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Sample records for protective clothing technology

  1. Protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Regnier, J.

    1979-01-01

    The present operational and intervention suits are described. Research work is currently in progress to improve the performance of the existing suits and to develop more resistant protective clothing. (author)

  2. Protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnett, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    A protective suit used for isolating its wearer from radioactively contaminated areas is described in three parts. The first part includes the covering for the wearer's head, arms and upper body and at the waist is releasably fitted around an opening into the contaminated area. The second part includes the legs of the suit and is releasably connectible to the first part of the suit to enclose the wearer who is then supplied with air through an umbilical pipe. A further part surrounds the second part and is releasably connectible to it, enclosing a space between the parts. This further part is also releasably connectible to the opening at the waist to prevent egress from the contaminated area. The releasable connections between the parts may be bayonet type fittings or may be rotating T-shaped projections which engage in T-shaped grooves. (author)

  3. Radiation protecting clothing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Kotaro; Ijiri, Yasuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide radiation protecting clothing materials excellent in mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, flexibility and flexing strength. Constitution: The radiation protecting clothing materials according to this invention has pure lead sheets comprising a thin pure lead foil of 50 to 150 μm and radiation resistant organic materials, for example, polyethylene with high neutron shielding effect disposed to one or both surfaces thereof. The material are excellent in the repeating bending fatigue and mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and flexibility and, accordingly, radiation protecting clothings prepared by using them along or laminating them also possess these excellent characteristics. Further, they are excellent in the handlability, particularly, durability to the repeated holding and extension, as well as are preferable in the physical movability and feeling upon putting. The clothing materials may be cut into an appropriate size, or stitched into clothings made by radiation-resistant materials. In this case, pure lead sheets are used in lamination. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Radiation protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinuma, Tadashi; Tamura, Shoji; Ijiri, Yasuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain radiation protective clothings of excellent workability and durability. Constitution: Protective clothings of the present invention comprise shielding materials for the upper-half of the body having lead foils laminated on one surface and shielding materials for the lower-half of the body a resin sheet containing inorganic powders of high specific gravity. Such protective clothings have a frexibility capable of followings after the movement of the upper-half body and easily follow after the movement such as acute bending of the body near the waste in the lower-half body. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Radiation protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Choshin; Takaura, Katsutoshi

    1998-01-01

    An external clothing as a main portion of the radiation protective clothing of the present invention is adapted to cover substantially the entire body of a wearer, comprises a moisture permeable material partially or entirely, and has an air supply device equipped with a filter for feeding air to a head portion of the wearer in the external clothing. Cleaned air filtered by the filter is supplied to the head portion of a wearer in the external clothing. The air passes through remarkably perspiratory head, face, shoulder, chest and back portions to remove heat and sweat at sensitively important upper portions of a body, so that humidity is released to remove fatigues and improve workability. In addition, since some extent of internal pressure is exerted to the inside of the external clothing by the air supply, contaminated air does not intrude from the outside to the external clothing. Since the air supply device is attached and carried to the external clothing, there is no air line hose which disturbs operation. (I.S.)

  6. Respirators and protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The basic object in the use of protective clothing and equipment is to prevent contamination of the skin and to prevent inhalation and ingestion of radioactive isotopes or other toxic materials. This book is a guide to deciding the kind and quantity of protective equipment needed for a particular type of laboratory or operation.

  7. Tritium protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions

  8. Tritium protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T. P.; Easterly, C. E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions.

  9. Radiation protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yasuo; Fujinuma, Tadashi; Aso, Tsutomu.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns radiation protective clothings suitable for medical protective clothings, aprons, etc. A primary sheet comprises a lead-incorporated organic polymer layer having a less frictional layer on one side and a contamination-resistant layer on the other side. A secondary sheet comprises a lead-incorporated organic polymer layer having a less frictional layer on one side and a comfortable skin-feeling layer on the other side. The less frictional layers of the primary and the secondary layer are laminated so as to be in contact with each other. Then, they are formed so that the comfortable skin-feeling layer of the secondary sheet is on the inner side, in other words, on the side of a wearer, and the contamination-resistant layer of the primary sheet is on the outer side. With such a constitution, although it involves the lead-incorporated organic polymer sheets of a large weight, it is comfortable to wear because of excellent flexibility and causes less feeling of fatigue even during wearing for a long period of time. (I.N.)

  10. Development of X-ray protective clothes for medical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, M.; Koike, K.; Fujinuma, T.; Aso, T.; Konba, T.

    1991-01-01

    As various medical treatments using X-ray irradiation are getting more important in modern medicine, effective, excellent X-ray protective clothes have been required. Elastomeric or PVC sheets containing powdery lead are usually employed as conventional X-ray protective clothes. In this case, enhancement of X-ray shielding efficiency increases the weight because the efficiency depends on the amount of lead incorporated. Such heavy clothes give significant fatigue and inconvenience during long term use. Consequently, lightweight and comfortable X-ray protective clothes have been eagerly desired in the medical field. The authors have improved these defects in the conventional clothes by means of elastomeric blending technologies and successfully developed new, lightweight and comfortable X-ray shielding clothes. The new clothes consist of lead-containing rubber sheet in which lead is homogeneously incorporated and lightweight PVC laminated with fabrics. They achieved favorable sense of touch, comfortable wearing and long-term durability. Furthermore, the clothes satisfy all requirements including X-ray shielding efficiency defined in JIS specifications. This article introduces the development of the new clothes and their properties in detail. (author)

  11. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  12. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing's noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  13. The influence of clothing weight and bulk on metabolic rate when wearing protective clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorman, L.; Havenith, G.

