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Sample records for protects immature hippocampal

  1. Immature doublecortin-positive hippocampal neurons are important for learning but not for remembering.

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    Vukovic, Jana; Borlikova, Gilyana G; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Robinson, Gregory J; Sullivan, Robert K P; Walker, Tara L; Bartlett, Perry F

    2013-04-10

    It is now widely accepted that hippocampal neurogenesis underpins critical cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. To assess the behavioral importance of adult-born neurons, we developed a novel knock-in mouse model that allowed us to specifically and reversibly ablate hippocampal neurons at an immature stage. In these mice, the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) is expressed under control of the doublecortin (DCX) promoter, which allows for specific ablation of immature DCX-expressing neurons after administration of diphtheria toxin while leaving the neural precursor pool intact. Using a spatially challenging behavioral test (a modified version of the active place avoidance test), we present direct evidence that immature DCX-expressing neurons are required for successful acquisition of spatial learning, as well as reversal learning, but are not necessary for the retrieval of stored long-term memories. Importantly, the observed learning deficits were rescued as newly generated immature neurons repopulated the granule cell layer upon termination of the toxin treatment. Repeat (or cyclic) depletion of immature neurons reinstated behavioral deficits if the mice were challenged with a novel task. Together, these findings highlight the potential of stimulating neurogenesis as a means to enhance learning.

  2. Palmitoylethanolamide Ameliorates Hippocampal Damage and Behavioral Dysfunction After Perinatal Asphyxia in the Immature Rat Brain

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    María I. Herrera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia (PA is an obstetric complication associated with an impaired gas exchange. This health problem continues to be a determinant of neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental disorders. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA has exerted neuroprotection in several models of brain injury and neurodegeneration. We aimed at evaluating the potential neuroprotective role of PEA in an experimental model, which induces PA in the immature rat brain. PA was induced by placing Sprague Dawley newborn rats in a water bath at 37°C for 19 min. Once their physiological conditions improved, they were given to surrogate mothers that had delivered normally within the last 24 h. The control group was represented by non-fostered vaginally delivered pups, mimicking the clinical situation. Treatment with PEA (10 mg/kg was administered within the first hour of life. Modifications in the hippocampus were analyzed with conventional electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry (for NeuN, pNF-H/M, MAP-2, and GFAP and western blot (for pNF H/M, MAP-2, and GFAP. Behavior was also studied throughout Open Field (OF Test, Passive Avoidance (PA Task and Elevated Plus Maze (EPM Test. After 1 month of the PA insult, we observed neuronal nucleus degeneration in CA1 using electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant increase in pNF-H/M and decrease in MAP-2 in CA1 reactive area. These changes were also observed when analyzing the level of expression of these markers by western blot. Vertical exploration impairments and anxiety-related behaviors were encountered in the OF and EPM tests. PEA treatment attenuated PA-induced hippocampal damage and its corresponding behavioral alterations. These results contribute to the elucidation of PEA neuroprotective role after PA and the future establishment of therapeutic strategies for the developing brain.

  3. How should the welfare of fetal and neurologically immature postnatal animals be protected?

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    Campbell, M.L.H.; Mellor, D.J.; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing...... such protection via rules or laws relating to the use of certain techniques and the management of pregnant animals, rather than via direct legal protection of fetuses themselves. In order to provide such protection effectively we need to know more about the relationship between maternal nutrition, stress...... legislation in various jurisdictions, and considering the extent to which legal protection of animal fetuses can be justified on animal welfare grounds. Questions related to the need to protect the welfare of neurologically immature postnatal animals are also considered. We argue that there are reasons...

  4. Brain superoxide anion formation in immature rats during seizures: Protection by selected compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Otáhal, Jakub; Druga, Rastislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 233, č. 1 (2012), s. 421-429 ISSN 0014-4886 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/08/0292; GA ČR GAP303/10/0999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : immature rats * DL-homocysteic acid-induced seizures * superoxide anion * SOD mimetics * protection * Fluoro-Jade B staining * brain damage Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.645, year: 2012

  5. HOW SHOULD THE WELFARE OF FETAL AND NEUROLOGICALLY IMMATURE POSTNATAL ANIMALS BE PROTECTED?

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    Campbell, Madeleine L.H.; Mellor, David J.; Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing legislation in various jurisdictions, and considering the extent to which legal protection of animal fetuses can be justified on animal welfare grounds. Questions related to the need to protect the welfare of neurologically immature postnatal animals are also considered. We argue that there are reasons to protect animal fetuses, both in order to protect fetuses themselves against possible suffering, and in order to protect the animals which fetuses will become against negative welfare impacts that originate prenatally. We review the science on whether fetuses can suffer, and argue that extant regulations do not fully reflect current scientific understanding. Following the precautionary principle, we further argue that regulators should consider the possibility that foetuses and neurologically immature postnatal animals may suffer due to subcortically based ‘raw basic affects’ (i.e. relatively undifferentiated experiences of discomfort suggested to be generated by neural processing at levels below the cerebral cortex). Furthermore we show that there are reasons for affording fetuses protection in order to safeguard the long-term welfare of future animals. However, it may be possible to provide such protection via rules or laws relating to the use of certain techniques and the management of pregnant animals, rather than via direct legal protection of fetuses themselves. In order to provide such protection effectively we need to know more about the relationship between maternal nutrition, stress, exercise, management and fetal health, and about the impact of the timing of a fetal insult on long-term postnatal welfare. PMID:26973382

  6. Selenium protects the immature rat heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ošťádalová, Ivana; Vobecký, Miloslav; Chvojková, Zuzana; Miková, D.; Hampl, V.; Wilhelm, J.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 300, 1-2 (2007), s. 259-267 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : selenium * immature heart * ischemia Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.707, year: 2007

  7. Protective Effect of SGK1 in Rat Hippocampal Neurons Subjected to Ischemia Reperfusion

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    Wei Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the protective effect of SGK1 (serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase 1 in rat hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo following ischemia reperfusion (I/R. Methods: Isolated rat hippocampal neurons were subjected to 2 h of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD then returned to normoxic conditions for 10, 30 or 60 min. Cell apoptosis and protein expression of SGK1 were analyzed. To examine SGK1 function, we overexpressed SGK1 in rat hippocampal neurons. Finally we examined the involvement of PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling by treating the cells (untransfected or transfected with expression vector encoding SGK1 with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Findings were confirmed in vivo in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Results: I/R caused a time-dependent increase in apoptosis, both in vitro and in vivo. SGK1 protein levels decreased significantly under the same conditions. Overexpression of SGK1 reduced apoptosis following OGD or I/R compared to cells transfected with empty vector and subjected to the same treatment, or sham-operated animals. Addition of LY294002 revealed that the action of SGK1 in suppressing apoptosis was mediated by the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. Conclusion: SGK1 plays a protective role in ischemia reperfusion in rat hippocampal neurons, exerting its effects via the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway.

  8. Ketamine Protects Gamma Oscillations by Inhibiting Hippocampal LTD

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    Huang, Lanting; Yang, Xiu-Juan; Huang, Ying; Sun, Eve Y.

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptors have been widely reported to be involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity through effects on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). LTP and LTD have been implicated in learning and memory processes. Besides synaptic plasticity, it is known that the phenomenon of gamma oscillations is critical in cognitive functions. Synaptic plasticity has been widely studied, however it is still not clear, to what degree synaptic plasticity regulates the oscillations of neuronal networks. Two NMDA receptor antagonists, ketamine and memantine, have been shown to regulate LTP and LTD, to promote cognitive functions, and have even been reported to bring therapeutic effects in major depression and Alzheimer’s disease respectively. These compounds allow us to investigate the putative interrelationship between network oscillations and synaptic plasticity and to learn more about the mechanisms of their therapeutic effects. In the present study, we have identified that ketamine and memantine could inhibit LTD, without impairing LTP in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampus, which may underlie the mechanism of these drugs’ therapeutic effects. Our results suggest that NMDA-induced LTD caused a marked loss in the gamma power, and pretreatment with 10 μM ketamine prevented the oscillatory loss via its inhibitory effect on LTD. Our study provides a new understanding of the role of NMDA receptors on hippocampal plasticity and oscillations. PMID:27467732

  9. Consecutive Isoproterenol and Adenosine Treatment Confers Marked Protection against Reperfusion Injury in Adult but Not in Immature Heart: A Role for Glycogen

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    Martin Lewis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Consecutive treatment of adult rat heart with isoproterenol and adenosine (Iso/Aden, known to consecutively activate PKA/PKC signaling, is cardioprotective against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R. Whether this is cardioprotective in an immature heart is unknown. Langendorff–perfused hearts from adult and immature (60 and 14 days old male Wistar rats were exposed to 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion, with or without prior perfusion with 5 nM Iso for 3 min followed by 30 μM Aden for 5 min. Changes in hemodynamics (developed pressure and coronary flow and cardiac injury (Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH release and infarct size were measured. Additional hearts were used to measure glycogen content. Iso induced a similar inotropic response in both age groups. Treatment with Iso/Aden resulted in a significant reduction in time to the onset of ischemic contracture in both age groups whilst time to peak contracture was significantly shorter only in immature hearts. Upon reperfusion, the intervention reduced cardiac injury and functional impairment in adults with no protection of immature heart. Immature hearts have significantly less glycogen content compared to adult. This work shows that Iso/Aden perfusion confers protection in an adult heart but not in an immature heart. It is likely that metabolic differences including glycogen content contribute to this difference.

  10. Thyroxin treatment protects against white matter injury in the immature brain via brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

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    Hung, Pi-Lien; Huang, Chao-Ching; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Tu, Dom-Gene; Chang, Ying-Chao

    2013-08-01

    Low level of thyroid hormone is a strong independent risk factor for white matter (WM) injury, a major cause of cerebral palsy, in preterm infants. Thyroxin upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor during development. We hypothesized that thyroxin protected against preoligodendrocyte apoptosis and WM injury in the immature brain via upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Postpartum (P) day-7 male rat pups were exposed to hypoxic ischemia (HI) and intraperitoneally injected with thyroxin (T4; 0.2 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg) or normal saline immediately after HI at P9 and P11. WM damage was analyzed for myelin formation, axonal injury, astrogliosis, and preoligodendrocyte apoptosis. Neurotrophic factor expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Neuromotor functions were measured using open-field locomotion (P11 and P21), inclined plane climbing (P11), and beam walking (P21). Intracerebroventricular injection of TrkB-Fc or systemic administration of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone was performed. On P11, the HI group had significantly lower blood T4 levels than the controls. The HI group showed ventriculomegaly and marked reduction of myelin basic protein immunoreactivities in the WM. T4 (1 mg/kg) treatment after HI markedly attenuated axonal injury, astrocytosis, and microgliosis, and increased preoligodendrocyte survival. In addition, T4 treatment significantly increased myelination and selectively upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the WM, and improved neuromotor deficits after HI. The protective effect of T4 on WM myelination and neuromotor performance after HI was significantly attenuated by TrkB-Fc. Systemic 7,8-dihydroxyflavone treatment ameliorated hypomyelination after HI injury. T4 protects against WM injury at both pathological and functional levels via upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling in the immature brain.

  11. MicroRNA-132 protects hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis.

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    Sun, Zu-Zhen; Lv, Zhan-Yun; Tian, Wen-Jing; Yang, Yan

    2017-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) results in death or long-term neurologic impairment in both adults and children. In this study, we investigated the effects of microRNA-132 (miR-132) dysregulation on oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced apoptosis in fetal rat hippocampal neurons, in order to reveal the therapeutic potential of miR-132 on HIBI. MiR-132 dysregulation was induced prior to OGD exposure by transfection of primary fetal rat hippocampal neurons with miR-132 mimic or miR-132 inhibitor. The effects of miR-132 overexpression and suppression on OGD-stimulated hippocampal neurons were evaluated by detection of cell viability, apoptotic cells rate, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Besides, TargetScan database and dual luciferase activity assay were used to seek a target gene of miR-132. As a result, miR-132 was highly expressed in hippocampal neurons following 2 h of OGD exposure. MiR-132 overexpression significantly increased OGD-diminished cell viability and reduced OGD-induced apoptosis at 12, 24, and 48 h post-OGD. MiR-132 overexpression significantly down-regulated the expressions of Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase-9, but up-regulated BCl-2. Caspase-3 activity was also significantly decreased by miR-132 overexpression. Furthermore, FOXO3 was a direct target of miR-132, and it was negatively regulated by miR-132. To conclude, our results provide evidence that miR-132 protects hippocampal neurons against OGD injury by inhibiting apoptosis.

  12. [Protective effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids pretreatment on hippocampal neurons after acute hypoxia].

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    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhao-qin; Zhao, Xiao-min; Gao, Yun-sheng

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids (RTA) pretreatment on the voltage-gated sodium currents of the rat hippocampal neurons after acute hypoxia. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were divided into RTA pre-treated and non-pretreated groups. Patch clamp whole-cell recording was used to compare the voltage-gated sodium current amplitude and threshold with those before hypoxia. After acute hypoxia, sodium current amplitude was significantly decreased and its threshold was upside. RTA pretreatment could inhibit the reduction of sodium current amplitude. RTA pretreatment alleviates the acute hypoxia-induced change of sodium currents, which may be one of the mechanisms for protective effect of RTA on cells.

  13. Pretreatment with apoaequorin protects hippocampal CA1 neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation.

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    Detert, Julia A; Adams, Erin L; Lescher, Jacob D; Lyons, Jeri-Anne; Moyer, James R

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic stroke affects ∼795,000 people each year in the U.S., which results in an estimated annual cost of $73.7 billion. Calcium is pivotal in a variety of neuronal signaling cascades, however, during ischemia, excess calcium influx can trigger excitotoxic cell death. Calcium binding proteins help neurons regulate/buffer intracellular calcium levels during ischemia. Aequorin is a calcium binding protein isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, and has been used for years as a calcium indicator, but little is known about its neuroprotective properties. The present study used an in vitro rat brain slice preparation to test the hypothesis that an intra-hippocampal infusion of apoaequorin (the calcium binding component of aequorin) protects neurons from ischemic cell death. Bilaterally cannulated rats received an apoaequorin infusion in one hemisphere and vehicle control in the other. Hippocampal slices were then prepared and subjected to 5 minutes of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), and cell death was assayed by trypan blue exclusion. Apoaequorin dose-dependently protected neurons from OGD--doses of 1% and 4% (but not 0.4%) significantly decreased the number of trypan blue-labeled neurons. This effect was also time dependent, lasting up to 48 hours. This time dependent effect was paralleled by changes in cytokine and chemokine expression, indicating that apoaequorin may protect neurons via a neuroimmunomodulatory mechanism. These data support the hypothesis that pretreatment with apoaequorin protects neurons against ischemic cell death, and may be an effective neurotherapeutic.

  14. Parkia biglobosa Improves Mitochondrial Functioning and Protects against Neurotoxic Agents in Rat Brain Hippocampal Slices

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    Kayode Komolafe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Methanolic leaf extracts of Parkia biglobosa, PBE, and one of its major polyphenolic constituents, catechin, were investigated for their protective effects against neurotoxicity induced by different agents on rat brain hippocampal slices and isolated mitochondria. Methods. Hippocampal slices were preincubated with PBE (25, 50, 100, or 200 µg/mL or catechin (1, 5, or 10 µg/mL for 30 min followed by further incubation with 300 µM H2O2, 300 µM SNP, or 200 µM PbCl2 for 1 h. Effects of PBE and catechin on SNP- or CaCl2-induced brain mitochondrial ROS formation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm were also determined. Results. PBE and catechin decreased basal ROS generation in slices and blunted the prooxidant effects of neurotoxicants on membrane lipid peroxidation and nonprotein thiol contents. PBE rescued hippocampal cellular viability from SNP damage and caused a significant boost in hippocampus Na+, K+-ATPase activity but with no effect on the acetylcholinesterase activity. Both PBE and catechin also mitigated SNP- or CaCl2-dependent mitochondrial ROS generation. Measurement by safranine fluorescence however showed that the mild depolarization of the ΔΨm by PBE was independent of catechin. Conclusion. The results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of PBE is dependent on its constituent antioxidants and mild mitochondrial depolarization propensity.

  15. Protective effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress preconditioning on hippocampal neurons in rats with status epilepticus

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    Yi ZHANG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the protective effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress preconditioning induced by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG on hippocampal neurons of rats with status epilepticus (SE and the possible mechanism.  Methods Ninety Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly enrolled into preconditioning group (N = 30, SE group (N = 30 and control group (N = 30. Each group was divided into 6 subsets (N = 5 according to six time points (before seizure, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 2 d and 7 d after seizure. The preconditioning group was administered 2-DG intraperitoneally with a dose of 150 mg/kg for 7 days, and the lithium-pilocarpine induced SE rat model was established on both preconditioning group and SE group. The rats were sacrificed at the above six time points, and the brains were removed to make paraffin sections. Nissl staining was performed by toluidine blue to evaluate the hippocampal neuronal damage after seizure, and the number of survival neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions of the rats were counted. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the expressions of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1 in hippocampal CA3 region of the rats.  Results The number of survival neurons in preconditioning group was much more than that in SE group at 7 d after seizure (t = 5.353, P = 0.000, and was more obvious in CA1 region. There was no significant hippocampal neuronal damage in control group. The expressions of GRP78 and XBP-1 in CA3 region of hippocampus in SE group at 6 h after seizure were significantly higher than that in control group (P = 0.000, and then kept increasing until reaching the peak at 2 d (P = 0.000, for all. The expressions of GRP78 and XBP-1 in hippocampal CA3 region in preconditioning group were significantly higher than that in control group before seizure (P = 0.000, for all. The level of GRP78 maintained the highest at 24 h and 2 d after seizure (P = 0.000, for all, while the XBP-1 level

  16. Protective Effects of Fetal Zone Steroids Are Comparable to Estradiol in Hyperoxia-Induced Cell Death of Immature Glia.

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    Hübner, Stephanie; Sunny, Donna E; Pöhlke, Christine; Ruhnau, Johanna; Vogelgesang, Antje; Reich, Bettina; Heckmann, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    Impaired neurodevelopment in preterm infants is caused by prematurity itself; however, hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, and hyperoxia contribute to the extent of impairment. Because preterm birth is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone, preliminary clinical studies have been carried out to substitute these steroids in preterm infants; however, they failed to confirm significantly improved neurologic outcomes. We therefore hypothesized that the persistently high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids [mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] until term could interfere with E2-mediated protection. We investigated whether E2 could reduce hyperoxia-mediated apoptosis in three immature glial cell types and detected the involved receptors. Thereafter, we investigated protection by the fetal zone steroids DHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, and androstenediol. For DHEA, the involved receptors were evaluated. We examined aromatases, which convert fetal zone steroids into more estrogenic compounds. Finally, cotreatment was compared against single hormone treatment to investigate synergism. In all cell types, E2 and fetal zone steroids resulted in significant dose-dependent protection, whereas the mediating receptors differed. The neuroprotection by fetal zone steroids highly depended on the cell type-specific expression of aromatases, the receptor repertoire, and the potency of the fetal zone steroids toward these receptors. No synergism in fetal zone steroid and E2 cotreatment was detected in two of three cell types. Therefore, E2 supplementation may not be beneficial with respect to neuroprotection because fetal zone steroids circulate in persistently high concentrations until term in preterm infants. Hence, a refined experimental model for preterm infants is required to investigate potential treatments. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  17. Agmatine protects against cell damage induced by NMDA and glutamate in cultured hippocampal neurons

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    Wang, Wei-Ping; Iyo, Abiye H.; Miguel-Hidalgo, Javier; Regunathan, Soundar; Zhu, Meng-Yang

    2010-01-01

    Agmatine is a polyamine and has been considered as a novel neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of agmatine against cell damage caused by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and glutamate was investigated in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay, β-tubulin III immunocytochemical staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay were conducted to detect cell damage. Exposure of 12-day neuronal cultures of rat hippocampus to NMDA or glutamate for 1 h caused a concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, as indicated by the significant increase in released LDH activities. Addition of 100 µM agmatine into media ablated the neurotoxicity induced by NMDA or glutamate, an effect also produced by the specific NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine hydrogen maleate (MK801). Arcaine, an analog of agmatine with similar structure as agmatine, fully prevented the NMDA- or glutamate-induced neuronal damage. Spermine and putrescine, the endogenous polyamine and metabolic products of agmatine without the guanidine moiety of agmatine, failed to show this effect, indicating a structural relevance for this neuroprotection. Immunocytochemical staining and TUNEL assay confirmed the findings in the LDH measurement. That is, agmatine and MK801 markedly attenuated NMDA-induced neuronal death and significantly reduced TUNEL-positive cell numbers induced by exposure of cultured hippocampal neurons to NMDA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that agmatine can protect cultured hippocampal neurons from NMDA- or glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, through a possible blockade of the NMDA receptor channels or a potential anti-apoptotic property. PMID:16546145

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone protects male and female hippocampal neurons and neuroblastoma cells from glucose deprivation.

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    Vieira-Marques, Claudia; Arbo, Bruno Dutra; Ruiz-Palmero, Isabel; Ortiz-Rodriguez, Ana; Ghorbanpoor, Samar; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Arevalo, Maria A; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia M

    2016-08-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) modulates neurogenesis, neuronal function, neuronal survival and metabolism, enhancing mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Glucose deprivation and hypometabolism have been implicated in the mechanisms that mediate neuronal damage in neurological disorders, and some studies have shown that these mechanisms are sexually dimorphic. It was also demonstrated that DHEA is able to attenuate the hypometabolism that is related to some neurodegenerative diseases, eliciting neuroprotective effects in different experimental models of neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DHEA on the viability of male and female hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to glucose deprivation. It was observed that after 12h of pre-treatment, DHEA was able to protect SH-SY5Y cells from glucose deprivation for 6h (DHEA 10(-12), 10(-8) and 10(-6)M) and 8h (DHEA 10(-8)M). In contrast, DHEA was not neuroprotective against glucose deprivation for 12 or 24h. DHEA (10(-8)M) also protected SH-SY5Y cells when added together or even 1h after the beginning of glucose deprivation (6h). Furthermore, DHEA (10(-8)M) also protected primary neurons from both sexes against glucose deprivation. In summary, our findings indicate that DHEA is neuroprotective against glucose deprivation in human neuroblastoma cells and in male and female mouse hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that DHEA could be a promising candidate to be used in clinical studies aiming to reduce neuronal damage in people from both sexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term potentiation protects rat hippocampal slices from the effects of acute hypoxia.

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    Youssef, F F; Addae, J I; McRae, A; Stone, T W

    2001-07-13

    compound. We conclude that LTP causes an appreciable protection of hippocampal slices to various models of acute hypoxia. This phenomenon does not appear to involve desensitisation of AMPA receptors or mediation by NO, but may account for the recognised inverse relationship between educational attainment and the development of dementia.

  20. Role of hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons in the protective effects of heat shock factor 1 on working memory

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    Min Peng; Xiongzhao Zhu; Ming Cheng; Xiangyi Chen; Shuqiao Yao

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that heat shock factor 1 exerts endogenous protective effects on working memory under conditions of chronic psychological stress. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study examined the protective factors affecting working memory in heat shock transcription factor 1 gene knockout mice. The results indicated that the number of correct T maze alternations decreased following mild chronic psychological stress in knockout mice. This change was accompanied by a decrease in neurogenesis and an increase in neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The number of correct T maze alternations was positively correlated with neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus, and negatively correlated with neuronal apoptosis. In wild type mice, no significant difference was detected in the number of correct T maze alternations or neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal dentate gyrus. These results indicate that the heat shock factor 1 gene has an endogenous protective role in working memory during mild chronic psychological stress associated with dentate gyrus neuronal apoptosis.Moreover, dentate gyrus neurogenesis appears to participate in the protective mechanism.

  1. Agmatine induces Nrf2 and protects against corticosterone effects in hippocampal neuronal cell line.

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    Freitas, Andiara E; Egea, Javier; Buendía, Izaskun; Navarro, Elisa; Rada, Patricia; Cuadrado, Antonio; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; López, Manuela G

    2015-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a common finding in major depression; this may lead to increased levels of cortisol, which are known to cause oxidative stress imbalance and apoptotic neuronal cell death, particularly in the hippocampus, a key region implicated in mood regulation. Agmatine, an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine, has been proposed for the treatment of major depression. Corticosterone induced apoptotic cell death and increased ROS production in cultured hippocampal neuronal cells, effects that were abolished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by agmatine. Interestingly, the combination of sub-effective concentrations of agmatine with fluoxetine or imipramine afforded synergic protection. The neuroprotective effect of agmatine was abolished by yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), SnPP (HO-1 inhibitor), and cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor). Agmatine increased Akt and ERK phosphorylation and induced the transcription factor Nrf2 and the proteins HO-1 and GCLc; induction of these proteins was prevented by yohimbine, ketanserin, LY294002, and PD98059. In conclusion, agmatine affords neuroprotection against corticosterone effects by a mechanism that implicates Nrf2 induction via α2-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors, Akt and ERK pathways, and HO-1 and GCLc expression.

  2. Alkaloid fraction of Uncaria rhynchophylla protects against N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced apoptosis in rat hippocampal slices.

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    Lee, Jongseok; Son, Dongwook; Lee, Pyeongjae; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Kim, Hocheol; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lim, Eunhee

    2003-09-04

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is a medicinal herb which has sedative and anticonvulsive effects and has been applied in the treatment of epilepsy in Oriental medicine. In this study, the effect of alkaloid fraction of U. rhynchophylla against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced neuronal cell death was investigated. Pretreatment with an alkaloid fraction of U. rhynchophylla for 1 h decreased the degree of neuronal damage induced by NMDA exposure in cultured hippocampal slices and also inhibited NMDA-induced enhanced expressions of apoptosis-related genes such as c-jun, p53, and bax. In the present study, the alkaloid fraction of U. rhynchophylla was shown to have a protective property against NMDA-induced cytotoxicity by suppressing the NMDA-induced apoptosis in rat hippocampal slices.

  3. Protective effects of hydroponic Teucrium polium on hippocampal neurodegeneration in ovariectomized rats.

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    Simonyan, K V; Chavushyan, V A

    2016-10-24

    The hippocampus is a target of ovarian hormones, and is necessary for memory. Ovarian hormone loss is associated with a progressive reduction in synaptic strength and dendritic spine. Teucrium polium has beneficial effects on learning and memory. However, it remains unknown whether Teucrium polium ameliorates hippocampal cells spike activity and morphological impairments induced by estrogen deficiency. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroponic Teucrium polium on hippocampal neuronal activity and morpho-histochemistry of bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Tetanic potentiation or depression with posttetanic potentiation and depression was recorded extracellularly in response to ipsilateral entorhinal cortex high frequency stimulation. In morpho-histochemical study revealing of the activity of Ca 2+ -dependent acid phosphatase was observed. In all groups (sham-operated, sham + Teucrium polium, OVX, OVX + Teucrium polium), most recorded hippocampal neurons at HFS of entorhinal cortex showed TD-PTP responses. After 8 weeks in OVX group an anomalous evoked spike activity was detected (a high percentage of typical areactive units). In OVX + Teucrium polium group a synaptic activity was revealed, indicating prevention OVX-induced degenerative alterations: balance of types of responses was close to norm and areactive units were not recorded. All recorded neurons in sham + Teucrium polium group were characterized by the highest mean frequency background and poststimulus activity. In OVX+ Teucrium polium group the hippocampal cells had recovered their size and shape in CA1 and CA3 field compared with OVX group where hippocampal cells were characterized by a sharp drop in phosphatase activity and there was a complete lack of processes reaction. Thus, Teucrium polium reduced OVX-induce neurodegenerative alterations in entorhinal cortex-hippocamp circuitry and facilitated neuronal survival by modulating activity of neurotransmitters and

  4. Mild hypothermia protects hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion-induced injury by improving lysosomal function and autophagic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianen; Liang, Lian; Liang, Yanran; Yu, Tao; Zeng, Chaotao; Jiang, Longyuan

    2017-09-15

    Mild hypothermia has been proven to be useful to treat brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to determine whether mild hypothermia protects hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion(OGD/R)-induced injury via improving lysosomal function and autophagic flux. The results showed that OGD/R induced the occurrence of autophagy, while the acidic environment inside the lysosomes was altered. The autophagic flux assay with RFP-GFP tf-LC3 was impeded in hippocampal neurons after OGD/R. Mild hypothermia recovered the lysosomal acidic fluorescence and the lysosomal marker protein expression of LAMP2, which decreased after OGD/R.Furthermore, we found that mild hypothermia up-regulated autophagic flux and promoted the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes in hippocampal neurons following OGD/R injury, but could be reversed by treatment with chloroquine, which acts as a lysosome inhibitor. We also found that mild hypothermia improved mitochondrial autophagy in hippocampal neurons following OGD/R injury. Finally,we found that chloroquine blocked the protective effects of mild hypothermia against OGD/R-induced cell death and injury. Taken together, the present study indicates that mild hypothermia protects hippocampal neurons against OGD/R-induced injury by improving lysosomal function and autophagic flux. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Environmental enrichment protects spatial learning and hippocampal neurons from the long-lasting effects of protein malnutrition early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Roberto O; Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Almeida, Sebastião S; Lachat, João-José

    2017-09-29

    As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups. Protein malnutrition and environmental enrichment during brain development had significant effects on the spatial memory and hippocampal anatomy of adult rats. Malnourished but non-enriched rats (MN) required more time to find the hidden platform than well-nourished but non-enriched rats (WN). Malnourished but enriched rats (ME) performed better than the MN and similarly to the WN rats. There was no difference between well-nourished but non-enriched and enriched rats (WE). Anatomically, fewer CA1 neurons were found in the hippocampus of MN rats than in those of WN rats. However, it was also observed that ME and WN rats retained a similar number of neurons. These results suggest that environmental enrichment during brain development alters cognitive task performance and hippocampal neuroanatomy in a manner that is neuroprotective against malnutrition-induced brain injury. These results could have significant implications for malnourished infants expected to be at risk of disturbed brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rhynchophylline Protects Against the Amyloid β-Induced Increase of Spontaneous Discharges in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hui; Mi, Ze; Ji, Wei-gang; Zhang, Cheng-huan; Zhang, Teng; Ren, Shuan-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-ru

    2015-11-01

    Accumulated soluble amyloid β (Aβ)-induced aberrant neuronal network activity has been recognized as a key causative factor leading to cognitive deficits which are the most outstanding characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As an important structure associated with learning and memory, the hippocampus is one of the brain regions that are impaired very early in AD, and the hippocampal CA1 region is selectively vulnerable to soluble Aβ oligomers. Our recent study showed that soluble Aβ1-42 oligomers induced hyperactivity and perturbed the firing patterns in hippocampal neurons. Rhynchophylline (RIN) is an important active tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla which is a traditional Chinese medicine and often used to treat central nervous system illnesses such as hypertension, convulsions, tremor, stroke etc. Previous evidence showed that RIN possessed neuroprotective effects of improving the cognitive function of mice with Alzheimer-like symptoms. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of RIN against soluble Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced hippocampal hyperactivity. The results showed that (1) the mean frequency of spontaneous discharge was increased by the local application of 3 μM soluble Aβ1-42 oligomers; (2) 30 μM RIN did not exert any obvious effects on basal physiological discharges; and (3) treatment with RIN effectively inhibited the soluble Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced enhancement of spontaneous discharge, in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 = 9.0 μM. These in vivo electrophysiological results indicate that RIN can remold the spontaneous discharges disturbed by Aβ and counteract the deleterious effect of Aβ1-42 on neural circuit. The experimental findings provide further evidence to affirm the potential of RIN as a worthy candidate for further development into a therapeutic agent for AD.

  7. Inhibition of microglial activation protects hippocampal neurogenesis and improves cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaro, Barbara; Lindvall, Olle; Tesco, Giuseppina; Ekdahl, Christine T; Nitsch, Roger M

    2012-01-01

    Activated microglia with macrophage-like functions invade and surround β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly contributing to the turnover of Aβ, but they can also secrete proinflammatory factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Microglia are known to modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. To determine the role of microglia on neurogenesis in brains with Aβ pathology, we inhibited microglial activation with the tetracycline derivative minocycline in doubly transgenic mice expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and mutant human presenilin-1 (PS1). Minocycline increased the survival of new dentate granule cells in APP/PS1 mice indicated by more BrdU+/NeuN+ cells as compared to vehicle-treated transgenic littermates, accompanied by improved behavioral performance in a hippocampus-dependent learning task. Both brain levels of Aβ and Aβ-related morphological deficits in the new neurons labeled with GFP-expressing retrovirus were unaffected in minocycline-treated mice. These results suggest a role for microglia in Aβ-related functional deficits and in suppressing the survival of new neurons, and show that modulation of microglial function with minocycline can protect hippocampal neurogenesis in the presence of Aβ pathology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Insulin protects against Aβ-induced spatial memory impairment, hippocampal apoptosis and MAPKs signaling disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Rasoul; Zarifkar, Asadollah; Rastegar, Karim; maghsoudi, Nader; Moosavi, Maryam

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by extracellular deposits of beta amyloid (Aβ) and neuronal loss particularly in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidences have implied that insulin signaling impairment plays a key role in the pathology of AD; as much as it is considered as type 3 Diabetes. MAPKs are a group of signaling molecules which are involved in pathobiology of AD. Therefore this study was designed to investigate if intrahippocampal insulin hinders Aβ-related memory deterioration, hippocampal apoptosis and MAPKs signaling alteration induced by Aβ. Adult male Sprague-Dawely rats weighing 250-300 g were used in this study. The canules were implanted bilaterally into CA1 region. Aβ25-35 was administered during first 4 days after surgery (5 μg/2.5 μL/daily). Insulin treatment (0.5 or 6 mU) was done during days 4-9. The animal's learning and memory capability was assessed on days 10-13 using Morris water maze. After finishing of behavioral studies the hippocampi was isolated and the amount of hippocampal cleaved caspase 3 (the landmark of apoptosis) and the phosphorylated (activated) forms of P38, JNK and ERK was analyzed by western blot. The results showed that insulin in 6 but not 0.5 mU reversed the memory loss induced by Aβ25-35. Western blot analysis revealed that Aβ25-35 induced elevation of caspase-3 and all 3 MAPks subfamily activity, while insulin in 6 mu restored ERK and P38 activation but has no effect on JNK. This study disclosed that intrahippocampal insulin treatment averts not only Aβ-induced memory deterioration but also hippocampal caspase-3, ERK and P38 activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GDNF and neublastin protect against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, C; Kristensen, B W; Blaabjerg, M

    2000-01-01

    -producing HiB5 cells, were added to slice cultures I h before exposure to 10 microM NMDA for 48h. Neuronal cell death was monitored, before and during the NMDA exposure, by densitometric measurements of propidium iodide (PI) uptake and loss of Nissl staining. Both the addition of rhGDNF and NBN......The potential neuroprotective effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neublastin (NBN) against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity were examined in hippocampal brain slice cultures. Recombinant human GDNF (25-100 ng/ ml) or NBN, in medium conditioned by growth of transfected, NBN...

  10. Prototypical antipsychotic drugs protect hippocampal neuronal cultures against cell death induced by growth medium deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Sylvain

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several clinical studies suggested that antipsychotic-based medications could ameliorate cognitive functions impaired in certain schizophrenic patients. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of various dopaminergic receptor antagonists – including atypical antipsychotics that are prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia – in a model of toxicity using cultured hippocampal neurons, the hippocampus being a region of particular relevance to cognition. Results Hippocampal cell death induced by deprivation of growth medium constituents was strongly blocked by drugs including antipsychotics (10-10-10-6 M that display nM affinities for D2 and/or D4 receptors (clozapine, haloperidol, (±-sulpiride, domperidone, clozapine, risperidone, chlorpromazine, (+-butaclamol and L-741,742. These effects were shared by some caspases inhibitors and were not accompanied by inhibition of reactive oxygen species. In contrast, (--raclopride and remoxipride, two drugs that preferentially bind D2 over D4 receptors were ineffective, as well as the selective D3 receptor antagonist U 99194. Interestingly, (--raclopride (10-6 M was able to block the neuroprotective effect of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine (10-6 M. Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that D2-like receptors, particularly the D4 subtype, mediate the neuroprotective effects of antipsychotic drugs possibly through a ROS-independent, caspase-dependent mechanism.

  11. Point application with Angong Niuhuang sticker protects hippocampal and cortical neurons in rats with cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-shu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angong Niuhuang pill, a Chinese materia medica preparation, can improve neurological functions after acute ischemic stroke. Because of its inconvenient application and toxic components (Cinnabaris and Realgar, we used transdermal enhancers to deliver Angong Niuhuang pill by modern technology, which expanded the safe dose range and clinical indications. In this study, Angong Niuhuang stickers administered at different point application doses (1.35, 2.7, and 5.4 g/kg were administered to the Dazhui (DU14, Qihai (RN6 and Mingmen (DU4 of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, for 4 weeks. The Morris water maze was used to determine the learning and memory ability of rats. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were used to observe neuronal damage of the cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia. The middle- and high-dose point application of Angong Niuhuang stickers attenuated neuronal damage in the cortex and hippocampal CA1 region, and improved the memory of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia with an efficacy similar to interventions by electroacupuncture at Dazhui (DU14, Qihai (RN6 and Mingmen (DU4. Our experimental findings indicate that point application with Angong Niuhuang stickers can improve cognitive function after chronic cerebral ischemia in rats and is neuroprotective with an equivalent efficacy to acupuncture.

  12. Role of silent information regulator 1 in the protective effect of hydrogen sulfide on homocysteine-induced cognitive dysfunction: Involving reduction of hippocampal ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yun; Wang, Ai-Ping; Wei, Hai-Jun; Li, Man-Hong; Zou, Wei; Li, Xiang; Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Ping; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2018-04-16

    Homocysteine (Hcy) causes cognitive deficits and hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Our previous study has confirmed that Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) attenuates Hcy-induced cognitive dysfunction and hippocampal ER stress. Silent information regulator 1 (Sirt-1) is indispensable in the formation of learning and memory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the role of Sirt-1 in the protective effect of H 2 S against Hcy-induced cognitive dysfunction. We found that NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) markedly up-regulated the expression of Sirt-1 in the hippocampus of Hcy-exposed rats. Sirtinol, a specific inhibitor of Sirt-1, reversed the improving role of NaHS in the cognitive function of Hcy-exposed rats, as evidenced by that sirtinol increased the escape latency and the swim distance in the acquisition trial of morris water maze (MWM) test, decreased the times crossed through and the time spent in the target quadrant in the probe trail of MWM test, and reduced the discrimination index in the novel object recognition test (NORT) in the rats cotreated with NaHS and Hcy. We also found that sirtinol reversed the protection of NaHS against Hcy-induced hippocampal ER-stress, as evidenced by up-regulating the expressions of GRP78, CHOP, and cleaved caspase-12 in the hippocampus of rats cotreated with NaHS and Hcy. These results suggested the contribution of upregulation of hippocampal Sirt-1 to the improving role of H 2 S in the cognitive function of Hcy-exposed rats, which involves suppression of hippocampal ER stress. Our finding provides a new insight into the mechanism underlying the inhibitory role of H 2 S in Hcy-induced cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A weak magnetic field inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in SD rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Geomagnetic field is an important barrier that protects life forms on Earth from solar wind and radiation. Paleomagnetic data have well demonstrated that the strength of ancient geomagnetic field was dramatically weakened during a polarity transition. Accumulating evidence has shown that weak magnetic field exposures has serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in organisms. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals' brains which plays a key role in brain function, and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we have investigated the weak magnetic field effects on hippocampal neurogenesis of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, a weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) and the geomagnetic fields (51 μT).The latter is treated as a control condition. SD rats were exposure to the weak magnetic field up to 6 weeks. We measured the changes of newborn nerve cells' proliferation and survival, immature neurons, neurons and apoptosis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus in SD rats. Results showed that, the weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) inhibited their neural stem cells proliferation and significantly reduced the survival of newborn nerve cells, immature neurons and neurons after 2 or 4 weeks continuous treatment (i.e. exposure to weak magnetic field). Moreover, apoptosis tests indicated the weak magnetic field can promote apoptosis of nerve cells in the hippocampus after 4 weeks treatment. Together, our new data indicate that weak magnetic field decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through inhibiting neural stem cells proliferation and promoting apoptosis, which provides useful experimental constraints on better understanding the mechanism of linkage between life and geomagnetic field.

  14. [Protective effect of pretreatment of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba plasma against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury of cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Zuo, Huan; Liu, Li-Li; Niu, Jing-Zhong

    2012-02-25

    The present study was to investigate the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba (SMA) pharmacological pretreatment on apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons from neonate rats under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Cultured hippocampal neurons were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6): normal plasma group, low dose SMA plasma (2.5%) group, middle dose SMA plasma (5%) group, high dose SMA plasma (10%) group and control group. The hippocampal neurons were cultured and treated with plasma from adult Wistar rats intragastrically administered with saline or aqueous extract of SMA. The apoptosis of neurons was induced by glucose-free Earle's solution containing 1 mmol/L Na2S2O4 and labeled by MTT and Annexin V/PI double staining. Moreover, protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by immunofluorescence. The results showed that few apoptotic cells were observed in control group, whereas the number of apoptotic cells was greatly increased in normal plasma group and low dose SMA plasma group. Both middle and high dose SMA plasma could protect cultured hippocampal neurons from apoptosis induced by OGD (P control, normal plasma and low dose SMA plasma groups, middle and high dose SMA plasma groups both showed significantly higher levels of Bcl-2 (P neurons by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and down-regulating the expression of Bax.

  15. Protective Effects of Testosterone on Presynaptic Terminals against Oligomeric β-Amyloid Peptide in Primary Culture of Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Fai Lau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing lines of evidence support that testosterone may have neuroprotective effects. While observational studies reported an association between higher bioavailable testosterone or brain testosterone levels and reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, there is limited understanding of the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms. Previous studies demonstrated that testosterone could alleviate neurotoxicity induced by β-amyloid (Aβ, but these findings mainly focused on neuronal apoptosis. Since synaptic dysfunction and degeneration are early events during the pathogenesis of AD, we aim to investigate the effects of testosterone on oligomeric Aβ-induced synaptic changes. Our data suggested that exposure of primary cultured hippocampal neurons to oligomeric Aβ could reduce the length of neurites and decrease the expression of presynaptic proteins including synaptophysin, synaptotagmin, and synapsin-1. Aβ also disrupted synaptic vesicle recycling and protein folding machinery. Testosterone preserved the integrity of neurites and the expression of presynaptic proteins. It also attenuated Aβ-induced impairment of synaptic exocytosis. By using letrozole as an aromatase antagonist, we further demonstrated that the effects of testosterone on exocytosis were unlikely to be mediated through the estrogen receptor pathway. Furthermore, we showed that testosterone could attenuate Aβ-induced reduction of HSP70, which suggests a novel mechanism that links testosterone and its protective function on Aβ-induced synaptic damage. Taken together, our data provide further evidence on the beneficial effects of testosterone, which may be useful for future drug development for AD.

  16. Curcumin protects neuronal cells against status-epilepticus-induced hippocampal damage through induction of autophagy and inhibition of necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Hui; Zeng, Xiang-Chang; Li, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Kai

    2017-05-01

    Status epilepticus, the most severe form of epilepsy, is characterized by progressive functional and structural damage in the hippocampus, ultimately leading to the development and clinical appearance of spontaneous, recurrent seizures. Although the pathogenesis underlying epileptogenesis processes remains unclear, a substantial body of evidence has shown that status epilepticus acts as an important initial factor in triggering epileptogenesis. Notably, besides classical cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis, 2 novel regulators of cell fate known as necroptosis and autophagy, are demonstrated to be involved in neuronal damage in various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether necroptosis and autophagy play a role in post-status-epilepticus rat hippocampus and other epilepsy mechanisms deserves further research effort. In addition, research is needed to determine whether compounds from traditional Chinese herbs possess antiepileptic effects through the modulation of necroptosis and autophagy. In this study, we found that curcumin, a polyphenolic phytochemical extracted from the Curcuma longa plant, protects neuronal cells against status-epilepticus-induced hippocampal neuronal damage in the lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rat model through induction of autophagy and inhibition of necroptosis.

  17. Inhibition of RhoA GTPase and the subsequent activation of PTP1B protects cultured hippocampal neurons against amyloid β toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Tebar Alfredo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid beta (Aβ is the main agent responsible for the advent and progression of Alzheimer's disease. This peptide can at least partially antagonize nerve growth factor (NGF signalling in neurons, which may be responsible for some of the effects produced by Aβ. Accordingly, better understanding the NGF signalling pathway may provide clues as to how to protect neurons from the toxic effects of Aβ. Results We show here that Aβ activates the RhoA GTPase by binding to p75NTR, thereby preventing the NGF-induced activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B that is required for neuron survival. We also show that the inactivation of RhoA GTPase and the activation of PTP1B protect cultured hippocampal neurons against the noxious effects of Aβ. Indeed, either pharmacological inhibition of RhoA with C3 ADP ribosyl transferase or the transfection of cultured neurons with a dominant negative form of RhoA protects cultured hippocampal neurons from the effects of Aβ. In addition, over-expression of PTP1B also prevents the deleterious effects of Aβ on cultured hippocampal neurons. Conclusion Our findings indicate that potentiating the activity of NGF at the level of RhoA inactivation and PTP1B activation may represent a new means to combat the noxious effects of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Radiation-induced disruption of hippocampal redox homeostasis, neurogenesis and cognitive function: protective role of melatonin and its metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manda, Kailash

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of neuronal tissues to ionizing radiation depends on the rate of differentiation and accompanying factors of the tissues as well as on the efficiency of the intrinsic antioxidative defense systems. Neurogenic area in the adult brain are reported be highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. While the pathogenesis of radiation induced cognitive impairment is not well understood, recent studies indicated that neuronal precursor cells in the hippocampus may be involved. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is unique in that it is one of two regions in the mammalian brain that continues to produce new neurons in adulthood. Moreover, brain is considered abnormally sensitive to oxidative damage and in fact early studies demonstrating the ease of peroxidation of brain membranes supported this notion. Brain is enriched in the more easily peroxidizable fatty acids, consumes an inordinate fraction (20%) of the total oxygen consumption for its relatively small weight (2%), and is not particularly enriched in antioxidant defenses. Our recent findings showed an inverse relationship between mice cognitive performance and cellular indicators of oxidative stress or redox status which was reported in the term glutathione homeostasis (GSH/GSSG), DNA damage, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Radiation exposure severely impaired the hipocampal neurogenesis as measure in the terms of immunoreactivity of immature and proliferating neurons in dentate gyrus, the doublecortin (Dcx) and Ki-67 positive cells respectively. Our results showed a significant implication of hippocampus neurogenesis in cognitive functions and pre-treatment of melatonin and its metabolites significantly protected the neurogenic potential of brain and thereby the cognitive functions. (author)

  19. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

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    Yoshinori Okada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alzheimer′s disease (AD is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds′ aqueous extracts (PSAE for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN. Materials and Methods: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce. PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. Results: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. Conclusion: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  20. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds' aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  1. Phenolic Compounds Protect Cultured Hippocampal Neurons against Ethanol-Withdrawal Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna E. Jung

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol withdrawal is linked to elevated oxidative damage to neurons. Here we report our findings on the contribution of phenolic antioxidants (17β-estradiol, p-octyl-phenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol to counterbalance sudden ethanol withdrawal-initiated oxidative events in hippocampus-derived cultured HT-22 cells. We showed that ethanol withdrawal for 4 h after 24-h ethanol treatment provoked greater levels of oxidative damage than the preceding ethanol exposure. Phenolic antioxidant treatment either during ethanol exposure or ethanol withdrawal only, however, dose-dependently reversed cellular oxidative damage, as demonstrated by the significantly enhanced cell viability, reduced malondialdehyde production and protein carbonylation, compared to untreated cells. Interestingly, the antioxidant treatment schedule had no significant impact on the observed neuroprotection. In addition, the efficacy of the three phenolic compounds was practically equipotent in protecting HT-22 cells in spite of predictions based on an in silico study and a cell free assay of lipid peroxidation. This finding implies that free-radical scavenging may not be the sole factor responsible for the observed neuroprotection and warrants further studies to establish, whether the HT-22 line is indeed a suitable model for in vitro screening of antioxidants against EW-related neuronal damage.

  2. Study of the protective effects of nootropic agents against neuronal damage induced by amyloid-beta (fragment 25-35) in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendrowski, Krzysztof; Sobaniec, Wojciech; Stasiak-Barmuta, Anna; Sobaniec, Piotr; Popko, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, in which progressive neuron loss, mainly in the hippocampus, is observed. The critical events in the pathogenesis of AD are associated with accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Deposits of Aβ initiate a neurotoxic "cascade" leading to apoptotic death of neurons. Aim of this study was to assess a putative neuroprotective effects of two nootropic drugs: piracetam (PIR) and levetiracetam (LEV) on Aβ-injured hippocampal neurons in culture. Primary cultures of rat's hippocampal neurons at 7 day in vitro were exposed to Aβ(25-35) in the presence or absence of nootropics in varied concentrations. Flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining was used for counting and establishing neurons as viable, necrotic or apoptotic. Additionally, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to the culture medium, as a marker of cell death, was evaluated. Aβ(25-35) caused concentration-dependent death of about one third number of hippocampal neurons, mainly through an apoptotic pathway. In drugs-containing cultures, number of neurons injured with 20 μM Aβ(25-35) was about one-third lesser for PIR and almost two-fold lesser for LEV. When 40 μM Aβ(25-35) was used, only LEV exerted beneficial neuroprotective action, while PIR was ineffective. Our results suggest the protective potential of both studied nootropics against Aβ-induced death of cultured hippocampal neurons with more powerful neuroprotective effects of LEV. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Tat-antioxidant 1 protects against stress-induced hippocampal HT-22 cells death and attenuate ischaemic insult in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Mi; Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Dae Young; Eum, Won Sik; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Ahn, Eun Hee; Jo, Hyo Sang; Ryu, Eun Ji; Yong, Ji In; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Lee, Keun Wook; Cho, Yoon Shin; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for various neuronal diseases. Antioxidant 1 (Atox1) regulates copper homoeostasis and promotes cellular antioxidant defence against toxins generated by ROS. The roles of Atox1 protein in ischaemia, however, remain unclear. In this study, we generated a protein transduction domain fused Tat-Atox1 and examined the roles of Tat-Atox1 in oxidative stress-induced hippocampal HT-22 cell death and an ischaemic injury animal model. Tat-Atox1 effectively transduced into HT-22 cells and it protected cells against the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity including increasing of ROS levels and DNA fragmentation. At the same time, Tat-Atox1 regulated cellular survival signalling such as p53, Bad/Bcl-2, Akt and mitogen-activate protein kinases (MAPKs). In the animal ischaemia model, transduced Tat-Atox1 protected against neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region. In addition, Tat-Atox1 significantly decreased the activation of astrocytes and microglia as well as lipid peroxidation in the CA1 region after ischaemic insult. Taken together, these results indicate that transduced Tat-Atox1 protects against oxidative stress-induced HT-22 cell death and against neuronal damage in animal ischaemia model. Therefore, we suggest that Tat-Atox1 has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ischaemic damage. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Replication confers β cell immaturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Sapna; Roy, Nilotpal; Russ, Holger A; Leonhardt, Laura; French, Esra K; Roy, Ritu; Bengtsson, Henrik; Scott, Donald K; Stewart, Andrew F; Hebrok, Matthias

    2018-02-02

    Pancreatic β cells are highly specialized to regulate systemic glucose levels by secreting insulin. In adults, increase in β-cell mass is limited due to brakes on cell replication. In contrast, proliferation is robust in neonatal β cells that are functionally immature as defined by a lower set point for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Here we show that β-cell proliferation and immaturity are linked by tuning expression of physiologically relevant, non-oncogenic levels of c-Myc. Adult β cells induced to replicate adopt gene expression and metabolic profiles resembling those of immature neonatal β that proliferate readily. We directly demonstrate that priming insulin-producing cells to enter the cell cycle promotes a functionally immature phenotype. We suggest that there exists a balance between mature functionality and the ability to expand, as the phenotypic state of the β cell reverts to a less functional one in response to proliferative cues.

  5. IGF-1-Involved Negative Feedback of NR2B NMDA Subunits Protects Cultured Hippocampal Neurons Against NMDA-Induced Excitotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Sun, Wei; Han, Song; Li, Jianing; Ding, Shu; Wang, Wei; Yin, Yanling

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in neuronal polarity and axonal guidance. In our previous study, it was discovered that IGF-1 alleviated 50-μM NMDA-induced excitotoxicity against neuronal autophagy via depression of NR2B p-Ser1303 activation. However, it was found that NMDA at a higher dose did not cause neuronal autophagy. And, the performance of IGF-1 under severe excitotoxicity still needs to be clarified. In this study, we observed that IGF-1 can salvage the hippocampal neurons in an autophagy-independent manner after 150-μM NMDA exposure using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, over-activation of post-synaptic NMDARs was found with the whole-cell patch clamp recording method. In order to explore whether there is a positive feedback way for post-synaptic NMDARs and the different pathway caused by 150 μM NMDA, the phosphorylation level of Fyn and the phosphorylation site of NR2B were investigated. It was observed that NR2B p-Tyr1472 was increased by the activation of Fyn after 150-μM NMDA exposure. When the neutralizing antibody against NR2B p-Ser1303 was added into the medium, both the activations of Fyn and NR2B p-Tyr1472 were blocked, suggesting NR2B p-Ser1303 may be the initial step of NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. In addition, since IGF-1 can block the initial step of NR2B activation, its effect is concluded to continue with the development of excitotoxicity. Overall, this study strongly indicates that the relationship between different phosphorylation sites of NR2B should be laid more emphasis on, which may be a vital target for the NR2B-involved excitotoxicity.

  6. Docosahexaenoic (DHA modulates phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (Gpx4 gene expression to ensure self-protection from oxidative damage in hippocampal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eCasañas-Sanchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 is a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid particularly abundant in nerve cell membrane phospholipids. DHA is a pleiotropic molecule that, not only modulates the physicochemical properties and architecture of neuronal plasma membrane, but it is also involved in multiple facets of neuronal biology, from regulation of synaptic function to neuroprotection and modulation of gene expression. As a highly unsaturated fatty acid due to the presence of six double bonds, DHA is susceptible for oxidation, especially in the highly pro-oxidant environment of brain parenchyma. We have recently reported the ability of DHA to regulate the transcriptional program controlling neuronal antioxidant defenses in a hippocampal cell line, especially the glutathione/glutaredoxin system. Within this antioxidant system, DHA was particularly efficient in triggering the upregulation of Gpx4 gene, which encodes for the nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PH-GPx/GPx4, the main enzyme protecting cell membranes against lipid peroxidation and capable to reduce oxidized phospholipids in situ. We show here that this novel property of DHA is also significant in the hippocampus of wild-type mice and APP/PS1 transgenic mice, a familial model of Alzheimer’s disease. By doing this, DHA stimulates a mechanism to self-protect from oxidative damage even in the neuronal scenario of high aerobic metabolism and in the presence of elevated levels of transition metals, which inevitably favor the generation of reactive oxygen species. Noticeably, DHA also upregulated a novel Gpx4 splicing variant, harboring part of the first intronic region, which according to the ‘sentinel RNA hypothesis’ would expand the ability of Gpx4 (and DHA to provide neuronal antioxidant defense independently of conventional nuclear splicing in cellular compartments, like dendritic zones, located away from nuclear

  7. Protective Effect of Water Extracted Spirulina maxima on Glutamate-induced Neuronal Cell Death in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Ryu, Ga Hee; Choi, Woon Yong; Yang, Woo Seung; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Ma, Choong Je

    2018-01-01

    Spirulina maxima was used as important nutritional source in the Aztec civilization because it is rich in proteins and vitamins. It contains various antioxidants such as phycocyanin and flavonoids. Based on abundant antioxidants, S. maxima is known to possess anti-inflammatory effect, especially on neuronal cells. S. maxima was extracted in water and contain of phycocyanin was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability test was performed with treatment of S. maxima extract. After, oxidative stress-related mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ influx, and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level. Then, the glutathione (GSH) related assays were conducted. The water extracted S. maxima exerted the neuroprotective activity by attenuating the ROS and Ca 2+ formation, maintaining the MMP level, and protecting the activity of the antioxidant enzymes by increasing reduced GSH against oxidative stress compared to control. The results suggested that water extracted S. maxima showed powerful neuroprotective effect through the mechanism related to antioxidant activity, able to preventing the radical-mediated cell death. Water extracted Spirulina maxima contains C-phycocyaninWater extracted Spirulina maxima exerts neuroprotective effect on HT22 cellTo investigate the protective mechanisms, reactive oxygen species, Ca 2+ , mitochondrial membrane potential, Glutathione-related assays were performed. Abbreviations used: ROS: Reactive oxygen species; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential; GSH: Glutathione; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide, oxidized glutathione; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; GR: Glutathione reductase; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; DCF-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; PBS: Phosphate buffered serum; Rho 123: Rhodamine 123; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; DTNB: 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, Ellman

  8. Coenzyme Q10 Protects Hippocampal Neurons against Ischemia/ Reperfusion Injury via Modulation of BAX/Bcl-2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zamani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preliminary studies have con.rmed reduction in cell death following treatment with antioxidants. According to this .nding we study the relationship between consumption of CoQ10 and expression of Bax and Bcl2 in hippocampus following ischemia/reperfusion as proteins involved in cell programmed death or apoptosis. Methods: We studied the protective role of CoQ10 against ischemia-reperfusion. Experimental design includes four groups:  intact, ischemic control, sham control and treatment group with CoQ10. The mice were pre-treated with CoQ10 for a week, then ischemia was induced by common carotid artery ligation and following the reduction in in.ammation (a week the mice was treated with CoQ10.  Nissl staining was applied for counting the necrotic cells of hippocampus and the western blot was performed to measure the Bax and Bcl2 expression.Results: Cell death was signi.cantly lower when mice were treated with CoQ10. Bax expression was signi.cantly high in the ischemic group but low in the treatment group, and the bcl2 expression was lower in the ischemic group than the treatment and the vehicle groups.Discussion: Ischemia for 15 minutes induced cell death in hippocampus with more potent effect on CA1. CoQ10 intake signi.cantly reduced cell death and prevented the expression of Bax while inducing an increase in expression of bcl2.

