoparticle and protein concentrations determines the amount of the nanoparticles' surface which is not covered by the serum proteins and is proportional to the amount of photo-induced radicals. Phototoxicity thus becomes substantial only at the protein concentration being too low to completely coat the nanotubes' surface.These results imply that TiO2 nanoparticles should be applied with ligands such as proteins when phototoxic effects are not desired - for example in cosmetics industry. On the other hand, the nanoparticles should be used in serum free medium or any other ligand free medium, when phototoxic effects are desired - as for efficient photodynamic cancer therapy.

  12. The secreted antifungal protein thionin 2.4 in Arabidopsis thaliana suppresses the toxicity of a fungal fruit body lectin from Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Asano

    Full Text Available Plants possess active defense systems and can protect themselves from pathogenic invasion by secretion of a variety of small antimicrobial or antifungal proteins such as thionins. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of thionins are derived from their ability to induce open pore formation on cell membranes of phytopathogens, resulting in release of potassium and calcium ions from the cell. Wheat thionin also accumulates in the cell walls of Fusarium-inoculated plants, suggesting that it may have a role in blocking pathogen infection at the plant cell walls. Here we developed an anti-thionin 2.4 (Thi2.4 antibody and used it to show that Thi2.4 is localized in the cell walls of Arabidopsis and cell membranes of F. graminearum, when flowers are inoculated with F. graminearum. The Thi2.4 protein had an antifungal effect on F. graminearum. Next, we purified the Thi2.4 protein, conjugated it with glutathione-S-transferase (GST and coupled the proteins to an NHS-activated column. Total protein from F. graminearum was applied to GST-Thi2.4 or Thi2.4-binding columns, and the fungal fruit body lectin (FFBL of F. graminearum was identified as a Thi2.4-interacting protein. This interaction was confirmed by a yeast two-hybrid analysis. To investigate the biological function of FFBL, we infiltrated the lectin into Arabidopsis leaves and observed that it induced cell death in the leaves. Application of FFBL at the same time as inoculation with F. graminearum significantly enhanced the virulence of the pathogen. By contrast, FFBL-induced host cell death was effectively suppressed in transgenic plants that overexpressed Thi2.4. We found that a 15 kD Thi2.4 protein was specifically expressed in flowers and flower buds and suggest that it acts not only as an antifungal peptide, but also as a suppressor of the FFBL toxicity. Secreted thionin proteins are involved in this dual defense mechanism against pathogen invasion at the plant-pathogen interface.

  13. Toxicity of penicillic acid for rat alveolar macrophages in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, W.G.; Simpson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Penicillic acid (PA) is a polyketide mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. This mycotoxin is toxic in experimental animals and has also been reported to be carcinogenic. The cytotoxicity of penicillic acid was studied in rat albeolar macrophages (AM) in vitro. The effects of penicillic acid on membrane integrity were studied by measuring cell volume changes and 51 Cr release. There was a significant decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in cell cultures exposed to 1.0 mM penicillic acid for 4 hr. Inhibition of the incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine into protein was both dose- and time-dependent and protein synthesis was inhibited significantly after 2 hr exposure to ≥0.1 mM penicillic acid. RNA synthesis was inhibited to a lesser extent than protein synthesis. There was significant inhibition of phagocytosis after 2 hr exposure at ≥0.3 mM penicillic acid and the ED 50 for phagocytosis was 0.09 mM. Thus phagocytosis was more sensitive to the toxic effects of penicillic acid than any other cellular process studied. The data suggest the possibility of a respiratory hazard to agricultural workers exposed to contaminated grain

  14. Drug efflux proteins in multidrug resistant bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanVeen, HW; Konings, WN

    Bacteria contain an array of transport proteins in their cytoplasmic membrane. Many of these proteins play an important role in conferring resistance to toxic compounds. The multidrug efflux systems encountered in prokaryotic cells are very similar to those observed in eukaryotic cells. Therefore, a

  15. Coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol protect against amitriptyline toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Mario D.; Moreno-Fernandez, Ana Maria; Gomez-Skarmeta, Jose Luis; Miguel, Manuel de; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Oropesa-Avila, Manuel; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Angeles; Navas, Placido; Sanchez-Alcazar, Jose Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Since amitriptyline is a very frequently prescribed antidepressant drug, it is not surprising that amitriptyline toxicity is relatively common. Amitriptyline toxic systemic effects include cardiovascular, autonomous nervous, and central nervous systems. To understand the mechanisms of amitriptyline toxicity we studied the cytotoxic effects of amitriptyline treatment on cultured primary human fibroblasts and zebrafish embryos, and the protective role of coenzyme Q 10 and alpha-tocopherol, two membrane antioxidants. We found that amitriptyline treatment induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary human fibroblasts. Mitochondrial dysfunction in amitriptyline treatment was characterized by reduced expression levels of mitochondrial proteins and coenzyme Q 10 , decreased NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity, and a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, and as a consequence of these toxic effects, amitriptyline treatment induced a significant increase in apoptotic cell death activating mitochondrial permeability transition. Coenzyme Q 10 and alpha-tocopherol supplementation attenuated ROS production, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death, suggesting that oxidative stress affecting cell membrane components is involved in amitriptyline cytotoxicity. Furthermore, amitriptyline-dependent toxicity and antioxidant protection were also evaluated in zebrafish embryos, a well established vertebrate model to study developmental toxicity. Amitriptyline significantly increased embryonic cell death and apoptosis rate, and both antioxidants provided a significant protection against amitriptyline embryotoxicity

  16. Assessing protein oxidation by inorganic nanoparticles with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Luna-Velasco, Antonia; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2013-03-01

    Growth in the nanotechnology industry is leading to increased production of engineered nanoparticles (NPs). This has given rise to concerns about the potential adverse and toxic effects to biological system and the environment. An important mechanism of NP toxicity is oxidative stress caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or via direct oxidation of biomolecules. In this study, a protein oxidation assay was developed as an indicator of biomolecule oxidation by NPs. The oxidation of the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was evaluated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the protein carbonyl derivatives formed from protein oxidation. The results showed that some NPs such as Cu(0), CuO, Mn(2)O(3), and Fe(0) caused oxidation of BSA; whereas, many of the other NPs tested were not reactive or very slowly reactive with BSA. The mechanisms involved in the oxidation of BSA protein by the reactive NPs could be attributed to the combined effects of ROS-dependent and direct protein oxidation mechanisms. The ELISA assay is a promising method for the assessment of protein oxidation by NPs, which can provide insights on NP toxicity mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals the adaptive responses of citrus to long-term boron-toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Ye, Xin; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Huang, Jing-Hao; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-10-28

    Boron (B)-toxicity is an important disorder in agricultural regions across the world. Seedlings of 'Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) and 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis) were fertigated every other day until drip with 10 μM (control) or 400 μM (B-toxic) H3BO3 in a complete nutrient solution for 15 weeks. The aims of this study were to elucidate the adaptive mechanisms of citrus plants to B-toxicity and to identify B-tolerant genes. B-toxicity-induced changes in seedlings growth, leaf CO2 assimilation, pigments, total soluble protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and phosphorus were less pronounced in C. sinensis than in C. grandis. B concentration was higher in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves than in B-toxic C. grandis ones. Here we successfully used cDNA-AFLP to isolate 67 up-regulated and 65 down-regulated transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) from B-toxic C. grandis leaves, whilst only 31 up-regulated and 37 down-regulated TDFs from B-toxic C. sinensis ones, demonstrating that gene expression is less affected in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves than in B-toxic C. grandis ones. These differentially expressed TDFs were related to signal transduction, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, protein and amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, cell wall and cytoskeleton modification, stress responses and cell transport. The higher B-tolerance of C. sinensis might be related to the findings that B-toxic C. sinensis leaves had higher expression levels of genes involved in photosynthesis, which might contribute to the higher photosyntheis and light utilization and less excess light energy, and in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging compared to B-toxic C. grandis leaves, thus preventing them from photo-oxidative damage. In addition, B-toxicity-induced alteration in the expression levels of genes encoding inorganic pyrophosphatase 1, AT4G01850 and methionine synthase differed between the two species, which might play a role in the B-tolerance of C. sinensis. C. sinensis

  18. Toxicity of Biologically Active Peptides and Future Safety Aspects: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlullah; Niaz, Kamal; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-02-18

    Peptides are fragments of proteins with significant biological activities. These peptides are encoded in the protein sequence. Initially, such peptides are inactive in their parental form, unless proteolytic enzymes are released. These peptides then exhibit various functions and play a therapeutic role in the body. Besides the therapeutic and physiological activities of peptides, the main purpose of this study was to highlight the safety aspects of peptides. We performed an organized search of available literature using PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, EMBASE, Reaxys and Scopus databases. All the relevant citations including research and review articles about the toxicity of biologically active peptides were evaluated and gathered in this study. Biological peptides are widely used in the daily routine ranging from food production to the cosmetics industry and also they have a beneficial role in the treatment and prevention of different diseases. These peptides are manufactured by both chemical and biotechnological techniques, which show negligible toxicity, however, some naturally occurring peptides and enzymes may induce high toxicity. Depending upon the demand and expected use in the food or pharmaceutical industry, we need different approaches to acertain the safety of these peptides preferentially through in silico methods. Intestinal wall disruption, erythrocytes and lymphocytes toxicity, free radical production, enzymopathic and immunopathic tissue damage and cytotoxicity due to the consumption of peptides are the main problems in the biological system that lead to various complicated disorders. Therefore, before considering biologically active peptides for food production and for therapeutic purpose, it is first necessary to evaluate the immunogenicity and toxicities of peptides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Effects of toxic metals and chemicals on biofilm and biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Herbert H P; Xu, Li-Chong; Chan, Kwong-Yu

    2002-11-01

    Microbes in marine biofilms aggregated into clusters and increased the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), by over 100% in some cases, when the seawater media containing toxic metals and chemicals, such as Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), AI(III), Cr(III), glutaraldehyde, and phenol. The formation of microbial cluster and the increased production of EPS, which contained 84-92% proteins and 8-16% polysaccharides, accelerated the corrosion of the mild steel. However, there was no quantitative relationship between the degree of increased corrosion and the toxicity of metals/chemicals towards sulfate-reducing bacteria, or the increased EPS production.

  20. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarró, Eduard; Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita; Itarte, Emilio; Meseguer, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC. Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also identified ER

  1. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarró, Eduard, E-mail: eduard.sarro@vhir.org [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita, E-mail: conxita.jacobs@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Itarte, Emilio, E-mail: emili.itarte@uab.es [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Meseguer, Anna, E-mail: ana.meseguer@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC. Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also identified ER

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sea-Tac and Alaska Air Group Achieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    electrify ground support equipment, including baggage tugs, belt loaders, and aircraft pushback vehicles, it eGSE vehicles (such as baggage tugs, belt loaders, and pushback tractors) directly from Charlatte

  3. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.

    2014-01-01

    to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...... to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about...... these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation....

  4. Improving Jatropha curcas seed protein recovery by using counter current multistage extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.; Mulder, W.J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seed press cake contains 23 wt% proteins (dry basis). Due to the toxic compounds in Jatropha, we will use the proteins for non-food applications. Related to non-food applications, an efficient protein extraction to obtain a high protein recovery and high protein concentration with

  5. Toxic, antimicrobial and hemagglutinating activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo V.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, hemagglutinating and toxic activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela are described. Intact or dialyzed purple fluid inhibited the growth of species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the action was not bactericidal but bacteriostatic. The active factor or factors were heat labile and sensitive to extreme pH values. The fluid preferentially agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and, to a lesser extent, human blood cells, and this activity was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, a fact suggesting the presence of a lectin. The fluid was also toxic to brine shrimp nauplii (LD50 141.25 µg protein/ml and to mice injected intraperitoneally (LD50 201.8 ± 8.6 mg protein/kg, in a dose-dependent fashion. These toxic activities were abolished when the fluid was heated. Taken together, the data suggest that the activities of the purple fluid are due primarily to substance(s of a protein nature which may be involved in the chemical defense mechanism of this sea hare.

  6. Toxicity identification evaluation methods for identification of toxicants in refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, K.A.; Mount, D.R.; Hackett, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    During the last five years, the authors have used Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods to characterize and identify the source(s) of toxicity in effluents from dozens of municipal and industrial facilities. In most cases, specific chemicals responsible for toxicity have been identified. Although generally successful, the initial experience was that for several refinery effluents, they were able only to qualitatively characterize the presence of organic toxicants; standard toxicant identification procedures were not able to isolate specific organic chemicals. They believe that organic toxicity in these refinery effluents is caused by multiple organic compounds rather than by just a few; evidence for this includes an inability to isolate toxicity in a small number of fractions using liquid chromatography and the presence of very large numbers of compounds in isolated fractions. There is also evidence that the toxicant(s) may be ionic, in that the toxicity of whole effluent and isolated fractions often show increasing toxicity with decreasing pH. Finally, positive-pressure filtration has also reduced toxicity in some samples. In this presentation the authors summarize their experiences with refinery effluents, focusing on typical patterns they have observed and alternative procedures they have used to better understand the nature of these toxicants

  7. Proteomic analysis of dimethoate-responsive proteins in the oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Xiang; Gao, Kun-Shan; Wang, Ke-Jian; Ke, Cai-Huan; Huang, He-Qing

    2012-07-01

    The organophosphorus pesticide dimethoate (DM) has been widely used in agriculture, and its extensive use could still have left many environmental problems. In the present study, the oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) was subjected to acute DM toxicity (2 mg/L), and gas chromatographic analysis revealed and quantified residues of DM in the oyster gonad. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed 12 differentially expressed proteins in the DM-exposed oyster gonad in comparison to the control. Among these 12 protein spots, nine were down-regulated, and three were up-regulated. Both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and database searching were utilized to identify these differential proteins, and revealed five proteins previously described as being related to DM toxicity. In addition, the levels of mRNA expression corresponding to these differential proteins were further proved in part by real-time PCR. The functions of these proteins were summarized as: carrying out energy metabolism, DNA repair, DNA transcriptional regulation, and oxidative protection. The remaining seven protein spots were of particular interest in terms of their responses to DM, which have seldom been reported. These data might point to a number of novel and significant biomarkers for evaluating the contamination levels of DM and provide useful insight into the mechanisms of DM toxicity in vivo.

  8. Understanding mechanisms of toxicity: Insights from drug discovery research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, Keith A.; Kavlock, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Toxicology continues to rely heavily on use of animal testing for prediction of potential for toxicity in humans. Where mechanisms of toxicity have been elucidated, for example endocrine disruption by xenoestrogens binding to the estrogen receptor, in vitro assays have been developed as surrogate assays for toxicity prediction. This mechanistic information can be combined with other data such as exposure levels to inform a risk assessment for the chemical. However, there remains a paucity of such mechanistic assays due at least in part to lack of methods to determine specific mechanisms of toxicity for many toxicants. A means to address this deficiency lies in utilization of a vast repertoire of tools developed by the drug discovery industry for interrogating the bioactivity of chemicals. This review describes the application of high-throughput screening assays as experimental tools for profiling chemicals for potential for toxicity and understanding underlying mechanisms. The accessibility of broad panels of assays covering an array of protein families permits evaluation of chemicals for their ability to directly modulate many potential targets of toxicity. In addition, advances in cell-based screening have yielded tools capable of reporting the effects of chemicals on numerous critical cell signaling pathways and cell health parameters. Novel, more complex cellular systems are being used to model mammalian tissues and the consequences of compound treatment. Finally, high-throughput technology is being applied to model organism screens to understand mechanisms of toxicity. However, a number of formidable challenges to these methods remain to be overcome before they are widely applicable. Integration of successful approaches will contribute towards building a systems approach to toxicology that will provide mechanistic understanding of the effects of chemicals on biological systems and aid in rationale risk assessments

  9. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506

  10. Curcumin Modulates α-Synuclein Aggregation and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In human beings, Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with the oligomerization and amyloid formation of α-synuclein (α-Syn). The polyphenolic Asian food ingredient curcumin has proven to be effective against a wide range of human diseases including cancers and neurological disorders. While curcumin has been shown to significantly reduce cell toxicity of α-Syn aggregates, its mechanism of action remains unexplored. Here, using a series of biophysical techniques, we demonstrate that curcumin reduces toxicity by binding to preformed oligomers and fibrils and altering their hydrophobic surface exposure. Further, our fluorescence and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) data indicate that curcumin does not bind to monomeric α-Syn but binds specifically to oligomeric intermediates. The degree of curcumin binding correlates with the extent of α-Syn oligomerization, suggesting that the ordered structure of protein is required for effective curcumin binding. The acceleration of aggregation by curcumin may decrease the population of toxic oligomeric intermediates of α-Syn. Collectively; our results suggest that curcumin and related polyphenolic compounds can be pursued as candidate drug targets for treatment of PD and other neurological diseases. PMID:23509976

  11. Molecular mechanisms of acrolein toxicity: relevance to human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Akshata; Ghare, Smita; Lamoreau, Bryan; Mohammad, Mohammad; Barve, Shirish; McClain, Craig; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2015-02-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and its potential as a serious environmental health threat is beginning to be recognized. Humans are exposed to acrolein per oral (food and water), respiratory (cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and biocide use) and dermal routes, in addition to endogenous generation (metabolism and lipid peroxidation). Acrolein has been suggested to play a role in several disease states including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and neuro-, hepato-, and nephro-toxicity. On the cellular level, acrolein exposure has diverse toxic effects, including DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, mitochondrial disruption, membrane damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and immune dysfunction. This review addresses our current understanding of each pathogenic mechanism of acrolein toxicity, with emphasis on the known and anticipated contribution to clinical disease, and potential therapies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Acute toxicity of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes: A biochemical, histopathologic and proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Homa; Ramezani, Mohammad; Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan; Behnam, Behzad; Razavi Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Hashem Nia, Azadeh; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Matbou Riahi, Maryam; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2017-09-25

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) showed promising potentials in different biomedical applications but their safe use in humans and probable toxicities are still challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this project, PEGylated and Tween functionalized SWCNTs were prepared. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into nine groups, including PEGylated SWCNTs (75,150μg/mouse) and PEG, Tween80 suspended SWCNTs, Tween 80 and a control group (intact mice). One or 7 days after intravenous injection, the mice were killed and serum and livers were collected. The oxidative stress markers, biochemical and histopathological changes were studied. Subsequently, proteomics approach was used to investigate the alterations of protein expression profiles in the liver. Results showed that there were not any significant differences in malondealdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and biochemical enzymes (ALT and AST) between groups, while the histopathological observations of livers showed some injuries. The results of proteomics analysis revealed indolethylamine N-Methyltransferase (INMT), glycine N-Methyltransferase (GNMT), selenium binding protein (Selenbp), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), TNF receptor associated protein 1(Trap1), peroxiredoxin-6 (Prdx6), electron transport flavoprotein (Etf-α), regucalcin (Rgn) and ATP5b proteins were differentially expressed in functionalized SWCNTs groups. Western blot analyses confirmed that the changes in Prdx6 were consistent with 2-DE gel analysis. In summary, acute toxicological study on two functionalized SWCNTs did not show any significant toxicity at selected doses. Proteomics analysis also showed that following exposure to functionalized SWCNTs, the expression of some proteins with antioxidant activity and detoxifying properties were increased in liver tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. DSC analysis of irradiated proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Silva, Monica Nascimento da; Goncalves, Karina de Oliveira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. It is known that ionizing radiation effects - direct and indirect - can modify the molecular structure, affecting the biological properties of proteins. Ionizing radiation has been employed to attenuate the toxicity of snake venoms, aiming to generate an improved antigen with low toxicity. Two proteins, purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom were tested in this work: crotoxin and crotamine. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound of Cdt venom, is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A2. Crotamine is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed to investigate the effects of radiation on crotoxin and crotamine using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). After isolation of the toxins by chromatographic techniques, they were irradiated with 2.0 kGy from {sup 60}Co source. The thermodynamics analysis, carried out in a METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e calorimeter, showed that irradiation promoted changes of the calorimetric profile. These changes suggest that, although radiation induced structural modifications of the protein, denaturation was only partial, since transition states could still be detected, suggesting that some structural elements were still present after irradiation. Taken together, our data suggest that following irradiation, the molecules underwent conformational changes, and that the remaining structural elements displayed a lower enthalpy, clearly indicating that the previously described loss of toxicity of irradiated toxins can be mostly ascribed to structural changes

  14. DSC analysis of irradiated proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Silva, Monica Nascimento da; Goncalves, Karina de Oliveira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. It is known that ionizing radiation effects - direct and indirect - can modify the molecular structure, affecting the biological properties of proteins. Ionizing radiation has been employed to attenuate the toxicity of snake venoms, aiming to generate an improved antigen with low toxicity. Two proteins, purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom were tested in this work: crotoxin and crotamine. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound of Cdt venom, is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A2. Crotamine is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed to investigate the effects of radiation on crotoxin and crotamine using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). After isolation of the toxins by chromatographic techniques, they were irradiated with 2.0 kGy from 60 Co source. The thermodynamics analysis, carried out in a METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e calorimeter, showed that irradiation promoted changes of the calorimetric profile. These changes suggest that, although radiation induced structural modifications of the protein, denaturation was only partial, since transition states could still be detected, suggesting that some structural elements were still present after irradiation. Taken together, our data suggest that following irradiation, the molecules underwent conformational changes, and that the remaining structural elements displayed a lower enthalpy, clearly indicating that the previously described loss of toxicity of irradiated toxins can be mostly ascribed to structural changes

  15. Boron Toxicity Causes Multiple Effects on Malus domestica Pollen Tube Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kefeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Liu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron toxicity could decrease [Ca(2+)]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca(2+)]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron toxicity. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with fourier-transform infrared analysis, suggested that boron toxicity influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins, and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca(2+)]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth.

  16. Overlapping toxic effect of long term thallium exposure on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) photosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Radosław; Sadowska, Monika; Kowalewska, Łucja; Abratowska, Agnieszka; Kalaji, Hazem M; Mostowska, Agnieszka; Garstka, Maciej; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2016-09-02

    Heavy metal exposure affect plant productivity by interfering, directly and indirectly, with photosynthetic reactions. The toxic effect of heavy metals on photosynthetic reactions has been reported in wide-ranging studies, however there is paucity of data in the literature concerning thallium (Tl) toxicity. Thallium is ubiquitous natural trace element and is considered the most toxic of heavy metals; however, some plant species, such as white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) are able to accumulate thallium at very high concentrations. In this study we identified the main sites of the photosynthetic process inhibited either directly or indirectly by thallium, and elucidated possible detoxification mechanisms in S. alba. We studied the toxicity of thallium in white mustard (S. alba) growing plants and demonstrated that tolerance of plants to thallium (the root test) decreased with the increasing Tl(I) ions concentration in culture media. The root growth of plants exposed to Tl at 100 μg L(-1) for 4 weeks was similar to that in control plants, while in plants grown with Tl at 1,000 μg L(-1) root growth was strongly inhibited. In leaves, toxic effect became gradually visible in response to increasing concentration of Tl (100 - 1,000 μg L(-1)) with discoloration spreading around main vascular bundles of the leaf blade; whereas leaf margins remained green. Subsequent structural analyses using chlorophyll fluorescence, microscopy, and pigment and protein analysis have revealed different effects of varying Tl concentrations on leaf tissue. At lower concentration partial rearrangement of the photosynthetic complexes was observed without significant changes in the chloroplast structure and the pigment and protein levels. At higher concentrations, the decrease of PSI and PSII quantum yields and massive oxidation of pigments was observed in discolored leaf areas, which contained high amount of Tl. Substantial decline of the photosystem core proteins and disorder of the

  17. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  18. Introducing Toxics

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-01-01

    With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present ...

  19. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  20. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and HIF-1α induction in acetaminophen toxicity in mice occurs without hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Shubhra; McCullough, Sandra S.; Hennings, Leah; Letzig, Lynda; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hinson, Jack A.; James, Laura P.

    2011-01-01

    HIF-1α is a nuclear factor important in the transcription of genes controlling angiogenesis including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Both hypoxia and oxidative stress are known mechanisms for the induction of HIF-1α. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are mechanistically important in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in the mouse. MPT may occur as a result of oxidative stress and leads to a large increase in oxidative stress. We previously reported the induction of HIF-1α in mice with APAP toxicity and have shown that VEGF is important in hepatocyte regeneration following APAP toxicity. The following study was performed to examine the relative contribution of hypoxia versus oxidative stress to the induction of HIF-1α in APAP toxicity in the mouse. Time course studies using the hypoxia marker pimonidazole showed no staining for pimonidazole at 1 or 2 h in B6C3F1 mice treated with APAP. Staining for pimonidazole was present in the midzonal to periportal regions at 4, 8, 24 and 48 h and no staining was observed in centrilobular hepatocytes, the sites of the toxicity. Subsequent studies with the MPT inhibitor cyclosporine A showed that cyclosporine A (CYC; 10 mg/kg) reduced HIF-1α induction in APAP treated mice at 1 and 4 h and did not inhibit the metabolism of APAP (depletion of hepatic non-protein sulfhydryls and hepatic protein adduct levels). The data suggest that HIF-1α induction in the early stages of APAP toxicity is secondary to oxidative stress via a mechanism involving MPT. In addition, APAP toxicity is not mediated by a hypoxia mechanism.