    2005-01-01

    Protective clothing is worn in many industrial and military situations. Although worn for protection from one or more hazards, the clothing can have secondary effects which may limit the ability of the worker to perform the tasks required of the job. Protective clothing can add significantly to the

  14. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled

  15. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  16. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  17. Protective clothing in the sun | Tamas | Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun protecting clothing is clothing designed for sun protection and is producted from the fabric rated for its level ultraviolet (UV) protection. Some textiles and fabrics emloyed in the use of sun protective clothing may be pre-treated with UV inhibiting ingredients during manufacture to enhance their UV blocking capacitiy.

  18. Heat stress in chemical protective clothing: Porosity and vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Hartog, E.A. den; Martini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve

  19. Protective clothing based on permselective membrane and carbon adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschlich, D.; Baker, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a description of Phase I of the US DOE's program to develop improved protective clothing for use by workers engaged in decommissioning and decontamination of former DOE sites, including those used for atomic weapons research and production. Membrane Technology and Research has been developing the clothing with an innovative feature of an ultrathin, permselective outer membrane that is extremely permeable to water but impermeable to toxic organic compounds. Phase I (as described herein) includes fabric optimization, commercial-scale fabric production, and prototype suit evaluation. This phase is complete, with the results discussed in this document

  20. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING BASED ON PERMSELECTIVE MEMBRANE AND CARBON ADSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Wijmans; J.O. Stull

    2001-11-07

    The goal of this project was to develop chemical protective clothing for use by DOE decontamination and decommissioning workers that is sufficiently water vapor permeable to keep the workers cool, thereby enhancing their productivity. This report describes the results of Phase II of a two-phase project to complete development of the novel permselective material and to test protective clothing made from the fabric. In Phase I a novel material incorporating a nonporous hydrophilic polyvinylacohol (PVA) layer, which is water vapor permeable but relatively impermeable to organic vapors, was developed. The results of the Phase I tests showed that the chemical resistance of the MTR material is comparable to that of Saranex/Tyvek materials, and that the comfort properties are closer to those of Tyvek (as measured in terms of CLO and permeability). Chemical resistance was measured using permeation tests against liquid dichloromethane. Comfort properties were ascertained by measuring the water vapor transmission of the material and by sweating manikin tests on whole protective suits. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis demonstrated that use of MTR's material technology could result in significant improvements in work productivity and cost savings if protective clothing items made from the new material were used more than once. In Phase II, MTR undertook a program to optimize the performance and production engineering for the new material technology. A partnership was formed with Kimberly-Clark Corporation to assist with a detailed evaluation of the MTR technology, and MTR used the services of Mr. Jeff Stull, President of the consulting firm International Personnel Protection, Inc., who conducted a detailed economic and application analysis for the developed fabric. The protective fabric manufacturing steps were simplified significantly, resulting in a 30% reduction in manufacturing costs and eliminating the necessity for capital investment in production equipment

  1. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING BASED ON PERMSELECTIVE MEMBRANE AND CARBON ADSORPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijmans, J.G.; Stull, J.O.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop chemical protective clothing for use by DOE decontamination and decommissioning workers that is sufficiently water vapor permeable to keep the workers cool, thereby enhancing their productivity. This report describes the results of Phase II of a two-phase project to complete development of the novel permselective material and to test protective clothing made from the fabric. In Phase I a novel material incorporating a nonporous hydrophilic polyvinylacohol (PVA) layer, which is water vapor permeable but relatively impermeable to organic vapors, was developed. The results of the Phase I tests showed that the chemical resistance of the MTR material is comparable to that of Saranex/Tyvek materials, and that the comfort properties are closer to those of Tyvek (as measured in terms of CLO and permeability). Chemical resistance was measured using permeation tests against liquid dichloromethane. Comfort properties were ascertained by measuring the water vapor transmission of the material and by sweating manikin tests on whole protective suits. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis demonstrated that use of MTR's material technology could result in significant improvements in work productivity and cost savings if protective clothing items made from the new material were used more than once. In Phase II, MTR undertook a program to optimize the performance and production engineering for the new material technology. A partnership was formed with Kimberly-Clark Corporation to assist with a detailed evaluation of the MTR technology, and MTR used the services of Mr. Jeff Stull, President of the consulting firm International Personnel Protection, Inc., who conducted a detailed economic and application analysis for the developed fabric. The protective fabric manufacturing steps were simplified significantly, resulting in a 30% reduction in manufacturing costs and eliminating the necessity for capital investment in production equipment