  9. Coenzyme Q10 Protects Hippocampal Neurons Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Modulation of BAX/Bcl-2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Preliminary studies confirmed reduction in cell death following treatment with antioxidants. According to this finding we study the relationship between consumption of CoQ10 and expression of bax and bcl2 in hippocampus following ischemia/reperfusion as proteins involved in cell programmed death or apoptosis.Material & methods : We studied the protective role of CoQ10 against Ischemia-Reperfusion. Experimental design includes four groups: intact, ischemic control, sham control and treatment groups with CoQ10. The mice treated with CoQ10 as Pre - Treatment for a week. Then, ischemia induced by common carotid artery ligation and following the reduction in inflammation (a week the mice post-treated with CoQ10.Nissl staining applied to counting necrotic cells of hippocampus and the western blotting performed to measurement the bax and bcl2 expression.Results :. Cell death was significantly lower when mice treated with CoQ10. Bax expression was significantly high in ischemic group but in treatment group was less and reversely the bcl2 expression in ischemic group was lower than treatment and vehicle groups.Conclusion : Ischemia for 15 minutes induced cell death in hippocampus with more potent effect on CA1. CoQ10 intake significantly reduced cell death and prevented the expression of bax while inducing an increase in expression of bcl2.

  10. Astrocyte-Specific Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Protects Hippocampal Neurons and Reduces Behavioral Deficits following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu K Madathil

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI survivors often suffer from long-lasting cognitive impairment that stems from hippocampal injury. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, a polypeptide growth factor known to play vital roles in neuronal survival, has been shown to attenuate posttraumatic cognitive and motor dysfunction. However, its neuroprotective effects in TBI have not been examined. To this end, moderate or severe contusion brain injury was induced in mice with conditional (postnatal overexpression of IGF-1 using the controlled cortical impact (CCI injury model. CCI brain injury produces robust reactive astrocytosis in regions of neuronal damage such as the hippocampus. We exploited this regional astrocytosis by linking expression of hIGF-1 to the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter, effectively targeting IGF-1 delivery to vulnerable neurons. Following brain injury, IGF-1Tg mice exhibited a progressive increase in hippocampal IGF-1 levels which was coupled with enhanced hippocampal reactive astrocytosis and significantly greater GFAP levels relative to WT mice. IGF-1 overexpression stimulated Akt phosphorylation and reduced acute (1 and 3d hippocampal neurodegeneration, culminating in greater neuron survival at 10d after CCI injury. Hippocampal neuroprotection achieved by IGF-1 overexpression was accompanied by improved motor and cognitive function in brain-injured mice. These data provide strong support for the therapeutic efficacy of increased brain levels of IGF-1 in the setting of TBI.

  11. Astrocyte-Specific Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Protects Hippocampal Neurons and Reduces Behavioral Deficits following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathil, Sindhu K.; Carlson, Shaun W.; Brelsfoard, Jennifer M.; Ye, Ping; D’Ercole, A. Joseph; Saatman, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often suffer from long-lasting cognitive impairment that stems from hippocampal injury. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a polypeptide growth factor known to play vital roles in neuronal survival, has been shown to attenuate posttraumatic cognitive and motor dysfunction. However, its neuroprotective effects in TBI have not been examined. To this end, moderate or severe contusion brain injury was induced in mice with conditional (postnatal) overexpression of IGF-1 using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model. CCI brain injury produces robust reactive astrocytosis in regions of neuronal damage such as the hippocampus. We exploited this regional astrocytosis by linking expression of hIGF-1 to the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, effectively targeting IGF-1 delivery to vulnerable neurons. Following brain injury, IGF-1Tg mice exhibited a progressive increase in hippocampal IGF-1 levels which was coupled with enhanced hippocampal reactive astrocytosis and significantly greater GFAP levels relative to WT mice. IGF-1 overexpression stimulated Akt phosphorylation and reduced acute (1 and 3d) hippocampal neurodegeneration, culminating in greater neuron survival at 10d after CCI injury. Hippocampal neuroprotection achieved by IGF-1 overexpression was accompanied by improved motor and cognitive function in brain-injured mice. These data provide strong support for the therapeutic efficacy of increased brain levels of IGF-1 in the setting of TBI. PMID:23826235

  12. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide protects against oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wu, Xiuquan; Pu, Jingnan; Luo, Peng; Ma, Wenke; Wang, Jiu; Wei, Jialiang; Wang, Yuanxin; Fei, Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is the main active ingredient of Lycium barbarum, which exhibits several beneficial effects, including neuroprotection, anti-aging and anti-oxidation. However, the mechanism by which LBP protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury remains obscure. In this study, we found that LBP pretreatment greatly attenuated oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. LBP also suppressed OGD/R-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and ameliorated oxidative stress. In addition, LBP significantly reduced OGD/R-induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death. LBP caused the down-regulation of cleaved Caspase-3/Caspase-3, LC3II/LC3I and Beclin 1, as well as up-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax and p62. Furthermore, mechanistic studies indicated that LBP pretreatment increased p-Akt and p-mTOR levels after OGD/R. In summary, our results indicated that LBP protects against OGD/R-induced neuronal injury in primary hippocampal neurons by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CNS bioavailability and radiation protection of normal hippocampal neurogenesis by a lipophilic Mn porphyrin-based superoxide dismutase mimic, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although radiation therapy can be effective against cancer, potential damage to normal tissues limits the amount that can be safely administered. In central nervous system (CNS, radiation damage to normal tissues is presented, in part, as suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired cognitive functions. Mn porphyrin (MnP-based redox active drugs have demonstrated differential effects on cancer and normal tissues in experimental animals that lead to protection of normal tissues and radio- and chemo-sensitization of cancers. To test the efficacy of MnPs in CNS radioprotection, we first examined the tissue levels of three different MnPs – MnTE-2-PyP5+(MnE, MnTnHex-2-PyP5+(MnHex, and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+(MnBuOE. Nanomolar concentrations of MnHex and MnBuOE were detected in various brain regions after daily subcutaneous administration, and MnBuOE was well tolerated at a daily dose of 3 mg/kg. Administration of MnBuOE for one week before cranial irradiation and continued for one week afterwards supported production and long-term survival of newborn neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. MnP-driven S-glutathionylation in cortex and hippocampus showed differential responses to MnP administration and radiation in these two brain regions. A better understanding of how preserved hippocampal neurogenesis correlates with cognitive functions following cranial irradiation will be helpful in designing better MnP-based radioprotection strategies. Keywords: Mn porphyrin, Bioavailability, BMX-001, Hippocampus, Neurogenesis, Radioprotection

  14. Agmatine protects against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced water maze memory deficit, hippocampal apoptosis and Akt/GSK3β signaling disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Maryam; Zarifkar, Amir Hossein; Farbood, Yaghoub; Dianat, Mahin; Sarkaki, Alireza; Ghasemi, Rasoul

    2014-08-05

    Centrally administered streptozotocin (STZ), is known to cause Alzheimer׳s like memory deterioration. It mainly affects insulin signaling pathways such as PI3/Akt and GSK-3β which are involved in cell survival. Previous studies indicate that STZ increases the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and thereby induces caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Agmatine, a polyamine derived from l-arginine decarboxylation, is recently shown to exert some neuroprotective effects. This study aimed to assess if agmatine reverses STZ-induced memory deficits, hippocampal Akt/GSK-3β signaling disruption and caspase-3 activation. Adult male Sprague-Dawely rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The canules were implanted bilaterally into lateral ventricles. STZ was administered on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg) and agmatine treatment (40 or 80 mg/kg) was started from day 4 and continued in an every other day manner till day 14. The animal׳s learning and memory capability was assessed on days 15-18 using Morris water maze. After complement of behavioral studies the hippocampi was isolated and the amounts of hippocampal cleaved caspase-3 (the landmark of apoptosis), Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, total and phosphorylated forms of GSK-3β and Akt were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that agmatine in 80 but not 40 mg/kg reversed the memory deterioration induced by STZ. Western blot analysis revealed that STZ prompted elevation of caspase-3; Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and disrupted Akt/GSK-3β signaling in the hippocampus. Agmatine treatment prevented apoptosis and Akt/GSK-3β signaling impairment induced by STZ. This study disclosed that agmatine treatment averts not only STZ-induced memory deterioration but also hippocampal apoptosis and Akt/GSK-3β signaling disruption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Immature dengue virus: a veiled pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela A Rodenhuis-Zybert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cells infected with dengue virus release a high proportion of immature prM-containing virions. In accordance, substantial levels of prM antibodies are found in sera of infected humans. Furthermore, it has been recently described that the rates of prM antibody responses are significantly higher in patients with secondary infection compared to those with primary infection. This suggests that immature dengue virus may play a role in disease pathogenesis. Interestingly, however, numerous functional studies have revealed that immature particles lack the ability to infect cells. In this report, we show that fully immature dengue particles become highly infectious upon interaction with prM antibodies. We demonstrate that prM antibodies facilitate efficient binding and cell entry of immature particles into Fc-receptor-expressing cells. In addition, enzymatic activity of furin is critical to render the internalized immature virus infectious. Together, these data suggest that during a secondary infection or primary infection of infants born to dengue-immune mothers, immature particles have the potential to be highly infectious and hence may contribute to the development of severe disease.

  16. Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Casari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. Larva and pupa of Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar, 1928, collected in trunks of Pinus elliottii Engelm., and Paratenthras martinsi Monné, 1998, collected in spathes of Scheelea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret, are described and illustrated. Larva and pupa of Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, collected in Hymenaea corbaril L., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Pterogyne nitens Tul., are redescribed and illustrated. A table with all described immatures of Lamiinae, and a comparison among the immatures of Acanthocinini are presented. Biological notes and new records are also included.

  17. Quercetin Protects against Okadaic Acid-Induced Injury via MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathways in HT22 Hippocampal Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein play essential roles in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Quercetin is a major flavonoid that has anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of quercetin to HT22 cells (a cell line from mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that Okadaic acid (OA induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein at Ser199, Ser396, Thr205, and Thr231 and produced oxidative stress to the HT22 cells. The oxidative stress suppressed the cell viability and decreased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. It up-regulated malondialdehyde (MDA production and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/Glycogen synthase kinase3β (PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK were also involved in this process. We found that pre-treatment with quercetin can inhibited OA-induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and oxidative stress. Moreover, pre-treatment with quercetin not only inhibited OA-induced apoptosis via the reduction of Bax, and up-regulation of cleaved caspase 3, but also via the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/GSK3β, MAPKs and activation of NF-κB p65. Our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of quercetin to treat AD.

  18. Immature Dentate Gyrus: An Endophenotype of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

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    Hideo Hagihara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate maturation of neurons and their integration into the hippocampal circuit is crucial for normal cognitive function and emotional behavior, and disruption of this process could cause disturbances in mental health. Previous reports have shown that mice heterozygous for a null mutation in α-CaMKII, which encodes a key synaptic plasticity molecule, display abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In these mutants, almost all neurons in the dentate gyrus are arrested at a pseudoimmature state at the molecular and electrophysiological levels, a phenomenon defined as “immature dentate gyrus (iDG.” To date, the iDG phenotype and shared behavioral abnormalities (including working memory deficit and hyperlocomotor activity have been discovered in Schnurri-2 knockout, mutant SNAP-25 knock-in, and forebrain-specific calcineurin knockout mice. In addition, both chronic fluoxetine treatment and pilocarpine-induced seizures reverse the neuronal maturation, resulting in the iDG phenotype in wild-type mice. Importantly, an iDG-like phenomenon was observed in post-mortem analysis of brains from patients with schizophrenia/bipolar disorder. Based on these observations, we proposed that the iDG is a potential endophenotype shared by certain types of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes recent data describing this phenotype and discusses the data’s potential implication in elucidating the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Reliable activation of immature neurons in the adult hippocampus.

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    Lucas A Mongiat

    Full Text Available Neurons born in the adult dentate gyrus develop, mature, and connect over a long interval that can last from six to eight weeks. It has been proposed that, during this period, developing neurons play a relevant role in hippocampal signal processing owing to their distinctive electrical properties. However, it has remained unknown whether immature neurons can be recruited into a network before synaptic and functional maturity have been achieved. To address this question, we used retroviral expression of green fluorescent protein to identify developing granule cells of the adult mouse hippocampus and investigate the balance of afferent excitation, intrinsic excitability, and firing behavior by patch clamp recordings in acute slices. We found that glutamatergic inputs onto young neurons are significantly weaker than those of mature cells, yet stimulation of cortical excitatory axons elicits a similar spiking probability in neurons at either developmental stage. Young neurons are highly efficient in transducing ionic currents into membrane depolarization due to their high input resistance, which decreases substantially in mature neurons as the inward rectifier potassium (Kir conductance increases. Pharmacological blockade of Kir channels in mature neurons mimics the high excitability characteristic of young neurons. Conversely, Kir overexpression induces mature-like firing properties in young neurons. Therefore, the differences in excitatory drive of young and mature neurons are compensated by changes in membrane excitability that render an equalized firing activity. These observations demonstrate that the adult hippocampus continuously generates a population of highly excitable young neurons capable of information processing.

  20. Partial synchronization of spermatogenesis in the immature Djungarian hamster, but not in the immature Wistar rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaster, L. H.; de rooij, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    The frequencies of the cellular associations of the seminiferous epithelium were determined at various ages after birth in immature Djungarian hamsters and Wistar rats. The frequencies of the cellular associations present in immature animals were then compared with the frequencies of the

  1. Stress, depression and hippocampal damage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amongst the prime targets of stress in the brain is the hippocampus, which has high receptor ... effects on different hippocampal subfields (McEwen 1999). ... disorders, and decreases in hippocampal volume have been observed in patients of ...

  2. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in natural populations of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-05-01

    This review will discuss adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild mammals of different taxa and outline similarities with and differences from laboratory animals. It begins with a review of evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in various mammals, and shows the similar patterns of age-dependent decline in cell proliferation in wild and domesticated mammals. In contrast, the pool of immature neurons that originate from proliferative activity varies between species, implying a selective advantage for mammals that can make use of a large number of these functionally special neurons. Furthermore, rapid adaptation of hippocampal neurogenesis to experimental challenges appears to be a characteristic of laboratory rodents. Wild mammals show species-specific, rather stable hippocampal neurogenesis, which appears related to demands that characterize the niche exploited by a species rather than to acute events in the life of its members. Studies that investigate adult neurogenesis in wild mammals are not numerous, but the findings of neurogenesis under natural conditions can provide new insights, and thereby also address the question to which cognitive demands neurogenesis may respond during selection. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Biochemical and technological properties of immature grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabrodskii, A G; Polozhishnik, A F

    1958-01-01

    Corn and rye seed, of different maturities were investigated. The immature seeds were found to contain more sugars and amino acids. The yield of EtOH per 100 g of starch increased on ripening. Low yield in the mashes of unripe seeds was ascribed to the intensive amino acid-sugar reaction (Maillard reaction).

  4. Immature ovarian teratoma in a postmenopausal woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornvold, K; Detlefsen, G U; Horn, T

    1987-01-01

    We report the first case of immature ovarian teratoma occurring after menopause in a 57-year-old, 3 years postmenopausal woman. Within one year after resection of the teratoma she developed peritoneal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma, which probably originated from initially unrecognized rhabdomyoblasts...

  5. Methods to induce primary and secondary traumatic damage in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchik, Y; Frantseva, M V; Weisspapir, M; Carlen, P L; Perez Velazquez, J L

    2000-04-01

    Organotypic brain slice cultures have been used in a variety of studies on neurodegenerative processes [K.M. Abdel-Hamid, M. Tymianski, Mechanisms and effects of intracellular calcium buffering on neuronal survival in organotypic hippocampal cultures exposed to anoxia/aglycemia or to excitotoxins, J. Neurosci. 17, 1997, pp. 3538-3553; D.W. Newell, A. Barth, V. Papermaster, A.T. Malouf, Glutamate and non-glutamate receptor mediated toxicity caused by oxygen and glucose deprivation in organotypic hippocampal cultures, J. Neurosci. 15, 1995, pp. 7702-7711; J.L. Perez Velazquez, M.V. Frantseva, P.L. Carlen, In vitro ischemia promotes glutamate mediated free radical generation and intracellular calcium accumulation in pyramidal neurons of cultured hippocampal slices, J. Neurosci. 23, 1997, pp. 9085-9094; L. Stoppini, L.A. Buchs, D. Muller, A simple method for organotypic cultures of nervous tissue, J. Neurosci. Methods 37, 1991, pp. 173-182; R.C. Tasker, J.T. Coyle, J.J. Vornov, The regional vulnerability to hypoglycemia induced neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal culture: protection by early tetrodotoxin or delayed MK 801, J. Neurosci. 12, 1992, pp. 4298-4308.]. We describe two methods to induce traumatic cell damage in hippocampal organotypic cultures. Primary trauma injury was achieved by rolling a stainless steel cylinder (0.9 g) on the organotypic slices. Secondary injury was followed after dropping a weight (0.137 g) on a localised area of the organotypic slice, from a height of 2 mm. The time course and extent of cell death were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the viability indicator propidium iodide (PI) at several time points after the injury. The initial localised impact damage spread 24 and 67 h after injury, cell death being 25% and 54%, respectively, when slices were kept at 37 degrees C. To validate these methods as models to assess neuroprotective strategies, similar insults were applied to slices at relatively low temperatures (30

  6. A Rare Case of Immature Ovarian Teratoma with Gliomatosis Peritonei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Glial tissue, gliomatosis peritonei, immature teratoma, India, ovary. Case Report .... astrocytes in the fetal nerve tissue. GFAP immunostain confirms ... Immature teratoma of the ovary: A clinicopathology study of 28 cases. Indian.

  7. PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE SCAPHOID IN IMMATURE SKELETONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Bentes, Ádria Simone Ferreira; Neto, Miguel Flores do Amaral; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lech, Osvandré

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature individuals, taking into consideration its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as its controversies. Knowledge of this subject makes it possible for patients to be given appropriate treatment immediately. Pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature patients is a rare condition that results from error or lack of diagnosis of a fracture. Thus, careful clinical and radiographic examination should be performed in order to confirm or rule out this diagnosis. Several treatment methods have been reported and have shown good results. These include conservative plaster cast treatment, bone graft without osteosynthesis, bone graft with Kirschner wires, percutaneous screws and bone graft with compression screws. The treatment performed depends on the characteristics of the pseudarthrosis and the surgeon's experience. PMID:27042636

  8. PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE SCAPHOID IN IMMATURE SKELETONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Bentes, Ádria Simone Ferreira; Neto, Miguel Flores do Amaral; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lech, Osvandré

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature individuals, taking into consideration its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as its controversies. Knowledge of this subject makes it possible for patients to be given appropriate treatment immediately. Pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature patients is a rare condition that results from error or lack of diagnosis of a fracture. Thus, careful clinical and radiographic examination should be performed in order to confirm or rule out this diagnosis. Several treatment methods have been reported and have shown good results. These include conservative plaster cast treatment, bone graft without osteosynthesis, bone graft with Kirschner wires, percutaneous screws and bone graft with compression screws. The treatment performed depends on the characteristics of the pseudarthrosis and the surgeon's experience.

  9. Protective effects of compound FLZ on β-amyloid peptide-(25-35)-induced mouse hippocampal injury and learning and memory impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang FANG; Geng-tao LIU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the protective effects of compound FLZ, a novel synthetic analogue of natural squamosamide, on learning and memory impairment and lesions of the hippocampus caused by icv injection of β-amyloid25-35 (Aβ25-35) in mice. Methods: Mice were icv injected with the Aβ25-35 (15 nmol/mouse), and then treated with oral administration of 75 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg of FLZ once daily for 16 consecutive days. The impairment of learning and memory in mice were tested using step-down test and Morris water maze test. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the expressions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Bax, and Bcl-2 in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus were measured by biochemical and immu-nohistochemical analysis, respectively. The pathological damages of hippocampus were observed using a microscope. Results: FLZ (75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg) significantly attenuated Aβ25-35-induced impairment of learning and memory in the step-down test and Morris water maze test. FLZ also reduced pathological damages to the hippocampus induced by Aβ25-35 Furthermore, FLZ prevented the increase of AChE and Bax, and the decrease of Bcl-2 immunoreactive cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, and reduced the increase of MDA content in the hippocampus in mice injected with Aβ25-35. Conclusion: FLZ has protective action against the impairment of learning and memory and pathological damage to the hippocampus induced by icv injection of Aβ25-35 in mice.

  10. Neurosteroids exhibit anticonvulsant action in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. S8 (2005), s. 115-116 ISSN 0013-9580. [Joint Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society and American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. 02.12.2005-06.12.2005, Washington, DC] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5011007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neurosteroids * anticonvulsants * immature rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  11. Meniscus transplantation in skeletally immature patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Mininder S; Tepolt, Frances A; Vavken, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Meniscal pathology in skeletally immature patients includes meniscal tears and discoid lateral meniscus. Total or subtotal meniscectomy may occur in patients with discoid lateral meniscus or severe meniscal tears. Meniscal transplantation may be an option in skeletally immature patients status after total or subtotal meniscectomy with knee symptoms or dysfunction. This study focuses on the surgical technique and short-term outcomes of meniscus transplantation in skeletally immature patients. We reviewed our clinical database for skeletally immature patients who had undergone meniscus transplantation with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Patients were contacted, invited for a physical exam, and asked to complete a Pedi-IKDC, Lysholm, and Tegner outcomes questionnaire. The study protocol was approved by the responsible institutional review board. Three patients (two females/one male) were eligible for the study, each of whom responded to our invitation indicating availability for physical exam and questionnaire. Two patients had undergone subtotal discoid meniscus resection, leading to early lateral compartment degeneration. One patient developed advanced degeneration after a delay in treatment for a medial bucket-handle tear associated with anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 12.6±2.3 years. At a mean follow-up of 31±20 months, the mean Pedi-IKDC score was 68.3±4, the mean Lysholm was 55.7±22.3, and the median Tegner was 7 points. There were no indications of growth deformity during the regular postoperative radiological assessments. One patient required subsequent lysis of adhesions along the lateral mini arthrotomy and mobilization under anesthesia. The other two patients were able to return to sports at the same level as before meniscus transplantation and were able to do so within 9 months postoperatively. Over-resection of discoid menisci as well as untreated meniscus injury, the latter typically in

  12. Ischemic hippocampal lesion leads to cognitive impairment and epileptogenesis in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubová, Hana; Máttéffyová, Adéla; Otáhal, Jakub; Mareš, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. S6 (2005), s. 357-358 ISSN 0013-9580. [International Epilepsy Congress /26./. 28.08.2005-01.09.2005, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : focal ischemia * endothelin-1 * epileptogenesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  13. Hippocampal MR volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, John W.; Botteron, K.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Walkup, Ronald K.; Black, Kevin J.; Gado, Mokhtar; Vannier, Michael W.

    1994-09-01

    Goal: To estimate hippocampal volumes from in vivo 3D magnetic resonance (MR) brain images and determine inter-rater and intra- rater repeatability. Objective: The precision and repeatability of hippocampal volume estimates using stereologic measurement methods is sought. Design: Five normal control and five schizophrenic subjects were MR scanned using a MPRAGE protocol. Fixed grid stereologic methods were used to estimate hippocampal volumes on a graphics workstation. The images were preprocessed using histogram analysis to standardize 3D MR image scaling from 16 to 8 bits and image volumes were interpolated to 0.5 mm3 isotropic voxels. The following variables were constant for the repeated stereologic measures: grid size, inter-slice distance (1.5 mm), voxel dimensions (0.5 mm3), number of hippocampi measured (10), total number of measurements per rater (40), and number of raters (5). Two grid sizes were tested to determine the coefficient of error associated with the number of sampled 'hits' (approximately 140 and 280) on the hippocampus. Starting slice and grid position were randomly varied to assure unbiased volume estimates. Raters were blind to subject identity, diagnosis, and side of the brain from which the image volumes were extracted and the order of subject presentation was randomized for each of the raters. Inter- and intra-rater intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were determined. Results: The data indicate excellent repeatability of fixed grid stereologic hippocampal volume measures when using an inter-slice distance of 1.5 mm and a 6.25 mm2 grid (inter-rater ICCs equals 0.86 - 0.97, intra- rater ICCs equals 0.85 - 0.97). One major advantage of the current study was the use of 3D MR data which significantly improved visualization of hippocampal boundaries by providing the ability to access simultaneous orthogonal views while counting stereological marks within the hippocampus. Conclusion: Stereological estimates of 3D volumes from 2D MR

  14. Short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic to the immature brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the long-term use of antiepileptic drugs can cause nervous system damage. However, short-term antiepileptic drug treatment is frequently given to infants, especially neonates, to control seizure. Whether the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic remains unclear. In the present study, immature rats, 3-21 days of age, were intraperitoneally injected with phenobarbital and/or topiramate for 3 consecutive days. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining revealed that phenobarbital and topiramate, individually or in combination, were cytotoxic to hippocampal CA1 neurons and inhibited the expression of GluR1 and NR2B, excitatory glutamate receptor subunits. Furthermore, the combination of the two drugs caused greater damage than either drug alone. The results demonstrate that the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs damages neurons in the immature brain and that the combined use of antiepileptic drugs exacerbates damage. Our findings suggest that clinicians should consider the potential neurotoxic risk associated with the combined use of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of seizure.

  15. The immature dentate gyrus represents a shared phenotype of mouse models of epilepsy and psychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Rick; Kobayashi, Katsunori; Hagihara, Hideo; Kogan, Jeffrey H; Miyake, Shinichi; Tajinda, Katsunori; Walton, Noah M; Gross, Adam K; Heusner, Carrie L; Chen, Qian; Tamura, Kouichi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki

    2013-06-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, share common etiologies, pathophysiologies, genetics, and drug responses with many of the epilepsies. Here, we explored overlaps in cellular/molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral phenotypes between putative mouse models of bipolar disorder/schizophrenia and epilepsy. We tested the hypothesis that an immature dentate gyrus (iDG), whose association with psychosis in patients has recently been reported, represents a common phenotype of both diseases. Behaviors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (α-CaMKII) heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice, which are a representative bipolar disorder/schizophrenia model displaying iDG, and pilocarpine-treated mice, which are a representative epilepsy model, were tested followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)/immunohistochemistry for mRNA/protein expression associated with an iDG phenotype. In vitro electrophysiology of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) was examined in pilocarpine-treated epileptic mice. The two disease models demonstrated similar behavioral deficits, such as hyperactivity, poor working memory performance, and social withdrawal. Significant reductions in mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of the mature neuronal marker calbindin and concomitant increases in mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of the immature neuronal marker calretinin represent iDG signatures that are present in both mice models. Electrophysiologically, we have confirmed that DG GCs from pilocarpine-treated mice represent an immature state. A significant decrease in hippocampal α-CaMKII protein levels was also found in both models. Our data have shown iDG signatures from mouse models of both bipolar disorder/schizophrenia and epilepsy. The evidence suggests that the iDG may, in part, be responsible for the abnormal behavioral phenotype, and that the underlying pathophysiologies in epilepsy

  16. Neurogenic function in rats with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis that experienced early-life status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Mark; Schindler, Clara K; Shinoda, Sachiko; Crilly, Shane; Henshall, David C

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus in the adult brain invariably causes an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis and the appearance of ectopic cells and this has been implicated as a causal factor in epileptogenesis. The effect of status epilepticus on neurogenesis in the developing brain is less well characterized and models of early-life seizures typically do not reproduce the hippocampal damage common to human mesial temporal sclerosis. We recently reported that evoking status epilepticus by intra-amygdala microinjection of kainic acid in post-natal (P) day 10 rats caused substantial acute neuronal death within the ipsilateral hippocampus and rats later developed unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and spontaneous recurrent seizures. Here, we examined the expression of a selection of genes associated with neurogenesis and assessed neurogenic function in this model. Protein levels of several markers of neurogenesis including polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule, neuroD and doublecortin were reduced in the hippocampus three days after status epilepticus in P10 rats. In contrast, protein levels of neurogenesis markers were similar to control in rats at P55. Pulse-chase experiments using thymidine analogues suggested there was a reduction in new neurons at 72 h after status epilepticus in P10 rats, whereas numbers of new neurons labelled in epileptic rats at P55 with hippocampal sclerosis were similar to controls. The present study suggests that status epilepticus in the immature brain suppresses neurogenesis but the neurogenic potential is retained in animals that later develop hippocampal sclerosis. PMID:25755841

  17. Fibroadenoma with "immature-like" type of usual ductal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezić, Joško; Karaman, Ivana; Kunac, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of the breast fibroadenoma with foci of so-called immature variant of the conventional ductal hyperplasia. This type of usual ductal hyperplasia is histologically characterised by encircling intraductal proliferation of large cells with pale to amphophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei which vary in shape and in staining quality of the chromatin. We showed here, using the cytokeratin immunohistochemistry, that the proliferating cells were not of immature but rather mature immunohistochemical phenotype. Because of the presented discordance between immature histology and mature immunohistological profile we suggest that this rare type of usual ductal hyperplasia should be called "immature-like".

  18. Moderate traumatic brain injury causes acute dendritic and synaptic degeneration in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Hippocampal injury-associated learning and memory deficits are frequent hallmarks of brain trauma and are the most enduring and devastating consequences following traumatic brain injury (TBI. Several reports, including our recent paper, showed that TBI brought on by a moderate level of controlled cortical impact (CCI induces immature newborn neuron death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In contrast, the majority of mature neurons are spared. Less research has been focused on these spared neurons, which may also be injured or compromised by TBI. Here we examined the dendrite morphologies, dendritic spines, and synaptic structures using a genetic approach in combination with immunohistochemistry and Golgi staining. We found that although most of the mature granular neurons were spared following TBI at a moderate level of impact, they exhibited dramatic dendritic beading and fragmentation, decreased number of dendritic branches, and a lower density of dendritic spines, particularly the mushroom-shaped mature spines. Further studies showed that the density of synapses in the molecular layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly reduced. The electrophysiological activity of neurons was impaired as well. These results indicate that TBI not only induces cell death in immature granular neurons, it also causes significant dendritic and synaptic degeneration in pathohistology. TBI also impairs the function of the spared mature granular neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These observations point to a potential anatomic substrate to explain, in part, the development of posttraumatic memory deficits. They also indicate that dendritic damage in the hippocampal dentate gyrus may serve as a therapeutic target following TBI.

  19. Electrical injury involving the immature skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Southwick, W. O.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1981-01-01

    Two patients are presented with significant problems of skeletal development and function consequent to electrical impulse propagation through the immature skeleton. Amputation stump revision in the first case allowed an opportunity to assess specific histological and morphologic changes. Electrical damage completeley destroyed portions of trabecular bone in the metaphyses and epiphyseal ossification centers. There were morphologic irregularities in the physis of the distal femur, while in the proximal tibia complete cessation of growth occurred through presumed electrical ablation of the physis. There was virtually no endosteal or periosteal callus, no intertrabecular inflammatory response, and no new bone formation well over a year following the original injury. The knee joint exhibited severe fibrous ankylosis. In the second case localized arrest of the posterolateral portion of the proximal tibial physis caused a valgus/recurvatum deformation, and probably slowed down distal growth sufficiently in the stump end to prevent irregular terminal overgrowth of the tibia, although it did occur in the fibula. (orig.)

  20. Stimulation of estradiol biosynthesis by tributyltin in rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munetsuna, Eiji; Hattori, Minoru; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal functions are influenced by steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol. It has been demonstrated that hippocampus-derived steroid hormones play important roles in neuronal protection and synapse formation. Our research groups have demonstrated that estradiol is de novo synthesized in the rat hippocampus. However, the mechanism(s) regulating this synthesis remains unclear. It has been reported that tributyltin, an environmental pollutant, binds to the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and modifies estrogen synthesis in human granulosa-like tumor cells. This compound can penetrate the blood brain barrier, and tends to accumulate in the brain. Based on these facts, we hypothesized that tributyltin could influence the hippocampal estradiol synthesis. A concentration of 0.1 μM tributyltin induced an increase in the mRNA content of P450(17α) and P450arom in hippocampal slices, as determined using real-time PCR. The transcript levels of other steroidogenic enzymes and a steroidogenic acute regulatory protein were not affected. The estradiol level in rat hippocampal slices was subsequently determined using a radioimmunoassay. We found that the estradiol synthesis was stimulated by ∼2-fold following a 48-h treatment with 0.1 μM tributyltin, and this was accompanied by transcriptional activation of P450(17α) and P450arom. Tributyltin stimulated de novo hippocampal estradiol synthesis by modifying the transcription of specific steroidogenic enzymes.

  1. Tetramethyl-O-scutellarin isolated from peels of immature Shiranuhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of the immature fruit of a citrus, Shiranuhi, and to identify the active ingredient. Methods: The immature Shiranuhi peel was extracted with 80 % ethanol, and the extract was fractionated with solvents (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) to afford ...

  2. In vitro bulblet regeneration from immature embryos of Muscari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high frequency bulblet regeneration was achieved for endemic and endangered ornamental plant Muscari azureum using immature embryos. Immature embryos of M. azureum were cultured on callus induction medium consisting of N6 mineral salts and vitamins, 400 mg/L casein + 40 g/L sucrose + 2 g/l L-proline, 2 mg/L ...

  3. Prevention of hyperthermia-induced seizures in immature rats by a hydantoin derivative of naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjie, N; Laorden, M L; Puig, M M; Alexander, G J

    1989-01-01

    The non-specific opiate antagonist naloxone protects immature rats from hyperthermic seizures which occur when the animals are exposed to an environment of 40 degrees C and 55% humidity. Most of the currently used antiepileptic therapeutic agents can be said to contain either a hydantoin or a moiety stereochemically closely related to one. We have added a hydantoin group to naloxone and created a new combined chemical, naloxyl-6-alpha spirohydantoin. The new compound was ten times as effective as naloxone against hyperthermic seizures in 15-day old rat pups. Unlike naloxone, the new naloxone-hydantoin derivative retained a protective effect 24 hrs after injection.

  4. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIADI eBi Kuyami Guy Aimé

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this paper is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, fifty-five chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and fifty-five reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2. The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the centre of the screen for 30 seconds. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 sec of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system.

  5. Spatial learning depends on both the addition and removal of new hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dupret

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in spatial learning remains a matter of debate. Here, we show that spatial learning modifies neurogenesis by inducing a cascade of events that resembles the selective stabilization process characterizing development. Learning promotes survival of relatively mature neurons, apoptosis of more immature cells, and finally, proliferation of neural precursors. These are three interrelated events mediating learning. Thus, blocking apoptosis impairs memory and inhibits learning-induced cell survival and cell proliferation. In conclusion, during learning, similar to the selective stabilization process, neuronal networks are sculpted by a tightly regulated selection and suppression of different populations of newly born neurons.

  6. Opposing Effects of α2- and β-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation on Quiescent Neural Precursor Cell Activity and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosper, Boris W.; Marathe, Swanand; Husain, Basma F. A.; Kernie, Steven G.; Bartlett, Perry F.; Vaidya, Vidita A.

    2014-01-01

    Norepinephrine regulates latent neural stem cell activity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and has an important role in modulating hippocampal functions such as learning, memory and mood. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a multi-stage process, spanning from the activation and proliferation of hippocampal stem cells, to their differentiation into neurons. However, the stage-specific effects of noradrenergic receptors in regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we used transgenic Nestin-GFP mice and neurosphere assays to show that modulation of α2- and β-adrenergic receptor activity directly affects Nestin-GFP/GFAP-positive precursor cell population albeit in an opposing fashion. While selective stimulation of α2-adrenergic receptors decreases precursor cell activation, proliferation and immature neuron number, stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors activates the quiescent precursor pool and enhances their proliferation in the adult hippocampus. Furthermore, our data indicate no major role for α1-adrenergic receptors, as we did not observe any change in either the activation and proliferation of hippocampal precursors following selective stimulation or blockade of α1-adrenergic receptors. Taken together, our data suggest that under physiological as well as under conditions that lead to enhanced norepinephrine release, the balance between α2- and β-adrenergic receptor activity regulates precursor cell activity and hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:24922313

  7. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); J.L. Stein; E. Hofer (Edith); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); Ikram, M.K. (M. Kamran); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); L. Abramovic (Lucija); S. Alhusaini (Saud); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Andersson (Micael); K. Arfanakis (Konstantinos); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); T. Axelsson (Tomas); A.H. Beecham (Ashley); A. Beiser (Alexa); M. Bernard (Manon); S.H. Blanton (Susan H.); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.M. Brickman (Adam M.); Carmichael, O. (Owen); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); V. Chouraki (Vincent); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); F. Crivello (Fabrice); A. den Braber (Anouk); Doan, N.T. (Nhat Trung); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); O. Grimm (Oliver); M.D. Griswold (Michael); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); Gutman, B.A. (Boris A.); J. Hass (Johanna); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); D. Hoehn (David); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); Jørgensen, K.N. (Kjetil N.); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); Marquand, A.F. (Andre F.); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); McKay, D.R. (David R.); Milaneschi, Y. (Yuri); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); K. Nho (Kwangsik); A.C. Nugent (Allison); P. Nyquist (Paul); Loohuis, L.M.O. (Loes M. Olde); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); M. Papmeyer (Martina); Pirpamer, L. (Lukas); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); Richards, J.S. (Jennifer S.); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Rommelse (Nanda); S. Ropele (Stefan); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); T. Rundek (Tatjana); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); Saremi, A. (Arvin); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); Shen, L. (Li); J. Shin (Jean); Shumskaya, E. (Elena); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R. Sprooten (Roy); L.T. Strike (Lachlan); A. Teumer (Alexander); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); R. Toro (Roberto); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trompet (Stella); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); J. van der Grond (Jeroen); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); Van Der Meer, D. (Dennis); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); Van Rooij, D. (Daan); E. Walton (Esther); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); Wolfers, T. (Thomas); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Yang, J. (Jingyun); A.P. Zijdenbos; M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); I. Agartz (Ingrid); L. Almasy (Laura); D.J. Ames (David); Amouyel, P. (Philippe); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; S. Barral (Sandra); M.E. Bastin (Mark); Becker, D.M. (Diane M.); J.T. Becker (James); D.A. Bennett (David A.); J. Blangero (John); H. van Bokhoven (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Brodaty (Henry); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); D.M. Cannon (Dara); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); S. Cichon (Sven); M.R. Cookson (Mark); A. Corvin (Aiden); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); A.J. de Craen (Anton); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); S. Debette (Stéphanie); C. DeCarli (Charles); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); A. Dillman (Allissa); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); Duggirala, R. (Ravi); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); C. Enzinger (Christian); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); Fedko, I.O. (Iryna O.); Fernández, G. (Guillén); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); S.E. Fisher (Simon); D. Fleischman (Debra); I. Ford (Ian); M. Fornage (Myriam); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); Fukunaga, M. (Masaki); Gibbs, J.R. (J. Raphael); D.C. Glahn (David); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); O. Gruber (Oliver); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); Håberg, A.K. (Asta K.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (C.); Hashimoto, R. (Ryota); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); Ho, B.-C. (Beng-Choon); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Holsboer (Florian); G. Homuth (Georg); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.J. Huentelman (Matthew); H.H. Pol; Ikeda, M. (Masashi); Jack, C.R. (Clifford R.); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); Jönsson, E.G. (Erik G.); J.W. Jukema; R. Kahn (René); Kanai, R. (Ryota); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); Knopman, D.S. (David S.); P. Kochunov (Peter); Kwok, J.B. (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); H. Lemaître (Herve); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); O.L. Lopez (Oscar L.); S. Lovestone (Simon); Martinez, O. (Oliver); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); McDonald, C. (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); McMahon, F.J. (Francis J.); McMahon, K.L. (Katie L.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); I. Melle (Ingrid); Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (Andreas); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); D.W. Morris (Derek W); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); M. Nauck (Matthias); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); L. Nyberg (Lars); Ohi, K. (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); Pike, G.B. (G. Bruce); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (Marcella); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); N. Seiferth (Nina); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); M. Ryten (Mina); Sacco, R.L. (Ralph L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); Schmidt, H. (Helena); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); Sigursson, S. (Sigurdur); Simmons, A. (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); Smith, C. (Colin); J.W. Smoller; H. Soininen (H.); V.M. Steen (Vidar); D.J. Stott (David J.); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M. Tsolaki (Magda); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Hernández, M.C.V. (Maria C. Valdés); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); A. van der Lugt (Aad); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); B.N. Vardarajan (Badri); B. Vellas (Bruno); D.J. Veltman (Dick); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); J. Wardlaw (Joanna); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); M.E. Weale (Michael); Weinberger, D.R. (Daniel R.); Weiner, M.W. (Michael W.); Wen, W. (Wei); E. Westman (Eric); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Y.); Wright, C.B. (Clinton B.); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.J. Wright (Margaret); W.T. Longstreth Jr; G. Schumann (Gunter); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); B. Franke (Barbara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); S. Seshadri (Sudha); P.M. Thompson (Paul); M.K. Ikram (Kamran)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic

  8. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W.; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H.; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H.; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M.; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E.; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A.; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N.; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F.; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G.; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V.; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Grond, Jeroen; van der Lee, Sven J.; van der Meer, Dennis; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Windham, Beverly G.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, James T.; Bennett, David A.; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R.; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Jager, Philip L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Deary, Ian J.; Debette, Stéphanie; Decarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C.; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O.; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E.; Fleischman, Debra A.; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Glahn, David C.; Gollub, Randy L.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahn, René S.; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A.; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L.; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R.; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M.; Stott, David J.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y.; Wright, Clinton B.; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Longstreth, W. T.; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J.; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J.; Medland, Sarah E.; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of

  9. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W.; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal ...

  10. Revascularization and Apical Plug in an Immature Molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghanizadeh, Leyla; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2018-01-01

    Managing of necrotic permanent teeth with immature apices is a treatment challenges. Treatment of such teeth includes apexification, apical plug and more recently, revascularization technique with the probable advantage of continuation of root development. In the present case report the referred patient had discomfort with a necrotic immature mandibular first molar. Periapical radiography showed a rather large apical lesion around immature roots. Revascularization protocol using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was indicated for the mesial root. However, in distal canal apical plug technique was applied. At 2-year follow-up, both procedures were successful in relieving patient’s symptoms. Dentin formation and increase in length of the mesial root was obvious. Apical plug and revascularization technique proved to be successful in management of necrotic immature teeth; moreover, revascularization carried the advantage of continuation of root development. PMID:29692851

  11. Hippocampal Sclerosis in Older Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D.; Powell, Suzanne Z.; Schulz, Paul E.; Takei, Hidehiro; Rivera, Andreana L.; Jackson, Robert E.; Roman, Gustavo; Jicha, Gregory A.; Nelson, Peter T.

    2018-01-01

    Context Autopsy studies of the older population (≥65 years of age), and particularly of the “oldest-old” (≥85 years of age), have identified a significant proportion (~20%) of cognitively impaired patients in which hippocampal sclerosis is the major substrate of an amnestic syndrome. Hippocampal sclerosis may also be comorbid with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer disease, and Lewy body disease. Until recently, the terms hippocampal sclerosis of aging or hippocampal sclerosis dementia were applied in this context. Recent discoveries have prompted a conceptual expansion of hippocampal sclerosis of aging because (1) cellular inclusions of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) are frequent; (2) TDP-43 pathology may be found outside hippocampus; and (3) brain arteriolosclerosis is a common, possibly pathogenic, component. Objective To aid pathologists with recent recommendations for diagnoses of common neuropathologies in older persons, particularly hippocampal sclerosis, and highlight the recent shift in diagnostic terminology from HS-aging to cerebral age-related TDP-43 with sclerosis (CARTS). Data Sources Peer-reviewed literature and 5 autopsy examples that illustrate common age-related neuropathologies, including CARTS, and emphasize the importance of distinguishing CARTS from late-onset frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology and from advanced Alzheimer disease with TDP-43 pathology. Conclusions In advanced old age, the substrates of cognitive impairment are often multifactorial. This article demonstrates common and frequently comorbid neuropathologic substrates of cognitive impairment in the older population, including CARTS, to aid those practicing in this area of pathology. PMID:28467211

  12. Anticonvulsive effect of paeoniflorin on experimental febrile seizures in immature rats: possible application for febrile seizures in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Hino

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures (FS is the most common convulsive disorder in children, but there have been no clinical and experimental studies of the possible treatment of FS with herbal medicines, which are widely used in Asian countries. Paeoniflorin (PF is a major bioactive component of Radix Paeoniae alba, and PF-containing herbal medicines have been used for neuromuscular, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we analyzed the anticonvulsive effect of PF and Keishikashakuyaku-to (KS; a PF-containing herbal medicine for hyperthermia-induced seizures in immature rats as a model of human FS. When immature (P5 male rats were administered PF or KS for 10 days, hyperthermia-induced seizures were significantly suppressed compared to control rats. In cultured hippocampal neurons, PF suppressed glutamate-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+](i, glutamate receptor-mediated membrane depolarization, and glutamate-induced neuronal death. In addition, PF partially suppressed the elevation in [Ca(2+](i induced by activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5, but not that mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolpropionic acid (AMPA or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. However, PF did not affect production or release of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that PF or PF-containing herbal medicines exert anticonvulsive effects at least in part by preventing mGluR5-dependent [Ca(2+](i elevations. Thus, it could be a possible candidate for the treatment of FS in children.

  13. Comparison of Hippocampal Volume in Dementia Subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Avinash; Vijayakumar, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To examine the relationship between different types of dementia and hippocampal volume. Methods. Hippocampal volume was measured using FL3D sequence magnetic resonance imaging in 26 Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus patients and 15 healthy controls and also hippocampal ratio, analyzed. Minimental scale was used to stratify patients on cognitive function impairments. Results. Hippocampal volume and ratio was reduced by 25% in Alzheimer's disease, 21% in mixed dementia, 11% in vascular dementia and 5% in normal pressure hydrocephalus in comparison to control. Also an asymmetrical decrease in volume of left hippocampus was noted. The severity of dementia increased in accordance to decreasing hippocampal volume. Conclusion. Measurement in hippocampal volume may facilitate in differentiating different types of dementia and in disease progression. There was a correlation between hippocampal volume and severity of cognitive impairment

  14. Hippocampal Abnormalities and Seizure Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry were performed on 84 consecutive patients (adolescents and adults with partial epilepsy submitted to antiepileptic drug (AED withdrawal after at least 2 years of seizure control, in a study at State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Brazil.

  15. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  16. Pregnancy swimming causes short- and long-term neuroprotection against hypoxia-ischemia in very immature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Durán-Carabali, Luz Elena; Tosta, Andrea; Nicola, Fabrício; Schmitz, Felipe; Rodrigues, André; Siebert, Cassiana; Wyse, Angela; Netto, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    BackgroundHypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of neurological damage in preterm newborn. Swimming during pregnancy alters the offspring's brain development. We tested the effects of swimming during pregnancy in the very immature rat brain.MethodsFemale Wistar rats (n=12) were assigned to the sedentary (SE, n=6) or the swimming (SW, n=6) group. From gestational day 0 (GD0) to GD21 the rats in the SW group were made to swim for 20 min/day. HI on postnatal day (PND) 3 rats caused sensorimotor and cognitive impairments. Animals were distributed into SE sham (SESH), sedentary HIP3 (SEHI), swimming sham (SWSH), and swimming HIP3 (SWHI) groups. At PND4 and PND5, Na + /K + -ATPase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed. During lactation and adulthood, neurological reflexes, sensorimotor, anxiety-related, and cognitive evaluations were made, followed by histological assessment at PND60.ResultsAt early stages, swimming caused an increase in hippocampal BDNF levels and in the maintenance of Na + /K + -ATPase function in the SWHI group. The SWHI group showed smaller lesions and the preservation of white matter tracts. SEHI animals showed a delay in reflex maturation, which was reverted in the SWHI group. HIP3 induced spatial memory deficits and hypomyelination in SEHI rats, which was reverted in the SWHI group.ConclusionSwimming during pregnancy neuroprotected the brains against HI in very immature neonatal rats.

  17. CT findings of overian teratomas : mature versus immature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Kim, Young Wol

    1996-01-01

    To differentiate mature and immature ovarian teratomas, using CT findings. The CT findings of ten mature ovarian teratomas (in one patient, bilateral) and ten which were immature were compared, using statistical analysis. Images were evaluated for size, margins, architecture, contents (mural nodules, fat, calcification), septa, local invasion and distant metastasis. These findings were compared with pathologic findings. Of the ten mature tumors, nine were well defined and predominantly cystic in internal architecture, and one was mixed. Mural nodules were found in six tumor, fat in all, distinct calcification in seven, and regular septa in three lesions. Of the ten immature humors, eight had irregular margins. Seven were predominantly solid in internal architecture and irregularly enhanced, two were mixed, and one was mainly cystic. Fat was detected in five lesions, indistinct scattered calcification in six, irregular septa in three, and local invasion of distant metastasis in four patients. Compared with mature ovarian teratomas, those that are immature tend to show CT findings of marginal irregularity, solid mass with irregular enhacement, scattered indistinct calcifications, septal irregularity, local invasion or distant metastasis. Our experience suggests that these findings may be helpful in differentiation of mature and immature ovarian teratomas

  18. Thiamine and benfotiamine prevent stress-induced suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis in mice exposed to predation without affecting brain thiamine diphosphate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignisse, Julie; Sambon, Margaux; Gorlova, Anna; Pavlov, Dmitrii; Caron, Nicolas; Malgrange, Brigitte; Shevtsova, Elena; Svistunov, Andrey; Anthony, Daniel C; Markova, Natalyia; Bazhenova, Natalyia; Coumans, Bernard; Lakaye, Bernard; Wins, Pierre; Strekalova, Tatyana; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2017-07-01

    Thiamine is essential for normal brain function and its deficiency causes metabolic impairment, specific lesions, oxidative damage and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Thiamine precursors with increased bioavailability, especially benfotiamine, exert neuroprotective effects not only for thiamine deficiency (TD), but also in mouse models of neurodegeneration. As it is known that AHN is impaired by stress in rodents, we exposed C57BL6/J mice to predator stress for 5 consecutive nights and studied the proliferation (number of Ki67-positive cells) and survival (number of BrdU-positive cells) of newborn immature neurons in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. In stressed mice, the number of Ki67- and BrdU-positive cells was reduced compared to non-stressed animals. This reduction was prevented when the mice were treated (200mg/kg/day in drinking water for 20days) with thiamine or benfotiamine, that were recently found to prevent stress-induced behavioral changes and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) upregulation in the CNS. Moreover, we show that thiamine and benfotiamine counteract stress-induced bodyweight loss and suppress stress-induced anxiety-like behavior. Both treatments induced a modest increase in the brain content of free thiamine while the level of thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) remained unchanged, suggesting that the beneficial effects observed are not linked to the role of this coenzyme in energy metabolism. Predator stress increased hippocampal protein carbonylation, an indicator of oxidative stress. This effect was antagonized by both thiamine and benfotiamine. Moreover, using cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells, we show that in particular benfotiamine protects against paraquat-induced oxidative stress. We therefore hypothesize that thiamine compounds may act by boosting anti-oxidant cellular defenses, by a mechanism that still remains to be unveiled. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that thiamine and benfotiamine prevent

  19. [Establishment of oxygen and glucose deprive model of in vitro cultured hippocampal neuron and effect of ligustrazine on intracellular Ca+ level in model neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hai-tong; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jie-hong

    2007-03-01

    To establish the oxygen and glucose deprive (OGD) model in cultured hippocampal neuron and study the effect of ligustrazine on intracellular Ca2+ level in the model neurons. The OGD model was established in cultured hippocampal neuron, and the intracellular Ca2+ level in it was detected by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). The OGD model was successfully established in cultured hippocampal neurons; the intracellular Ca2+ level in the OGD model group was significantly higher than that in the blank control group (P neuron, which could be antagonized by ligustrazine, indicating that ligustrazine has a protective effect on hippocampal neuron from hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  20. The Category of Immaturity in a Legal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedonkina A.A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We presented psychological and legal approaches to the concept of immaturity, and the definition of the perpetrator. We analyzed the differences of age aspects of the subject of crime in different countries, the criteria for establishing a minimum age of criminal responsibility. We discuss the problem of the possibility of lowering the age of criminal responsibility in the Russian Federation from the point of view of psychological science. We considered the legal category of "mental retardation not associated with mental illness" and its psychological equivalent - "personal immaturity". We describe the main problems arising in the course of the complex judicial, psychological and psychiatric examination for the presence of a mental retardation not associated with mental illness in minor. We presented psychological approaches to the concept of "personal immaturity", described the concept of "mature personality".

  1. Neuroprotective function for ramified microglia in hippocampal excitotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the known functions of microglia, including neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties, are attributed to morphologically-activated microglia. Resting, ramified microglia are suggested to primarily monitor their environment including synapses. Here, we show an active protective role of ramified microglia in excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration. Methods Mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA to induce excitotoxic neuronal cell death. This procedure was performed in slices containing resting microglia or slices that were chemically or genetically depleted of their endogenous microglia. Results Treatment of mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures with 10-50 μM N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA induced region-specific excitotoxic neuronal cell death with CA1 neurons being most vulnerable, whereas CA3 and DG neurons were affected less. Ablation of ramified microglia severely enhanced NMDA-induced neuronal cell death in the CA3 and DG region rendering them almost as sensitive as CA1 neurons. Replenishment of microglia-free slices with microglia restored the original resistance of CA3 and DG neurons towards NMDA. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that ramified microglia not only screen their microenvironment but additionally protect hippocampal neurons under pathological conditions. Morphological activation of ramified microglia is thus not required to influence neuronal survival.

  2. Regenerative endodontic procedures: a review of the literature and a case report of an immature central incisor

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Llaquet; Montse Mercadé; Gianluca Plotino

    2017-01-01

    Background: Trauma of developing teeth may lead to pulpal necrosis with subsequent arrestment of root development, making them more susceptible to fracture. Regenerative endodontic procedures induce maturogenesis in necrotic immature permanent teeth in order to promote continuation of root growth. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is widely used as a blood clot protecting material, although it presents a potential drawback of discoloration. Biodentine is a tricalcium silicate cement with adequ...

  3. Restoration of hippocampal growth hormone reverses stress-induced hippocampal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin M. Vander Weele

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Though growth hormone (GH is synthesized by hippocampal neurons, where its expression is influenced by stress exposure, its function is poorly characterized. Here, we show that a regimen of chronic stress that impairs hippocampal function in rats also leads to a profound decrease in hippocampal GH levels. Restoration of hippocampal GH in the dorsal hippocampus via viral-mediated gene transfer completely reversed stress-related impairment of two hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks, auditory trace fear conditioning and contextual fear conditioning, without affecting hippocampal function in unstressed control rats. GH overexpression reversed stress-induced decrements in both fear acquisition and long-term fear memory. These results suggest that loss of hippocampal GH contributes to hippocampal dysfunction following prolonged stress and demonstrate that restoring hippocampal GH levels following stress can promote stress resilience.

  4. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transformation using immature embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuji; Tsunashima, Masako; Hiei, Yukoh; Komari, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Wheat may now be transformed very efficiently by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Under the protocol hereby described, immature embryos of healthy plants of wheat cultivar Fielder grown in a well-conditioned greenhouse were pretreated with centrifuging and cocultivated with A. tumefaciens. Transgenic wheat plants were obtained routinely from between 40 and 90 % of the immature embryos, thus infected in our tests. All regenerants were normal in morphology and fully fertile. About half of the transformed plants carried single copy of the transgene, which are inherited by the progeny in a Mendelian fashion.

  5. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Periasamy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection.

  6. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C.; Sellati, Timothy J.; Harton, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection. PMID:27015566

  7. A grading system for hippocampal sclerosis based on the degree of hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Proper, E.A.; Jansen, G.H.; Veelen, C.W. van; Rijen, P.C. van; Graan, P.N.E. de

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. In patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) a highly variable degree of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) can be observed. For standard neuropathological evaluation after hippocampal resection, neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal subareas is assessed (Wyler score 0-4) [Wyler et al.

  8. Estradiol and luteinizing hormone regulate recognition memory following subchronic phencyclidine: Evidence for hippocampal GABA action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Alexander J; Schaler, Ari W; Fried, Jenny; Paine, Tracie A; Thornton, Janice E

    2018-05-01

    The cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are poorly understood and difficult to treat. Estrogens may mitigate these symptoms via unknown mechanisms. To examine these mechanisms, we tested whether increasing estradiol (E) or decreasing luteinizing hormone (LH) could mitigate short-term episodic memory loss in a phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. We then assessed whether changes in cortical or hippocampal GABA may underlie these effects. Female rats were ovariectomized and injected subchronically with PCP. To modulate E and LH, animals received estradiol capsules or Antide injections. Short-term episodic memory was assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT). Brain expression of GAD67 was analyzed via western blot, and parvalbumin-containing cells were counted using immunohistochemistry. Some rats received hippocampal infusions of a GABA A agonist, GABA A antagonist, or GAD inhibitor before behavioral testing. We found that PCP reduced hippocampal GAD67 and abolished recognition memory. Antide restored hippocampal GAD67 and rescued recognition memory in PCP-treated animals. Estradiol prevented PCP's amnesic effect in NORT but failed to restore hippocampal GAD67. PCP did not cause significant differences in number of parvalbumin-expressing cells or cortical expression of GAD67. Hippocampal infusions of a GABA A agonist restored recognition memory in PCP-treated rats. Blocking hippocampal GAD or GABA A receptors in ovx animals reproduced recognition memory loss similar to PCP and inhibited estradiol's protection of recognition memory in PCP-treated animals. In summary, decreasing LH or increasing E can lessen short-term episodic memory loss, as measured by novel object recognition, in a PCP model of schizophrenia. Alterations in hippocampal GABA may contribute to both PCP's effects on recognition memory and the hormones' ability to prevent or reverse them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Asymbiotic germination of immature embryos of a medicinally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immature embryos (28 weeks after pollination) were inoculated on M (Mitra et al., 1976), and PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media, with and without different growth additives. The seeds showed positive germination response in both the nutrient media but the frequency and onset of germination response and associated ...

  10. Neurotensin enhances estradiol induced DNA synthesis in immature rat uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, A.; Vijayan, E.

    1985-05-27

    Systemic administration of Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, in immature rats treated with estradiol benzoate significantly enhances uterine DNA synthesis as reflected by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. The peptide may have a direct action on the uterus. Substance P, a related peptide, had no effect on uterine DNA synthesis. 18 references, 4 tables.

  11. The Extent of Immature Fish Harvesting by the Commercial Fishery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sustainability of a given fishery is a function of the number of sexually matured fish present in water. If there is intensive immature fishing, the population of fish reaching the stage of recruitment will decrease, which in turn results in lower yield and biomass. The present study was conducted to estimate the extent of ...