  1. A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Cobbina, Samuel J; Mao, Guanghua; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Liuqing

    2016-05-01

    The rational for the study was to review the literature on the toxicity and corresponding mechanisms associated with lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), individually and as mixtures, in the environment. Heavy metals are ubiquitous and generally persist in the environment, enabling them to biomagnify in the food chain. Living systems most often interact with a cocktail of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metal exposure to biological systems may lead to oxidation stress which may induce DNA damage, protein modification, lipid peroxidation, and others. In this review, the major mechanism associated with toxicities of individual metals was the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, toxicities were expressed through depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Interestingly, a metal like Pb becomes toxic to organisms through the depletion of antioxidants while Cd indirectly generates ROS by its ability to replace iron and copper. ROS generated through exposure to arsenic were associated with many modes of action, and heavy metal mixtures were found to have varied effects on organisms. Many models based on concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) have been introduced to help predict toxicities and mechanisms associated with metal mixtures. An integrated model which combines CA and IA was further proposed for evaluating toxicities of non-interactive mixtures. In cases where there are molecular interactions, the toxicogenomic approach was used to predict toxicities. The high-throughput toxicogenomics combines studies in genetics, genome-scale expression, cell and tissue expression, metabolite profiling, and bioinformatics.

  2. The reactive metabolite target protein database (TPDB – a web-accessible resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yinghua

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The toxic effects of many simple organic compounds stem from their biotransformation to chemically reactive metabolites which bind covalently to cellular proteins. To understand the mechanisms of cytotoxic responses it may be important to know which proteins become adducted and whether some may be common targets of multiple toxins. The literature of this field is widely scattered but expanding rapidly, suggesting the need for a comprehensive, searchable database of reactive metabolite target proteins. Description The Reactive Metabolite Target Protein Database (TPDB is a comprehensive, curated, searchable, documented compilation of publicly available information on the protein targets of reactive metabolites of 18 well-studied chemicals and drugs of known toxicity. TPDB software enables i string searches for author names and proteins names/synonyms, ii more complex searches by selecting chemical compound, animal species, target tissue and protein names/synonyms from pull-down menus, and iii commonality searches over multiple chemicals. Tabulated search results provide information, references and links to other databases. Conclusion The TPDB is a unique on-line compilation of information on the covalent modification of cellular proteins by reactive metabolites of chemicals and drugs. Its comprehensiveness and searchability should facilitate the elucidation of mechanisms of reactive metabolite toxicity. The database is freely available at http://tpdb.medchem.ku.edu/tpdb.html

  3. VirtualToxLab — A platform for estimating the toxic potential of drugs, chemicals and natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedani, Angelo; Dobler, Max; Smieško, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The VirtualToxLab is an in silico technology for estimating the toxic potential (endocrine and metabolic disruption, some aspects of carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity) of drugs, chemicals and natural products. The technology is based on an automated protocol that simulates and quantifies the binding of small molecules towards a series of proteins, known or suspected to trigger adverse effects. The toxic potential, a non-linear function ranging from 0.0 (none) to 1.0 (extreme), is derived from the individual binding affinities of a compound towards currently 16 target proteins: 10 nuclear receptors (androgen, estrogen α, estrogen β, glucocorticoid, liver X, mineralocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, progesterone, thyroid α, and thyroid β), four members of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4), a cytosolic transcription factor (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and a potassium ion channel (hERG). The interface to the technology allows building and uploading molecular structures, viewing and downloading results and, most importantly, rationalizing any prediction at the atomic level by interactively analyzing the binding mode of a compound with its target protein(s) in real-time 3D. The VirtualToxLab has been used to predict the toxic potential for over 2500 compounds: the results are posted on (http://www.virtualtoxlab.org). The free platform — the OpenVirtualToxLab — is accessible (in client–server mode) over the Internet. It is free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and non-profit organizations. -- Highlights: ► In silico technology for estimating the toxic potential of drugs and chemicals. ► Simulation of binding towards 16 proteins suspected to trigger adverse effects. ► Mechanistic interpretation and real-time 3D visualization. ► Accessible over the Internet. ► Free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and NPOs.

  4. VirtualToxLab — A platform for estimating the toxic potential of drugs, chemicals and natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedani, Angelo, E-mail: angelo.vedani@unibas.ch [Biographics Laboratory 3R, Klingelbergstrasse 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Dobler, Max [Biographics Laboratory 3R, Klingelbergstrasse 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Smieško, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-06-01

    The VirtualToxLab is an in silico technology for estimating the toxic potential (endocrine and metabolic disruption, some aspects of carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity) of drugs, chemicals and natural products. The technology is based on an automated protocol that simulates and quantifies the binding of small molecules towards a series of proteins, known or suspected to trigger adverse effects. The toxic potential, a non-linear function ranging from 0.0 (none) to 1.0 (extreme), is derived from the individual binding affinities of a compound towards currently 16 target proteins: 10 nuclear receptors (androgen, estrogen α, estrogen β, glucocorticoid, liver X, mineralocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, progesterone, thyroid α, and thyroid β), four members of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4), a cytosolic transcription factor (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and a potassium ion channel (hERG). The interface to the technology allows building and uploading molecular structures, viewing and downloading results and, most importantly, rationalizing any prediction at the atomic level by interactively analyzing the binding mode of a compound with its target protein(s) in real-time 3D. The VirtualToxLab has been used to predict the toxic potential for over 2500 compounds: the results are posted on (http://www.virtualtoxlab.org). The free platform — the OpenVirtualToxLab — is accessible (in client–server mode) over the Internet. It is free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and non-profit organizations. -- Highlights: ► In silico technology for estimating the toxic potential of drugs and chemicals. ► Simulation of binding towards 16 proteins suspected to trigger adverse effects. ► Mechanistic interpretation and real-time 3D visualization. ► Accessible over the Internet. ► Free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and NPOs.

  5. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of complex or toxicant wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills Betancur, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    As a first approximation to wastewater classification in susceptibility terms to treatment by anaerobic biological system, anaerobic biodegradability trials are accomplished to leached of sanitary landfill, to wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and to wastewater of fumaric acid recuperation plant. In the last Plant, anaerobic toxicity trials and lethal toxicity on the Daphnia pulex micro-crustacean are made too. Anaerobic biological trials are made continuing the Wageningen University (Holland) Methodology (1.987). Lethal toxicity biological trials are made following the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(18th edition, 1992). In development of this investigation project is found that fumaric acid recuperation plant leached it has a low anaerobic biodegradability, a high anaerobic toxicity and a high lethal toxicity over Daphnia pulex, for such reasons this leached is cataloged as complex and toxic wastewater. The other hand, wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and wastewater of sanitary landfill they are both highly biodegradability and not-toxic, for such reasons these wastewaters are cataloged as susceptible to treatment by anaerobic biological system

  6. Effect of media composition on bioavailability and toxicity of silver and silver nanoparticles in fish intestinal cells (RTgutGC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghetti, Matteo; Schirmer, Kristin

    2016-12-01

    To understand conditions affecting bioavailability and toxicity of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (cit-AgNP) and dissolved silver at the luminal enterocyte interface, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gut cells (RTgutGC) in media of contrasting composition: two amino acid-containing media, one of which was supplemented with proteins, as can be expected during digestion; and two protein and amino acid-free media contrasting low and high chloride content, as can be expected in the lumen of fish adapting to freshwater or seawater, respectively. Dose-response curves were generated measuring cell metabolic activity, membrane and lysosome integrity over a period of 72 hours. Then, nontoxic doses were applied and total silver accumulation, metallothionein and glutathione reductase mRNA levels were determined. The presence of proteins stabilized cit-AgNP keeping them in suspension. Conversely, in protein-free media, cit-AgNP agglomerated and settled, resulting in higher cellular accumulation of silver and toxicity. Chloride concentrations in exposure media modulated the toxicity of AgNO 3 but not of cit-AgNP. Moreover, while amino acid-containing media are protective against AgNO 3 , likely due to the formation of thiolate complexes, they are only partially protective against cit-AgNP. Viability assays indicated that lysosomes are targets of cit-AgNP, supporting the hypothesis that cit-AgNP exert toxicity intracellularly. Metallothionein, a sensor of metal bioavailability, was induced by cit-AgNP in high chloride medium but not in low chloride medium, indicating that chloride might have a role in mobilizing silver from intercellular vesicles. Overall, this study shows that AgNP bioavailability and toxicity in the intestine is linked to its luminal content.

  7. High-Density Real-Time PCR-Based in Vivo Toxicogenomic Screen to Predict Organ-Specific Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo G. Puskas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxicogenomics, based on the temporal effects of drugs on gene expression, is able to predict toxic effects earlier than traditional technologies by analyzing changes in genomic biomarkers that could precede subsequent protein translation and initiation of histological organ damage. In the present study our objective was to extend in vivo toxicogenomic screening from analyzing one or a few tissues to multiple organs, including heart, kidney, brain, liver and spleen. Nanocapillary quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR was used in the study, due to its higher throughput, sensitivity and reproducibility, and larger dynamic range compared to DNA microarray technologies. Based on previous data, 56 gene markers were selected coding for proteins with different functions, such as proteins for acute phase response, inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic processes, heat-shock response, cell cycle/apoptosis regulation and enzymes which are involved in detoxification. Some of the marker genes are specific to certain organs, and some of them are general indicators of toxicity in multiple organs. Utility of the nanocapillary QRT-PCR platform was demonstrated by screening different references, as well as discovery of drug-like compounds for their gene expression profiles in different organs of treated mice in an acute experiment. For each compound, 896 QRT-PCR were done: four organs were used from each of the treated four animals to monitor the relative expression of 56 genes. Based on expression data of the discovery gene set of toxicology biomarkers the cardio- and nephrotoxicity of doxorubicin and sulfasalazin, the hepato- and nephrotoxicity of rotenone, dihydrocoumarin and aniline, and the liver toxicity of 2,4-diaminotoluene could be confirmed. The acute heart and kidney toxicity of the active metabolite SN-38 from its less toxic prodrug, irinotecan could be differentiated, and two novel gene markers for hormone replacement therapy were identified

  8. Personalizing Protein Nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS, DAVID C.; SANCTUARY, MEGAN R.; QU, YUNYAO; KHAJAVI, SHABNAM HAGHIGHAT; VAN ZANDT, ALEXANDRIA E.; DYANDRA, MELISSA; FRESE, STEVEN A.; BARILE, DANIELA; GERMAN, J. BRUCE

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are not equally digestible—their proteolytic susceptibility varies by their source and processing method. Incomplete digestion increases colonic microbial protein fermentation (putrefaction), which produces toxic metabolites that can induce inflammation in vitro and have been associated with inflammation in vivo. Individual humans differ in protein digestive capacity based on phenotypes, particularly disease states. To avoid putrefaction-induced intestinal inflammation, protein sources and processing methods must be tailored to the consumer’s digestive capacity. This review explores how food processing techniques alter protein digestibility and examines how physiological conditions alter digestive capacity. Possible solutions to improving digestive function or matching low digestive capacity with more digestible protein sources are explored. Beyond the ileal digestibility measurements of protein digestibility, less invasive, quicker and cheaper techniques for monitoring the extent of protein digestion and fermentation are needed to personalize protein nourishment. Biomarkers of protein digestive capacity and efficiency can be identified with the toolsets of peptidomics, metabolomics, microbial sequencing and multiplexed protein analysis of fecal and urine samples. By monitoring individual protein digestive function, the protein component of diets can be tailored via protein source and processing selection to match individual needs to minimize colonic putrefaction and, thus, optimize gut health. PMID:26713355

  9. Toxicoproteomics: serum proteomic pattern diagnostics for early detection of drug induced cardiac toxicities and cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricoin, Emanuel F; Rajapaske, Vinodh; Herman, Eugene H; Arekani, Ali M; Ross, Sally; Johann, Donald; Knapton, Alan; Zhang, J; Hitt, Ben A; Conrads, Thomas P; Veenstra, Timothy D; Liotta, Lance A; Sistare, Frank D

    2004-01-01

    Proteomics is more than just generating lists of proteins that increase or decrease in expression as a cause or consequence of pathology. The goal should be to characterize the information flow through the intercellular protein circuitry which communicates with the extracellular microenvironment and then ultimately to the serum/plasma macroenvironment. The nature of this information can be a cause, or a consequence, of disease and toxicity based processes as cascades of reinforcing information percolate through the system and become reflected in changing proteomic information content of the circulation. Serum Proteomic Pattern Diagnostics is a new type of proteomic platform in which patterns of proteomic signatures from high dimensional mass spectrometry data are used as a diagnostic classifier. While this approach has shown tremendous promise in early detection of cancers, detection of drug-induced toxicity may also be possible with this same technology. Analysis of serum from rat models of anthracycline and anthracenedione induced cardiotoxicity indicate the potential clinical utility of diagnostic proteomic patterns where low molecular weight peptides and protein fragments may have higher accuracy than traditional biomarkers of cardiotoxicity such as troponins. These fragments may one day be harvested by circulating nanoparticles designed to absorb, enrich and amplify the diagnostic biomarker repertoire generated even at the critical initial stages of toxicity.

  10. The Surface Reactivities of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Related Toxicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lei

    the proteins and SWCNTs. It turns out that SWCNTs coated with less BSA would have more proteins adsorbed on them, which obviously implies that interfering with the interactions between the nanomaterials and their ambient proteins by coatings would reduce their toxicity.

  11. Cadmium-binding proteins in midgut gland of freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Ramo, J.; Pastor, A.; Torreblanca, A.; Medina, J.; Diza-Mayans, J.

    1989-02-01

    Metallothioneins, metal binding proteins, were originally isolated and characterized by Margoshes and Vallee. These proteins have a high affinity for various heavy metals, particularly cadmium and mercury and have extensively been studied in mammals. Metal binding proteins have been observed in a variety of marine invertebrates; however, there is very little information available on metal binding proteins in freshwater invertebrates, and particularly in freshwater crustaceans. Cadmium is an ubiquitous non essential element which possesses high toxicity to aquatic organisms. Cadmium binding proteins observed in invertebrates have similar characteristics to mammalian metallothioneins. In 1978, the American red crayfish appeared in Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields (Valencia, Spain). Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals) from the many urban and wastewaters in this area. In previous reports the authors studied the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium on Procambarus clarkii of Albufera Lake. This crayfish shows a high resistance to cadmium and a great accumulation rate of this metal in several tissues, including midgut gland. Since Procambarus clarkii shows a high resistance to cadmium, the presence of cadmium binding proteins (Cd-BP) in midgut gland of these crayfish would be expected. This report describes results on the characterization of Cd-BPs obtained from cadmium exposed crayfish Procambarus clarkii, demonstrating their presence in this freshwater crayfish.

  12. Intracellular and extracellular microtubule associated protein tau as a therapeutic target in Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Jesús; Pallas, Noemí; Bolós, Marta; Sayas, C Laura; Hernandez, Felix

    2016-06-01

    Microtubule associated protein tau, a protein mainly expressed in neurons, plays an important role in several diseases related to dementia, named tauopathies. Alzheimer disease is the most relevant tauopathy. The role of tau protein in dementia is now a topic under discussion, and is the focus of this review. We have covered two major areas: tau pathology and tau as a therapeutic target. Tau pathology is mainly related to a gain of toxic function due to an abnormal accumulation, aberrant modifications (such as hyperphosphorylation and truncation, among others) and self-aggregation of tau into oligomers or larger structures. Also, tau can be found extracellularly in a toxic form. Tau-based therapy is mainly centered on avoiding the gain of these toxic functions of tau. Tau therapies are focused on lowering tau levels, mainly of modified tau species that could be toxic for neurons (phosphorylated, truncated or aggregated tau), in intracellular or extracellular form. Decreasing the levels of those toxic species is a possible therapeutic strategy.

  13. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  14. Toxic gain of function from mutant FUS protein is crucial to trigger cell autonomous motor neuron loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scekic-Zahirovic, Jelena; Sendscheid, Oliver; El Oussini, Hajer; Jambeau, Mélanie; Sun, Ying; Mersmann, Sina; Wagner, Marina; Dieterlé, Stéphane; Sinniger, Jérome; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Drenner, Kevin; Birling, Marie-Christine; Qiu, Jinsong; Zhou, Yu; Li, Hairi; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Rouaux, Caroline; Shelkovnikova, Tatyana; Witting, Anke; Ludolph, Albert C; Kiefer, Friedemann; Storkebaum, Erik; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Dupuis, Luc

    2016-05-17

    FUS is an RNA-binding protein involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Cytoplasmic FUS-containing aggregates are often associated with concomitant loss of nuclear FUS Whether loss of nuclear FUS function, gain of a cytoplasmic function, or a combination of both lead to neurodegeneration remains elusive. To address this question, we generated knockin mice expressing mislocalized cytoplasmic FUS and complete FUS knockout mice. Both mouse models display similar perinatal lethality with respiratory insufficiency, reduced body weight and length, and largely similar alterations in gene expression and mRNA splicing patterns, indicating that mislocalized FUS results in loss of its normal function. However, FUS knockin mice, but not FUS knockout mice, display reduced motor neuron numbers at birth, associated with enhanced motor neuron apoptosis, which can be rescued by cell-specific CRE-mediated expression of wild-type FUS within motor neurons. Together, our findings indicate that cytoplasmic FUS mislocalization not only leads to nuclear loss of function, but also triggers motor neuron death through a toxic gain of function within motor neurons. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  15. Development of protein based bioremediation and drugs for heavy metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opella, Stanley J.

    2001-09-18

    Structural studies were performed on several proteins of the bacterial detoxification system. These proteins are responsible for binding (MerP) and transport of heavy metals, including mercury, across membranes. The structural information obtained from NMR experiments provides insight into the selectivity and sequestration processes towards heavy metal toxins.

  16. Sequestration of Sup35 by aggregates of huntingtin fragments causes toxicity of [PSI+] yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohong; Park, Yang-Nim; Todor, Horia; Moomau, Christine; Masison, Daniel; Eisenberg, Evan; Greene, Lois E

    2012-07-06

    Expression of huntingtin fragments with 103 glutamines (HttQ103) is toxic in yeast containing either the [PIN(+)] prion, which is the amyloid form of Rnq1, or [PSI(+)] prion, which is the amyloid form of Sup35. We find that HttQP103, which has a polyproline region at the C-terminal end of the polyQ repeat region, is significantly more toxic in [PSI(+)] yeast than in [PIN(+)], even though HttQP103 formed multiple aggregates in both [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] yeast. This toxicity was only observed in the strong [PSI(+)] variant, not the weak [PSI(+)] variant, which has more soluble Sup35 present than the strong variant. Furthermore, expression of the MC domains of Sup35, which retains the C-terminal domain of Sup35, but lacks the N-terminal prion domain, almost completely rescued HttQP103 toxicity, but was less effective in rescuing HttQ103 toxicity. Therefore, the toxicity of HttQP103 in yeast containing the [PSI(+)] prion is primarily due to sequestration of the essential protein, Sup35.

  17. Methylene blue protects against TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    Full Text Available The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C or FUS (S57Δ or R521H that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress.

  18. Methylene blue protects against TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A; Ciura, Sorana; Maios, Claudia; Therrien, Martine; Drapeau, Pierre; Kabashi, Edor; Parker, J Alex

    2012-01-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C) or FUS (S57Δ or R521H) that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress.

  19. Antiviral and antitumor activities of the protein fractions from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we present the extraction and purification of protein fractions from the larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica. The bioactivities of the protein fractions were indicated by pseudorabies virus (PRV) and human lung cancer cell line A 549. The crude protein fractions had no toxicity to chick embryo fibroblast-like ...

  20. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro for genetically modified rice that expresses pharmaceutical protein (human serum albumin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yao; Qi, Xiaozhe; Liu, Yifei; Guo, Mingzhang; Chen, Siyuan; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2014-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops that express pharmaceutical proteins have become an important focus of recent genetic engineering research. Food safety assessment is necessary for the commercial development of these crops. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro were designed to evaluate the food safety of the rice variety expressing human serum albumin (HSA). Animals were fed rodent diets containing 12.5%, 25.0% and 50.0% GM or non-GM rice for 90 days. The composition analysis of the GM rice demonstrated several significant differences. However, most of the differences remained within the ranges reported in the literature. In the animal study, a range of indexes including clinical observation, feed efficiency, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were examined. Random changes unrelated to the GM rice exposure, within the range of historical control values and not associated with any signs of illness were observed. The results of heat stability and in vitro digestion of HSA indicated no evidence of potential allergenicity of the protein. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that the GM rice appears to be safe as a dietary ingredient when it is used at up to 50% in the diet on a subchronic basis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discovering less toxic ionic liquids by using the Microtox® toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fernández, F J; Bayo, J; Pérez de los Ríos, A; Vicente, M A; Bernal, F J; Quesada-Medina, J

    2015-06-01

    New Microtox® toxicity data of 16 ionic liquids of different cationic and anionic composition were determined. The ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMPyr(+)][TFO(-)], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride, [BMPyr(+)][Cl(-)], hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium fluoroacetate, [HOPMIM(+)][FCH2COO(-)], and hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium glycolate [HOPMIM(+)][glycolate(-)] were found to be less toxic than conventional organic solvent such as chloroform or toluene, accoding the Microtox® toxicity assays. The toxicity of pyrrolidinium cation was lower than the imidazolium and pyridinium ones. It was found that the inclusion of an hydroxyl group in the alkyl chain length of the cation also reduce the toxicity of the ionic liquid. To sum up, the Microtox® toxicity assays can be used as screening tool to easily determined the toxicity of a wide range of ionic liquids and the toxicity data obtained could allow the obtention of structure-toxicity relationships to design less toxic ionic liquids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Yan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1 and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1 targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins.

  3. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinmiao; Kang, Hong; Feng, Jun; Yang, Yiyan; Tang, Kailin; Zhu, Ruixin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Cao, Zhiwei

    2016-03-07

    Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs) are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH) metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types) in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins.

  4. Methamphetamine induces heme oxygenase-1 expression in cortical neurons and glia to prevent its toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Wu, C.-H.; Lin, T.-C.; Wang, J.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    The impairment of cognitive and motor functions in humans and animals caused by methamphetamine (METH) administration underscores the importance of METH toxicity in cortical neurons. The heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts a cytoprotective effect against various neuronal injures; however, it remains unclear whether HO-1 is involved in METH-induced toxicity. We used primary cortical neuron/glia cocultures to explore the role of HO-1 in METH-induced toxicity. Exposure of cultured cells to various concentrations of METH (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mM) led to cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. A METH concentration of 5 mM, which caused 50% of neuronal death and glial activation, was chosen for subsequent experiments. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that METH significantly induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, both preceded cell death. Double and triple immunofluorescence staining further identified HO-1-positive cells as activated astrocytes, microglia, and viable neurons, but not dying neurons. Inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway significantly blocked HO-1 induction by METH and aggravated METH neurotoxicity. Inhibition of HO activity using tin protoporphyrine IX significantly reduced HO activity and exacerbated METH neurotoxicity. However, prior induction of HO-1 using cobalt protoporphyrine IX partially protected neurons from METH toxicity. Taken together, our results suggest that induction of HO-1 by METH via the p38 signaling pathway may be protective, albeit insufficient to completely protect cortical neurons from METH toxicity.