  2. Protection from solar ultraviolet radiation by clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pailthorpe, M. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The recently published Australia/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4399: l996 `Sun Protective Clothing - Evaluation and Classification` specifies an in vitro spectrophotometric method for the measurement of the ultraviolet (WR) transmission of textiles. Ultraviolet Protection Factors (UPF) are then calculated by convolving the UVR transmission data with standard CIE erythemal response data and ARL solar irradiance data. At the present time the scope of the standard is limited to loose fitting dry clothing. Virtually every textile parameter has an influence on the UPF of the finished garment and hence on the protection afforded to skin from the harmful effects of solar UVR radiation. Textile parameters such as fibre type, the method of spinning the yarn, fabric structure, cover factor, colorant, UVR absorbers and finishing methods determine the UPF of the fabric and hence must be controlled from batch to batch. Since garments generally shrink when washed, multiple wearing and washing cycles usually cause an increase in fabric UPF. Adventitious soiling of fabrics and the absorption of certain components of domestic laundry formulations, e g fluorescent whitening agents, increase fabric UPF ratings. Garments with a high degree of elasticity, e g nylon/lycra sportswear, that are stretched on to fit, will obviously have lower UPFs when stretched than when relaxed. In general fabrics worn in a wet state provide lower protection than when worn dry. On Australia`s most extreme summer day it has been estimated that there are 30 MEDs (minimal erythemal doses) in a dawn to dusk exposure. Thus outdoor workers should be provided with UPF 30 clothing, or better. Results from recent experiments using SK-II hairless mice dressed in UPF 50 `sunsuits` have shown that the mice developed no sun induced skin cancers on the skin areas protected by the UPF 50 fabric whereas multiple tumours developed on the unprotected skin.

  3. Protection from solar ultraviolet radiation by clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pailthorpe, M.

    1996-01-01

    The recently published Australia/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4399: l996 'Sun Protective Clothing - Evaluation and Classification' specifies an in vitro spectrophotometric method for the measurement of the ultraviolet (WR) transmission of textiles. Ultraviolet Protection Factors (UPF) are then calculated by convolving the UVR transmission data with standard CIE erythemal response data and ARL solar irradiance data. At the present time the scope of the standard is limited to loose fitting dry clothing. Virtually every textile parameter has an influence on the UPF of the finished garment and hence on the protection afforded to skin from the harmful effects of solar UVR radiation. Textile parameters such as fibre type, the method of spinning the yarn, fabric structure, cover factor, colorant, UVR absorbers and finishing methods determine the UPF of the fabric and hence must be controlled from batch to batch. Since garments generally shrink when washed, multiple wearing and washing cycles usually cause an increase in fabric UPF. Adventitious soiling of fabrics and the absorption of certain components of domestic laundry formulations, e g fluorescent whitening agents, increase fabric UPF ratings. Garments with a high degree of elasticity, e g nylon/lycra sportswear, that are stretched on to fit, will obviously have lower UPFs when stretched than when relaxed. In general fabrics worn in a wet state provide lower protection than when worn dry. On Australia's most extreme summer day it has been estimated that there are 30 MEDs (minimal erythemal doses) in a dawn to dusk exposure. Thus outdoor workers should be provided with UPF 30 clothing, or better. Results from recent experiments using SK-II hairless mice dressed in UPF 50 'sunsuits' have shown that the mice developed no sun induced skin cancers on the skin areas protected by the UPF 50 fabric whereas multiple tumours developed on the unprotected skin

  4. Personal protective clothing against accidental immersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, David; Tipton, Michael [Surrey Univ., Robens Inst. of Health and Safety, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The requirements for protective clothing against accidental immersion are discussed and the advantages and limitations of the main types of immersion protection available are analysed. The variety of designs available reflects the various circumstances under which they may be used. In broad terms in the offshore industry these include the following activities: normal work without risk of immersion but with a possible need to abandon the rig or ship; work in areas where there is risk of accidentally falling into the sea; flying over the sea in a helicopter. The first response to sudden immersion in sea water, which must usually be considered to be cold, is a sudden gasp often followed by an immediate phase of uncontrolled breathing. Since control of ones breathing between and under the breaking waves is essential to staying alive, this is a critical time. After surviving this initial ``cold shock`` phase, the effects of body heat loss become hazardous. Protection against hypothermia has been the priority for those providing survival suits and protective clothing while the hazard of the immediate response to cold immersion has been unrecognised to a large extent. (UK)

  5. Human physiology as the determining factor in protective clothing design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing is designed to protect humans against risks like fire, chemicals or blunt impact. Although protect¡ve clothing diminishes the effects of external risks, it may hinder people in functioning and it may also introduce new (internal) risks. Manufacturers are often not aware of the

  6. Field selection of chemical protective clothing and respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinette, S.; Dodgen, C.; Morley, M.