  12. Sexing immature Mauritius Fodies Foudia rubra using biometrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is currently no reliable, affordable method of sexing Mauritius Fodies in their first non-breeding season. Ringed immature fodies from a released population on an offshore island were caught in April and May 2005 and sexed in later breeding seasons. Males had longer wing lengths and tarsi than females, with no ...

  13. Natural Chlorinated Auxins Labeled with Radioactive Chloride in Immature Seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1975-01-01

    Immature seeds were harvested from 15 species grown in perlite/vermiculite containing 36Cl-, but with very low levels of cold Cl-. Autoradiograms of one- and two-dimensional thin layer chromatograms of butanol extracts of lyophilized seeds indicated several radioactive compounds besides the 36Cl-...

  14. Some physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula grown in Iringa and Njombe regions of Tanzania. Sample trees aged 5 to 15 years were collected from farmers' woodlots. The trees were categorized into 5 age classes: 5 - 7, 8 - 10, 11 - 12, 13 - 14 and 15 years. Four trees from ...

  15. Hippocampal neurogenesis in the C57BL/6J mice at early adulthood following prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olateju, Oladiran I; Spocter, Muhammad A; Patzke, Nina; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Manger, Paul R

    2018-04-01

    We examined the effect of chronic prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on the process of adult neurogenesis in C57BL/6J mice at early adulthood (PND 56). Pregnant mice, and their in utero litters, were exposed to alcohol, through oral gavage, on gestational days 7-16, with recorded blood alcohol concentrations averaging 184 mg/dL (CA group). Two control groups, sucrose (CAc) and non-treated (NTc) control groups were also examined. The brains of pups at PND 56 from each experimental group were sectioned in a sagittal plane, and stained for Nissl substance with cresyl violet, and immunostained for Ki-67 which labels proliferative cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature neurons. Morphologically, the neurogenic pattern was identical in all three groups studied. Populations of Ki-67 immunopositive cells in the dentate gyrus were not statistically significantly different between the experimental groups and there were no differences between the sexes. Thus, the PAE in this study does not appear to have a strong effect on the proliferative process in the adult hippocampus. In contrast, the numbers of immature neurons, labeled with DCX, was statistically significantly lower in the prenatal alcohol exposed mice compared with the two control groups. Alcohol significantly lowered the number of DCX hippocampal cells in the male mice, but not in the female mice. This indicates that the PAE appears to lower the rate of conversion of proliferative cells to immature neurons and this effect of alcohol is sexually dimorphic. This lowered number of immature neurons in the hippocampus appears to mirror hippocampal dysfunctions observed in FASD children.

  16. Low-dose sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and facilitates the development of dentate gyrus-dependent learning in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Shen, Feng-Yan; Zhao, Xuan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Dao-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ru; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8%) sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4-6) were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Low-Dose Sevoflurane Promotes Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Facilitates the Development of Dentate Gyrus-Dependent Learning in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8% sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4–6 were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks.

  18. P2X7 receptor inhibition interrupts the progression of seizures in immature rats and reduces hippocampal damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesuret, G.; Engel, T.G.P.; Hessel, E.V.; Sanz-Rodriguez, A.; Jimenez-Pacheco, A.; Miras-Portugal, M.T.; Diaz-Hernandez, M.; Henshall, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Early-life seizures, particularly when prolonged, may be harmful to the brain. Current pharmacotherapy is often ineffective; therefore, novel neuro- and/or glio-transmitter systems should be explored for targeting. The P2X7 receptor is a cation-permeable channel with trophic and excitability

  19. Noise exposure of immature rats can induce different age-dependent extra-auditory alterations that can be partially restored by rearing animals in an enriched environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, S J; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2016-04-01

    It has been previously shown that different extra-auditory alterations can be induced in animals exposed to noise at 15 days. However, data regarding exposure of younger animals, that do not have a functional auditory system, have not been obtained yet. Besides, the possibility to find a helpful strategy to restore these changes has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aims of the present work were to test age-related differences in diverse hippocampal-dependent behavioral measurements that might be affected in noise-exposed rats, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of a potential neuroprotective strategy, the enriched environment (EE), on noise-induced behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats of 7 and 15 days were exposed to moderate levels of noise for two hours. At weaning, animals were separated and reared either in standard or in EE cages for one week. At 28 days of age, different hippocampal-dependent behavioral assessments were performed. Results show that rats exposed to noise at 7 and 15 days were differentially affected. Moreover, EE was effective in restoring all altered variables when animals were exposed at 7 days, while a few were restored in rats exposed at 15 days. The present findings suggest that noise exposure was capable to trigger significant hippocampal-related behavioral alterations that were differentially affected, depending on the age of exposure. In addition, it could be proposed that hearing structures did not seem to be necessarily involved in the generation of noise-induced hippocampal-related behaviors, as they were observed even in animals with an immature auditory pathway. Finally, it could be hypothesized that the differential restoration achieved by EE rearing might also depend on the degree of maturation at the time of exposure and the variable evaluated, being younger animals more susceptible to environmental manipulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Christopher P.; Nelson, Scott D.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  1. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected {sup 226}Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected {sup 226}Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested {sup 226}Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with {sup 226}Ra when immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion.

  2. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected 226 Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected 226 Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested 226 Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with 226 Ra when immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion

  3. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Christopher P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Ft. Lewis, WA (United States); Nelson, Scott D. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States); Seeger, Leanne L. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, CA (United States); Eckardt, Jeffrey J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  4. An interesting case of pyoderma gangrenosum with immature hystiocytoid neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner Morin, Catherine; Côté, Benoit; Belisle, Annie

    2018-01-01

    We present a unique case of a 36-year-old male who developed more than 20 pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) ulcers showing on histopathology a dense inflammatory infiltrate composed of histiocytoid mononuclear immature cells with a strong positivity for myeloperoxidase and Leder stain, suggesting a myeloid lineage in the absence of a concomitant myeloproliferative disorder. Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome (SS) is now recognized as a histological subtype of SS. Although PG and SS belong to the spectrum of neutrophilic diseases, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a "Histiocytoid pyoderma gangrenosum" encompassing immature granulocytes in the absence of leukemia cutis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Ethamsylate and lung permeability in ventilated immature newborn rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, M; Sun, B; Robertson, B

    1994-01-01

    The leakage of proteins in the immature neonatal lung can reduce the effect of exogenous surfactant. The effect of ethamsylate, a more specific prostaglandin inhibitor than indomethacin and aspirin-like drugs, on alveolar albumin leak was studied in a group of 27 immature newborn rabbits (gestational age 27 days). A pilot study was carried out using 4 animals and low-dose ethamsylate (10 mg/kg). A second group of animals (n = 12) received at birth, by intravenous injection, ethamsylate (50 mg/kg) and 10% human albumin (7 ml/kg). Animals not receiving ethamsylate (n = 11) served as control group. After 30 min of artificial ventilation with standard tidal volume (10 ml/kg) the lungs were lavaged and the amount of human albumin in lung lavage fluid was determined by immunodiffusion. No statistically significant differences were found in lung-thorax compliance and vascular to alveolar albumin leak between ethamsylate-treated animals and controls (p > 0.5). However, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between protein leak and lung compliance (r = -0.41; p ethamsylate administration on neonatal lung permeability in the immature neonate confirming that lung permeability is inversely related to compliance.

  6. Possible use of calcifying nanoparticles in immature root apex treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S Alenazy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are reports in the literature, which describe different techniques and materials in the challenging management of thin dentin walls and immature root apex. It has been suggested that calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs could be used in the management of these conditions. The Hypothesis: Compositionally modified CNPs made into a paste could become efficacious in managing thin dentin walls and immature root apex. Calcium and phosphate ions when mixed with CNPs could form a synthetic nanopaste that clinicians could use to manage thin dentin walls and to get a biological seal for immature root apex. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: CNPs can replicate and could facilitate the aggregations of calcium hydroxyapatite to produce a self-surrounding shell. These characteristics of CNPs could be used through their biomineralization process as initial nidus of calcification for further calcification progression to achieve total biological apical seal. If the hypothesis could be supported by biomineralization behavior of the paste (CNPs, Ca2 + , and PO4− , a new therapeutic agent would have been added to the armamentarium of endodontists. There is need for more in vivo and in vitro investigations of modified nanopaste to manage these conditions.

  7. Dental Pulp Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Teeth with Immature Apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Farsi, Najat M; Abuzeid, Sawsan T; El Ashiry, Mohamed M; Bahammam, Hammam A

    The treatment of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis presents challenges in endodontic and pediatric dentistry. Revascularization is a recent treatment for such cases as an alternative to conventional apexification. The purpose is to examine the effect of a pulpal revascularization procedure on immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Twenty patients were enrolled for pulp revascularization procedure by root canal disinfection using a triple antibiotic mixture for 1-2 weeks, followed by creating a blood clot, sealing the root canal orifice using white mineral trioxide aggregate and a coronal seal of composite resin. Patients were recalled periodically for up to 24 months. During follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic. Three cases of chronic apical periodontitis showed clinical disappearance of the sinus tract 2 weeks after treatment. Radiography revealed progressive periapical radiolucency resolution within the first 12 months. Within 12-24 months, the treated teeth showed progressive increases in dentinal wall thickness, root length and continued root development. Clinical and radiographic evidence showed successful revascularization treatments of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. More studies are necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms and to perform histopathology of the pulp space contents after revascularization procedures.

  8. Dipeptide Piracetam Analogue Noopept Improves Viability of Hippocampal HT-22 Neurons in the Glutamate Toxicity Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipova, T A; Nikolaev, S V; Ostrovskaya, P U; Gudasheva, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2016-05-01

    Effect of noopept (N-phenylacetyl-prolylglycine ethyl ester) on viability of neurons exposed to neurotoxic action of glutamic acid (5 mM) was studied in vitro in immortalized mouse hippocampal HT-22 neurons. Noopept added to the medium before or after glutamic acid improved neuronal survival in a concentration range of 10-11-10-5 M. Comparison of the effective noopept concentrations determined in previous studies on cultured cortical and cerebellar neurons showed that hippocampal neurons are more sensitive to the protective effect of noopept.

  9. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Adams, Hieab H H; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E; Bis, Joshua C; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Craen, Anton J M; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Deary, Ian J; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Martin, Nicholas G; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wright, Margaret J; Longstreth, W T; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J; Medland, Sarah E; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-18

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r g =-0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.

  10. Mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity induced by glyphosate-based herbicide in immature rat hippocampus: Involvement of glutamate excitotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, Daiane; Oliveira Cavalli, Liz Vera Lúcia de; Heinz Rieg, Carla Elise; Domingues, Juliana Tonietto; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Tasca, Carla Inês; Mena Barreto Silva, Fátima Regina; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Roundup ® induces Ca 2+ influx through L-VDCC and NMDA receptor activation. • The mechanisms underlying Roundup ® neurotoxicity involve glutamatergic excitotoxicity. • Kinase pathways participate in Roundup ® -induced neural toxicity. • Roundup ® alters glutamate uptake, release and metabolism in hippocampal cells. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrate that glyphosate exposure is associated with oxidative damage and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the mechanism of glyphosate-induced neurotoxic effects needs to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Roundup ® (a glyphosate-based herbicide) leads to neurotoxicity in hippocampus of immature rats following acute (30 min) and chronic (pregnancy and lactation) pesticide exposure. Maternal exposure to pesticide was undertaken by treating dams orally with 1% Roundup ® (0.38% glyphosate) during pregnancy and lactation (till 15-day-old). Hippocampal slices from 15 day old rats were acutely exposed to Roundup ® (0.00005–0.1%) during 30 min and experiments were carried out to determine whether glyphosate affects 45 Ca 2+ influx and cell viability. Moreover, we investigated the pesticide effects on oxidative stress parameters, 14 C-α-methyl-amino-isobutyric acid ( 14 C-MeAIB) accumulation, as well as glutamate uptake, release and metabolism. Results showed that acute exposure to Roundup ® (30 min) increases 45 Ca 2+ influx by activating NMDA receptors and voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels, leading to oxidative stress and neural cell death. The mechanisms underlying Roundup ® -induced neurotoxicity also involve the activation of CaMKII and ERK. Moreover, acute exposure to Roundup ® increased 3 H-glutamate released into the synaptic cleft, decreased GSH content and increased the lipoperoxidation, characterizing excitotoxicity and oxidative damage. We also observed that both acute and chronic exposure to Roundup ® decreased 3 H-glutamate uptake and

  11. Visual performance of pigeons following hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingman, V P; Hodos, W

    1992-11-15

    The effect of hippocampal lesions on performance in two psychophysical measures of spatial vision (acuity and size-difference threshold) was examined in 7 pigeons. No difference between the preoperative and postoperative thresholds of the experimental birds was found. The visual performance of pigeons in the psychophysical tasks failed to reveal a role of the hippocampal formation in vision. The results argue strongly that the behavioral deficits found in pigeons with hippocampal lesions when tested in a variety of memory-related spatial tasks is not based on a defect in spatial vision but impaired spatial cognition.

  12. Both oophorectomy and obesity impaired solely hippocampal-dependent memory via increased hippocampal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantor, Duangkamol; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Minta, Wanitchaya; Sutham, Wissuta; Palee, Siripong; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Kerdphoo, Sasiwan; Jaiwongkum, Thidarat; Sriwichaiin, Sirawit; Krintratun, Warunsorn; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2018-04-17

    Our previous study demonstrated that obesity aggravated peripheral insulin resistance and brain dysfunction in the ovariectomized condition. Conversely, the effect of obesity followed by oophorectomy on brain oxidative stress, brain apoptosis, synaptic function and cognitive function, particularly in hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory, has not been investigated. Our hypothesis was that oophorectomy aggravated metabolic impairment, brain dysfunction and cognitive impairment in obese rats. Thirty-two female rats were fed with either a normal diet (ND, n = 16) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n = 16) for a total of 20 weeks. At week 13, rats in each group were subdivided into sham and ovariectomized subgroups (n = 8/subgroup). At week 20, all rats were tested for hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory by using Morris water maze test (MWM) and Novel objective recognition (NOR) tests, respectively. We found that the obese-insulin resistant condition occurred in sham-HFD-fed rats (HFS), ovariectomized-ND-fed rats (NDO), and ovariectomized-HFD-fed rats (HFO). Increased hippocampal oxidative stress level, increased hippocampal apoptosis, increased hippocampal synaptic dysfunction, decreased hippocampal estrogen level and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory were observed in HFS, NDO, and HFO rats. However, the hippocampal-independent memory, cortical estrogen levels, cortical ROS production, and cortical apoptosis showed no significant difference between groups. These findings suggested that oophorectomy and obesity exclusively impaired hippocampal-dependent memory, possibly via increased hippocampal dysfunction. Nonetheless, oophorectomy did not aggravate these deleterious effects under conditions of obesity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Reduced interference in working memory following mindfulness training is associated with increases in hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jonathan; Romero, Victoria L; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Bezdek, Matthew A; Schumacher, Eric H; Lazar, Sara W

    2018-03-17

    Proactive interference occurs when previously relevant information interferes with retaining newer material. Overcoming proactive interference has been linked to the hippocampus and deemed critical for cognitive functioning. However, little is known about whether and how this ability can be improved or about the neural correlates of such improvement. Mindfulness training emphasizes focusing on the present moment and minimizing distraction from competing thoughts and memories. It improves working memory and increases hippocampal density. The current study examined whether mindfulness training reduces proactive interference in working memory and whether such improvements are associated with changes in hippocampal volume. 79 participants were randomized to a 4-week web-based mindfulness training program or a similarly structured creative writing active control program. The mindfulness group exhibited lower proactive interference error rates compared to the active control group following training. No group differences were found in hippocampal volume, yet proactive interference improvements following mindfulness training were significantly associated with volume increases in the left hippocampus. These results provide the first evidence to suggest that (1) mindfulness training can protect against proactive interference, and (2) that these benefits are related to hippocampal volumetric increases. Clinical implications regarding the application of mindfulness training in conditions characterized by impairments to working memory and reduced hippocampal volume such as aging, depression, PTSD, and childhood adversity are discussed.

  14. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice.

  15. Abnormalities of hippocampal-cortical connectivity in temporal lobe epilepsy patients with hippocampal sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Wang, Chunheng; Li, Meng; Lv, Bin; Jin, Zhengyu

    2011-03-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common damage seen in the patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In the present study, the hippocampal-cortical connectivity was defined as the correlation between the hippocampal volume and cortical thickness at each vertex throughout the whole brain. We aimed to investigate the differences of ipsilateral hippocampal-cortical connectivity between the unilateral TLE-HS patients and the normal controls. In our study, the bilateral hippocampal volumes were first measured in each subject, and we found that the ipsilateral hippocampal volume significantly decreased in the left TLE-HS patients. Then, group analysis showed significant thinner average cortical thickness of the whole brain in the left TLE-HS patients compared with the normal controls. We found significantly increased ipsilateral hippocampal-cortical connectivity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus and the left parahippocampal gyrus of the left TLE-HS patients, which indicated structural vulnerability related to the hippocampus atrophy in the patient group. However, for the right TLE-HS patients, no significant differences were found between the patients and the normal controls, regardless of the ipsilateral hippocampal volume, the average cortical thickness or the patterns of hippocampal-cortical connectivity, which might be related to less atrophies observed in the MRI scans. Our study provided more evidence for the structural abnormalities in the unilateral TLE-HS patients.

  16. Correlations between Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Metabolic Indices in Adult Nonhuman Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarique D. Perera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased neurogenesis in feeding centers of the murine hypothalamus is associated with weight loss in diet-induced obese rodents (Kokoeva et al., 2005 and Matrisciano et al., 2010, but this relationship has not been examined in other species. Postmortem hippocampal neurogenesis rates and premortem metabolic parameters were statistically analyzed in 8 chow-fed colony-reared adult bonnet macaques. Dentate gyrus neurogenesis, reflected by the immature neuronal marker, doublecortin (DCX, and expression of the antiapoptotic gene factor, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2, but not the precursor proliferation mitotic marker, Ki67, was inversely correlated with body weight and crown-rump length. DCX and BCL-2 each correlated positively with blood glucose level and lipid ratio (total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein. This study demonstrates that markers of dentate gyrus neuroplasticity correlate with metabolic parameters in primates.

  17. Neuroprotective effects of curcumin on endothelin-1 mediated cell death in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowska, Dorota L; Krishnamoorthy, Vignesh R; Ellis, Dorette Z; Krishnamoorthy, Raghu R

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of hippocampal neurons leading to memory deficits and cognitive decline. Studies suggest that levels of the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) are increased in the brain tissue of Alzheimer's patients. Curcumin, the main ingredient of the spice turmeric, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective effects. However, the mechanisms underlying some of these beneficial effects are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to determine if curcumin could protect hippocampal neurons from ET-1 mediated cell death and examine the involvement of c-Jun in this pathway. Primary hippocampal neurons from rat pups were isolated using a previously published protocol. Viability of the cells was measured by the live/dead assay. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to analyze c-Jun levels in hippocampal neurons treated with either ET-1 or a combination of ET-1 and curcumin. Apoptotic changes were evaluated by immunoblot detection of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved fodrin, and a caspase 3/7 activation assay. ET-1 treatment produced a 2-fold increase in the levels of c-Jun as determined by an immunoblot analysis in hippocampal neurons. Co-treatment with curcumin significantly attenuated the ET-1 mediated increase in c-Jun levels. ET-1 caused increased neuronal cell death of hippocampal neurons indicated by elevation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved fodrin and an increased activity of caspases 3 and 7 which was attenuated by co-treatment with curcumin. Blockade of JNK, an upstream effector of c-Jun by specific inhibitor SP600125 did not fully protect from ET-1 mediated activation of pro-apoptotic enzymes in primary hippocampal cells. Our data suggests that one mechanism by which curcumin protects against ET-1-mediated cell death is through blocking an increase in c-Jun levels. Other possible mechanisms include decreasing pro

  18. Cavernous angioma associated with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okujava, M.; Ebner, A.; Schmitt, J.; Woermann, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    We report two cases with extratemporal cavernous angioma (CA) and coexisting ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis. Classically dual pathology is defined as the association of hippocampal sclerosis with an extrahippocampal lesion. Subtle changes in hippocampus might be overlooked in the presence of an unequivocal extrahippocampal abnormality. Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in cases with dual pathology is less favourable if only one of the lesions is removed. Dual pathology must always be considered in diagnostic imaging of patients with intractable epilepsy and CA. (orig.)

  19. Cavernous angioma associated with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okujava, M [Institute of Radiology and Interventional Diagnostics, Tbilisi (Georgia); Ebner, A; Schmitt, J; Woermann, F G [Bethel Epilepsy Centre, Mara Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    We report two cases with extratemporal cavernous angioma (CA) and coexisting ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis. Classically dual pathology is defined as the association of hippocampal sclerosis with an extrahippocampal lesion. Subtle changes in hippocampus might be overlooked in the presence of an unequivocal extrahippocampal abnormality. Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in cases with dual pathology is less favourable if only one of the lesions is removed. Dual pathology must always be considered in diagnostic imaging of patients with intractable epilepsy and CA. (orig.)

  20. Morphological Variations of Hippocampal Formation in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Hospital Sao Paulo and other centers in Brazil compared the hippocampal formation (HF morphology of healthy asymptomatic individuals (n=30 with that of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS(n=68, of patients with malformations of cortical development (MCD(n=34, and of patients with morphological HF variations without other structural signs (pure MVHF(n=12.

  1. Taurine activates GABAergic networks in the neocortex of immature mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Aurel Sava

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been suggested that taurine is the main endogenous neurotransmitter acting on glycine receptors, the implications of glycine receptor-mediated taurine actions on immature neocortical networks have not been addressed yet. To investigate the influence of taurine on the excitability of neuronal networks in the immature neocortex, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from visually identified pyramidal neurons and interneurons in coronal slices from C57Bl/6 and GAD67-GFP transgenic mice (postnatal days 2-4. In 46 % of the pyramidal neurons bath-application of taurine at concentrations ≥ 300 mM significantly enhanced the frequency of postsynaptic currents (PSCs by 744.3 ± 93.8 % (n = 120 cells. This taurine-induced increase of PSC frequency was abolished by 0.2 mM tetrodotoxine, 1 mM strychnine or 3 mM gabazine, but was unaffected by the glutamatergic antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX and (± R(--3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, suggesting that taurine specifically activates GABAergic network activity projecting to pyramidal neurons. Cell-attached recordings revealed that taurine enhanced the frequency of action potentials in pyramidal neurons, indicating an excitatory action of the GABAergic PSCs. In order to identify the presynaptic targets of taurine we demonstrate that bath application of taurine induced in GAD67-GFP labeled interneurons an inward current that is mainly mediated by glycine receptors and can generate action potentials in these cells. We conclude from these results that taurine can enhance network excitability in the immature neocortex by selectively activating GABAergic interneurons via interactions with glycine receptors.

  2. Oxidative stress in immature brain following experimentally-induced seizures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl.1 (2013), S39-S48 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/08/0292; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0999; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : immature rats * experimentally-induced seizures * oxidative stress * mitochondrial dysfunction * antioxidant defense Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  3. Microbiota is immature in moderate and severe acute malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Globally 19 million under-five children suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) while 51.5 million children have moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). These two conditions, together known as acute malnutrition, are responsible for 14.6% of all under-five deaths. Case fatality rate can be reduced with treatment of SAM, which however, is not readily available everywhere. Even with effective treatment, recovery can be slow and relapse not uncommon. Lack of nutrients is one of the causes of acute malnutrition but other factors including infections, inter- and intra-generational factors are also believed to play important roles in the etiology. The gut microbiota is another factor; however its relationship with nutritional interventions and therapeutic response is poorly understood. We studied the gut microbiota of children suffering from severe and moderate acute malnutrition in Bangladesh. Children with SAM were studied during the acute phase, nutritional rehabilitation and follow up in icddr,b Hospital, Dhaka. During the nutritional rehabilitation phase, the children were randomized to either RUTF or a combination of local diets (khichuri and halwa). Children with MAM were randomly selected from a birth cohort in a slum settlement and so were healthy controls. Gut microbiota were identified using 16S rRNA datasets generated from monthly fecal samples obtained from the healthy control children. ‘Relative microbiota maturity index’ and ‘microbiota-for-age Z-score’ were computed from a model developed from the age-discriminatory bacterial species identified in the healthy and acutely malnourished children. The index and the Z-score compare maturation of an acutely malnourished child’s fecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronological age. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with relative immaturity of the gut microbiota. Moreover, treatment with either RUTF or the local diets is associated with incomplete recovery of

  4. Education to Immaturity, or from Biopolitics to Psychopower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Żychliński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infantia, or immaturity, is one of the cha-racteristic “postmodern maladies”. Such a diagnosebecomes easier to comprehend if one considers an essen-tial change: while from Michel Foucalt’s perspective theclassical biopolitics comes down to biopower, exercisedover societies in order to instrumentalize them as “pro-duction machines”, from Bernard Stiegler’s point ofview biopolitics has been replaced these days in Westernsocieties with psychopower, instrumentalizing com-munities as “consuming machines”. ~e aim of mypaper is to reconstruct the main forms of the realizationand the consequences of that postmodern psychopowerand to outline ways to counteract it.

  5. Rosiglitazone Suppresses In Vitro Seizures in Hippocampal Slice by Inhibiting Presynaptic Glutamate Release in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bing Wong

    Full Text Available Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor whose agonist, rosiglitazone has a neuroprotective effect to hippocampal neurons in pilocarpine-induced seizures. Hippocampal slice preparations treated in Mg2+ free medium can induce ictal and interictal-like epileptiform discharges, which is regarded as an in vitro model of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. We applied rosiglitazone in hippocampal slices treated in Mg2+ free medium. The effects of rosiglitazone on hippocampal CA1-Schaffer collateral synaptic transmission were tested. We also examined the neuroprotective effect of rosiglitazone toward NMDA excitotoxicity on cultured hippocampal slices. Application of 10 μM rosiglitazone significantly suppressed amplitude and frequency of epileptiform discharges in CA1 neurons. Pretreatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not block the effect of rosiglitazone on suppressing discharge frequency, but reverse the effect on suppressing discharge amplitude. Application of rosiglitazone suppressed synaptic transmission in the CA1-Schaffer collateral pathway. By miniature excitatory-potential synaptic current (mEPSC analysis, rosiglitazone significantly suppressed presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This phenomenon can be reversed by pretreating PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Also, rosiglitazone protected cultured hippocampal slices from NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. The protective effect of 10 μM rosiglitazone was partially antagonized by concomitant high dose GW9662 treatment, indicating that this effect is partially mediated by PPARγ receptors. In conclusion, rosiglitazone suppressed NMDA receptor-mediated epileptiform discharges by inhibition of presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Rosiglitazone protected hippocampal slice from NMDA excitotoxicity partially by PPARγ activation. We suggest that rosiglitazone could be a potential agent to treat patients with TLE.

  6. The depolarizing action of GABA in cultured hippocampal neurons is not due to the absence of ketone bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Kim, Jimok; Alger, Bradley E; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2011-01-01

    Two recent reports propose that the depolarizing action of GABA in the immature brain is an artifact of in vitro preparations in which glucose is the only energy source. The authors argue that this does not mimic the physiological environment because the suckling rats use ketone bodies and pyruvate as major sources of metabolic energy. Here, we show that availability of physiologically relevant levels of ketone bodies has no impact on the excitatory action of GABA in immature cultured hippocampal neurons. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), the primary ketone body in the neonate rat, affected neither intracellular calcium elevation nor membrane depolarizations induced by the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol, when assessed with calcium imaging or perforated patch-clamp recording, respectively. These results confirm that the addition of ketone bodies to the extracellular environment to mimic conditions in the neonatal brain does not reverse the chloride gradient and therefore render GABA hyperpolarizing. Our data are consistent with the existence of a genuine "developmental switch" mechanism in which GABA goes from having a predominantly excitatory role in immature cells to a predominantly inhibitory one in adults.

  7. Hippocampal developmental vulnerability to methylmercury extends into prepubescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann eObiorah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The developing brain is sensitive to environmental toxicants such as methylmercury (MeHg, to which humans are exposed via contaminated seafood. Prenatal exposure in children is associated with learning, memory and IQ deficits, which can result from hippocampal dysfunction. To explore underlying mechanisms, we have used the postnatal day (P7 rat to model the third trimester of human gestation. We previously showed that a single low exposure (0.6 µg/gbw that approaches human exposure reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG 24 hours later, including later proliferation and memory in adolescence. Yet, the vulnerable stem cell population and period of developmental vulnerability remain undefined. In this study, we find that P7 exposure of stem cells has long-term consequences for adolescent neurogenesis. It reduced the number of mitotic S-phase cells (BrdU, especially those in the highly proliferative Tbr2+ population, and immature neurons (Doublecortin in adolescence, suggesting partial depletion of the later stem cell pool. To define developmental vulnerability to MeHg in prepubescent (P14 and adolescent (P21 rats, we examined acute 24 h effects of MeHg exposure on mitosis and apoptosis. We found that low exposure did not adversely impact neurogenesis at either age, but that a higher exposure (5 µg/gbw at P14 reduced the total number of neural stem cells (Sox2+ by 23% and BrdU+ cells by 26% in the DG hilus, suggesting that vulnerability diminishes with age. To see if these effects may reflect changes in MeHg transfer across the blood brain barrier, we assessed Hg content in the hippocampus after peripheral injection and found that similar levels (~800 ng/gm were obtained at 24 h at both P14 and P21, declining in parallel, suggesting that changes in vulnerability depend more on local tissue and cellular mechanisms. Together, we show that MeHg vulnerability depends on age, and that early exposure impairs later neurogenesis in

  8. Impact of trichostatin A and sodium valproate treatment on post-stroke neurogenesis and behavioral outcomes in immature mice

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    Shanu eGeorge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke in the neonatal brain frequently results in neurologic impairments including cognitive disability. We investigated the effect of long-term sodium valproate (valproate and Trichostatin A (TSA treatment upon post-stroke neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of stroke-injured immature mice. Decreased or abnormal integration of newborn DG neurons into hippocampal circuits can result in impaired visual-spatial function, abnormal modulation of mood-related behaviors, and the development of post-stroke epilepsy. Unilateral carotid ligation of P12 CD1 mice was followed by treatment with valproate, TSA, or vehicle for 2 weeks, BrdU administration for measurement of neurogenesis, and perfusion at P42 or P60. Behavior testing was conducted from P38-42. No detrimental effects on behavior testing were noted with TSA treatment, but mildly impaired cognitive function was noted with valproate-treated injured animals compared to normal animals. Significant increases in DG neurogenesis with both TSA and valproate treatment were noted with later administration of BrdU. Increased mortality and impaired weight gain was noted in the valproate-treated ligated animals, but not in the TSA-treated animals. In summary, the impact of HDAC inhibition upon post-stroke SGZ neurogenesis is likely to depend on the age of the animal at the time point when neurogenesis is assessed, duration of HDAC inhibition before BrdU labeling, and/or the stage in the evolution of the injury.

  9. UV irradiation to mouse skin decreases hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic protein expression via HPA axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mira; Ban, Jae-Jun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2017-11-14

    The skin senses external environment, including ultraviolet light (UV). Hippocampus is a brain region that is responsible for memory and emotion. However, changes in hippocampus by UV irradiation to the skin have not been studied. In this study, after 2 weeks of UV irradiation to the mouse skin, we examined molecular changes related to cognitive functions in the hippocampus and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. UV exposure to the skin decreased doublecortin-positive immature neurons and synaptic proteins, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 A and postsynaptic density protein-95, in the hippocampus. Moreover, we observed that UV irradiation to the skin down-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and ERK signaling in the hippocampus, which are known to modulate neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. The cutaneous and central HPA axes were activated by UV, which resulted in significant increases in serum levels of corticosterone. Subsequently, UV irradiation to the skin activated the glucocorticoid-signaling pathway in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Interestingly, after 6 weeks of UV irradiation, mice showed depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test. Taken together, our data suggest that repeated UV exposure through the skin may negatively affect hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity along with HPA axis activation.

  10. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation.

  11. Reexamination of the immature hominid maxilla from Tangier, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minugh-Purvis, N

    1993-12-01

    Reexamination of the immature Upper Pleistocene hominid maxilla from Mugharet el-'Aliya (Tangier), Morocco is undertaken in light of new evidence on the growth and development of Upper Pleistocene hominids. Metric and qualitative comparisons were made with 17 immature Upper Pleistocene maxillae, and with a recent Homo sapiens sapiens sample. No unambiguous criteria for aligning the maxilla with Neandertals were found, although one character, the degree of maxillary flexion on the zygoma, strongly suggests that this child could be a representative of H.s. sapiens. The probable lack of a canine fossa in Mugharet el-'Aliya 1, the primary criterion used previously to align it with Neandertals, cannot be accurately extrapolated to its adult form from this juvenile. The present evidence suggests that it is inappropriate to refer to this fossil as "Neandertal-like" or as a North African "neandertaloid." Thus, the Tangier maxilla should not be cited as evidence for the presence of Neandertal facial features in North Africa during the Upper Pleistocene.

  12. Historical notes on immaturity. Part 2: surviving against the odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Survivors of immaturity of outstanding intelligence include Fortunio Licetus, born in 1577, and Isaac Newton, born in 1643. Reliable descriptions began appearing around 1820, and over a dozen infants were born weighing under 1000 g and before World War II, who developed normally. From 1876 to 2006, the birth weight at which half of the infants survived dropped from 2200 to 600 g. Statistics depended on how abortion, stillbirth and live birth were defined, which differed greatly from country to country. WHO definitions in 1993 required the registration of all infants weighing 500 g (22 complete weeks) or above. This definition was not universally adopted, resulting in considerable underreporting. Many medical societies issued ethical recommendations concerning the obligatory or optional treatment of immature infants. The "window", at which treatment is optional has been set at 22-23 weeks (Japan, Germany), 23-24 weeks (UK, USA, Canada), or 24-26 weeks (France, Netherlands, Switzerland). Instead of assessing an infant's individual prognosis, and ignoring its gender, co-morbidities, and particular cause of premature delivery, these rules frequently relied on gestational age alone to initiate or withhold life support.

  13. Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, S.M.; Jones, R.J.; Brenner, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos were determined in vitro utilizing a 14 C-sugar solution incubation method. Hexose uptake rates were greater than those for sucrose, however, all showed biphasic kinetics. Glucose and fructose saturable components were evidence at <50 mM and sucrose at <5 mM. Chemical inhibitors (CCCP, DNP, NaCN, and PCMBS) and low temperature reduced sugar uptake. Sucrose influx was pH dependent while glucose was not. Embryos maintained a high sucrose to hexose ratio throughout development. At 25 days after pollination sucrose levels exceeded 200 mM while hexose levels remained below 5 mM. Glucose was rapidly converted to sucrose upon transport into the embryo. These circumstantial data indicate that sugar uptake by immature maize embryos is metabolically dependent and carrier mediated. Furthermore, sucrose transport appears to occur against its concentration gradient involving a H+/sucrose cotransport mechanism, while glucose influx is driven by its concentration gradient and subsequent metabolism

  14. Utility of Immature Granulocyte Percentage in Pediatric Appendicitis

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    Mathews, Eleanor K.; Griffin, Russell L.; Mortellaro, Vincent; Beierle, Elizabeth A.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Russell, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgery in children. Adjuncts are utilized to help clinicians predict acute or perforated appendicitis, which may affect treatment decisions. Automated hematologic analyzers can perform more accurate automated differentials including immature granulocyte percentages (IG%). Elevated IG% has demonstrated improved accuracy for predicting sepsis in the neonatal population than traditional immature to total neutrophil count (I/T) ratios. We intended to assess the additional discriminatory ability of IG% to traditionally assessed parameters in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. Materials and Methods We identified all patients with appendicitis from July 2012 to June 2013 by ICD-9 code. Charts were reviewed for relevant demographic, clinical, and outcome data, which were compared between acute and perforated appendicitis groups using Fischer’s exact and t-test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. We utilized an adjusted logistic regression model utilizing clinical lab values to predict the odds of perforated appendicitis. Results 251 patients were included in the analysis. Those with perforated appendicitis had a higher white blood cell (WBC) count (p=0.0063), C-reactive protein (CRP) (pappendicitis. The c-statistic of the final model was 0.70, suggesting fair discriminatory ability in predicting perforated appendicitis. Conclusions IG% did not provide any additional benefit to elevated CRP and presence of left shift in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. PMID:24793450

  15. Intervention effects of ganoderma lucidum spores on epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons and expression of neurotrophin-4 and N-cadherin.

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    Shu-Qiu Wang

    Full Text Available Epilepsy can cause cerebral transient dysfunctions. Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has shown some antiepileptic effects in our previous studies. This was the first study of the effects of GLS on cultured primary hippocampal neurons, treated with Mg(2+ free medium. This in vitro model of epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons allowed us to investigate the anti-epileptic effects and mechanism of GLS activity. Primary hippocampal neurons from <1 day old rats were cultured and their morphologies observed under fluorescence microscope. Neurons were confirmed by immunofluorescent staining of neuron specific enolase (NSE. Sterile method for GLS generation was investigated and serial dilutions of GLS were used to test the maximum non-toxic concentration of GLS on hippocampal neurons. The optimized concentration of GLS of 0.122 mg/ml was identified and used for subsequent analysis. Using the in vitro model, hippocampal neurons were divided into 4 groups for subsequent treatment i control, ii model (incubated with Mg(2+ free medium for 3 hours, iii GLS group I (incubated with Mg(2+ free medium containing GLS for 3 hours and replaced with normal medium and incubated for 6 hours and iv GLS group II (neurons incubated with Mg(2+ free medium for 3 hours then replaced with a normal medium containing GLS for 6 hours. Neurotrophin-4 and N-Cadherin protein expression were detected using Western blot. The results showed that the number of normal hippocampal neurons increased and the morphologies of hippocampal neurons were well preserved after GLS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of neurotrophin-4 was significantly increased while the expression of N-Cadherin was decreased in the GLS treated group compared with the model group. This data indicates that GLS may protect hippocampal neurons by promoting neurotrophin-4 expression and inhibiting N-Cadherin expression.

  16. Immature germ cells in semen - correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility

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    Priya S Patil

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000.

  17. Antioxidant Effects of Selenium on Seminiferous Tubules of Immature Mice Testis

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    Davoud Kushki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The freezing of immature testis tissue and then the transplant of it can be considered as a major step in fertility preservation for young boys with cancer, the survival of animal generation exposed to extinction and cloning animalistic desirable species. One of the most prevalent of damages in during the freezing-thawing process is oxidative stress. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of selenium compound (Na2SeO3 on rate of seminiferous tubules injury in during of cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 8 BALB/c immature male mice (6 - 8 days old were randomly selected, and the testes removed surgically (n = 16. The testes divided into 2 groups: experimental group, control group (opposite testes. For each of the two experimental and control groups, two types of soluble (freezing solution and thawing solution were prepared. These solutions, which contain 2 mg/mL solution of Na2SeO3 and control solution, were prepared in the DMEM (Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium base medium. Of each group were 4 testes into fast freezing-thawing procedure and 4 testes were into slow freezing-thawing procedure. Then this testis for analyzing injury, after preparatory process, was stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results: At the slow freezing-thawing procedure, seminiferous tubules injury significantly reduced in experimental group compared to control group. At the fast freezing-thawing procedure, seminiferous tubules injury significantly reduced in experimental group compared with of control group. Conclusions: It seems that Se due to its antioxidant properties, the harmful effects of freezing-thawing process reduces and protects seminiferous tubules from oxidative injury.

  18. Hyperpolarization-activated current (In is reduced in hippocampal neurons from Gabra5-/- mice.

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    Robert P Bonin

    Full Text Available Changes in the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA receptors can either drive or mediate homeostatic alterations in neuronal excitability. A homeostatic relationship between α5 subunit-containing GABAA (α5GABAA receptors that generate a tonic inhibitory conductance, and HCN channels that generate a hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih was recently described for cortical neurons, where a reduction in Ih was accompanied by a reciprocal increase in the expression of α5GABAA receptors resulting in the preservation of dendritosomatic synaptic function. Here, we report that in mice that lack the α5 subunit gene (Gabra5-/-, cultured embryonic hippocampal pyramidal neurons and ex vivo CA1 hippocampal neurons unexpectedly exhibited a decrease in Ih current density (by 40% and 28%, respectively, compared with neurons from wild-type (WT mice. The resting membrane potential and membrane hyperpolarization induced by blockade of Ih with ZD-7288 were similar in cultured WT and Gabra5-/- neurons. In contrast, membrane hyperpolarization measured after a train of action potentials was lower in Gabra5-/- neurons than in WT neurons. Also, membrane impedance measured in response to low frequency stimulation was greater in cultured Gabra5-/- neurons. Finally, the expression of HCN1 protein that generates Ih was reduced by 41% in the hippocampus of Gabra5-/- mice. These data indicate that loss of a tonic GABAergic inhibitory conductance was followed by a compensatory reduction in Ih. The results further suggest that the maintenance of resting membrane potential is preferentially maintained in mature and immature hippocampal neurons through the homeostatic co-regulation of structurally and biophysically distinct cation and anion channels.

  19. High postnatal susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in response to ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Karina Pires; Heimfarth, Luana; Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Loureiro, Samanta Oliveira; Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Carvalho, Rônan Vivian; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-11-01

    Ethanol exposure to offspring during pregnancy and lactation leads to developmental disorders, including central nervous system dysfunction. In the present work, we have studied the effect of chronic ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on the phosphorylating system associated with the astrocytic and neuronal intermediate filament (IF) proteins: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) subunits of low, medium, and high molecular weight (NFL, NFM, and NFH, respectively) in 9- and 21-day-old pups. Female rats were fed with 20% ethanol in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The homeostasis of the IF phosphorylation was not altered in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, or hippocampus of 9-day-old pups. However, GFAP, NFL, and NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. PKA had been activated in the hippocampus, and Ser55 in the N-terminal region of NFL was hyperphosphorylated. In addition, JNK/MAPK was activated and KSP repeats in the C-terminal region of NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. Decreased NFH immunocontent but an unaltered total NFH/phosphoNFH ratio suggested altered stoichiometry of NFs in the hippocampus of ethanol-exposed 21-day-old pups. In contrast to the high susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in developing rats, the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of ethanol-fed adult females was not altered. Disruption of the cytoskeletal homeostasis in neural cells supports the view that regions of the brain are differentially vulnerable to alcohol insult during pregnancy and lactation, suggesting that modulation of JNK/MAPK and PKA signaling cascades target the hippocampal cytoskeleton in a window of vulnerability in 21-day-old pups. Our findings are relevant, since disruption of the cytoskeleton in immature hippocampus could contribute to later hippocampal damage associated with ethanol toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Organotypic hippocampal slice culture from the adult mouse brain: a versatile tool for translational neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjeong; Kim, Eosu; Park, Minsun; Lee, Eun; Namkoong, Kee

    2013-03-05

    One of the most significant barriers towards translational neuropsychiatry would be an unavailability of living brain tissues. Although organotypic brain tissue culture could be a useful alternative enabling observation of temporal changes induced by various drugs in living brain tissues, a proper method to establish a stable organotypic brain slice culture system using adult (rather than neonatal) hippocampus has been still elusive. In this study, we evaluated our simple method using the serum-free culture medium for successful adult organotypic hippocampal slice culture. Several tens of hippocampal slices from a single adult mouse (3-5 months old) were cultured in serum-free versus serum-containing conventional culture medium for 30 days and underwent various experiments to validate the effects of the existence of serum in the culture medium. Neither the excessive regression of neuronal viability nor metabolic deficiency was observed in the serum-free medium culture in contrast to the serum-containing medium culture. Despite such viability, newly generated immature neurons were scarcely detected in the serum-free culture, suggesting that the original neurons in the brain slice persist rather than being replaced by neurogenesis. Key structural features of in vivo neural tissue constituting astrocytes, neural processes, and pre- and post-synapses were also well preserved in the serum-free culture. In conclusion, using the serum-free culture medium, the adult hippocampal slice culture system will serve as a promising ex vivo tool for various fields of neuroscience, especially for studies on aging-related neuropsychiatric disorders or for high throughput screening of potential agents working against such disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Extremely weak magnetic field exposure may inhibit hippocampal neurogenesis of Sprague Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Xu, H.; Pan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals brains and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors. Lines of evidences have shown that the magnetic field is an important physics environmental factor influencing many animals' growth and development, and extremely weak magnetic field exposures have been proved having serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in some animals, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we experimentally examined the extremely weak magnetic field effects on neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, an extremely weak magnetic field (≤ 0.5μT) and the geomagnetic fields (strength 31-58μT) as controls. Thirty-two SD rats (3-weeks old) were used in this study. New cell survival in hippocampus was assessed at 0, 14, 28, and 42 days after a 7-day intraperitoneal injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Meanwhile, the amounts of immature neurons and mature neurons which are both related to hippocampal neurogenesis, as documented by labeling with doublecortin (DCX) and neuron (NeuN), respectively, were also analyzed at 0, 14, 28, and 42 days. Compared with geomagnetic field exposure groups, numbers of BrdU-, DCX-positive cells of DG of hippocampus in tested rats reduces monotonously and more rapidly after 14 days, and NeuN-positive cells significantly decreases after 28days when exposed in the extremely weak magnetic field condition. Our data suggest that the exposure to an extremely weak magnetic field may suppress the neurogenesis in DG of SD rats.

  2. In vitro investigation of heat transfer phenomenon in human immature teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Maryam; Moghimi, Sahar; Shafagh, Mina; Kalani, Hadi; Mazhari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp). Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU). Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second mandibular premolars. This experimental investiga-tion was carried out for recording temperature variations of different sites of tooth and two dimensional finite element models were used for heat transfer phenomenon in immature teeth. Sensitivity analysis and local tests were included in the model validation phase. Results. Overall, thermal stimulation for 30 seconds with a low-intensity LED LCU increased the temperature from 28°C to 38°C in IIT (intact immature tooth) and PIT (cavity-prepared immature tooth). When a high-intensity LED LCU was used, tooth temperature increased from 28°C to 48°C. The results of the experimental tests and mathematical modeling illustrated that using LED LCU on immature teeth did not have any detrimental effect on the pulp temperature. Conclusion. Using LED LCU in immature teeth had no effect on pulp temperature in this study. Sensitivity analysis showed that variations of heat conductivity might affect heat transfer in immature teeth; therefore, further studies are required to determine thermal conductivity of immature teeth.

  3. The ability of juvenile offenders with personality immaturity to conscious leadership by their actions

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    Fedonkina A.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the characteristics of the phenomenon of personality immaturity, stand out its main features, described differences in their quantitative representation of juvenile offenders, clinical features the diagnosis of mental disorders in juvenile offenders with personality immaturity. Special attention is given to how identified characteristics of personality immaturity affects to the ability of juvenile offenders to conscious regulation of their activities, including the potential ability and current ability of minors accused to realize the significance of their actions and control them when they commit socially dangerous acts. The studied parameters are compared in samples of juvenile offenders with personality immaturity and without it.

  4. Moxibustion upregulates hippocampal progranulin expression

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    Tao Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, moxibustion is reported to be useful and has few side effects for chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. More recently, the focus has been on the wealth of information supporting stress as a factor in chronic fatigue syndrome, and largely concerns dysregulation in the stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of moxibustion on behavioral symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome rats and examine possible mechanisms. Rats were subjected to a combination of chronic restraint stress and forced swimming to induce chronic fatigue syndrome. The acupoints Guanyuan (CV4 and Zusanli (ST36, bilateral were simultaneously administered moxibustion. Untreated chronic fatigue syndrome rats and normal rats were used as controls. Results from the forced swimming test, open field test, tail suspension test, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot assay showed that moxibustion treatment decreased mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus, and adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in plasma, and markedly increased progranulin mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that moxibustion may relieve the behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, at least in part, by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulating hippocampal progranulin.

  5. A high fat diet-induced decrease in hippocampal newly-born neurons of male mice is exacerbated by mild psychological stress using a Communication Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yusuke; Narisawa, Yukiyasu; Shimono, Rima; Ohmori, Hiraku; Mori, Masayoshi; Ohe, Kenji; Mine, Kazunori; Enjoji, Munechika

    2017-02-01

    Obese persons have a higher incidence of depression than healthy-weight persons. Several studies indicated that the exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) results in a decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis, which leads to higher stress response and stress-induced depression. Although stress is a risk factor for obesity and depression, no studies to date have investigated the effect of stress on the hippocampal neurogenesis of HFD-induced obese animals. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether or not obese HFD-fed mice are vulnerable to stress-induced depression by investigating hippocampal neurogenesis. Sixty-four male ICR mice (four weeks of age) were fed a control (N=24) or 45%HFD (N=40) for seven weeks. Of the HFD-fed group, twenty-four mice met the criteria for "diet-induced obesity". The animals were then exposed to three consecutive days of psychological stress using a Communication Box. Half were sacrificed to evaluate the physiological changes, and the other half were perfused to quantify hippocampal neuroblasts/immature neurons by the estimation of doublecortin-immunopositive cells. In the HFD-fed mice, psychological stress resulted in increases in caloric intake and visceral adipose tissue and a significant decrease in doublecortin-positive cells in the dentate gyrus; however, no such differences were found in the control diet-fed group. Limitations Further study using other neurogenic markers to assess the stage-specific changes in hippocampal neurogenesis will be required CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an HFD-induced decrease in hippocampal newly-born neurons leads to stress vulnerability, which may contribute to a high risk of stress-induced depression for obese persons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Immatures in Maize.

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    Andrea Corrêa Varella

    Full Text Available We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L. fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda.

  7. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  8. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda.

  9. Oxidative Stress after Surgery on the Immature Heart

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    Daniel Fudulu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric heart surgery is associated with increased inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species. Use of the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass during correction of congenital heart defects generates reactive oxygen species by various mechanisms: haemolysis, neutrophil activation, ischaemia reperfusion injury, reoxygenation injury, or depletion of the endogenous antioxidants. The immature myocardium is more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species because of developmental differences compared to the adult heart but also because of associated congenital heart diseases that can deplete its antioxidant reserve. Oxidative stress can be manipulated by various interventions: exogenous antioxidants, use of steroids, cardioplegia, blood prime strategies, or miniaturisation of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. However, it is unclear if modulation of the redox pathways can alter clinical outcomes. Further studies powered to look at clinical outcomes are needed to define the role of oxidative stress in paediatric patients.

  10. Small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks

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    I.G. Horak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. Scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, and Cape hares, Lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. In Free State Province Namaqua rock mice, Aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae, while in Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces red veld rats, Aethomys chrysophilus, Namaqua rock mice and Natal multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis were good hosts of H. leachi and Rhipicephalus simus. Haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick recovered from animals in all three provinces.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on immature winter wheat embryo culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorova, N.; Morgun, V.; Logvinenko, V.; Karpets, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The aim was to study the effect of mutagenic treatment on callus initiation, shoot differentiation and enhancement of the variation frequency and spectrum. Seven winter wheat genotypes were used as donors for immature embryos. Spikes 14 days after anthesis were treated with 4 Gy gamma rays, then embryos were isolated. According to the effect of gamma rays on the callus induction frequency (CIF) the genotypes were divided into three groups, in the first group we observed GIF stimulation (Kiyanka, Stepnyak, UK-8, Ironovskaya 61) as compared with the control (C); the second group - CIF on the C level (Mironovskaya 806, Kharkovskaya II) and the third group - CIF is lower than in C (Lutescens 7). Regeneration frequency was reduced greatly in all genotypes under mutagenic treatment. Variation has been found for plant height, number of productive tillers, length of vegetation period, spike morphology and size, awn type. (author)

  12. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in an immature Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Christopher J; Lewandowski, Albert H; Skowronek, Anthony J

    2007-03-01

    An immature Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) with a history of seizure-like episodes developed signs of respiratory disease. The initial clinical diagnosis was pneumonia, and antibiotic therapy was started. The animal failed to improve after 14 days of therapy and developed unilateral, bloody nasal discharge. Endoscopic examination and radiography revealed a soft tissue mass in the nasopharynx depressing the soft palate. The tapir died 32 days after initial presentation. Histologic examination of the mass demonstrated a mesenchymal tumor composed of spindle cells with elongate nuclei forming densely packed fascicles. The neoplastic spindle cells showed prominent cross-striations. Immunohistochemistry revealed the cells to be positive for desmin and myoglobin, but negative for smooth muscle actin, confirming diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common nasopharyngeal soft tissue tumor of humans, and it has been reported infrequently in dogs, horses, and pigs. Neoplasia should be a differential diagnosis in cases of unilateral nasal discharge and inspiratory stridor, even in young animals.

  13. Root fracture in immature anterior teeth followed for 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T; Kojima, Y; Nishioka, T; Maki, K; Kimura, M

    2005-08-01

    We report a case of injury to an immature tooth, observed over a period of 15 years. In 1987, a 9-year-old boy fell down in a schoolyard. The right central incisor demonstrated palato-version and radiographic observations revealed that the roots of both central incisors were incomplete. Further, a root fracture in the apical region of the central incisors was observed. During the first treatment visit, the right central incisor was repositioned and both teeth splinted. After confirming that the line of fracture was aligned, the fixation was continued for 2 months. The teeth were examined periodically for the next 15 years. Both teeth had favorable outcomes with continued root development of both the apical and coronal segments with good apposition of the fracture lines.

  14. Immature platelet fraction in bacterial sepsis severity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuang, M. H.; Ginting, F.; Hariman, H.

    2018-03-01

    Sepsis is an infection-induced syndrome, mostly caused by bacteria, of organ dysfunctions that caused by host response dysregulations. One of the simplest sepsis-indicator is platelet and its indexes. A new platelet parameter called immature platelet count (IPF) became theinterest in this study. The study aims to see whether IPF could assess sepsis severity by procalcitonin (PCT).Sixty-four of seventy-one patients with increased PCT were included in this cross-sectional study and separated into three groups based on their PCT levels. IPF showed no significance among the three groups (p-value>0.05) while platelet count was significant (p-valuesepsis severity based on PCT showed larger platelet count, as the result of platelet destructions caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and endotoxins.

  15. Inter-relationships among diet, obesity and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, T L; Hargrave, S L; Swithers, S E; Sample, C H; Fu, X; Kinzig, K P; Zheng, W

    2013-12-03

    Intake of a Western diet (WD), which is high in saturated fat and sugar, is associated with deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes as well as with markers of hippocampal pathology. In the present study, rats were trained to asymptote on hippocampal-dependent serial feature negative (FN) and hippocampal-independent simple discrimination problems. Performance was then assessed following 7 days on ad libitum chow and after 10, 24, 40, 60, and 90 days of maintenance on WD, on ketogenic (KETO) diet, which is high in saturated fat and low in sugar and other carbohydrates, or continued maintenance on chow (CHOW). Confirming and extending previous findings, diet-induced obese (DIO) rats fed WD showed impaired FN performance, increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and increased fasting blood glucose levels compared to CHOW controls and to diet-resistant (DR) rats that did not become obese when maintained on WD. For rats fed the KETO diet, FN performance and BBB integrity were more closely associated with level of circulating ketone bodies than with obesity phenotype (DR or DIO), with higher levels of ketones appearing to provide a protective effect. The evidence also indicated that FN deficits preceded and predicted increased body weight and adiposity. This research (a) further substantiates previous findings of WD-induced deficits in hippocampal-dependent FN discriminations, (b) suggests that ketones may be protective against diet-induced cognitive impairment, and (c) provides evidence that diet-induced cognitive impairment precedes weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  17. Caffeine Increases Hippocampal Sharp Waves in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine promotes memory consolidation. Memory consolidation is thought to depend at least in part on hippocampal sharp waves (SWs). In the present study, we investigated the effect of bath-application of caffeine in spontaneously occurring SWs in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Caffeine induced an about 100% increase in the event frequency of SWs at concentrations of 60 and 200 µM. The effect of caffeine was reversible after washout of caffeine and was mimicked by an adenosine A 1 receptor antagonist, but not by an A 2A receptor antagonist. Caffeine increased SWs even in dentate-CA3 mini-slices without the CA2 regions, in which adenosine A 1 receptors are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. Thus, caffeine facilitates SWs by inhibiting adenosine A 1 receptors in the hippocampal CA3 region or the dentate gyrus.

  18. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Darío Moreno Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a normal developmental process associated with neurobiological changes leading to cognitive alterations with preserved, impaired, and enhanced functions. Evidence from animal and human studies is reviewed to explore the potential role of hippocampal plasticity on age-related cognitive changes with special attention to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Results from lesion and stimulation strategies, as well as correlation data, support either a direct or modulatory role for adult newborn neurons in cognition at advanced ages. Further research on this topic may help to develop new treatments and to improve the quality of life of older people.

  19. Immature germ cells in semen - correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Priya S; Humbarwadi, Rajendra S; Patil, Ashalata D; Gune, Anita R

    2013-07-01

    Current data regarding infertility suggests that male factor contributes up to 30% of the total cases of infertility. Semen analysis reveals the presence of spermatozoa as well as a number of non-sperm cells, presently being mentioned in routine semen report as "round cells" without further differentiating them into leucocytes or immature germ cells. The aim of this work was to study a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for differentiating the round cells in semen into immature germ cells and leucocytes and correlating them with total sperm counts and motility. Semen samples from 120 males, who had come for investigation for infertility, were collected, semen parameters recorded, and stained smears studied for different round cells. Statistical analysis of the data was done to correlate total sperm counts and sperm motility with the occurrence of immature germ cells and leucocytes. The average shedding of immature germ cells in different groups with normal and low sperm counts was compared. The clinical significance of "round cells" in semen and their differentiation into leucocytes and immature germ cells are discussed. Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000.

  20. Isolation and characterization of populations of mature and immature rat colonocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnen, D.J.; Reed, T.A.; Bozdech, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A nonenzymatic method is described for the isolation of viable populations of mature and immature rat colonocytes. Histology was used to monitor colonocyte dissociation and to systematically characterize the amount of cross-contamination between populations of mature luminal cells and immature crypt cells. The mature coloncytes were 87 ± 9% pure with respect to contamination from cells from the lower half of the colonic crypt, and the immature populations were 98% pure with respect to contamination with cells from the upper half of the colonic crypt. Neither population contained significant numbers of cells from the lamina propria. Cell viability and synthetic function were maintained from 10-12 h in short-term culture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was 1.59 ± 0.01-fold higher in the mature cells than in the immature cells, and in vivo [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation was 2.9 ± 0.4-fold greater in the immature than the mature populations. These studies demonstrate that highly enriched populations of mature and immature rat colonocytes that maintain viability and synthetic function in short-term culture can be prepared. The intrinsic rate of protein synthesis is higher in immature colonocytes, and a shift to synthesis of a higher percentage of fucoproteins occurs during colonocyte differentiation. In contrast to result in the small intestine, only modest gradients of differentiation markers and cell surface protein expression were observed between mature and immature colonocytes

  1. The retrovirus MA and PreTM proteins follow immature MVL cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Bahl

    2013-01-01

    Detergent can dissolve retrovirus, exept the immature core. Here we show that the Matrix protein (MA) and the Transmembrane protein in its immature form (PreTM) bind to the retrovirus core. These attachments explain the attachment in the virus particle and the dynamics of the ability to fuse with...