  5. Role of ARF6 in internalization of metal-binding proteins, metallothionein and transferrin, and cadmium-metallothionein toxicity in kidney proximal tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Natascha A.; Lee, Wing-Kee; Abouhamed, Marouan; Thevenod, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Filtered metal-protein complexes, such as cadmium-metallothionein-1 (CdMT-1) or transferrin (Tf) are apically endocytosed partly via megalin/cubilin by kidney proximal tubule (PT) cells where CdMT-1 internalization causes apoptosis. Small GTPase ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor) proteins regulate endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. We investigated roles of ARF6, which has been shown to be involved in internalization of ligands and endocytic trafficking in PT cells, following MT-1/CdMT-1 and Tf uptake by PT cells. WKPT-0293 Cl.2 cells derived from rat PT S1 segment were transfected with hemagglutinin-tagged wild-type (ARF6-WT) or dominant negative (ARF6-T27N) forms of ARF6. Using immunofluorescence, endogenous ARF6 was associated with the plasma membrane (PM) as well as juxtanuclear and co-localized with Rab5a and Rab11 involved in early and recycling endosomal trafficking. Immunofluorescence staining of megalin showed reduced surface labelling in ARF6 dominant negative (ARF6-DN) cells. Intracellular Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated MT-1 uptake was reduced in ARF6-DN cells and CdMT-1 (14.8 μM for 24 h) toxicity was significantly attenuated from 27.3 ± 3.9% in ARF6-WT to 11.1 ± 4.0% in ARF6-DN cells (n = 6, P < 0.02). Moreover, reduced Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated Tf uptake was observed in ARF-DN cells (75.0 ± 4.6% versus 3.9 ± 3.9% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.01) and/or remained near the PM (89.3 ± 5. 6% versus 45.2 ± 14.3% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the data support roles for ARF6 in receptor-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of MT-1/Tf to endosomes/lysosomes and CdMT-1 toxicity of PT cells

  6. Pharmacological reduction of ER stress protects against TDP-43 neuronal toxicity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A; Aggad, Dina; Julien, Carl; Maios, Claudia; Kabashi, Edor; Drapeau, Pierre; Parker, J Alex

    2013-07-01

    C. elegans and D. rerio expressing mutant TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) are powerful in vivo animal models for the genetics and pharmacology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using these small-animal models of ALS, we previously identified methylene blue (MB) as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 toxicity. Consequently here we investigated how MB might exert its neuroprotective properties and found that it acts through reduction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. We tested other compounds known to be active in the ER unfolded protein response in worms and zebrafish expressing mutant human TDP-43 (mTDP-43). We identified three compounds: salubrinal, guanabenz and a new structurally related compound phenazine, which also reduced paralysis, neurodegeneration and oxidative stress in our mTDP-43 models. Using C. elegans genetics, we showed that all four compounds act as potent suppressors of mTDP-43 toxicity through reduction of the ER stress response. Interestingly, these compounds operate through different branches of the ER unfolded protein pathway to achieve a common neuroprotective action. Our results indicate that protein-folding homeostasis in the ER is an important target for therapeutic development in ALS and other TDP-43-related neurodegenerative diseases. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriello, Michael C. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Sung Gu [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Newsome, Bradley J. [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  8. Toxicity and Binding Profile of Lectins from the Genus Canavalia on Brine Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins.

  9. Heavy metals and metalloids as a cause for protein misfolding and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Markus J; Sharma, Sandeep K; Ibstedt, Sebastian; Jacobson, Therese; Christen, Philipp

    2014-02-25

    While the toxicity of metals and metalloids, like arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and chromium, is undisputed, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely clear. General consensus holds that proteins are the prime targets; heavy metals interfere with the physiological activity of specific, particularly susceptible proteins, either by forming a complex with functional side chain groups or by displacing essential metal ions in metalloproteins. Recent studies have revealed an additional mode of metal action targeted at proteins in a non-native state; certain heavy metals and metalloids have been found to inhibit the in vitro refolding of chemically denatured proteins, to interfere with protein folding in vivo and to cause aggregation of nascent proteins in living cells. Apparently, unfolded proteins with motile backbone and side chains are considerably more prone to engage in stable, pluridentate metal complexes than native proteins with their well-defined 3D structure. By interfering with the folding process, heavy metal ions and metalloids profoundly affect protein homeostasis and cell viability. This review describes how heavy metals impede protein folding and promote protein aggregation, how cells regulate quality control systems to protect themselves from metal toxicity and how metals might contribute to protein misfolding disorders.

  10. Jaburetox-induced toxic effects on the hemocytes of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyetta, Natalia R; Broll, Valquiria; Perin, Ana Paula A; Uberti, Augusto F; Coste Grahl, Matheus V; Staniscuaski, Fernanda; Carlini, Celia R; Fruttero, Leonardo L

    2017-10-01

    Jaburetox is a recombinant peptide derived from a Canavalia ensiformis urease that presents toxic effects upon several species of insects, phytopathogenic fungi and yeasts of medical importance. So far, no toxicity of Jaburetox to mammals has been shown. Previous reports have identified biochemical targets of this toxic peptide in insect models, although its mechanism of action is not completely understood. In this work, we aimed to characterize the effects of Jaburetox in hemolymphatic insect cells. For this purpose, the model insect and Chagas' disease vector Rhodnius prolixus was used. In vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that Jaburetox interacts with a subset of hemocytes and it can be found in various subcellular compartments. In insects injected with Jaburetox there was an increase in the gene expression of the enzymes UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP), chitin synthase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nevertheless, the expression of NOS protein, the enzyme activities of UAP and acid phosphatase (a possible link between UAP and NOS) as well as the phosphorylation state of proteins remained unchanged upon the in vivo Jaburetox treatment. Nitric oxide (NO) imaging using fluorescent probes showed that Jaburetox augmented NO production in the hemocyte aggregates when compared to controls. Even though Jaburetox activated the hemocytes, as demonstrated by wheat germ agglutinin binding assays, the peptide did not lead to an increase of their phagocytic behavior. Taken together, these findings contribute to our understanding of toxic effects of Jaburetox, a peptide with biotechnological applications and a prospective tool for rational insect control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Enantioselective developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of pyraclofos toward zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Shulin, E-mail: shulin@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Zhisheng [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Wenjing; Bao, Lingling [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Chao, E-mail: chaoxu@zjut.edu.cn [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Zhang, Hu [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 210021 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Pyraclofos has significant enantioselective aquatic toxicities to zebrafish. • Pyraclofos induces time- and concentration-dependent developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity. • The mRNA level of IL-1β gene was significantly up-regulated by pyraclofos. • Pyraclofos binds potently to IL-1β, potentially affecting IL-1β-dependent proinflammatory signal transduction. • Our in vitro and in silico studies help to understand the molecular basis for aquatic toxicity of pyraclofos. - Abstract: Pyraclofos, a relatively new organophosphorus pesticide, has shown potential ecotoxicities, however, its aquatic toxicity, especially enantioselective aquatic toxicity, remains largely unknown. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a preeminent vertebrate aquatic model, the enantioselective differences in the developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of pyraclofos were evaluated. Following 96-h exposure, pyraclofos enantiomers exhibited acute toxicity and showed lethal concentration 50 of 2.23 and 3.99 mg/L for (R)-Pyraclofos and (S)-Pyraclofos, respectively. Exposure to pyraclofos caused time- and concentration-dependent malformations such as pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, crooked bodies and hatching during the embryonic development, with markedly higher percentages of malformation at higher concentrations. The concentration-dependent immunotoxicity to zebrafish embryo exposed to low level pyraclofos was induced with significant up-regulation of mRNA levels of immune-related interleukin-1β (IL-1β) gene. (R)-Pyraclofos was consistently more toxic than (S)-Pyraclofos for the acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity to zebrafish. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that at the atomic level, (R)-Pyraclofos binds more potently to IL-1β protein than (S)-Pyraclofos. This enantioselective binding is mainly contributed by the distinct binding mode of pyraclofos enantiomers and their electrostatic interactions with IL-1β, which potentially

  13. Enantioselective developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of pyraclofos toward zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Shulin; Zhang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Wenjing; Bao, Lingling; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyraclofos has significant enantioselective aquatic toxicities to zebrafish. • Pyraclofos induces time- and concentration-dependent developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity. • The mRNA level of IL-1β gene was significantly up-regulated by pyraclofos. • Pyraclofos binds potently to IL-1β, potentially affecting IL-1β-dependent proinflammatory signal transduction. • Our in vitro and in silico studies help to understand the molecular basis for aquatic toxicity of pyraclofos. - Abstract: Pyraclofos, a relatively new organophosphorus pesticide, has shown potential ecotoxicities, however, its aquatic toxicity, especially enantioselective aquatic toxicity, remains largely unknown. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a preeminent vertebrate aquatic model, the enantioselective differences in the developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of pyraclofos were evaluated. Following 96-h exposure, pyraclofos enantiomers exhibited acute toxicity and showed lethal concentration 50 of 2.23 and 3.99 mg/L for (R)-Pyraclofos and (S)-Pyraclofos, respectively. Exposure to pyraclofos caused time- and concentration-dependent malformations such as pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, crooked bodies and hatching during the embryonic development, with markedly higher percentages of malformation at higher concentrations. The concentration-dependent immunotoxicity to zebrafish embryo exposed to low level pyraclofos was induced with significant up-regulation of mRNA levels of immune-related interleukin-1β (IL-1β) gene. (R)-Pyraclofos was consistently more toxic than (S)-Pyraclofos for the acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity to zebrafish. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that at the atomic level, (R)-Pyraclofos binds more potently to IL-1β protein than (S)-Pyraclofos. This enantioselective binding is mainly contributed by the distinct binding mode of pyraclofos enantiomers and their electrostatic interactions with IL-1β, which potentially

  14. Using Chlorella vulgaris to treat toxic excess sludge extract, and identification of its response mechanism by proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Hualin; Chen, Xiurong; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Qian; Ruan, Roger

    2018-04-01

    Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in varying proportions of toxic sludge extracts obtained from a sequencing batch reactor for treating synthetic wastewater containing chlorophenols. C. vulgaris could reduce the ecotoxicity from sludge extracts, and a positive correlation was noted between ecotoxicity removal and total organic carbon removal. In terms of cell density, the optimal proportion of sludge extracts required for the cultivation of C. vulgaris was lower than 50%. The correlation between protein content in per 10 6 algae and inhibition extent of ecotoxicity of the 5 groups on the day of inoculation (0.9182, p vulgaris produced proteins that involved in the stress response/redox system and energy metabolism/biosynthesis to respond to the toxic environment and some other proteins related to mixotrophic metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Toxicity of the bacteriophage λ cII gene product to Escherichia coli arises from inhibition of host cell DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedzierska, Barbara; Glinkowska, Monika; Iwanicki, Adam; Obuchowski, Michal; Sojka, Piotr; Thomas, Mark S.; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2003-01-01

    The bacteriophage λ cII gene codes for a transcriptional activator protein which is a crucial regulator at the stage of the 'lysis-versus-lysogeny' decision during phage development. The CII protein is highly toxic to the host, Escherichia coli, when overproduced. However, the molecular mechanism of this toxicity is not known. Here we demonstrate that DNA synthesis, but not total RNA synthesis, is strongly inhibited in cII-overexpressing E. coli cells. The toxicity was also observed when the transcriptional stimulator activity of CII was abolished either by a point mutation in the cII gene or by a point mutation, rpoA341, in the gene coding for the RNA polymerase α subunit. Moreover, inhibition of cell growth, caused by both wild-type and mutant CII proteins in either rpoA + or rpoA341 hosts, could be relieved by overexpression of the E. coli dnaB and dnaC genes. In vitro replication of an oriC-based plasmid DNA was somewhat impaired by the presence of the CII, and several CII-resistant E. coli strains contain mutations near dnaC. We conclude that the DNA replication machinery may be a target for the toxic activity of CII

  16. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantarawong, Wipa [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Inter Departmental Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Pradermwong, Kantimanee [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Shibahara, Shigeki, E-mail: shibahar@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure.

  17. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantarawong, Wipa; Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki; Pradermwong, Kantimanee; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure

  18. Data on correlation between Aβ42 structural aggregation propensity and toxicity in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Carija

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and amyloid formation is a hallmark of an increasing number of human disorders. Because protein aggregation is deleterious for the cell physiology and results in a decrease in overall cell fitness, it is thought that natural selection acts to purify aggregating proteins during evolution. This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article entitled “Selection against toxic aggregation-prone protein sequences in bacteria” (Navarro et al., 2014 [1]. Here, we used the AGGRESCAN3D (A3D server, a novel in house predictor that forecasts protein aggregation properties in protein structures to illustrate a striking correlation between the structure-based predictions of aggregation propensities for Alzheimer’s Aβ42 peptide variants and their previously reported deleterious effects in bacteria.

  19. Effects of toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia on flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Chuanyue; Liu, Wanjing; Xia, Hu; Li, Jian; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2017-03-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms result in the production of an organic biomass containing cyanotoxins (e.g. microcystins) and an elevated ammonia concentration in the water environment. The ingestion of toxic cyanobacteria and exposure to ammonia are grave hazards for fish. The present study assessed the effects of dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on the flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure had no impact on fish growth performance, fillet proximate composition and drip loss, whereas it significantly decreased fillet total amino acids, total essential amino acids, hardness and gumminess, and increased fillet ultimate pH as well as malondialdehyde content. However, there was no significant interaction between dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on these parameters. Additionally, dietary toxic cyanobacteria significantly increased fillet initial pH, thaw loss and protein carbonyl content, whereas ammonia exposure did not. The results of the present study indicate that dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure reduced the quality of blunt snout bream fillet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Toxic effect of chemicals dumped in premises of UCIL, Bhopal leading to environmental pollution: An in silico approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar Tripathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the role of dumped residues in the loss of immunity using human immune proteins, which provides protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: In this study, toxic chemicals were docked with immune proteins using AutoDock 4.0, and further, molecular dynamics simulations were performed for refinement of the docked complexes which were obtained from docking to confirm its stable behaviour over the entire simulation period. Results: Results revealed that alpha-naphthol showed the maximum inhibition with glutathione synthetase protein, while butylated hydroxytoluene and carbaryl showed the maximum inhibition with p38 MAPK14 protein with binding free energy ΔG -5.06, -5.1 and -5.36 kcal/ mol, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation supported the greater stability of carbaryl and alpha-naphthol complexes with p38 MAPK 14 and glutathione synthetase protein as compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. Conclusions: In summary, findings suggested that toxic exposure of carbaryl and alphanaphthol as compared to butylated hydroxytoluene generated immunotoxicity and disrupted the functioning of immune system thus it may have caused an increase in susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

  1. Cadmium, ATPase-P, yeast. From transport to toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarin, Aurelie

    2007-01-01

    Two projects has been developed during my PhD. One consisting in the functional study of CadA, the Cd 2+ -ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, the other one was focused on the toxicity of cadmium and the associated response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This two studies used a a phenotype of sensitivity to cadmium induced by CadA expression in yeast. This phenotype was used as a screening tool to identify essential amino acids of Cd transport by CadA and to study cadmium toxicity and the corresponding yeast cellular response. CadA actively transports Cd using ATP hydrolysis as energy source. Directed mutagenesis of the membranous polar, sulphur and charged amino-acids revealed that Cd transport pathway implied four transmembrane segments (Tm) and more precisely the cysteine C 354 , C 356 and proline P 355 of the CPC motif located in Tm6, aspartate D 692 in Tm8, glutamate E 164 in Tm4 and methionine M 149 in Tm5. From our studies, 2 Cd ions would be translocated for each hydrolysis ATP. Expression of CadA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces an hypersensitivity to Cd. A wild type cell can grow up to 100 μm cadmium whereas CadA expressing yeast cannot grow with 1 μm cadmium in the culture medium. This cadmium sensitivity was due to the localisation of CadA in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Transport of cadmium in this compartment produces an accumulation of mis-folded proteins that induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). As UPR also occurs in a wild type yeast exposed to low Cd concentration, one can point out endoplasmic reticulum as a extremely sensitive cellular compartment. UPR also appears as an early response to Cd as it happens far before any visible signs of toxicity. (author) [fr

  2. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, D.; Retallack, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  3. Aniline-induced nitrosative stress in rat spleen: Proteomic identification of nitrated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiuzhen; Wang Jianling; Soman, Kizhake V.; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-01-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis, and a variety of sarcomas on chronic exposure in rats. However, mechanisms by which aniline elicits splenotoxic responses are not well understood. Earlier we have shown that aniline exposure leads to increased nitration of proteins in the spleen. However, nitrated proteins remain to be characterized. Therefore, in the current study using proteomic approaches, we focused on characterizing the nitrated proteins in the spleen of aniline-exposed rats. Aniline exposure led to increased tyrosine nitration of proteins, as determined by 2D Western blotting with anti-3-nitrotyrosine specific antibody, compared to the controls. The analyzed nitrated proteins were found in the molecular weight range of 27.7 to 123.6 kDa. A total of 37 nitrated proteins were identified in aniline-treated and control spleens. Among them, 25 were found only in aniline-treated rats, 11 were present in both aniline-treated and control rats, while one was found in controls only. The nitrated proteins identified mainly represent skeletal proteins, chaperones, ferric iron transporter, enzymes, nucleic acids binding protein, and signaling and protein synthesis pathways. Furthermore, aniline exposure led to significantly increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the spleen, suggesting its role in increased reactive nitrogen species formation and contribution to increased nitrated proteins. The identified nitrated proteins provide a global map to further investigate alterations in their structural and functional properties, which will lead to a better understanding of the role of protein nitration in aniline-mediated splenic toxicity. - Highlights: → Proteomic approaches are used to identify nitrated proteins in the spleen. → Twenty five nitrated proteins were found only in the spleen of aniline-treated rats. → Aniline exposure led to increased iNOS mRNA and protein

  4. Protein modification by acrolein: Formation and stability of cysteine adducts

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Pierce, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity of the ubiquitous pollutant and endogenous metabolite, acrolein, is due in part to covalent protein modifications. Acrolein reacts readily with protein nucleophiles via Michael addition and Schiff base formation. Potential acrolein targets in protein include the nucleophilic side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues as well as the free amino terminus of proteins. Although cysteine is the most acrolein-reactive residue, cysteine-acrolein adducts are difficult to iden...

  5. The underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures: A case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Zhou, Xianghong; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular chemical reaction of chemical mixtures is one of the main reasons that cause synergistic or antagonistic effects. However, it still remains unclear what the influencing factors on the intracellular chemical reaction are, and how they influence on the toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures. To reveal this underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures, a case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum was employed, and both their joint effects and mixture toxicity were observed. Then series of two-step linear regressions were performed to describe the relationships between joint effects, the expected additive toxicities and descriptors of individual chemicals (including concentrations, binding affinity to receptors, octanol/water partition coefficients). Based on the quantitative relationships, the underlying joint toxicological mechanisms were revealed. The result shows that, for mixtures with their joint effects resulting from intracellular chemical reaction, their underlying toxicological mechanism depends on not only their interaction with target proteins, but also their transmembrane actions and their concentrations. In addition, two generic points of toxicological mechanism were proposed including the influencing factors on intracellular chemical reaction and the difference of the toxicological mechanism between single reactive chemicals and their mixtures. This study provided an insight into the understanding of the underlying toxicological mechanism for chemical mixtures with intracellular chemical reaction. - Highlights: • Joint effects of nitriles and aldehydes at non-equitoxic ratios were determined. • A novel descriptor, ligand–receptor interaction energy (E binding ), was employed. • Quantitative relationships for mixtures were developed based on a novel descriptor. • The underlying toxic mechanism was revealed based on quantitative relationships. • Two generic

  6. The underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures: A case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Dayong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Lin, Zhifen, E-mail: lzhifen@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhou, Xianghong [Department of Public Management, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Daqiang [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Intracellular chemical reaction of chemical mixtures is one of the main reasons that cause synergistic or antagonistic effects. However, it still remains unclear what the influencing factors on the intracellular chemical reaction are, and how they influence on the toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures. To reveal this underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures, a case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum was employed, and both their joint effects and mixture toxicity were observed. Then series of two-step linear regressions were performed to describe the relationships between joint effects, the expected additive toxicities and descriptors of individual chemicals (including concentrations, binding affinity to receptors, octanol/water partition coefficients). Based on the quantitative relationships, the underlying joint toxicological mechanisms were revealed. The result shows that, for mixtures with their joint effects resulting from intracellular chemical reaction, their underlying toxicological mechanism depends on not only their interaction with target proteins, but also their transmembrane actions and their concentrations. In addition, two generic points of toxicological mechanism were proposed including the influencing factors on intracellular chemical reaction and the difference of the toxicological mechanism between single reactive chemicals and their mixtures. This study provided an insight into the understanding of the underlying toxicological mechanism for chemical mixtures with intracellular chemical reaction. - Highlights: • Joint effects of nitriles and aldehydes at non-equitoxic ratios were determined. • A novel descriptor, ligand–receptor interaction energy (E{sub binding}), was employed. • Quantitative relationships for mixtures were developed based on a novel descriptor. • The underlying toxic mechanism was revealed based on quantitative relationships. • Two

  7. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  8. pH controlled gating of toxic protein pores by dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Taraknath; Kanchi, Subbarao; Ayappa, K. G.; Maiti, Prabal K.

    2016-06-01

    Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent bacterial strains, on a target cell membrane is a challenging and active area of research. Here we demonstrate that PAMAM dendrimers can act as effective pH controlled gating devices once the pore has been formed. We have used fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the cytolysin A (ClyA) protein pores modified with fifth generation (G5) PAMAM dendrimers. Our results show that the PAMAM dendrimer, in either its protonated (P) or non-protonated (NP) states can spontaneously enter the protein lumen. Protonated dendrimers interact strongly with the negatively charged protein pore lumen. As a consequence, P dendrimers assume a more expanded configuration efficiently blocking the pore when compared with the more compact configuration adopted by the neutral NP dendrimers creating a greater void space for the passage of water and ions. To quantify the effective blockage of the protein pore, we have calculated the pore conductance as well as the residence times by applying a weak force on the ions/water. Ionic currents are reduced by 91% for the P dendrimers and 31% for the NP dendrimers. The preferential binding of Cl- counter ions to the P dendrimer creates a zone of high Cl- concentration in the vicinity of the internalized dendrimer and a high concentration of K+ ions in the transmembrane region of the pore lumen. In addition to steric effects, this induced charge segregation for the P dendrimer effectively blocks ionic transport through the pore. Our investigation shows that the bio-compatible PAMAM dendrimers can potentially be used to develop therapeutic protocols based on the pH sensitive gating of pores formed by pore forming toxins to mitigate bacterial infections.Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent

  9. Upgrading wholesomeness of soybeans through radiation deactivation of toxic lectin content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of raw soybeans were investigated through feeding experiments on rats and the wholesomeness of soybeans after radiation deactivation of toxic lectin present in seeds has been evaluated. The injection of crude lectins extracted from 0.15 g raw soybean by intraperitoneal route was toxic to rats (120-125 g body weight) and caused death within 24 hour while lectins extracted from irradiated beans showed no lethal effect. Administration of 28% raw beans diet as the sole protein in balanced diet caused strong growth depression in young rats. Radiation treatment corrects poor growth but did not prevent liver and stomach hypertrophy. No significant differences in relative organs body weight, between groups fed irradiated soybeans and casein diet were observed, except for an increased relative lever and stomach weights with group fed irradiated beans. Rats which received raw beans in their diet suffered from pancreatic, liver, stomach, testes and kidney hypertrophy and spleen atrophy. Data obtained on certain blood plasma chemical constituents (total plasma protein creatine, creatinine) revealed no significant difference between the control and experimental groups. 4 tabs

  10. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  11. Barcoding heat shock proteins to human diseases : looking beyond the heat shock response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakkar, Vaishali; Meister-Broekema, Melanie; Minoia, Melania; Carra, Serena; Kampinga, Harm H.

    There are numerous human diseases that are associated with protein misfolding and the formation of toxic protein aggregates. Activating the heat shock response (HSR) - and thus generally restoring the disturbed protein homeostasis associated with such diseases - has often been suggested as a

  12. In vitro toxicities of experimental jet fuel system ice-inhibiting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, K T; Frazier, J M

    2001-07-02

    One research emphasis within the Department of Defense has been to seek the replacement of operational compounds with alternatives that pose less potential risk to human and ecological systems. Alternatives to glycol ethers, such as diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (M-DE), were investigated for use as jet fuel system ice-inhibiting agents (FSIIs). This group of chemicals includes three derivatives of 1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol (M-1, M-2, and M-3) and a 1,3-dioxane (M-27). In addition, M-DE was evaluated as a reference compound. Our approach was to implement an in vitro test battery based on primary rat hepatocyte cultures to perform initial toxicity evaluations. Hepatocytes were exposed to experimental chemicals (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 mM dosages) for periods up to 24 h. Samples were assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, MTT dye reduction activity, glutathione level, and rate of protein synthesis as indicators of toxicity. Of the compounds tested, M-1, especially at the 10-mM dose, appeared to be more potent than the other chemicals, as measured by these toxicity assays. M-DE, the current FSII, elicited little response in the toxicity assays. Although some variations in toxicity were observed at the 10-mM dose, the in vitro toxicities of the chemicals tested (except for M-1) were not considerably greater than that of M-DE.

  13. Boron toxicity tolerance in barley through reduced expression of the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hrmova, Maria; Baumann, Ute; Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2010-08-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is a significant limitation to cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. Here we describe the cloning of a gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare), underlying the chromosome 6H B toxicity tolerance quantitative trait locus. It is the second B toxicity tolerance gene identified in barley. Previously, we identified the gene Bot1 that functions as an efflux transporter in B toxicity-tolerant barley to move B out of the plant. The gene identified in this work encodes HvNIP2;1, an aquaporin from the nodulin-26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily that was recently described as a silicon influx transporter in barley and rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that a rice mutant for this gene also shows reduced B accumulation in leaf blades compared to wild type and that the mutant protein alters growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under high B. HvNIP2;1 facilitates significant transport of B when expressed in Xenopus oocytes compared to controls and to another NIP (NOD26), and also in yeast plasma membranes that appear to have relatively high B permeability. We propose that tolerance to high soil B is mediated by reduced expression of HvNIP2;1 to limit B uptake, as well as by increased expression of Bot1 to remove B from roots and sensitive tissues. Together with Bot1, the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1 is an important determinant of B toxicity tolerance in barley.