    1991-01-01

    Safety professionals who must choose appropriate personal protective equipment for hazardous substance response or hazardous waste sites require useable information about the effectiveness of the various products available. Each hazardous waste operation involves a unique combination of chemical hazards requiring a unique combination of protective apparel. A chemical protective suit or respirator must be chosen for each site and each operation on the site. No single protective suit is effective against all chemical hazards. No single respirator is the best choice in every situation. Various sources of information on the effectiveness of protective clothing products will be discussed. Site-specific permeation testing of the proposed protective clothing options will also be discussed. It is both possible and practical to obtain specific information about the degree of protection afforded by a particular suit against a particular chemical mixture. It is also important to know how long the suit will last. Choosing adequate respiratory protection is a complex process. Respirator cartridge performance depends on various environmental factors as well as upon the combination and concentration of chemicals in the air. Once characterization of the air at a site has been accomplished, it may be appropriate to select an alternative to airline respirators and SCBAs. Respirator cartridges can be tested against specific chemical mixtures using worse case environmental factors. The results can be used to predict both the effectiveness and duration of protection afforded by respirator cartridges which can reduce costs and worker fatigue

  7. Motorcycle protective clothing: protection from injury or just the weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rome, Liz; Ivers, Rebecca; Fitzharris, Michael; Du, Wei; Haworth, Narelle; Heritier, Stephane; Richardson, Drew

    2011-11-01

    Apart from helmets, little is known about the effectiveness of motorcycle protective clothing in reducing injuries in crashes. The study aimed to quantify the association between usage of motorcycle clothing and injury in crashes. Cross-sectional analytic study. Crashed motorcyclists (n=212, 71% of identified eligible cases) were recruited through hospitals and motorcycle repair services. Data was obtained through structured face-to-face interviews. The main outcome was hospitalization and motorcycle crash-related injury. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for injury adjusting for potential confounders. Motorcyclists were significantly less likely to be admitted to hospital if they crashed wearing motorcycle jackets (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91), pants (RR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.94), or gloves (RR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.26-0.66). When garments included fitted body armour there was a significantly reduced risk of injury to the upper body (RR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.66-0.89), hands and wrists (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.38-0.81), legs (RR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90), feet and ankles (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). Non-motorcycle boots were also associated with a reduced risk of injury compared to shoes or joggers (RR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.75). No association between use of body armour and risk of fracture injuries was detected. A substantial proportion of motorcycle designed gloves (25.7%), jackets (29.7%) and pants (28.1%) were assessed to have failed due to material damage in the crash. Motorcycle protective clothing is associated with reduced risk and severity of crash related injury and hospitalization, particularly when fitted with body armour. The proportion of clothing items that failed under crash conditions indicates a need for improved quality control. While mandating usage of protective clothing is not recommended, consideration could be given to providing incentives for usage of protective clothing, such as tax exemptions for safety

  8. Protective clothing use at the Savannah River Plant Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabbil, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    The mission of the Savannah River Plant in producing nuclear materials does pose some unique protective clothing and equipment requirements not usually seen in the general industry. In addition to protection from the chemicals and physical agents encountered, radioactive hazards must also be managed. This paper describes the protective clothing and respiratory protection used at SRP, and focuses particularly on the development of a new plastic suit. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Protective clothing based on permselective membrane carbon adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschlich, D.; Baker, R. [Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of the program is to develop improved protective clothing for use by workers engaged in decommissioning and decontamination of former Department of Energy sites, including those used for atomic weapons research and production. Such sites are contaminated with a variety of hazardous compounds, ranging from asbestos, mercury and other heavy metals, to toxic organic compounds, such as PCB and chlorinated solvents, and radioactive metals and salts. Because of the hazards of exposure to these materials, workers must wear protective garments. These garments, which are made from Saran{reg_sign}, butyl rubber or other impermeable materials, provide excellent protection against particulates, liquids, aerosols, organic vapors and gases, but are impermeable to water vapor. Consequently, humidity and temperature within the suit rise rapidly during use, causing increasing discomfort. Heat stress occurs if the suit is worn for more than brief periods without resting. The proposed technology concerns a new protective clothing fabric that combines a permselective membrane layer with a sorptive layer. If successfully developed, suits made from this fabric will offer equivalent, or better, protection than current materials, combined with a very high water vapor transmission rate (1,000 g/m{sup 2}{sm_bullet} day or more) that will dramatically improve {open_quotes}breathability,{close_quotes} comfort, and worker productivity.

  10. Protective clothing based on permselective membrane carbon adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschlich, D.; Baker, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the program is to develop improved protective clothing for use by workers engaged in decommissioning and decontamination of former Department of Energy sites, including those used for atomic weapons research and production. Such sites are contaminated with a variety of hazardous compounds, ranging from asbestos, mercury and other heavy metals, to toxic organic compounds, such as PCB and chlorinated solvents, and radioactive metals and salts. Because of the hazards of exposure to these materials, workers must wear protective garments. These garments, which are made from Saran reg-sign, butyl rubber or other impermeable materials, provide excellent protection against particulates, liquids, aerosols, organic vapors and gases, but are impermeable to water vapor. Consequently, humidity and temperature within the suit rise rapidly during use, causing increasing discomfort. Heat stress occurs if the suit is worn for more than brief periods without resting. The proposed technology concerns a new protective clothing fabric that combines a permselective membrane layer with a sorptive layer. If successfully developed, suits made from this fabric will offer equivalent, or better, protection than current materials, combined with a very high water vapor transmission rate (1,000 g/m 2 sm-bullet day or more) that will dramatically improve open-quotes breathability,close quotes comfort, and worker productivity

  11. EPRI Guide to Managing Nuclear Utility Protective Clothing Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.; Kelly, D.M.