  2. Movements of immature European Honey Buzzards Pernis apivorus in tropical Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strandberg, Roine; Hake, Mikael; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Alerstam, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Strandberg R., Hake M., Klaassen R.H.G. & Alerstam T. 2012. Movements of immature European Honey Buzzards Pernis apivorus in tropical Africa. Ardea 100: 157-162. Immature European Honey Buzzards Pernis apivorus are believed to remain in tropical Africa during the first years of their lives. We

  3. Fracture resistance and histological findings of immature teeth treated with mineral trioxide aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatibovic-Kofman, S.; Raimundo, L.; Zheng, L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the fracture strength of calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-filled immature teeth decreased over time. Immature mandibular incisors from sheep were extracted and the pulps were extirpated using an apical approach...

  4. Atorvastatin and Fluoxetine Prevent Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Evoked by Glutamate Toxicity in Hippocampal Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludka, Fabiana K; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Binder, Luisa Bandeira; Constantino, Leandra Celso; Massari, Caio; Tasca, Carla I

    2017-07-01

    Atorvastatin has been shown to exert a neuroprotective action by counteracting glutamatergic toxicity. Recently, we have shown atorvastatin also exerts an antidepressant-like effect that depends on both glutamatergic and serotonergic systems modulation. Excitotoxicity is involved in several brain disorders including depression; thus, it is suggested that antidepressants may target glutamatergic system as a final common pathway. In this study, a comparison of the mechanisms involved in the putative neuroprotective effect of a repetitive atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment against glutamate toxicity in hippocampal slices was performed. Adult Swiss mice were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), once a day during seven consecutive days. On the eighth day, animals were killed and hippocampal slices were obtained and subjected to an in vitro protocol of glutamate toxicity. An acute treatment of atorvastatin or fluoxetine was not neuroprotective; however, the repeated atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment prevented the decrease in cellular viability induced by glutamate in hippocampal slices. The loss of cellular viability induced by glutamate was accompanied by increased D-aspartate release, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential. Atorvastatin or fluoxetine repeated treatment also presented an antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test. Atorvastatin or fluoxetine treatment was effective in protecting mice hippocampal slices from glutamate toxicity by preventing the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  5. Cognitive decline in temporal lobe epilepsy due to unilateral hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carolina Mattos; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; da Silva, Tatiana Indelicato; Noffs, Maria Helena da Silva; Carrete, Henrique; Lin, Katia; Lin, Jaime; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2007-05-01

    We assessed the cognitive performance of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) caused by unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS), in comparison with that of matched, healthy controls. We report the relationship between cognitive measures and duration of epilepsy, correlating with hippocampal volumes, and the impact of educational level on cognitive decline. This study involved 61 outpatients (40 with 8 years of formal education) with unilateral HS and 61 controls. Volumetric MRI was performed on all patients and 10 controls. The results (mean, SD) of the neuropsychological tests of healthy subjects and patients were compared using the Student t and Mann-Whitney tests. Patients performed worse than controls in the neuropsychological evaluation. When adjusted z scores were used to calculate the impairment index, patients had a greater percentage of abnormal tests compared with controls. The cognitive decline, assessed through the impairment index, correlated with duration of epilepsy. Higher level of education did not protect against this decline, thus not supporting the hypothesis of cerebral reserve in this population. A significant correlation between hippocampal volumetric measures and duration of epilepsy was observed only in patients with left HS. Patients with TLE caused by HS present with cognitive morbidity that extends beyond memory deficits. Cognitive decline is associated with duration of epilepsy, and in patients with left-sided HS, duration may correlate with volumetric hippocampal loss.

  6. Midlife managerial experience is linked to late life hippocampal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, C; Gates, N; Fiatarone Singh, M; Saigal, N; Wilson, G C; Meiklejohn, J; Sachdev, P; Brodaty, H; Wen, W; Singh, N; Baune, B T; Baker, M; Foroughi, N; Wang, Y; Valenzuela, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    An active cognitive lifestyle has been suggested to have a protective role in the long-term maintenance of cognition. Amongst healthy older adults, more managerial or supervisory experiences in midlife are linked to a slower hippocampal atrophy rate in late life. Yet whether similar links exist in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is not known, nor whether these differences have any functional implications. 68 volunteers from the Sydney SMART Trial, diagnosed with non-amnestic MCI, were divided into high and low managerial experience (HME/LME) during their working life. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing, structural and resting-state functional MRI. Group comparisons were performed on hippocampal volume, morphology, hippocampal seed-based functional connectivity, memory and executive function and self-ratings of memory proficiency. HME was linked to better memory function (p = 0.024), mediated by larger hippocampal volume (p = 0.025). More specifically, deformation analysis found HME had relatively more volume in the CA1 sub-region of the hippocampus (p < 0.05). Paradoxically, this group rated their memory proficiency worse (p = 0.004), a result correlated with diminished functional connectivity between the right hippocampus and right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.001). Finally, hierarchical regression modelling substantiated this double dissociation.

  7. Memory impairment in multiple sclerosis: Relevance of hippocampal activation and hippocampal connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, H.E.; Schoonheim, M.M.; van Geest, Q.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Barkhof, F.; Geurts, J.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Memory impairment is frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear what functional brain changes underlie this cognitive deterioration. Objective: To investigate functional hippocampal activation and connectivity, in relation to memory performance in MS. Methods: Structural and

  8. Vaginal orgasm is associated with less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2008-05-01

    Freud implied a link between inability to have a vaginal orgasm and psychosexual immaturity. Since Kinsey, many sexologists have asserted that no such link exists. However, empirical testing of the issue has been lacking. The objective was to determine the relationship between different sexual behavior triggers of female orgasm and use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. Women reported their past month frequency of different sexual behaviors and corresponding orgasm rates and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). The association between ability to have vaginal intercourse orgasm (versus clitoral orgasm) and the use of DSQ-40 immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) was examined. In a sample of 94 healthy Portuguese women, vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was associated with less use of DSQ-40 immature defenses. Vaginal orgasm was associated with less somatization, dissociation, displacement, autistic fantasy, devaluation, and isolation of affect. Orgasm from clitoral stimulation or combined clitoral-intercourse stimulation was not associated with less use of immature defenses, and was associated with more use of some immature defenses. In one regression analysis, more masturbation and less vaginal orgasm consistency made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. In another regression analysis, any use of extrinsic clitoral stimulation for intercourse orgasm, and lack of any vaginal orgasm, made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. Vaginally anorgasmic women had immature defenses scores comparable to those of established (depression, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) outpatient psychiatric groups. Results were not confounded by social desirability responding or relationship quality. The results linking penile-vaginal orgasm with less use of immature

  9. Hippocampal insulin resistance and cognitive dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biessels, Geert Jan; Reagan, Lawrence P.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance (IR) and cognitive dysfunction, but there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Animal models of IR help to bridge these gaps and point to hippocampal IR as

  10. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  11. Amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimauchi, M.; Wakisaka, S.; Kinoshita, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a unique case of glioblastoma which caused permanent amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion to be limited to the hippocampal formation bilaterally. Although glioblastoma extends frequently into fiber pathways and expands into the opposite cerebral hemisphere, making a 'butterfly' lesion, it is unusual for it to invade the limbic system selectively to this extent. (orig.)

  12. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  13. Hippocampal gamma oscillations increase with memory load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Litt, Brian; Brandt, Armin; Kahana, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the hippocampus plays a crucial role in encoding and retrieval of contextually mediated episodic memories, considerable controversy surrounds the role of the hippocampus in short-term or working memory. To examine both hippocampal and neocortical contributions to working memory function, we

  14. Hippocampal sclerosis in advanced age: clinical and pathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter T; Schmitt, Frederick A; Lin, Yushun; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Patel, Ela; Thomason, Paula C; Neltner, Janna H; Smith, Charles D; Santacruz, Karen S; Sonnen, Joshua A; Poon, Leonard W; Gearing, Marla; Green, Robert C; Woodard, John L; Van Eldik, Linda J; Kryscio, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is a relatively common neuropathological finding (∼10% of individuals over the age of 85 years) characterized by cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus that is not explained by Alzheimer's disease. Hippocampal sclerosis pathology can be associated with different underlying causes, and we refer to hippocampal sclerosis in the aged brain as hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. Much remains unknown about hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. We combined three different large autopsy cohorts: University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Centre, the Nun Study and the Georgia Centenarian Study to obtain a pool of 1110 patients, all of whom were evaluated neuropathologically at the University of Kentucky. We focused on the subset of cases with neuropathology-confirmed hippocampal sclerosis (n=106). For individuals aged≥95 years at death (n=179 in our sample), each year of life beyond the age of 95 years correlated with increased prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis pathology and decreased prevalence of 'definite' Alzheimer's disease pathology. Aberrant TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was seen in 89.9% of hippocampal sclerosis positive patients compared with 9.7% of hippocampal sclerosis negative patients. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry can be used to demonstrate that the disease is usually bilateral even when hippocampal sclerosis pathology is not obvious by haematoxylin and eosin stains. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was negative on brain sections from younger individuals (n=10) after hippocampectomy due to seizures, who had pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis. There was no association between cases with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing and apolipoprotein E genotype. Age of death and clinical features of hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing (with or without aberrant TAR DNA protein 43) were distinct from previously published cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration TAR

  15. Updating the lamellar hypothesis of hippocampal organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Sloviter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1971, Andersen and colleagues proposed that excitatory activity in the entorhinal cortex propagates topographically to the dentate gyrus, and on through a trisynaptic circuit lying within transverse hippocampal slices or lamellae [Andersen, Bliss, and Skrede. 1971. Lamellar organization of hippocampal pathways. Exp Brain Res 13, 222-238]. In this way, a relatively simple structure might mediate complex functions in a manner analogous to the way independent piano keys can produce a nearly infinite variety of unique outputs. The lamellar hypothesis derives primary support from the lamellar distribution of dentate granule cell axons (the mossy fibers, which innervate dentate hilar neurons and area CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons within the confines of a thin transverse hippocampal segment. Following the initial formulation of the lamellar hypothesis, anatomical studies revealed that unlike granule cells, hilar mossy cells, CA3 pyramidal cells, and Layer II entorhinal cells all form axonal projections that are more divergent along the longitudinal axis than the clearly lamellar mossy fiber pathway. The existence of pathways with translamellar distribution patterns has been interpreted, incorrectly in our view, as justifying outright rejection of the lamellar hypothesis [Amaral and Witter. 1989. The three-dimensional organization of the hippocampal formation: a review of anatomical data. Neuroscience 31, 571-591]. We suggest that the functional implications of longitudinally-projecting axons depend not on whether they exist, but on what they do. The observation that focal granule cell layer discharges normally inhibit, rather than excite, distant granule cells suggests that longitudinal axons in the dentate gyrus may mediate "lateral" inhibition and define lamellar function, rather than undermine it. In this review, we attempt a reconsideration of the evidence that most directly impacts the physiological concept of hippocampal lamellar

  16. Electroacupuncture Improved Hippocampal Neurogenesis following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice through Inhibition of TLR4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqin Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective role of electroacupuncture (EA treatment in diverse neurological diseases such as ischemic stroke is well acknowledged. However, whether and how EA act on hippocampal neurogenesis following traumatic brain injury (TBI remains poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the effect of EA on hippocampal neurogenesis and neurological functions, as well as its underlying association with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling in TBI mice. BrdU/NeuN immunofluorescence was performed to label newborn neurons in the hippocampus after EA treatment. Water maze test and neurological severity score were used to evaluate neurological function posttrauma. The hippocampal level of TLR4 and downstream molecules and inflammatory cytokines were, respectively, detected by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. EA enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibited TLR4 expression at 21, 28, and 35 days after TBI, but the beneficial effects of EA on posttraumatic neurogenesis and neurological functions were attenuated by lipopolysaccharide-induced TLR4 activation. In addition, EA exerted an inhibitory effect on both TLR4/Myd88/NF-κB and TLR4/TRIF/NF-κB pathways, as well as the inflammatory cytokine expression in the hippocampus following TBI. In conclusion, EA promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and neurological recovery through inhibition of TLR4 signaling pathway posttrauma, which may be a potential approach to improve the outcome of TBI.

  17. Culinary alternatives for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): sensory characteristics of immature seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero del Castillo, Roser; Ferreira, Juan José; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Almirall, Antoni; Casañas, Francesc

    2010-08-15

    Immature bean seeds feature in several dishes in southern Europe; however, they are not used in all traditional areas of dry beans cultivation. To determine whether differences in the use of immature seeds are due to cultural reasons or intrinsic properties of the seeds, the prestigious varieties of beans cultivated in three areas of Spain with different traditions regarding the use of immature seeds in bean dishes were studied. We found differences in the culinary and sensory traits between beans harvested when mature and those harvested when immature in the three areas. However, the degree and direction of these differences varied according to the area. Moreover, the different varieties tested within each area responded differently. The sum of the genetic, environmental and interaction effects results in complex alternatives to the mature beans; the gastronomic tradition has taken advantage of only some of these alternatives. A lack of traditional dishes using immature beans does not mean that the local beans harvested when immature lack suitable sensory traits. Specific trials in each area of cultivation can reveal alternative textures and bean flavour intensities in immature seeds. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. 35S induced dominant lethals in immature Oocytes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayana Reddy, K.; Reddy, P.; Reddy, O.S.

    1976-01-01

    CBA female mice were injected intraperitoneally with a dose of 20 μCi of sulphur-35 on 15.5 day post conception. Another group of pregnant mice injected with normal saline was kept as control. The pregnant females were allowed to litter and the mothers were separated from their offspring 4 weeks after littering. Eight weeks after treatment i.e. at the age of 22-24 weeks, the treated mothers were mated to control C 3 H/He males. The vaginal plugs were checked everyday morning and those mated were separated. The pregnants were killed on 14th day of gestation. The uterine contents were searched for live and dead embryos and the ovaries for corpora lutea. The pre, post and total loses were calculated in the treated females and compared with those of control. The statistical tests performed indicated that all losses are significant. The results indicate that 35 S can induce chromosomal breaks in immature oocytes and lead to the induction of dominant lethals. (author)

  19. Description of the immatures of Linepithema humile Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL R SOLIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Linepithema humile Mayr is an ant species originally native to South America that has been spread accidently throughout the globe through international trade. It is a serious urban and crop pest. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the larvae of this species apart from a brief description based on a few specimens. The present investigation is aimed at describing every immature stage of L. humile. Three larval instars were determined through the frequency distribution of the maximum width of head capsules from a sample of 525 larvae. The morphological descriptions were based on 150 eggs, 70 larvae, and 90 pupae examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Some morphological characteristics reported to be typical of Linepithema Mayr larvae were confirmed - dolichoderoid body shape, presence of dorsal protuberance, sparse simple body hairs, presence of nine pairs of spiracles and dolichoderoid mandibles. We concluded that an earlier published description was based on queen larvae, and that the protuberance is only present in worker larvae. The information provided in this study may aid ant systematics and phylogenetics, as well provide a better understanding of the biology of this species.

  20. Sex-specific vitellogenin production in immature rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.B.; Williams, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    Many xenobiotics interact with hormone systems of animals, potentially leading to a phenomenon commonly called endocrine disruption. Much attention has focused on steroid hormone systems and corresponding receptor proteins, particularly estrogens. Vitellogenin (Vg) was measured in sexually immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in the diet. Mixed-sex populations of trout aged 3, 6, 12, or 18 months were maintained separately and fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 or 2.5 mg/kg for 7d. Females fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 mg/kg consistently produced three- to fourfold greater amounts of Vg than similarly aged males. Age- and sex-matched fish fed E{sub 2} at 2.5 mg/kg produced equivalent amounts of Vg. Sex differences in Vg production were apparent only at a dose of E{sub 2} (0.05 mg/kg) that results in submaximal Vg induction. Their results document the importance of considering the sex of juvenile fish when using Vg production as a marker of xenoestrogen exposure.

  1. Gonadal Morphology, Histology, and Endocrinological Characteristics of Immature Female Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Ryo; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Matsumoto, Rui; Nakamura, Masaru; Ueda, Keiichi; Sato, Keiichi

    2015-10-01

    Captive breeding of whale sharks is one of the great challenges for aquariums. However, there is limited information available related to reproductive physiology due to the difficulty of sampling and long-term observation. In the present report, we provide information on the reproductive physiology of female whale sharks, which were incidentally captured as bycatch in a set-net off the coast of Okinawa, Japan. Total lengths of three captured female whale sharks were 403, 665, and 761 cm, respectively, at the time of their death. Collected paired ovaries differed in size between right and left. However, it seems not to determine which side of ovary becomes developed. Histological observations revealed that oocytes surrounded by follicle cell layers localized in the developed ovary, and most developed oocytes exhibited yolk vesicle stage. Additionally, in the largest specimen, there were low levels of three steroid hormones (Testosterone, Dihydrotestosterone, and Estradiol-17ß) that did not show seasonal variation. The present results indicate that even the whale shark over 7 m in TL are still histologically and endocrinologically immature. We expect that the present data will provide fundamental information related to reproductive physiology of female whale sharks, and will contribute to protection activities and increased success in captive breeding of whale sharks.

  2. TLX is an intrinsic regulator of the negative effects of IL-1β on proliferating hippocampal neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó'Léime, Ciarán S; Kozareva, Danka A; Hoban, Alan E; Long-Smith, Caitriona M; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2018-02-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is a lifelong process whereby new neurons are produced and integrate into the host circuitry within the hippocampus. It is regulated by a multitude of extrinsic and intrinsic regulators and is believed to contribute to certain hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks. Hippocampal neurogenesis and associated cognition have been demonstrated to be impaired after increases in the levels of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in the hippocampus, such as that which occurs in various neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. IL-1β also suppresses the expression of TLX (orphan nuclear receptor tailless homolog), which is an orphan nuclear receptor that functions to promote neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation and suppress neuronal differentiation; therefore, manipulation of TLX represents a potential strategy with which to prevent the antiproliferative effects of IL-1β. In this study, we assessed the mechanism that underlies IL-1β-induced changes in TLX expression and determined the protective capacity of TLX to mitigate the effects of IL-1β on embryonic rat hippocampal neurosphere expansion. We demonstrate that IL-1β activated the NF-κB pathway in proliferating NPCs and that this activation was responsible for IL-1β-induced changes in TLX expression. In addition, we report that enhancing TLX expression prevented the IL-1β-induced suppression of neurosphere expansion. Thus, we highlight TLX as a potential protective regulator of the antiproliferative effects of IL-1β on hippocampal neurogenesis.-Ó'Léime, C. S., Kozareva, D. A., Hoban, A. E., Long-Smith, C. M., Cryan, J. F., Nolan, Y. M. TLX is an intrinsic regulator of the negative effects of IL-1β on proliferating hippocampal neural progenitor cells.

  3. In Vitro Investigation of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Human Immature Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Talebi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp. Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU. Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second mandibular premolars. This experimental investiga-tion was carried out for recording temperature variations of different sites of tooth and two dimensional finite element mod-els were used for heat transfer phenomenon in immature teeth. Sensitivity analysis and local tests were included in the mod-el validation phase. Results. Overall, thermal stimulation for 30 seconds with a low-intensity LED LCU increased the temperature from 28°C to 38°C in IIT (intact immature tooth and PIT (cavity-prepared immature tooth. When a high-intensity LED LCU was used, tooth temperature increased from 28°C to 48°C. The results of the experimental tests and mathematical modeling il-lustrated that using LED LCU on immature teeth did not have any detrimental effect on the pulp temperature. Conclusion. Using LED LCU in immature teeth had no effect on pulp temperature in this study. Sensitivity analysis showed that variations of heat conductivity might affect heat transfer in immature teeth; therefore, further studies are re-quired to determine thermal conductivity of immature teeth.

  4. Revascularization for a necrotic immature permanent lateral incisor: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottoor, Jojo; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2013-07-01

    Revascularization is a valuable treatment in immature necrotic teeth that allows the continuation of root development. This article describes the successful revascularization treatment of an immature maxillary lateral incisor that was initially diagnosed with apical periodontitis. The tooth was asymptomatic and functional clinically and radiographically during the follow-up period of 5 years. The follow-up showed evidence of progressive thickening of the dentinal walls, development of root length and apical closure. The article also discusses the currently available literature regarding revascularization of immature permanent teeth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  5. Intramedullary spinal immature teratoma: resolution of quadriplegia following resection in a 4-week-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Chambless, Lola B; Carson, Robert P; Coffin, Cheryl M; Pearson, Matthew M; Abel, Ty W

    2010-12-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord teratomas are rare entities in infants. Management of these lesions is primarily surgical, with outcome dependent on rapid surgical decompression and complete gross-total tumor resection. The lesions are typically of the mature type, with immature teratomas displaying unique pathological features. The authors report a case of an extensive intramedullary immature teratoma in an infant with resolution of quadriplegia following gross-total radical resection. At the 1-year follow-up, there was radiographic evidence of tumor, and surgical reexploration yielded portions of immature teratoma and extensive gliosis.

  6. Diagnosis and management of an immature teratoma during ovarian stimulation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douay-Hauser Nathalie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The discovery of a mature teratoma (dermoid cyst of the ovary during ovarian stimulation is not a rare event. Conversely, we could not find any reported cases of immature teratoma in such a situation. Clinical and ultrasound arguments for this immature form are scarcely or poorly evaluated. Case Presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old Caucasian woman with primary infertility, who developed an immature teratoma during an in vitro fertilization ovarian stimulation cycle. Conclusions Ultrasound signs of an atypical cyst during ovarian stimulation allowed us to adopt a careful medical attitude and to adapt the required surgical oncological treatment.

  7. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traina, Maria Elsa; Guarino, Maria; Natoli, Alessia; Romeo, Antonella; Urbani, Elisabetta

    2007-01-01

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17β-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage

  8. Prediction of dementia by hippocampal shape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, Hakim C.; van der Lijn, Fedde; den Heijer, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the possibility of predicting future onset of dementia in subjects who are cognitively normal, using hippocampal shape and volume information extracted from MRI scans. A group of 47 subjects who were non-demented normal at the time of the MRI acquisition, but were diagnosed...... with dementia during a 9 year follow-up period, was selected from a large population based cohort study. 47 Age and gender matched subjects who stayed cognitively intact were selected from the same cohort study as a control group. The hippocampi were automatically segmented and all segmentations were inspected...... and, if necessary, manually corrected by a trained observer. From this data a statistical model of hippocampal shape was constructed, using an entropy-based particle system. This shape model provided the input for a Support Vector Machine classifier to predict dementia. Cross validation experiments...

  9. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...... is unlikely to reside in oscillatory breathing movements, because such patterns emerge in preparations retaining only the medulla (and perhaps only the spinal cord). However, momentary changes in breathing patterns induced by affect, startle, whole-body movement changes, or compensatory ventilatory changes...... of hippocampal contributions to breathing control should be viewed in the context that significant interactions exist between blood pressure changes and ventilation, and that modest breathing challenges, such as exposure to hypercapnia or to increased resistive loads, bring into action a vast array of brain...

  10. Hippocampal Processing of Ambiguity Enhances Fear Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, Ugwechi; Lim, Seh Hong; Liu, Elizabeth; Baratta, Michael V; Goosens, Ki A

    2017-02-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive events, pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or optogenetic silencing of cornu ammonis 1 cells during aversive negative prediction errors prevented this enhancement of fear without affecting fear learning for predictable events. Dorsal hippocampal inactivation also prevented ambiguity-related enhancement of fear during auditory fear conditioning under a partial-reinforcement schedule. These results reveal that information about the timing and occurrence of aversive events is rapidly acquired and that unexpectedly timed or omitted aversive events generate hippocampal signals to enhance fear learning.

  11. Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Depressive Disorders, and Antidepressant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Paizanis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that neural stem cells reside in the adult central nervous system where neurogenesis occurs throughout lifespan. Neurogenesis concerns mainly two areas in the brain: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, where it is controlled by several trophic factors and neuroactive molecules. Neurogenesis is involved in processes such as learning and memory and accumulating evidence implicates hippocampal neurogenesis in the physiopathology of depression. We herein review experimental and clinical data demonstrating that stress and antidepressant treatments affect neurogenesis in opposite direction in rodents. In particular, the stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by all types of antidepressant drugs supports the view that neuroplastic phenomena are involved in the physiopathology of depression and underlie—at least partly—antidepressant therapy.

  12. A Compressed Sensing Perspective of Hippocampal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis ePetrantonakis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampus is one of the most important information processing units in the brain. Input from the cortex passes through convergent axon pathways to the downstream hippocampal subregions and, after being appropriately processed, is fanned out back to the cortex. Here, we review evidence of the hypothesis that information flow and processing in the hippocampus complies with the principles of Compressed Sensing (CS. The CS theory comprises a mathematical framework that describes how and under which conditions, restricted sampling of information (data set can lead to condensed, yet concise, forms of the initial, subsampled information entity (i.e. of the original data set. In this work, hippocampus related regions and their respective circuitry are presented as a CS-based system whose different components collaborate to realize efficient memory encoding and decoding processes. This proposition introduces a unifying mathematical framework for hippocampal function and opens new avenues for exploring coding and decoding strategies in the brain.

  13. Investigation of Immature Sea Turtles in the Coastal Waters of West Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To survey immature sea turtles that inhabit the Ten Thousand Islands. Program funding came from South Florida Ecosystem Restoration. This project provided base-line...

  14. Development of immature stomata: evidence for epigenetic selection of a spacing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, M L; Sachs, T

    1991-07-01

    In Sansevieria trifasciata as many as half the potential stomata remain immature. The development of all stomatal structures started at the same time and the early stages of the development of immature stomata had no special characteristics. Statistical analysis showed that the mature stomata were more evenly spaced than all potential stomata, both mature and immature. Furthermore, the distribution of mature stomata per unit area was more predictable or orderly than comparable structures of a random model that developed in the same way. These facts indicate that a nonrandom loss of many stomata by "immaturity" is a major determinant, acting during rather than preceding development, of the distribution of the mature, functional stomata. Thus in Sansevieria there is a selection of an epidermal pattern from an excess of cells that undergo the early stages of stomatal development.

  15. AFSC/ABL: Immature chum salmon allozyme ID of mixed stocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Immature chum salmon were collected by the F/V Northwest Explorer between September 5 and October 8, during the 2002 BASIS survey across the eastern Bering Sea shelf...

  16. In Vitro Investigation of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Human Immature Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Talebi; Sahar Moghimi; Mina Shafagh; Hadi Kalani; Fatemeh Mazhari

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp). Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU). Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second ...

  17. Pecular Features of Hematopoiesis in the Liver of Mature and Immature Green Frogs (Pelophylax Esculentus Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akulenko N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes characteristic features of the hematopoiesis in mature and immature green frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex. Quantitative differences in liver myelograms were insignificant. However, in a sample of mature animals numerous significant correlations between the number of pigment inclusions in the liver and indicators of erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis were observed. Those correlations were absent in the immature frogs. We concluded that aft er the frogs’ breeding a lack of plastic resources, in particular, hemosiderin remains up to the hibernation.

  18. Active sulforhodamine 101 uptake into hippocampal astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schnell

    Full Text Available Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101 is widely used as a marker of astrocytes. In this study we investigated labeling of astrocytes by SR101 in acute slices from the ventrolateral medulla and the hippocampus of transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the astrocyte-specific human GFAP promoter. While SR101 efficiently and specifically labeled EGFP-expressing astrocytes in hippocampus, we found that the same staining procedure failed to label astrocytes efficiently in the ventrolateral medulla. Although carbenoxolone is able to decrease the SR101-labeling of astrocytes in the hippocampus, it is unlikely that SR101 is taken up via gap-junction hemichannels because mefloquine, a blocker for pannexin and connexin hemichannels, was unable to prevent SR101-labeling of hippocampal astrocytes. However, SR101-labeling of the hippocampal astrocytes was significantly reduced by substrates of organic anion transport polypeptides, including estron-3-sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, suggesting that SR101 is actively transported into hippocampal astrocytes.

  19. Variability of doublecortin-associated dendrite maturation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis is independent of the regulation of precursor cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessberger Sebastian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis most regulation takes place during the phase of doublecortin (DCX expression, either as pro-proliferative effect on precursor cells or as survival-promoting effect on postmitotic cells. We here obtained quantitative data about the proliferative population and the dynamics of postmitotic dendrite development during the period of DCX expression. The question was, whether any indication could be obtained that the initiation of dendrite development is timely bound to the exit from the cell cycle. Alternatively, the temporal course of morphological maturation might be subject to additional regulatory events. Results We found that (1 20% of the DCX population were precursor cells in cell cycle, whereas more than 70% were postmitotic, (2 the time span until newborn cells had reached the most mature stage associated with DCX expression varied between 3 days and several weeks, (3 positive or negative regulation of precursor cell proliferation did not alter the pattern and dynamics of dendrite development. Dendrite maturation was largely independent of close contacts to astrocytes. Conclusion These data imply that dendrite maturation of immature neurons is initiated at varying times after cell cycle exit, is variable in duration, and is controlled independently of the regulation of precursor cell proliferation. We conclude that in addition to the major regulatory events in cell proliferation and selective survival, additional micro-regulatory events influence the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  20. Concentration-dependent effects of fullerenol on cultured hippocampal neuron viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zha YY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ying-ying Zha,1 Bo Yang,1 Ming-liang Tang,2 Qiu-chen Guo,1 Ju-tao Chen,1 Long-ping Wen,3 Ming Wang11CAS Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 2Suzhou Institute of NanoTech and NanoBionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 3Laboratory of Nano-biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Recent studies have shown that the biological actions and toxicity of the water-soluble compound, polyhydroxyfullerene (fullerenol, are related to the concentrations present at a particular site of action. This study investigated the effects of different concentrations of fullerenol on cultured rat hippocampal neurons.Methods and results: Fullerenol at low concentrations significantly enhanced hippocampal neuron viability as tested by MTT assay and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide double stain detection. At high concentrations, fullerenol induced apoptosis confirmed by Comet assay and assessment of caspase proteins.Conclusion: These findings suggest that fullerenol promotes cell death and protects against cell damage, depending on the concentration present. The concentration-dependent effects of fullerenol were mainly due to its influence on the reduction-oxidation pathway.Keywords: fullerenol, nanomaterial, neurotoxicity, neuroprotection, hippocampal neuron

  1. BDNF val(66)met affects hippocampal volume and emotion-related hippocampal memory activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, M. L.; van Tol, M-J; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; van der Wee, N. J. A.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D. J.; Spinhoven, P.; Elzinga, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The val(66)met polymorphism on the BDNF gene has been reported to explain individual differences in hippocampal volume and memory-related activity. These findings, however, have not been replicated consistently and no studies to date controlled for the potentially confounding impact of early life

  2. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. I. Hippocampal EEG correlates of gross motor behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    It was shown that rewarding spectral shifts (i.e. increase in amplitude or peak frequency of the hippocampal EEG) causes a solitary dog to show increased motor behaviour. Rewarded spectral shifts concurred with a variety of behavioural transitions. It was found that statistically significant

  3. Preservation of hippocampal neuron numbers and hippocampal subfield volumes in behaviorally characterized aged tree shrews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuker, J.I.H.; de Biurrun, G.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Fuchs, E.

    2004-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decreased ability to store and retrieve information. The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in such memory processes, and its integrity is affected during normal aging. We used tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) as an animal model of aging, because in many

  4. Hippocampal “Time Cells”: Time versus Path Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Benjamin J.; Robinson, Robert J.; White, John A.; Eichenbaum, Howard; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent studies have reported the existence of hippocampal “time cells,” neurons that fire at particular moments during periods when behavior and location are relatively constant. However, an alternative explanation of apparent time coding is that hippocampal neurons “path integrate” to encode the distance an animal has traveled. Here, we examined hippocampal neuronal firing patterns as rats ran in place on a treadmill, thus “clamping” behavior and location, while we varied the treadmill speed to distinguish time elapsed from distance traveled. Hippocampal neurons were strongly influenced by time and distance, and less so by minor variations in location. Furthermore, the activity of different neurons reflected integration over time and distance to varying extents, with most neurons strongly influenced by both factors and some significantly influenced by only time or distance. Thus, hippocampal neuronal networks captured both the organization of time and distance in a situation where these dimensions dominated an ongoing experience. PMID:23707613

  5. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  6. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadom, Nadja; Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  7. Nutritional compositions and antioxidative capacity of the silk obtained from immature and mature corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhanan Abdul Rahman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The silks of immature and mature corn were evaluated for their variations in nutritional compositions, mineral content and antioxidant capacity. Both immature and mature silks were good source of nutritional compositions. Immature silks contained significantly higher moisture (89.31% (fresh basis, lipid (1.27% and protein (12.96% content than the mature silk. Mature silks contained higher composition of ash (5.51%, carbohydrate (29.74% and total dietary fiber (51.25 g/100 g, than the immature silk, but the difference was not significant. In mineral determination, immature silk was rich source of Ca (1087.08 μg/g, Mg (1219.17 μg/g, Cu (5.60 μg/g and Zn (46.37 μg/g than the mature silks. In contrast, other minerals such as K (35671.67 μg/g, Na (266.67 μg/g, Fe (4.50 μg/g and Mn (35.57 μg/g were found higher in the mature silk. The silks were extracted with ethyl acetate, ethanol and water using the Soxhlet extraction method to determine the polyphenol and ABTS radical scavenging capacity. From this study, the highest content of total polyphenol of immature silks was exhibited by ethanol extract (92.21 mg GAE/g while water extract (64.22 mg GAE/g had the highest polyphenol content among mature silk extracts. Total flavonoid content of both immature and mature silks was higher in the water extract at 8.40 mg CAE/g and 2.31 mg CAE/g, respectively. In the ABTS free radical assay method, all immature silk extracts had higher percentage of inhibition compared to the mature silks. Among all three crude extracts, the ethanol extract of immature (EC50 = 0.478 mg/ml and mature silk (EC50 = 0.799 mg/ml exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacity followed by the water and ethyl acetate extract.

  8. Immature granulocyte detection by the SE-9000 haematology analyser during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, A; Pascual, V T; Gimenez, M T F; Hernández, J F S

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the nature of the alarm for immature granulocytes appearing in haemograms from pregnant women, as detected by the immature cell information channel (IMI) of the SE-9000 automated haematology analyser. Of all tests run on pregnant women in a 4-month period (n = 698), the first 100 haemograms with immature granulocyte alarms (14.33%) were collected. Each of these samples was then stained with Wright-Giemsa stain. The following variables were also analysed: age of the mother, trimester and days of gestation, type of delivery, weight and sex of the baby, and Apgar score. Most pregnant women were in the third trimester of gestation (82%) when an alarm was noted on the IMI channel. Of the patients, 62% had normal deliveries. The most frequent complication was obstructed delivery (23%). Mean percentages by microscopic counts of band cells, metamyelocytes, and myelocytes were 2.99, 0.45, and 0.19%, respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation for all cell types between the SE-9000 and the manual count method. No association was observed between the presence of immature granulocytes and the clinical variables analysed. The SE-9000 analyser shows high sensitivity in the IMI channel for detection of immature forms.

  9. Production of functional sperm by subcutaneous auto-grafting of immature testes in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Sakuma, Daika; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2018-02-01

    Sexually mature individuals are indispensable for breeding programs. Salmonids require a long period before reaching sexual maturity, so we aimed to shorten the period required to obtain functional sperm by grafting immature testicular fragments into mature recipients, which we predicted would allow the grafted testicular fragments to skip the long pre-pubertal period. First, we demonstrated successful subcutaneous auto-grafting of testicular fragments in rainbow trout. Unilateral testectomy was performed, and the isolated immature testicular fragment was auto-grafted into the subcutaneous space along the back of recipient fish. The grafted testicular fragments developed synchronously with the recipients' testis remaining in its body cavity, and both eventually produced functional sperm. Next, immature testicular fragments were auto-grafted into the subcutaneous space of sexually mature males. We achieved this, without immune rejection, by isolating and cryopreserving testes from immature fish, and rearing these unilaterally testectomized fish until sexual maturity. The cryopreserved testes were then auto-grafted into the original, now spermiating fish. The grated immature testicular fragments differentiated and produced functional sperm within 5 months after grafting. By combining this grafting method with a technique to avoid immune rejection, we expect to develop a practical method for producing sperm in a shorter period in salmonids. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. α2δ ligands act as positive modulators of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and prevent depression-like behavior induced by chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maria Maddalena; Bortolotto, Valeria; Cuccurazzu, Bruna; Ubezio, Federica; Meneghini, Vasco; Francese, Maria Teresa; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Grilli, Mariagrazia

    2012-08-01

    Although the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis remains to be fully elucidated, several studies suggested that the process is involved in cognitive and emotional functions and is deregulated in various neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depression. Several psychoactive drugs, including antidepressants, can modulate adult neurogenesis. Here we show for the first time that the α2δ ligands gabapentin [1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid] and pregabalin (PGB) [(S)-(+)-3-isobutyl-GABA or (S)-3-(aminomethyl)-5-methylhexanoic acid] can produce concentration-dependent increases in the numbers of newborn mature and immature neurons generated in vitro from adult hippocampal neural progenitor cells and, in parallel, a decrease in the number of undifferentiated precursor cells. These effects were confirmed in vivo, because significantly increased numbers of adult cell-generated neurons were observed in the hippocampal region of mice receiving prolonged treatment with PGB (10 mg/kg i.p. for 21 days), compared with vehicle-treated mice. We demonstrated that PGB administration prevented the appearance of depression-like behaviors induced by chronic restraint stress and, in parallel, promoted hippocampal neurogenesis in adult stressed mice. Finally, we provided data suggesting involvement of the α2δ1 subunit and the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway in drug-mediated proneurogenic effects. The new pharmacological activities of α2δ ligands may help explain their therapeutic activity as supplemental therapy for major depression and depressive symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety disorders. These data contribute to the identification of novel molecular pathways that may represent potential targets for pharmacological modulation in depression.

  12. Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic Performance of a Multi-Atlas Hippocampal Segmentation Method using the Harmonized Hippocampal Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Cecilie Benedicte; Sørensen, Lauge; Pai, Akshay

    PURPOSE Hippocampal volumetry is the most widely used structural MRI biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and state-of-the-art, automatic hippocampal segmentation can be obtained using longitudinal FreeSurfer. In this study, we compare the diagnostic AD performance of a single time point, multi...

  13. GPER1 mediates estrogen-induced neuroprotection against oxygen-glucose deprivation in the primary hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhi; Shi, Fei; Hu, Jun; He, Shi-Ming; Ding, Qian; Ma, Lian-Ting

    2016-07-22

    It is well-known that the neuroprotective effects of estrogen have potential in the prevention and amelioration of ischemic and degenerative neurological disorders, while the underlying mechanisms for estrogen actions are undefined. As an important mediator for the non-genomic functions of estrogen, GPER1 (G Protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor 1) has been suggested to involve in the beneficial roles of estrogen in neural cells. Here our studies on primary hippocampal neurons have focused on GPER1 in an in vitro model of ischemia using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). GPER1 expression in the primary hippocampal neurons was stimulated by the OGD treatments. Both E2 (estradiol) and E2-BSA (membrane impermeable estradiol by covalent conjugation of bovine serum albumin) attenuated OGD-induced cell death in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Importantly, this membrane-mediated estrogen function requires GPER1 protein. Knocking down of GPER1 diminished, while overexpression of GPER1 potentiated, the protective roles of E2/E2-BSA following OGD. Additionally, the downstream mechanisms employed by membrane-associated estrogen signaling were found to include PI3K/Akt-dependent Ask1 inhibition in the primary hippocampal neurons. Overall, these research results could enhance our understanding of the neuroprotective actions for estrogen, and provide a new therapeutic target for improving stroke outcome and ameliorating degenerative neurological diseases. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hippocampal sclerosis in advanced age: clinical and pathological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Frederick A.; Lin, Yushun; Abner, Erin L.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Patel, Ela; Thomason, Paula C.; Neltner, Janna H.; Smith, Charles D.; Santacruz, Karen S.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Poon, Leonard W.; Gearing, Marla; Green, Robert C.; Woodard, John L.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Kryscio, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is a relatively common neuropathological finding (∼10% of individuals over the age of 85 years) characterized by cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus that is not explained by Alzheimer’s disease. Hippocampal sclerosis pathology can be associated with different underlying causes, and we refer to hippocampal sclerosis in the aged brain as hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. Much remains unknown about hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. We combined three different large autopsy cohorts: University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Centre, the Nun Study and the Georgia Centenarian Study to obtain a pool of 1110 patients, all of whom were evaluated neuropathologically at the University of Kentucky. We focused on the subset of cases with neuropathology-confirmed hippocampal sclerosis (n = 106). For individuals aged ≥95 years at death (n = 179 in our sample), each year of life beyond the age of 95 years correlated with increased prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis pathology and decreased prevalence of ‘definite’ Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Aberrant TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was seen in 89.9% of hippocampal sclerosis positive patients compared with 9.7% of hippocampal sclerosis negative patients. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry can be used to demonstrate that the disease is usually bilateral even when hippocampal sclerosis pathology is not obvious by haematoxylin and eosin stains. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was negative on brain sections from younger individuals (n = 10) after hippocampectomy due to seizures, who had pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis. There was no association between cases with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing and apolipoprotein E genotype. Age of death and clinical features of hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing (with or without aberrant TAR DNA protein 43) were distinct from previously published cases of frontotemporal lobar

  15. The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation......, by ale brewer’s yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. RESULTS: Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same....... These three proteins, all derived from yeast, were identified as cell wall associated proteins, that is Exg1 (an exo-β-1,3-glucanase), Bgl2 (an endo-β-1,2-glucanase), and Uth1 (a cell wall biogenesis protein). CONCLUSION: Yeast strain dependent changes in the immature beer proteome were identified, i.e. Bgl2...

  16. Social learning of diet and foraging skills by wild immature Bornean orangutans: implications for culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Dunkel, Lynda P; Van Noordwijk, Maria A; Wich, Serge A; Sura, Agnes A L; Van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-01-01

    Studies of social learning in the wild are important to complement findings from experiments in captivity. In this field study, immature Bornean orangutans rarely foraged independently but consistently followed their mothers' choices. Their diets were essentially identical to their mothers' even though not all mothers had the same diet. This suggests vertical transmission of diet by enhancement. Also, immatures selectively observed their mothers during extractive foraging, which increased goal-directed practice but not general manipulation of similar objects, suggesting observational forms of learning of complex skills. Teaching was not observed. These results are consistent with the reported presence of food traditions and skill cultures in wild orangutans. We suggest that food traditions can develop wherever association commonly allows for social learning. However, the capacity for observational learning, and thus more complex culture, is more likely to evolve among extractive foragers with prolonged association between adults and immatures. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Hippocampal and diencephalic pathology in developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzieciol, Anna M; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Gadian, David G; Saunders, Richard; Chong, W K Kling; Banks, Tina; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2017-01-01

    Developmental amnesia (DA) is a selective episodic memory disorder associated with hypoxia-induced bilateral hippocampal atrophy of early onset. Despite the systemic impact of hypoxia-ischaemia, the resulting brain damage was previously reported to be largely limited to the hippocampus. However, the thalamus and the mammillary bodies are parts of the hippocampal-diencephalic network and are therefore also at risk of injury following hypoxic-ischaemic events. Here, we report a neuroimaging investigation of diencephalic damage in a group of 18 patients with DA (age range 11-35 years), and an equal number of controls. Importantly, we uncovered a marked degree of atrophy in the mammillary bodies in two thirds of our patients. In addition, as a group, patients had mildly reduced thalamic volumes. The size of the anterior-mid thalamic (AMT) segment was correlated with patients' visual memory performance. Thus, in addition to the hippocampus, the diencephalic structures also appear to play a role in the patients' memory deficit. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. RESULTS OF IN VITRO MATURATION OF MEIOTICALLY IMMATURE HUMAN OOCYTES IN A SIMPLE MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kovačič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Among oocytes obtained during aspiration of preovulatory ovarian follicles in hormonally stimulated cycles, we ascertained the percentage of immature oocytes with the nucleus in the metaphase (M I oocytes or even in the prophase (GV oocytes of the first meiotic division and their capacity to mature in vitro in a simple medium without hormonal supplements.Methods. In 818 women, stimulated by gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa and gonadotropins, aspiration of preovulatory size follicles yielded 4972 oocytes. From these we denuded cells of cumulus oophorus and corona, meiotic maturity was evaluated under a microscope. Cells in the metaphase of the second meiotic division (M II oocytes and those maturing after 5 hours were used clinically in the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI procedure. Immature cells were left in the simple medium. The degree of their nuclear maturity was evaluated after one and after two days of culture. In vitro maturation was clinically used also in 14 cycles with no mature oocytes.Results. Among 4731 oocytes with denuded corona and cumulus, 4199 (88.8% were mature M II oocytes, 295 (6.2% immature M I oocytes and 237 (5% immature GV oocytes. Under in vitro conditions, 68.7% (90/131 GV oocytes attained maturity. Among M I oocytes, 63.6% (136/214 cells matured already after 5 hours and 26.6% (57/214 until the next day. In all 14 women with only immature oocytes, the embryos for embryotransfer were obtained after in vitro maturation and ICSI procedure. The result was four pregnancies and two deliveries.Conclusions. Immature oocytes, obtained in hormonally stimulated cycles, may become clinically applicable if left to mature in vitro in a simple medium without supplementation of growth factors and hormones.

  19. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

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    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  20. Inherited effects from mouse immature oocytes following low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Khan, R.; Raabe, O.G.; Walsh, K.J.; Wiley, L.M.

    1992-07-01

    Immature oocytes represent the genetic pool in female mice as well as in women and therefore are principal cells of concern for genetic studies. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic effects in female mice can be masked by the hypersensitive plasma membrane lethality target of immature oocytes. Studies have also shown that genetic effects can be detected when the plasma mambrane is sufficiently spared. Here, new data obtained using the mouse preimplantation embryo chimera assay are presented and discussed in light of previous findings for irradiated mouse oocytes

  1. Vital pulp therapy in symptomatic immature permanent molars: Report of 3 cases

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    SheikhRezaie MS.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nEndodontic treatment of immature permanent teeth accompanies with several issues. The primary goal when treating such teeth is to maintain pulp vitality so that root development can occur normally. Indications and requirements for vital pulp therapy include asymptomatic and reversible pulpitis. Also there are controversial opinions regarding the ultimate clinical treatment of the vital pulp therapy techniques. In this manuscript we report 3 cases of immature symptomatic permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis caused by caries exposure of the pulp that have been undergone vital pulp therapy successfully.

  2. Determination of reference ranges for immature platelet and reticulocyte fractions and reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent

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    Iuri Vicente Camargo Morkis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The immature platelet and immature reticulocyte fractions represent the ratios of platelets and reticulocytes recently released into the circulation and thus with higher RNA content. They are considered early indicators of bone marrow recovery. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the reference ranges for the immature platelet and reticulocyte fractions of hematologically normal individuals in a university hospital. Methods: Venous blood samples collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid K3 were analyzed using a Sysmex XE-5000™ analyzer. Individuals with platelet and reticulocyte counts within the reference ranges, and a blood count within the laboratory's screening criteria were included. Individuals with clinical conditions that could affect hematological results were excluded. The immature platelet fraction, high, medium and low fluorescence reticulocyte fractions and reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent were evaluated. The reference ranges were determined according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Results: One hundred and thirty-two outpatients were evaluated. The mean age was 44 years (range: 13-80 years, 72 (54.5% were women treated in a university hospital. The mean platelet count was 250.8 × 109/L and the mean reticulocyte count was 0.052 × 109/L. The following reference ranges were obtained: immature reticulocyte fraction 1.6-12.1%, the high, medium and low fluorescence reticulocyte fractions were 0.0-1.7%, 1.6-11.0% and 87.9-98.4%, respectively, the reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent was 30.0-37.6% and immature platelet fraction was 0.8-5.6%. There was a statistically significant difference (p-value = 0.006 between genders in respect to the immature platelet fraction with 0.8-4.7% for females and 0.7-6.1% for males. The immature reticulocyte fraction was directly correlated with the reticulocyte count. Conclusion: Determining the reference range is

  3. Cortisol, Cytokines, and Hippocampal Volume in the Elderly

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    Keith Daniel Sudheimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation.

  4. Hippocampal multimodal structural changes and subclinical depression in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Fagioli, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies report reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients. However, it is still unclear if hippocampal changes in healthy individuals can be considered a risk factor for progression to clinical depression. Here, we investigated subclinical depression and its hippocampal correlates in a non-clinical sample of healthy individuals, with particular regard to gender differences. One-hundred-two participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging protocol using a 3T MRI scanner. Data of macro-(volume) and micro-(mean diffusivity, MD) structural changes of the hippocampus were analyzed with reference to the Beck Depression Inventory score. Results of multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced bilateral volume, along with increased bilateral MD in hippocampal formation predicting subclinical depressive phenomenology only in healthy males. Conversely, subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy female was accounted for by only lower educational level, in the absence of any hippocampal structure variations. To date, this is the only evidence reporting a relationship between subclinical depressive phenomenology and changes in hippocampal formation in healthy individuals. Our findings demonstrated that reduced volume, along with increased MD in hippocampal formation, is significantly associated with subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy males. This encourages to study the hypothesis that early macro- and microstructural changes in hippocampi associated with subclinical depression may constitute a risk factor of developing depressive disorders in males. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Amniotic fluid and development of the immature intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette Viberg

    ) – to remain constant with an incidence of ~1 in 1000 live births. Nutritional interventions and feeding strategies are central for the critical care of preterm infants in general, and for the prevention and management of NEC in particular, and include parenteral nutrition (PN), minimal enteral nutrition (MEN......), and slow advancement of enteral feeds. Human breast milk is the gold standard of enteral nutrition (EN) of the newborn and protects against NEC in premature infants, but is often unavailable or limited after preterm birth. Innovative nutrition strategies and novel sources of the first EN are therefore...

  6. Cognitive deficits caused by prefrontal cortical and hippocampal neural disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Tobias; Pezze, Marie; McGarrity, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    We review recent evidence concerning the significance of inhibitory GABA transmission and of neural disinhibition, that is, deficient GABA transmission, within the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, for clinically relevant cognitive functions. Both regions support important cognitive functions, including attention and memory, and their dysfunction has been implicated in cognitive deficits characterizing neuropsychiatric disorders. GABAergic inhibition shapes cortico-hippocampal neural activity, and, recently, prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition has emerged as a pathophysiological feature of major neuropsychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline. Regional neural disinhibition, disrupting spatio-temporal control of neural activity and causing aberrant drive of projections, may disrupt processing within the disinhibited region and efferent regions. Recent studies in rats showed that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition (by local GABA antagonist microinfusion) dysregulates burst firing, which has been associated with important aspects of neural information processing. Using translational tests of clinically relevant cognitive functions, these studies showed that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition disrupts regional cognitive functions (including prefrontal attention and hippocampal memory function). Moreover, hippocampal neural disinhibition disrupted attentional performance, which does not require the hippocampus but requires prefrontal-striatal circuits modulated by the hippocampus. However, some prefrontal and hippocampal functions (including inhibitory response control) are spared by regional disinhibition. We consider conceptual implications of these findings, regarding the distinct relationships of distinct cognitive functions to prefrontal and hippocampal GABA tone and neural activity. Moreover, the findings support the proposition that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition

  7. Hippocampal sclerosis: correlation of MR imaging findings with surgical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Sung Ho; Nam, Hyun Woo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Cho, Woo Ho

    2001-01-01

    Atrophy and a high T2 signal of the hippocampus are known to be the principal MR imaging findings of hippocampal sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not individual MRI findings correlate with surgical outcome in patients with this condition. Preoperative MR imaging findings in 57 consecutive patients with pathologically-proven hippocampal sclerosis who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were followed-up for 24 months or more were retrospectively reviewed, and the results were compared with the postsurgical outcome (Engel classification). The MR images included routine sagittal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted spin-echo images, and oblique coronal T1-weighted 3D gradient-echo and T2-weighted 2D fast spin-echo images obtained on either a 1.5 T or 1.0 T unit. The images were visually evaluated by two neuroradiologists blinded to the outcome; their focus was the presence or absence of atrophy and a high T2 hippocampal signal. Hippocampal atrophy was seen in 96% of cases (55/57) [100% (53/53) of the good outcome group (Engel class I and II), and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group (class III and IV)]. A high T2 hippocampal signal was seen in 61% of cases (35/57) [62% (33/53) of the good outcome group and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group]. All 35 patients with a high T2 signal had hippocampal atrophy. 'Normal' hippocampus, as revealed by MR imaging, occurred in 4% of patients (2/57), both of whom showed a poor outcome (Engel class III). The presence or absence of hippocampal atrophy correlated well with surgical outcome (p 0.05). Compared with a high T2 hippocampal signal, hippocampal atrophy is more common and correlates better with surgical outcome. For the prediction of this, it thus appears to be the more useful indicator

  8. Data on pharmacological applications and hypothermia protection against in vitro oxygen-glucose-deprivation-related neurodegeneration of adult rat CA1 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Öz

    2017-02-01

    Here, the use CA1sp width measurements on Nissl-stained hippocampal slices is introduced as a valid and affordable method for detecting the level of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection on hippocampal slices. The protective effect of hypothermia was found to be more pronounced compared to other agents.

  9. A cross-sectional study of hormone treatment and hippocampal volume in postmenopausal women: evidence for a limited window of opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika S; Chaddock, Laura; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-01-01

    The influence of hormone treatment on brain and cognition in postmenopausal women has been a controversial topic. Contradictory patterns of results have prompted speculation that a critical period, or limited window of opportunity, exists for hormone treatment to protect against neurocognitive. In this cross-sectional study of 102 postmenopausal women, we examined whether hippocampal, amygdala, or caudate nucleus volumes and spatial memory performance were related to the interval between menopause and the initiation of hormone treatment. Consistent with a critical period hypothesis, we found that shorter intervals between menopause and the initiation of hormone treatment were associated with larger hippocampal volumes compared with longer intervals between menopause and treatment initiation. Initiation of hormone treatment at the time of menopause was also associated with larger hippocampal volumes when compared with peers who had never used hormone treatment. Furthermore, these effects were independent from potentially confounding factors such as age, years of education, the duration of hormone treatment, current or past use of hormone therapy, the type of therapy, and age at menopause. Larger hippocampal volumes in women who initiated hormone treatment at the time of menopause failed to translate to improved spatial memory performance. There was no relationship between timing of hormone initiation, spatial memory performance, and amygdala or caudate nucleus volume. Our results provide support for a limited window of opportunity for hormone treatment to influence hippocampal volume, yet the degree to which these effects translate to improved memory performance is uncertain. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on hippocampal neurons in high-glucose condition: involvement of PI3K/AKT/nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R-H; Lin, J; Hou, X-H; Cao, R; Yu, F; Liu, H-Q; Ji, A-L; Xu, X-N; Zhang, L; Wang, F

    2014-08-22

    Accumulating evidence suggested that hyperglycemia played a critical role in hippocampus dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the multifactorial pathogenesis of hyperglycemia-induced impairments of hippocampal neurons has not been fully elucidated. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to enhance learning and memory and affect neural function in various experimental conditions. The present study investigated the effects of DHA on the lipid peroxidation, the level of inflammatory cytokines and neuron apoptosis in the hippocampal neurons in high-glucose condition. High-glucose administration increased the level of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-6, induced oxidative stress and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in vitro. DHA treatment reduced oxidative stress and TNF-α expression, protected the hippocampal neurons by increasing AKT phosphorylation and decreasing caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression. These results suggested that high-glucose exposure induced injury of hippocampal neurons in vitro, and the principle mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effect of DHA were its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic potential. DHA may thus be of use in preventing or treating neuron-degeneration resulting from hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hippocampal atrophy on MRI is predictive of histopathological patterns and surgical prognosis in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Anaclara Prada; Corso, Jeana Torres; Garcia, Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho; Gaça, Larissa Botelho; Comper, Sandra Mara; Lancellotti, Carmen Lúcia Penteado; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Carrete, Henrique; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Scorza, Carla Alessandra; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2016-12-01

    To correlate hippocampal volumes obtained from brain structural imaging with histopathological patterns of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), in order to predict surgical outcome. Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with HS were selected. Clinical data were assessed pre-operatively and surgical outcome in the first year post surgery. One block of mid hippocampal body was selected for HS classification according to ILAE criteria. NeuN-immunoreactive cell bodies were counted within hippocampal subfields, in four randomly visual fields, and cell densities were transformed into z-score values. FreeSurfer processing of 1.5T brain structural images was used for subcortical and cortical volumetric estimation of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Univariate analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation test were applied for statistical analyses. Sixty-two cases (31 female, 32 right HS) were included. ILAE type 1 HS was identified in 48 patients, type 2 in eight, type 3 in two, and four had no-HS. Better results regarding seizure control, i.e. ILAE 1, were achieved by patients with type 1 HS (58.3%). Patients with types 1 and 2 had smaller hippocampal volumes compared to those with no-HS (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). Positive correlation was encountered between hippocampal volumes and CA1, CA3, CA4, and total estimated neuronal densities. CA2 was the only sector which did not correlate its neuronal density with hippocampal volume (p=0.390). This is the first study correlating hippocampal volume on MRI submitted to FreeSurfer processing with ILAE patterns of HS and neuronal loss within each hippocampal subfield, a fundamental finding to anticipate surgical prognosis for patients with drug-resistant MTLE and HS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Patients with previous definite stent thrombosis have a larger fraction of immature platelets and a reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Grove, Erik; Wulff, Lise Nielsen

    turnover. Key Words: aspirin; immature platelets; platelet aggregation; platelet function tests; stent thrombosis Abbreviations: ARU, aspirin reaction units; AU, aggregation units; BMS, bare-metal stent(s); DES, drug-eluting stent(s); IPF, immature platelet fraction; MEA, multiple electrode aggregometry...