  14. Classification of baseline toxicants for QSAR predictions to replace fish acute toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendza, Monika; Müller, Martin; Wenzel, Andrea

    2017-03-22

    Fish acute toxicity studies are required for environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals by national and international legislations such as REACH, the regulations of plant protection products and biocidal products, or the GHS (globally harmonised system) for classification and labelling of chemicals. Alternative methods like QSARs (quantitative structure-activity relationships) can replace many ecotoxicity tests. However, complete substitution of in vivo animal tests by in silico methods may not be realistic. For the so-called baseline toxicants, it is possible to predict the fish acute toxicity with sufficient accuracy from log K ow and, hence, valid QSARs can replace in vivo testing. In contrast, excess toxicants and chemicals not reliably classified as baseline toxicants require further in silico, in vitro or in vivo assessments. Thus, the critical task is to discriminate between baseline and excess toxicants. For fish acute toxicity, we derived a scheme based on structural alerts and physicochemical property thresholds to classify chemicals as either baseline toxicants (=predictable by QSARs) or as potential excess toxicants (=not predictable by baseline QSARs). The step-wise approach identifies baseline toxicants (true negatives) in a precautionary way to avoid false negative predictions. Therefore, a certain fraction of false positives can be tolerated, i.e. baseline toxicants without specific effects that may be tested instead of predicted. Application of the classification scheme to a new heterogeneous dataset for diverse fish species results in 40% baseline toxicants, 24% excess toxicants and 36% compounds not classified. Thus, we can conclude that replacing about half of the fish acute toxicity tests by QSAR predictions is realistic to be achieved in the short-term. The long-term goals are classification criteria also for further groups of toxicants and to replace as many in vivo fish acute toxicity tests as possible with valid QSAR

  15. Metalloido-porins: Essentiality of Nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins in metalloid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Diehn, Till Arvid; Bienert, Gerd Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Metalloids are a group of physiologically important elements ranging from the essential to the highly toxic. Arsenic, antimony, germanium, and tellurium are highly toxic to plants themselves and to consumers of metalloid-contaminated plants. Boron, silicon, and selenium fulfill essential or beneficial functions in plants. However, when present at high concentrations, boron and selenium cause toxicity symptoms that are detrimental to plant fitness and yield. Consequently, all plants require efficient membrane transport systems to control the uptake and extrusion of metalloids into or out of the plant and their distribution within the plant body. Several Nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) that belong to the aquaporin plant water channel protein family facilitate the diffusion of uncharged metalloid species. Genetic, physiological, and molecular evidence is that NIPs from primitive to higher plants not only transport all environmentally important metalloids, but that these proteins have a major role in the uptake, translocation, and extrusion of metalloids in plants. As most of the metalloid-permeable NIP aquaporins are impermeable or are poorly permeable to water, these NIP channel proteins should be considered as physiologically essential metalloido-porins. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Behind the curtain of tauopathy: a show of multiple players orchestrating tau toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunpeng; Wu, Zhihao; Zhou, Bing

    2016-01-01

    tau, a microtubule-associated protein, directly binds with microtubules to dynamically regulate the organization of cellular cytoskeletons, and is especially abundant in neurons of the central nervous system. Under disease conditions such as Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal dementia, parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 and Alzheimer's disease, tau proteins can self-assemble to paired helical filaments progressing to neurofibrillary tangles. In these diseases, collectively referred to as "tauopathies", alterations of diverse tau modifications including phosphorylation, metal ion binding, glycosylation, as well as structural changes of tau proteins have all been observed, indicating the complexity and variability of factors in the regulation of tau toxicity. Here, we review our current knowledge and hypotheses from relevant studies on tau toxicity, emphasizing the roles of phosphorylations, metal ions, folding and clearance control underlining tau etiology and their regulations. A summary of clinical efforts and associated findings of drug candidates under development is also presented. It is hoped that a more comprehensive understanding of tau regulation will provide us with a better blueprint of tau networking in neuronal cells and offer hints for the design of more efficient strategies to tackle tau-related diseases in the future.

  17. Neuronal death induced by misfolded prion protein is due to NAD+ depletion and can be relieved in vitro and in vivo by NAD+ replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghai; Ottenberg, Gregory; Sferrazza, Gian Franco; Hubbs, Christopher; Fallahi, Mohammad; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Brantley, Alicia F.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of neuronal death in protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases are poorly understood. We used a highly toxic misfolded prion protein (TPrP) model to understand neurotoxicity induced by prion protein misfolding. We show that abnormal autophagy activation and neuronal demise is due to severe, neuron-specific, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) depletion. Toxic prion protein-exposed neuronal cells exhibit dramatic reductions of intracellular NAD+ followed by decreased ATP production, and are completely rescued by treatment with NAD+ or its precursor nicotinamide because of restoration of physiological NAD+ levels. Toxic prion protein-induced NAD+ depletion results from PARP1-independent excessive protein ADP-ribosylations. In vivo, toxic prion protein-induced degeneration of hippocampal neurons is prevented dose-dependently by intracerebral injection of NAD+. Intranasal NAD+ treatment of prion-infected sick mice significantly improves activity and delays motor impairment. Our study reveals NAD+ starvation as a novel mechanism of autophagy activation and neurodegeneration induced by a misfolded amyloidogenic protein. We propose the development of NAD+ replenishment strategies for neuroprotection in prion diseases and possibly other protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25678560

  18. Boron-toxicity tolerance in barley arising from efflux transporter amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Tim; Baumann, Ute; Hayes, Julie; Collins, Nicholas C; Shi, Bu-Jun; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hay, Alison; Mayo, Gwenda; Pallotta, Margaret; Tester, Mark; Langridge, Peter

    2007-11-30

    Both limiting and toxic soil concentrations of the essential micronutrient boron represent major limitations to crop production worldwide. We identified Bot1, a BOR1 ortholog, as the gene responsible for the superior boron-toxicity tolerance of the Algerian barley landrace Sahara 3771 (Sahara). Bot1 was located at the tolerance locus by high-resolution mapping. Compared to intolerant genotypes, Sahara contains about four times as many Bot1 gene copies, produces substantially more Bot1 transcript, and encodes a Bot1 protein with a higher capacity to provide tolerance in yeast. Bot1 transcript levels identified in barley tissues are consistent with a role in limiting the net entry of boron into the root and in the disposal of boron from leaves via hydathode guttation.

  19. Elucidating mechanisms of toxic action of dissolved organic chemicals in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Garrett D; Wiseman, Steve B; Guan, Miao; Zhang, Xiaowei W; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P

    2017-11-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated during extraction of bitumen in the surface-mining oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada, and is acutely and chronically toxic to aquatic organisms. It is known that dissolved organic compounds in OSPW are responsible for most toxic effects, but knowledge of the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity, is limited. Using bioassay-based effects-directed analysis, the dissolved organic fraction of OSPW has previously been fractionated, ultimately producing refined samples of dissolved organic chemicals in OSPW, each with distinct chemical profiles. Using the Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655 gene reporter live cell array, the present study investigated relationships between toxic potencies of each fraction, expression of genes and characterization of chemicals in each of five acutely toxic and one non-toxic extract of OSPW derived by use of effects-directed analysis. Effects on expressions of genes related to response to oxidative stress, protein stress and DNA damage were indicative of exposure to acutely toxic extracts of OSPW. Additionally, six genes were uniquely responsive to acutely toxic extracts of OSPW. Evidence presented supports a role for sulphur- and nitrogen-containing chemical classes in the toxicity of extracts of OSPW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 72778 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... compartment. (ii) Remove aft baggage compartment dividers. (iii) Disconnect the main battery connector from...: Do not connect the battery connector or external power cart during the maintenance in progress. (v... and external power receptacle. (iv) Connect battery connector to battery. (v) Install aft baggage...

  1. Defective Proteasome Delivery of Polyubiquitinated Proteins by Ubiquilin-2 Proteins Containing ALS Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Chang

    Full Text Available Ubiquilin proteins facilitate delivery of ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome for degradation. Interest in the proteins has been heightened by the discovery that gene mutations in UBQLN2 cause dominant inheritance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. However, the mechanisms by which the mutations cause ALS are not known. Here we report on the underlying defect of ubiquilin-2 proteins containing ALS-linked mutations in affecting proteasome-mediated degradation. We found that overexpression of ubiquilin-2 proteins containing any one of five different ALS mutations slow degradation of Myc, a prototypic proteasome substrate. Examination of coprecipitating proteins indicated that the mutant proteins are generally capable of binding polyubiquitinated proteins, but defective in binding the proteasome. GST-pulldown studies revealed that many of the mutants bind weaker to the S5a subunit of the proteasome, compared with wild type (WT ubiquilin-2 protein. The results suggest the mutant proteins are unable to deliver their captured cargo to the proteasome for degradation, which presumably leads to toxicity. Quantification of cell death is consistent with this idea. Measurement of protein turnover further indicated the mutant proteins have longer half-lives than WT ubiquilin-2. Our studies provide novel insight into the mechanism by which ALS-linked mutations in UBQLN2 interfere with protein degradation.

  2. Modulation of prion polymerization and toxicity by rationally designed peptidomimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Sakshi; Sadanandan, Sandhya; Gupta, Sakshi; Singh, Jasdeep; Gupta, Sarika; Haridas, V; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of cellular prion protein is associated with a large array of neurological disorders commonly called the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Designing inhibitors against prions has remained a daunting task owing to limited information about mechanism(s) of their pathogenic self-assembly. Here, we explore the anti-prion properties of a combinatorial library of bispidine-based peptidomimetics (BPMs) that conjugate amino acids with hydrophobic and aromatic side chains. Keeping the bispidine unit unaltered, a series of structurally diverse BPMs were synthesized and tested for their prion-modulating properties. Administration of Leu- and Trp-BPMs delayed and completely inhibited the amyloidogenic conversion of human prion protein (HuPrP), respectively. We found that each BPM induced the HuPrP to form unique oligomeric nanostructures differing in their biophysical properties, cellular toxicities and response to conformation-specific antibodies. While Leu-BPMs were found to stabilize the oligomers, Trp-BPMs effected transient oligomerization, resulting in the formation of non-toxic, non-fibrillar aggregates. Yet another aromatic residue, Phe, however, accelerated the aggregation process in HuPrP. Molecular insights obtained through MD (molecular dynamics) simulations suggested that each BPM differently engages a conserved Tyr 169 residue at the α2-β2 loop of HuPrP and affects the stability of α2 and α3 helices. Our results demonstrate that this new class of molecules having chemical scaffolds conjugating hydrophobic/aromatic residues could effectively modulate prion aggregation and toxicity. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Hybrid protein-synthetic polymer nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseva, Neli S; Rydz, Joanna; Stoyanova, Ekaterina V; Mitova, Violeta A

    2015-01-01

    Among the most common nanoparticulate systems, the polymeric nanocarriers have a number of key benefits, which give a great choice of delivery platforms. Nevertheless, polymeric nanoparticles possess some limitations that include use of toxic solvents in the production process, polymer degradation, drug leakage outside the diseased tissue, and polymer cytotoxicity. The combination of polymers of biological and synthetic origin is an appealing modern strategy for the production of novel nanocarriers with unprecedented properties. Proteins' interface can play an important role in determining bioactivity and toxicity and gives perspective for future development of the polymer-based nanoparticles. The design of hybrid constructs composed of synthetic polymer and biological molecules such as proteins can be considered as a straightforward tool to integrate a broad spectrum of properties and biofunctions into a single device. This review discusses hybrid protein-synthetic polymer nanoparticles with different structures and levels in complexity and functionality, in view of their applications as drug delivery systems. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MicroRNA hsa-miR-29b potentiates etoposide toxicity in HeLa cells via down-regulation of Mcl-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollinerová, S; Dostál, Z; Modrianský, M

    2017-04-01

    Etoposide is commonly used as a monotherapy or in combination with other drugs for cancer treatments. In order to increase the drug efficacy, ceaseless search for novel combinations of drugs and supporting molecules is under way. MiRNAs are natural candidates for facilitating drug effect in various cell types. We used several systems to evaluate the effect of miR-29 family on etoposide toxicity in HeLa cells. We show that miR-29b significantly increases etoposide toxicity in HeLa cells. Because Mcl-1 protein has been recognized as a miR-29 family target, we evaluated downregulation of Mcl-1 protein splicing variant expression induced by miR-29 precursors and confirmed a key role of Mcl-1 protein in enhancing etoposide toxicity. Despite downregulation of Mcl-1 by all three miR-29 family members, only miR-29b significantly enhanced etoposide toxicity. We hypothesized that this difference may be linked to the change in Mcl-1L/Mcl-1S ratio induced by miR-29b. We hypothesized that the change could be due to miR-29b nuclear shuttling. Using specifically modified miR-29b sequences with enhanced cytosolic and nuclear localization we show that there is a difference, albeit statistically non-significant. In conclusion, we show that miR-29b has the synergistic effect with etoposide treatment in the HeLa cells and that this effect is linked to Mcl-1 protein expression and nuclear shuttling of miR-29b. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring Chemical Routes Relevant to the Toxicity of Paracetamol and Its meta-Analogue at a Molecular Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Arriaga, Romina; Galano, Annia

    2017-06-19

    Several chemical routes related to the toxicity of paracetamol (APAP, also known as acetaminophen), its analogue N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP), and their deacetylated derivatives, were investigated using the density functional theory. It was found that AMAP is more resilient to chemical oxidation than APAP. The chemical degradation of AMAP into radical intermediates is predicted to be significant only when it is induced by strong oxidants. This might explain the apparent contradictions among experimental evidence regarding AMAP toxicity. All of the investigated species are incapable of oxidizing DNA, but they can damage lipids by H atom transfer (HAT) from the bis-allylic site, with the phenoxyl radical of AMAP being the most threatening to the lipids' chemical integrity. Regarding protein damage, Cys residues were identified as the most likely targets. The damage in this case may involve two different routes: (i) HAT from the thiol site by phenoxyl radicals and (ii) protein arylation by the quinone imine (QI) derivatives. Both are not only thermochemically viable, but also are very fast reactions. According to the mechanism identified here as the most likely one for protein arylation, a rather large concentration of QI would be necessary for this damage to be significant. This might explain why APAP is nontoxic in therapeutic doses, while overdoses can result in hepatic toxicity. In addition, the QI derived from both APAP and AMAP were found to be capable of inflicting this kind of damage. In addition, it is proposed that they might increase • OH production via the Fenton reaction, which would contribute to their toxicity.

  6. Leucaena toxicity: a new perspective on the most widely used forage tree legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Halliday

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena is a high quality ruminant feed, vitally important for livestock production in the tropics, despite the presence of mimosine in the leaves. This toxic non-protein amino acid has the potential to limit productivity and adversely affect the health of animals. In the 1980s, the ruminal bacterium Synergistes jonesii was discovered and subsequently distributed in Australia as an oral inoculum to overcome these toxic effects. However, in recent times, a number of factors, including: surveys of the status of toxicity worldwide; improved understanding of the chemistry and mode of action of the toxins; new techniques for molecular sequencing; and concerns about the efficacy of the in vitro inoculum; have cast doubt on some past understanding of leucaena toxicity and provide new insights into the geographical spread of S. jonesii. There is also confusion and ignorance regarding the occurrence and significance of toxicity in many countries worldwide. Ongoing research into the taxonomy and ecology of the Synergistetes phylum, improved methods of inoculation, and improved management solutions, along with aware-ness-raising extension activities, are vital for the future success of leucaena feeding systems.

  7. Structure prediction and binding sites analysis of curcin protein of Jatropha curcas using computational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Mugdha; Gupta, Shishir K; Abhilash, P C; Singh, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) are defense proteins in a number of higher-plant species that are directly targeted toward herbivores. Jatropha curcas is one of the biodiesel plants having RIPs. The Jatropha seed meal, after extraction of oil, is rich in curcin, a highly toxic RIP similar to ricin, which makes it unsuitable for animal feed. Although the toxicity of curcin is well documented in the literature, the detailed toxic properties and the 3D structure of curcin has not been determined by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy or any in silico techniques to date. In this pursuit, the structure of curcin was modeled by a composite approach of 3D structure prediction using threading and ab initio modeling. Assessment of model quality was assessed by methods which include Ramachandran plot analysis and Qmean score estimation. Further, we applied the protein-ligand docking approach to identify the r-RNA binding residue of curcin. The present work provides the first structural insight into the binding mode of r-RNA adenine to the curcin protein and forms the basis for designing future inhibitors of curcin. Cloning of a future peptide inhibitor within J. curcas can produce non-toxic varieties of J. curcas, which would make the seed-cake suitable as animal feed without curcin detoxification.

  8. ER stress is the initial response to polyglutamine toxicity in PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Hitoshi; Hamada, Masashi; Fujikake, Nobuhiro; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Zhao, Jing; Hatano, Osamu; Shimoke, Koji; Isosaki, Minoru; Yoshizumi, Masanori; Ikeuchi, Toshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) cause neuronal cell death. However, the relationship between these two phenomena remains controversial. In our current study, we have utilized an expanded polyglutamine fusion protein (polyQ81) expression system in PC12 cells to further examine the involvement of ER stress and UPS impairment in cell death. The expression of polyQ81-induced ER stress and cell death. PolyQ81 also induced the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 and an increase in polyubiquitin immunoreactivity, suggesting UPS impairment. ER stress was induced prior to the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Low doses of lactacystin had almost similar effects on cell viability and on the activation of JNK and caspase-3 between normal cells and polyQ81-expressing cells. These results suggest that ER stress mediates polyglutamine toxicity prior to UPS impairment during the initial stages of these toxic effects.

  9. Toxic effects of {sup 56}Fe ion radiation on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Jing; Zhou, Rong [Department of Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Heavy Ion Radiation Application in Medicine, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Song, Jing’e [Hospital of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gan, Lu; Zhou, Xin; Di, Cuixia; Liu, Yang; Mao, Aihong; Zhao, Qiuyue; Wang, Yupei [Department of Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Heavy Ion Radiation Application in Medicine, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Hong, E-mail: zhangh@impcas.ac.cn [Department of Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Heavy Ion Radiation Application in Medicine, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gansu Wuwei Institute of Medical Sciences, Wuwei 733000 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Iron ion radiation induced developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. • The mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes displayed more sensitivity than the developmental toxicity. • Iron ion radiation induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryos potentially due to DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. - Abstract: All living organisms and ecosystems are permanently exposed to ionizing radiation. Of all the types of ionizing radiation, heavy ions such as {sup 56}Fe have the potential to cause the most severe biological effects. We therefore examined the effects and potential mechanisms of iron ion irradiation on the induction of developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos at 4 h post-fertilization (hpf) were divided into five groups: a control group; and four groups irradiated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 Gy radiation, respectively. Mortality and teratogenesis were significantly increased, and spontaneous movement, heart rate, and swimming distance were decreased in the irradiated groups, accompanied by increased apoptosis. mRNA levels of genes involved in the apoptotic pathway, including p53, bax, bcl-2, and caspase-3, were significantly affected by radiation exposure. Moreover, protein expression levels of P53 and Bcl-2 changed in accordance with the corresponding mRNA expression levels. In addition, we detected the protein expression levels of γ-H2AX, which is a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, and found that γ-H2AX protein levels were significantly increased in the irradiated groups. Overall, the results of this study improve our understanding of the mechanisms of iron ion radiation-induced developmental toxicity and apoptosis, potentially involving the induction of DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. The findings of this study may aid future impact assessment of environmental radioactivity in fish.

  10. The Arctic Alzheimer mutation enhances sensitivity to toxic stress in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, Kristina; Nilsberth, Camilla; Stenh, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    The E693G (Arctic) mutation of the amyloid precursor protein was recently found to lead to early-onset Alzheimer's disease in a Swedish family. In the present study, we report that the Arctic mutation decreases cell viability in human neuroblastoma cells. The cell viability, as measured by the MTT...... their secretion of beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein. The enhanced sensitivity to toxic stress in cells with the Arctic mutation most likely contributes to the pathogenic pathway leading to Alzheimer's disease....

  11. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption.

  12. C-reactive (CRP) protein in transfusion dependent thalassaemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, R.; Mughal, Z.U.N.

    2009-01-01

    In thalassaemic patients iron overload, secondary to blood transfusion, results toxic effects by producing reactive radicals. Iron overload can be studied using serum ferritin level which has a direct correlation with the body's iron status. While oxidative damage can be studied using biomarker of inflammation like hsC-reactive proteins. Blood samples of 55 thalassaemic patients (39 males, 16 females) were collected from Fatmid Foundation (Hyderabad). The samples were analyzed for CBC, serum ferritin level and hsC-reactive proteins. High mean serum ferritin levels was found in all the patients regardless of the frequency of blood transfusion (4774.2135+-3143.3040 mu g/L), indicating the iron overload. High mean hsC-reactive protein was found (2.5151+-1.3712) with a positive correlation with ferritin (r= 0.8371198, p= 0.0000) and platelets (r= 0.43293443, p=0.000962175). C-reactive proteins serve as biomarker of various inflammatory conditions, progression of cardiovascular diseases and as indicator of morbidity and mortality. High C-reactive proteins in these patients indicate ongoing iron overload toxicity related damage in these patients. The estimation of hsC-reactive proteins and other biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation may help in better management of these patients. (author)

  13. Application of factor analysis to the explosive detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Joon; Song, Byung Chul; Im, Hee Jung; Kim, Won Ho; Cho, Jung Hwan

    2005-01-01

    The detection of explosive devices hidden in airline baggage is significant problem, particularly in view of the development of modern plastic explosives which can formed into various innocent-appearing shapes and which are sufficiently powerful that small quantities can destroy an aircraft in flight. Besides, the biggest difficulty occurs from long detection time required for the explosive detection system based on thermal neutron interrogation, which involves exposing baggage to slow neutrons having energy in the order of 0.025 eV. The elemental compositions of explosives can be determined by the Neutron Induced Prompt gamma Spectroscopy (NIPS) which has been installed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a tool for the detection of explosives in passenger baggage. In this work, the factor analysis has been applied to the NIPS system to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the prompt gamma spectrum for the detection of explosive hidden in a passenger's baggage, especially for the noisy prompt gamma spectrum obtained with short measurement time

  14. Could humic acid relieve the biochemical toxicities and DNA damage caused by nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms (Eisenia foetida)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-Chao; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Wang, Mei-Zhen; Wan, Ming-Yang

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether humic acid (HA) prevented gene and biochemical toxic effects in earthworms (Eisenia foetida) exposed to nickel and deltamethrin (at 100 and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively) in soil. Cellular- and molecular-level toxic effects of nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms were evaluated by measuring damage to lipid membranes and DNA and the production of protein carbonyls over 42 days of exposure. Nickel and deltamethrin induced significant levels of oxidative stress in earthworms, increasing the production of peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls) and increasing the comet assay tail DNA% (determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis). DNA damage was the most sensitive of the three indices because it gave a higher sample/control ratio than did the other indices. The presence of HA alleviated (in decreasing order of effectiveness) damage to DNA, proteins, and lipid membranes caused by nickel and deltamethrin. A low HA dose (0.5-1% HA in soil) prevented a great deal of lipid membrane damage, but the highest HA dose (3% HA in soil) prevented still more DNA damage. However, the malondialdehyde concentrations in earthworms were higher at the highest HA dose than at the lower HA doses. The amounts of protein carbonyls produced at different HA doses were not significantly different. The toxic effects to earthworms caused by increased oxidizable nickel concentrations could be relieved by adding HA.

  15. Improved insecticidal toxicity by fusing Cry1Ac of Bacillus thuringiensis with Av3 of Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fu; Cheng, Xing; Ding, Xuezhi; Yao, Ting; Chen, Hanna; Li, Wenping; Hu, Shengbiao; Yu, Ziquan; Sun, Yunjun; Zhang, Youming; Xia, Liqiu

    2014-05-01

    Av3, a neurotoxin of Anemonia viridis, is toxic to crustaceans and cockroaches but inactive in mammals. In the present study, Av3 was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami B (DE3) and purified by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The purified Av3 was injected into the hemocoel of Helicoverpa armigera, rendering the worm paralyzed. Then, Av3 was expressed alone or fusion expressed with the Cry1Ac in acrystalliferous strain Cry(-)B of Bacillus thuringiensis. The shape of Cry1Ac was changed by fusion with Av3. The expressed fusion protein, Cry1AcAv3, formed irregular rhombus- or crescent-shaped crystalline inclusions, which is quite different from the shape of original Cry1Ac crystals. The toxicity of Cry1Ac was improved by fused expression. Compared with original Cry1Ac expressed in Cry(-)B, the oral toxicity of Cry1AcAv3 to H. armigera was elevated about 2.6-fold. No toxicity was detected when Av3 was expressed in Cry(-)B alone. The present study confirmed that marine toxins could be used in bio-control and implied that fused expression with other insecticidal proteins could be an efficient way for their application.