    1993-10-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned a radioactive waste related project (RP2414-34) in 1989 to produce a guide for developing and managing nuclear plant protective clothing programs. Every nuclear facility must coordinate some type of protective clothing program for its radiation workers to ensure proper and safe protection for the wearer and to maintain control over the spread of contamination. Yet, every nuclear facility has developed its own unique program for managing such clothing. Accordingly, a need existed for a reference guide to assist with standardizing protective clothing programs and in controlling the potentially escalating economics of such programs. The initial Guide to Managing Nuclear Utility Protective Clothing Programs, NP-7309, was published in May 1991. Since that time, a number of utilities have reviewed and/or used the report to enhance their protective clothing programs. Some of these utilities requested that a computer program be developed to assist utilities in evaluating the economics of protective clothing programs consistent with the guidance in NP-7309. The PCEVAL computer code responds to that industry need. This report, the PCEVAL User's Manual, provides detailed instruction on use of the software

  12. Potential applications of smart clothing solutions in health care and personal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinander, Harriet; Honkala, Markku

    2004-01-01

    The rapid development in the fields of sensor and telecommunication technologies has created completely new possibilities also for the textile and clothing field. New smart textile and clothing systems can be developed by integrating sensors in the textile constructions. Application fields for these added-value products are e.g. protective clothing for extreme environments, garments for the health care sector, technical textiles, sport and leisure wear. Some products have already been introduced on the markets, but generally it can be stated that the development is only in its starting phase, and the expectations for the future are big. Many different aspects have to be considered in the development of the wearable technology products for the health care sector: medical problems and their diagnosis, sensor choice, data processing and telecommunication solutions, clothing requirements. A functional product can be achieved only if all aspects work together, and therefore experts from all fields should participate in the RTD projects. In the EC-funded project DE3002 Easytex clothing and textiles for disabled and elderly people were investigated. Some recommendations concerning durability, appearance, comfort, service and safety of products for different special user groups were defined, based on user questionnaires and seminars, general textile and clothing requirements and on laboratory test series."Clothing Area Network--Clan" is a research project aiming to develop a technical concept and technology needed in enabling both wired and wireless data and power transfer between different intelligent modules (user interfaces, sensors, CPU's, batteries etc.) integrated into a smart clothing system. Fire-fighters clothing system is chosen as the development platform, being a very challenging application from which the developed technology can be transferred to other protective clothing systems.

  13. Working- and protecting clothes and their ranges of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, H.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the greatly diverse conditions of application working and protection clothes have to satisfy manifold requirements. The author outlines the usual method with the aim to characteristic material- and processing properties loading to article properties that correspond to the requested safety characteristic values (test standards). The qualification criteria deciding the respective field of application are described in detail (e.g. mining, building trade, chemical industry, radiation protection etc.) and are completed by giving comments on the care of clothing. (orig.) [de

  14. Making the optimal decision in selecting protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Protective Clothing plays a major role in the decommissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Literally thousands of employee dress-outs occur over the life of a decommissioning project and during outages at operational plants. In order to make the optimal decision on which type of protective clothing is best suited for the decommissioning or maintenance and repair work on radioactive systems, a number of interrelating factors must be considered, including - Protection; - Personnel Contamination; - Cost; - Radwaste; - Comfort; - Convenience; - Logistics/Rad Material Considerations; - Reject Rate of Laundered Clothing; - Durability; - Security; - Personnel Safety including Heat Stress; - Disposition of Gloves and Booties. In addition, over the last several years there has been a trend of nuclear power plants either running trials or switching to Single Use Protective Clothing (SUPC) from traditional protective clothing. In some cases, after trial usage of SUPC, plants have chosen not to switch. In other cases after switching to SUPC for a period of time, some plants have chosen to switch back to laundering. Based on these observations, this paper reviews the 'real' drivers, issues, and interrelating factors regarding the selection and use of protective clothing throughout the nuclear industry. (authors)

  15. Making the Optimal Decision in Selecting Protective Clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Protective Clothing plays a major role in the decommissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Literally thousands of dress-outs occur over the life of a decommissioning project and during outages at operational plants. In order to make the optimal decision on which type of protective clothing is best suited for the decommissioning or maintenance and repair work on radioactive systems, a number of interrelating factors must be considered. This article discusses these factors as well as surveys of plants regarding their level of usage of single use protective clothing and should help individuals making decisions about protective clothing as it applies to their application. Individuals considering using SUPC should not jump to conclusions. The survey conducted clearly indicates that plants have different drivers. An evaluation should be performed to understand the facility's true drivers for selecting clothing. It is recommended that an interdisciplinary team be formed including representatives from budgets and cost, safety, radwaste, health physics, and key user groups to perform the analysis. The right questions need to be asked and answered by the company providing the clothing to formulate a proper perspective and conclusion. The conclusions and recommendations need to be shared with senior management so that the drivers, expected results, and associated costs are understood and endorsed. In the end, the individual making the recommendation should ask himself/herself: 'Is my decision emotional, or logical and economical?' 'Have I reached the optimal decision for my plant?'