  13. Hippocampal Atrophy Is Associated with Altered Hippocampus-Posterior Cingulate Cortex Connectivity in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Y C; Tseng, C E; Lin, F-H; Liou, H H; Tseng, W Y I

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis have structural and functional abnormalities in the mesial temporal regions. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of the epileptic network in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis, we aimed to clarify the relationships between hippocampal atrophy and the altered connection between the hippocampus and the posterior cingulate cortex in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Fifteen patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and 15 healthy controls were included in the study. Multicontrast MR imaging, including high-resolution T1WI, diffusion spectrum imaging, and resting-state fMRI, was performed to measure the hippocampal volume, structural connectivity of the inferior cingulum bundle, and intrinsic functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the posterior cingulate cortex, respectively. Compared with controls, patients had decreased left hippocampal volume (volume ratio of the hippocampus and controls, 0.366% ± 0.029%; patients, 0.277% ± 0.063%, corrected P = .002), structural connectivity of the bilateral inferior cingulum bundle (generalized fractional anisotropy, left: controls, 0.234 ± 0.020; patients, 0.193 ± 0.022, corrected P = .0001, right: controls, 0.226 ± 0.022; patients, 0.208 ± 0.017, corrected P = .047), and intrinsic functional connectivity between the left hippocampus and the left posterior cingulate cortex (averaged z-value: controls, 0.314 ± 0.152; patients, 0.166 ± 0.062). The left hippocampal volume correlated with structural connectivity positively (standardized β = 0.864, P = .001), but it had little correlation with intrinsic functional connectivity (standardized β = -0.329, P = .113). On the contralesional side, the hippocampal volume did not show any significant correlation with structural connectivity or intrinsic functional connectivity ( F 2,12 = 0.284, P = .757, R 2

  14. Tau protein and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Almudena eFuster-Matanzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tau protein is a microtubule associated protein found in the axonal compartment that stabilizes neuronal microtubules under normal physiological conditions. Tau metabolism has attracted much attention because of its role in neurodegenerative disorders called tauopathies, mainly Alzheimer disease. Here, we review recent findings suggesting that axonal outgrowth in subgranular zone during adult hippocampal neurogenesis requires a dynamic microtubule network and tau protein facilitates to maintain that dynamic cytoskeleton. Those functions are carried out in part by tau isoform with only three microtubule-binding domains (without exon 10 and by presence of hypherphosphorylated tau forms. Thus, tau is a good marker and a valuable tool to study new axons in adult neurogenesis.

  15. Spatial relational memory requires hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dupret

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few regions of the mammalian brain where new neurons are generated throughout adulthood. This adult neurogenesis has been proposed as a novel mechanism that mediates spatial memory. However, data showing a causal relationship between neurogenesis and spatial memory are controversial. Here, we developed an inducible transgenic strategy allowing specific ablation of adult-born hippocampal neurons. This resulted in an impairment of spatial relational memory, which supports a capacity for flexible, inferential memory expression. In contrast, less complex forms of spatial knowledge were unaltered. These findings demonstrate that adult-born neurons are necessary for complex forms of hippocampus-mediated learning.

  16. Gene-environment effects on hippocampal neurodevelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    Mental disorders like schizophrenia and autism put a heavy load on today’s societies, creating a steady call for revealing underlying disease mechanisms and the development of effective treatments. The etiology of major psychiatric illnesses is complex involving gene by environment susceptibility...... factors. Hence, a deeper understanding is needed of how cortical neurodevelopmental deficiencies can arise from such gene-environment interactions. The convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors is a recent field of research. It is now clear that disease, infection and stress factors may...... and antipsychotics mediate their effects on hippocampal neurodevelopment through deregulation of the Zbtb20 gene. A short presentation of the status of this work will shown....

  17. Hummingbirds have a greatly enlarged hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian J; Day, Lainy B; Wilkening, Steven R; Wylie, Douglas R; Saucier, Deborah M; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2012-08-23

    Both field and laboratory studies demonstrate that hummingbirds (Apodiformes, Trochilidae) have exceptional spatial memory. The complexity of spatial-temporal information that hummingbirds must retain and use daily is probably subserved by the hippocampal formation (HF), and therefore, hummingbirds should have a greatly expanded HF. Here, we compare the relative size of the HF in several hummingbird species with that of other birds. Our analyses reveal that the HF in hummingbirds is significantly larger, relative to telencephalic volume, than any bird examined to date. When expressed as a percentage of telencephalic volume, the hummingbird HF is two to five times larger than that of caching and non-caching songbirds, seabirds and woodpeckers. This HF expansion in hummingbirds probably underlies their ability to remember the location, distribution and nectar content of flowers, but more detailed analyses are required to determine the extent to which this arises from an expansion of HF or a decrease in size of other brain regions.

  18. Neuronal degeneration induced by status epilepticus in the nucleus accumens of immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Druga, Rastislav; Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, s6 (2007), s. 19-20 ISSN 0013-9580. [Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society. 31.112007-3.12.2007, Philadelphia] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/07/1137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * neuronal degeneration * status epilepticus * immature rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  19. Differences in Mating Propensity Between Immature Female Color Morphs in the Damselfly Ischnura elegans (Insecta : Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Ana Sanchez-Guillen, Rosa; Van Gossum, Hans

    Female-limited color polymorphisms occur in a variety of animal taxa where excessive male sexual harassment may explain the coexistence of multiple female color morphs. In the color polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans, mature and immature female color morphs coexist at the mating site where males

  20. Estrogenic activity of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in uterus of immature Wistar rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kummer, V.; Mašková, J.; Zralý, Z.; Neča, J.; Šimečková, P.; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 3 (2008), s. 212-221 ISSN 0378-4274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * rat immature uterothrophic assay * estrogen receptor Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.249, year: 2008

  1. Free and sulphurized hopanoids and highly branched isoprenoids in immature lacustrine oil shales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Las Heras, F.X.C. de; Grimalt, J.O.; Lopez, J.F.; Albaiges, J.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1997-01-01

    A study of the solvent extracts of four samples from two immature oil shales from Tertiary lacustrine basins, Ribesalbes and Campins (southern European rift system), deposited under reducing conditions, has allowed the identification of S-containing hopanoids and novel highly branched isoprenoids

  2. Occurrence of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Immatures of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Insecta: Plecoptera: Perlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Avelino-Capistrano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available First register of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in immature of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Plecoptera: Perlidae. The insects were collected in rivers of Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo, Brazil.

  3. Immaturity of human stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes in culture: fatal flaw or soluble problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, Christiaan C.; Kosmidis, Georgios; Mummery, Christine L.; Casini, Simona; Verkerk, Arie O.; Bellin, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-CMs) are increasingly used to model cardiac disease, test drug efficacy and for safety pharmacology. Nevertheless, a major hurdle to more extensive use is their immaturity and similarity to fetal rather than adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we

  4. Food transfers in immature wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Angela A; Fletcher, Alison W

    2006-10-01

    The transfer of food items between individuals has been described in primates as serving an informative purpose in addition to supplementing the diet of immature individuals. This behaviour has yet to be described in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and results are presented here of observations of food transfers in immature gorillas at Mbeli Bai, Republic of Congo. The frequency of food transfers decreased with increasing immature age, while the frequency of independent feeding and processing of food increased. Transfers between mothers and infants were the most frequent, with infants attempting to take items from the mother. These attempts were not always successful and the item was relinquished on less than 50% of attempts. Mothers also took items from their offspring. The results point to the functional significance of food transfers in western lowland gorillas being informational. In a bai environment, where one species forms the majority of a visiting gorilla's diet despite other species being available, the initiation of food transfers by immatures is proposed to serve the purpose of familiarising them with which species, and which parts of those species, may be eaten.

  5. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Junichi; Nakajima, Kana; Noda, Takuji; Kimura, Satoko; Kamihata, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Masato; Arai, Nobuaki; Kagawa, Shiro; Kawabata, Yuuki; Yamada, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively to maximise their fitness, which manifests itself in a variety of behavioral strategies. For marine animals, however, these behavioral strategies are generally unknown due to the lack of high-resolution monitoring techniques in marine habitats. As large marine herbivores, immature green turtles do not need to allocate energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence. They are therefore assumed to select/use feeding and resting sites that maximise their fitness in terms of somatic growth, while avoiding predation. We investigated fine-scale behavioral patterns (feeding, resting and other behaviors), microhabitat use and time spent on each behavior for eight immature green turtles using data loggers including: depth, global positioning system, head acceleration, speed and video sensors. Immature green turtles at Iriomote Island, Japan, spent an average of 4.8 h feeding on seagrass each day, with two peaks, between 5∶00 and 9∶00, and between 17∶00 and 20∶00. This feeding pattern appeared to be restricted by gut capacity, and thus maximised energy acquisition. Meanwhile, most of the remaining time was spent resting at locations close to feeding grounds, which allowed turtles to conserve energy spent travelling and reduced the duration of periods exposed to predation. These behavioral patterns and time allocations allow immature green turtles to effectively obtain/conserve energy for growth, thus maximising their fitness. PMID:23840367

  6. GABA-B antagonist potentiates cortical epileptic afterdischarges in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. S6 (2005), s. 358-358 ISSN 0013-9580. [International Epilepsy Congress /26./. 28.08.2005-01.09.2005, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : GAGA-B antagonist * cortical afterdischarges * immature rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  7. Evaluation of immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium Linn. plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Roba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate immature mosquitocidal properties of Xanthium strumarium plant extracts against Culex mosquitoes at Entomology Laboratory, Maraki Campus, University of Gondar. Methods: The immature mosquitocidal activity of plant extracts was tested by following World Health Organization recommended protocol. Acetone, methanol and water extracts were prepared at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations and tested against third and fourth instar larvae and pupae of Culex mosquitoes. The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure period continuously. Results: Third instar larvae after 24 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 77.80% was recorded at 250 mg/L concentration of acetone extract. After 48 h and 72 h exposure period, maximum mortality of 88.90% was recorded in acetone extract in all the tested concentration. The maximum mortality of fourth instar larvae was 88.90% in acetone extract at 200 and 250 mg/L concentrations. Pupal mortality was also greater in acetone extract. The percentage of mortality in all the stage of mosquitoes was higher in acetone extract followed by methanol and water extract. Conclusions: The percentage of mortality is associated with concentration of the extracts tested and exposure period. This laboratory study confirmed immature mosquitocidal activity of Xanthium strumarium leaf extracts against Culex mosquitoes. The aqueous leaf extract can be used by applying on small man-made breeding places to prevent adult emergence.

  8. Spermatogenesis is accelerated in the immature Djungarian and Chinese hamster and rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaster, L. H.; de rooij, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    The rate of progression of spermatogenesis was studied in immature Djungarian and Chinese hamsters and Wistar rats by scoring the most advanced cell types present at various ages after birth. From 15 days of age onward, the most advanced cell types in the Djungarian hamsters were formed at a rate

  9. Mauritinus seferi Bondar, 1960: bionomy, description of immature stages and redescription of adult (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luís Leitão Barbosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mature larvae of Mauritinus seferi Bondar, 1960 were collected in the mesocarp of murity palm (Mauritia flexuosa Linnaeus, in the State of Pará, Brazil. Larvae were reared to pupa and adults in the laboratory. Mature larva and pupa are described and adult redescribed. Adult and immature are illustrated for the first time. Observations about bionomy are included and discussed.

  10. An improved vitrification protocol for equine immature oocytes, resulting in a first live foal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Escribano, N.; Bogado Pascottini, O.; Woelders, H.; Vandenberghe, L.; Schauwer, De C.; Govaere, J.; Abbeel, Van den E.; Vullers, T.; Ververs, C.; Roels, K.; De Velde, Van M.; Soom, van A.; Smits, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The success rate for vitrification of immature equine oocytes is low. Although vitrified-warmed oocytes are able to mature, further embryonic development appears to be compromised. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare two vitrification protocols, and to examine the effect of

  11. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine Herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Okuyama

    Full Text Available Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively to maximise their fitness, which manifests itself in a variety of behavioral strategies. For marine animals, however, these behavioral strategies are generally unknown due to the lack of high-resolution monitoring techniques in marine habitats. As large marine herbivores, immature green turtles do not need to allocate energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence. They are therefore assumed to select/use feeding and resting sites that maximise their fitness in terms of somatic growth, while avoiding predation. We investigated fine-scale behavioral patterns (feeding, resting and other behaviors, microhabitat use and time spent on each behavior for eight immature green turtles using data loggers including: depth, global positioning system, head acceleration, speed and video sensors. Immature green turtles at Iriomote Island, Japan, spent an average of 4.8 h feeding on seagrass each day, with two peaks, between 5∶00 and 9∶00, and between 17∶00 and 20∶00. This feeding pattern appeared to be restricted by gut capacity, and thus maximised energy acquisition. Meanwhile, most of the remaining time was spent resting at locations close to feeding grounds, which allowed turtles to conserve energy spent travelling and reduced the duration of periods exposed to predation. These behavioral patterns and time allocations allow immature green turtles to effectively obtain/conserve energy for growth, thus maximising their fitness.

  12. Lethal effects of selected novel pesticides on immature stages of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ashraf; Ruberson, John R

    2017-12-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important egg parasitoid and biological control agent of caterpillar pests. We studied the acute toxicity of 20 pesticides (14 insecticides/miticides, three fungicides and three herbicides) exposed to recommended field rates. Egg, larval, and pupal stages of the parasitoid in their hosts were dipped in formulated solutions of the pesticides and evaluated 10 days later for percentage of host eggs with holes, number of parasitoids emerged per egg with holes, and stage-specific mortality of immature as well as adult wasps within the host eggs. Seven insecticides (buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, spirotetramat, flonicamid, flubendiamide) and miticides (spiromesifen, cyflumetofen), one herbicide (nicosulfuron), and three fungicides (myclobutanil, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole) caused no significant mortality to immature stages or pre-emergent adult parasitoids relative to controls. By contrast, seven insecticides/miticides (abamectin, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, fipronil, novaluron, spinetoram, tolfenpyrad) adversely affected immature and pre-emergent adult T. pretiosum, with tolfenpyrad being particularly lethal. Two herbicides had moderate (glufosinate ammonium) to severe (s-metolachlor) acute lethal effects on the immature parasitoids. This study corroborates earlier findings with adult T. pretiosum. Over half of the pesticides - and all the fungicides - tested in the current study would appear to be compatible with the use of T. pretiosum in integrated pest management programs, with respect to acute parasitoid mortality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Immature truncated O-glycophenotype of cancer directly induces oncogenic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Dabelsteen, Sally; Madsen, Frey Brus

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant expression of immature truncated O-glycans is a characteristic feature observed on virtually all epithelial cancer cells, and a very high frequency is observed in early epithelial premalignant lesions that precede the development of adenocarcinomas. Expression of the truncated O-glycan s...

  14. Functional vegetable guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) accessions for improving flavonoid concentrations in immature pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub) seed are primarily used to extract galactomannan gum for oil fracking, however the immature pods are used as a vegetable in India and sold in ethnic grocery stores in the Atlanta, GA area. Twenty-two guar genotypes were grown in the field at Griffin, GA, US...

  15. Productive container types for Aedes aegypti immatures in Mérida, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rejón, Julian E; López-Uribe, Mildred P; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Del Najera-Vazquez, Maria Rosario; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2011-05-01

    During 2007-2010, we examined which container types in Mérida, México, are most productive for Aedes aegypti (L.) immatures. Surveys for mosquito immatures followed routine surveillance methodology and container type classifications used by Servicios de Salud de Yucatán. Our main findings were that (1) small and larger discarded containers that serve no particular purpose and therefore can be removed from the environment contribute strongly to larval and pupal production in Mérida, and (2) the importance of different container types can vary among sets of residential premises as well as between dry and wet periods. These results may help to guide future implementation in Mérida of control efforts that target the most productive container types for Ae. aegypti immatures. Furthermore, if the Patio Limpio cleanup campaign that currently is ongoing in Mérida proves successful in removing discarded containers as important immature development sites, then we should see dramatic changes in the most productive container types in the future as the mosquito is forced to switch to other container types, which perhaps also will be easier to include in highly targeted mosquito control interventions.

  16. Behavioral consequences of the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MTEP in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Kateřina; Mikulecká, Anna; Mareš, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2011), s. 619-625 ISSN 0091-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/10/1274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : sensorimotor performance * exploratory behavior * anxiety * learning * immature rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.532, year: 2011

  17. Age, Dose, and Time-Dependency of Plasma and Tissue Distribution of Deltamethrine in Immature Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major objective of this project was to characterize the systemic disposition of the pyrethroid, deltamethrin (DLT), in immature rats, with emphasis on the age-dependence of target organ (brain) dosimetry. Postnatal day (PND) 10, 21, and 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0...

  18. Enhanced regeneration potential of mobilized dental pulp stem cells from immature teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, H; Iohara, K; Hayashi, Y; Okuwa, Y; Kurita, K; Nakashima, M

    2017-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from mature teeth by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced mobilization method can enhance angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and improve pulp regeneration when compared with colony-derived DPSCs. However, the efficacy of this method in immature teeth with root-formative stage has never been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the stemness, biological characteristics, and regeneration potential in mobilized DPSCs compared with colony-derived DPSCs from immature teeth. Mobilized DPSCs isolated from immature teeth were compared to colony-derived DPSCs using methods including flow cytometry, migration assays, mRNA expression of angiogenic/neurotrophic factor, and induced differentiation assays. They were also compared in trophic effects of the secretome. Regeneration potential was further compared in an ectopic tooth transplantation model. Mobilized DPSCs had higher migration ability and expressed more angiogenic/neurotrophic factors than DPSCs. The mobilized DPSC secretome produced a higher stimulatory effect on migration, immunomodulation, anti-apoptosis, endothelial differentiation, and neurite extension. In addition, vascularization and pulp regeneration potential were higher in mobilized DPSCs than in DPSCs. G-CSF-induced mobilization method enhances regeneration potential of colony-derived DPSCs from immature teeth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Glucocorticoid effects on hippocampal protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlatter, L.K.

    1988-01-01

    Following subcutaneous injection of rats with 5 mg corticosterone, hippocampal slices in vitro show increased [ 35 S]-methionine labeling of a cytosolic protein with an apparent molecular weight (M r ) of 35,000 and an isoelectric point (IEP) of 6.6. This labeling is temporally consistent with a transcriptional event, and is steroid- and tissue-specific. The pear serum concentration of steroid occurs one hour or less following the injection. Maximal labeling of this protein is reached whenever serum corticosterone values are approximately 100 ng/ml. When endogenous corticosterone levels are elevated to 100 ng/ml through stressors or exogenous ACTH injections the same maximal increase in synthesis of the 35,000 M r protein is observed. Adrenalectomy prevents the observed response from occurring following stressor application or ACTH injections. Comparison of the increases observed after administration of the type 2 receptor agonist RU 28362 and aldosterone, which has a higher affinity for the type 1 receptor, shows a 50-fold greater sensitivity of the response to the type 2 receptor agonist. Synthesis of this protein following serum increases of steroid possibly correlates to the theorized function of the type 2 receptor feedback regulation. The similar protein in the liver has an IEP of 6.8 and a slightly higher M r . A second hippocampal protein with an M r of 46,000 and an IEP of 6.2 is also increased in labeling. Two additional liver proteins, one of Mr 53,000 (IEP of 6.2) and the other with an M r of 45,000 (IEP of 8.7-7.8) are increased in the liver following glucocorticoid administration

  20. Hippocampal damage and memory impairment in congenital cyanotic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, Mónica; Hoskote, Aparna; Chadwick, Martin J; Dzieciol, Anna M; Gadian, David G; Chong, Kling; Banks, Tina; de Haan, Michelle; Baldeweg, Torsten; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal hypoxia can lead to hippocampal atrophy, which can lead, in turn, to memory impairment. To test the generalizability of this causal sequence, we examined a cohort of 41 children aged 8-16, who, having received the arterial switch operation to correct for transposition of the great arteries, had sustained significant neonatal cyanosis but were otherwise neurodevelopmentally normal. As predicted, the cohort had significant bilateral reduction of hippocampal volumes relative to the volumes of 64 normal controls. They also had significant, yet selective, impairment of episodic memory as measured by standard tests of memory, despite relatively normal levels of intelligence, academic attainment, and verbal fluency. Across the cohort, degree of memory impairment was correlated with degree of hippocampal atrophy suggesting that even as early as neonatal life no other structure can fully compensate for hippocampal injury and its special role in serving episodic long term memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition.

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IMPAIRS HIPPOCAMPAL LEARNING AND SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of environmental chemicals have been reported to alter thyroid hormone (TH) function. It is well established that severe hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain development leads to alterations in hippocampal structure and learning deficits, yet evaluation of ...

  3. Status epilepticus in immature rats is associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava eFolbergrová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder, particularly frequent in infants and children where it can lead to serious consequences later in life. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders including epilepsy in adults. However, their role in immature epileptic brain is unclear since there have been two contrary opinions: oxidative stress is age-dependent and does not occur in immature brain during status epilepticus and, on the other hand, evidence of oxidative stress in immature brain during a specific model of status epilepticus. To solve this dilemma, we have decided to investigate oxidative stress following status epilepticus induced in immature 12-day-old rats by three substances with a different mechanism of action, namely 4-aminopyridine, LiCl-pilocarpine or kainic acid. FluoroJade-B staining revealed mild brain damage especially in hippocampus and thalamus in each of the tested models. Decrease of glucose and glycogen with parallel rises of lactate clearly indicate high rate of glycolysis, which was apparently not sufficient in 4-AP and Li-Pilo status, as evident from the decreases of PCr levels. Hydroethidium method revealed significantly higher levels of superoxide anion (by ~60 % in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and thalamus of immature rats during status. Status epilepticus lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with a specific pronounced decrease of complex I activity that persisted for a long period of survival. Complex II and IV activities remained in the control range. Antioxidant treatment with SOD mimetic MnTMPYP or peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inhibition of complex I activity. These findings bring evidence that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are age and model independent, and may thus be considered a general phenomenon. They can have a clinical relevance for a novel approach to the treatment of epilepsy

  4. Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal response during memory retrieval in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; O'Sullivan, Ursula; Harmer, Catherine J

    2007-01-01

    Although erythropoietin (Epo) is best known for its effects on erythropoiesis, recent evidence suggests that it also has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties in animal models of hippocampal function. Such an action in humans would make it an intriguing novel compound for the treatment....... This is consistent with upregulation of hippocampal BDNF and neurotrophic actions found in animals and highlights Epo as a promising candidate for treatment of psychiatric disorders....

  5. Comparison with hippocampal atrophy and hypoperfusion in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, YA; Kim, SH; Chung, SK; Juh, RH; Sohn, HS; Suh, TS; Choe, BY

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hypoperfusion and hippocampal atropy of the medial temporal lobe are peculiarity of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The manual ROI (region of interest) technique for hippocampal volume estimation is specific and sensitive for the detection of hippocampal atrophy. In patients with AD reported a significant correlation between hippocampal volume and hypoperfusion. This study investigated correlations between atrophy distinct medial temporal lobe structure and hypoperfusion in hippocampal volumetry. Methods: The hippocampi were individually outlined on Tl-weighted volumetry MRI and calculated with MATLAB in 12 patients with AD. All volume measurements were performed by a segmentation technique with a combination of tracing and thresholding. The volume of a given structure in each slice was obtained by automatically counting the number of pixels within the segmented regions and multiplying the number by a voxel size. In order to permit direct regional comparisons, both of each patient's Tc- 99m ECD SPECT was then registered to the patient's MRI. Delineation continued anteriorly in each contiguous slice reaching the head of the hippocampus, which was distinguished from the overlying amygdala by the presence of the alveus or uncal recess. The right hippocampus (RH) was measured first, followed by the left hippocampus (LH). The accuracy of registration was investigated in a validation study with developed brain phantom. Results:The mean total intracranial volume of the AD was significantly smaller volume (1492.9 cm 3 ) and hypo perfused than those in normal subjects. The mean hippocampal volumes were 2.01 cm 3 and l.99 cm 3 for the RH and LH. The correlations between volume and hypoperfusion in the affected hippocampi were found to be significant; especially the medial temporal lobe is markedly hypo perfused. Conclusion: Volumetry is the most sensitive tool for the detection of hippocampal abnormality in AD, and significant correlation between asymmetry in

  6. Damage of hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Ailin; Jiang, Hongbo; Xu, Lei; An, Na; Liu, Hui; Li, Yinsheng; Zhang, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism can damage the cytoskeleton and aggravate neurological deficits. However, the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neurons remains unclear. In this study, a model of chronic alcoholism was established in rats that were fed with 6% alcohol for 42 days. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide content and cystathionine-beta-synthase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism were significantly increased, while F-actin expression was decreased. Hippocampal neurons i...

  7. The effects of hormones and physical exercise on hippocampal structural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Paredes, Juan; Patten, Anna R; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an integral role in certain aspects of cognition. Hippocampal structural plasticity and in particular adult hippocampal neurogenesis can be influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here we review how hormones (i.e., intrinsic modulators) and physical exercise (i.e., an extrinsic modulator) can differentially modulate hippocampal plasticity in general and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in particular. Specifically, we provide an overview of the effects of sex hormones, stress hormones, and metabolic hormones on hippocampal structural plasticity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, we also discuss how physical exercise modulates these forms of hippocampal plasticity, giving particular emphasis on how this modulation can be affected by variables such as exercise regime, duration, and intensity. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the modulation of hippocampal structural plasticity by intrinsic and extrinsic factors will impact the design of new therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring hippocampal plasticity following brain injury or neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hippocampal lesions, contextual retrieval, and autoshaping in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jenny; Colombo, Michael

    2002-02-22

    Both pigeons and rats with damage to the hippocampus are slow to acquire an autoshaped response and emit fewer overall responses than control animals. Experiment 1 explored the possibility that the autoshaping deficit was due to an impairment in contextual retrieval. Pigeons were trained for 14 days on an autoshaping task in which a red stimulus was followed by reinforcement in context A, and a green stimulus was followed by reinforcement in context B. On day 15, the subjects were given a context test in which the red and green stimuli were presented simultaneously in context A and then later in context B. Both control and hippocampal animals showed context specificity, that is, they responded more to the red stimulus in context A and to the green stimulus in context B. In Experiment 2 we video-recorded the control and hippocampal animals performing the autoshaping task. Hippocampal animals tended to miss-peck the key more often than control animals. In addition, the number of missed pecks increased across days for hippocampal animals but not for control animals, suggesting that while the control animals increased their pecking accuracy, the hippocampal animals actually decreased their pecking accuracy. Our findings suggest that impairments in moving through space may underlie the hippocampal autoshaping deficit.

  9. Preliminary evidence of hippocampal damage in chronic users of ecstasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Bjørnar; Schouw, Marieke; Groot, Paul; Huisman, Henk; Caan, Matthan; Barkhof, Frederik; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown that ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) users display significant memory impairments, whereas their performance on other cognitive tests is generally normal. The hippocampus plays an essential role in short-term memory. There are, however, no structural human data on the effects of ecstasy on the hippocampus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the hippocampal volume of chronic ecstasy users is reduced when compared with healthy polydrug-using controls, as an indicator of hippocampal damage. The hippocampus was manually outlined in volumetric MRI scans in 10 male ecstasy users (mean age 25.4 years) and seven healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects (21.3 years). Other than the use of ecstasy, there were no statistically significant differences between both groups in exposure to other drugs of abuse and alcohol. The ecstasy users were on average drug-free for more than 2 months and had used on average 281 tablets over the past six and a half years. The hippocampal volume in the ecstasy using group was on average 10.5% smaller than the hippocampal volume in the control group (p=0.032). These data provide preliminary evidence that ecstasy users may be prone to incurring hippocampal damage, in line with previous reports of acute hippocampal sclerosis and subsequent atrophy in chronic users of this drug.

  10. Cytokines effects on radio-induced apoptosis in cortical and hippocampal rat cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffigny, H.; Briot, D.; Le Nin, I.

    2000-01-01

    raised to 128% and 134% when treated with βFGF or βFGF-EGF respectively in comparison with untreated culture (100%). This increase represented cell survival at seeding after cell isolation. After irradiation, the same values were 152% and 156%. This increase was the sum of cell survival at seeding and at irradiation. So, βFGF or βFGF-EGF clearly protect cortical cells from radio-induced cell death without interference with the cytokines mitotic effects. In similar hippocampal culture, only cell survival at seeding was observed. The glial cells represented 1.8% of cortical cell in 3 day old culture and the other cells being neurons and progenitors. In the same condition, glial cells represented 12% hippocampal cells. Glial cells are known to secrete βFGF. In cortical cell cultures, the few glial cells produce certainly small amount of βFGF, so neurons would be dependent of exogen contribution. In hippocampal cell culture, cells would live in autarchy. (author)

  11. Interactions between entorhinal axons and target hippocampal neurons: a role for glutamate in the development of hippocampal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, M P; Lee, R E; Adams, M E; Guthrie, P B; Kater, S B

    1988-11-01

    A coculture system consisting of input axons from entorhinal cortex explants and target hippocampal pyramidal neurons was used to demonstrate that glutamate, released spontaneously from afferent axons, can influence both dendritic geometry of target neurons and formation of presumptive synaptic sites. Dendritic outgrowth was reduced in hippocampal neurons growing on entorhinal axons when compared with neurons growing off the axons. Presumptive presynaptic sites were observed in association with hippocampal neuron dendrites and somas. HPLC analysis showed that glutamate was released from the explants in an activity- and Ca2(+)-dependent manner. The general glutamate receptor antagonist D-glutamylglycine significantly increased dendritic outgrowth in pyramidal neurons associated with entorhinal axons and reduced presumptive presynaptic sites. Tetrodotoxin and reduction of extracellular Ca2+ also promoted dendritic outgrowth and reduced the formation of presumptive synaptic sites. The results suggest that the neurotransmitter glutamate may play important roles in the development of hippocampal circuitry.

  12. Roles of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 and dynamin-related protein 1 in transient global ischemia-induced hippocampal neuronal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shang-Der, E-mail: chensd@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tsu-Kung [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ding-I. [Institute of Brain Science and Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Su-Ying [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Shaw, Fu-Zen [Department of Psychology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liou, Chia-Wei [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Yao-Chung, E-mail: ycchuang@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies showed that increased mitochondrial fission is an early event of cell death during cerebral ischemia and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays an important role in mitochondrial fission, which may be regulated by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a mitochondrial serine/threonine-protein kinase thought to protect cells from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and regulate mitochondrial fission. However, the roles of PINK1 and Drp1 in hippocampal injury caused by transient global ischemia (TGI) remain unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TGI may induce PINK1 causing downregulation of Drp1 phosphorylation to enhance hippocampal neuronal survival, thus functioning as an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. We found progressively increased PINK1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 subfield1-48 h following TGI, reaching the maximal level at 4 h. Despite lack of changes in the expression level of total Drp1 and phosphor-Drp1 at Ser637, TGI induced a time-dependent increase of Drp1 phosphorlation at Ser616 that peaked after 24 h. Notably, PINK1-siRNA increased p-Drp1(Ser616) protein level in hippocampal CA1 subfield 24 h after TGI. The PINK1 siRNA also aggravated the TGI-induced oxidative DNA damage with an increased 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content in hippocampal CA1 subfield. Furthermore, PINK1 siRNA also augmented TGI-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increased numbers of TUNEL-positive staining and enhanced DNA fragmentation. These findings indicated that PINK1 is an endogenous protective mediator vital for neuronal survival under ischemic insult through regulating Drp1 phosphorylation at Ser616. - Highlights: • Transient global ischemia increases expression of PINK1 and p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA decreases PINK1 expression but increases p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA augments oxidative stress and neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1 subfield.

  13. Roles of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 and dynamin-related protein 1 in transient global ischemia-induced hippocampal neuronal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Yang, Ding-I.; Lee, Su-Ying; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that increased mitochondrial fission is an early event of cell death during cerebral ischemia and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays an important role in mitochondrial fission, which may be regulated by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a mitochondrial serine/threonine-protein kinase thought to protect cells from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and regulate mitochondrial fission. However, the roles of PINK1 and Drp1 in hippocampal injury caused by transient global ischemia (TGI) remain unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TGI may induce PINK1 causing downregulation of Drp1 phosphorylation to enhance hippocampal neuronal survival, thus functioning as an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. We found progressively increased PINK1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 subfield1-48 h following TGI, reaching the maximal level at 4 h. Despite lack of changes in the expression level of total Drp1 and phosphor-Drp1 at Ser637, TGI induced a time-dependent increase of Drp1 phosphorlation at Ser616 that peaked after 24 h. Notably, PINK1-siRNA increased p-Drp1(Ser616) protein level in hippocampal CA1 subfield 24 h after TGI. The PINK1 siRNA also aggravated the TGI-induced oxidative DNA damage with an increased 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content in hippocampal CA1 subfield. Furthermore, PINK1 siRNA also augmented TGI-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increased numbers of TUNEL-positive staining and enhanced DNA fragmentation. These findings indicated that PINK1 is an endogenous protective mediator vital for neuronal survival under ischemic insult through regulating Drp1 phosphorylation at Ser616. - Highlights: • Transient global ischemia increases expression of PINK1 and p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA decreases PINK1 expression but increases p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA augments oxidative stress and neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1 subfield

  14. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of sub-optimal doses of fluoxetine plus estradiol on antidepressant-like behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rivera, Nelly M; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo; Estrada-Camarena, Erika

    2015-07-01

    Estrogens and antidepressants synergize to reduce depressive symptoms and stimulate neurogenesis and neuroplastic events. The aim of this study was to explore whether the antidepressant-like effect induced by the combination of low doses of estradiol (E2) and fluoxetine (FLX) involves changes in cell proliferation, early survival, morphology and dendrite complexity of hippocampal new-immature neurons. The antidepressant-like effects of E2 and/or FLX were evaluated by the forced swimming test (FST), cell proliferation was determined with the endogenous marker Ki67, survival of newborn cells was established with bromo-deoxiuridine (BrdU) and immature neurons were ascertained by doublecortin (DCX) labeling while their dendrite complexity was evaluated with Sholl analysis. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Vehicle (saline/14 days+Oil/-8h before FST); E2 (saline/14 days + E2 2.5 or 10 μg/rat; -8 h before FST); FLX (1.25 or 10 mg/kg for 14 days + oil -8h before FST), and FLX plus E2 (FLX 1.25 mg/kg for 14 days + E2 2.5 μg/rat -8 h before FST). The combination of sub-threshold doses of FLX plus E2 produced antidepressant-like actions similar to those induced by FLX or E2 given independently at optimal doses. Only FLX at an optimal dose and the combination of FLX plus E2 increased cell proliferation, the number of DCX-labeled immature neurons and the complexity of their dendritic tree, suggesting that these events may be responsible for their antidepressant-like effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevention of Hippocampal Neuronal Damage and Cognitive Function Deficits in Vascular Dementia by Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Kaili; Deng, Jiangshan; Zhao, Fei; Zhao, Bing-Qiao; Zhao, Yuwu

    2016-07-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and a widely used component of cough medicine. Recently, its indication has been extended experimentally to a wide range of disorders including inflammation-mediated central nervous system disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigate whether DM treatment has protective effects on the hippocampal neuron damage induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO]), an animal model of vascular dementia (VaD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) (10 weeks of age) rats were subjected to the 2VO, and DM was injected intraperitoneally once per day for 37 days. Neuron death, glial activation, and cognitive function were assessed at 37 days after 2VO (0.2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-0.2" and 2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-2"). DM-2 treatment provided protection against neuronal death and glial activation in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and reduced cognitive impairment induced by 2VO in rats. The study also demonstrates that activation of the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway and upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) play important roles in these effects. These results suggest that DM is effective in treating VaD and protecting against oxidative stress, which is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD. Therefore, the present study suggests that DM treatment may represent a new and promising protective strategy for treating VaD.

  17. Fluoxetine prevents the memory deficits and reduction in hippocampal cell proliferation caused by valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbat, Jariya Umka; Sangrich, Preeyanuch; Sirichoat, Apiwat; Chaisawang, Pornthip; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Prachaney, Parichat; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Wigmore, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a commonly used antiepileptic drug, has been reported to cause cognitive impairments in patients. In a previous study, using a rodent model, we showed that VPA treatment impaired cognition which was associated with a reduction in the cell proliferation required for hippocampal neurogenesis. The antidepressant fluoxetine has been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis and to reverse the memory deficits found in a number of pathological conditions. In the present study we investigated the protective effects of fluoxetine treatment against the impairments in memory and hippocampal cell proliferation produced by VPA. Male Sprague Dawley rats received daily treatment with fluoxetine (10mg/kg) by oral gavage for 21days. Some rats were co-administered with VPA (300mg/kg, twice daily i.p. injections) for 14days from day 8 to day 21 of the fluoxetine treatment. Spatial memory was tested using the novel object location (NOL) test. The number of proliferating cells present in the sub granular zone of the dentate gyrus was quantified using Ki67 immunohistochemistry at the end of the experiment. Levels of the receptor Notch1, the neurotrophic factor BDNF and the neural differentiation marker DCX were determined by Western blotting. VPA-treated rats showed memory deficits, a decrease in the number of proliferating cells in the sub granular zone and decreases in the levels of Notch1 and BDNF but not DCX compared to control animals. These changes in behavior, cell proliferation and Notch1 and BDNF were prevented in animals which had received both VPA and fluoxetine. Rats receiving fluoxetine alone did not show a significant difference in the number of proliferating cells or behavior compared to controls. These results demonstrated that the spatial memory deficits and reduction of cell proliferation produced by VPA can be ameliorated by the simultaneous administration of the antidepressant fluoxetine. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B

  18. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in stress resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunno R. Levone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional and cognitive processes related to psychiatric disorders. Although many studies have investigated the effects of stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, most have not focused on whether stress-induced changes in neurogenesis occur specifically in animals that are more resilient or more susceptible to the behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of stress. Thus, in the present review we explore whether there is a clear relationship between stress-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, stress resilience and antidepressant-induced recovery from stress-induced changes in behaviour. Exposure to different stressors is known to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but some stressors have also been shown to exert opposite effects. Ablation of neurogenesis does not lead to a depressive phenotype, but it can enhance responsiveness to stress and affect stress susceptibility. Monoaminergic-targeted antidepressants, environmental enrichment and adrenalectomy are beneficial for reversing stress-induced changes in behaviour and have been shown to do so in a neurogenesis-dependant manner. In addition, stress and antidepressants can affect hippocampal neurogenesis, preferentially in the ventral hippocampus. Together, these data show that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress, although it is not yet fully clear under which circumstances neurogenesis promotes resilience or susceptibility to stress. It will be important that future studies carefully examine how adult hippocampal neurogenesis can contribute to stress resilience/susceptibility so that it may be appropriately exploited for the development of new and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  19. Longitudinal study of hippocampal volumes in heavy cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, L; Lorenzetti, V; de Haan, L; Suo, C; Vingerhoets, Wam; van den Brink, W; Wiers, R W; Meijer, C J; Machielsen, Mwj; Goudriaan, A E; Veltman, D J; Yücel, M; Cousijn, J

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis exposure, particularly heavy cannabis use, has been associated with neuroanatomical alterations in regions rich with cannabinoid receptors such as the hippocampus in some but not in other (mainly cross-sectional) studies. However, it remains unclear whether continued heavy cannabis use alters hippocampal volume, and whether an earlier age of onset and/or a higher dosage exacerbate these changes. Twenty heavy cannabis users (mean age 21 years, range 18-24 years) and 23 matched non-cannabis using healthy controls were submitted to a comprehensive psychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging scan at baseline and at follow-up (average of 39 months post-baseline; standard deviation=2.4). Cannabis users started smoking around 16 years and smoked on average five days per week. A novel aspect of the current study is that hippocampal volume estimates were obtained from manual tracing the hippocampus on T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans, using a previously validated protocol. Compared to controls, cannabis users did not show hippocampal volume alterations at either baseline or follow-up. Hippocampal volumes increased over time in both cannabis users and controls, following similar trajectories of increase. Cannabis dose and age of onset of cannabis use did not affect hippocampal volumes. Continued heavy cannabis use did not affect hippocampal neuroanatomical changes in early adulthood. This contrasts with prior evidence on alterations in this region in samples of older adult cannabis users. In young adults using cannabis at this level, cannabis use may not be heavy enough to affect hippocampal neuroanatomy.

  20. Associative reinstatement memory measures hippocampal function in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Melanie; Giannoylis, Irene; De Belder, Maya; Saint-Cyr, Jean A; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2016-09-01

    In Parkinson's Disease (PD), hippocampal atrophy is associated with rapid cognitive decline. Hippocampal function is typically assessed using memory tests but current clinical tools (e.g., free recall) also rely on executive functions or use material that is not optimally engaging hippocampal memory networks. Because of the ubiquity of executive dysfunction in PD, our ability to detect true memory deficits is suboptimal. Our previous behavioural and neuroimaging work in other populations suggests that an experimental memory task - Associative Reinstatement Memory (ARM) - may prove useful in investigating hippocampal function in PD. In this study, we investigated whether ARM is compromised in PD and we assessed its convergent and divergent validity by comparing it to standardized measures of memory and of attention and executive functioning in PD, respectively. Using fMRI, we also investigated whether performance in PD relates to degree of hippocampal engagement. Fifteen participants with PD and 13 age-matched healthy controls completed neuropsychological testing as well as an ARM fMRI recognition paradigm in which they were instructed to identify word pairs comprised of two studied words (intact or rearranged pairs) and those containing at least one new word (new or half new pairs). ARM is measured by the differences in hit rates between intact and rearranged pairs. Behaviourally, ARM was poorer in PD relative to controls and was correlated with verbal memory measures, but not with attention or executive functioning in the PD group. Hippocampal activation associated with ARM was reduced in PD relative to controls and covaried with ARM scores in both groups. To conclude, ARM is a sensitive measure of hippocampal memory function that is unaffected by attention or executive dysfunction in PD. Our study highlights the benefit of integrating cognitive neuroscience frameworks and novel experimental tasks to improve the practice of clinical neuropsychology in PD

  1. Hippocampal dosimetry correlates with the change in neurocognitive function after hippocampal sparing during whole brain radiotherapy: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ping-Fang; Yang, Chi-Cheng; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Ting-Yi; Wu, Yi-Ming; Pai, Ping-Ching; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Wu, Tung-Ho; Shen, Yi-Liang; Lin, Shinn-Yn

    2015-01-01

    Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been the treatment of choice for patients with brain metastases. However, change/decline of neurocognitive functions (NCFs) resulting from impaired hippocampal neurogenesis might occur after WBRT. It is reported that conformal hippocampal sparing would provide the preservation of NCFs. Our study aims to investigate the hippocampal dosimetry and to demonstrate the correlation between hippocampal dosimetry and neurocognitive outcomes in patients receiving hippocampal sparing during WBRT (HS-WBRT). Forty prospectively recruited cancer patients underwent HS-WBRT for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes. Before receiving HS-WBRT, all participants received a battery of baseline neurocognitive assessment, including memory, executive functions and psychomotor speed. The follow-up neurocognitive assessment at 4 months after HS-WBRT was also performed. For the delivery of HS-WBRT, Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) with two full arcs and two non-coplanar partial arcs was employed. For each treatment planning, dose volume histograms were generated for left hippocampus, right hippocampus, and the composite hippocampal structure respectively. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ) assuming an alpha/beta ratio of 2 Gy were computed. To perform analyses addressing the correlation between hippocampal dosimetry and the change in scores of NCFs, pre- and post-HS-WBRT neurocognitive assessments were available in 24 patients in this study. Scores of NCFs were quite stable before and after HS-WBRT in terms of hippocampus-dependent memory. Regarding verbal memory, the corresponding EQD 2 values of 0, 10, 50, 80 % irradiating the composite hippocampal structure with <12.60 Gy, <8.81, <7.45 Gy and <5.83 Gy respectively were significantly associated with neurocognitive preservation indicated by the immediate recall of Word List Test of Wechsler Memory Scale-III. According to logistic regression analyses, it was noted that

  2. αν and β1 Integrins mediate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neurons via the FAK signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Han

    Full Text Available αν and β1 integrins mediate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in primary hippocampal neurons. We treated hippocampal neurons with 2.5 µg/mL 17E6 and 5 µg/mL ab58524, which are specific αν and β1 integrin antagonists, respectively, for 42 h prior to 10 µM Aβ treatment. Next, we employed small interfering RNA (siRNA to silence focal adhesion kinase (FAK, a downstream target gene of integrins. The siRNAs were designed with a target sequence, an MOI of 10 and the addition of 5 µg/mL polybrene. Under these conditions, the neurons were transfected and the apoptosis of different cell types was detected. Moreover, we used real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses to detect the expression of FAK and ρFAK genes in different cell types and investigated the underlying mechanism and signal pathway by which αν and β1 integrins mediate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neurons. An MTT assay showed that both 17E6 and ab58524 significantly increased cell viability compared with the Aβ-treated neurons (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively. However, this protective effect was markedly attenuated after transfection with silencing FAK (siFAK. Moreover, TUNEL immunostaining and flow cytometry indicated that both 17E6 and ab58524 significantly protected hippocampal neurons against apoptosis induced by Aβ (P<0.05 compared with the Aβ-treated cells. However, this protective effect was reversed with siFAK treatment. Both the gene and protein expression of FAK increased after Aβ treatment. Interestingly, as the gene and protein levels of FAK decreased, the ρFAK protein expression markedly increased. Furthermore, both the gene and protein expression of FAK and ρFAK were significantly diminished. Thus, we concluded that both αν and β1 integrins interfered with Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neurons and that this mechanism partially contributes to the activation of the Integrin-FAK signaling pathway.

  3. Clear cell chondrosarcoma of the pelvis in a skeletally immature patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Motoi; Machinami, Rikuo; Goto, Takahiro; Kawano, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Aiichiro

    1999-01-01

    We report on a case of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) of the left iliac bone in a 12-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed an aggressive osteolytic lesion with areas of mineralization. Fluid-fluid levels were seen on T2-weighted MR images. Laboratory data showed slight elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase. The biopsy specimen showed histological features of CCCS with some resemblance to osteosarcoma, such as prominent irregular osteoid formation among clear tumor cells. Surgical treatment was accomplished without pre- or post-operative chemotherapy. Because of the patient's age, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, and histopathology with prominent osteoid production, this case could be confused with osteosarcoma. Although CCCS is an extremely rare bone tumor in children, it is important to be aware that it may arise in a skeletally immature patient. CCCS, unlike osteosarcoma, is not treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. (orig.)

  4. Giant cell tumour in the foot of a skeletally immature girl: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baker, Joseph F

    2009-08-01

    We present a case of delayed diagnosis of a benign giant cell tumour (GCT) of the third metatarsal in a skeletally immature girl. The patient underwent en bloc excision of the tumour. The tumour had replaced the third metatarsal and had infiltrated the surrounding soft tissue and the second and fourth metatarsal bases. Deep, lateral and medial margins were all involved. A high index of suspicion is needed when evaluating any tumours of the foot, because the compact structure of the foot may delay diagnosis. Early detection is important for avoiding amputation, as the hindfoot and midfoot are classified as one compartment and radical resection is impossible to achieve. Tumours grow faster in the foot than in other bones. GCT in this location and age-group are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a destructive bony lesion in skeletally immature patients.

  5. Multidisciplinary management of subgingival crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Zahedpasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of subgingival horizontal crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. After removal of the fractured fragment, pulpotomy was performed within 48 h from the injury to promote apexogenesis. The tooth was orthodontically extruded until the fracture line was located above the alveolar bone level. Frenectomy, supracrestal fiberotomy, and crown lengthening were performed after adequate stabilization of the extruded tooth for 5 months. Finally, the tooth was restored with composite resin by using the acid etch technique. This report highlights that a multidisciplinary treatment approach with strict cooperation among specialists to manage a complicated crown-root fracture can save and restore a traumatized immature permanent tooth.

  6. Management of immature teeth with apical infections using mineral trioxide aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to the young permanent teeth lead to devitalization of the pulp with concomitant arrest in further development of the immature root of the involved tooth. Hermetic seal of the root canal system during obturation is not possible in such cases, due to the lack of an apical constriction. The traditional management technique in such cases has been apexification involving induction of a calcific barrier at the apex using calcium hydroxide, which in turn facilitates obturation of the root canal. However this becomes complicated when there is persistent infection leading to periapical changes. This case report describes the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA for management of a periapically compromised immature tooth.

  7. Position-dependent patterning of spontaneous action potentials in immature cochlear inner hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stuart L.; Eckrich, Tobias; Kuhn, Stephanie; Zampini, Valeria; Franz, Christoph; Ranatunga, Kishani M.; Roberts, Terri P.; Masetto, Sergio; Knipper, Marlies; Kros, Corné J.; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous action potential activity is crucial for mammalian sensory system development. In the auditory system, patterned firing activity has been observed in immature spiral ganglion cells and brain-stem neurons and is likely to depend on cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) action potentials. It remains uncertain whether spiking activity is intrinsic to developing IHCs and whether it shows patterning. We found that action potentials are intrinsically generated by immature IHCs of altricial rodents and that apical IHCs exhibit bursting activity as opposed to more sustained firing in basal cells. We show that the efferent neurotransmitter ACh, by fine-tuning the IHC’s resting membrane potential (Vm), is crucial for the bursting pattern in apical cells. Endogenous extracellular ATP also contributes to the Vm of apical and basal IHCs by activating SK2 channels. We hypothesize that the difference in firing pattern along the cochlea instructs the tonotopic differentiation of IHCs and auditory pathway. PMID:21572434

  8. Prefrontal-hippocampal interactions for spatial navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi T

    2018-04-01

    Animals have the ability to navigate to a desired location by making use of information about environmental landmarks and their own movements. While decades of neuroscience research have identified neurons in the hippocampus and parahippocampal structures that represent an animal's position in space, it is still largely unclear how an animal can choose the next movement direction to reach a desired goal. As the goal destination is typically located somewhere outside of the range of sensory perception, the animal is required to rely on the internal metric of space to estimate the direction and distance of the destination to plan a next action. Therefore, the hippocampal spatial map should interact with action-planning systems in other cortical regions. In accordance with this idea, several recent studies have indicated the importance of functional interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex for goal-directed navigation. In this paper, I will review these studies and discuss how an animal can estimate its future positions correspond to a next movement. Investigation of the navigation problem may further provide general insights into internal models of the brain for action planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Tactile modulation of hippocampal place fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Thomas; Perez-Mendez, Lorena; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2013-12-01

    Neural correlates of spatial representation can be found in the activity of the hippocampal place cells. These neurons are characterized by firing whenever the animal is located in a particular area of the space, the place field. Place fields are modulated by sensory cues, such as visual, auditory, or olfactory cues, being the influence of visual inputs the most thoroughly studied. Tactile information gathered by the whiskers has a prominent representation in the rat cerebral cortex. However, the influence of whisker-detected tactile cues on place fields remains an open question. Here we studied place fields in an enriched tactile environment where the remaining sensory cues were occluded. First, place cells were recorded before and after blockade of tactile transmission by means of lidocaine applied on the whisker pad. Following tactile deprivation, the majority of place cells decreased their firing rate and their place fields expanded. We next rotated the tactile cues and 90% of place fields rotated with them. Our results demonstrate that tactile information is integrated into place cells at least in a tactile-enriched arena and when other sensory cues are not available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Juvenile Hippocampal CA2 Region Expresses Aggrecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Noguchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perineuronal nets (PNNs are distributed primarily around inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons. PNNs are also present around excitatory neurons in some brain regions and prevent plasticity in these neurons. A recent study demonstrated that PNNs also exist around mouse hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are the principle type of excitatory neurons, in the CA2 subregion and modulate the excitability and plasticity of these neurons. However, the development of PNNs in the CA2 region during postnatal maturation was not fully investigated. This study found that a main component of PNNs, aggrecan, existed in the pyramidal cell layer of the putative CA2 subarea prior to the appearance of the CA2 region, which was defined by the CA2 marker protein regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14. We also found that aggrecan immunoreactivity was more evident in the anterior sections of the CA2 area than the posterior sections, which suggests that the function of CA2 PNNs varies along the anterior-posterior axis.

  11. D-serine increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eSultan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the continuous formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The neurogenic niche regulates the stem cell proliferation and the differentiation and survival of new neurons and a major contributor to the neurogenic niche are astrocytes. Among the molecules secreted by astrocytes, D-serine is an important gliotransmitter and is a co-agonist of the glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. D-serine has been shown to enhance the proliferation of neural stem cells in vitro, but its effect on adult neurogenesis in vivo is unknown. Here, we tested the effect of exogenous administration of D-serine on adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus. We found that 1 week of treatment with D-serine increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro and increased the density of neural stem cells and transit amplifying progenitors. Furthermore, D-serine increased the survival of newborn neurons. Together, these results indicate that D-serine treatment resulted in the improvement of several steps of adult neurogenesis in vivo.

  12. Active hippocampal networks undergo spontaneous synaptic modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Tsukamoto-Yasui

    Full Text Available The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any external (or artificial stimuli. Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. In the course of generating spontaneous activity, individual neurons acquired bidirectional long-lasting synaptic modification. The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. The direction and amount of the plasticity varied depending on slow oscillation patterns and synapse locations, and thus, they were diverse in a network. Once this global synaptic refinement occurred, the same neurons now displayed different patterns of spontaneous activity, which in turn exhibited different levels of synaptic plasticity. Thus, active networks continuously update their internal states through ongoing synaptic plasticity. With computational simulations, we suggest that with this slow oscillation-induced plasticity, a recurrent network converges on a more specific state, compared to that with spike timing-dependent plasticity alone.

  13. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko; Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G.; Zorec, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  14. Immature germ cells in semen ? correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Priya S.; Humbarwadi, Rajendra S.; Patil, Ashalata D.; Gune, Anita R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current data regarding infertility suggests that male factor contributes up to 30% of the total cases of infertility. Semen analysis reveals the presence of spermatozoa as well as a number of non-sperm cells, presently being mentioned in routine semen report as "round cells" without further differentiating them into leucocytes or immature germ cells. Aim: The aim of this work was to study a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for differentiating the round cells in se...

  15. Ontology-Based Identification of Research Gaps and Immature Research Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Beckers , Kristian; Eicker , Stefan; Faßbender , Stephan; Heisel , Maritta; Schmidt , Holger; Schwittek , Widura

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Conference; International audience; Researchers often have to understand new knowledge areas, and identify research gaps and immature areas in them. They have to understand and link numerous publications to achieve this goal. This is difficult, because natural language has to be analyzed in the publications, and implicit relations between them have to be discovered. We propose to utilize the structuring possibilities of ontologies to make the relations between publications, knowledge ...

  16. Occurrence, characterization and management of fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits under arid greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH M AL-SADI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to characterize and manage pathogens associated with fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits in greenhouses in Oman. A survey over 5 growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 in 99 different greenhouses in Oman showed that the disease is prevalent in 91 (92% greenhouses and results in losses of 10 to 60% (avg. 33% of immature fruits per plant. Incidence of the disease was not found to be affected by growing seasons, which could be attributed to the limited fluctuations in ambient temperatures in greenhouses. Isolations from diseased cucumber fruits yielded Alternaria alternata (isolation frequency = 52%, Fusarium equiseti (40%, Cladosporium tenuissium (27%, Botrytis cinerea (6%, Fusarium solani (6%, Corynespora cassiicola (3%, Aspergillus spp. (2%, Curvularia sp. (1% and Bipolaris sp. (1%. With the exception of Curvularia and Bipolaris species, all other fungi were pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium equiseti being the most aggressive, followed by Corynespora cassiicola, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Cladosporium and Aspergillus spp. were found to be weakly pathogenic. Comparing the efficacy of foliar and soil applications of carbendazim fungicide on fruit rot of cucumber showed that foliar applications significantly reduced fruit rot and increased cucumber yield when compared to soil application or to control (P < 0.01. This appears to be the first report of the association of Corynespora cassiicola and Fusarium equiseti with fruit rot of immature greenhouse cucumbers. This is also the first report in Oman for the association of Cladosporium tenuissimum with fruit rot of immature cucumbers. Findings are discussed in terms of factors affecting disease control in greenhouses using carbendazim.

  17. The immature stages of Polypedilum (Pentapedilum) nodosum (Johannsen) and Polypedilum (Tripodura) masudai (Tokunaga) (Diptera, Chironomidae, Chironominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong-Qu; Cranston, Peter S; Zhao, Jian-Gang; Lok, Chan-Wa; Wong, Kai-Chin; Li, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-12-09

    Based on associated material collected from Macau and Guangxi, the pupae and larvae of Polypedilum (Pentapedilum) nodosum Johannsen and P. (Tripodura) masudai Tokunaga are described completely for the first time. Both species are newly recorded from China. Characters for distinguishing the immature stage of these species from other allied Polypedilum species are noted. The previously recorded Polypedilum (Pentapedilum) 'K1' of Cranston  (1996) is shown to be P. nodosum. Information is provided on distribution and ecological tolerances. 

  18. Intrahippocampal Injection of Endothelin-1: A New Model of Ischemia-induced Seizures in Immature Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsenov, Grygoriy; Máttéffyová, Adéla; Mareš, Pavel; Otáhal, Jakub; Kubová, Hana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, Suppl.5 (2007), s. 7-13 ISSN 0013-9580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/0713; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/03/H148 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : endothelin-1 * epileptic seizures * immature rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.569, year: 2007

  19. Major salivary gland hypertrophy model in immature rats: morphometric and histochemical epithelial cell characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to estimate the functional state of epithelial cells of acini and ducts of major salivary glands with hypertrophy caused by repeated incisor amputations in immature rats.Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out on immature (20 days, white male rats, divided into 3 groups: intact, control and group of rats with repeated incisor amputations. Animals were taken out in 2d, 3d, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th weeks after the first incisor amputation. Morphofunctional state of rat major salivary glands was assessed by histological (hematoxylin and eosin, histochemistrical (Alcian blue, PAS-reaction, Brachet method and morphometrical (acini area, intralobular ducts volume methods.Results. Repeated incisor amputations led to the increase of acini area and the decrease of intralobular duct volume in submandibular glands in 2nd–4th weeks of the experiment. Cytoplasm pyroninophilia of submandibular gland acinar cells was less pronounced and intensity of PAS-reaction was more pronounced than in intact animals in 3rd week of the experiment. Morphological and functional changes of parotid and sublingual gland epithelial cells were not observed after repeated amputations of incisors in immature rats.Conclusion. Repeated incisor amputations in immature male rats lead to submandibular gland acinar cell hypertrophy in the early stages of the experiment (2d–4th weeks with accumulation of glycoproteins and protein synthesis weakening in these cells. Hypertrophy of acinar cells are accompanied by retardation in the development of granular convoluted tubule cells which are the source of synthesis and secretion of the endocrine biologically active factors of submandibular glands.