  16. Early hematologic changes during prostate cancer radiotherapy predictive for late urinary and bowel toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Djukic, Victoria; Klotz, Jens; Holy, Richard; Eble, Michael J. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aachen (Germany); Ribbing, Carolina [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The primary objective of the study was to identify early hematologic changes predictive for radiotherapy (RT)-associated genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. In a group of 91 prostate cancer patients presenting for primary (n = 51) or postoperative (n = 40) curative RT, blood samples (blood count, acute phase proteins, and cytokines) were analyzed before (T1), three times during (T2-T4), and 6-8 weeks after (T5) radiotherapy. Before RT (baseline), on the last day (acute toxicity), a median of 2 months and 16 months (late toxicity) after RT, patients responded to a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Acute score changes > 20 points and late changes > 10 points were considered clinically relevant. Radiotherapy resulted in significant changes of hematologic parameters, with the largest effect on lymphocytes (mean decrease of 31-45 %) and significant dependence on target volume. C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation > 5 mg/l and hemoglobin level decrease ≥ 5 G/1 at T2 were found to be independently predictive for acute urinary toxicity (p < 0.01, respectively). CRP elevation was predominantly detected in primary prostate RT (p = 0.02). Early lymphocyte level elevation ≥ 0.3G/l at T2 was protective against late urinary and bowel toxicity (p = 0.02, respectively). Other significant predictive factors for late bowel toxicity were decreasing hemoglobin levels (cut-off ≥ 5 G/l) at T2 (p = 0.04); changes of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor; p = 0.03) and ferritin levels (p = 0.02) at T5. All patients with late bowel toxicity had interleukin (IL)-6 levels < 1.5 ng/l at T2 (63 % without; p = 0.01). Early hematologic changes during prostate cancer radiotherapy are predictive for late urinary and bowel toxicity. (orig.) [German] Das primaere Ziel der Studie war die Identifikation von fruehen haematologischen Veraenderungen mit praediktiver Bedeutung fuer radiotherapieassoziierte genitourinale und gastrointestinale Toxizitaet. In einer

  17. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Judson, Philip Neville; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner-Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants), along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world). Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa's expert knowledge-based system (Derek), showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising anticancer agents would be likely showing high toxicity profiles. A diversity study of the two datasets, carried out using the analysis of principal components from the most important physicochemical properties often used to access drug-likeness of compound datasets, showed that the two datasets do not occupy the same chemical space.

  18. Molecular toxicity of triclosan and carbamazepine to green algae Chlorococcum sp.: A single cell view using synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaying; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Xia; An, Chunjiang; Yao, Yao; Weger, Harold; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiujuan

    2017-07-01

    Although pharmaceuticals and personal care products have been used and introduced into the environment in large quantities, little information on potential ecological risks is currently available considering their effects on living organisms. We verified the feasibility of using synchrotron-based Fourier Transform Infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy to explore in vivo toxic effects on single living Chlorococcum sp. cells. The study provided important information to achieve a better understanding of the toxic mechanism of triclosan and carbamazepine on living algae Chlorococcum sp.. Triclosan and carbamazepine had distinctive toxic effects on unicellular living algae. Most strikingly, triclosan had more dramatic toxic effects on biochemical components than carbamazepine. Triclosan can affect algae primarily by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis and causing protein aggregation. The toxicity response was irreversible at higher concentration (100.000 μM), but attenuated at lower concentration (0.391 μM) as time extended. Carbamazepine can produce hydrophobic interactions to affect the phospholipid bilayer and work on specific proteins to disfunction the cell membrane. Carbamazepine-exposed cells developed a resistance while extending exposure time. This is the first demonstration from an ecological standpoint that SR-FTIR can provide an innovative approach to reveal the toxicity of emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MULTIFUNCTIONAL ADHESIN PROTEINS AND THEIR DISPLAY IN MICROBIAL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant cells expressing a multifunctional adhesin protein derived from a naturally occurring adhesin, containing a binding domain that is capable of binding to an organic receptor and a binding domain that is capable of binding to a compound to which the naturally occurring adhesin protein...... substantially does not bind. The cells or modified adhesin proteins, optionally in immobilized form, are useful for separating organic and inorganic compounds including toxic or precious metals from an environment....

  20. Congo red and protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Petrea; Anisimov, Sergey V; Popovic, Natalija

    2007-01-01

    Congo red is a commonly used histological dye for amyloid detection. The specificity of this staining results from Congo red's affinity for binding to fibril proteins enriched in beta-sheet conformation. Unexpectedly, recent investigations indicate that the dye also possesses the capacity to interfere with processes of protein misfolding and aggregation, stabilizing native protein monomers or partially folded intermediates, while reducing concentration of more toxic protein oligomers. Inhibitory effects of Congo red upon amyloid toxicity may also range from blockade of channel formation and interference with glycosaminoglycans binding or immune functions, to the modulation of gene expression. Particularly, Congo red exhibits ameliorative effect in models of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and prion diseases. Another interesting application of Congo red analogues is the development of imaging probes. Based on their small molecular size and penetrability through blood-brain barrier, Congo red congeners can be used for both antemortem and in vivo visualization and quantification of brain amyloids. Therefore, understanding mechanisms involved in dye-amyloidal fibril binding and inhibition of aggregation will provide instructive guides for the design of future compounds, potentially useful for monitoring and treating neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Effect of nutritional state on Hsp60 levels in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis following toxicant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, C E; Baumgartner, T A; Newman, J W; Wolfe, M F; Tjeerdema, R S

    2002-11-13

    The nutritional state of an organism can affect the results of toxicity testing. Here we exemplified this fact by examining the effect of nutritional deprivation on heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) production in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis following exposure to two proven inducers of hsp60, a water-accommodated fraction of crude oil (WAF) and a dispersed oil preparation (DO). Both DO and WAF exposures of unfed rotifers resulted in significantly greater hsp60 levels than that of fed DO and WAF exposed rotifers at 8 h: 870 and 3100% of control, respectively. Results clearly demonstrate that a poor nutritional state potentiates stress protein induction upon exposure to water-soluble petroleum products. It is therefore critical to define the organismal nutritional status when reporting toxic responses. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Safety assessment of the calcium-binding protein, apoaequorin, expressed by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel L; Tetteh, Afua O; Goodman, Richard E; Underwood, Mark Y

    2014-07-01

    Calcium-binding proteins are ubiquitous modulators of cellular activity and function. Cells possess numerous calcium-binding proteins that regulate calcium concentration in the cytosol by buffering excess free calcium ion. Disturbances in intracellular calcium homeostasis are at the heart of many age-related conditions making these proteins targets for therapeutic intervention. A calcium-binding protein, apoaequorin, has shown potential utility in a broad spectrum of applications for human health and well-being. Large-scale recombinant production of the protein has been successful; enabling further research and development and commercialization efforts. Previous work reported a 90-day subchronic toxicity test that demonstrated this protein has no toxicity by oral exposure in Sprague-Dawley rodents. The current study assesses the allergenic potential of the purified protein using bioinformatic analysis and simulated gastric digestion. The results from the bioinformatics searches with the apoaequorin sequence show the protein is not a known allergen and not likely to cross-react with known allergens. Apoaequorin is easily digested by pepsin, a characteristic commonly exhibited by many non-allergenic dietary proteins. From these data, there is no added concern of safety due to unusual stability of the protein by ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Monoclonal Antibody Analysis and Insecticidal Spectrum of Three Types of Lepidopteran-Specific Insecticidal Crystal Proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfte, Herman; Van Rie, Jeroen; Jansens, Stefan; Van Houtven, Annemie; Vanderbruggen, Hilde; Vaeck, Mark

    1988-01-01

    We have investigated the protein composition and the insecticidal spectrum of crystals of 29 Bacillus thuringiensis strains active against lepidopteran larvae. All crystals contained proteins of 130 to 140 kilodaltons (kDa) which could be grouped into three types by the molecular weight of the protoxin and the trypsin-activated core fragment. Proteins of the three types showed a characteristic insecticidal spectrum when tested against five lepidopteran species. Type A crystal proteins were protoxins of 130 or 133 kDa, which were processed into 60-kDa toxins by trypsin. Several genes encoding crystal proteins of this type have been cloned and sequenced earlier. They are highly conserved in the N-terminal half of the toxic fragment and were previously classified in three subtypes (the 4.5-, 5.3-, and 6.6-kilobase subtypes) based on the restriction map of their genes. The present study shows that different proteins of these three subtypes were equally toxic against Manduca sexta and Pieris brassicae and had no detectable activity against Spodoptera littoralis. However, the 4.5-, 5.3-, and 6.6-kilobase subtypes differed in their toxicity against Heliothis virescens and Mamestra brassicae. Type B crystal proteins consisted of 140-kDa protoxins with a 55-kDa tryptic core fragment. These were only active against one of the five insect species tested (P. brassicae). The protoxin and the trypsin-activated toxin of type C were 135- and 63-kDa proteins, respectively. Proteins of this type were associated with high toxicity against S. littoralis and M. brassicae. A panel of 35 monoclonal antibodies was used to compare the structural characteristics of crystal proteins of the three different types and subtypes. Each type of protein could be associated with a typical epitope structure, indicating an unambiguous correlation between antigenic structure and insect specificity. Images PMID:16347711

  4. Chemotherapy-Related Toxicity, Nutritional Status and Quality of Life in Precachectic Oncologic Patients with, or without, High Protein Nutritional Support. A Prospective, Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziętarska, Monika; Krawczyk-Lipiec, Joanna; Kraj, Leszek; Zaucha, Renata; Małgorzewicz, Sylwia

    2017-10-11

    Cancer disease is usually associated with impaired nutritional status, which is one of the factors contributing to deterioration of the results of surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The aim of the study was to determine whether nutritional support with high protein (ONS) in adult oncologic patients in the first step of cancer cachexia-asymptomatic precachexia, has an influence on the toxicity of systemic therapy. However, secondary endpoints were established: to determine whether high protein ONS influences the nutritional status, the quality of life, and the performance status. A total of 114 persons aged 40-84 years old with colorectal cancer were examined. Based on the randomization, 47 patients were qualified to the interventional group (ONS group) and 48 to Control group. To evaluate the nutritional status NRS-2002 (Nutritional Risk Screening), SGA (Subjective Global Assessment), SCRINIO (SCReenIng the Nutritional status In Oncology) Working Group classification, VAS (Visual Analog Scale) for appetite was used. FAACT (Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy) questionnaire was used for assessment of the quality of life. The health status of patients was evaluated based on the Karnofsky Performance Scale. Anthropometric measurements were done. Severe complications of chemotherapy, which caused the end of treatment, a slight complication of the gastrointestinal tract such as diarrhea grade 2 according to ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) score regardless of the studied group, were observed. There were no statistical differences in the number and severity of the observed complications, i.e., neutropenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea. During the follow-up the significant changes of SGA, VAS, albumin and prealbumin were observed between groups. In the ONS group an improvement in nutritional status was noticed (increased appetite VAS, p = 0.05; increased points in SGA, p = 0.015, and

  5. On the retinal toxicity of intraocular glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriglia, Alicia; Valamanesh, Fatemeh; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2010-12-15

    Corticosteroids are hormones involved in many physiological responses such as stress, immune modulation, protein catabolism and water homeostasis. The subfamily of glucocorticoids is used systemically in the treatment of inflammatory diseases or allergic reactions. In the eye, glucocorticoides are used to treat macular edema, inflammation and neovascularization. The most commonly used glucocorticoid is triamcinolone acetonide (TA). The pharmaceutical formulation of TA is not adapted for intravitreal administration but has been selected by ophthalmologists because its very low intraocular solubility provides sustained effect. Visual benefits of intraocular TA do not clearly correlate with morpho-anatomical improvements, suggesting potential toxicity. We therefore studied, non-common, but deleterious effects of glucocorticoids on the retina. We found that the intravitreal administration of TA is beneficial in the treatment of neovascularization because it triggers cell death of endothelial cells of neovessels by a caspase-independent mechanism. However, this treatment is toxic for the retina because it induces a non-apoptotic, caspase-independent cell death related to paraptosis, mostly in the retinal pigmented epithelium cells and the Müller cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical and biological properties of toxic metals and use of chelating agents for the pharmacological treatment of metal poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Caruso, Anna [University of Calabria, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rende (Italy); Amantea, Diana [University of Calabria, Department of Pharmacobiology, Rende (Italy); Saturnino, Carmela [University of Salerno, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fisciano (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    Exposure to toxic metals is a well-known problem in industrialized countries. Metals interfere with a number of physiological processes, including central nervous system (CNS), haematopoietic, hepatic and renal functions. In the evaluation of the toxicity of a particular metal it is crucial to consider many parameters: chemical forms (elemental, organic or inorganic), binding capability, presence of specific proteins that selectively bind metals, etc. Medical treatment of acute and chronic metal toxicity is provided by chelating agents, namely organic compounds capable of interacting with metal ions to form structures called chelates. The present review attempts to provide updated information about the mechanisms, the cellular targets and the effects of toxic metals. (orig.)

  7. Toxic substances alert program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  8. [Genes of insecticidal crystal proteins with dual specificity in Bacillus thuringiensis strains, isolated in the Crimea territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymar, S Iu; Isakova, I A; Kuznietsova, L M; Kordium, V A

    2006-01-01

    The insecticidal crystal proteins of 15 B. thuringiensis strains, isolated in the Crimea territory that are toxical for some Lepidoptera and Colorado potato beetle larvae were identified by PAGE electrophoresis. Ten strains produced the crystal proteins with high molecular weight (> 120 kD). PCR with use of broad specificity primers and DNA of these B. thuringiensis strains as template demonstrated the specific PCR products (1000 bp). Amplified DNA fragments were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the genomes of ten strains of B. thuringiensis carried Cry1B genes, which are responsible for production of the insecticidal crystal proteins with dual specificity. The influence of the solubilization conditions on the structure and toxicity of Cry1B protein for Colorado potato beetle larvae was shown. The dual toxicity of studied B. thuringiensis strains is explained by the Cry1B genes presence in their genomes. These strains may be used to develop the broad specificity bioinsecticides.

  9. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  10. Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: Estimation of toxicity threshold values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P., E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.u [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Function, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Mico, C.; Zhao, F.J.; Stroud, J.L. [Soil Science Department, Centre for Soils and Ecosystems Function, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, H.; Fozard, S. [Division of Environmental Science, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Four plant species (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.; red clover, Trifolium pratense L.; ryegrass, Lolium perenne L.; and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were tested on ten soils varying widely in soil properties to assess molybdenum (Mo) toxicity. A larger range (66-fold-609-fold) of added Mo concentrations resulting in 50% inhibition of yield (ED{sub 50}) was found among soils than among plant species (2-fold-38-fold), which illustrated that the soils differed widely in the expression of Mo toxicity. Toxicity thresholds based on soil solution Mo narrowed the variation among soils compared to thresholds based on added Mo concentrations. We conclude that plant bioavailability of Mo in soil depends on Mo solubility, but this alone did not decrease the variability in observed toxicity enough to be used in risk assessment and that other soil properties influencing Mo toxicity to plants need to be considered. - Mo toxicity thresholds varied widely in different soils and therefore soil properties need to be taken into account in order to assess the risk of Mo exposure.

  11. Integrated Assessment of Diclofenac Biotransformation, Pharmacokinetics, and Omics-Based Toxicity in a Three-Dimensional Human Liver-Immunocompetent Coculture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ujjal; Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Large, Emma; Young, Carissa L; Rivera-Burgos, Dinelia; Yu, Jiajie; Cirit, Murat; Hughes, David J; Wishnok, John S; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Griffith, Linda G; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    In vitro hepatocyte culture systems have inherent limitations in capturing known human drug toxicities that arise from complex immune responses. Therefore, we established and characterized a liver immunocompetent coculture model and evaluated diclofenac (DCF) metabolic profiles, in vitro-in vivo clearance correlations, toxicological responses, and acute phase responses using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. DCF biotransformation was assessed after 48 hours of culture, and the major phase I and II metabolites were similar to the in vivo DCF metabolism profile in humans. Further characterization of secreted bile acids in the medium revealed that a glycine-conjugated bile acid was a sensitive marker of dose-dependent toxicity in this three-dimensional liver microphysiological system. Protein markers were significantly elevated in the culture medium at high micromolar doses of DCF, which were also observed previously for acute drug-induced toxicity in humans. In this immunocompetent model, lipopolysaccharide treatment evoked an inflammatory response that resulted in a marked increase in the overall number of acute phase proteins. Kupffer cell-mediated cytokine release recapitulated an in vivo proinflammatory response exemplified by a cohort of 11 cytokines that were differentially regulated after lipopolysaccharide induction, including interleukin (IL)-1 β , IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, tumor necrosis factor- α , RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 β , and IL-5. In summary, our findings indicate that three-dimensional liver microphysiological systems may serve as preclinical investigational platforms from the perspective of the discovery of a set of clinically relevant biomarkers including potential reactive metabolites, endogenous bile acids, excreted proteins, and cytokines to predict early drug

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals heart toxicity induced by chronic arsenic exposure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qingyu; Xi, Guochen; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Shen, Heqing

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in the environment, which poses a broad spectrum of adverse effects on human health. However, a global view of arsenic-induced heart toxicity is still lacking, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. By performing a comparative quantitative proteomic analysis, the present study aims to investigate the alterations of proteome profile in rat heart after long-term exposure to arsenic. As a result, we found that the abundance of 81 proteins were significantly altered by arsenic treatment (35 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated). Among these, 33 proteins were specifically associated with cardiovascular system development and function, including heart development, heart morphology, cardiac contraction and dilation, and other cardiovascular functions. It is further proposed that the aberrant regulation of 14 proteins induced by arsenic would disturb cardiac contraction and relaxation, impair heart morphogenesis and development, and induce thrombosis in rats, which is mediated by the Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will augment our knowledge of the involved mechanisms and develop useful biomarkers for cardiotoxicity induced by environmental arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenic exposure has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. • The molecular mechanisms involved in arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity remain unclear. • Differential proteins were identified in arsenic-exposed rat heart by proteomics. • Arsenic induces heart toxicity through the Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. - Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat heart reveals putative mechanisms and biomarkers for arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity.

  13. Glioprotective Effects of Ashwagandha Leaf Extract against Lead Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, also known as Indian Ginseng, is a well-known Indian medicinal plant due to its antioxidative, antistress, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to assess and establish the cytoprotective potential of Ashwagandha leaf aqueous extract against lead induced toxicity. Pretreatment of C6 cells with 0.1% Ashwagandha extract showed cytoprotection against 25 μM to 400 μM concentration of lead nitrate. Further pretreatment with Ashwagandha extract to lead nitrate exposed cells (200 μM resulted in normalization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression as well as heat shock protein (HSP70, mortalin, and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM expression. Further, the cytoprotective efficacy of Ashwagandha extract was studied in vivo. Administration of Ashwagandha extract provided significant protection to lead induced altered antioxidant defense that may significantly compromise normal cellular function. Ashwagandha also provided a significant protection to lipid peroxidation (LPx levels, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD but not reduced glutathione (GSH contents in brain tissue as well as peripheral organs, liver and kidney, suggesting its ability to act as a free radical scavenger protecting cells against toxic insult. These results, thus, suggest that Ashwagandha water extract may have the potential therapeutic implication against lead poisoning.

  14. Abrin Toxicity and Bioavailability after Temperature and pH Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christina C; Henderson, Thomas D; Stanker, Larry H; He, Xiaohua; Cheng, Luisa W

    2017-10-13

    Abrin, one of most potent toxins known to man, is derived from the rosary pea (jequirity pea), Abrus precatorius and is a potential bioterror weapon. The temperature and pH stability of abrin was evaluated with an in vitro cell free translation (CFT) assay, a Vero cell culture cytotoxicity assay, and an in vivo mouse bioassay. pH treatment of abrin had no detrimental effect on its stability and toxicity as seen either in vitro or in vivo. Abrin exposure to increasing temperatures did not completely abrogate protein translation. In both the cell culture cytotoxicity model and the mouse bioassay, abrin's toxic effects were completely abrogated if the toxin was exposed to temperatures of 74 °C or higher. In the cell culture model, 63 °C-treated abrin had a 30% reduction in cytotoxicity which was validated in the in vivo mouse bioassay with all mice dying but with a slight time-to-death delay as compared to the non-treated abrin control. Since temperature inactivation did not affect abrin's ability to inhibit protein synthesis (A-chain), we hypothesize that high temperature treatment affected abrin's ability to bind to cellular receptors (affecting B-chain). Our results confirm the absolute need to validate in vitro cytotoxicity assays with in vivo mouse bioassays.

  15. Toxicity of nano- and micro-sized silver particles in human hepatocyte cell line L02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pengpeng; Guan Rongfa; Jiang Jiaxin; Liu Mingqi; Huang Guangrong; Chen Xiaoting; Ye Xingqian

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) previously classified as antimicrobial agents have been widely used in consumers and industrial products, especially food storage material. Ag NPs used as antimicrobial agents may be found in liver. Thus, examination of the ability of Ag NPs to penetrate the liver is warranted. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal viability assay for using with Ag NPs in order to assess their toxicity to liver cells. For toxicity evaluations, cellular morphology, mitochondrial function (3-(4, 5-dimethylazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, MTT assay), membrane leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH release assay), Oxidative stress markers (malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)), DNA damage (single cell gel eletrophoresis, SCGE assay), and protein damage were assessed under control and exposed conditions (24 h of exposure). The results showed that mitochondrial function decreased significantly in cells exposed to Ag NPs at 25 μg·mL -1 . LDH leakage significantly increased in cells exposed to Ag NPs (≥ 25 μg mL -1 ) while micro-sized silver particles tested displayed LDH leakage only at higher doses (100 μg·mL -1 ). The microscopic studies demonstrated that nanoparticle-exposed cells at higher doses became abnormal in size, displaying cellular shrinkage, and an acquisition of an irregular shape. Due to toxicity of silver, further study conducted with reference to its oxidative stress. The results exhibited significant depletion of GSH level, increase in SOD levels and lead to lipid peroxidation, which suggested that cytotoxicity of Ag NPs in liver cells might be mediated through oxidative stress. The results demonstrates that Ag NPs lead to cellular morphological modifications, LDH leakage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cause increased generation of ROS, depletion of GSH, lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and protein damage. Though the exact mechanism behind Ag NPs

  16. Toxicity of nano- and micro-sized silver particles in human hepatocyte cell line L02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengpeng; Guan, Rongfa; Ye, Xingqian; Jiang, Jiaxin; Liu, Mingqi; Huang, Guangrong; Chen, Xiaoting

    2011-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) previously classified as antimicrobial agents have been widely used in consumers and industrial products, especially food storage material. Ag NPs used as antimicrobial agents may be found in liver. Thus, examination of the ability of Ag NPs to penetrate the liver is warranted. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal viability assay for using with Ag NPs in order to assess their toxicity to liver cells. For toxicity evaluations, cellular morphology, mitochondrial function (3-(4, 5-dimethylazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, MTT assay), membrane leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH release assay), Oxidative stress markers (malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)), DNA damage (single cell gel eletrophoresis, SCGE assay), and protein damage were assessed under control and exposed conditions (24 h of exposure). The results showed that mitochondrial function decreased significantly in cells exposed to Ag NPs at 25 μg·mL-1. LDH leakage significantly increased in cells exposed to Ag NPs (>= 25 μg mL-1) while micro-sized silver particles tested displayed LDH leakage only at higher doses (100 μg·mL-1). The microscopic studies demonstrated that nanoparticle-exposed cells at higher doses became abnormal in size, displaying cellular shrinkage, and an acquisition of an irregular shape. Due to toxicity of silver, further study conducted with reference to its oxidative stress. The results exhibited significant depletion of GSH level, increase in SOD levels and lead to lipid peroxidation, which suggested that cytotoxicity of Ag NPs in liver cells might be mediated through oxidative stress. The results demonstrates that Ag NPs lead to cellular morphological modifications, LDH leakage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cause increased generation of ROS, depletion of GSH, lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and protein damage. Though the exact mechanism behind Ag NPs

  17. Toxicity of nano- and micro-sized silver particles in human hepatocyte cell line L02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Pengpeng; Guan Rongfa; Jiang Jiaxin; Liu Mingqi; Huang Guangrong; Chen Xiaoting [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Biometrology and Inspection and Quarantine, College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Ye Xingqian, E-mail: rfguan@163.com [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2011-07-06

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) previously classified as antimicrobial agents have been widely used in consumers and industrial products, especially food storage material. Ag NPs used as antimicrobial agents may be found in liver. Thus, examination of the ability of Ag NPs to penetrate the liver is warranted. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal viability assay for using with Ag NPs in order to assess their toxicity to liver cells. For toxicity evaluations, cellular morphology, mitochondrial function (3-(4, 5-dimethylazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, MTT assay), membrane leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH release assay), Oxidative stress markers (malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)), DNA damage (single cell gel eletrophoresis, SCGE assay), and protein damage were assessed under control and exposed conditions (24 h of exposure). The results showed that mitochondrial function decreased significantly in cells exposed to Ag NPs at 25 {mu}g{center_dot}mL{sup -1}. LDH leakage significantly increased in cells exposed to Ag NPs ({>=} 25 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) while micro-sized silver particles tested displayed LDH leakage only at higher doses (100 {mu}g{center_dot}mL{sup -1}). The microscopic studies demonstrated that nanoparticle-exposed cells at higher doses became abnormal in size, displaying cellular shrinkage, and an acquisition of an irregular shape. Due to toxicity of silver, further study conducted with reference to its oxidative stress. The results exhibited significant depletion of GSH level, increase in SOD levels and lead to lipid peroxidation, which suggested that cytotoxicity of Ag NPs in liver cells might be mediated through oxidative stress. The results demonstrates that Ag NPs lead to cellular morphological modifications, LDH leakage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cause increased generation of ROS, depletion of GSH, lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and protein damage

  18. Immunogenicity to therapeutic proteins: impact on PK/PD and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirmule, Narendra; Jawa, Vibha; Meibohm, Bernd

    2012-06-01

    The development of therapeutic proteins requires the understanding of the relationship between the dose, exposure, efficacy, and toxicity of these molecules. Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the challenges for measuring therapeutic proteins in a precise and accurate manner. In addition, induction of an immune response to therapeutic protein results in additional complexities in the analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile, toxicity, safety, and efficacy of this class of molecules. Assessment of immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins is a required aspect of regulatory filings for a licensing application and for the safe and efficacious use of these compounds. A systematic strategy and well-defined criteria for measuring anti-drug antibodies (ADA) have been established, to a large extent, through coordinated efforts. These recommendations are based on risk assessment and include the determination of ADA content (concentration/titer), affinity, immunoglobulin isotype/subtype, and neutralization capacity. This manuscript reviews the requirements necessary for understanding the nature of an ADA response in order to discern the impact of immunogenicity on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and efficacy.