  16. The study for decontamination techniques of adhered high contamination on protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Won; Kim, Byung Rae; Kim, Seung Jae [Korea Inspection Co., ltd., Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Nuclear power plant worker who work at Radiation access control area should be take the protective clothing that basically maintained in accordance with the provisions of under 40KBq / m{sup 3} to prevent contamination of the worker. However, the highly contaminated work clothes that occurs after each planned preventive maintenance of nuclear power plants reaches too many quantities even if not only through the process of re-washing several times and but also through the process of decay. This lead to the increase of radioactive waste and there is also concern dose exposure due to the dose that occurs in the process of storage for radioactive decay. So research of fixation contaminated protective clothing decontamination technology seems to contribute significantly reduction of radioactive waste depend on the reuse of highly contaminated protective clothing that ensured soundness. High-contamination protective clothing are generated by planned preventive maintenance of each nuclear power plant. Despite repeated re-laundry, radioactive contamination can not be removed, must be selected a disposal. These, thought to be impossible virtually decontamination for a long time but through the decontamination method of this paper, quantity of disposal protective clothing is to be able to significantly reduce.

  17. Musical and clothing invitations to protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud, F

    1993-01-01

    The Chaussez Capote Project interviewed 48 youths in Abidjan and Dabou aged 14-25 years on how to best get individuals in their age group to use condoms. 251 individuals aged 15-25 were also surveyed in Abidjan on the same subject. While more than 80% of this latter group had already discussed AIDS, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and prevention with others, 90% still wanted advice on these themes from medical staff and the media. 40% who had already used condoms did so incorrectly, while approximately 33% had experienced condom breakage during use. Respondents felt that condom promotion should be associated with information on AIDS, STDs, and contraception or information on general health. In response to this feedback, the project commissioned the creation of a promotional music cassette with French and African songs of different musical styles. Lyrics imparted technical information and correct misconceptions related to condom use. Free distribution of the cassette commenced August 1992, and approximately 800 were given to organizations and businesses. The cassette also aired on radio and Ivorian television, but met with only limited success. It is thought that its impact was limited due to the small number of copies duplicated and inefficient distribution. A new version was therefore created with different songs and short messages by popular African singers for local duplication and sale at a subsidized price starting December 1993. As a 2nd intervention, clothing metaphors applied to condoms and condom use were applied to the development of a clothing promotion loincloth designed Spring 1993. The cloth was pretested and revised to ultimately consist of panels depicting 2 young couples, a condom, a panther, and the words Entre nous. The cloth has been ordered for use by the National AIDS Committee, a condom social marketing project, and the French agency for development cooperation.

  18. The effect of air permeability of chemical protective clothing material on clothing vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Vuister, R.; Wammes, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with Chemical Warfare Protective Clothing (CW) is the additional heat load created by the garments. For CW-overgarments, research in the direction of reducing material thickness and thus heat and vapour resistance have not resulted in major improvements. The

  19. Double fastener-type contamination protective cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Norio.

    1996-01-01

    In the cloth of the present invention, a hood portion covering the entire of a head and a suit portion having an upper half body portion and a lower half body portion connected to the upper half portion for covering from a neck to ankles are made integrated. The suit portion has long sleeves at the upper half body portion, and has strait leg portions at the lower half body portion. Two linear sliding fasteners are disposed from the neck portion on the front surface of the suit portion to the lower edges of both ankle portions. The sliding fasteners have a double structure having a folded portion at the inner side. Slits are formed on the outer side surfaces of each of the ankle portions and openable/closable face fasteners are attached. A rubber is incorporated in the wrist portions at the top ends of the long sleeves to be in close contact with the wrists. An operator can easily put on and off the cloth without withdrawing legs. Accordingly, radioactive contamination can be prevented upon putting on and off the cloth. (I.N.)

  20. 46 CFR 153.933 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 153.933 Section 153.933 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Protective Clothing”, Third Edition, 1987, available from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial...

  1. Facts and Fiction on Ultraviolet Protection by Clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterwalder, U.; Schlenker, W.; Rohwer, H.; Martin, E.; Schuh, S.

    2000-01-01

    With the increase of skin cancer the fact that not all apparel is sufficiently protective against UV Radiation is becoming better know to the public. There is an emerging market for UV protective clothing. Its need is not commonly accepted. Understanding of the influencing factors is low. To the consumer it is not always clear what is fact and what is fiction. This paper answers six frequently asked questions. (1) The need for improving UV protection by clothing is demonstrated by UV transmittance measurements in public. (2) A pitfall in the generally recommended 'see through' assessment test is shown. (3) When a garment gets wet its UV protection is not necessarily poor. (4) The reduced UV protection of stretched knitwear can be accounted for. (5) A real life study confirms that UV protection is not washed out. (6) UV protection can be washed in with special additives to laundry products. (author)

  2. Flexible protective gloves: The emperor's new clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, C.A.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The risk of developing skin cancer is estimated for interventional radiologists who do and do not wear thin, flexible protective leaded gloves. The use of these gloves is extremely expensive in terms of dollars per potential cancer prevented. Good radiographic practice without the use of flexible protective gloves provides adequate protection

  3. Heat strain in protective clothing - challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kiekens, P.; Jayaraman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to

  4. Heat strain in personal protective clothing: Challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to

  5. Personal Protection of Permethrin-Treated Clothing against Aedes aegypti, the Vector of Dengue and Zika Virus, in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsborne, James; DeRaedt Banks, Sarah; Hendy, Adam; Gezan, Salvador A; Kaur, Harparkash; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Lindsay, Steve W; Logan, James G