  20. Platelet-rich fibrin-mediated revitalization of immature necrotic tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary studies have shown that the regeneration of tissues and root elongation is possible in necrotic immature permanent teeth. The purpose of this case report is to add a new vista in regenerative endodontic therapy by using platelet rich fibrin for revitalization of immature non vital tooth. An 11year old boy with the history of trauma was diagnosed with the pulpal necrosis and symptomatic apical periodontitis in tooth #21. Intra oral periapical radiograph showed open apex and associated immature supernumerary tooth with respect to tooth #21. Access preparation and minimal instrumentation was done to remove necrotic debris under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Triple antibiotic paste was packed in the canal for four weeks. During second visit, 5 mL of whole blood was drawn from the medial cubital vein of the patient and blood was then subjected to centrifugation at 2400 rpm for 12 minutes for the preparation of Platelet rich fibrin (PRF utilizing Choukroun′s method. Triple antibiotic paste was removed and canal was dried. PRF clot was pushed to the apical region of tooth #21 using hand pluggers. Three milimetres of Mineral trioxide (MTA was placed in cervical part of the root canal and permanent restoration was done three days later. Clinical examination at 6 and 12 months revealed no sensitivity to percussion and palpation in tooth #21and it responded positively to both electric pulp and cold tests. Radiographic examination showed resolution of periapical rarefaction, further root development and apical closure of the tooth #21 and its associated supernumerary tooth. On the basis of successful outcome of the present case it can be stated that PRF clot may serve as a scaffold for regeneration of necrotic immature teeth.

  1. Toxicity of 144Ce fused clay particles inhaled by immature beagle dogs. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.; Hahn, F.F.; Hobbs, C.H.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1974-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of 144 Ce fused clay particles inhaled by immature Beagle dogs (approximately 3 months of age at exposure) are being investigated for comparison with studies of dogs exposed at 12 to 14 months of age and 8 to 10.5 years of age. These studies will assess possible age-related differences in the biological behavior and effects of inhaled radionuclides, differences that may be of significance in predicting the response of accidentally-exposed human populations that include individuals of different ages. Eighteen immature dogs have been entered into a radiation dose pattern study to be serially sacrificed at different intervals after inhalation exposure. During the first 2 months post-exposure, lung clearance and uptake by the tracheobronchial lymph nodes appeared to be greater in the immature dogs than in young adult dogs. Also, skeletal uptake was greater than hepatic uptake in the immature dogs. Three blocks of longevity animals, 10 per block, with graded initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004 to 120 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight and 1 control, are currently on experiment. Three dogs with initial lung burdens of 73 to 120 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 66 to 121 days after exposure with pulmonary injury and congestive heart failure. Another dog with an initial lung burden of 70 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 511 days after exposure with pulmonary injury. Serial observations are continuing on the surviving 26 144 Ce-exposed and 3 control dogs. (U.S.)

  2. Hepatic splenosis mimicking liver metastases in a patient with history of childhood immature teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jereb, Sara; Trotovsek, Blaz; Skrbinc, Breda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatic splenosis is rare condition, preceded by splenectomy or spleen trauma, the term refers to nodular implantation of normal splenic tissue in the liver. In patients with history of malignancy in particular, it can be mistaken for metastases and can lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures or inappropriate treatment. Case report Twenty-two-year old male was treated for immature teratoma linked to undescended right testicle after birth. On regular follow-up examination...

  3. Status Epilepticus in Immature Rats Is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Kubová, Hana; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, May 26 (2016), s. 136 ISSN 1662-5102 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0999; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08565S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : immature rats * status epilepticus * oxidative stress * mitochondrial dysfunction Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.555, year: 2016

  4. Anticonvulsant action of GABA(B) receptor positive modulator CGP7930 in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 100, 1-2 (2012), s. 49-54 ISSN 0920-1211 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : GABA(B) receptors * cerebral cortex * epileptic afterdischarges * immature rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2012

  5. Derivatives of valproic acid are active against pentetrazol-induced seizures in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana; Hen, N.; Yagen, B.; Bialer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 106, 1-2 (2013), s. 64-73 ISSN 0920-1211 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1274; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : experimental seizures * anticonvulsant action * derivatives of valproic acid * immature rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.190, year: 2013

  6. Conservative treatment of immature teeth with apical periodontitis using triple antibiotic paste disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yea-Huey Melody; Chen, Kuan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present conservative treatment for two immature premolars with apical periodontitis. A triple antibiotic paste was used to disinfect the root canal systems for revascularization. In both cases, residual vital pulp tissue was noted in the root canal system after the opening of each premolar. The canals in both cases were irrigated with copious sodium hypochlorite solution and medicated with a paste consisting of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline. Th...

  7. Ionic gelation of low-esterification degree pectins from immature thinned apples

    OpenAIRE

    Rascón-Chu, Agustín; Martínez-López, Ana-Luisa; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; Martínez-Robinson, Karla G.; Campa-Mada, Alma C.

    2016-01-01

    Fruit thinning is a regular practice in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) orchards to increase fruit size and to promote blooming. This practice generates immature, small (10 to 40 mm diameter) fruits, which are occasionally used as cattle feed. The use of thinned apples for pectin extraction could increase orchards profitability and promote development of new transformation processes. Pectin is a polysaccharide located on the cell wall of plant tissues. Commercial pectins are extracted from d...

  8. Task control signals in pediatric Tourette syndrome show evidence of immature and anomalous functional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Church

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008. A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e. correlations outside the typical developmental range limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009. The present study used functional MRI (fMRI to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals, and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set. Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”. Second, group differences found in task maintenance (i.e., sustained activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents

  9. Excision of an intrapericardial immature teratoma in a 26-week premature neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Hawkins

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 26-week premature newborn with an immature intrapericardial teratoma. The patient was transferred from an outside hospital for management of a large mediastinal mass causing respiratory insufficiency. The newborn was supported with the help of a large interdisciplinary team until day of life 22 when he underwent surgical excision. On follow up the infant is doing very well and is one of the youngest survivors to date.

  10. Training labels for hippocampal segmentation based on the EADC-ADNI harmonized hippocampal protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Marina; Bocchetta, Martina; Morency, Félix C; Collins, D Louis; Nishikawa, Masami; Ganzola, Rossana; Grothe, Michel J; Wolf, Dominik; Redolfi, Alberto; Pievani, Michela; Antelmi, Luigi; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Teipel, Stefan; Duchesne, Simon; Jack, Clifford R; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2015-02-01

    The European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) Harmonized Protocol (HarP) is a Delphi definition of manual hippocampal segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that can be used as the standard of truth to train new tracers, and to validate automated segmentation algorithms. Training requires large and representative data sets of segmented hippocampi. This work aims to produce a set of HarP labels for the proper training and certification of tracers and algorithms. Sixty-eight 1.5 T and 67 3 T volumetric structural ADNI scans from different subjects, balanced by age, medial temporal atrophy, and scanner manufacturer, were segmented by five qualified HarP tracers whose absolute interrater intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.953 and 0.975 (left and right). Labels were validated as HarP compliant through centralized quality check and correction. Hippocampal volumes (mm(3)) were as follows: controls: left = 3060 (standard deviation [SD], 502), right = 3120 (SD, 897); mild cognitive impairment (MCI): left = 2596 (SD, 447), right = 2686 (SD, 473); and Alzheimer's disease (AD): left = 2301 (SD, 492), right = 2445 (SD, 525). Volumes significantly correlated with atrophy severity at Scheltens' scale (Spearman's ρ = segmentation algorithms. The publicly released labels will allow the widespread implementation of the standard segmentation protocol. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Drying effect on flavonoid composition and antioxidant activity of immature kumquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shyi-Neng; Lai, Yi-Chun; Huang, Jia-De; Ho, Chi-Tang; Ferng, Lin-Huei A; Chang, Yung-Chung

    2015-03-15

    A seven flavonoids in hot water extract of immature kumquat (Citrus japonica var. margarita) were identified and quantified (mg/100g fresh fruit): 3',5'-di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin (DGPP, 285.9 ± 2.9 mg/100g), acacetin 8-C-neohesperidoside (margaritene, 136.2 ± 2.6 mg/100g), acacetin 6-C-neohesperidoside (isomargaritene, 119.1 ± 1.8 mg/100g), fortunellin (acacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 28.5 ± 0.7 mg/100g), apigenin 8-C-neohesperidoside (16.9 ± 0.1mg/100g), poncirin (isosakuranetin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 5.1 ± 0.1mg/100g), and rhoifolin (apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 2.0 ± 0.1mg/100g). When immature kumquat was dried at 110 and 130°C for 0.5h, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and identified flavonoids increased. The UV absorbance of browning products of immature kumquat dried at 130°C for 1.5h increased dramatically, while the identified flavonoids decreased. Therefore, it was concluded that drying below 130°C for 1.0 h, could release phenolic compounds, which resulted in the increasing antioxidant activity. Drying at 130°C for 1.5h, it might be due to the effect of formed browning products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microstructure and Ultrastructure Alterations in the Pallium of Immature Mice Exposed to Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X F; Han, Q G; Liu, D Y; Zhang, H T; Fan, G Y; Ma, J Y; Wang, Z L

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate microstructure and ultrastructure alterations in the pallium of immature mice exposed to cadmium. Forty immature mice were randomly divided into control, 1/100 LD 50 (1.87 mg/kg, low), 1/50 LD 50 (3.74 mg/kg, medium), and 1/25 LD 50 (7.48 mg/kg, high) dose groups. After oral cadmium exposure for 40 days, the pallium of mice was obtained for microstructure and ultrastructure studies. The results showed that both microstructure and ultrastructure alterations of the pallium were observed in all treated mice and the most obvious alterations were in the high dose group. Microstructural analysis showed seriously congested capillary in the pia mater of the pallium in the high cadmium group. Meanwhile, vacuolar degenerate or karyopyknosis presented in some neurocytes, capillary quantity, and the number of apoptotic cells increased, some neurocytes became hypertrophy, the pia mater separated from the cortex, and local hemorrhage and accompanied inflammatory cell infiltration were also observed. Ultrastructural analysis showed that rough endoplasmic reticulum was expanded, heterochromatin marginalized, perinuclear space distinctly broadened, swelling and vacuolization mitochondria appeared, synapse was swelling, presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes presented fusion, and most of mitochondrial cristae were ambiguous. The results indicated that cadmium exposure for 40 days induced dose-dependent microstructure and ultrastructure alterations in pallium of immature mice.

  13. In vitro production of buffalo embryos from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, Saber Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to produce buffalo embryos in vitro from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffalo and were collected from the local abattoir. Selected COCs were exposed to a vitrification solution consisting of 40% ethylene glycol (EG) plus 0.3 M trehalose and 20% polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) for 1 min and loaded in 0.25 ml plastic mini-straws containing 100 microl of 10% sucrose. The loaded cryostraws were cryopreserved by stepwise vitrification and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 4 to 6 months. Data analysis revealed a high percentage of post-thawing morphologically normal immature oocytes (80.7%) with a low percentage of damaged oocytes. There were no significant differences in the maturation (82.1%), cleavage (47.6%) and buffalo embryo development (15.4%) produced by the stepwise vitrified immature oocytes in comparison to the three observations in fresh oocytes (88.3%, 50.4% and 19.4%, respectively, p<0.05).

  14. Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Developmental Stage-Dependent Structural Changes in the Immature Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Premature infants are commonly subject to intestinal inflammation. Since the human small intestine does not reach maturity until term gestation, premature infants have a unique challenge, as either acute or chronic inflammation may alter the normal development of the intestinal tract. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF has been shown to acutely alter goblet cell numbers and villus length in adult mice. In this study we tested the effects of TNF on villus architecture and epithelial cells at different stages of development of the immature small intestine. Methods. To examine the effects of TNF-induced inflammation, we injected acute, brief, or chronic exposures of TNF in neonatal and juvenile mice. Results. TNF induced significant villus blunting through a TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1 mediated mechanism, leading to loss of villus area. This response to TNFR1 signaling was altered during intestinal development, despite constant TNFR1 protein expression. Acute TNF-mediated signaling also significantly decreased Paneth cells. Conclusions. Taken together, the morphologic changes caused by TNF provide insight as to the effects of inflammation on the developing intestinal tract. Additionally, they suggest a mechanism which, coupled with an immature immune system, may help to explain the unique susceptibility of the immature intestine to inflammatory diseases such as NEC.

  15. Replacement of serum with ocular fluid for cryopreservation of immature testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothana, Lavanya; Devi, Lalitha; Venna, Naresh Kumar; Pentakota, Niharika; Varma, Vivek Phani; Jose, Jedy; Goel, Sandeep

    2016-12-01

    Cryopreservation of immature testis is a feasible approach for germplasm preservation of male animals. Combinations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and foetal bovine serum (FBS) are used for testis cryopreservation. However, an alternative to FBS is needed, because FBS is expensive. Buffalo ocular fluid (BuOF), a slaughter house by-product, could be an economical option. The objective of the present study was to assess whether BuOF can replace FBS for cryopreservation of immature mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) testes. Results showed that rodent and buffalo testes frozen in DMSO (10% for rodents and 20% for buffalo) with 20% FBS or BuOF had similar numbers of viable and DNA-damaged cells (P > 0.05). The expression of cell proliferation- (PCNA) and apoptosis-specific proteins (Annexin V and BAX/BCL2 ratio) were also comparable in mouse and buffalo testes frozen in DMSO with FBS or BuOF (P > 0.05). Interestingly, rat testis frozen in DMSO with BuOF had lower expression of Annexin V protein than testis frozen in DMSO with FBS (P  0.05). These findings provide evidence that BuOF has potential to replace FBS for cryopreservation of immature rodent and buffalo testis. Further investigation is needed to explore whether BuOF can replace FBS for testis cryopreservation of other species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Platelet Rich Fibrin-Mediated Tissue Repair in Immature Canine Pulpless Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi Lin; Yang, Pan Pan; Ge, Li Hong; Liu, He

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the regenerative therapy of immature canine permanent teeth. Eight immature premolars of beagle dogs were pulp extracted and cleaned with irrigation, then divided into two groups of empty root canals and those filled with a PRF clot. All of the eight premolars were sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate and glass ionomer cement. Two premolars were left naturally grown as a positive control. The root development was assessed radiographically and histologically after 12 weeks. The radiological findings showed greater increases in the thickness of lateral dentinal wall in the PRF group than in the vacant group. Histologically, dental-associated mineral tissue, connective tissue, and bone-like mineral tissue grew into the root canals independent of PRF clot use. The PRF was able to increase the thickness of dental-associated mineral tissue. However, the vital tissue differed from the pulp dentin complex. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of using PRF-mediated regenerative therapy in pulpless immature teeth for improving tissue repair.

  17. Effect of intense pulsed light on immature burn scars: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As intense pulsed light (IPL is widely used to treat cutaneous vascular malformations and also used as non-ablative skin rejunuvation to remodel the skin collagen. A study has been undertaken to gauze the effect of IPL on immature burn scars with regard to vascularity, pliability and height. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014, among patients with immature burn scars that healed conservatively within 2 months. Photographic evidence of appearance of scars and grading and rating was done with Vancouver Scar Scale parameters. Ratings were done for both case and control scar after the completion of four IPL treatment sessions and were compared. Results: Out of the 19 cases, vascularity, pliability and height improved significantly (P < 0.05 in 13, 14 and 11 scars respectively following IPL treatment. Conclusions: Intense pulsed light was well-tolerated by patients, caused good improvement in terms of vascularity, pliability, and height of immature burn scar.

  18. In vitro production of buffalo embryos from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammed Abd-Allah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to produce buffalo embryos in vitro from stepwise vitrified immature oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffalo and were collected from the local abattoir. Selected COCs were exposed to a vitrification solution consisting of 40% ethylene glycol (EG plus 0.3 M trehalose and 20% polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP for 1 min and loaded in 0.25 ml plastic mini-straws containing 100 µl of 10% sucrose. The loaded cryostraws were cryopreserved by stepwise vitrification and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 4 to 6 months. Data analysis revealed a high percentage of post-thawing morphologically normal immature oocytes (80.7% with a low percentage of damaged oocytes. There were no significant differences in the maturation (82.1%, cleavage (47.6% and buffalo embryo development (15.4% produced by the stepwise vitrified immature oocytes in comparison to the three observations in fresh oocytes (88.3%, 50.4% and 19.4%, respectively, p<0.05.

  19. Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Rice Planthoppers to Adult and Immature Stages of Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ko; Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Planthopper-targeting insecticides, pymetrozine, thiamethoxam, buprofezin, and nitenpyram, were tested under laboratory conditions for toxicity to adults and immatures of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, using standard tests described by International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). In the dry film residue test, all insecticides resulted in >90% mortality in T. chilonis adults and were ranked as moderately harmful. Persistent toxicity tests revealed that nitenpyram was short-lived and the other three insecticides were of slightly persistent toxicity to the wasp adults. Effects of the insecticides on egg, larval, and prepupal stages of T. chilonis were investigated with striped stem borer as host. At the three stages of T. chilonis (within the host egg), all the insecticides reduced parasitism rate, but nitenpyram and pymetrozine applied at egg stage, buprofezin and nitenpyram at larval stage, and buprofezin and thiamethoxam at prepupal stage of T. chilonis reduced parasitism by buprofezin at prepupal stage resulted in >30% reduction in emergence rate as compared with the control and were categorized as harmful. Immature duration of T. chilonis was only significantly extended by nitenpyram applied to egg stage than the control. Sex ratio of emerged wasps was not affected by the treatment to immature stages. The data are of significance for IPM programs incorporating inundative release of T. chilonis for control of lepidopteran rice pests where there is heavy co-occurrence of planthoppers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin on immature development and reproduction in the stable fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S S; Li, A Y; Lohmeyer, K H; Pérez De León, A A

    2012-12-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most significant biting flies that affect cattle. The use of traditional insecticides for stable fly control has only a limited success owing to the insect's unique feeding behaviours and immature development sites. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of two insect growth regulator (IGR) products, pyriproxyfen and buprofezin, on the development of the immature stages of the stable fly and the effects of pyriproxyfen on oviposition and egg hatch. Both pyriproxyfen and buprofezin had significant inhibitory effects on immature development. The LC(50) s of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin were 0.002 and 18.92 p.p.m., respectively. Topical treatment of adult females with different doses of pyriproxyfen had significant negative effects on both female oviposition and egg hatching when 1- and 3-day-old females were treated, and the effects were dose dependent. A significant reduction in the mean number of eggs laid was observed only at the highest pyriproxyfen dose (8 µg/fly) and egg hatch was unaffected by pyriproxyfen treatment when 5-day-old females were treated. Results from the present study indicate that pyriproxyfen has the potential to be used as part of an integrated stable fly management programme. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Propofol Compared to Isoflurane Inhibits Mitochondrial Metabolism in Immature Swine Cerebral Cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Atkinson, D. B.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Morgan, Phil G.; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-08

    Anesthetics used in infants and children are implicated in development of neurocognitive disorders. Although propofol induces neuroapoptosis in developing brain, the underlying mechanisms require elucidation and may have an energetic basis. We studied substrate utilization in an immature swine model anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane for 4 hours. Piglets were infused with 13-Carbon labeled glucose and leucine in the common carotid artery in order to assess citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism in the parietal cortex. The anesthetics produced similar systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen saturation by near-infrared-spectroscopy. Compared to isoflurane, propofol depleted ATP and glycogen stores. Propofol also decreased pools of the CAC intermediates, citrate and α-ketoglutarate, while markedly increasing succinate along with decreasing mitochondrial complex II activity. Propofol also inhibited acetyl-CoA entry into the CAC through pyruvate dehydrogenase, while promoting glycolytic flux with marked accumulation of lactate. Although oxygen supply appeared similar between the anesthetic groups, propofol yielded a metabolic phenotype which resembled a hypoxic state. Propofol impairs substrate flux through the CAC in the immature cerebral cortex. These impairments occurred without systemic metabolic perturbations which typically accompany propofol infusion syndrome. These metabolic abnormalities may play a role in neurotoxity observed with propofol in the vulnerable immature brain.

  2. Memory reconsolidation mediates the updating of hippocampal memory content

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    Jonathan L C Lee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval or reactivation of a memory places it into a labile state, requiring a process of reconsolidation to restabilize it. This retrieval-induced plasticity is a potential mechanism for the modification of the existing memory. Following previous data supportive of a functional role for memory reconsolidation in the modification of memory strength, here I show that hippocampal memory reconsolidation also supports the updating of contextual memory content. Using a procedure that separates the learning of pure context from footshock-motivated contextual fear learning, I demonstrate doubly dissociable hippocampal mechanisms of initial context learning and subsequent updating of the neutral contextual representation to incorporate the footshock. Contextual memory consolidation was dependent upon BDNF expression in the dorsal hippocampus, whereas the footshock modification of the contextual representation required the expression of Zif268. These mechanisms match those previously shown to be selectively involved in hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation, respectively. Moreover, memory reactivation is a necessary step in modifying memory content, as inhibition of hippocampal synaptic protein degradation also prevented the footshock-mediated memory modification. Finally, dorsal hippocampal knockdown of Zif268 impaired the reconsolidation of the pure contextual memory only under conditions of weak context memory training, as well as failing to disrupt contextual freezing when a strong contextual fear memory is reactivated by further conditioning. Therefore, an adaptive function of the reactivation and reconsolidation process is to enable the updating of memory content.

  3. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hippocampal and Amygdalar Volumes in Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Schmahl, Christian; Lindner, Sanneke; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Objective Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in several stress-related psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder with early abuse, and depression with early abuse. Patients with borderline personality disorder and early abuse have also been found to have smaller amygdalar volume. The authors examined hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, a disorder that has been associated with a history of severe childhood trauma. Method The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in 15 female patients with dissociative identity disorder and 23 female subjects without dissociative identity disorder or any other psychiatric disorder. The volumetric measurements for the two groups were compared. Results Hippocampal volume was 19.2% smaller and amygdalar volume was 31.6% smaller in the patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared to the healthy subjects. The ratio of hippocampal volume to amygdalar volume was significantly different between groups. Conclusions The findings are consistent with the presence of smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared with healthy subjects. PMID:16585437

  5. Hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Schmahl, Christian; Lindner, Sanneke; Loewenstein, Richard J; Bremner, J Douglas

    2006-04-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in several stress-related psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder with early abuse, and depression with early abuse. Patients with borderline personality disorder and early abuse have also been found to have smaller amygdalar volume. The authors examined hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, a disorder that has been associated with a history of severe childhood trauma. The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in 15 female patients with dissociative identity disorder and 23 female subjects without dissociative identity disorder or any other psychiatric disorder. The volumetric measurements for the two groups were compared. Hippocampal volume was 19.2% smaller and amygdalar volume was 31.6% smaller in the patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared to the healthy subjects. The ratio of hippocampal volume to amygdalar volume was significantly different between groups. The findings are consistent with the presence of smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared with healthy subjects.

  6. Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, Tracy; Geng, Fengji; Blankenship, Sarah L; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4- and 6-year-old children (n=40). Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4) regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative Hippocampal MRI Assessments in Intractable Epilepsy

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    Paramdeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To acquire normative data of hippocampal volumes and T2 relaxation times, to evaluate and compare qualitative and quantitative assessments in evaluating hippocampi in patients with different durations of intractable epilepsy, and to propose an imaging protocol based on performance of these techniques. Methods. MRI analysis was done in 50 nonepileptic controls and 30 patients with intractable epilepsy on 1.5T scanner. Visual assessment and hippocampal volumetry were done on oblique coronal IR/T2W and T1W MP-RAGE images, respectively. T2 relaxation times were measured using 16-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. Volumetric data was normalized for variation in head size between individuals. Patients were divided into temporal ( and extratemporal ( groups based on clinical and EEG localization. Results. In controls, right hippocampal volume was slightly more than the left with no effect of age or gender. In TLE patients, hippocampal volumetry provided maximum concordance with EEG. Visual assessment of unilateral pathology concurred well with measured quantitative values but poorly in cases with bilateral pathologies. There were no significant differences of mean values between extratemporal group and controls group. Quantitative techniques detected mild abnormalities, undetected on visual assessment. Conclusions. Quantitative techniques are more sensitive to diagnose bilateral and mild unilateral hippocampal abnormalities.

  8. Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2014-09-01

    The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development-the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem-solving strategies-are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 7-9-year-old children revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Longitudinal improvements in retrieval-strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval-strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood and was associated with decreased activation but more stable interproblem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development.

  9. Tat-PRAS40 prevent hippocampal HT-22 cell death and oxidative stress induced animal brain ischemic insults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Jea; Kim, Dae Won; Jo, Hyo Sang; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Kim, Ji An; Hwang, Jung Soon; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Jeong, Ji-Heon; Kim, Duk-Soo; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Cho, Yong-Jun; Lee, Keunwook; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2016-08-01

    Proline rich Akt substrate (PRAS40) is a component of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and is known to play an important role against reactive oxygen species-induced cell death. However, the precise function of PRAS40 in ischemia remains unclear. Thus, we investigated whether Tat-PRAS40, a cell-permeable fusion protein, has a protective function against oxidative stress-induced hippocampal neuronal (HT-22) cell death in an animal model of ischemia. We showed that Tat-PRAS40 transduced into HT-22 cells, and significantly protected against cell death by reducing the levels of H2O2 and derived reactive species, and DNA fragmentation as well as via the regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3 expression levels in H2O2 treated cells. Also, we showed that transduced Tat-PARS40 protein markedly increased phosphorylated RRAS40 expression levels and 14-3-3σ complex via the Akt signaling pathway. In an animal ischemia model, Tat-PRAS40 effectively transduced into the hippocampus in animal brain and significantly protected against neuronal cell death in the CA1 region. We showed that Tat-PRAS40 protein effectively transduced into hippocampal neuronal cells and markedly protected against neuronal cell damage. Therefore, we suggest that Tat-PRAS40 protein may be used as a therapeutic protein for ischemia and oxidative stress-induced brain disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inter-relationships among Diet, Obesity and Hippocampal-dependent Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Terry L.; Hargrave, Sara L.; Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Fu, Xue; Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Intake of a Western diet (WD), which is high in saturated fat and sugar, is associated with deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes as well as with markers of hippocampal pathology. In the present study, rats were trained to asymptote on hippocampal-dependent serial feature negative (FN) and hippocampal-independent simple discrimination problems. Performance was then assessed following 7 days on ad libitum chow and after 10, 24, 40, 60, and 90 days of maintenance on WD...

  11. Extensive immune-mediated hippocampal damage in mice surviving infection with neuroadapted Sindbis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Griffin, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    Viral infections of the central nervous system and immune responses to these infections cause a variety of neurological diseases. Infection of weanling mice with Sindbis virus causes acute nonfatal encephalomyelitis followed by clearance of infectious virus, but persistence of viral RNA. Infection with a neuroadapted strain of Sindbis virus (NSV) causes fatal encephalomyelitis, but passive transfer of immune serum after infection protects from fatal disease and infectious virus is cleared. To determine whether persistent NSV RNA is associated with neurological damage, we examined the brains of recovered mice and found progressive loss of the hippocampal gyrus, adjacent white matter, and deep cerebral cortex associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Mice deficient in CD4 + T cells showed less tissue loss, while mice lacking CD8 + T cells showed lesions comparable to those in immunocompetent mice. Mice deficient in both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells developed severe tissue loss similar to immunocompetent mice and this was associated with extensive infiltration of macrophages. The number of CD4 + cells and macrophage/microglial cells, but not CD8 + cells, infiltrating the hippocampal gyrus was correlated with the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling positive pyramidal neurons. These results suggest that CD4 + T cells can promote progressive neuronal death and tissue injury, despite clearance of infectious virus

  12. Description of the immature stages and life history of Euselasia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) on Miconia (Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Nishida

    2010-01-01

    The immature stages and life histories of Euselasia chrysippe (Bates, 1866) and E. bettina (Hewitson, 1869) are described, providing the first detailed morphological characters for the subfamily Euselasiinae. The larvae of Euselasia chrysippe and E. bettina ...

  13. Influence of protein on feeding behavior of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae): comparison between immature males and females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placido-Silva, Maria do C.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S.; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the influence of dietary protein on performance and feeding behavior of immature males and females of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The protein source was beer yeast at 6.5 and 1.5 g.100 ml-1. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of emergence, total life cycle, adult size, diet consumption, feeding preference and discrimination threshold for yeast. Immature adults showed similar protein requirements regardless of sex. Both males and females showed similar feeding behavior, preferring to feed on the diet with higher protein content. The discrimination threshold for levedure in both sexes was 0.4 g.100 ml-1. We concluded that immature males of C. capitata show similar protein requirements as the immature females. (author)

  14. The use of platelet rich plasma in the treatment of immature tooth with periapical lesion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günseli Güven Polat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the treatment of an immature permanent tooth with periapical lesion which was treated with regenerative approach using platelet rich plasma (PRP. The root canal of immature human permanent tooth with periapical lesion was gently debrided of necrotic tissue and disinfected with 2.5% NaOCl, and then medicated with triple antibiotic paste comprised of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. When the tooth was asymptomatic, PRP and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA were placed into the root canal. Six months after PRP treatment, radiographical examination revealed resolution of the radiolucency and progressive thickening of the root wall and apical closure. Our findings suggest that PRP can be used for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with periapical lesion, as part of a regenerative endodontic treatment procedure. Keywords: Immature permanent tooth; Periapical lesions; Platelet rich plasma

  15. Mechanical Characterization of Immature Porcine Brainstem in Tension at Dynamic Strain Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Li, Kui; Liao, Zhikang; Xiang, Hongyi; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-21

    Many brain injury cases involve pediatric road traffic accidents, and among these, brainstem injury causes disastrous outcomes. A thorough understanding of the tensile characterization of immature brainstem tissue is crucial in modeling traumatic brain injury sustained by children, but limited experimental data in tension is available for the immature brain tissue at dynamic strain rates. We harvested brainstem tissue from immature pigs (about 4 weeks old, and at a developmental stage similar to that of human toddlers) as a byproduct from a local slaughter house and very carefully prepared the samples. Tensile tests were performed on specimens at dynamic strain rates of 2/s, 20/s, and 100/s using a biological material instrument. The constitutive models, Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential function, for immature brainstem tissue material property were developed for the recorded experimental data using OriginPro 8.0 software. The t test was performed for infinitesimal shear modules. The curves of stress-versus-stretch ratio were convex in shape, and inflection points were found in all the test groups at the strain of about 2.5%. The average Lagrange stress of the immature brainstem specimen at the 30% strain at the strain rates of 2, 20, and 100/s was 273±114, 515±107, and 1121±197 Pa, respectively. The adjusted R-Square (R2) of Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential model was 0.820≤R2≤0.933, 0.774≤R2≤0.940, 0.650≤R2≤0.922, and 0.852≤R2≤0.981, respectively. The infinitesimal shear modulus of the strain energy functions showed a significant association with the strain rate (pmaterial in dynamic tensile tests, and the tissue becomes stiffer with increased strain rate. The reported results may be useful in the study of brain injuries in children who sustain injuries in road traffic accidents. Further research in more detail should be performed in the future.

  16. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide eliminates spatial memory retrieval impairment and hippocampal CA1 LTD enhancement caused by acute stress via promoting glutamate uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Guo, Ruixian; Qiu, Pengxin; Su, Xingwen; Yan, Guangmei; Feng, Jianqiang

    2017-05-14

    Acute stress impairs the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retrieval, and its synaptic mechanisms are associated with hippocampal CA1 long-term depression (LTD) enhancement in the adult rats. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is recognized as a novel gasotransmitter and has the neural protective roles. However, very little attention has been paid to understanding the effects of H 2 S on spatial memory retrieval impairment. We observed the protective effects of NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) against spatial memory retrieval impairment caused by acute stress and its synaptic mechanisms. Our results showed that NaHS abolished spatial memory retrieval impairment and hippocampal CA1 LTD enhancement caused by acute stress, but not by glutamate transporter inhibitor l-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic (tPDC), indicating that the activation of glutamate transporters is necessary for exogenous H 2 S to exert its roles. Moreover, NaHS restored the decreased glutamate uptake in the hippocampal CA1 synaptosomal fraction caused by acute stress. Dithiothreitol (DTT, a disulfide reducing agent) abolished a decrease in the glutamate uptake caused by acute stress, and NaHS eradicated the decreased glutamate uptake caused by 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic)acid (DTNB, a thiol oxidizing agent), collectively, revealing that exogenous H 2 S increases glutamate uptake by reducing disulfide bonds of the glutamate transporters. Additionally, NaHS inhibited the increased expression level of phosphorylated c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the hippocampal CA1 region caused by acute stress. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 eliminated spatial memory retrieval impairment, hippocampal CA1 LTD enhancement and the decreased glutamate uptake caused by acute stress, indicating that exogenous H 2 S exerts these roles by inhibiting the activation of JNK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for holistic episodic recollection via hippocampal pattern completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Aidan J; Bisby, James A; Bush, Daniel; Lin, Wen-Jing; Burgess, Neil

    2015-07-02

    Recollection is thought to be the hallmark of episodic memory. Here we provide evidence that the hippocampus binds together the diverse elements forming an event, allowing holistic recollection via pattern completion of all elements. Participants learn complex 'events' from multiple overlapping pairs of elements, and are tested on all pairwise associations. At encoding, element 'types' (locations, people and objects/animals) produce activation in distinct neocortical regions, while hippocampal activity predicts memory performance for all within-event pairs. When retrieving a pairwise association, neocortical activity corresponding to all event elements is reinstated, including those incidental to the task. Participant's degree of incidental reinstatement correlates with their hippocampal activity. Our results suggest that event elements, represented in distinct neocortical regions, are bound into coherent 'event engrams' in the hippocampus that enable episodic recollection--the re-experiencing or holistic retrieval of all aspects of an event--via a process of hippocampal pattern completion and neocortical reinstatement.

  18. Role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal-cortical memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Acquired memory is initially dependent on the hippocampus (HPC) for permanent memory formation. This hippocampal dependency of memory recall progressively decays with time, a process that is associated with a gradual increase in dependency upon cortical structures. This process is commonly referred to as systems consolidation theory. In this paper, we first review how memory becomes hippocampal dependent to cortical dependent with an emphasis on the interactions that occur between the HPC and cortex during systems consolidation. We also review the mechanisms underlying the gradual decay of HPC dependency during systems consolidation from the perspective of memory erasures by adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Finally, we discuss the relationship between systems consolidation and memory precision. PMID:24552281

  19. Divergent Roles of Central Serotonin in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-Ning Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The central serotonin (5-HT system is the main target of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, the first-line antidepressants widely used in current general practice. One of the prominent features of chronic SSRI treatment in rodents is the enhanced adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which has been proposed to contribute to antidepressant effects. Therefore, tremendous effort has been made to decipher how central 5-HT regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In this paper, we review how changes in the central serotonergic system alter adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We focus on data obtained from three categories of genetically engineered mouse models: (1 mice with altered central 5-HT levels from embryonic stages, (2 mice with deletion of 5-HT receptors from embryonic stages, and (3 mice with altered central 5-HT system exclusively in adulthood. These recent findings provide unique insights to interpret the multifaceted roles of central 5-HT on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its associated effects on depression.

  20. Sampling the Mouse Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus

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    Lisa Basler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sampling is a critical step in procedures that generate quantitative morphological data in the neurosciences. Samples need to be representative to allow statistical evaluations, and samples need to deliver a precision that makes statistical evaluations not only possible but also meaningful. Sampling generated variability should, e.g., not be able to hide significant group differences from statistical detection if they are present. Estimators of the coefficient of error (CE have been developed to provide tentative answers to the question if sampling has been “good enough” to provide meaningful statistical outcomes. We tested the performance of the commonly used Gundersen-Jensen CE estimator, using the layers of the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus as an example (molecular layer, granule cell layer and hilus. We found that this estimator provided useful estimates of the precision that can be expected from samples of different sizes. For all layers, we found that a smoothness factor (m of 0 generally provided better estimates than an m of 1. Only for the combined layers, i.e., the entire dentate gyrus, better CE estimates could be obtained using an m of 1. The orientation of the sections impacted on CE sizes. Frontal (coronal sections are typically most efficient by providing the smallest CEs for a given amount of work. Applying the estimator to 3D-reconstructed layers and using very intense sampling, we observed CE size plots with m = 0 to m = 1 transitions that should also be expected but are not often observed in real section series. The data we present also allows the reader to approximate the sampling intervals in frontal, horizontal or sagittal sections that provide CEs of specified sizes for the layers of the mouse dentate gyrus.

  1. Cannabinoids modulate hippocampal memory and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abush, Hila; Akirav, Irit

    2010-10-01

    Considerable evidence demonstrates that cannabinoid agonists impair whereas cannabinoid antagonists improve memory and plasticity. However, recent studies suggest that the effects of cannabinoids on learning do not necessarily follow these simple patterns, particularly when emotional memory processes are involved. We investigated the involvement of the cannabinoid system in hippocampal learning and plasticity using the fear-related inhibitory avoidance (IA) and the non-fear-related spatial learning paradigms, and cellular models of learning and memory, i.e., long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). We found that microinjection into the CA1 of the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (5 μg/side) and an inhibitor of endocannabinoid reuptake and breakdown AM404 (200 ng/side) facilitated the extinction of IA, while the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (6 ng/side) impaired it. WIN55,212-2 and AM251 did not affect IA conditioning, while AM404 enhanced it, probably due to a drug-induced increase in pain sensitivity. However, in the water maze, systemic or local CA1 injections of AM251, WIN55,212-2, and AM404 all impaired spatial learning. We also found that i.p. administration of WIN55,212-2 (0.5 mg/kg), AM404 (10 mg/kg), and AM251 (2 mg/kg) impaired LTP in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 projection, whereas AM404 facilitated LTD. Our findings suggest diverse effects of the cannabinoid system on CA1 memory and plasticity that cannot be categorized simply into an impairing or an enhancing effect of cannabinoid activation and deactivation, respectively. Moreover, they provide preclinical support for the suggestion that targeting the endocannabinoid system may aid in the treatment of disorders associated with impaired extinction-like processes, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Socioeconomic status, cognition, and hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie; Heaney, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Poorer surgical outcomes in patients with low socioeconomic status have previously been reported, but the mechanisms underlying this pattern are unknown. Lower socioeconomic status may be a proxy marker for the limited economic opportunities associated with compromised cognitive function. The aim of this study was to examine the preoperative neuropsychological characteristics of patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and their relationship to socioeconomic status. Two hundred ninety-two patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral HS completed tests of memory and intellectual function prior to surgery. One hundred thirty-one had right HS (RHS), and 161 had left HS (LHS). The socioeconomic status of each participant was determined via the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) associated with their postcode. The IMD was not associated with age at the time of assessment, age at onset of epilepsy, or duration of active epilepsy. The RHS and LHS groups did not differ on the IMD. The IMD was negatively correlated with all neuropsychological test scores in the LHS group. In the RHS group, the IMD was not significantly correlated with any of the neuropsychological measures. There were no significant correlations in the RHS group. Regression analyses suggested that IMD score explained 3% of variance in the measures of intellect, but 8% of the variance in verbal learning in the LHS group. The IMD explained 1% or less of the variance in neuropsychological scores in the RHS group. Controlling for overall level of intellectual function, the IMD score explained a small but significant proportion of the variance in verbal learning in the LHS group and visual learning for the RHS group. Our findings suggest that patients living in an area with a high IMD enter surgery with greater focal deficits associated with their epilepsy and more widespread cognitive deficits if they have LHS. Further work is needed to establish the direction of the

  3. Exercise reduces diet-induced cognitive decline and increases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in CA3 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Emily E; Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Little, Morgan R; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Wang, ChuanFeng

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that a western diet impairs, whereas physical exercise enhances hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Both diet and exercise influence expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is associated with improved cognition. We hypothesized that exercise reverses diet-induced cognitive decline while increasing hippocampal BDNF. To test the effects of exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory, we compared cognitive scores of Sprague-Dawley rats exercised by voluntary running wheel (RW) access or forced treadmill (TM) to sedentary (Sed) animals. Memory was tested by two-way active avoidance test (TWAA), in which animals are exposed to a brief shock in a specific chamber area. When an animal avoids, escapes or has reduced latency to do either, this is considered a measure of memory. In a second experiment, rats were fed either a high-fat diet or control diet for 16 weeks, then randomly assigned to running wheel access or sedentary condition, and TWAA memory was tested once a week for 7 weeks of exercise intervention. Both groups of exercised animals had improved memory as indicated by reduced latency to avoid and escape shock, and increased avoid and escape episodes (pdiet resulted in poor performance during both the acquisition and retrieval phases of the memory test as compared to controls. Exercise reversed high-fat diet-induced memory impairment, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurons of the hippocampal CA3 region. These data suggest that exercise improves memory retrieval, particularly with respect to avoiding aversive stimuli, and may be beneficial in protecting against diet induced cognitive decline, likely via elevated BDNF in neurons of the CA3 region. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Exogenous galanin attenuates spatial memory impairment and decreases hippocampal β-amyloid levels in rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Yu, Liling; Kong, Qingxia

    2013-11-01

    One of the major pathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of enhanced deposits of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ). The neuropeptide galanin (GAL) and its receptors are overexpressed in degenerating brain regions in AD. The functional consequences of galaninergic systems plasticity in AD are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether exogenous galanin could attenuate spatial memory impairment and hippocampal Aβ aggregation in rat model of AD. The effects of Aβ, galanin, galanin receptor 1 agonist M617 and galanin receptor 2 agonist AR-M1896 on spatial memory were tested by Morris water maze. The effects of Aβ, galanin, M617 and AR-M1896 on hippocampal Aβ protein expression were evaluated by western blot assay. The expression of galanin, galanin receptors 1 and 2 in rats' hippocampus were detected by real time PCR and western blot assay. The results showed that (1) Galanin administration was effective in improving the spatial memory and decreasing hippocampal Aβ levels after intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ; (2) AR-M1896 rather than M617 could imitate these effects of galanin; (3) GAL and GALR2 mRNA and protein levels increased significantly in hippocampus after Aβ administration, while GALR1 mRNA and protein levels did not change; (4) GAL, AR-M1896 and M617 administration did not show significant effect on GAL, GalR1 and GalR2 mRNA and protein levels in hippocampus after Aβ administration. These results implied that galanin receptor 2, but not receptor 1 was involved in the protective effects against spatial memory impairment and hippocampal Aβ aggregation.

  5. Food restriction reduces neurogenesis in the avian hippocampal formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara-Anne Robertson

    Full Text Available The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance. Beyond knowing that these chickens are healthier than fully-fed birds and that they have a high motivation to eat, little is known about how food restriction impacts the animals' physiology. Chickens were kept on a commercial food-restricted diet during the first 12 weeks of life, or released from this restriction by feeding them ad libitum from weeks 7-12 of life. To test the hypothesis that chronic food restriction decreases the production of new neurons (neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation, the cell proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine was injected one week prior to tissue collection. Corticosterone levels in blood plasma were elevated during food restriction, even though molecular markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation did not differ between the treatments. The density of new hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced in the food-restricted condition, as compared to chickens fed ad libitum, similar to findings in rats at a similar developmental stage. Food restriction did not affect hippocampal volume or the total number of neurons. These findings indicate that in birds, like in mammals, reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with chronically elevated corticosterone levels, and therefore potentially with chronic stress in general. This finding is consistent with the

  6. Bilateral reorganization of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, M; Martinian, L; Catarino, C; Yogarajah, M; Koepp, M J.; Caboclo, L; Sisodiya, S M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common surgical pathology associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). HS is typically characterized by mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) and reorganization of neuropeptide Y (NPY) fiber networks in the dentate gyrus. One potential cause of postoperative seizure recurrence following temporal lobe surgery may be the presence of seizure-associated bilateral hippocampal damage. We aimed to investigate patterns of hippocampal abnormalities in a postmortem series as identified by NPY and dynorphin immunohistochemistry. Methods: Analysis of dentate gyrus fiber reorganization, using dynorphin (to demonstrate MFS) and NPY immunohistochemistry, was carried out in a postmortem epilepsy series of 25 cases (age range 21–96 years). In 9 patients, previously refractory seizures had become well controlled for up to 34 years prior to death. Results: Bilateral MFS or abnormal NPY patterns were seen in 15 patients including those with bilateral symmetric, asymmetric, and unilateral HS by conventional histologic criteria. MFS and NPY reorganization was present in all classical HS cases, more variably in atypical HS, present in both MTLE and non-MTLE syndromes and with seizure histories of up to 92 years, despite seizure remission in some patients. Conclusion: Synaptic reorganization in the dentate gyrus may be a bilateral, persistent process in epilepsy. It is unlikely to be sufficient to generate seizures and more likely to represent a seizure-induced phenomenon. GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; CA1p = CA1-predominant hippocampal sclerosis; CHS = classical hippocampal sclerosis; EFG = end folium gliosis; EFS = end folium sclerosis; GCD = granule cell dispersion; GCL = granule cell layer; HS = hippocampal sclerosis; MFS = mossy fiber sprouting; MTLE = mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; NPY = neuropeptide Y; ROI = region of interest; SE = status epilepticus; TLE = temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:19710404

  7. Studies on hippocampal sclerosis by 1H MRS and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jing; Du Xiangke; Luan Guoming; Wang Dehang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative utility of 1 H MRS and MRI for pre-surgical diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis by the study on metabolic abnormalities and anatomical alterations in the brain of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods: 1 H MRS and MRI were performed on 8 patients with pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis and 8 healthy volunteers on 2.0 T 1 H MRS/MRI system. The values of NAA, Cr and Cho were calculated by integration of their peaks and the ratios of NAA/Cr, NAA/(Cr + Cho), and Cho/Cr were measured. The volumes of both hippocampal formations in every case were observed and the differences of hippocampal formation (DHF) were analyzed. Results: The ratios of NAA/Cr, NAA/(Cr + Cho), and Cho/Cr in ipsilateral side were 0.55, 1.77 and 1.38, and in control subjects were 0.77, 1.38 and 1.06 separately. The ratios of NAA/Cr and NAA/(Cr + Cho) were decreased on ipsilateral side (t = 2.15, 4.83 separately, P 1 H MRS and MRI, seven of eight cases could be lateralized. Conclusion: 1 H MRS is sensitive to the diagnosis of neuron abnormality and coincident well with the pathological results 1 H MRS and MRI correctly lateralize most patients with hippocampal sclerosis and complement each other in final lateralization. The combination of 1 H MRS and MRI can provide useful information for pre-surgical diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis

  8. Spectroscopic evidence of hippocampal abnormalities in neocortical epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S. G.; Laxer, K. D.; Cashdollar, N.; Lopez, R. C.; Weiner, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    Lesional neocortical epilepsy (NE) can be associated with hippocampal sclerosis or hippocampal spectroscopic abnormalities without atrophy (dual pathology). In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) was used to determine the frequency of hippocampal damage/dysfunction in NE with and without structural lesion. Sixteen patients with NE [seven temporal NE (NE-T), nine extratemporal (NE-ET)] and 16 controls were studied with a 2D MRSI sequence (Repetition time/echo time (TR/TE) = 1800/135 ms) covering both hippocampi. Seven NE patients had MR visible lesions (NE-Les), nine had normal MRI (NE-no). In each hippocampus, 12 voxels were uniformly selected. In controls, mean (± SD) NAA/(Cr + Cho) values for each voxel were calculated and voxels with NAA/(Cr + Cho) ≤ (mean in controls – 2SD in controls) were defined as ‘pathological’ in patients. Eight of 16 NE patients had at least two ‘pathological’ voxel (mean 2.5, range 2–5) in one hippocampus. Four were NE-Les and four NE-no. Three (43%) NE-T patients, had evidence for hippocampal damage/dysfunction and five (56%) had NE-ET. The ipsilateral hippocampus was affected in six of eight NE patients. Evidence for unilateral hippocampal damage/dysfunction was demonstrated in 50% of the NE patients. The type of NE, i.e. NE-Les or NE-no, NE-T or NE-ET, had no influence on the occurrence of hippocampal damage/dysfunction. PMID:16618342

  9. Roles of hippocampal subfields in verbal and visual episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Andrea R; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Lipton, Richard B; Lipton, Michael L; Katz, Mindy J

    2017-01-15

    Selective hippocampal (HC) subfield atrophy has been reported in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between the volume of hippocampal subfields and visual and verbal episodic memory in cognitively normal older adults. This study was conducted on a subset of 133 participants from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based study of non-demented older adults systematically recruited from the Bronx, N.Y. All participants completed comprehensive EAS neuropsychological assessment. Visual episodic memory was assessed using the Complex Figure Delayed Recall subtest from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Verbal episodic memory was assessed using Delayed Recall from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT). All participants underwent 3T MRI brain scanning with subsequent automatic measurement of the hemispheric hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2-CA3, CA4-dente gyrus, presubiculum, and subiculum). We used linear regressions to model the association between hippocampal subfield volumes and visual and verbal episodic memory tests while adjusting for age, sex, education, and total intracranial volume. Participants had a mean age of 78.9 (SD=5.1) and 60.2% were female. Total hippocampal volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.31, p=0.001) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.007); subiculum volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.002) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.24, p=0.010); CA1 was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.26, pepisodic memory. Our results suggest that hippocampal subfields have sensitive roles in the process of visual and verbal episodic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Higher-order conditioning is impaired by hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Asaf; Sekeres, Melanie; Moscovitch, Morris; Winocur, Gordon

    2014-09-22

    Behavior in the real world is rarely motivated by primary conditioned stimuli that have been directly associated with potent unconditioned reinforcers. Instead, motivation and choice behavior are driven by complex chains of higher-order associations that are only indirectly linked to intrinsic reward and often exert their influence outside awareness. Second-order conditioning (SOC) [1] is a basic associative-learning mechanism whereby stimuli acquire motivational salience by proxy, in the absence of primary incentives [2, 3]. Memory-systems theories consider first-order conditioning (FOC) and SOC to be prime examples of hippocampal-independent nondeclarative memory [4, 5]. Accordingly, neurobiological models of SOC focus almost exclusively on nondeclarative neural systems that support motivational salience and reward value. Transfer of value from a conditioned stimulus to a neutral stimulus is thought to require the basolateral amygdala [6, 7] and the ventral striatum [2, 3], but not the hippocampus. We developed a new paradigm to measure appetitive SOC of tones in rats. Hippocampal lesions severely impaired both acquisition and expression of SOC despite normal FOC. Unlike controls, rats with hippocampal lesions could not discriminate between positive and negative secondary conditioned tones, although they exhibited general familiarity with previously presented tones compared with new tones. Importantly, normal rats' behavior, in contrast to that of hippocampal groups, also revealed different confidence levels as indexed by effort, a central characteristic of hippocampal relational memory. The results indicate, contrary to current systems models, that representations of intrinsic relationships between reward value, stimulus identity, and motivation require hippocampal mediation when these relationships are of a higher order. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution, survivorship and mortality sources in immature stages of the neotropical leaf miner Pachyschelus coeruleipennis Kerremans (Coleoptera: Buprestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, sources of mortality, and survivorship of immatures was investigated during the reproductive season of the neotropical buprestid leaf miner, Pachyschelus coeruleipennis, that burrows in leaves of Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae in SE, Brazil. Immature distribution was investigated by a random sample of 120 shrubs of C. floribundus growing along forest edges. Marked leaves were followed to recorded sources of mortality and survivorship of immature stages. Females lay their eggs preferentially in the young leaves of the host plant, with mines and pupal cells having been found on the middle part of plants. Densities of eggs, active mines, and pupal cells were, respectively, 25 ± 2, 6 ± 1, and 1 ± 0.3 per 100 leaves. Predators and parasitoids accounted for the majority of losses in the immature P. coeruleipennis population. Mortality was 3 times lower in the egg stage than in the last larval instar. Predation rate was greater than parasitism but the latter increased much more during the development of immatures. Survivorship and sources of mortality were different between early and late season sample of leaf-miner immatures. Parasitism rate was greater in the late-season whereas predation was greater in early-season samples. These results are compared with mortality patterns described for other buprestid leaf miners in temperate and tropical regions.

  12. Tuning afferent synapses of hippocampal interneurons by neuropeptide Y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledri, Marco; Sørensen, Andreas Toft; Erdelyi, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)-expressing basket cells encompass a subclass of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons that regulate memory-forming oscillatory network activity of the hippocampal formation in accordance to the emotional and motivational state of the animal, conveyed onto these cells by respective...... are modulated by neuropeptide Y (NPY), one of the major local neuropeptides that strongly inhibits hippocampal excitability and has significant effect on its memory function. Here, using GAD65-GFP transgenic mice for prospective identification of CCK basket cells and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we show...

  13. Hippocampal MRI volumetry at 3 Tesla: reliability and practical guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukens, Cécile R L P N; Vlooswijk, Mariëlle C G; Majoie, H J Marian; de Krom, Marc C T F M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Hofman, Paul A M; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Backes, Walter H

    2009-09-01

    Although volumetry of the hippocampus is considered to be an established technique, protocols reported in literature are not described in great detail. This article provides a complete and detailed protocol for hippocampal volumetry applicable to T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images acquired at 3 Tesla, which has become the standard for structural brain research. The protocol encompasses T1-weighted image acquisition at 3 Tesla, anatomic guidelines for manual hippocampus delineation, requirements of delineation software, reliability measures, and criteria to assess and ensure sufficient reliability. Moreover, the validity of the correction for total intracranial volume size was critically assessed. The protocol was applied by 2 readers to the MR images of 36 patients with cryptogenic localization-related epilepsy, 4 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis, and 20 healthy control subjects. The uncorrected hippocampal volumes were 2923 +/- 500 mm3 (mean +/- SD) (left) and 3120 +/- 416 mm3 (right) for the patient group and 3185 +/- 411 mm3 (left) and 3302 +/- 411 mm3 (right) for the healthy control group. The volume of the 4 pathologic hippocampi of the patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis was 2980 +/- 422 mm3. The inter-reader reliability values were determined: intraclass-correlation-coefficient (ICC) = 0.87 (left) and 0.86 (right), percentage volume difference (VD) = 7.0 +/- 4.7% (left) and 6.0 +/- 3.8% (right), and overlap ratio (OR) = 0.82 +/- 0.04 (left) and 0.82 +/- 0.03 (right). The positive Pearson correlation between hippocampal volume and total intracranial volume was found to be low: r = 0.48 (P = 0.03, left) and r = 0.62 (P = 0.004, right) and did not significantly reduce the volumetric variances, showing the limited benefit of the brain size correction. A protocol was described to determine hippocampal volumes based on 3 Tesla MR images with high inter-reader reliability. Although the reliability of hippocampal volumetry at 3 Tesla

  14. Hippocampal volume and serotonin transporter polymorphism in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahdidan, Jamila; Foldager, Leslie; Rosenberg, Raben

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study was to replicate a previous finding in major depressive disorder (MDD) of association between reduced hippocampal volume and the long variant of the di- and triallelic serotonin transporter polymorphism in SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q11.2. Secondarily, we...... that we aimed to replicate, and no significant associations with the serotonin transporter polymorphism were found. Conclusions: The present quantitative and morphometric MRI study was not able to replicate the previous finding of association between reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients...... and the serotonin transporter polymorphism....

  15. Inhibitory effects of caffeine on hippocampal neurogenesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Park, Kyu-Hyun; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Kim, Jae-Bong; Kim, Hak-Jin; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2007-05-18

    Caffeine is one of the most extensively consumed psychostimulants in the world. However, compared to short-term effects of caffeine, the long-term effects of caffeine consumption on learning and memory are poorly characterized. The present study found that long-term consumption of low dose caffeine (0.3 g/L) slowed hippocampus-dependent learning and impaired long-term memory. Caffeine consumption for 4 weeks also significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis compared to controls. From these results, we concluded that long-term consumption of caffeine could inhibit hippocampus-dependent learning and memory partially through inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  16. 3-nitropropionic acid neurotoxicity in hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Helle; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Noraberg, Jens

    2002-01-01

    : CA1 > CA3 > fascia dentata. In low glucose much lower concentrations of 3-NP (25 microM) triggered neurotoxicity. One-week-old cultures were less susceptible to 3-NP toxicity than 3-week-old cultures, but the dentate granule cells were relatively more affected in the immature cultures. We found...

  17. Natural history and immature stage morphology of Spialia Swinhoe, 1912 in the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae

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    Juan L. Hernández-Roldán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new data on the ecology, natural history and geographic distribution of the recently described skipper Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila, 2016 and compare its immature stage morphology with the sympatric species S. sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. Spialia rosae uses species of Rosa L. (Rosaceae as larval host-plants and prefers montane habitats, while S. sertorius feeds on Sanguisorba minor Scop. (Rosaceae and inhabits lower altitudes. Rosa corymbifera Borkh. and R. tomentosa Sm. are documented for the first time as foodplants of S. rosae. We report Microgaster australis Thomson, 1895 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae as a larval parasitoid of S. rosae. Details of the immature stages of S. rosae and S. sertorius are shown using scanning electron microscope photographs, confirming the similar immature stage morphology, at least as regards the Iberian S. sertorius. In both species, the egg has high radial ribs, the last instar larva has branched setae covering the head, and the pupa has setae with pointed tips, barrel-like cuticular formations, and hairy mesothoracic tubercles. By extensive sampling of the species of Spialia in the region of Segovia, Central Spain, we extend the previously known geographic distribution of S. rosae to 56 new 100 km2 MGRS squares, which represents a 155 % increase. Spialia rosae is present in the northern part of the interior plateau and in the main mountain systems of the Iberian Peninsula. The main threats to the populations of S. rosae are its limited distribution range and the possible effects of climate change due to its specialization in montane habitats. The conservation status of S. rosae was previously regarded as Data Deficient (DD. With the addition of new data the species can now be evaluated as Least Concern (LC.

  18. Neuropeptide Y induces potent migration of human immature dendritic cells and promotes a Th2 polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttari, Brigitta; Profumo, Elisabetta; Domenici, Giacomo; Tagliani, Angela; Ippoliti, Flora; Bonini, Sergio; Businaro, Rita; Elenkov, Ilia; Riganò, Rachele

    2014-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a major autonomic nervous system and stress mediator, is emerging as an important regulator of inflammation, implicated in autoimmunity, asthma, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Yet the role of NPY in regulating phenotype and functions of dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen-presenting cells, remains undefined. Here we investigated whether NPY could induce DCs to migrate, mature, and polarize naive T lymphocytes. We found that NPY induced a dose-dependent migration of human monocyte-derived immature DCs through the engagement of NPY Y1 receptor and the activation of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. NPY promoted DC adhesion to endothelial cells and transendothelial migration. It failed to induce phenotypic DC maturation, whereas it conferred a T helper 2 (Th2) polarizing profile to DCs through the up-regulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 production. Thus, during an immune/inflammatory response NPY may exert proinflammatory effects through the recruitment of immature DCs, but it may exert antiinflammatory effects by promoting a Th2 polarization. Locally, at inflammatory sites, cell recruitment could be amplified in conditions of intense acute, chronic, or cold stress. Thus, altered or amplified signaling through the NPY-NPY-Y1 receptor-DC axis may have implications for the development of inflammatory conditions.-Buttari, B., Profumo, E., Domenici, G., Tagliani, A., Ippoliti, F., Bonini, S., Businaro, R., Elenkov, I., Riganò, R. Neuropeptide Y induces potent migration of human immature dendritic cells and promotes a Th2 polarization. © FASEB.