  19. Expression and purification of toxic anti-breast cancer p28-NRC chimeric protein

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimani, Meysam; Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, Hamid; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chimeric proteins consisting of a targeting moiety and a cytotoxic moiety are now under intense research focus for targeted therapy of cancer. Here, we report cloning, expression, and purification of such a targeted chimeric protein made up of p28 peptide as both targeting and anticancer moiety fused to NRC peptide as a cytotoxic moiety. However, since the antimicrobial activity of the NRC peptide would intervene expression of the chimeric protein in Escherichia coli, we evaluated...

  20. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonhuman primate must not be placed on unattended conveyor belts or on elevated conveyor belts, such as baggage claim conveyor belts and inclined conveyor ramps that lead to baggage claim areas, at any time... if an attendant is present at each end of the conveyor belt. (2) A primary enclosure containing a...

  1. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  2. Structure-based drug design, synthesis and biological assays of P. falciparum Atg3-Atg8 protein-protein interaction inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Stefania; Legnani, Laura; Colombo, Diego; Gelain, Arianna; Lammi, Carmen; Bongiorno, Daniele; Ilboudo, Denise P.; McGee, Kellen E.; Bosch, Jürgen; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2018-03-01

    The proteins involved in the autophagy (Atg) pathway have recently been considered promising targets for the development of new antimalarial drugs. In particular, inhibitors of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between Atg3 and Atg8 of Plasmodium falciparum retarded the blood- and liver-stages of parasite growth. In this paper, we used computational techniques to design a new class of peptidomimetics mimicking the Atg3 interaction motif, which were then synthesized by click-chemistry. Surface plasmon resonance has been employed to measure the ability of these compounds to inhibit the Atg3-Atg8 reciprocal protein-protein interaction. Moreover, P. falciparum growth inhibition in red blood cell cultures was evaluated as well as the cyto-toxicity of the compounds.

  3. Comparison of intra-organellar chaperone capacity for dealing with stress-induced protein unfolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J.; van Waarde, Maria A. W. H.; Kampinga, Harm H.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are essential for cells to prevent that partially unfolded proteins form non-functional, toxic aggregates. This requirement is increased when cells experience protein unfolding stresses and such could affect all compartments in the eukaryotic cell. Whether all organelles are

  4. Boron Toxicity Tolerance in Barley through Reduced Expression of the Multifunctional Aquaporin HvNIP2;11[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hrmova, Maria; Baumann, Ute; Ramesh, Sunita A.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is a significant limitation to cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. Here we describe the cloning of a gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare), underlying the chromosome 6H B toxicity tolerance quantitative trait locus. It is the second B toxicity tolerance gene identified in barley. Previously, we identified the gene Bot1 that functions as an efflux transporter in B toxicity-tolerant barley to move B out of the plant. The gene identified in this work encodes HvNIP2;1, an aquaporin from the nodulin-26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily that was recently described as a silicon influx transporter in barley and rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that a rice mutant for this gene also shows reduced B accumulation in leaf blades compared to wild type and that the mutant protein alters growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under high B. HvNIP2;1 facilitates significant transport of B when expressed in Xenopus oocytes compared to controls and to another NIP (NOD26), and also in yeast plasma membranes that appear to have relatively high B permeability. We propose that tolerance to high soil B is mediated by reduced expression of HvNIP2;1 to limit B uptake, as well as by increased expression of Bot1 to remove B from roots and sensitive tissues. Together with Bot1, the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1 is an important determinant of B toxicity tolerance in barley. PMID:20581256

  5. From L-dopa to dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde: a toxic biochemical pathway plays a vital physiological function in insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vavricka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One protein in Aedes aegypti, classified into the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD family based on extremely high sequence homology (∼70% with dopa decarboxylase (Ddc, was biochemically investigated. Our data revealed that this predicted AAAD protein use L-dopa as a substrate, as does Ddc, but it catalyzes the production of 3,4-dihydroxylphenylacetaldehyde (DHPAA directly from L-dopa and apparently has nothing to do with the production of any aromatic amine. The protein is therefore named DHPAA synthase. This subsequently led to the identification of the same enzyme in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus by an initial prediction of putative DHPAA synthase based on sequence homology and subsequent verification of DHPAA synthase identity through protein expression and activity assays. DHPAA is highly toxic because its aldehyde group readily reacts with the primary amino groups of proteins, leading to protein crosslinking and inactivation. It has previously been demonstrated by several research groups that Drosophila DHPAA synthase was expressed in tissues that produce cuticle materials and apparent defects in regions of colorless, flexible cuticular structures have been observed in its gene mutants. The presence of free amino groups in proteins, the high reactivity of DHPAA with the free amino groups, and the genetically ascertained function of the Drosophila DHPAA synthase in the formation of colorless, flexible cuticle, when taken together, suggest that mosquito and Drosophila DHPAA synthases are involved in the formation of flexible cuticle through their reactive DHPAA-mediated protein crosslinking reactions. Our data illustrate how a seemingly highly toxic pathway can serve for an important physiological function in insects.

  6. Enzymatic, antimicrobial and toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of Ananas comosus (pineapple) crown leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sangita; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2013-11-25

    Various parts of the plant pineapple (Ananas comosus) are used in traditional medicine worldwide for treatment of a number of diseases and disorders. In folk medicine, pineapple leaf extract was used as an antimicrobial, vermicide, purgative, emmenagoogue, abortifacient, anti-oedema and anti-inflammatory agent. Compared to the fruit and stem extracts of pineapple, information about its leaf extract is limited. The potential of pineapple crown leaf extract as an ethno-medicine has been evaluated in terms of its enzymatic activities related to wound healing, antimicrobial property and toxicity. Major protein components of the extract were revealed by 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by MS/MS analysis. Zymography, DQ-gelatin assay were performed to demonstrate proteolytic, fibrinolytic, gelatinase and collagenase activities. DNase and RNase activities were revealed from agarose gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically from growth inhibition. Sprague-Dawley rat model was used to measure acute and sub-acute toxicity of the extract by analyzing blood markers. The extract contains several proteins that were clustered under native condition. Proteomic studies indicated presence of fruit bromelain as major protein constituent of the extract. It showed nonspecific protease activity, gelatinolytic, collagenase, fibrinolytic, acid and alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, DNase and RNase activities along with considerable anti-microbial property. The leaf extract did not induce any toxicity in rats after oral administration of acute and sub-acute doses. Pineapple leaf extract is nontoxic, contains enzymes related to damage tissue repairing, wound healing and possibly prevents secondary infections from microbial organisms. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The intensity of tyrosine nitration is associated with selenite and selenate toxicity in Brassica juncea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Árpád; Feigl, Gábor; Trifán, Vanda; Ördög, Attila; Szőllősi, Réka; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2018-01-01

    Selenium phytotoxicity involves processes like reactive nitrogen species overproduction and nitrosative protein modifications. This study evaluates the toxicity of two selenium forms (selenite and selenate at 0µM, 20µM, 50µM and 100µM concentrations) and its correlation with protein tyrosine nitration in the organs of hydroponically grown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Selenate treatment resulted in large selenium accumulation in both Brassica organs, while selenite showed slight root-to-shoot translocation resulting in a much lower selenium accumulation in the shoot. Shoot and root growth inhibition and cell viability loss revealed that Brassica tolerates selenate better than selenite. Results also show that relative high amounts of selenium are able to accumulate in Brassica leaves without obvious visible symptoms such as chlorosis or necrosis. The more severe phytotoxicity of selenite was accompanied by more intense protein tyrosine nitration as well as alterations in nitration pattern suggesting a correlation between the degree of Se forms-induced toxicities and nitroproteome size, composition in Brassica organs. These results imply the possibility of considering protein tyrosine nitration as novel biomarker of selenium phytotoxicity, which could help the evaluation of asymptomatic selenium stress of plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A model in which heat shock protein 90 targets protein-folding clefts: rationale for a new approach to neuroprotective treatment of protein folding diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, William B; Morishima, Yoshihiro; Gestwicki, Jason E; Lieberman, Andrew P; Osawa, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    In an EBM Minireview published in 2010, we proposed that the heat shock protein (Hsp)90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery played a major role in determining the selection of proteins that have undergone oxidative or other toxic damage for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The proposal was based on a model in which the Hsp90 chaperone machinery regulates signaling by modulating ligand-binding clefts. The model provides a framework for thinking about the development of neuroprotective therapies for protein-folding diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and the polyglutamine expansion disorders, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Major aberrant proteins that misfold and accumulate in these diseases are "client" proteins of the abundant and ubiquitous stress chaperone Hsp90. These Hsp90 client proteins include tau (AD), α-synuclein (PD), huntingtin (HD), and the expanded glutamine androgen receptor (polyQ AR) (SBMA). In this Minireview, we update our model in which Hsp90 acts on protein-folding clefts and show how it forms a rational basis for developing drugs that promote the targeted elimination of these aberrant proteins. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  9. Low-protein diet does not alter reproductive, biochemical, and hematological parameters in pregnant Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.V. Barros

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive, biochemical, and hematological outcomes of pregnant rats exposed to protein restriction. Wistar rat dams were fed a control normal-protein (NP, 17% protein, n=8 or a low-protein (LP, 8% protein, n=14 diet from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy. On the 20th day, the clinical signs of toxicity were evaluated. The pregnant rats were then anesthetized and blood samples were collected for biochemical-hematological analyses, and laparotomy was performed to evaluate reproductive parameters. No sign of toxicity, or differences (P>0.05 in body weight gain and biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, albumin, globulin, and total protein between NP and LP pregnant dams were observed. Similarly, hematological data, including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell distribution width (coefficient of variation, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, % lymphocytes, absolute lymphocyte count, platelet count, and mean platelet volume were similar (P>0.05 at the end of pregnancy. Reproductive parameters (the dam-offspring relationship, ovary mass, placenta mass, number of corpora lutea, implantation index, resorption index, and the pre- and post-implantation loss rates were also not different (P>0.05 between NP and LP pregnant dams. The present data showed that a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy did not alter reproductive, biochemical, and hematological parameters and seems not to have any toxic effect on pregnant Wistar rats.

  10. A toxicity reduction evaluation for an oily waste treatment plant exhibiting episodic effluent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, M; Gelderloos, A B; Hughes, J S

    1998-07-30

    A Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) was conducted on the oily wastewater treatment plant (Plant) at a Naval Fuel Depot. The Plant treats ship and ballast wastes, berm water from fuel storage areas and wastes generated in the fuel reclamation plant utilizing physical/chemical treatment processes. In the first period of the project (Period I), the TRE included chemical characterization of the plant wastewaters, monitoring the final effluent for acute toxicity and a thorough evaluation of each treatment process and Plant operating procedures. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures were performed as part of the overall TRE to characterize and identify possible sources of toxicity. Several difficulties were encountered because the effluent was saline, test organisms were marine species and toxicity was sporadic and unpredictable. The treatability approach utilizing enhancements, improved housekeeping, and operational changes produced substantial reductions in the acute toxicity of the final effluent. In the second period (Period II), additional acute toxicity testing and chemical characterization were performed through the Plant to assess the long-term effects of major unit process improvements for the removal of toxicity. The TIE procedures were also modified for saline wastewaters to focus on suspected class of toxicants such as surfactants. The TRE was successful in reducing acute toxicity of the final effluent through process improvements and operational modifications. The results indicated that the cause of toxicity was most likely due to combination of pollutants (matrix effect) rather than a single pollutant.

  11. Protein based therapeutic delivery agents: Contemporary developments and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liming; Yuvienco, Carlo; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2017-07-01

    As unique biopolymers, proteins can be employed for therapeutic delivery. They bear important features such as bioavailability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability with low toxicity serving as a platform for delivery of various small molecule therapeutics, gene therapies, protein biologics and cells. Depending on size and characteristic of the therapeutic, a variety of natural and engineered proteins or peptides have been developed. This, coupled to recent advances in synthetic and chemical biology, has led to the creation of tailor-made protein materials for delivery. This review highlights strategies employing proteins to facilitate the delivery of therapeutic matter, addressing the challenges for small molecule, gene, protein and cell transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ProTox: a web server for the in silico prediction of rodent oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drwal, Malgorzata N; Banerjee, Priyanka; Dunkel, Mathias; Wettig, Martin R; Preissner, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Animal trials are currently the major method for determining the possible toxic effects of drug candidates and cosmetics. In silico prediction methods represent an alternative approach and aim to rationalize the preclinical drug development, thus enabling the reduction of the associated time, costs and animal experiments. Here, we present ProTox, a web server for the prediction of rodent oral toxicity. The prediction method is based on the analysis of the similarity of compounds with known median lethal doses (LD50) and incorporates the identification of toxic fragments, therefore representing a novel approach in toxicity prediction. In addition, the web server includes an indication of possible toxicity targets which is based on an in-house collection of protein-ligand-based pharmacophore models ('toxicophores') for targets associated with adverse drug reactions. The ProTox web server is open to all users and can be accessed without registration at: http://tox.charite.de/tox. The only requirement for the prediction is the two-dimensional structure of the input compounds. All ProTox methods have been evaluated based on a diverse external validation set and displayed strong performance (sensitivity, specificity and precision of 76, 95 and 75%, respectively) and superiority over other toxicity prediction tools, indicating their possible applicability for other compound classes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Characterisation of a radiation-resistant strain of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai with improved toxicity to larval plutella xylostella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadi, N.M.; Boo, J.M.L.; Jangi, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A radiation-resistant strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai which was previously shown to be more toxic against larval Plutell xylostella was further characterized. Some of the growth characteristics of the mutant strain were quite different from those of the parent strain. In shake flask culture, its lag period was shorter and its cell yield was lower. The growth rate, however, was the same as that of the parent. Electron microscope studies show that the insecticidal parasporal crystals from the mutant strain are significantly bigger than those produced by the parent strain. The average length and width of the crystals were 1.25 and 0.53 um respectively whereas those of the parent were 0.87 and 0.35 um, respectively. The crystals from the mutant strain were also more toxic. The LC 50 was 0.30 ug crystal protein per ml as against 0.66 ug crystal protein per ml for those from the parent strain. Protein profile of the crystals obtained with SDS-PA gel electrophoresis showed that the mutant strain produced an additional polypeptide of 143 KDa polypeptide. The mutant strain also has an additional high molecular weight plasmid. The improved toxicity may have been brought about by a number of factors including an alteration in the regulatory mechanism that control the synthesis of the polypeptides that make up the crystals. (Auth.). 5 figs.; 21 refs.; 2 tabs

  14. Mechanisms on boron-induced alleviation of aluminum-toxicity in Citrus grandis seedlings at a transcriptional level revealed by cDNA-AFLP analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xing Zhou

    Full Text Available The physiological and biochemical mechanisms on boron (B-induced alleviation of aluminum (B-toxicity in plants have been examined in some details, but our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes is very limited. In this study, we first used the cDNA-AFLP to investigate the gene expression patterns in Citrus grandis roots responsive to B and Al interactions, and isolated 100 differentially expressed genes. Results showed that genes related to detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS and aldehydes (i.e., glutathione S-transferase zeta class-like isoform X1, thioredoxin M-type 4, and 2-alkenal reductase (NADP+-dependent-like, metabolism (i.e., carboxylesterases and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-like 4-like, nicotianamine aminotransferase A-like isoform X3, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase 18-like isoform X1, and FNR, root isozyme 2, cell transport (i.e., non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein At2g13820-like and major facilitator superfamily protein, Ca signal and hormone (i.e., calcium-binding protein CML19-like and IAA-amino acid hydrolase ILR1-like 4-like, gene regulation (i.e., Gag-pol polyprotein and cell wall modification (i.e., glycosyl hydrolase family 10 protein might play a role in B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity. Our results are useful not only for our understanding of molecular processes associated with B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity, but also for obtaining key molecular genes to enhance Al-tolerance of plants in the future.

  15. Mechanisms on boron-induced alleviation of aluminum-toxicity in Citrus grandis seedlings at a transcriptional level revealed by cDNA-AFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin-Xing; Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Guo, Peng; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical mechanisms on boron (B)-induced alleviation of aluminum (B)-toxicity in plants have been examined in some details, but our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes is very limited. In this study, we first used the cDNA-AFLP to investigate the gene expression patterns in Citrus grandis roots responsive to B and Al interactions, and isolated 100 differentially expressed genes. Results showed that genes related to detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aldehydes (i.e., glutathione S-transferase zeta class-like isoform X1, thioredoxin M-type 4, and 2-alkenal reductase (NADP+-dependent)-like), metabolism (i.e., carboxylesterases and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-like 4-like, nicotianamine aminotransferase A-like isoform X3, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase 18-like isoform X1, and FNR, root isozyme 2), cell transport (i.e., non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein At2g13820-like and major facilitator superfamily protein), Ca signal and hormone (i.e., calcium-binding protein CML19-like and IAA-amino acid hydrolase ILR1-like 4-like), gene regulation (i.e., Gag-pol polyprotein) and cell wall modification (i.e., glycosyl hydrolase family 10 protein) might play a role in B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity. Our results are useful not only for our understanding of molecular processes associated with B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity, but also for obtaining key molecular genes to enhance Al-tolerance of plants in the future.

  16. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs

  18. Estimation of toxicity using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tens of thousands of chemicals are currently in commerce, and hundreds more are introduced every year. Since experimental measurements of toxicity are extremely time consuming and expensive, it is imperative that alternative methods to estimate toxicity are developed.

  19. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers – Reproductive and developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Starek-Świechowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. Med Pr 2015;66(5:725–737

  20. Bioinformatic analysis of xenobiotic reactive metabolite target proteins and their interacting partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzlik Robert P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein covalent binding by reactive metabolites of drugs, chemicals and natural products can lead to acute cytotoxicity. Recent rapid progress in reactive metabolite target protein identification has shown that adduction is surprisingly selective and inspired the hope that analysis of target proteins might reveal protein factors that differentiate target- vs. non-target proteins and illuminate mechanisms connecting covalent binding to cytotoxicity. Results Sorting 171 known reactive metabolite target proteins revealed a number of GO categories and KEGG pathways to be significantly enriched in targets, but in most cases the classes were too large, and the "percent coverage" too small, to allow meaningful conclusions about mechanisms of toxicity. However, a similar analysis of the directlyinteracting partners of 28 common targets of multiple reactive metabolites revealed highly significant enrichments in terms likely to be highly relevant to cytotoxicity (e.g., MAP kinase pathways, apoptosis, response to unfolded protein. Machine learning was used to rank the contribution of 211 computed protein features to determining protein susceptibility to adduction. Protein lysine (but not cysteine content and protein instability index (i.e., rate of turnover in vivo were among the features most important to determining susceptibility. Conclusion As yet there is no good explanation for why some low-abundance proteins become heavily adducted while some abundant proteins become only lightly adducted in vivo. Analyzing the directly interacting partners of target proteins appears to yield greater insight into mechanisms of toxicity than analyzing target proteins per se. The insights provided can readily be formulated as hypotheses to test in future experimental studies.

  1. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paro, Rita; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Buccione, Roberto; Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio; Canipari, Rita; Cecconi, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  2. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, Rita [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Tiboni, Gian Mario [Department of Medicine and Aging, Section of Reproductive Sciences, University “G. D' Annunzio”, Chieti-Pescara (Italy); Buccione, Roberto [Tumor Cell Invasion Laboratory, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Santa Maria Imbaro, Chieti (Italy); Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Canipari, Rita [Department of Anatomy, Histology, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics, Section of Histology and Embryology, School of Pharmacy and Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Cecconi, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.cecconi@cc.univaq.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  3. The Progranulin Cleavage Products, Granulins, Exacerbate TDP-43 Toxicity and Increase TDP-43 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Dominique A; Butler, Victoria J; Argouarch, Andrea R; Hsu, Tsung-Yuan; Mason, Amanda; Nakamura, Ayumi; McCurdy, Helen; Cox, David; Ng, Rachel; Pan, Gloria; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Kao, Aimee W

    2015-06-24

    Mutations in the human progranulin gene resulting in protein haploinsufficiency cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions. Although progress has been made in understanding the normal functions of progranulin and TDP-43, the molecular interactions between these proteins remain unclear. Progranulin is proteolytically processed into granulins, but the role of granulins in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease is unknown. We used a Caenorhabditis elegans model of neuronal TDP-43 proteinopathy to specifically interrogate the contribution of granulins to the neurodegenerative process. Complete loss of the progranulin gene did not worsen TDP-43 toxicity, whereas progranulin heterozygosity did. Interestingly, expression of individual granulins alone had little effect on behavior. In contrast, when granulins were coexpressed with TDP-43, they exacerbated its toxicity in a variety of behaviors including motor coordination. These same granulins increased TDP-43 levels via a post-translational mechanism. We further found that in human neurodegenerative disease subjects, granulin fragments accumulated specifically in diseased regions of brain. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a toxic role for granulin fragments in a neurodegenerative disease model. These studies suggest that presence of cleaved granulins, rather than or in addition to loss of full-length progranulin, may contribute to disease in TDP-43 proteinopathies. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359315-14$15.00/0.

  4. Mechanism of action and selective toxicity of ascamycin, a nucleoside antibiotic.

    OpenAIRE

    Osada, H; Isono, K

    1985-01-01

    An unidentified Streptomyces sp. produces two nucleoside antibiotics, ascamycin and its dealanyl derivative. In contrast to the broad antibacterial activity of dealanylascamycin against various gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, ascamycin showed selective toxicity against Xanthomonas citri and X. oryzae. Both ascamycin and dealanylascamycin inhibited the protein synthesis of X. citri, but only dealanylascamycin inhibited that of Escherichia coli. In cell-free systems from E. coli and X...

  5. Boron Stress Activates the General Amino Acid Control Mechanism and Inhibits Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluisik, Irem; Kaya, Alaattin; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and it is beneficial for animals. However, at high concentrations boron is toxic to cells although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. Atr1 has recently been identified as a boron efflux pump whose expression is upregulated in response to boron treatment. Here, we found that the expression of ATR1 is associated with expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. These mechanisms are strictly controlled by the transcription factor Gcn4 in response to boron treatment. Further analyses have shown that boron impaired protein synthesis by promoting phosphorylation of eIF2α in a Gcn2 kinase dependent manner. The uncharged tRNA binding domain (HisRS) of Gcn2 is necessary for the phosphorylation of eIF2α in the presence of boron. We postulate that boron exerts its toxic effect through activation of the general amino acid control system and inhibition of protein synthesis. Since the general amino acid control pathway is conserved among eukaryotes, this mechanism of boron toxicity may be of general importance. PMID:22114689

  6. Boron stress activates the general amino acid control mechanism and inhibits protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Uluisik

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and it is beneficial for animals. However, at high concentrations boron is toxic to cells although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. Atr1 has recently been identified as a boron efflux pump whose expression is upregulated in response to boron treatment. Here, we found that the expression of ATR1 is associated with expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. These mechanisms are strictly controlled by the transcription factor Gcn4 in response to boron treatment. Further analyses have shown that boron impaired protein synthesis by promoting phosphorylation of eIF2α in a Gcn2 kinase dependent manner. The uncharged tRNA binding domain (HisRS of Gcn2 is necessary for the phosphorylation of eIF2α in the presence of boron. We postulate that boron exerts its toxic effect through activation of the general amino acid control system and inhibition of protein synthesis. Since the general amino acid control pathway is conserved among eukaryotes, this mechanism of boron toxicity may be of general importance.