    2016-01-01

    The dengue and Zika viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are most active during day light hours and feed both in and outside of the household. Personal protection technologies such as insecticide-treated clothing could provide individual protection. Here we assessed the efficacy of permethrin-treated clothing on personal protection in the laboratory. The effect of washing on treated clothing, skin coverage and protection against resistant and susceptible Ae. aegypti was assessed using modified WHO arm-in-cage assays. Coverage was further assessed using free-flight room tests to investigate the protective efficacy of unwashed factory-dipped permethrin-treated clothing. Clothing was worn as full coverage (long sleeves and trousers) and partial coverage (short sleeves and shorts). Residual permethrin on the skin and its effect on mosquitoes was measured using modified WHO cone assays and quantified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. In the arm-in-cage assays, unwashed clothing reduced landing by 58.9% (95% CI 49.2-66.9) and biting by 28.5% (95% CI 22.5-34.0), but reduced to 18.5% (95% CI 14.7-22.3) and 11.1% (95% CI 8.5-13.8) respectively after 10 washes. Landing and biting for resistant and susceptible strains was not significantly different (ptreated clothing reduced landing by 24.3% (95% CI 17.4-31.7) and biting by 91% (95% CI 82.2-95.9) with partial coverage reducing landing and biting by 26.4% (95% CI 20.3-31.2) and 49.3% (95% CI 42.1-59.1) respectively with coverage type having no significant difference on landing (p80% one hour after wearing treated clothing. Whilst partially covering the body with permethrin-treated clothing provided some protection against biting, wearing treated clothing with long sleeves and trousers provided the highest form of protection. Washing treated clothing dramatically reduced protection provided. Permethrin-treated clothing could provide protection to individuals from Ae

  6. The usage of phase change materials in fire fighter protective clothing: its effect on thermal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengmeng

    2017-12-01

    The thermal protective performance of the fire fighter protective clothing is of vital importance for fire fighters. In the study fabrics treated by phase change materials (PCMs) were applied in the multi-layered fabrics of the fire fighter protective clothing ensemble. The PCM fabrics were placed at the different layers of the clothing and their thermal protective performance were measured by a TPP tester. Results show that with the application of the PCM fabrics the thermal protection of the multi-layered fabrics was greatly increased. The time to reach a second degree burn was largely reduced. The location of the PCM fabrics at the different layers did not affect much on the thermal protective performance. The higher amount of the PCM adds on, the higher thermal protection was brought. The fabrics with PCMs of a higher melting temperature could contribute to higher thermal protection.

  7. Flexible pressure sensors for smart protective clothing against impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bo; Shu, Lin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The development of smart protective clothing will facilitate the quick detection of injuries from contact sports, traffic collisions and other accidents. To obtain real-time information like spatial and temporal pressure distributions on the clothing, flexible pressure sensor arrays are required. Based on a resistive fabric strain sensor we demonstrate all flexible, resistive pressure sensors with a large workable pressure range (0–8 MPa), a high sensitivity (1 MPa −1 ) and an excellent repeatability (lowest non-repeatability ±2.4% from 0.8 to 8 MPa) that can be inexpensively fabricated using fabric strain sensors and biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pressure sensitivity is tunable by using elastomers with different elasticities or by the pre-strain control of fabric strain sensors. Finite element simulation further confirms the sensor design. The simple structure, large workable pressure range, high sensitivity, high flexibility, facile fabrication and low cost of these pressure sensors make them promising candidates for smart protective clothing against impact loading. (paper)

  8. Chemical protective clothing - State of the art and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Clothing used to protect the skin from exposure to chemicals (CPC) is an integral part of many work-places. Only 10-15 years ago the strategy behind selecting CPC to afford this protection was to find a type of CPC which was essentially liquid-proof and would therefore protect the skin from exposure to a liquid chemical. However, in the last 10 years there has been an explosion of data in the industrial hygiene field related to the permeation of chemical protective clothing by liquid chemicals. These data indicate clearly that when CPC is exposed to a chemical, it may not disintegrate or degrade, but nevertheless, will be permeated by the chemical and the skin will be exposed. This has led to a new strategy for selecting CPC which essentially assumes that any exposure of the skin is harmful. Consequently, a worst-case scenario is assumed when selecting CPC and often the garment with the best permeation properties is selected regardless of cost. This philosophy is prompted by a lack of knowledge concerning the skin and how it is permeated by industrial chemicals in their liquid and vapor states. The interests in the last 10 years in CPC has led to new developments and an exciting future for protective clothing. Several new laminated polymeric materials are now being used in both gloves and full-body suits. These polymers are plastic rather than elastomeric and therefore do not afford good dexterity properties. However, their permeability properties are extremely good. In addition, further research on dermal penetration should give the industrial hygienist the necessary information to perform risk assessments for skin exposure. These new risk assessment strategies should negate the current need to overprotect workers. Overprotection often leads to unnecessary costs and can lead to increased stress on the worker in the form of heat stress