  19. Effectiveness of different irrigation protocols on calcium hydroxide removal from simulated immature teeth after apexification

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    Evren Ok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation solutions and ultrasonic activation of the irrigation solutions on the removal of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 from the simulated immature root canals after apexification. Materials and methods: One-hundred and one single-rooted teeth were used. The root canals were shaped with ProTaper rotary files up to F5. Simulation of roots with immature apices was carried out using size 4 Unicore drills. An injectable Ca(OH2 was injected into each root canal, and packed to the working length. Then, cotton pellets were placed over canal orifices, and apical and coronal parts of the roots were sealed with resin-modified glass ionomer cement, and light cured. Specimens were stored in distilled water for 3 months at 37°C. After 3 months, the temporary coronal seal was removed and the samples were randomly divided into: (a saline (n = 20, (b ultrasonic activation of saline (n = 20, (c sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl (n = 20, (d ultrasonic activation of NaOCl (n = 15, (e chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX (n = 20 and one positive control group (n = 3 and one negative control group (n = 3. The amount of remaining Ca(OH2 on the canal walls was measured under stereomicroscope with 30× magnification. Comparisons between groups were made by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn post-test at a significance level of p  0.05 groups. Conclusions: Irrigation solutions and ultrasonic activation of the irrigation solutions could not completely remove Ca(OH2 from the simulated immature root canals.

  20. Growth regulators and darkness increase efficiency in in vitro culture of immature embryos from peppers

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    Juan Pablo Manzur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world, and extensive breeding efforts are being made to develop new improved strains of this species. In this regard, in vitro culture of immature embryos may help breeders accelerate breeding cycles and overcome interspecific barriers, among other applications. In this study, we have optimized a protocol for in vitro culture of immature embryos of C. annuum. Levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and zeatin have been tested to improve the efficiency (germination rates of this technique in C. annuum embryos at the four main immature stages (i.e. globular, heart, torpedo, and early cotyledonary from four varietal types of this species (California Wonder, Piquillo, Guindilla, and Bola. The effect of 5-day initial incubation in the dark was also tested on the most efficient hormone formulation. On average, relatively low levels of both IAA and zeatin (0.01 mg L−¹ each (M1 provided the highest germination rates, particularly in the advanced stages (torpedo and cotyledonary. To a lesser extent, the lack of these growth regulators (M0 or high IAA (0.2 mg L−¹/low zeatin (0.01 mg L−¹ (M2 combination also had a positive response. On the contrary, high zeatin levels (0.2 mg L−¹ produced very low germination rates or callus development (efficiency 0-7 %. Different responses were also found between genotypes. Thus, considering the best media (M0, M1, M2, Bola embryos had the highest rates. M1 plus 5-days of initial dark incubation (M1-D improved the efficiency rates at all embryo stages, particularly in the earliest (globular embryos which increased from 3 % to > 20 %.

  1. Abrogation of Early Apoptosis Does Not Alter Late Inhibition of Hippocampal Neurogenesis After Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuqing; Aubert, Isabelle; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Irradiation of the adult brain results in acute apoptosis of neural progenitors and vascular endothelial cells, as well as late dysfunction of neural progenitors and inhibition of neurogenesis. We sought to determine whether the early apoptotic response has a causative role in late inhibition of neurogenesis after cranial irradiation. Methods and Materials: Using a genetic approach with p53 and smpd1 transgenic mice and a pharmacologic approach with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to abrogate the early apoptotic response, we evaluated the late inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus after cranial irradiation. Results: In dentate gyrus, subgranular neural progenitors underwent p53-dependent apoptosis within 24 h after irradiation. Despite a near abrogation of neural progenitor apoptosis in p53-/- mice, the reduction in newborn neurons in dentate gyrus at 9 weeks after irradiation in p53-/- mice was not different from that observed in wildtype controls. Endothelial cell apoptosis after radiation is mediated by membrane damage initiated by activation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase). Deletion of the smpd1 gene (which encodes ASMase) attenuated the apoptotic response of endothelial cells. At 9 weeks after irradiation, the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis was not rescued by ASMase deficiency. Intravenous administration of bFGF protected both endothelial cells and neural progenitors against radiation-induced apoptosis. There was no protection against inhibition of neurogenesis at 9 weeks after irradiation in bFGF-treated mice. Conclusion: Early apoptotic death of neural progenitors, endothelial cells, or both does not have a causative association with late inhibition of neurogenesis after irradiation.

  2. Effects of current inhalation exposure methods on cardiopulmonary function of immature dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lay, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 9% of 84 3-mo-old dogs exposed to inhalation of radioactive aerosols have experienced respiratory failure during exposure. A study was conducted to evaluate effects of exposure on cardiopulmonary function of immature dogs. Results indicate that the combination of nose breathing and breathing into the aerosol delivery cone quadrupled breathing effort of 3-mo-old dogs. Excitement exacerbated a failure to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation and resulted in CO 2 retention and acidosis. General anesthesia and use of an endotracheal tube alleviated problems due to nasal airflow resistance and behaviorally-related increases in ventilatory requirement

  3. Toxicity of 239PuO2 in immature Beagle dogs. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 (1.5 μm AD) to compare the biological effects with those seen in young adult and aged dogs exposed to a similar aerosol. To date 45 dogs have been exposed to the aerosol, resulting in graded lung burdens from 0.0031 to 0.64 μCi/kg body weight. Six dogs exposed to the dilute ammonium hydroxide aerosol only serve as controls. One experimental dog has died of parvovirus enteritis. Exposures will continue during the coming year to complete the experimental design

  4. Neuronal cell death in hippocampus induced by homocysteic acid in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmeier, M.; Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Haugvicová, Renata; Pokorný, J.; Mareš, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2003), s. 299-304 ISSN 0013-9580 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/97/0518; GA ČR GA309/02/1238 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 32/2001/C/1.LF; RFBR(RU) 02-404-48903; RFBR(RU) NIOKR RT03-3.8-16 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 111100001 Keywords : homocysteic acid * immature rats * seizures Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.549, year: 2003

  5. First description of the immature stages of Hemilucilia segmentaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA J THYSSEN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages oí Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Calliphoridae are described. Egg morphology and structures such as the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior and posterior spiracles, and the dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax from first, second and third instar larvae are characterized, using light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is abundant in Neotropical forests and, because of its necrophagous behavior, is of substantial medico-legal importance for estimating the postmortem interval in criminal investigations. Information presented herein may be useful to differentiate among eggs and larvae of closely related species and to supplement the database for blowfly identification

  6. Root canal treatment of pulpless immature teeth using calcium hydroxide paste. Roentgenographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, R.M.G.V.; Abbud, R.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium hydroxide paste was used as a temporary dressing and the renewal was done each three months in the root treatment of immature teeth with open apex and necrotic pulps. Clinical and radiographic controls were made to observe foraminal closure. After that, the root canals were filled, employing the conventional technique with gutta-percha cones and zinc oxide eugenol cements. The calcium hydroxide paste was applied in the apical region before the root canal filling. The follow-up was done periodically and the cases have more than two years of control. (author) [pt

  7. Does status epilepticus modify the effect of ifenprodil on cortical epileptic afterdischarges in immature rats?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abbasova, Kenul; Kubová, Hana; Mareš, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 1 (2018), s. 126-132 ISSN 1734-1140 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16605S; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15032 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : status epilepticus * immature rats * ifenprodil * cortical stimulation * epileptic afterdischarges Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2016

  8. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future work is

  9. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii and Bonobos (Pan paniscus: Preparation for Tool Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathelijne Koops

    Full Text Available Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo. We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry. Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early object manipulation (i.e., object play in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays. In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed

  10. Greater tactile sensitivity and less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms predict women's penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Houde, Stephanie; Hess, Ursula

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that diminished tactile sensitivity might be associated with reduced sexual activity and function. Research has also demonstrated significant physiological and psychological differences between sexual behaviors, including immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) impairing specifically women's orgasm from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI). To examine the extent to which orgasm triggered by PVI (distinguished from other sexual activities) is associated with both greater tactile sensitivity and lesser use of immature psychological defenses. Seventy French-Canadian female university students (aged 18-30) had their finger sensitivity measured with von Frey type microfilaments, completed the Defense Style Questionnaire and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale, and provided details of the 1 month (and ever) frequencies of engaging in, and having an orgasm from, PVI, masturbation, anal intercourse, partner masturbation, and cunnilingus. Logistic and linear regression prediction of orgasm triggered by PVI from tactile sensitivity, age, social desirability responding, and immature psychological defenses. Having a PVI orgasm in the past month was associated with greater tactile sensitivity (odds ratio=4.0 for each filament point) and less use of immature defense mechanisms (odds ratio=5.1 for each scale point). Lifetime PVI orgasm was associated only with less use of immature defense mechanisms (and lower social desirability responding score). Orgasms triggered by other activities were not associated with either tactile sensitivity or immature defense mechanisms. Tactile sensitivity was also associated with greater past month PVI frequency (inclusion of PVI frequency in a logistic regression model displaced tactile sensitivity), and lesser use of immature defenses was associated with greater past month PVI and PVI orgasm frequencies. Both diminished physical sensitivity and the

  11. Impaired Odor Recognition Memory in Patients with Hippocampal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Daniel A.; Squire, Larry R.; Hopkins, Ramona O.

    2004-01-01

    In humans, impaired recognition memory following lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region has been demonstrated for a wide variety of tasks. However, the importance of the human hippocampus for olfactory recognition memory has scarcely been explored. We evaluated the ability of memory-impaired patients with damage thought to be…

  12. Evaluating Alzheimer's disease progression using rate of regional hippocampal atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Frankó

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by neurofibrillary tangle and neuropil thread deposition, which ultimately results in neuronal loss. A large number of magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported a smaller hippocampus in AD patients as compared to healthy elderlies. Even though this difference is often interpreted as atrophy, it is only an indirect measurement. A more direct way of measuring the atrophy is to use repeated MRIs within the same individual. Even though several groups have used this appropriate approach, the pattern of hippocampal atrophy still remains unclear and difficult to relate to underlying pathophysiology. Here, in this longitudinal study, we aimed to map hippocampal atrophy rates in patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and elderly controls. Data consisted of two MRI scans for each subject. The symmetric deformation field between the first and the second MRI was computed and mapped onto the three-dimensional hippocampal surface. The pattern of atrophy rate was similar in all three groups, but the rate was significantly higher in patients with AD than in control subjects. We also found higher atrophy rates in progressive MCI patients as compared to stable MCI, particularly in the antero-lateral portion of the right hippocampus. Importantly, the regions showing the highest atrophy rate correspond to those that were described to have the highest burden of tau deposition. Our results show that local hippocampal atrophy rate is a reliable biomarker of disease stage and progression and could also be considered as a method to objectively evaluate treatment effects.

  13. PirB regulates asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Ukai

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain structure; however, the molecular basis of brain asymmetry remains unclear. We recently identified structural and functional asymmetries in mouse hippocampal circuitry that result from the asymmetrical distribution of two distinct populations of pyramidal cell synapses that differ in the density of the NMDA receptor subunit GluRε2 (also known as NR2B, GRIN2B or GluN2B. By examining the synaptic distribution of ε2 subunits, we previously found that β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, which lack cell surface expression of the vast majority of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI proteins, do not exhibit circuit asymmetry. In the present study, we conducted electrophysiological and anatomical analyses on the hippocampal circuitry of mice with a knockout of the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB, an MHCI receptor. As in β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, the PirB-deficient hippocampus lacked circuit asymmetries. This finding that MHCI loss-of-function mice and PirB knockout mice have identical phenotypes suggests that MHCI signals that produce hippocampal asymmetries are transduced through PirB. Our results provide evidence for a critical role of the MHCI/PirB signaling system in the generation of asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

  14. Classical Conditioning of Hippocampal Theta Patterns in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    associated with changes in performance of learned tasks , 1,4,5, 8,9 there have been very few studies of neurona l plasticity of the hippocampus It self...rapid development of a conditioned hippocampal theta response to a visual sti mulus demonstrates tha t there is considerable neurona l plasticity in the

  15. High dose tetrabromobisphenol A impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Seulah; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jaewon

    2017-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant that is commonly used in commercial and household products, such as, computers, televisions, mobile phones, and electronic boards. TBBPA can accumulate in human body fluids, and it has been reported that TBBPA possesses endocrine disruptive activity. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBBPA on hippocampal neurogenesis has not yet been investigated. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of TBBPA on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. Male C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated vehicle or TBBPA (20 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, or 500 mg/kg daily) for two weeks. TBBPA was observed to significantly and dose-dependently reduce the survival of newly generated cells in the hippocampus but not to affect the proliferation of newly generated cells. Numbers of hippocampal BrdU and NeuN positive cells were dose-dependently reduced by TBBPA, indicating impaired neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Interestingly, glial activation without neuronal death was observed in hippocampi exposed to TBBPA. Furthermore, memory retention was found to be adversely affected by TBBPA exposure by a mechanism involving suppression of the BDNF-CREB signaling pathway. The study suggests high dose TBBPA disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and induces associated memory deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Necroptosis Mediates TNF-Induced Toxicity of Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α is a critical proinflammatory cytokine regulating neuroinflammation. Elevated levels of TNF-α have been associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the signaling events that lead to TNF-α-initiated neurotoxicity are still unclear. Here, we report that RIP3-mediated necroptosis, a form of regulated necrosis, is activated in the mouse hippocampus after intracerebroventricular injection of TNF-α. RIP3 deficiency attenuates TNF-α-initiated loss of hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we characterized the molecular mechanism of TNF-α-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells. HT-22 cells are sensitive to TNF-α only upon caspase blockage and subsequently undergo necrosis. The cell death is suppressed by knockdown of CYLD or RIP1 or RIP3 or MLKL, suggesting that this necrosis is necroptosis and mediated by CYLD-RIP1-RIP3-MLKL signaling pathway. TNF-α-induced necroptosis of HT-22 cells is largely independent of both ROS accumulation and calcium influx although these events have been shown to be critical for necroptosis in certain cell lines. Taken together, these data not only provide the first in vivo evidence for a role of RIP3 in TNF-α-induced toxicity of hippocampal neurons, but also demonstrate that TNF-α promotes CYLD-RIP1-RIP3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis of hippocampal neurons largely bypassing ROS accumulation and calcium influx.

  17. Amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal glioblastoma. MRI finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimauchi, M.; Wakisaka, S.; Kinoshita, K. (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1989-11-01

    The authors report a unique case of glioblastoma which caused permanent amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion to be limited to the hippocampal formation bilaterally. Although glioblastoma extends frequently into fiber pathways and expands into the opposite cerebral hemisphere, making a 'butterfly' lesion, it is unusual for it to invade the limbic system selectively to this extent. (orig.).

  18. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Hansen, Naja Liv

    2016-01-01

    the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.74 vs 0.67; DeLong test, p = 0.005), and provided even better prognostic results in AIBL (AUC 0.83). Hippocampal texture, but not volume, correlated with Addenbrooke's cognitive examination score (Pearson correlation, r = −0.25, p ...

  19. Hippocampal declarative memory supports gesture production: Evidence from amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilverman, Caitlin; Cook, Susan Wagner; Duff, Melissa C

    2016-12-01

    Spontaneous co-speech hand gestures provide a visuospatial representation of what is being communicated in spoken language. Although it is clear that gestures emerge from representations in memory for what is being communicated (De Ruiter, 1998; Wesp, Hesse, Keutmann, & Wheaton, 2001), the mechanism supporting the relationship between gesture and memory is unknown. Current theories of gesture production posit that action - supported by motor areas of the brain - is key in determining whether gestures are produced. We propose that when and how gestures are produced is determined in part by hippocampally-mediated declarative memory. We examined the speech and gesture of healthy older adults and of memory-impaired patients with hippocampal amnesia during four discourse tasks that required accessing episodes and information from the remote past. Consistent with previous reports of impoverished spoken language in patients with hippocampal amnesia, we predicted that these patients, who have difficulty generating multifaceted declarative memory representations, may in turn have impoverished gesture production. We found that patients gestured less overall relative to healthy comparison participants, and that this was particularly evident in tasks that may rely more heavily on declarative memory. Thus, gestures do not just emerge from the motor representation activated for speaking, but are also sensitive to the representation available in hippocampal declarative memory, suggesting a direct link between memory and gesture production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HIPPOCAMPAL SCLEROSIS IN EPILEPSY AND CHILDHOOD FEBRILE SEIZURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KUKS, JBM; COOK, MJ; FISH, DR; STEVENS, JM; SHORVON, SD

    1993-01-01

    The connection between hippocampal sclerosis and childhood febrile seizures (CFS) is a contentious issue in the study of epilepsy. We investigated 107 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy by high-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 20 had a history of CFS, 45 had focal (26) or

  1. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  2. Hippocampal development in youth with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquola, Casey; Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean N; Hermens, Daniel F; Groote, Inge; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with enhanced risk of psychiatric illness and reduced subcortical grey matter in adulthood. The hippocampus and amygdala, due to their involvement in stress and emotion circuitries, have been subject to extensive investigations regarding the effect of CM. However, the complex relationship between CM, subcortical grey matter and mental illness remains poorly understood partially due to a lack of longitudinal studies. Here we used segmentation and linear mixed effect modelling to examine the impact of CM on hippocampal and amygdala development in young people with emerging mental illness. A total of 215 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from 123 individuals (age: 14-28 years, 79 female), 52 of whom were scanned twice or more. Hippocampal and amygdala volumes increased linearly with age, and their developmental trajectories were not moderated by symptom severity. However, exposure to CM was associated with significantly stunted right hippocampal growth. This finding bridges the gap between child and adult research in the field and provides novel evidence that CM is associated with disrupted hippocampal development in youth. Although CM was associated with worse symptom severity, we did not find evidence that CM-induced structural abnormalities directly underpin psychopathology. This study has important implications for the psychiatric treatment of individuals with CM since they are clinically and neurobiologically distinct from their peers who were not maltreated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of local estrogen synthesis in the hippocampus impairs hippocampal memory consolidation in ovariectomized female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuscher, Jennifer J; Szinte, Julia S; Starrett, Joseph R; Krentzel, Amanda A; Fortress, Ashley M; Remage-Healey, Luke; Frick, Karyn M

    2016-07-01

    The potent estrogen 17β-Estradiol (E2) plays a critical role in mediating hippocampal function, yet the precise mechanisms through which E2 enhances hippocampal memory remain unclear. In young adult female rodents, the beneficial effects of E2 on memory are generally attributed to ovarian-synthesized E2. However, E2 is also synthesized in the adult brain in numerous species, where it regulates synaptic plasticity and is synthesized in response to experiences such as exposure to females or conspecific song. Although de novo E2 synthesis has been demonstrated in rodent hippocampal cultures, little is known about the functional role of local E2 synthesis in mediating hippocampal memory function. Therefore, the present study examined the role of hippocampal E2 synthesis in hippocampal memory consolidation. Using bilateral dorsal hippocampal infusions of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole, we first found that blockade of dorsal hippocampal E2 synthesis impaired hippocampal memory consolidation. We next found that elevated levels of E2 in the dorsal hippocampus observed 30min after object training were blocked by dorsal hippocampal infusion of letrozole, suggesting that behavioral experience increases acute and local E2 synthesis. Finally, aromatase inhibition did not prevent exogenous E2 from enhancing hippocampal memory consolidation, indicating that hippocampal E2 synthesis is not necessary for exogenous E2 to enhance hippocampal memory. Combined, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that hippocampally-synthesized E2 is necessary for hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation in rodents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Distemper virus encephalitis exerts detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rüden, E-L; Avemary, J; Zellinger, C; Algermissen, D; Bock, P; Beineke, A; Baumgärtner, W; Stein, V M; Tipold, A; Potschka, H

    2012-08-01

    Despite knowledge about the impact of brain inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis, data on the influence of virus encephalitis on dentate granule cell neurogenesis are so far limited. Canine distemper is considered an interesting model of virus encephalitis, which can be associated with a chronic progressing disease course and can cause symptomatic seizures. To determine the impact of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection on hippocampal neurogenesis, we compared post-mortem tissue from dogs with infection with and without seizures, from epileptic dogs with non-viral aetiology and from dogs without central nervous system diseases. The majority of animals with infection and with epilepsy of non-viral aetiology exhibited neuronal progenitor numbers below the age average in controls. Virus infection with and without seizures significantly decreased the mean number of neuronal progenitor cells by 43% and 76% as compared to age-matched controls. Ki-67 labelling demonstrated that hippocampal cell proliferation was neither affected by infection nor by epilepsy of non-viral aetiology. Analysis of CDV infection in cells expressing caspase-3, doublecortin or Ki-67 indicated that infection of neuronal progenitor cells is extremely rare and suggests that infection might damage non-differentiated progenitor cells, hamper neuronal differentiation and promote glial differentiation. A high inter-individual variance in the number of lectin-reactive microglial cells was evident in dogs with distemper infection. Statistical analyses did not reveal a correlation between the number of lectin-reactive microglia cells and neuronal progenitor cells. Our data demonstrate that virus encephalitis with and without seizures can exert detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, which might contribute to long-term consequences of the disease. The lack of a significant impact of distemper virus on Ki-67-labelled cells indicates that the infection affected neuronal differentiation and

  5. Hippocampal sleep features: relations to human memory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eFerrara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of intracranial EEG recordings techniques for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients is providing new information on the activity of different brain structures during both wakefulness and sleep. The interest has been mainly focused on the medial temporal lobe, and in particular the hippocampal formation, whose peculiar local sleep features have been recently described, providing support to the idea that sleep is not a spatially global phenomenon. The study of the hippocampal sleep electrophysiology is particularly interesting because of its central role in the declarative memory formation. Recent data indicate that sleep contributes to memory formation. Therefore, it is relevant to understand whether specific pattern of activity taking place during sleep are related to memory consolidation processes. Fascinating similarities between different states of consciousness (wakefulness, REM sleep, NREM sleep in some electrophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive processes have been reported. For instance, large-scale synchrony in gamma activity is important for waking memory and perception processes, and its changes during sleep may be the neurophysiological substrate of sleep-related deficits of declarative memory. Hippocampal activity seems to specifically support memory consolidation during sleep, through specific coordinated neurophysiological events (slow waves, spindles, ripples that would facilitate the integration of new information into the pre-existing cortical networks. A few studies indeed provided direct evidence that rhinal ripples as well as slow hippocampal oscillations are correlated with memory consolidation in humans. More detailed electrophysiological investigations assessing the specific relations between different types of memory consolidation and hippocampal EEG features are in order. These studies will add an important piece of knowledge to the elucidation of the ultimate sleep

  6. Hippocampal Sleep Features: Relations to Human Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Moroni, Fabio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Nobili, Lino

    2012-01-01

    The recent spread of intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) recording techniques for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients is providing new information on the activity of different brain structures during both wakefulness and sleep. The interest has been mainly focused on the medial temporal lobe, and in particular the hippocampal formation, whose peculiar local sleep features have been recently described, providing support to the idea that sleep is not a spatially global phenomenon. The study of the hippocampal sleep electrophysiology is particularly interesting because of its central role in the declarative memory formation. Recent data indicate that sleep contributes to memory formation. Therefore, it is relevant to understand whether specific patterns of activity taking place during sleep are related to memory consolidation processes. Fascinating similarities between different states of consciousness (wakefulness, REM sleep, non-REM sleep) in some electrophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive processes have been reported. For instance, large-scale synchrony in gamma activity is important for waking memory and perception processes, and its changes during sleep may be the neurophysiological substrate of sleep-related deficits of declarative memory. Hippocampal activity seems to specifically support memory consolidation during sleep, through specific coordinated neurophysiological events (slow waves, spindles, ripples) that would facilitate the integration of new information into the pre-existing cortical networks. A few studies indeed provided direct evidence that rhinal ripples as well as slow hippocampal oscillations are correlated with memory consolidation in humans. More detailed electrophysiological investigations assessing the specific relations between different types of memory consolidation and hippocampal EEG features are in order. These studies will add an important piece of knowledge to the elucidation of the ultimate

  7. Various ketogenic diets can differently support brain resistance against experimentally evoked seizures and seizure-induced elemental anomalies of hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwiej, J; Patulska, A; Skoczen, A; Matusiak, K; Janeczko, K; Ciarach, M; Simon, R; Setkowicz, Z

    2017-07-01

    In this paper the influence of two different ketogenic diets (KDs) on the seizure-evoked elemental anomalies of hippocampal formation was examined. To achieve this purpose normal and pilocarpine treated rats previously fed with one of the two high fat and carbohydrate restricted diets were compared with animals on standard laboratory diet. The ketogenic ratios of the examined KDs were equal to 5:1 (KD1) and 9:1 (KD2). KD1 and standard diet fed animals presented similar patterns of seizure-evoked elemental changes in hippocampal formation. Also the analysis of behavioral data recorded after pilocarpine injection did not show any significant differences in intensity and duration of seizures between KD1 and standard diet fed animals. Higher ketogenic ratio KD2 introduced in the normal hippocampal formation prolonged changes in the accumulation of P, K, Zn and Ca. Despite this, both the intensity and duration of seizures were significantly reduced in rats fed with KD2 which suggests that its saving action on the nerve tissue may protect brain from seizure propagation. Also seizure-evoked elemental anomalies in KD2 animals were different than those observed for rats both on KD1 and standard diets. The comparison of seizure experiencing and normal rats on KD2, did not show any statistically significant differences in elemental composition of CA1 and H hippocampal areas whilst in CA3 area only Zn level changed as a result of seizures. DG was the area mostly affected by seizures in KD2 fed rats but areal densities of all examined elements increased in this hippocampal region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein synthesis in the rat brain: a comparative in vivo and in vitro study in immature and adult animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazian, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    Rates of protein synthesis of CNS and other organs were compared in immature and adult rats by in vivo and slice techniques with administration of flooding doses of labeled precursor. The relationship between synthesis and brain region, cell type, subcellular fraction, or MW was examined. Incorporation of [ 14 C]valine into protein of CNS regions in vivo was about 1.2% per hour for immature rats and 0.6% for adults. For slices, the rates decreased significantly more in adults. In adult organs, the highest synthesis rate in vivo was found in liver (2.2% per hour) followed by kidney, spleen, lung, heart, brain, and muscle (0.5% per hour). In immature animals synthesis was highest in liver and spleen (2.5% per hour) and lowest in muscle (0.9% per hour). Slices all showed lower rates than in vivo, especially in adults. In vivo, protein synthesis rates of immature neurons and astrocytes and adult neurons exceeded those of whole brain, while that in adult astrocytes was the same. These results demonstrate a developmental difference of protein synthesis (about double in immature animals) in all brain cells, cell fractions and most brain protein. Similarly the decreased synthesis in brain slices - especially in adults, affects most proteins and structural elements

  9. Autonomous rexinoid death signaling is suppressed by converging signaling pathways in immature leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, G R; Flexor, M; Besançon, F; Altucci, L; Rossin, A; Hillion, J; Balajthy, Z; Legres, L; Ségal-Bendirdjian, E; Gronemeyer, H; Lanotte, M

    2001-07-01

    On their own, retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective ligands (rexinoids) are silent in retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-RXR heterodimers, and no selective rexinoid program has been described as yet in cellular systems. We report here on the rexinoid signaling capacity that triggers apoptosis of immature promyelocytic NB4 cells as a default pathway in the absence of survival factors. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis displays all features of bona fide programmed cell death and is inhibited by RXR, but not RAR antagonists. Several types of survival signals block rexinoid-induced apoptosis. RARalpha agonists switch the cellular response toward differentiation and induce the expression of antiapoptosis factors. Activation of the protein kinase A pathway in the presence of rexinoid agonists induces maturation and blocks immature cell apoptosis. Addition of nonretinoid serum factors also blocks cell death but does not induce cell differentiation. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis is linked to neither the presence nor stability of the promyelocytic leukemia-RARalpha fusion protein and operates also in non-acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Together our results support a model according to which rexinoids activate in certain leukemia cells a default death pathway onto which several other signaling paradigms converge. This pathway is entirely distinct from that triggered by RAR agonists, which control cell maturation and postmaturation apoptosis.

  10. NOTCH2 signaling confers immature morphology and aggressiveness in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Osanai, Makoto; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2015-10-01

    The NOTCH family of membranous receptors plays key roles during development and carcinogenesis. Since NOTCH2, yet not NOTCH1 has been shown essential for murine hepatogenesis, NOTCH2 rather than NOTCH1 may be more relevant to human hepatocarcinogenesis; however, no previous studies have supported this hypothesis. We therefore assessed the role of NOTCH2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by immunohistochemistry and cell culture. Immunohistochemically, 19% of primary HCCs showed nuclear staining for NOTCH2, indicating activated NOTCH2 signaling. NOTCH2-positive HCCs were on average in more advanced clinical stages, and exhibited more immature cellular morphology, i.e. higher nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios and nuclear densities. Such features were not evident in NOTCH1‑positive HCCs. In human HCC cell lines, abundant NOTCH2 expression was associated with anaplasia, represented by loss of E-cadherin. When NOTCH2 signaling was stably downregulated in HLF cells, an anaplastic HCC cell line, the cells were attenuated in potential for in vitro invasiveness and migration, as well as in vivo tumorigenicity accompanied by histological maturation. Generally, inverse results were obtained for a differentiated HCC cell line, Huh7, manipulated to overexpress activated NOTCH2. These findings suggested that the NOTCH2 signaling may confer aggressive behavior and immature morphology in human HCC cells.

  11. Inherited effects from irradiated mouse immature oocytes detected in aggregation embryo chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Raabe, O.G.; Walsh, K.J.; Wiley, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    Data obtained using the mouse-preimplantation-embryo-chimera assay are presented that show a transmitted effect following low-dose irradiation of immature oocytes in vivo. Six-week-old female mice were irradiated using 137 Cs-γ-rays (0.05 Gy, 0.15 Gy, and unexposed controls). At 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 weeks post exposure, the mice were mated and aggregation chimeras made from the 4-cell embryos. Three independent experiments have now been carried out, all showing a significant embryonic cell-proliferation disadvantage of the embryos obtained from the females treated 7 weeks previously, i.e., embryos from oocytes that were immature at the time of radiation exposure. No effect was detected at 1-6 weeks when embryos were obtained from maturing oocytes. Also, the effect was not seen at 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 weeks post exposure. The implications of these results are discussed in the light of previous studies on mouse oocytes

  12. Revascularization of Immature Necrotic Teeth: Platelet rich Fibrin an Edge over Platelet rich Plasma

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    Neelam Mittal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Revascularization is one such entity that has found its clinical application in the field of endodontics for the manage-ment of immature permanent necrotic teeth. The protocols for revascularization of such teeth focus especially on delivery of stem cells and scaffolds in a nonsurgical manner rather than concentrated growth micro molecules.The hypothesis: This article proposes the role of platelet concentrates such as platelet rich fibrin (PRF and platelet rich plasma (PRP in accelerating the regenerative process in such teeth. PRF unlike PRP is associated with slow, continuous and substantial re-lease of morphogens. It is hypothesized further if PRF instead of PRP when placed through immature apices in an orthograde manner can open newer gates for fast and controlled growth in young, ne-crotic, non-infected teeth.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Enhancement of the healing kinetics can be evaluated by change in size of periapical radiolucency, thickness of the dentinal walls, root elongation and apical closure compared between preoperative and postoperative standardized two dimensional/three dimensional radiographs taken on regular follow ups.

  13. Histologic Outcomes of Uninfected Human Immature Teeth Treated with Regenerative Endodontics: 2 Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Ali; Kolahdouzan, Alireza; Hosseini, Farzaneh; Mehrizi, Ehsan A; Verma, Prashant; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    A growing body of evidence exists showing the possibility of growing vital tissues in the root canal spaces of teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. However, there is very limited histologic information regarding characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space of human teeth after regenerative endodontics. The aim of this study was to examine clinically and histologically the outcomes of human immature teeth treated with regenerative endodontics. Two healthy birooted human maxillary first premolar teeth scheduled for extraction were included. Preoperative radiographs confirmed that these teeth had immature apices. Vitality tests showed the presence of vital pulps in these teeth. After receiving consent forms, the teeth were isolated with a rubber dam, and the pulps were completely removed. After the formation of blood clots in the canals, the teeth were covered with mineral trioxide aggregate. Four months later, the teeth were clinically and radiographically evaluated, extracted, and examined histologically. Both patients remained asymptomatic after treatment. Radiographic examination of the teeth showed signs of root development after treatment. Histologic examination of tissues growing into the root canal space of these teeth shows the presence of connective tissue, bone and cementum formation, and thickening of roots. Based on our findings, it appears that when canals of teeth with open apices are treated with regenerative endodontics, tissues of the periodontium grow into the root canals of these teeth. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissociation and preservation of preantral follicles and immature oocytes from female dasyurid marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarny, N A; Harris, M S; Rodger, J C

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian ovary contains numerous immature preantral follicles that are not dependent on endocrine support, unlike the more mature hormone-dependent antral follicles. Preantral follicles can be enzymatically dissociated to yield immature oocytes that survive sub-zero preservation better as they lack a temperature-sensitive meiotic spindle. These techniques are highly applicable to gamete banking, which is an urgent requirement for Australian carnivorous marsupials as several species have rapidly declining populations and risk extinction. The present study developed protocols for the transport, dissociation, preservation and culture of granulosa cell-oocyte complexes (GOC) from the ovaries of dasyurid marsupials. High viability of GOC following enzymatic dissociation is reported and it was demonstrated that GOC are of significantly better quality following refrigerated storage for 24 h compared with storage at room temperature. Oocytes from primary follicles were not damaged by cold shock or the toxicity of vitrification media and following vitrification in liquid nitrogen 69.42+/-2.44% of oocytes were viable. However, the surrounding granulosa cells demonstrated significant damage post-thaw. These granulosa cells proliferated during a 48-h culture period resulting in significant improvements in GOC quality. The present study is a valuable step towards cryostorage of dasyurid gametes and represents fundamentally important methods by which we can contribute to the conservation of Australia's native predators.

  15. Position-dependent patterning of spontaneous action potentials in immature cochlear inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stuart L; Eckrich, Tobias; Kuhn, Stephanie; Zampini, Valeria; Franz, Christoph; Ranatunga, Kishani M; Roberts, Terri P; Masetto, Sergio; Knipper, Marlies; Kros, Corné J; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-06-01

    Spontaneous action potential activity is crucial for mammalian sensory system development. In the auditory system, patterned firing activity has been observed in immature spiral ganglion and brain-stem neurons and is likely to depend on cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) action potentials. It remains uncertain whether spiking activity is intrinsic to developing IHCs and whether it shows patterning. We found that action potentials were intrinsically generated by immature IHCs of altricial rodents and that apical IHCs showed bursting activity as opposed to more sustained firing in basal cells. We show that the efferent neurotransmitter acetylcholine fine-tunes the IHC's resting membrane potential (V(m)), and as such is crucial for the bursting pattern in apical cells. Endogenous extracellular ATP also contributes to the V(m) of apical and basal IHCs by triggering small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK2) channels. We propose that the difference in firing pattern along the cochlea instructs the tonotopic differentiation of IHCs and auditory pathway.

  16. eQTL Networks Reveal Complex Genetic Architecture in the Immature Soybean Seed

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    Yung-Tsi Bolon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex network of regulatory factors and interactions involved in transcriptional regulation within the seed is not well understood. To evaluate gene expression regulation in the immature seed, we utilized a genetical genomics approach on a soybean [ (L. Merr.] recombinant inbred line (RIL population and produced a genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL dataset. The validity of the dataset was confirmed by mapping the eQTL hotspot for flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes to a region containing repeats of chalcone synthase (CHS genes known to correspond to the soybean inhibitor locus that regulates seed color. We then identified eQTL for genes with seed-specific expression and discovered striking eQTL hotspots at distinct genomic intervals on chromosomes (Chr 20, 7, and 13. The main eQTL hotspot for transcriptional regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis genes also coincided with regulation of oleosin genes. Transcriptional upregulation of genesets from eQTL with opposite allelic effects were also found. Gene–eQTL networks were constructed and candidate regulatory genes were identified from these three key loci specific to seed expression and enriched in genes involved in seed oil accumulation. Our data provides new insight into the complex nature of gene networks in the immature soybean seed and the genetic architecture that contributes to seed development.

  17. Structural Changes in Cattle Immature Oocytes Subjected to Slow Freezing and Vitrification

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    H. Wahid*, M. Thein1, E.A. El-Hafez2, M.O. Abas3, K. Mohd Azam4, O. Fauziah5, Y. Rosnina and H. Hajarian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different cryopreservation methods (slow-freezing and vitrification on structural changes of bovine immature oocytes. Bovine ovaries were collected from local abattoirs. Cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs were retrieved using aspiration method from 2-6 mm follicles. In Experiment 1, selected oocytes were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups namely freezing solution-exposed, frozen-thawed, vitrification solution-exposed and vitrified-thawed and then oocytes abnormalities were examined under a stereomicroscope. In Experiment 2, oocytes were randomly allocated to the same grouping as experiment 1 plus control group. Following freezing or vitrification, all oocytes were fixed in glutaraldehyde and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In experiment 1, there was a higher incidence of abnormalities in the frozen-thawed and vitrified-warmed oocytes compared to those in freezing solution and vitrification solution-exposed groups (P<0.05. In experiment 2, there were marked alterations in the perivitelline space, microvilli and vesicles of frozen-thawed and vitrified-warmed oocytes characterized by loss of elasticity and integrity of cytoplasmic processes and microvilli following cooling and warming. In conclusion, ethylene glycol-based freezing and vitrification solutions are suitable choices for cryopreservation of immature oocytes and most organelles are able to retain their normal morphology following cryopreservation and thawing processes.

  18. Description of immatures and mating behavior of Liogenys bidenticeps Moser, 1919 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae

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    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Description of immatures and mating behavior of Liogenys bidenticeps Moser, 1919 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae. Some species of Melolonthinae are associated with several species of cropped plants, with larvae consuming roots and, in some cases, are considered as crop pests. In some agricultural regions of Brazil, larvae of L. bidenticeps are found associated with cultivated plants, and little information is available about this taxon. This study, aiming at expanding the knowledge about the morphology and behavior of this species, provides the description of immatures and mating behavior of adults. The studies were conducted at the experimental farm of the Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, and the adults were collected with light trap and raised in the laboratory. Mating behavior was documented on video both in the field and under laboratory conditions. Descriptions and illustrations of the third instar larva and pupa are presented. Adults have crepuscular flight activity and their copulation lasts an average of 20.25 min, occurring from 19:00 to 22:00 h. On some occasions, females did not accept males for copulation, indicating an active selection of males by females. Field observations demonstrated that adults feed on Brazilian pepper leaves (Schinus terebinthifolius, Anacardiaceae and cashew flowers (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae, where male and female meet each other and copulation occurs.

  19. Successful vitrification of bovine immature oocyte using liquid helium instead of liquid nitrogen as cryogenic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue-Li; Xu, Ya-Kun; Wu, Hua; Guo, Xian-Fei; Li, Xiao-Xia; Han, Wen-Xia; Li, Ying-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of liquid helium (LHe) and liquid nitrogen (LN2) as cryogenic liquid for vitrification of bovine immature oocytes with open-pulled straw (OPS) system and determine the optimal cryoprotectant concentration of LHe vitrification. Cumulus oocyte complexes were divided into three groups, namely, untreated group (control), LN2 vitrified with OPS group, and LHe vitrified with OPS group. Oocyte survival was assessed by morphology, nuclear maturation, and developmental capability. Results indicated that the rates of normal morphology, maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst (89.3%, 52.8%, 42.7%, and 10.1%, respectively) in the LHe-vitrified group were all higher than those (79.3%, 43.4%, 34.1%, and 4.7%) in the LN2-vitrified group (P 0.05). The maturation rate of the EDS35 group (65.0%) was higher than those of the EDS30 (51.3%), EDS40 (50.1%), EDS45 (52.1%), and EDS50 groups (36.9%; P liquid for vitrification of bovine immature oocytes, and it is more efficient than LN2-vitrified oocytes in terms of blastocyst production. EDS35 was the optimal cryoprotectant agent combination for LHe vitrification in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regenerative treatment of an immature, traumatized tooth with apical periodontitis: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Elisabetta; Mereu, Manuela; Lusso, Daniela

    2008-05-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a necrotic immature permanent central incisor with complete crown fracture, suspected root fracture, and sinus tract, which was not treated with conventional apexification techniques. Instead, a regenerative approach based on the trauma literature's methods for revascularization was provided. The root canal was gently debrided of necrotic tissue with a sharp spoon excavator and irrigated for only one third of its length with NaOCl and then medicated with calcium hydroxide. After 15 days the sinus tract had healed, and the tooth was asymptomatic. The tooth was accessed, calcium hydroxide was removed, bleeding was stimulated to form an intracanal blood clot, and mineral trioxide aggregate was placed coronally to the blood clot. After 8 months, a coronal calcified barrier was radiographically evident and accompanied with progressive thickening of the root wall and apical closure. Two and a half years after treatment was initiated, the tooth remained asymptomatic, and the sinus tract had not reappeared. The progressive increase in the thickness of the dentinal walls and subsequent apical development suggest that appropriate biologic responses can occur with this type of treatment of the necrotic immature permanent tooth with sinus tract.

  1. Spatial accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Kinya; Mifune, Yuki; Morita, Kaori; Ishitsuka, Souichi; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Ishihara, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) originates from arid regions of southern Africa, and its fruit contains a large amount of the amino acid citrulline, an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger. Citrulline is implicated in the production of nitric oxide in human endothelium, and potential health benefits including vasodilatation and antioxidant functions have been suggested. However, citrulline metabolism in watermelon fruits is poorly understood. This study examined the accumulation pattern of citrulline and other nutrients in immature and mature watermelon fruits. In mature fruits, highest citrulline concentration was observed in the outer peel, followed by the central portion of the flesh and inner rinds, whereas the level was lower in the peripheral portion of the flesh. Citrulline content was generally low in immature fruits. Spatial and developmental patterns of citrulline accumulation were largely different from those of the antioxidant lycopene, total proteins, and soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Principal component analysis suggested a clear distinction of the central flesh and outer peels in mature fruits from other tissues in terms of the levels of major nutrients. These observations suggested that citrulline accumulation may be regulated in a distinct manner from other nutrients during watermelon fruit maturation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

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    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  3. [Mineral trioxide aggragate pulpotomy for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis: a preliminary clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chufang; Zhao, Yuming; Yang, Yuan; Qin, Man

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the preliminary clinical effect of mineral trioxide aggragate (MTA) pulpotomy on immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Twenty-six immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis were recuited from Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. These teeth were treated with partial or full pulpotomy according to the condition of pulp bleeding. MTA was used as pulp capping material. Patients were recalled periodically after the treatment. Clinical and radiographic effects were evaluated. At one year follow-up, 20 teeth were evaluated as healed or healing, 2 teeth were evaluated as failure and 4 teeth were dropped out. The success rate was considered 91% (20/22). A dentinal bridge was radiographcally observed underneath the pulpotomy site in 13 teeth(65%, 13/20). MTA pulpotomy is an effective method for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis. But further research with longer follow up period is required.

  4. Hippocampal Damage Increases Deontological Responses during Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cornelia; Rosenthal, Clive R; Miller, Thomas D; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2016-11-30

    Complex moral decision making is associated with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in humans, and damage to this region significantly increases the frequency of utilitarian judgments. Since the vmPFC has strong anatomical and functional links with the hippocampus, here we asked how patients with selective bilateral hippocampal damage would derive moral decisions on a classic moral dilemmas paradigm. We found that the patients approved of the utilitarian options significantly less often than control participants, favoring instead deontological responses-rejecting actions that harm even one person. Thus, patients with hippocampal damage have a strikingly opposite approach to moral decision making than vmPFC-lesioned patients. Skin-conductance data collected during the task showed increased emotional arousal in the hippocampal-damaged patients and they stated that their moral decisions were based on emotional instinct. By contrast, control participants made moral decisions based on the integration of an adverse emotional response to harming others, visualization of the consequences of one's action, and the rational re-evaluation of future benefits. This integration may be disturbed in patients with either hippocampal or vmPFC damage. Hippocampal lesions decreased the ability to visualize a scenario and its future consequences, which seemed to render the adverse emotional response overwhelmingly dominant. In patients with vmPFC damage, visualization might also be reduced alongside an inability to detect the adverse emotional response, leaving only the utilitarian option open. Overall, these results provide insights into the processes involved in moral decision making and highlight the complementary roles played by two closely connected brain regions. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is closely associated with the ability to make complex moral judgements. When this area is damaged, patients become more utilitarian (the ends justify the means) and have

  5. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Metaplastic thymoma with myasthenia gravis presumably caused by an accumulation of intratumoral immature T cells: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Shogo; Yanagiya, Masahiro; Sato, Masaaki; Nakajima, Jun; Fukayama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Among human neoplasms, thymomas are well known for their association with paraneoplastic autoimmune diseases such as myasthenia gravis. However, regarding rare metaplastic thymoma, only one case of an association with myasthenia gravis has been reported. Here, we present the second case of a 44-year-old woman with metaplastic thymoma associated with myasthenia gravis. In metaplastic thymoma, intratumoral terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-positive T-cells (immature T-cells) are generally scarce, while they were abundant in the present case. We believe that these immature T-cells could be related to the occurrence of myasthenia gravis.

  7. Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) induced by immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A Ray; Blagburn, Byron L; Tillson, Michael; Brawner, William; Welles, Betsy; Johnson, Calvin; Cattley, Russell; Rynders, Pat; Barney, Sharron

    2017-11-09

    A controlled, blind research study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared with cats developing adult heartworm infections and cats on preventive medication. Three groups of cats were utilized, 10 per group. All cats were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection. Group A cats were treated topically with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days post infection (PI) and once monthly for 8 months. Group B cats were treated orally with ivermectin (Ivomec®; Merial) at 150 μg/kg at 70 days PI, then every 2 weeks for 5 months. Group C cats were untreated PI. At baseline (Day 0) and on Days 70, 110, 168, and 240 PI, peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected on all cats. Upon completion of the study (Day 245), cats were euthanized and necropsies were conducted. Results were analyzed statistically between groups by ANOVA and by paired sample T testing for changes within the group over time. The selamectin-treated cats (Group A) did not develop radiographically evident changes throughout the study and were free of adult heartworms or worm fragments at necropsy. The heartworm life cycle was abbreviated with oral doses of ivermectin (Group B), shown by the absence of adult heartworms or worm fragments at necropsy. The early stage of immature adult worm in Group B cats, however, did induce severe pulmonary airway, interstitial, and arterial lung lesions, revealing that the abbreviated infection is a significant cause of respiratory pathology in cats. Cats in Groups B and C could not be differentiated based on radiographic changes, serologic antibody titers, complete blood count, or bronchoalveolar lavage cytology at any time point throughout the study. Eighty percent of cats in Group A and 100% of cats in Groups B and C became heartworm antibody positive at

  8. What role do plain radiographs have in assessing the skeletally immature acromioclavicular joint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Park, Moon Seok

    2014-01-01

    Because of incomplete ossification of the coracoid process and acromion, acromioclavicular joint configuration in the skeletally immature patient differs from that of adults. Although comparison to radiographic standards for this joint is critical in the evaluation of acromioclavicular joint injuries, these standards are not well defined for children or adolescents. We therefore sought to determine (1) the reliability of numerous radiographic measurements of the skeletally immature acromioclavicular joint, including the vertical and shortest coracoclavicular interval, and the acromioclavicular joint offset; (2) the timing of ossification of the acromion and coracoid in males and females; and (3) the differences in the values of these radiographic measurements based on age and sex. This study was based on a total of 485 subjects, 8 to 18 years old, who underwent conventional AP view radiographs of both shoulders. The 485 subjects were included to assess normal configuration around the acromioclavicular joint and 466 of these subjects were evaluated for comparison between both sides. The vertical and shortest coracoclavicular interval, coracoclavicular clavicle width ratio, acromioclavicular joint offset, and difference of the coracoclavicular interval of both sides were measured. A reliability test was conducted before obtaining the main measurements. The relationship of measurements with sex, age, and stage of ossification was evaluated. The vertical and shortest coracoclavicular interval showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ([ICC], 0.918 and 0.934). The acromioclavicular joint offset showed low reliability (ICC, 0.543). The ossification centers of the acromion and the coracoid processes appeared and fused earlier in females than in males. The vertical coracoclavicular interval, which was not affected by partial ossification of the coracoid process, was less than 11 mm in the 90% quantile of total subjects in males and 10 mm in the 90

  9. Di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate and flutamide alter gene expression in the testis of immature male rats

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    Yu Frank H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously demonstrated that the androgenic and anti-androgenic effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs alter reproductive function and exert distinct effects on developing male reproductive organs. To further investigate these effects, we used an immature rat model to examine the effects of di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and flutamide (Flu on the male reproductive system. Immature male SD rats were treated daily with DEHP and Flu on postnatal days (PNDs 21 to 35, in a dose-dependent manner. As results, the weights of the testes, prostate, and seminal vesicle and anogenital distances (AGD decreased significantly in response to high doses of DEHP or Flu. Testosterone (T levels significantly decreased in all DEHP- treated groups, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH plasma levels were not altered by any of the two treatments at PND 36. However, treatment with DEHP or Flu induced histopathological changes in the testes, wherein degeneration and disorders of Leydig cells, germ cells and dilatation of tubular lumen were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, hyperplasia and denseness of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells were observed in rats given with high doses of Flu. The results by cDNA microarray analysis indicated that 1,272 genes were up-regulated by more than two-fold, and 1,969 genes were down-regulated in response to DEHP, Flu or both EDs. These genes were selected based on their markedly increased or decreased expression levels. These genes have been also classified on the basis of gene ontology (e.g., steroid hormone biosynthetic process, regulation of transcription, signal transduction, metabolic process, biosynthetic process.... Significant decreases in gene expression were observed in steroidogenic genes (i.e., Star, Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b. In addition, the expression of a common set of target genes, including CaBP1, Vav2, Plcd1, Lhx1 and Isoc1, was altered following exposure to EDs, suggesting that they may be marker genes to

  10. Propofol-induced rno-miR-665 targets BCL2L1 and influences apoptosis in rodent developing hippocampal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Chong; Liang, Zuo-Di; Pei, Ling

    2015-12-01

    Propofol exerts neurotoxic effects on the developing mammalian brains, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, in specific types of neurocytes, the detailed functions of miRNAs were not entirely understood. We investigated the potential role of miRNAs in astrocyte pathogenesis caused by propofol. We performed genome-wide microRNA expression profiling in immature cultured hippocampal astrocytes by microarray analysis and predicted their targets and functions using bioinformatics tools. The functional effects of one differentially expressed miRNA were examined experimentally in relation to astrocyte viability. The results showed that 13 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed after both short-term exposure to high-concentration propofol (10 μg/ml for 1h) and long-term exposure to low-concentration propofol (0.9 μg/ml for 48 h), including rno-miR-665, differing significantly between the 2. Bioinformatics predicted putative binding sites for rno-miR-665 existing in the 3'-untranslated region of Bcl-2-like protein 1 BCL2L1 (Bcl-xl) mRNA. Moreover, such relationship was assessed by luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR and western blot. Rno-miR-665 which was significantly up-regulated by propofol can suppress BCL2L1 and elevate cleaved caspase-3 expression in immature astrocytes in vitro. Apoptosis of developing hippocampal astrocytes was thus significantly influenced by propofol or rno-miR-665, or both. Taken together, rno-miR-665 is involved in the neurotoxicity induced by propofol via a caspase-3 mediated mechanism by negatively regulating BCL2L1. It might act as an alternative therapeutic target for treatment of neurological disorders in peadiatric prolonged anesthesia or sedation with propofol clinically. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Hippocampal place cells construct reward related sequences through unexplored space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, H Freyja; Barry, Caswell; Saleem, Aman B; Hassabis, Demis; Spiers, Hugo J

    2015-06-26

    Dominant theories of hippocampal function propose that place cell representations are formed during an animal's first encounter with a novel environment and are subsequently replayed during off-line states to support consolidation and future behaviour. Here we report that viewing the delivery of food to an unvisited portion of an environment leads to off-line pre-activation of place cells sequences corresponding to that space. Such 'preplay' was not observed for an unrewarded but otherwise similar portion of the environment. These results suggest that a hippocampal representation of a visible, yet unexplored environment can be formed if the environment is of motivational relevance to the animal. We hypothesise such goal-biased preplay may support preparation for future experiences in novel environments.

  12. Independent rate and temporal coding in hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxter, John; Burgess, Neil; O'Keefe, John

    2003-10-23

    In the brain, hippocampal pyramidal cells use temporal as well as rate coding to signal spatial aspects of the animal's environment or behaviour. The temporal code takes the form of a phase relationship to the concurrent cycle of the hippocampal electroencephalogram theta rhythm. These two codes could each represent a different variable. However, this requires the rate and phase to vary independently, in contrast to recent suggestions that they are tightly coupled, both reflecting the amplitude of the cell's input. Here we show that the time of firing and firing rate are dissociable, and can represent two independent variables: respectively the animal's location within the place field, and its speed of movement through the field. Independent encoding of location together with actions and stimuli occurring there may help to explain the dual roles of the hippocampus in spatial and episodic memory, or may indicate a more general role of the hippocampus in relational/declarative memory.

  13. Modulation of Hippocampal Neural Plasticity by Glucose-Related Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mainardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones and peptides involved in glucose homeostasis are emerging as important modulators of neural plasticity. In this regard, increasing evidence shows that molecules such as insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, glucagon-like peptide-1, and ghrelin impact on the function of the hippocampus, which is a key area for learning and memory. Indeed, all these factors affect fundamental hippocampal properties including synaptic plasticity (i.e., synapse potentiation and depression, structural plasticity (i.e., dynamics of dendritic spines, and adult neurogenesis, thus leading to modifications in cognitive performance. Here, we review the main mechanisms underlying the effects of glucose metabolism on hippocampal physiology. In particular, we discuss the role of these signals in the modulation of cognitive functions and their potential implications in dysmetabolism-related cognitive decline.

  14. The impact of sleep loss on hippocampal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Abel, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal cellular and molecular processes critical for memory consolidation are affected by the amount and quality of sleep attained. Questions remain with regard to how sleep enhances memory, what parameters of sleep after learning are optimal for memory consolidation, and what underlying hippocampal molecular players are targeted by sleep deprivation to impair memory consolidation and plasticity. In this review, we address these topics with a focus on the detrimental effects of post-learning sleep deprivation on memory consolidation. Obtaining adequate sleep is challenging in a society that values “work around the clock.” Therefore, the development of interventions to combat the negative cognitive effects of sleep deprivation is key. However, there are a limited number of therapeutics that are able to enhance cognition in the face of insufficient sleep. The identification of molecular pathways implicated in the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on memory could potentially yield new targets for the development of more effective drugs. PMID:24045505

  15. Ethanol induces MAP2 changes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    1998-01-01

    loss of CA3 pyramidal cells and moderate loss of dentate granule cells, as seen in vivo. The results indicate that brain slice cultures combined with immunostaining for cytoskeleton and neuronal markers can be used for studies of ethanol and organic solvent neurotoxicity.......Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific protein (NeuN) immunostains were used to demonstrate neurotoxic effects in mature hippocampal slice cultures exposed to ethanol (50, 100, 200 mM) for 4 weeks. At the low dose the density of MAP2 immunostaining in the dentate molecular...... layer was 118% of the control cultures, with no detectable changes in CA1 and CA3. At 100 mM no changes were detected, while 200 mM ethanol significantly reduced the MAP2 density in both dentate (19%) and hippocampal dendritic fields (CA3, 52%; CA1, 55%). At this dose NeuN staining showed considerable...

  16. Spatial memory and hippocampal function: Where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Good

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to provide an overview of current debates concerning the role of the mammalian hippocampus in learning with a particular emphasis on spatial learning. The review discusses recent debates on (1 the role of the primate hippocampus in recognition memory and object-in-place memory, (2 the role of the hippocampus in spatial navigation in both rats and humans, and (3 the effects of hippocampal damage on processing contextual information. Evidence from these lines of research have led many current theories to posit a function for the hippocampus that has as its organizing principle the association or binding of stimulus representations. Based on this principle, recent theories of hippocampal function have extended their application beyond the spatial domain to capture features of declarative and episodic memory processes.

  17. Decoding the cognitive map: ensemble hippocampal sequences and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikenheiser, Andrew M; Redish, A David

    2015-06-01

    Tolman proposed that complex animal behavior is mediated by the cognitive map, an integrative learning system that allows animals to reconfigure previous experience in order to compute predictions about the future. The discovery of place cells in the rodent hippocampus immediately suggested a plausible neural mechanism to fulfill the 'map' component of Tolman's theory. Recent work examining hippocampal representations occurring at fast time scales suggests that these sequences might be important for supporting the inferential mental operations associated with the cognitive map function. New findings that hippocampal sequences play an important causal role in mediating adaptive behavior on a moment-by-moment basis suggest specific neural processes that may underlie Tolman's cognitive map framework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial representation in the hippocampal formation: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Edvard I; Moser, May-Britt; McNaughton, Bruce L

    2017-10-26

    Since the first place cell was recorded and the cognitive-map theory was subsequently formulated, investigation of spatial representation in the hippocampal formation has evolved in stages. Early studies sought to verify the spatial nature of place cell activity and determine its sensory origin. A new epoch started with the discovery of head direction cells and the realization of the importance of angular and linear movement-integration in generating spatial maps. A third epoch began when investigators turned their attention to the entorhinal cortex, which led to the discovery of grid cells and border cells. This review will show how ideas about integration of self-motion cues have shaped our understanding of spatial representation in hippocampal-entorhinal systems from the 1970s until today. It is now possible to investigate how specialized cell types of these systems work together, and spatial mapping may become one of the first cognitive functions to be understood in mechanistic detail.