  7. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  8. Toxic substances handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  9. Newer systems for bacterial resistances to toxic heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, S; Ji, G

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids contain specific genes for resistances to toxic heavy metal ions including Ag+, AsO2-, AsO4(3-), Cd2+, Co2+, CrO4(2-), Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Sb3+, and Zn2+. Recent progress with plasmid copper-resistance systems in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas syringae show a system of four gene products, an inner membrane protein (PcoD), an outer membrane protein (PcoB), and two periplasmic Cu(2+)-binding proteins (PcoA and PcoC). Synthesis of this system is governed by two regulatory proteins (the membrane sensor PcoS and the soluble responder PcoR, probably a DNA-binding protein), homologous to other bacterial two-component regulatory systems. Chromosomally encoded Cu2+ P-type ATPases have recently been recognized in Enterococcus hirae and these are closely homologous to the bacterial cadmium efflux ATPase and the human copper-deficiency disease Menkes gene product. The Cd(2+)-efflux ATPase of gram-positive bacteria is a large P-type ATPase, homologous to the muscle Ca2+ ATPase and the Na+/K+ ATPases of animals. The arsenic-resistance system of gram-negative bacteria functions as an oxyanion efflux ATPase for arsenite and presumably antimonite. However, the structure of the arsenic ATPase is fundamentally different from that of P-type ATPases. The absence of the arsA gene (for the ATPase subunit) in gram-positive bacteria raises questions of energy-coupling for arsenite efflux. The ArsC protein product of the arsenic-resistance operons of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is an intracellular enzyme that reduces arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)], the substrate for the transport pump. Newly studied cation efflux systems for Cd2+, Zn2+, and Co2+ (Czc) or Co2+ and Ni2+ resistance (Cnr) lack ATPase motifs in their predicted polypeptide sequences. Therefore, not all plasmid-resistance systems that function through toxic ion efflux are ATPases. The first well-defined bacterial metallothionein was found in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus

  10. Characterization of DNA topoisomerase-1 in Spodoptera exigua for toxicity evaluation of camptothecin and hydoxy-camptothecin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT, a plant alkaloid originally isolated from the native Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminate, exerts the toxic effect by targeting eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase 1 (DNA Topo1. Besides as potent anti-cancer agents, CPT and its derivatives are now being explored as potential pesticides for insect control. In this study, we assessed their toxicity to an insect homolog, the Topo1 protein from beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua Hübner, a worldwide pest of many important crops. The S. exigua Topo1 gene contains an ORF of 2790 base pairs that is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 930 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide exhibits polymorphism at residue sites V420, L530, A653 and T729 (numbered according to human Topo1 among insect species, which are predicted to confer sensitivity to CPT. The DNA relaxation activity of this protein was subsequently examined using a truncated form that contained the residues 337-930 and was expressed in bacteria BL21 cells. The purified protein retained the ability to relax double-stranded DNA and was susceptible to CPT and its derivative hydroxy-camptothecin (HCPT in a dose-dependent manner. The same inhibitory effect was also found on the native Topo1 extracted from IOZCAS-Spex-II cells, a cell line established from beet armyworms. Additionally, CPT and HCPT treatment reduced the steady accumulation of Topo1 protein despite the increased mRNA expression in response to the treatment. Our studies provide information of the S. exigua Topo1 gene and its amino acid polymorphism in insects and uncover some clues about potential mechanisms of CPT toxicity against insect pests. These results also are useful for development of more effective Topo1-targeted CPT insecticides in the future.

  11. Toxicity evaluation and prediction of toxic chemicals on activated sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bijing; Xie, Li; Yang, Dianhai; Arcangeli, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-15

    The gaps of data for evaluating toxicity of new or overloaded organic chemicals on activated sludge system resulted in the requirements for methodology of toxicity estimation. In this study, 24 aromatic chemicals typically existed in the industrial wastewater were selected and classified into three groups of benzenes, phenols and anilines. Their toxicity on activated sludge was then investigated. Two indexes of IC(50-M) and IC(50-S) were determined respectively from the respiration rates of activated sludge with different toxicant concentration at mid-term (24h) and short-term (30min) time intervals. Experimental results showed that the group of benzenes was the most toxic, followed by the groups of phenols and anilines. The values of IC(50-M) of the tested chemicals were higher than those of IC(50-S). In addition, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) models developed from IC(50-M) were more stable and accurate than those of IC(50-S). The multiple linear models based on molecular descriptors and K(ow) presented better reliability than single linear models based on K(ow). Among these molecular descriptors, E(lumo) was the most important impact factor for evaluation of mid-term toxicity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Carrier's Liability for Damage Caused by Delay in International Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Bin

    2003-01-01

    Delay in the air transport occurs when passengers, baggage or cargo do not arrive at their destination at the time indicated in the contract of carriage. The causes of delay in the carriage of passengers are booking errors or double booking, delayed departure of aircraft, incorrect information regarding the time of departure, failure to land at the scheduled destination and changes in flight schedule or addition of extra landing stops. Delay in the carriage of baggage or cargo may have different causes: no reservation, lack of space, failure to load the baggage or cargo at the right place, or to deliver the covering documents at the right place. The Montreal Convention of 1999 Article 19 provides that 'The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo. Nevertheless, the carder shall not be liable for damage occasioned by delay if it proves that it and its servants and agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for it or them to take such measures'. The Montreal Convention Article 22 provides liability limits of the carrier in case of delay for passengers and their baggage and for cargo. In the carriage of persons, the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to 4,150 SDR. In the carriage of baggage, the liability of the carrier is limited to 1,000 SDR for each passenger unless a special declaration as to the value of the baggage has been made. In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to 17 SDR per kilogram unless a special declaration as to the value of the cargo has been made. The Montreal Convention Article 19 has shortcomings: it is silent on the duration of the liability for carriage,andit does not make any distinction between persons and good. It does not give any indication concerning the circumstances to be taken into account in cases of delay, and about the length of delay. In conclusion, it is

  13. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and anaerobic toxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Carabalí-Rivera, Y. S; Barba-Ho, L. E; Torres-Lozada, P

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The municipal solid waste (MSW) of large cities, in particular the ones of developing countries, is mainly disposed in landfills (LFs), whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and, occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic toxicity tests. The acute to...

  14. Comparative systemic toxicity of ropivacaine and bupivacaine in nonpregnant and pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A C; Arthur, G R; Wlody, D; De Armas, P; Morishima, H O; Finster, M

    1995-03-01

    Ropivacaine is a new amide local anesthetic, having therapeutic properties similar to those of bupivacaine but with a wider margin of safety. Bupivacaine is probably the most commonly used drug in obstetric epidural analgesia, even though laboratory studies have suggested that pregnancy increases the cardiotoxicity of bupivacaine but not of other local anesthetics. The current study was designed to reevaluate, in a random and blinded fashion, the systemic toxicity of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in nonpregnant and pregnant sheep. Chronically prepared nonpregnant and pregnant ewes were randomized to receive an intravenous infusion of ropivacaine or bupivacaine at a constant rate of 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1 until circulatory collapse. The investigators were blinded to the identity of local anesthetic. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac rhythm were monitored throughout the study. Arterial blood samples were obtained before infusion and at the onset of toxic manifestations, which appeared in the following sequence: convulsions, hypotension, apnea, and circulatory collapse. Serum drug concentrations and protein binding were determined. Blood pH and gas tensions were measured. There were no significant differences between non-pregnant and pregnant animals in the doses or serum concentrations of either drug required to elicit toxic manifestations. In nonpregnant animals, similar doses and serum concentrations of ropivacaine and bupivacaine were associated with the onset of convulsions and circulatory collapse. In pregnant ewes, greater doses of ropivacaine as compared to bupivacaine were required to produce convulsions (7.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 5.0 +/- 0.6 mg.kg-1) and circulatory collapse (12.9 +/- 0.8 vs. 8.5 +/- 1.2 mg.kg-1). The corresponding serum concentrations of ropivacaine were similar to those of bupivacaine. Pregnancy did not affect the serum protein binding of either drug. The proportion of animals manifesting a malignant ventricular arrhythmia as the terminal

  15. OpenVirtualToxLab--a platform for generating and exchanging in silico toxicity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedani, Angelo; Dobler, Max; Hu, Zhenquan; Smieško, Martin

    2015-01-22

    The VirtualToxLab is an in silico technology for estimating the toxic potential--endocrine and metabolic disruption, some aspects of carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity--of drugs, chemicals and natural products. The technology is based on an automated protocol that simulates and quantifies the binding of small molecules towards a series of currently 16 proteins, known or suspected to trigger adverse effects: 10 nuclear receptors (androgen, estrogen α, estrogen β, glucocorticoid, liver X, mineralocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, progesterone, thyroid α, thyroid β), four members of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (1A2, 2C9, 2D6, 3A4), a cytosolic transcription factor (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and a potassium ion channel (hERG). The toxic potential of a compound--its ability to trigger adverse effects--is derived from its computed binding affinities toward these very proteins: the computationally demanding simulations are executed in client-server model on a Linux cluster of the University of Basel. The graphical-user interface supports all computer platforms, allows building and uploading molecular structures, inspecting and downloading the results and, most important, rationalizing any prediction at the atomic level by interactively analyzing the binding mode of a compound with its target protein(s) in real-time 3D. Access to the VirtualToxLab is available free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and non-profit organizations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of copper toxicity in letttuce seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherji, S; Gupta, B D

    1972-01-01

    Information on the effects of toxic concentration of cupric sulphate on the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedlings is provided. Root growth is completely inhibited at 5 x 10/sup -2/ M and germination stops altogether at 10/sup -1/ M. The relative inhibition of root growth is stronger than that of hypocotyl growth. Various metabolites and hormones are partially capable of relieving copper inhibition. Catalase, peroxidase and IAA-oxidase activity shows increments directly proportional to the concentration of copper. It is obvious that growth is inversely proportional to enzyme activity. The increased level of these enzymes is probably due to an accelerated protein synthesis.

  17. Toxic clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers plus radiation-induced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The operational definition espoused twelve years ago that clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers should be nontoxic interferes with the recognition and research of useful radiation sensitizers. Eight years ago the toxic antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) was reported to be a hypoxic radiation sensitizer and the selective antitumor action of this drug was stressed as potentially creating tumor-targeted radiation sensitization. This rationale of oxidative antitumor drugs as toxic and targeted clinical sensitizers is useful, and has led to the study reported here. The antitumor drug cis-(1,1-cyclobutane-dicarboxylato)diammineplatinum(II), or JM-8, is being tested in clinical trials. Cells of S. typhimurium in PBS in the presence of 0.2mM JM-8 are found to be sensitized to irradiation under hypoxic, but not oxic, conditions. JM-8 is nontoxic to bacteria at this concentration, but upon irradiation the JM-8 solution becomes highly toxic. This radiation induced toxicity of JM-8 preferentially develops from hypoxic solution, and thus contributes to the rationale of hypoxic tumor cell destruction

  18. Monomeric, Oligomeric and Polymeric Proteins in Huntington Disease and Other Diseases of Polyglutamine Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guylaine Hoffner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease and other diseases of polyglutamine expansion are each caused by a different protein bearing an excessively long polyglutamine sequence and are associated with neuronal death. Although these diseases affect largely different brain regions, they all share a number of characteristics, and, therefore, are likely to possess a common mechanism. In all of the diseases, the causative protein is proteolyzed, becomes abnormally folded and accumulates in oligomers and larger aggregates. The aggregated and possibly the monomeric expanded polyglutamine are likely to play a critical role in the pathogenesis and there is increasing evidence that the secondary structure of the protein influences its toxicity. We describe here, with special attention to huntingtin, the mechanisms of polyglutamine aggregation and the modulation of aggregation by the sequences flanking the polyglutamine. We give a comprehensive picture of the characteristics of monomeric and aggregated polyglutamine, including morphology, composition, seeding ability, secondary structure, and toxicity. The structural heterogeneity of aggregated polyglutamine may explain why polyglutamine-containing aggregates could paradoxically be either toxic or neuroprotective.

  19. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R.

    1996-01-01

    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects

  20. The biochemistry of the protein crystal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Fast

    1985-01-01

    The crystal consists of dimeric protein subunits. The monomer peptide chains are held together in the subunit and the subunit in the crystal by disulfide and non-covalent bonds. The monomer peptide has a molecular weight of about 130 kdaltons which, in the presence of proteases, is hydrolyzed to a protease-resistant-protein of 65 kda that is toxic both to larvae by...

  1. α-Synuclein overexpression increases dopamine toxicity in BE(2-M17 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller David W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD. A plausible source of oxidative stress in nigral dopaminergic neurons is the redox reactions that specifically involve dopamine and produce various toxic molecules, i.e., free radicals and quinone species. α-Synuclein, a protein found in Lewy bodies characteristic of PD, is also thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of PD and point mutations and multiplications in the gene coding for α-synuclein have been found in familial forms of PD. Results We used dopaminergic human neuroblastoma BE(2-M17 cell lines stably transfected with WT or A30P mutant α-synuclein to characterize the effect of α-synuclein on dopamine toxicity. Cellular toxicity was analyzed by lactate dehydrogenase assay and by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Increased expression of either wild-type or mutant α-synuclein enhances the cellular toxicity induced by the accumulation of intracellular dopamine or DOPA. Conclusions Our results suggest that an interplay between dopamine and α-synuclein can cause cell death in a neuron-like background. The data presented here are compatible with several models of cytotoxicity, including the formation of α-synuclein oligomers and impairment of the lysosomal degradation.

  2. Chemotherapy-Related Toxicity, Nutritional Status and Quality of Life in Precachectic Oncologic Patients with, or without, High Protein Nutritional Support. A Prospective, Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ziętarska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer disease is usually associated with impaired nutritional status, which is one of the factors contributing to deterioration of the results of surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine whether nutritional support with high protein (ONS in adult oncologic patients in the first step of cancer cachexia—asymptomatic precachexia, has an influence on the toxicity of systemic therapy. However, secondary endpoints were established: to determine whether high protein ONS influences the nutritional status, the quality of life, and the performance status. Materials and Methods: A total of 114 persons aged 40–84 years old with colorectal cancer were examined. Based on the randomization, 47 patients were qualified to the interventional group (ONS group and 48 to Control group. To evaluate the nutritional status NRS-2002 (Nutritional Risk Screening, SGA (Subjective Global Assessment, SCRINIO (SCReenIng the Nutritional status In Oncology Working Group classification, VAS (Visual Analog Scale for appetite was used. FAACT (Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy questionnaire was used for assessment of the quality of life. The health status of patients was evaluated based on the Karnofsky Performance Scale. Anthropometric measurements were done. Results: Severe complications of chemotherapy, which caused the end of treatment, a slight complication of the gastrointestinal tract such as diarrhea grade 2 according to ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score regardless of the studied group, were observed. There were no statistical differences in the number and severity of the observed complications, i.e., neutropenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea. During the follow-up the significant changes of SGA, VAS, albumin and prealbumin were observed between groups. In the ONS group an improvement in nutritional status was noticed

  3. Physiologic and Metabolic Benefits of Formulated Diets and Mangifera indica in Fluoride Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Sanjay S; Narasimhacharya, A V R L

    2015-06-01

    Fluorosis is a major health problem affecting normal physiological and metabolic functions in people living in endemic fluoride areas. The present work was aimed at investigating the role of basal, high carbohydrate low protein (HCLP) and high protein low carbohydrate (HPLC) diets and Mangifera indica fruit powder as a food supplement in fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity. Exposure to fluoride resulted in elevation of plasma glucose levels, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT, and hepatic G-6-Pase activities, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles with decreased plasma protein, HDL-C, hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activity in basal, HCLP and HPLC diet fed albino rats. However among the three diets tested, HPLC diet was found to be relatively, a better metabolic regulator. All the three formulated diets (basal, HCLP and HPLC) supplemented with mango fruit powder (5 and 10 g), decreased plasma glucose content, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT and hepatic G-6-Pase activities and plasma as well as hepatic lipid profiles. These diets also elevated the hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activities. These effects however, were prominent with the HPLC diet supplemented with mango fruit powder and, among the two doses of mango fruit powder, the higher dose (10 g) yielded more promising results. It is surmised that the micronutrients and phytochemicals present in the diets and the mango fruit could be responsible for attenuation of fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity.

  4. Proteomic Signatures of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo: Sensitivity and Specificity in Toxicity Assessment of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Karen; Küster, Eberhard; Altenburger, Rolf; Gündel, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Studies using embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) instead of adult fish for characterising the (eco-) toxic potential of chemicals have been proposed as animal replacing methods. Effect analysis at the molecular level might enhance sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the embryonal studies. The present paper aimed to test the potential of toxicoproteomics with zebrafish eleutheroembryos for sensitive and specific toxicity assessment. 2-DE-based toxicoproteomics was performed applying low-dose (EC(10)) exposure for 48 h with three-model substances Rotenone, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) and Diclofenac. By multivariate "pattern-only" PCA and univariate statistical analyses, alterations in the embryonal proteome were detectable in nonetheless visibly intact organisms and treatment with the three substances was distinguishable at the molecular level. Toxicoproteomics enabled the enhancement of sensitivity and specificity of the embryonal toxicity assay and bear the potency to identify protein markers serving as general stress markers and early diagnosis of toxic stress.

  5. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as a novel approach to providing effect-based endpoints in duckweed toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Xin; Ying, Guang-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Guo-Yong; Liu, You-Sheng; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Pan, Chang-Gui; Tian, Fei; Martin, Francis L

    2017-02-01

    Traditional duckweed toxicity tests only measure plant growth inhibition as an endpoint, with limited effects-based data. The present study aimed to investigate whether Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could enhance the duckweed (Lemna minor L.) toxicity test. Four chemicals (Cu, Cd, atrazine, and acetochlor) and 4 metal-containing industrial wastewater samples were tested. After exposure of duckweed to the chemicals, standard toxicity endpoints (frond number and chlorophyll content) were determined; the fronds were also interrogated using FTIR spectroscopy under optimized test conditions. Biochemical alterations associated with each treatment were assessed and further analyzed by multivariate analysis. The results showed that comparable x% of effective concentration (ECx) values could be achieved based on FTIR spectroscopy in comparison with those based on traditional toxicity endpoints. Biochemical alterations associated with different doses of toxicant were mainly attributed to lipid, protein, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate structural changes, which helped to explain toxic mechanisms. With the help of multivariate analysis, separation of clusters related to different exposure doses could be achieved. The present study is the first to show successful application of FTIR spectroscopy in standard duckweed toxicity tests with biochemical alterations as new endpoints. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:346-353. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Immunotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity of nanomaterials: New strategies for toxicity testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusinska, Maria; Tulinska, Jana; El Yamani, Naouale; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Rollerova, Eva; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Smolkova, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) are beneficial in numerous industrial and medical applications. However, they could also induce unintended effects. Thus, a proper strategy for toxicity testing is essential in human hazard and risk assessment. Toxicity can be tested in vivo and in vitro; in compliance with the 3Rs, alternative strategies for in vitro testing should be further developed for NMs. Robust, standardized methods are of great importance in nanotoxicology, with comprehensive material characterization and uptake as an integral part of the testing strategy. Oxidative stress has been shown to be an underlying mechanism of possible toxicity of NMs, causing both immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. For testing NMs in vitro, a battery of tests should be performed on cells of human origin, either cell lines or primary cells, in conditions as close as possible to an in vivo situation. Novel toxicity pathways, particularly epigenetic modification, should be assessed along with conventional toxicity testing methods. However, to initiate epigenetic toxicity screens for NM exposure, there is a need to better understand their adverse effects on the epigenome, to identify robust and reproducible causal links between exposure, epigenetic changes and adverse phenotypic endpoints, and to develop improved assays to monitor epigenetic toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  8. Toxic isolectins from the mushroom Boletus venenatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Dohra, Hideo; Morita, Tatsuya; Murata, Takeomi; Usui, Taichi; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Kamei, Masugu; Hirabayashi, Jun; Matsuura, Masanori; Yamada, Mina; Saikawa, Yoko; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Nakata, Masaya; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2010-04-01

    Ingestion of the toxic mushroom Boletus venenatus causes a severe gastrointestinal syndrome, such as nausea, repetitive vomiting, diarrhea, and stomachache. A family of isolectins (B. venenatus lectins, BVLs) was isolated as the toxic principles from the mushroom by successive 80% ammonium sulfate-precipitation, Super Q anion-exchange chromatography, and TSK-gel G3000SW gel filtration. Although BVLs showed a single band on SDS-PAGE, they were further divided into eight isolectins (BVL-1 to -8) by BioAssist Q anion-exchange chromatography. All the isolectins showed lectin activity and had very similar molecular weights as detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Among them, BVL-1 and -3 were further characterized with their complete amino acid sequences of 99 amino acids determined and found to be identical to each other. In the hemagglutination inhibition assay, both proteins failed to bind to any mono- or oligo-saccharides tested and showed the same sugar-binding specificity to glycoproteins. Among the glycoproteins examined, asialo-fetuin was the strongest inhibitor. The sugar-binding specificity of each isolectin was also analyzed by using frontal affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, indicating that they recognized N-linked sugar chains, especially Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->4Manbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->4GlcNAc (Type II) residues in N-linked sugar chains. BVLs ingestion resulted in fatal toxicity in mice upon intraperitoneal administration and caused diarrhea upon oral administration in rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dermal toxicity elicited by phthalates: evaluation of skin absorption, immunohistology, and functional proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Yi-Yun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-03-01

    The toxicity of phthalates is an important concern in the fields of environmental health and toxicology. Dermal exposure via skin care products, soil, and dust is a main route for phthalate delivery. We had explored the effect of topically-applied phthalates on skin absorption and toxicity. Immunohistology, functional proteomics, and Western blotting were employed as methodologies for validating phthalate toxicity. Among 5 phthalates tested, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) showed the highest skin reservoir. Only diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) could penetrate across skin. Strat-M(®) membrane could be used as permeation barrier for predicting phthalate penetration through skin. The accumulation of DEHP in hair follicles was ∼15nmol/cm(2), which was significantly greater than DBP and DEP. DBP induced apoptosis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via caspase-3 activation. This result was confirmed by downregulation of 14-3-3 and immunohistology of TUNEL. On the other hand, the HSP60 overexpression and immunostaining of COX-2 suggested inflammatory response induced by DEP and DEHP. The proteomic profiling verified the role of calcium homeostasis on skin inflammation. Some proteins investigated in this study can be sensitive biomarkers for dermal toxicity of phthalates. These included HSPs, 14-3-3, and cytokeratin. This work provided novel platforms for examining phthalate toxicity on skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  11. Hemopexin and haptoglobin: allies against heme toxicity from hemoglobin not contenders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann eSmith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal here is to describe our current understanding of heme metabolism and the deleterious effects of free heme on immunological processes, endothelial function, systemic inflammation, and various end-organ tissues (e.g. kidney, lung, liver, etc., with particular attention paid to the role of hemopexin (HPX. Because heme toxicity is the impetus for much of the pathology in sepsis, sickle cell disease, and other hemolytic conditions, the biological importance and clinical relevance of HPX, the predominant heme binding protein, is reinforced. A perspective on the function of HPX and haptoglobin (Hp is presented, updating how these two proteins and their respective receptors act simultaneously to protect the body in clinical conditions that entail hemolysis and/or systemic intravascular inflammation. Evidence from longitudinal studies in patients supports that HPX plays a Hp-independent role in genetic and non-genetic hemolytic diseases without the need for global Hp depletion. Evidence also supports that HPX has an important role in the prognosis of complex illnesses characterized predominantly by the presence of hemolysis, such as sickle cell disease, sepsis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and conditions involving intravascular and extravascular hemolysis, such as that generated by extracorporeal circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass and from blood transfusions. We propose that quantitating the amounts of plasma heme, HPX, Hb-Hp, heme-HPX and heme-albumin levels in various disease states may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of the above-mentioned conditions, which is crucial to developing targeted plasma protein supplementation (i.e. replenishment therapies for patients with heme toxicity due to HPX depletion.

  12. Abrin Toxicity and Bioavailability after Temperature and pH Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Tam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abrin, one of most potent toxins known to man, is derived from the rosary pea (jequirity pea, Abrus precatorius and is a potential bioterror weapon. The temperature and pH stability of abrin was evaluated with an in vitro cell free translation (CFT assay, a Vero cell culture cytotoxicity assay, and an in vivo mouse bioassay. pH treatment of abrin had no detrimental effect on its stability and toxicity as seen either in vitro or in vivo. Abrin exposure to increasing temperatures did not completely abrogate protein translation. In both the cell culture cytotoxicity model and the mouse bioassay, abrin’s toxic effects were completely abrogated if the toxin was exposed to temperatures of 74 °C or higher. In the cell culture model, 63 °C-treated abrin had a 30% reduction in cytotoxicity which was validated in the in vivo mouse bioassay with all mice dying but with a slight time-to-death delay as compared to the non-treated abrin control. Since temperature inactivation did not affect abrin’s ability to inhibit protein synthesis (A-chain, we hypothesize that high temperature treatment affected abrin’s ability to bind to cellular receptors (affecting B-chain. Our results confirm the absolute need to validate in vitro cytotoxicity assays with in vivo mouse bioassays.

  13. The acid test of fluoride: how pH modulates toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramaswamy; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Skobe, Ziedonis; Tannous, Bakhos A; Bartlett, John D

    2010-05-28

    It is not known why the ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation are uniquely sensitive to fluoride (F(-)). Herein, we present a novel theory with supporting data to show that the low pH environment of maturating stage ameloblasts enhances their sensitivity to a given dose of F(-). Enamel formation is initiated in a neutral pH environment (secretory stage); however, the pH can fall to below 6.0 as most of the mineral precipitates (maturation stage). Low pH can facilitate entry of F(-) into cells. Here, we asked if F(-) was more toxic at low pH, as measured by increased cell stress and decreased cell function. Treatment of ameloblast-derived LS8 cells with F(-) at low pH reduced the threshold dose of F(-) required to phosphorylate stress-related proteins, PERK, eIF2alpha, JNK and c-jun. To assess protein secretion, LS8 cells were stably transduced with a secreted reporter, Gaussia luciferase, and secretion was quantified as a function of F(-) dose and pH. Luciferase secretion significantly decreased within 2 hr of F(-) treatment at low pH versus neutral pH, indicating increased functional toxicity. Rats given 100 ppm F(-) in their drinking water exhibited increased stress-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2alpha in maturation stage ameloblasts (pHdental fluorosis.

  14. Oxidative stress and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, Sara; Doyle, Hugh; Blasco, Julian; Redmond, Gareth; Sheehan, David

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have potential applications in drug delivery, cancer diagnosis and therapy, food industry and environment remediation. However, little is known about their potential toxicity or fate in the environment. Mytilus edulis was exposed in tanks to750 ppb AuNP (average diameter 5.3 ± 1 nm) for 24 h to study in vivo biological effects of nanoparticles. Traditional biomarkers and an affinity procedure selective for thiol-containing proteins followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) separations were used to study toxicity and oxidative stress responses. Results were compared to those obtained for treatment with cadmium chloride, a well known pro-oxidant. M. edulis mainly accumulated AuNP in digestive gland which also showed higher lipid peroxidation. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE (1DE) and 2DE analysis of digestive gland samples revealed decreased thiol-containing proteins for AuNP. Lysosomal membrane stability measured in haemolymph gave lower values for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in both treatments but was greater in AuNP. Oxidative stress occurred within 24 h of AuNP exposure in M. edulis. Previously we showed that larger diameter AuNP caused modest effects, indicating that nanoparticle size is a key factor in biological responses to nanoparticles. This study suggests that M. edulis is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles.

  15. Potential of extracellular microRNAs as biomarkers of acetaminophen toxicity in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi, E-mail: Xi.Yang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Salminen, William F., E-mail: Willie.Salminen@parexel.com [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Shi, Qiang, E-mail: Qiang.Shi@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Greenhaw, James, E-mail: James.Greenhaw@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Gill, Pritmohinder S., E-mail: PSGill@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States); Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa, E-mail: SBhattacharyya2@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States); Beger, Richard D., E-mail: Richard.Beger@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Mendrick, Donna L., E-mail: Donna.Mendrick@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Mattes, William B., E-mail: William.Mattes@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Developing biomarkers for detecting acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity has been widely investigated. Recent studies of adults with APAP-induced liver injury have reported human serum microRNA-122 (miR-122) as a novel biomarker of APAP-induced liver injury. The goal of this study was to examine extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential biomarkers for APAP liver injury in children. Global levels of serum and urine miRNAs were examined in three pediatric subgroups: 1) healthy children (n = 10), 2) hospitalized children receiving therapeutic doses of APAP (n = 10) and 3) children hospitalized for APAP overdose (n = 8). Out of 147 miRNAs detected in the APAP overdose group, eight showed significantly increased median levels in serum (miR-122, -375, -423-5p, -30d-5p, -125b-5p, -4732-5p, -204-5p, and -574-3p), compared to the other groups. Analysis of urine samples from the same patients had significantly increased median levels of four miRNAs (miR-375, -940, -9-3p and -302a) compared to the other groups. Importantly, correlation of peak serum APAP protein adduct levels (an indicator of the oxidation of APAP to the reactive metabolite N-acetyl-para-quinone imine) with peak miRNA levels showed that the highest correlation was observed for serum miR-122 (R = 0.94; p < 0.01) followed by miR-375 (R = 0.70; p = 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that miRNAs are increased in children with APAP toxicity and correlate with APAP protein adducts, suggesting a potential role as biomarkers of APAP toxicity. - Highlights: • Serum miR-122 and miR-375 levels were increased in children with APAP overdose. • Urine levels of miR-375 and miR-940 were increased in the APAP overdose group. • Peak serum miR-122 levels were correlated with peak serum APAP protein adducts.

  16. DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes might contribute to increased risk for tumor formation in humans. In the present review, the information available on the interference of Cd with DNA repair systems and their inhibition is summarized. These actions could possibly explain the indirect contribution of Cd to mutagenic effects and/or carcinogenicity

  17. Acute toxicity profile of cadmium revealed by proteomics in brain tissue of Paralichthys olivaceus: Potential role of transferrin in cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jinyong; Huang Heqing; Bao Xiaodong; Lin Qingmei; Cai Zongwei

    2006-01-01

    An analytical approach using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) separated proteins from the brain tissue of the fish Paralichthys olivaceus. Approximately 600 protein spots were detected from the brain sample when applying 600 μg protein to a 2D-PAGE gel in the pH range 3.5-10.0. Compared to a control sample, significant changes of 24 protein spots were observed in the fish tissue exposed to acute toxicity of seawater cadmium (SCAT) at 10 ppm for 24 h. Among these spots, nine were down-regulated, nine were up-regulated, two showed high expression, and four showed low expression. The collected spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and database search, and they were further classified by LOCtree, a hierarchical system of support vector machines which predict their sub-cellular localization. The amount of transferrin expression in brain cells decreased linearly with the increase of SCAT concentration in seawater. Among the 24 proteins identified on a 2D-PAGE gel, 9 demonstrated a synchronous response to acute cadmium, suggesting that they might represent a biomarker profile. Based on their variable levels and trends on the 2D-PAGE gel this protein (likely to be transferrin) suggesting they might be utilized as biomarkers to investigate cadmium pollution levels in seawater and halobios survival, as well as to evaluate the degree of risk of human fatalities. The results indicate that the application of multiple biomarkers has an advantage over a single biomarker for monitoring levels of environmental contamination

  18. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  19. Evaluation of nano-specific toxicity of zinc oxide, copper oxide, and silver nanoparticles through toxic ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weicheng; Liu, Xiawei; Bao, Shaopan; Xiao, Bangding; Fang, Tao, E-mail: fangt@ihb.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology (China)

    2016-12-15

    For safety and environmental risk assessments of nanomaterials (NMs) and to provide essential toxicity data, nano-specific toxicities, or excess toxicities, of ZnO, CuO, and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) (20, 20, and 30 nm, respectively) to Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in short-term (6 h) and long-term (48 h) bioassays were quantified based on a toxic ratio. ZnO NPs exhibited no nano-specific toxicities, reflecting similar toxicities as ZnO bulk particles (BPs) (as well as zinc salt). However, CuO and Ag NPs yielded distinctly nano-specific toxicities when compared with their BPs. According to their nano-specific toxicities, the capability of these NPs in eliciting hazardous effects on humans and the environment was as follows: CuO > Ag > ZnO NPs. Moreover, long-term bioassays were more sensitive to nano-specific toxicity than short-term bioassays. Overall, nano-specific toxicity is a meaningful measurement to evaluate the environmental risk of NPs. The log T{sub e}{sup particle} value is a useful parameter for quantifying NP nano-specific toxicity and enabling comparisons of international toxicological data. Furthermore, this value could be used to determine the environmental risk of NPs.

  20. Protein Complex Production from the Drug Discovery Standpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moarefi, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule drug discovery critically depends on the availability of meaningful in vitro assays to guide medicinal chemistry programs that are aimed at optimizing drug potency and selectivity. As it becomes increasingly evident, most disease relevant drug targets do not act as a single protein. In the body, they are instead generally found in complex with protein cofactors that are highly relevant for their correct function and regulation. This review highlights selected examples of the increasing trend to use biologically relevant protein complexes for rational drug discovery to reduce costly late phase attritions due to lack of efficacy or toxicity.

  1. TOXICITY BEHAVIORS IN ORGANIZATIONS: STUDY OF RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF TOXIC EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCES SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Bektas, Meral; Erkal, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    In toxic organizations which are mostly destructive instead of being constrictive towards its employees, toxicity behaviors emerge as a result of the formal and informal relationships. Toxicity behaviors are often negatively affect motivation, job satisfaction or performance of the employees in workplace. Basic toxicity behaviors in organizations are: extreme jealousy, biting words, emphasis  superiority emphasis, getting angry, offending employees, strict control, heavy job workload, limited...

  2. Antimony Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The...

  3. Dependence of intestinal amino acid uptake on dietary protein or amino acid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasov, W.H.; Solberg, D.H.; Diamond, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    To understand how intestinal amino acid (AA) transport is regulated by dietary substrate levels, the authors measured uptake of seven radioactively-labelled AAs and glucose across the jejunal brush-border membrane of mice kept on one of three isocaloric rations differing in nitrogen content. In the high-protein ration, uptake increased by 77-81% for the nonessential, less toxic AAs, proline, and aspartate but only by 32-61% for the more toxic essential AAs tested. In the nitrogen-deficient ration, uptake decreased for the nonessential aspartate and proline but stayed constant or increased for essential AAs and for the nonessential alanine. These patterns imply independent regulation of the intestine's various AA transporters. With decreasing dietary AA (or protein), the imino acid and acidic AA private transporters are repressed, while activities of the basic AA transporter and the neutral AA public transporter decrease to an asymptote or else go through a minimum. These regulatory patterns can be understood as a compromise among conflicting constraints imposed by protein's multiple roles as a source of calories, nitrogen, and essential AAs and by the toxicity of essential AAs at high concentrations

  4. Natural products induce a G protein-mediated calcium pathway activating p53 in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginkel, Paul R. van; Yan, Michael B. [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Bhattacharya, Saswati [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Polans, Arthur S., E-mail: aspolans@wisc.edu [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Kenealey, Jason D. [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death. - Highlights: • Natural products having low toxicity increase cytoplasmic calcium in cancer cells. • A G-protein/IP{sub 3} pathway mediates the release of calcium from the ER. • The elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity. • p53 and other Ca{sup 2+}-dependent pro-apoptotic pathways inhibit cancer cell growth.

  5. Natural products induce a G protein-mediated calcium pathway activating p53 in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkel, Paul R. van; Yan, Michael B.; Bhattacharya, Saswati; Polans, Arthur S.; Kenealey, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death. - Highlights: • Natural products having low toxicity increase cytoplasmic calcium in cancer cells. • A G-protein/IP 3 pathway mediates the release of calcium from the ER. • The elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity. • p53 and other Ca 2+ -dependent pro-apoptotic pathways inhibit cancer cell growth.

  6. Lead-Binding Proteins: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey C. Gonick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead-binding proteins are a series of low molecular weight proteins, analogous to metallothionein, which segregate lead in a nontoxic form in several organs (kidney, brain, lung, liver, erythrocyte. Whether the lead-binding proteins in every organ are identical or different remains to be determined. In the erythrocyte, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD isoforms have commanded the greatest attention as proteins and enzymes that are both inhibitable and inducible by lead. ALAD-2, although it binds lead to a greater degree than ALAD-1, appears to bind lead in a less toxic form. What may be of greater significance is that a low molecular weight lead-binding protein, approximately 10 kDa, appears in the erythrocyte once blood lead exceeds 39 μg/dL and eventually surpasses the lead-binding capacity of ALAD. In brain and kidney of environmentally exposed humans and animals, a cytoplasmic lead-binding protein has been identified as thymosin β4, a 5 kDa protein. In kidney, but not brain, another lead-binding protein has been identified as acyl-CoA binding protein, a 9 kDa protein. Each of these proteins, when coincubated with liver ALAD and titrated with lead, diminishes the inhibition of ALAD by lead, verifying their ability to segregate lead in a nontoxic form.

  7. Rectal toxicity profile after transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy: Use of a comprehensive toxicity scoring system and identification of rectal dosimetric toxicity predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Jinesh N.; Ennis, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand rectal toxicity after prostate brachytherapy, we employed the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0), a comprehensive system with distinct and separately reported gastrointestinal adverse event items (unlike Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity scoring), to evaluate item-specific postimplant rectal toxicities. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 135 patients treated with brachytherapy ± hormonal therapy, using CTCAE v3.0 to score acute/late rectal toxicities (median follow-up, 41 months). Dosimetric parameters were evaluated for ability to predict toxicities. Results: Use of CTCAE yielded a novel rectal toxicity profile consisting of diarrhea, incontinence, urgency, proctitis, pain, spasms, and hemorrhage event rates. No item had a 25 (percent of rectal volume receiving 25% of prescribed prostate dose) ≤ 25% vs. 60% for %V 25 > 25% (p 1 ≤ 40% vs. 44% for %V 1 > 40% (p = 0.007). Conclusions: A comprehensive understanding of item-specific postimplant rectal toxicities was obtained using CTCAE. Rectal %V 25 > 25% and %V 1 > 40% predicted worse late diarrhea and maximum toxicity, respectively

  8. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Mast, C.A. van der; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Mussels have a high capacity to accumulate cadmium and other heavy metals without notable toxic effects. However, they have recently found that cadmium is toxic to M. edulis at a relatively low concentration, as anoxic survival time of the animals was significantly shortened after two weeks of exposure to 50 ppb Cd. Based on this finding, a research was started to study the toxic effects of cadmium at a macromolecular level (proteins, RNA). Mussels were exposed to 250 ppb Cd for short periods. Then excised gills were incubated with 35 s-methionine for 4 hours. In the gill tissue of 7 and 15 days Cd-exposed animals, a significantly decrease in the incorporation rate of the introduced label was found of 30 and 37%, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill tissue proteins

  9. Trichothecenes: structure-toxic activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Dohnal, Vlastimil; Kuca, Kamil; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-07-01

    Trichothecenes comprise a large family of structurally related toxins mainly produced by fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium. Among trichothecenes, type A and type B are of the most concern due to their broad and highly toxic nature. In order to address structure-activity relationships (SAR) of trichothecenes, relationships between structural features and biological effects of trichothecene mycotoxins in mammalian systems are summarized in this paper. The double bond between C-9-C-10 and the 12,13-epoxide ring are essential structural features for trichothecene toxicity. Removal of these groups results in a complete loss of toxicity. A hydroxyl group at C-3 enhances trichothecene toxicity, while this activity decreases gradually when C-3 is substituted with either hydrogen or an acetoxy group. The presence of a hydroxyl group at C-4 promotes slightly lower toxicity than an acetoxy group at the same position. The toxicity for type B trichothecenes decreases if the substituent at C-4 is changed from acetoxy to hydroxyl or hydrogen at C-4 position. The presence of hydroxyl and hydrogen groups on C-15 decreases the trichothecene toxicity in comparison with an acetoxy group attached to this carbon. Trichothecenes toxicity increases when a macrocyclic ring exists between the C-4 and C-15. At C-8 position, an oxygenated substitution at C-8 is essential for trichothecene toxicity, indicating a decrease in the toxicity if substituent change from isovaleryloxy through hydrogen to the hydroxyl group. The presence of a second epoxy ring at C-7-C-8 reduces the toxicity, whereas epoxidation at C-9-C-10 of some macrocyclic trichothecenes increases the activity. Conjugated trichothecenes could release their toxic precursors after hydrolysis in animals, and present an additional potential risk. The SAR study of trichothecenes should provide some crucial information for a better understanding of trichothecene chemical and biological properties in food contamination.

  10. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D; Davis, Jared H; Gordon, Patricia B; Breaker, Ronald R; Strobel, Scott A

    2013-11-19

    Fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. The Escherichia coli gene crcB was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. There are >8,000 crcB homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. Here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed FEX (fluoride exporter)] function in fluoride export. FEX KOs in three eukaryotic model organisms, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, are highly sensitized to fluoride (>200-fold) but not to other halides. Some of these KO strains are unable to grow in fluoride concentrations found in tap water. Using the radioactive isotope of fluoride, (18)F, we developed an assay to measure the intracellular fluoride concentration and show that the FEX deletion strains accumulate fluoride in excess of the external concentration, providing direct evidence of FEX function in fluoride efflux. In addition, they are more sensitive to lower pH in the presence of fluoride. These results demonstrate that eukaryotic FEX genes encode a previously unrecognized class of fluoride exporter necessary for survival in standard environmental conditions.

  11. Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Blue Honeysuckle Concentrate in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Song, Chang-Hyun; Park, Soo-Jin; Shin, Yong-Kook; Han, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain single oral dose toxicity information for concentrated and lyophilized powder of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L., Caprifoliaceae; BHcL) in female and male ICR mice to aid in the process of developing natural origin medicinal ingredients or foods following proximate analysis and phytochemical profile measurement. The proximate analysis revealed that BHcL had an energy value of 3.80 kcal/g and contained 0.93 g/g of carbohydrate, 0.41 g/g of sugar, 0.02 g/g of protein, and 0.20 mg/g of sodium. BHcL did not contain lipids, including saturated lipids, trans fats, or cholesterols. Further, BHcL contained 4.54% of betaine, 210.63 mg/g of total phenols, 159.30 mg/g of total flavonoids, and 133.57 mg/g of total anthocyanins. Following administration of a single oral BHcL treatment, there were no treatment-related mortalities, changes in body weight (bw) or organ weight, clinical signs, necropsy or histopathological findings up to 2,000 mg/kg bw, the limited dosage for rodents of both sexes. We concluded that BHcL is a practically non-toxic material in toxicity potency. PMID:25874034

  12. Biological Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Najealicka Nicole

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), like almost all nanoparticles, are potentially toxic beyond a certain concentration because the survival of the organism is compromised due to scores of pathophysiological abnormalities above that concentration. However, the mechanism of AgNP toxicity remains undetermined. Instead of applying a toxic dose, these investigations were attempted to monitor the effects of AgNPs at a non-lethal concentration on wild type Drosophila melanogaster by exposing them to nanoparticles throughout their development. All adult flies raised in AgNP doped food indicated that of not more than 50 mg/L had no negative influence on median survival; however, these flies appeared uniformly lighter in body color due to the loss of melanin pigments in their cuticle. Additionally, fertility and vertical movement ability were compromised after AgNP feeding. The determination of the amount of free ionic silver (Ag+) indicated that the observed biological effects had resulted from the AgNPs and not from Ag+. Biochemical analysis suggests that the activity of copper dependent enzymes, namely tyrosinase and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, were decreased significantly following the consumption of AgNPs, despite the constant level of copper present in the tissue. Furthermore, copper supplementation restored the loss of AgNP induced demelanization, and the reduction of functional Ctr1 in Ctr1 heterozygous mutants caused the flies to be resistant to demelanization. Consequently, these studies proposed a mechanism whereby consumption of excess AgNPs in association with membrane bound copper transporter proteins cause sequestration of copper, thus creating a condition that resembles copper starvation. This model also explained the cuticular demelanization effect resulting from AgNP since tyrosinase activity is essential for melanin biosynthesis. Finally, these investigations demonstrated that Drosophila, an established genetic model system, can be well utilized for further

  13. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Zhang, Yufang; Liang, Chen; Wang, Nasui; Zheng, Heping; Wang, Jundong

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150 mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75 g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15 weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. - Highlights: • Fluoride exposure altered the growth and development, sperm count and sperm survival percentages, testicular histology • Fluoride exposure decreased NGF, Ras, and Mek mRNA and NGF and p-MEK protein expressions in testis of mice. • Choline supplementation diminishes fluoride-induced testicular toxicity.

  14. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianhai [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Zhang, Yufang [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Veterinary Station in Chen Villages of Lin Country, Linxian, Shanxi 033200 (China); Liang, Chen [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Wang, Nasui [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Zheng, Heping [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Wang, Jundong, E-mail: wangjd53@outlook.com [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150 mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75 g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15 weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. - Highlights: • Fluoride exposure altered the growth and development, sperm count and sperm survival percentages, testicular histology • Fluoride exposure decreased NGF, Ras, and Mek mRNA and NGF and p-MEK protein expressions in testis of mice. • Choline supplementation diminishes fluoride-induced testicular toxicity.

  15. Microbial biotransformation of DON: molecular basis for reduced toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Alix; Mimoun, Sabria; Murate, Leticia S.; Loiseau, Nicolas; Lippi, Yannick; Bracarense, Ana-Paula F. L.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; He, Jian Wei; Zhou, Ting; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria are able to de-epoxidize or epimerize deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, to deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (deepoxy-DON or DOM-1) or 3-epi-deoxynivalenol (3-epi-DON), respectively. Using different approaches, the intestinal toxicity of 3 molecules was compared and the molecular basis for the reduced toxicity investigated. In human intestinal epithelial cells, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON were not cytotoxic, did not change the oxygen consumption or impair the barrier function. In intestinal explants, exposure for 4 hours to 10 μM DON induced intestinal lesions not seen in explants treated with deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON. A pan-genomic transcriptomic analysis was performed on intestinal explants. 747 probes, representing 323 genes, were differentially expressed, between DON-treated and control explants. By contrast, no differentially expressed genes were observed between control, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON treated explants. Both DON and its biotransformation products were able to fit into the pockets of the A-site of the ribosome peptidyl transferase center. DON forms three hydrogen bonds with the A site and activates MAPKinases (mitogen-activated protein kinases). By contrast deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON only form two hydrogen bonds and do not activate MAPKinases. Our data demonstrate that bacterial de-epoxidation or epimerization of DON altered their interaction with the ribosome, leading to an absence of MAPKinase activation and a reduced toxicity.

  16. Assessing the toxic effects of ethylene glycol ethers using Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz; Gombar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Experimental determination of toxicity profiles consumes a great deal of time, money, and other resources. Consequently, businesses, societies, and regulators strive for reliable alternatives such as Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship (QSTR) models to fill gaps in toxicity profiles of compounds of concern to human health. The use of glycol ethers and their health effects have recently attracted the attention of international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO). The board members of Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICAD) recently identified inadequate testing as well as gaps in toxicity profiles of ethylene glycol mono-n-alkyl ethers (EGEs). The CICAD board requested the ATSDR Computational Toxicology and Methods Development Laboratory to conduct QSTR assessments of certain specific toxicity endpoints for these chemicals. In order to evaluate the potential health effects of EGEs, CICAD proposed a critical QSTR analysis of the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and developmental effects of EGEs and other selected chemicals. We report here results of the application of QSTRs to assess rodent carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of four EGEs: 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-propoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol and their metabolites. Neither mutagenicity nor carcinogenicity is indicated for the parent compounds, but these compounds are predicted to be developmental toxicants. The predicted toxicity effects were subjected to reverse QSTR (rQSTR) analysis to identify structural attributes that may be the main drivers of the developmental toxicity potential of these compounds.

  17. Autophagy and lysosomal dysfunction as emerging mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern Stephan T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of the potential risks associated with the manufacture, use, and disposal of nanoscale materials, and their mechanisms of toxicity, is important for the continued advancement of nanotechnology. Currently, the most widely accepted paradigms of nanomaterial toxicity are oxidative stress and inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. This review will highlight the significance of autophagy and lysosomal dysfunction as emerging mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity. Most endocytic routes of nanomaterial cell uptake converge upon the lysosome, making the lysosomal compartment the most common intracellular site of nanoparticle sequestration and degradation. In addition to the endo-lysosomal pathway, recent evidence suggests that some nanomaterials can also induce autophagy. Among the many physiological functions, the lysosome, by way of the autophagy (macroautophagy pathway, degrades intracellular pathogens, and damaged organelles and proteins. Thus, autophagy induction by nanoparticles may be an attempt to degrade what is perceived by the cell as foreign or aberrant. While the autophagy and endo-lysosomal pathways have the potential to influence the disposition of nanomaterials, there is also a growing body of literature suggesting that biopersistent nanomaterials can, in turn, negatively impact these pathways. Indeed, there is ample evidence that biopersistent nanomaterials can cause autophagy and lysosomal dysfunctions resulting in toxicological consequences.

  18. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  19. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III) or Cd (II) whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II) and Zn (II) were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II) concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products. PMID:23098077

  20. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Availab