  19. Inhibition of hippocampal synaptic transmission by impairment of Ral function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owe-Larsson, Björn; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Chauhan, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    Large clostridial cytotoxins and protein overexpression were used to probe for involvement of Ras-related GTPases (guanosine triphosphate) in synaptic transmission in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The toxins TcdA-10463 (inactivates Rho, Rac, Cdc42, Rap) and TcsL-1522 (inactivates Ral, Rac, Ras......, R-Ras, Rap) both inhibited autaptic responses. In a proportion of the neurons (25%, TcdA-10463; 54%, TcsL-1522), the inhibition was associated with a shift from activity-dependent depression to facilitation, indicating that the synaptic release probability was reduced. Overexpression of a dominant...... negative Ral mutant, Ral A28N, caused a strong inhibition of autaptic responses, which was associated with a shift to facilitation in a majority (80%) of the neurons. These results indicate that Ral, along with at least one other non-Rab GTPase, participates in presynaptic regulation in hippocampal neurons....

  20. Damage of hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ailin; Jiang, Hongbo; Xu, Lei; An, Na; Liu, Hui; Li, Yinsheng; Zhang, Ruiling

    2014-09-01

    Chronic alcoholism can damage the cytoskeleton and aggravate neurological deficits. However, the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neurons remains unclear. In this study, a model of chronic alcoholism was established in rats that were fed with 6% alcohol for 42 days. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide content and cystathionine-beta-synthase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism were significantly increased, while F-actin expression was decreased. Hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism appeared to have a fuzzy nuclear membrane, mitochondrial edema, and ruptured mitochondrial crista. These findings suggest that chronic alcoholism can cause learning and memory decline in rats, which may be associated with the hydrogen sulfide/cystathionine-beta-synthase system, mitochondrial damage and reduced expression of F-actin.

  1. Hypoxic pretreatment protects against neuronal damage of the rat hippocampus induced by severe hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgias, N; Maidatsi, P; Tsolaki, M; Alvanou, A; Kiriazis, G; Kaidoglou, K; Giala, M

    1996-04-01

    The present study investigates whether under conditions of successive hypoxic exposures pretreatment with mild (15% O(2)) or moderate (10% O(2)) hypoxia, protects hippocampal neurones against damage induced by severe (3% O(2)) hypoxia. The ultrastructural findings were also correlated with regional superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity changes. In unpretreated rats severe hypoxia induced ultrastructural changes consistent with the aspects of delayed neuronal death (DND). However, in preexposed animals hippocampal damage was attenuated in an inversely proportional way with the severity of the hypoxic pretreatment. The ultrastructural hypoxic tolerance findings were also closely related to increased regional SOD activity levels. Thus the activation of the endogenous antioxidant defense by hypoxic preconditioning, protects against hippocampal damage induced by severe hypoxia. The eventual contribution of increased endogenous adenosine and/or reduced excitotoxicity to induce hypoxic tolerance is discussed.

  2. The neuroprotective action of pyrroloquinoline quinone against glutamate-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons is mediated through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi; Shen Mi; Ding Mei; Shen Dingding; Ding Fei

    2011-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor in several enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions, possesses a potential capability of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that glutamate-induced apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons was significantly attenuated by the ensuing PQQ treatment, which also inhibited the glutamate-induced increase in Ca2+ influx, caspase-3 activity, and ROS production, and reversed the glutamate-induced decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The examination of signaling pathways revealed that PQQ treatment activated the phosphorylation of Akt and suppressed the glutamate-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). And inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade by LY294002 and wortmannin significantly blocked the protective effects of PQQ, and alleviated the increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Taken together, our results indicated that PQQ could protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced cell damage by scavenging ROS, reducing Ca2+ influx, and caspase-3 activity, and suggested that PQQ-activated PI3K/Akt signaling might be responsible for its neuroprotective action through modulation of glutamate-induced imbalance between Bcl-2 and Bax. - Research Highlights: →PQQ attenuated glutamate-induced cell apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons. →PQQ inhibited glutamate-induced Ca 2+ influx and caspase-3 activity. →PQQ reduced glutamate-induced increase in ROS production. →PQQ affected phosphorylation of Akt and JNK signalings after glutamate injury. →PI3K/Akt was required for neuroprotection of PQQ by modulating Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  3. BDNF/TrkB Pathway Mediates the Antidepressant-Like Role of H2S in CUMS-Exposed Rats by Inhibition of Hippocampal ER Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Le; Kan, Li-Yuan; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Tang, Yi-Yun; Huang, Hong-Lin; Xie, Ming; Zou, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Ping; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2018-06-01

    Our previous works have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) significantly attenuates chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) generates an antidepressant-like effect by its receptor tyrosine protein kinase B (TrkB). We have previously found that H 2 S upregulates the expressions of BDNF and p-TrkB in the hippocampus of CUMS-exposed rats. Therefore, the present work was to explore whether BDNF/TrkB pathway mediates the antidepressant-like role of H 2 S by blocking hippocampal ER stress. We found that treatment with K252a (an inhibitor of BDNF/TrkB pathway) significantly increased the immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test and increased the latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding test in the rats cotreated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H 2 S) and CUMS. Similarly, K252a reversed the protective effect of NaHS against CUMS-induced hippocampal ER stress, as evidenced by increases in the levels of ER stress-related proteins, glucose-regulated protein 78, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and cleaved caspase-12. Taken together, our results suggest that BDNF/TrkB pathway plays an important mediatory role in the antidepressant-like action of H 2 S in CUMS-exposed rats, which is by suppression of hippocampal ER stress. These data provide a novel mechanism underlying the protection of H 2 S against CUMS-induced depressive-like behaviors.

  4. Effects of Vitamin D3 and Paricalcitol on Immature Cardiomyocytes: A Novel Role for Vitamin D Analogs in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Branca, Jacopo J. V.; Aterini, Stefano; Amato, Marcello; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease than in the general population and they are considered the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery that vitamin D3 plays a considerable role in cardiovascular protection has led, in recent years, to an increase in the administration of therapies based on the use of this molecule; nevertheless, several studies warned that an excess of vitamin D3 may increase the risk of hypercalcemia and vascular calcifications. In this study we evaluated the effects of vitamin D3, and of its selective analog paricalcitol, on immature cardiomyocytes. Results show that vitamin D3 induces cAMP-mediated cell proliferation and significant intracellular calcification. Paricalcitol, however, induces cell differentiation, morphological modifications in cell shape and size, and no intracellular calcification. Furthermore, vitamin D3 and paricalcitol differently affect cardiomyoblasts responses to acetylcholine treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the effects of vitamin D3 and paricalcitol on cardiomyoblasts are different and, if these in vitro observations could be extrapolated in vivo, they suggest that paricalcitol has the potential for cardiovascular protection without the risk of inducing intracellular calcification. PMID:23749205

  5. Effects of Vitamin D3 and Paricalcitol on Immature Cardiomyocytes: A Novel Role for Vitamin D Analogs in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruggiero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease than in the general population and they are considered the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery that vitamin D3 plays a considerable role in cardiovascular protection has led, in recent years, to an increase in the administration of therapies based on the use of this molecule; nevertheless, several studies warned that an excess of vitamin D3 may increase the risk of hypercalcemia and vascular calcifications. In this study we evaluated the effects of vitamin D3, and of its selective analog paricalcitol, on immature cardiomyocytes. Results show that vitamin D3 induces cAMP-mediated cell proliferation and significant intracellular calcification. Paricalcitol, however, induces cell differentiation, morphological modifications in cell shape and size, and no intracellular calcification. Furthermore, vitamin D3 and paricalcitol differently affect cardiomyoblasts responses to acetylcholine treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the effects of vitamin D3 and paricalcitol on cardiomyoblasts are different and, if these in vitro observations could be extrapolated in vivo, they suggest that paricalcitol has the potential for cardiovascular protection without the risk of inducing intracellular calcification.

  6. Modulating Hippocampal Plasticity with In Vivo Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-17

    wires were left unhooked from stimulation device. Following stimulation , the animals were returned to their homecage until time of euthanasia and...current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance cognitive training: effect of timing of stimulation . Exp Brain Res 232:3345-3351. 15 DISTRIBUTION...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0082 MODULATING HIPPOCAMPAL PLASTICITY WITH IN-VIVO BRAIN STIMULATION Joyce G. Rohan Oakridge Institute

  7. Changes in rat hippocampal CA1 synapses following imipramine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Madsen, Torsten M; Wegener, Gregers

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity in hippocampus is hypothesized to play an important role in both the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and the treatment. In this study, we investigated the consequences of imipramine treatment on neuroplasticity (including neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and remodelling...... and number of neurons of hippocampal subregions following imipramine treatment were found. However, the number and percentage of CA1 asymmetric spine synapses increased significantly and, conversely, the percentage of asymmetric shaft synapses significantly decreased in the imipramine treated group. Our...

  8. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Decoding the cognitive map: ensemble hippocampal sequences and decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Wikenheiser, Andrew M.; Redish, A. David

    2014-01-01

    Tolman proposed that complex animal behavior is mediated by the cognitive map, an integrative learning system that allows animals to reconfigure previous experience in order to compute predictions about the future. The discovery of place cells in the rodent hippocampus immediately suggested a plausible neural mechanism to fulfill the “map” component of Tolman’s theory. Recent work examining hippocampal representations occurring at fast time scales suggests that these sequences might be import...

  10. Gonadal Steroids: Effects on Excitability of Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyler, Timothy J.; Vardaris, Richard M.; Lewis, Deborah; Rawitch, Allen B.

    1980-08-01

    Electrophysiological field potentials from hippocampal slices of rat brain show sex-linked differences in response to 1 × 10-10M concentrations of estradiol and testosterone added to the incubation medium. Slices from male rats show increased excitability to estradiol and not to testosterone. Slices from female rats are not affected by estradiol, but slices from female rats in diestrus show increased excitability in response to testosterone whereas slices from females in proestrus show decreased excitability.

  11. Hippocampal volume reduction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO(2 sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury.We assessed total volume and regional variation in hippocampal surface morphology to identify areas affected in the syndrome. We studied 18 CCHS (mean age+/-std: 15.1+/-2.2 years; 8 female and 32 healthy control (age 15.2+/-2.4 years; 14 female children, and traced hippocampi on 1 mm(3 resolution T1-weighted scans, collected with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons. Significant tissue losses emerged in CCHS patients on the left side, with a trend for loss on the right; however, most areas affected on the left also showed equivalent right-sided volume reductions. Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome. The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges. Affected hippocampal areas have roles associated with memory, mood, and indirectly, autonomic regulation; impairments in these behavioral and physiological functions appear in CCHS.

  12. Dendrosomatic Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Hippocampal Neurons Regulates Axon Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Ott, Carolyn; Wang, Ya-Xian; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and its signaling components in the neurons of the hippocampus raises a question about what role the Shh signaling pathway may play in these neurons. We show here that activation of the Shh signaling pathway stimulates axon elongation in rat hippocampal neurons. This Shh-induced effect depends on the pathway transducer Smoothened (Smo) and the transcription factor Gli1. The axon itself does not respond directly to Shh; instead, the Shh signal transduction originates from the somatodendritic region of the neurons and occurs in neurons with and without detectable primary cilia. Upon Shh stimulation, Smo localization to dendrites increases significantly. Shh pathway activation results in increased levels of profilin1 (Pfn1), an actin-binding protein. Mutations in Pfn1's actin-binding sites or reduction of Pfn1 eliminate the Shh-induced axon elongation. These findings indicate that Shh can regulate axon growth, which may be critical for development of hippocampal neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although numerous signaling mechanisms have been identified that act directly on axons to regulate their outgrowth, it is not known whether signals transduced in dendrites may also affect axon outgrowth. We describe here a transcellular signaling pathway in embryonic hippocampal neurons in which activation of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) receptors in dendrites stimulates axon growth. The pathway involves the dendritic-membrane-associated Shh signal transducer Smoothened (Smo) and the transcription factor Gli, which induces the expression of the gene encoding the actin-binding protein profilin 1. Our findings suggest scenarios in which stimulation of Shh in dendrites results in accelerated outgrowth of the axon, which therefore reaches its presumptive postsynaptic target cell more quickly. By this mechanism, Shh may play critical roles in the development of hippocampal neuronal circuits. PMID:26658865

  13. Memory reconsolidation mediates the updating of hippocampal memory content

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan L C Lee

    2010-01-01

    The retrieval or reactivation of a memory places it into a labile state, requiring a process of reconsolidation to restabilize it. This retrieval-induced plasticity is a potential mechanism for the modification of the existing memory. Following previous data supportive of a functional role for memory reconsolidation in the modification of memory strength, here I show that hippocampal memory reconsolidation also supports the updating of contextual memory content. Using a procedure that se...

  14. Focal CA3 hippocampal subfield atrophy following LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody limbic encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, T; Chong, T; Aimola Davies, A; Ng, T; Johnson, M; Irani, S; Vincent, A; Husain, M; Jacob, S; Maddison, P; Kennard, C; Gowland, P; Rosenthal, C

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has linked chronic voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis with generalized hippocampal atrophy. However, autoantibodies bind to specific rodent hippocampal subfields. Here, human hippocampal subfield (subiculum, cornu ammonis 1-3, and dentate gyrus) targets of immunomodulation-treated LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis were investigated using in vivo ultra-high resolution (0.39 × 0....

  15. Abnormalities of hippocampal signal intensity in patients with familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coan A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE is associated with hippocampal atrophy and hippocampal signal abnormalities. In our series of familial MTLE (FMTLE, we found a high proportion of hippocampal abnormalities. To quantify signal abnormalities in patients with FMTLE we studied 152 individuals (46 of them asymptomatic with FMTLE. We used NIH-Image® for volumetry and signal quantification in coronal T1 inversion recovery and T2 for all cross-sections of the hippocampus. Values diverging by 2 or more SD from the control mean were considered abnormal. T2 hippocampal signal abnormalities were found in 52% of all individuals: 54% of affected subjects and 48% of asymptomatic subjects. T1 hippocampal signal changes were found in 34% of all individuals: 42.5% of affected subjects and 15% of asymptomatic subjects. Analysis of the hippocampal head (first three slices revealed T2 abnormalities in 73% of all individuals (74% of affected subjects and 72% of asymptomatic subjects and T1 abnormalities in 59% (67% of affected subjects and 41% of asymptomatic subjects. Affected individuals had smaller volumes than controls (P < 0.0001. There was no difference in hippocampal volumes between asymptomatic subjects and controls, although 39% of asymptomatic patients had hippocampal atrophy. Patients with an abnormal hippocampal signal (133 individuals had smaller ipsilateral volume, but no linear correlation could be determined. Hippocampal signal abnormalities in FMTLE were more frequently found in the hippocampal head in both affected and asymptomatic family members, including those with normal volumes. These results indicate that subtle abnormalities leading to an abnormal hippocampal signal in FMTLE are not necessarily related to seizures and may be determined by genetic factors.

  16. Long-lasting memory deficits in mice withdrawn from cocaine are concomitant with neuroadaptations in hippocampal basal activity, GABAergic interneurons and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine addiction disorder is notably aggravated by concomitant cognitive and emotional pathology that impedes recovery. We studied whether a persistent cognitive/emotional dysregulation in mice withdrawn from cocaine holds a neurobiological correlate within the hippocampus, a limbic region with a key role in anxiety and memory but that has been scarcely investigated in cocaine addiction research. Mice were submitted to a chronic cocaine (20 mg/kg/day for 12 days or vehicle treatment followed by 44 drug-free days. Some mice were then assessed on a battery of emotional (elevated plus-maze, light/dark box, open field, forced swimming and cognitive (object and place recognition memory, cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, continuous spontaneous alternation behavioral tests, while other mice remained in their home cage. Relevant hippocampal features [basal c-Fos activity, GABA+, parvalbumin (PV+ and neuropeptide Y (NPY+ interneurons and adult neurogenesis (cell proliferation and immature neurons] were immunohistochemically assessed 73 days after the chronic cocaine or vehicle protocol. The cocaine-withdrawn mice showed no remarkable exploratory or emotional alterations but were consistently impaired in all the cognitive tasks. All the cocaine-withdrawn groups, independent of whether they were submitted to behavioral assessment or not, showed enhanced basal c-Fos expression and an increased number of GABA+ cells in the dentate gyrus. Moreover, the cocaine-withdrawn mice previously submitted to behavioral training displayed a blunted experience-dependent regulation of PV+ and NPY+ neurons in the dentate gyrus, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Results highlight the importance of hippocampal neuroplasticity for the ingrained cognitive deficits present during chronic cocaine withdrawal.

  17. Selective alteration of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired spatial pattern separation performance in the RSK2-deficient mouse model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, Charlotte; Lunion, Steeve; Desvignes, Nathalie; Hanauer, André; Laroche, Serge; Poirier, Roseline

    2018-07-01

    Adult neurogenesis is involved in certain hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions and is linked to psychiatric diseases including intellectual disabilities. The Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a developmental disorder caused by mutations in the Rsk2 gene and characterized by intellectual disabilities associated with growth retardation. How RSK2-deficiency leads to cognitive dysfunctions in CLS is however poorly understood. Here, using Rsk2 Knock-Out mice, we characterized the impact of RSK2 deficiency on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. We report that the absence of RSK2 does not affect basal proliferation, differentiation and survival of dentate gyrus adult-born neurons but alters the maturation progression of young immature newborn neurons. Moreover, when RSK2-deficient mice were submitted to spatial learning, in contrast to wild-type mice, proliferation of adult generated neurons was decreased and no pro-survival effect of learning was observed. Thus, learning failed to recruit a selective population of young newborn neurons in association with deficient long-term memory recall. Given the proposed role of the dentate gyrus and of adult-generated newborn neurons in hippocampal-dependent pattern separation function, we explored this function in a delayed non-matching to place task and in an object-place pattern separation task and report severe deficits in spatial pattern separation in Rsk2-KO mice. Together, this study reveals a previously unknown role for RSK2 in the early stages of maturation and learning-dependent involvement of adult-born dentate gyrus neurons. These alterations associated with a deficit in the ability of RSK2-deficient mice to finely discriminate relatively similar spatial configurations, may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in CLS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality and nutritional properties of pasta products enriched with immature wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Erba, Daniela; Marti, Alessandra; Cecchini, Cristina; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, nutritional and sensory properties of pasta enriched with 30% immature wheat grain (IWG), a natural source of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), are evaluated. Colour and cooking quality, nutritional value and glycaemic index (GI) of pasta were assessed in comparison with commercially enriched inulin and 100% wholewheat pastas. IWG integration induced deep changes in colour, without negatively affecting the cooking quality of pasta, and promoted nutritional quality by increasing the fibre content; IWG pasta presented a remarkable leaching of FOS in cooking water, thus providing only 1 g of FOS per serving. IWG pastas showed a GI of 67 (dried) and 79 (fresh), not significantly different from commercial pasta products. IWG can be considered an interesting ingredient to obtain functional products 'naturally enriched' in FOS and fibre. Results about FOS leaching suggest that, in dealing with functional effects, the actual prebiotic content should be carefully considered on food 'as eaten'.

  19. Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neural development status of the visual system of children (around 8 years old) using contrast sensitivity. We achieved this by eliminating the influence of higher order aberrations (HOAs) with adaptive optics correction. We measured HOAs, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of six children and five adults with both corrected and uncorrected HOAs. We found that when HOAs were corrected, children and adults both showed improvements in MTF and CSF. However, the CSF of children was still lower than the adult level, indicating the difference in contrast sensitivity between groups cannot be explained by differences in optical factors. Further study showed that the difference between the groups also could not be explained by differences in non-visual factors. With these results we concluded that the neural systems underlying vision in children of around 8 years old are still immature in contrast sensitivity. PMID:24732728

  20. In vitro propagation of Cypripedium guttatum using immature seed based on cumulative solar radiation after pollination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Cypripedium guttatum is one of the most endangered orchids in Japan. In vitro propagation is an important approach for conservation of the plant species. Generally, Cypripedium in vitro propagation is unstable, especially using immature seeds. Therefore, an in vitro propagation system that protocorm produces stable germination is required. In this study, one of the weather factors was tested to obtain stable immmature seeds for seedling production. From statistical analysis of the weather data, it was suggested that solar radiation affected the ripening of Cypripedium seed. From simulations of cumulative solar radiation, a seed 46 days after pollination is suitable for in vitro propagation in Akita. Using a seed 47 days after pollination of Cypripedium guttatum, seedlings were grown in hormone free 1/3 MS agar medium. In the case of adding 0.2 mg/L BAP, multiple shoots were observed. For root elongation of the seedling, hormone free medium was preferable to adding 0.2 mg/L NAA

  1. Size of lethality target in mouse immature oocytes determined with accelerated heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, T; Dobson, R L; Kwan, T C

    1989-01-01

    Mouse immature oocytes were irradiated in vivo with highly charged, heavy ions from the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The particles used were 670-MeV/nucleon Si14+, 570-MeV/nucleon Ar18+, and 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+. The cross-sectional area of the lethality target in these extremely radiosensitive cells was determined from fluence-response curves and information on energy deposition by delta rays. Results indicate a target cross-section larger than that of the nucleus, one which closely approximates the cross-sectional area of the entire oocyte. For 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+ particles, the predicted target cross-sectional area is 120 +/- 16 microns2, comparing well with the microscopically determined cross-sectional area of 111 +/- 12 microns2 for these cells. The present results are in agreement with our previous target studies which implicate the oocyte plasma membrane.

  2. The effects of simulated rainfall on immature population dynamics of Aedes albopictus and female oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Rahman, G. M. Saifur; Abu Hassan, A.; Che Salmah, M. R.; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Boots, Michael; Sazaly, Abubakar

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse typically inhabit natural and artificial containers. Since these larval habitats are replenished by rainfall, Ae. albopictus may experience increased loss of immature stages in areas with high levels of rainfall. In this study, we investigated the effects of rainfall and container water level on population density, and oviposition activity of Ae. albopictus. In field and laboratory experiments, we found that rainfall resulted in the flushing of breeding habitats. Excess rain negatively impacted larval and pupal retention, especially in small habitats. When filled with water to overflowing, container habitats were significantly repellent to ovipositing females. Taken together, these data suggest that rainfall triggers population loss of Ae. albopictus and related species through a direct detrimental effect (flushing out) and an indirect effect (ovipositional repellency).

  3. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Immature beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a 1.5 μm aerodynamic diameter monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 to compare the biological effects with those seen in young adult and aged dogs exposed to a similar aerosol. To date, 18 dogs have been exposed to the aerosol, resulting in graded initial lung burdens ranging from 0.003 to 0.38 μCi/kg body weight. Two dogs have been exposed to the aerosol diluent and serve as controls. Two of the 18 exposed animals were sacrificed 8 days after exposure to provide information on initial deposition and distribution. All other exposed animals are alive 400 days after exposure. No dogs were exposed during the past year because of an outbreak of canine parvovirus enteritis which caused death in 8 to 10 week-old dogs

  4. Oxidative Stress Associated with Chilling Injury in Immature Fruit: Postharvest Technological and Biotechnological Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Manzano, Susana; Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2017-07-08

    Immature, vegetable-like fruits are produced by crops of great economic importance, including cucumbers, zucchini, eggplants and bell peppers, among others. Because of their high respiration rates, associated with high rates of dehydration and metabolism, and their susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), vegetable fruits are highly perishable commodities, requiring particular storage conditions to avoid postharvest losses. This review focuses on the oxidative stress that affects the postharvest quality of vegetable fruits under chilling storage. We define the physiological and biochemical factors that are associated with the oxidative stress and the development of CI symptoms in these commodities, and discuss the different physical, chemical and biotechnological approaches that have been proposed to reduce oxidative stress while enhancing the chilling tolerance of vegetable fruits.

  5. Anchor proximal migration in the medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction in skeletally immature patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Kupczik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL injury has been considered instrumental in lateral patellar instability after patellar dislocation. Consequently, the focus on the study of this ligament reconstruction has increased in recent years. The MPFL femoral anatomical origin point has great importance at the moment of reconstruction surgery, because a graft fixation in a non anatomical position may result in medial overload, medial subluxation of the patella or excessive tensioning of the graft with subsequent failure. In the pediatric population, the location of this point is highlighted by the presence of femoral physis. The literature is still controversial regarding the best placement of the graft. We describe two cases of skeletally immature patients in whom LPFM reconstruction was performed. The femoral fixation was through anchors that were placed above the physis. With the growth and development of the patients, the femoral origin point of the graft moved proximally, resulting in failure in these two cases.

  6. Space-based visual attention: a marker of immature selective attention in toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, James; Brisson, Julie

    2014-11-01

    Various studies suggested that attentional difficulties cause toddlers' failure in some spatial search tasks. However, attention is not a unitary construct and this study investigated two attentional mechanisms: location selection (space-based attention) and object selection (object-based attention). We investigated how toddlers' attention is distributed in the visual field during a manual search task for objects moving out of sight, namely the moving boxes task. Results show that 2.5-year-olds who failed this task allocated more attention to the location of the relevant object than to the object itself. These findings suggest that in some manual search tasks the primacy of space-based attention over object-based attention could be a marker of immature selective attention in toddlers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Callus induction and flavonoid production on the immature seed of Stelechocarpus burahol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibah, N. A.; Moeljopawiro, S.; Dewi, K.; Indrianto, A.

    2018-03-01

    Stelechocarpus burahol [(Bl.) Hook. f. & Th.] is one of the medicinal plants. In vitro callus induction studies on S. burahol were carried out to determine phytohormone requirement for optimum callus induction. Immature seed explants were cultured on MS medium by adding different kinds and different concentrations of plant growth regulators (picloram and 2,4-D) under light and dark conditions. The results showed that callus formation was initiated on the 18,50th to the 55th days. The best condition for optimum callus induction was found on MS medium, which was supplemented with 7.5 mg/L picloram and was maintained in the dark condition. The callus induction varied from 60% to 100%. The callus that produced the highest flavonoid was grown on the medium with the addition of 10 mg/L of 2,4-D. In conclusion, the results represented a suitable medium for S.burahol callus induction.

  8. Revascularization of immature mandibular premolar with pulpal necrosis - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, S Murali Krishna; Yadav, Sarjeev Singh; Kumar M, Sita Rama

    2014-09-01

    This case report describes the Revascularization of a Permanent Immature Mandibular Premolar with Pulp Necrosis and apical periodontitis. Access opening was done & the canal was disinfected with copious irrigation using 2.5% NaOCl and triple antibiotic paste (Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole, and Minocycline) as intracanal medicament. After the disinfection protocol is complete, it is followed by revascularization procedure. The apex was mechanically irritated to initiate bleeding into the canal to produce a blood clot to the level just below the level of cementoenamel junction. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed over the blood clot followed by bonded resin restoration above it. After one year follow up; the patient was asymptomatic, no sinus tract was evident. Apical periodontitis was resolved, and there was radiographic evidence of continuing thickness of dentinal walls.

  9. Retreatment of failed regenerative endodontic of orthodontically treated immature permanent maxillary central incisor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaed Fahad Al-Tammami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A revascularization procedure was shown to be the best alternative therapy for immature teeth with necrotic pulp and apical infection. A 12 year old female with a history of trauma to her upper central incisor and a sinus tract was referred for endodontic treatment. She was an active orthodontic patient and had undergone regenerative endodontic treatment for the past 2 years. Clinical examination revealed no response to sensibility, percussion, and palpation tests. The preoperative radiograph showed an open apex and apical rarefaction. The case was diagnosed as previously treated tooth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Regenerative endodontic retreatment was performed, and the case was followed for 3 years. Clinical, radiographic, and cone-beam computed tomography follow-up examination revealed an asymptomatic tooth, with evidence of periapical healing and root maturation.

  10. Conservative treatment of immature teeth with apical periodontitis using triple antibiotic paste disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ju Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to present conservative treatment for two immature premolars with apical periodontitis. A triple antibiotic paste was used to disinfect the root canal systems for revascularization. In both cases, residual vital pulp tissue was noted in the root canal system after the opening of each premolar. The canals in both cases were irrigated with copious sodium hypochlorite solution and medicated with a paste consisting of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline. The teeth were sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate and restored with composite resin. There were satisfactory outcomes after 18 months. The patients were asymptomatic, with radiographic evidence of complete resolution of radiolucency, continual thickening of dentinal walls, apical closure, and increased root length.

  11. A novel triterpenoid carbon skeleton in immature sulphur-rich sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.; De Leeuw, J.W. [Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research (NIOZ), Texel (Netherlands)

    1995-03-01

    A novel S compound, 1,4-bis(2{sup {prime}}, 5{sup {prime}}, 5{sup {prime}}, 8a{sup {prime}}-tetramethylhexahydrothiochroman)-butane has been detected in several immature S-rich sediments, of which the desulphurized counterpart was unambiguously identified by synthesis of an authentic standard and coinjection experiments. This C skeleton of the S compound, 1, 10-bis(2{sup {prime}}, 2{sup {prime}}, 6{sup {prime}}-trimethylcyclohexyl)-3,8-dimethyldodecane(I), has not been reported yet in any sediment or organism. We suggest that it may be biosynthesized through an enzymatic cyclization reaction of squalene (II), which shows similarities with the biosynthesis of {Beta}, {Beta}-carotene (III) from lycopene (IV). 24 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Susceptibility of different subsets of immature thymocytes to apoptosis induced by anti-TCRmAb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongmei; Zhong Renqian; Yu Jiaping; Kong Xiantao; Chen Weifeng

    2003-01-01

    To analysis the susceptibility of different subsets of immature mice thymocytes to apoptosis induced by anti-TCRmAbs in vitro apoptosis was induced in unfractionated mice thymocytes by anti-TCRmAb. In Vivo apoptosis was induced in BALB/c mice by anti-TCR mAb, and thymocytes were examined by FACS. Results showed that CD4 + CD8 + DP thymocytes and CD4 - CD8 + CD3 - thymocytes were equally sensitive to apoptosis after treatment with the anti-TCR mAb. In sharp contrast, the early migrants or precursor containing thymocytes which are CD4 - CD8 - CD3 - TN have a lower spontaneous apoptosis rate and were relatively resistant to the anti-TCR mAb. The findings showed a breakpoint in thymocyte sensitivity to apoptosis which occurs after the onset of CD4 - CD8 + CD3 expression, suggesting that susceptibility of thymocytes to apoptosis is developmentally regulated

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on Callus formation and regeneration of wheat immature embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Four Egyptian bread wheat cultivars; G164, G168, SK61 and Sids1, were tested for their response to six gamma irradiation treatments; 1, 2, 3 Gy (as low doses) and 10, 20, 30 Gy (as high doses) in addition to 0 Gy (as a control) in terms of callus formation and regeneration of immature embryos. Low doses of gamma irradiations ( 1, 2 and 3 Gy) showed favourable effects on both traits; number of regenerated calli and number of shoots per callus comparing with the control (0 Gy), while high doses; 10, 20 and 30 Gy, had the worst effect comparing with the control (0 Gy). G164 cultivar was shown to get the best response in terms of callus formation and regeneration when exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. In conclusion, gamma irradiation can serve in increasing regeneration efficiency of Egyptian bread wheat cells when used in low doses

  14. [Effect of estradiol on the prolactin content in the adenohypophysis of sexually mature and immature rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arse, Kh A

    1979-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis was used in a comparative study of prolactin content in the hypophysis of rats of different age and sex, and at various stages of the estral cycle. The hormone level in the pubertal rats was twice or thrice greater than in the immature ones; it was by 16% less at the diestrus than at the estrus stage. There was no change in the hypophysis prolactin content in male rats at puberty. Ovariectomy was accompained by a sharp reduction of prolactin in the hypophysis. Replacing estradiol therapy increased the amount of prolactin in the hypophysis, without bringing it, however, to the level characteristic of intact rats. Estrogens are responsible for the maintenance of prolactin level, but apparently other factors influencing its content in the hypophysis also exist.

  15. Expression of apoptotic genes in immature and in vitro matured equine oocytes and cumulus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, P M M; Campos, V F; Kaefer, C; Begnini, K R; McBride, A J A; Dellagostin, O A; Seixas, F K; Deschamps, J C; Collares, T

    2013-08-01

    The gene expression of Bax, Bcl-2, survivin and p53, following in vitro maturation of equine oocytes, was compared in morphologically distinct oocytes and cumulus cells. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were harvested and divided into two groups: G1 - morphologically healthy cells; and G2 - less viable cells or cells with some degree of atresia. Total RNA was isolated from both immature and in vitro matured COC and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify gene expression. Our results showed there was significantly higher expression of survivin (P < 0.05) and lower expression of p53 (P < 0.01) in oocytes compared with cumulus cells in G1. No significant difference in gene expression was observed following in vitro maturation or in COC derived from G1 and G2. However, expression of the Bax gene was significantly higher in cumulus cells from G1 (P < 0.02).

  16. [Early deciduous tooth loss--the mature or immature eruption of their permanent successors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czecholinski, J A; Kahl, B; Schwarze, C W

    1994-04-01

    On the basis of 147 panoramic radiographs of 49 patients, this study investigated the influence of the premature loss of deciduous teeth on the formation of their permanent successors at the time of their eruption. Furthermore the study investigated the eruptive movement of the successor teeth at the time of eruption. In addition to detecting the accelerated emergence of still immature successor premolars, the study also determined that the extraction ot the deciduous molars before the age of eight years delayed the eruption of the permanent successors given the absence of an infected deciduous tooth with abscess formation. In relation to the eruptive movement of the permanent molars due to the premature loss of the second deciduous molar, the study ascertained a mesial movement of the first permanent molars and an accelerated eruption of the second permanent molars.

  17. Descriptions of the Immature Stages of Lutzomyia (Tricholateralis) cruciata (Coquillett) (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca-Aguilar, A C; Rebollar-Téllez, E A; Piermarini, P M; Ibáñez-Bernal, S

    2017-02-01

    The present study presents morphological and chaetotaxic descriptions of the immature stages of Lutzomyia (Tricholateralis) cruciata (Coquillett), a probable vector of leishmaniasis in Mexico. The egg exochorion is consistent with the species already known as Lu. (Tricholaterialis), but different from the Lu. cruciata egg of Chiapas, Mexico. The fourth instar larva of Lu. (Tricholateralis) cruciata possesses a novel antenna, combining morphological characteristics of categories 2 and 3 for neotropical sandflies. Differences between the chaetotaxy of first and fourth instar larvae of Lu. cruciata with those of Lu. (Lutzomyia) and Lu. (Tricholaterlis) are compared and discussed. This is the first time in which the chaetotaxy and morphology of pupa of a species belonging to Lutzomyia (Tricholateralis) sensu Galati have been described, and we recorded for the first time the anterior prothorax setae, which was previously only considered for Old World species.

  18. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (3-mo old) received a single, brief inhalation exposure to 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles as part of a series of studies designed to study the effects of age on dose response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. Forty-nine dogs inhaled graded levels of 144 Ce that resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004-140 μCi/kg 0.15-5200 kBq/kg) body weight. Five control dogs inhaled nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Forty-one of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs have died: 11 with lung tumors 4 with tumors of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, with a nasal cavity tumor, and 9 with non neoplastic diseases of the respiratory tract. Observations are continuing on the 8 144 Ce-exposed dogs that are surviving at this time. (author)

  19. Toxicity of {sup 144}Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XVII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeker, B B; Muggenburg, B A; Hahn, F F; Mauderly, J L; McClellan, R O

    1988-12-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (3-mo old) received a single, brief inhalation exposure to {sup 144}Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles as part of a series of studies designed to study the effects of age on dose response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. Forty-nine dogs inhaled graded levels of {sup 144}Ce that resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004-140 {mu}Ci/kg 0.15-5200 kBq/kg) body weight. Five control dogs inhaled nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Forty-one of the {sup 144}Ce-exposed dogs have died: 11 with lung tumors 4 with tumors of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, with a nasal cavity tumor, and 9 with non neoplastic diseases of the respiratory tract. Observations are continuing on the 8 {sup 144}Ce-exposed dogs that are surviving at this time. (author)

  20. The hippocampal CA2 ensemble is sensitive to contextual change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Marie E; Boehringer, Roman; Polygalov, Denis; McHugh, Thomas J

    2014-02-19

    Contextual learning involves associating cues with an environment and relating them to past experience. Previous data indicate functional specialization within the hippocampal circuit: the dentate gyrus (DG) is crucial for discriminating similar contexts, whereas CA3 is required for associative encoding and recall. Here, we used Arc/H1a catFISH imaging to address the contribution of the largely overlooked CA2 region to contextual learning by comparing ensemble codes across CA3, CA2, and CA1 in mice exposed to familiar, altered, and novel contexts. Further, to manipulate the quality of information arriving in CA2 we used two hippocampal mutant mouse lines, CA3-NR1 KOs and DG-NR1 KOs, that result in hippocampal CA3 neuronal activity that is uncoupled from the animal's sensory environment. Our data reveal largely coherent responses across the CA axis in control mice in purely novel or familiar contexts; however, in the mutant mice subject to these protocols the CA2 response becomes uncoupled from CA1 and CA3. Moreover, we show in wild-type mice that the CA2 ensemble is more sensitive than CA1 and CA3 to small changes in overall context. Our data suggest that CA2 may be tuned to remap in response to any conflict between stored and current experience.

  1. Inflammation subverts hippocampal synaptic plasticity in experimental multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nisticò

    Full Text Available Abnormal use-dependent synaptic plasticity is universally accepted as the main physiological correlate of memory deficits in neurodegenerative disorders. It is unclear whether synaptic plasticity deficits take place during neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS and its mouse model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. In EAE mice, we found significant alterations of synaptic plasticity rules in the hippocampus. When compared to control mice, in fact, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP induction was favored over long-term depression (LTD in EAE, as shown by a significant rightward shift in the frequency-synaptic response function. Notably, LTP induction was also enhanced in hippocampal slices from control mice following interleukin-1β (IL-1β perfusion, and both EAE and IL-1β inhibited GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC without affecting glutamatergic transmission and AMPA/NMDA ratio. EAE was also associated with selective loss of GABAergic interneurons and with reduced gamma-frequency oscillations in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Finally, we provided evidence that microglial activation in the EAE hippocampus was associated with IL-1β expression, and hippocampal slices from control mice incubated with activated microglia displayed alterations of GABAergic transmission similar to those seen in EAE brains, through a mechanism dependent on enhanced IL-1β signaling. These data may yield novel insights into the basis of cognitive deficits in EAE and possibly of MS.

  2. Inflammation Subverts Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in Experimental Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandolesi, Georgia; Piccinin, Sonia; Berretta, Nicola; Pignatelli, Marco; Feligioni, Marco; Musella, Alessandra; Gentile, Antonietta; Mori, Francesco; Bernardi, Giorgio; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Centonze, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal use-dependent synaptic plasticity is universally accepted as the main physiological correlate of memory deficits in neurodegenerative disorders. It is unclear whether synaptic plasticity deficits take place during neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In EAE mice, we found significant alterations of synaptic plasticity rules in the hippocampus. When compared to control mice, in fact, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induction was favored over long-term depression (LTD) in EAE, as shown by a significant rightward shift in the frequency–synaptic response function. Notably, LTP induction was also enhanced in hippocampal slices from control mice following interleukin-1β (IL-1β) perfusion, and both EAE and IL-1β inhibited GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC) without affecting glutamatergic transmission and AMPA/NMDA ratio. EAE was also associated with selective loss of GABAergic interneurons and with reduced gamma-frequency oscillations in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Finally, we provided evidence that microglial activation in the EAE hippocampus was associated with IL-1β expression, and hippocampal slices from control mice incubated with activated microglia displayed alterations of GABAergic transmission similar to those seen in EAE brains, through a mechanism dependent on enhanced IL-1β signaling. These data may yield novel insights into the basis of cognitive deficits in EAE and possibly of MS. PMID:23355887

  3. Hippocampal sclerosis dementia: An amnesic variant of frontotemporal degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiadi U. Onyike

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe characteristics of hippocampal sclerosis dementia. Methods: Convenience sample of Hippocampal sclerosis dementia (HSD recruited from the Johns Hopkins University Brain Resource Center. Twenty-four cases with post-mortem pathological diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis dementia were reviewed for clinical characterization. Results: The cases showed atrophy and neuronal loss localized to the hippocampus, amygdala and entorrhinal cortex. The majority (79.2% had amnesia at illness onset, and many (54.2% showed abnormal conduct and psychiatric disorder. Nearly 42% presented with an amnesic state, and 37.5% presented with amnesia plus abnormal conduct and psychiatric disorder. All eventually developed a behavioral or psychiatric disorder. Disorientation, executive dysfunction, aphasia, agnosia and apraxia were uncommon at onset. Alzheimer disease (AD was the initial clinical diagnosis in 89% and the final clinical diagnosis in 75%. Diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD was uncommon (seen in 8%. Conclusion: HSD shows pathological characteristics of FTD and clinical features that mimic AD and overlap with FTD. The findings, placed in the context of earlier work, support the proposition that HSD belongs to the FTD family, where it may be identified as an amnesic variant.

  4. Hippocampal sclerosis dementia: an amnesic variant of frontotemporal degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyike, Chiadi U.; Pletnikova, Olga; Sloane, Kelly L.; Sullivan, Campbell; Troncoso, Juan C.; Rabins, Peter V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe characteristics of hippocampal sclerosis dementia. METHODS Convenience sample of Hippocampal sclerosis dementia (HSD) recruited from the Johns Hopkins University Brain Resource Center. Twenty-four cases with post-mortem pathological diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis dementia were reviewed for clinical characterization. RESULTS The cases showed atrophy and neuronal loss localized to the hippocampus, amygdala and entorrhinal cortex. The majority (79.2%) had amnesia at illness onset, and many (54.2%) showed abnormal conduct and psychiatric disorder. Nearly 42% presented with an amnesic state, and 37.5% presented with amnesia plus abnormal conduct and psychiatric disorder. All eventually developed a behavioral or psychiatric disorder. Disorientation, executive dysfunction, aphasia, agnosia and apraxia were uncommon at onset. Alzheimer disease (AD) was the initial clinical diagnosis in 89% and the final clinical diagnosis in 75%. Diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was uncommon (seen in 8%). CONCLUSION HSD shows pathological characteristics of FTD and clinical features that mimic AD and overlap with FTD. The findings, placed in the context of earlier work, support the proposition that HSD belongs to the FTD family, where it may be identified as an amnesic variant. PMID:24363834

  5. Recruitment of Perisomatic Inhibition during Spontaneous Hippocampal Activity In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beyeler

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that perisomatic GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs originating from basket and chandelier cells can be recorded as population IPSPs from the hippocampal pyramidal layer using extracellular electrodes (eIPSPs. Taking advantage of this approach, we have investigated the recruitment of perisomatic inhibition during spontaneous hippocampal activity in vitro. Combining intracellular and extracellular recordings from pyramidal cells and interneurons, we confirm that inhibitory signals generated by basket cells can be recorded extracellularly, but our results suggest that, during spontaneous activity, eIPSPs are mostly confined to the CA3 rather than CA1 region. CA3 eIPSPs produced the powerful time-locked inhibition of multi-unit activity expected from perisomatic inhibition. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of spike discharges relative to eIPSPs suggests significant but moderate recruitment of excitatory and inhibitory neurons within the CA3 network on a 10 ms time scale, within which neurons recruit each other through recurrent collaterals and trigger powerful feedback inhibition. Such quantified parameters of neuronal interactions in the hippocampal network may serve as a basis for future characterisation of pathological conditions potentially affecting the interactions between excitation and inhibition in this circuit.

  6. Contribution of cerebellar sensorimotor adaptation to hippocampal spatial memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Passot

    Full Text Available Complementing its primary role in motor control, cerebellar learning has also a bottom-up influence on cognitive functions, where high-level representations build up from elementary sensorimotor memories. In this paper we examine the cerebellar contribution to both procedural and declarative components of spatial cognition. To do so, we model a functional interplay between the cerebellum and the hippocampal formation during goal-oriented navigation. We reinterpret and complete existing genetic behavioural observations by means of quantitative accounts that cross-link synaptic plasticity mechanisms, single cell and population coding properties, and behavioural responses. In contrast to earlier hypotheses positing only a purely procedural impact of cerebellar adaptation deficits, our results suggest a cerebellar involvement in high-level aspects of behaviour. In particular, we propose that cerebellar learning mechanisms may influence hippocampal place fields, by contributing to the path integration process. Our simulations predict differences in place-cell discharge properties between normal mice and L7-PKCI mutant mice lacking long-term depression at cerebellar parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses. On the behavioural level, these results suggest that, by influencing the accuracy of hippocampal spatial codes, cerebellar deficits may impact the exploration-exploitation balance during spatial navigation.

  7. Past, present, and future in hippocampal formation and memory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, Mónica

    2015-06-01

    Over 100 years of research on the hippocampal formation has led us understand the consequences of lesions in humans, the functional networks, anatomical pathways, neuronal types and their local circuitry, receptors, molecules, intracellular cascades, and some of the physiological mechanisms underlying long-term spatial and episodic memory. In addition, complex computational models allow us to formulate sophisticated hypotheses; many of them testable with techniques recently developed unthinkable in the past. Although the neurobiology of the cognitive map is starting to be revealed today, we still face a future with many unresolved questions. The aim of this commentary is twofold. First is to point out some of the critical findings in hippocampal formation research and new challenges. Second, to briefly summarize what the anatomy of memory can tell us about how highly processed sensory information from distant cortical areas communicate with different subareas of the entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus, and hippocampal subfields to integrate and consolidate unique episodic memory traces. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of hybrid and maturity stage on in vitro rumen digestibility of immature corn grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influences of hybrids (HYB and maturity stage (SAMP on in vitro rumen digestibility of immature corn grain. Four HYB (Gigantic, Y43, Klips and 9575 from the FAO group 700 were grown under identical agronomic conditions. First sampling (T1 was done after 95 days from seedling and then 4, 8, 13, 18 and 27 days later (T2 to T6. In vitro starch digestibility (STD_7h and gas production (72 h were measured. Whole plant and grain dry matter (WP_DM and GR_DM, respectively and zein content were significantly affected (P<0.01 by HYB and SAMP. Starch content was significantly affected by HYB, SAMP and their interaction. It increased from T1 to T4 (from 67.47 to 72.82% of GR_DM and then tended to plateau. Concurrently, STD_7h significantly decreased with advancing SAMP and was also affected by HYB. With advancing maturity, total volatile fatty acids (VFA significantly decreased, with an increase of acetate and a decrease of propionate molar proportion (P<0.01. Gas production rate (GP_c was significantly affected by HYB, SAMP and HYB×SAMP. Whole plant grain DM correlated (P<0.01 positively with grain starch content (r=0.60 and 0.64 but negatively with STD_7h (r=-0.39 and r=-0.63 and VFA concentration (r=-0.59 and -0.75. Zein percentage in crude protein negatively affected (P<0.01 total DM (r=-0.65,, STD_7h (r=-0.73 and GP_c (r=- 0.68. Results suggest that genotypes and maturity stages influence DM and rumen starch digestibility of immature corn grain and in this respect zein can play a significant role.

  9. Pectins from the albedo of immature lemon fruitlets have high water binding capacity.

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    Schröder, Roswitha; Clark, Christopher J; Sharrock, Keith; Hallett, Ian C; MacRae, Elspeth A

    2004-04-01

    The white part of citrus peel, the albedo, has a special role in water relations of both fruit and leaves from early on in fruit development. In times of drought, this tissue acts as a water reservoir for juice sacs, seeds and leaves. When water was injected into the albedo, free water was undetectable using magnetic resonance imaging. Microscopy showed tightly packed cells with little intercellular space, and thick cell walls. Cell wall material comprised 21% of the fresh albedo weight, and contained 26.1% galacturonic acid, the main constituent of pectin. From this, we postulated that pectin of the cell wall was responsible for the high water-binding capacity of the immature lemon albedo. Cell wall material was extracted using mild procedures that keep polymers intact, and four pectic fractions were recovered. Of these fractions, the SDS and chelator-soluble fractions showed viscosities ten and twenty times higher than laboratory-grade citrus pectin or the other albedo-derived pectins. The yield of these two pectins represented 28% of the cell walls and 62% of the galacturonic acid content of immature lemon albedo. We concluded that, from viscosity and abundance, these types of pectin account for the high water-binding capacity of this tissue. Compositional analyses showed that the two highly viscous pectic fractions differ in galacturonic acid content, degree of branching and length of side chains from the less viscous albedo-derived pectins. The most striking feature of these highly viscous pectins, however, was their high molecular weight distribution compared to the other pectic fractions.

  10. Alpha-CaMKII deficiency causes immature dentate gyrus, a novel candidate endophenotype of psychiatric disorders

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    Yamasaki Nobuyuki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elucidating the neural and genetic factors underlying psychiatric illness is hampered by current methods of clinical diagnosis. The identification and investigation of clinical endophenotypes may be one solution, but represents a considerable challenge in human subjects. Here we report that mice heterozygous for a null mutation of the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaMKII+/- have profoundly dysregulated behaviours and impaired neuronal development in the dentate gyrus (DG. The behavioral abnormalities include a severe working memory deficit and an exaggerated infradian rhythm, which are similar to symptoms seen in schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric disorders. Transcriptome analysis of the hippocampus of these mutants revealed that the expression levels of more than 2000 genes were significantly changed. Strikingly, among the 20 most downregulated genes, 5 had highly selective expression in the DG. Whereas BrdU incorporated cells in the mutant mouse DG was increased by more than 50 percent, the number of mature neurons in the DG was dramatically decreased. Morphological and physiological features of the DG neurons in the mutants were strikingly similar to those of immature DG neurons in normal rodents. Moreover, c-Fos expression in the DG after electric footshock was almost completely and selectively abolished in the mutants. Statistical clustering of human post-mortem brains using 10 genes differentially-expressed in the mutant mice were used to classify individuals into two clusters, one of which contained 16 of 18 schizophrenic patients. Nearly half of the differentially-expressed probes in the schizophrenia-enriched cluster encoded genes that are involved in neurogenesis or in neuronal migration/maturation, including calbindin, a marker for mature DG neurons. Based on these results, we propose that an "immature DG" in adulthood might induce alterations in behavior and

  11. Description of the immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

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    Batiz, M. F. Rossi; Marino de Remes Lenicov, A. M.; Hagedorn, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The five immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Saccharosydnini) are described and illustrated. The main characters that allowed us to distinguish the various stages were body size, number of tarsomeres and metatibial spines, and number of teeth on the spur. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observations showed that L. australis can carry out its biological cycle successfully on the graminaceous pampas grass ( Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). In addition, the efficient rearing in captivity, the high survivorship registered, and overwintering only on this host plant suggests that L. australis is a potential biocontrol agent of this invasive graminaceous weed. This study provides information about the immature stages , including a key for their identification, based on laboratory reared specimens and field observations. Resumen Se describen e ilustran las cinco etapas inmaduras de la especie de Saccharisydnini Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Los principales caracteres que permitieron distinguir las diferentes etapas fueron: tamaño corporal, número de espinas en los tarsómeros y metatibia y número de dientes en el espolón tibial. Nuevos datos biológicos, basados en la cría de laboratorio y observaciones de campo, mostraron que L. australis puede realizar su ciclo biológico exitosamente en la graminácea cortadera ( Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). Además, la eficiente crianza en cautive-rio y la alta supervivencia registrada en esta planta hospedera, sugieren que L. australis podría ser usada como un potencial agente de control biológico de esta maleza invasora. Este estudio proporciona informa-ción sobre las etapas inmaduras, incluyendo una clave para su identificación, basada en individuos provenientes de la cría de laboratorio y de campo. PMID:25199992

  12. Vitrification affects nuclear maturation and gene expression of immature human oocytes

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    Abbas Shahedi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitrification of oocytes is a fast-freezing technique, which may affect the quality of the human oocyte, and consequently affects the embryo development, pregnancy and birth. The aim of the current study was to investigate the consequence of in-vitro vitrification on maturation status of immature human oocytes, additionally, expression levels of stress, and apoptosis related genes. Materials and Methods: The total of 213 human immature oocytes which routinely discarded from assisted reproduction clinics were collected and divided into two groups including: (I fresh germinal vesicle (GV oocytes (n=106 (matured in-vitro  (fIVM , and  (II GV oocytes (n=107 that initially vitrified, then matured in  in-vitro (vIVM. After 36 hours of incubation, the oocytes were evaluated for nuclear maturation and expression level of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1, stress related genes (Sod1 and Hsp70, and apoptotic related genes (Bax and Bcl-2 by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Results: Oocyte maturation rates were reduced in vIVM compared to fIVM oocytes (P=0.001. The expression of stress (Sod1 and Hsp70, and apoptotic-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2 in vIVM were significantly higher compared to the fIVM group. Additionally, pro-apoptotic gene up-regulated 4.3 times more than anti-apoptotic gene in vIVM oocyte. However, DNMT1 gene expression was reduced in vIVM oocyte (P = 0.047. Conclusions: The low survival rate of vitrified In-vitro matured GV oocytes could definitely be explained by the alterations of their gene expression profile. 

  13. Antiadhesive Properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Immature Fruit Extract against Helicobacter pylori Adhesion

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    Shevtsova, Anna; Glocker, Erik; Borén, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus) as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. Methodology A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE) from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori J99, 2 clinical isolates, AGS cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Bacterial adhesins affected by FE were pinpointed using a dot-blot overlay assay with immobilized Lewisb, sialyl-Lewisa, H-1, laminin, and fibronectin. 125I-radiolabeled Okra FE polymer served for binding studies to different H. pylori strains and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. Iron nanoparticles with different coatings were used to investigate the influence of the charge-dependence of an interaction on the H. pylori surface. Principal findings Okra FE dose-dependently (0.2 to 2 mg/mL) inhibited H. pylori binding to AGS cells. FE inhibited the adhesive binding of membrane proteins BabA, SabA, and HpA to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled compounds from FE bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori, as well as to BabA/SabA deficient mutants, indicating an interaction with a still-unknown membrane structure in the vicinity of the adhesins. The binding depended on the charge of the inhibitors. Okra FE did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. Conclusion Non-specific interactions between high molecular compounds from okra fruits and the H. pylori surface lead to strong antiadhesive effects. PMID:24416297

  14. [Retrospective analysis of pulp revascularization in immature permanent teeth with diffuse pulpitis].

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    Peng, C F; Zhao, Y M; Yang, Y; Liu, H; Qin, M

    2017-01-09

    Objective: To evaluate the treatment effectiveness of revascularization in immature permanent teeth with diffuse pulpitis and to provide an alternative approach for the treatment of these teeth. Methods: Clinical and radiographic data were collected from 17 immature permanent teeth which were diagnosed as diffuse pulpitis and with their pulp extirpated at Emergency Department of Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. All these teeth were treated using pulp revascularization at Department of Pediatric Dentistry. Clinical success rate was then evaluated based on the clinical and radiographic findings. The increase of root length and dentin wall thickness of the revascularized teeth and the contralateral control teeth were measured and compared according to the preoperative and recall periapical radiographs. Results: The average follow-uptime is (25.8±9.9) months (12-46 months). Totally 13 out of the 17 teeth showed normal clinical and radiographic manifestation and achieved the increasein root length and dentin wall thickness. They met criteria for success treatment. The rest 4 out of the 17 teeth also showed root length and dentin wall thickness increaseand apical foramen closure. However, periapical inflammations were observed during 12 to 36 monthfollow-ups. These cases were recognized as failed. In all the17 teeth, the increase of root length and dentin wall thickness was not significantly different between the revascularized teeth and the contralateral control teeth ( P> 0.05). Conclusions: Pulp revascularization in young permanent teeth with diffuse pulpitis resulted in similar clinical outcomes in root development and root canal wall formation compared with the contralateral control teeth. However, reinfection might occur during long-term follow-up.

  15. Assessment of immature platelet fraction in the diagnosis of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

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    Robert eSokolic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS are often first diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP, potentially leading to both inappropriate treatment and the delay of life-saving definitive therapy. WAS is traditionally differentiated from ITP based on the small size of WAS platelets. In practice, microthrombocytopenia is often not present or not appreciated in children with WAS. To develop an alternative method of differentiating WAS from ITP, we retrospectively reviewed all complete blood counts and measurements of immature platelet fraction (IPF in 18 subjects with WAS and 38 subjects with a diagnosis of ITP treated at our hospital. Examination of peripheral blood smears revealed a wide range of platelet sizes in subjects with WAS. Mean platelet volume (MPV was not reported in 26% of subjects, and subjects in whom MPV was not reported had lower platelet counts than did subjects in whom MPV was reported. Subjects with WAS had a lower immature platelet fraction (IPF than would be expected for their level of thrombocytopenia, and the IPF in subjects with WAS was significantly lower than in subjects with a diagnosis of ITP. Using logistic regression, we developed and validated a rule based on platelet count and IPF that was more sensitive for the diagnosis of WAS than was the MPV, and was applicable regardless of the level of platelets or the availability of the MPV. Our observations demonstrate that MPV is often not available in severely thrombocytopenic subjects, which may hinder the diagnosis of WAS. In addition, subjects with WAS have a low IPF, which is consistent with the notion that a platelet production defect contributes to the thrombocytopenia of WAS. Knowledge of this detail of WAS pathophysiology allows to differentiate WAS from ITP with increased sensitivity, thereby allowing a physician to spare children with WAS from inappropriate treatment, and make definitive therapy available in a timely manner.

  16. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  17. Long-term culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia isolated from immature and adult bovine testes.

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    Suyatno; Kitamura, Yuka; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Minami, Naojiro; Yamada, Masayasu; Imai, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Undifferentiated spermatogonia eventually differentiate in the testis to produce haploid sperm. Within this cell population, there is a small number of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). SSCs are rare cells in the testis, and their cellular characteristics are poorly understood. Establishment of undifferentiated cell line would provide an indispensable tool for studying their biological nature and spermiogenesis/spermatogenesis in vitro. However, there have been few reports on the long-term culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia in species other than rodents. Here, we report the derivation and long-term in vitro culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia cell lines from immature and adult bovine testes. Cell lines from immature testes were maintained in serum-free culture conditions in the presence of glial-cell-line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) and bovine leukemia inhibitory factor (bLIF). These cell lines have embryonic stem (ES)-like cell morphology, express pluripotent-stem-cell-specific and germ-cell-specific markers at the protein and mRNA levels, and contributed to the inner cell mass (ICM) of embryos in the blastocyst stage. Meanwhile, cell lines established from adult testes were maintained in low-serum media in the presence of 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO). These cell lines have characteristics resembling those of previously reported male mouse germ cell lines as confirmed by their botryoidally aggregated morphology, as well as the expression of germ-cell-specific markers and pluripotent stem cell markers. These findings could be useful for the development of long-term culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia, which could aid in conservation of species and improvement of livestock production through genome editing technology. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.