  9. Use and effect of X-ray protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, W.

    1976-01-01

    The use of X-ray protective clothing in direct handling the patient was studied in 76 X-ray departments. Mainly two types of lead rubber aprons are used, older ones with a lead equivalent of 0.2 mm and aprons according to TGL 200-1606 with a lead equivalent of 0.25 mm. Aprons are not yet worn in all surgical departments. Their replacement by protective skirts is to be refused. If at all, lead rubber gloves are only used in standardized fluoroscopic examinations, especially in examining the gastrointestinal tract. It is emphasized that only the protected fore-part is to be directed to the main radiation source, especially in seating or leaning forward positions. (author)

  10. Block pattern technology: a means of revamping the clothing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Block pattern technology: a means of revamping the clothing industry in Nigeria. ... The main purpose of this study was to develop bodice block patterns for female youths in three size categories- small, medium and large as well as test the fit of the garments constructed from the blocks. The area of study was Enugu State.

  11. Radiation protection. Clothing for protection against radioactive contamination. Design, selection, testing and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The present Standard gives the characteristics of clothing protecting the wearer against radioactive contamination brought about by contact with liquid or solid substances or by atmospheric pollutants, such as solid particles, mist, gases or vapours. The Standard applies to two types of clothing: firstly, ventilated-pressurized garments; secondly, unventilated-unpressurized garments. A test method according to which any new type of garment can be assigned a protection factor that makes it easier for the user to make a choice is described. The report also gives methods for measuring leak-tightness and air supply flow rates of ventilated-pressurized garments. For guidance purposes only, recommendations for choosing protective clothing are given. 5 figs, 2 tabs [fr

  12. Testing and Labelling of Sun Protective Clothing for Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, R.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest shown in the protective properties of clothing against the harmful effects of UV radiation from the sun. The incidence of skin cancer has been rising in many parts of the world, but especially in Australia and northern Europe. This is due to a number of factors including changing lifestyles, perceptions of the 'tanned image' and ozone depletion. Initial research was carried out in Australia where a test method for fabrics was formulated with a classification procedure. A number of European countries have taken up this initiative including the UK which earlier last year produced their own test method - BS 7914:1998. The European Union are now in the final stages of formulating the test method to be used by all member countries. Further work has also been carried out by BSI to investigate the complex aspects of labelling criteria in respect of garments. This has culminated in the recent publication (i.e. July 1999) of another standard - BS 7949:1999 - entitled 'Children's Clothing Requirements for Protection against Erythemally Weighted Solar Ultraviolet Radiation'. Other, more difficult parameters not yet covered in any of the published standards are still to be evaluated. These include the changes in the sun protection properties of textiles in a wet and/or stretched condition (precisely the state of many garments worn in the sun) and the requirements for products such as sun-shades and parasols where the measurement of UV reflectance is also very relevant. This current situation is reviewed and those aspects highlighted where resources for investigative research are needed, particularly by textile manufacturers and retailers. (author)

  13. Development of Protective Clothing against Nanoparticle Based on Electrospun Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faccini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of efficient protective clothing against nanoparticulate aerosols is presented. Nanofibrous mats of polyamide 6 (PA6 were deposited onto a nonwoven viscose substrate by electrospinning technique. The influence of electrospinning parameters, including solution concentration, viscosity, and conductivity, was studied for the production of nonwovens with controlled fiber diameter showing a size distribution ranging from 66 to 195 nm. By varying several process parameters, textiles with different thickness of the nanofiber layer and thus air permeability were obtained. A hot-press lamination process using a thermoplastic resin as glue was applied to improve the adhesion of the nanofiber layer onto the textile support. After 1500 cycles of repeated compression and torsion, the nanofiber layer was still firmly attached to the support, while mechanical damage is visible in some areas. The penetration of NaCl particles with diameter ranging from 15 to 300 nm through the electrospun textiles was found to be strongly dependent on nanofiber layer thickness. A really thin nanofiber coating provides up to 80% retention of 20 nm size particles and over 50% retention of 200 nm size nanoparticles. Increasing the thickness of the nanofiber mat, the filtration efficiency was increased to over 99% along the whole nanoparticle range. The results obtained highlight the potential of nanofibers in the development of efficient personal protective equipments against nanoparticles.

  14. A Novel Adjustable Concept for Permeable Gas/Vapor Protective Clothing: Balancing Protection and Thermal Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogerd, Cornelis Peter; Langenberg, Johannes Pieter; DenHartog, Emiel A

    2018-02-13

    Armed forces typically have personal protective clothing (PPC) in place to offer protection against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) agents. The regular soldier is equipped with permeable CBRN-PPC. However, depending on the operational task, these PPCs pose too much thermal strain to the wearer, which results in a higher risk of uncompensable heat stress. This study investigates the possibilities of adjustable CBRN-PPC, consisting of different layers that can be worn separately or in combination with each other. This novel concept aims to achieve optimization between protection and thermal strain during operations. Two CBRN-PPC (protective) layers were obtained from two separate manufacturers: (i) a next-to-skin (NTS) and (ii) a low-burden battle dress uniform (protective BDU). In addition to these layers, a standard (non-CBRN protective) BDU (sBDU) was also made available. The effect of combining clothing layers on the levels of protection were investigated with a Man-In-Simulant Test. Finally, a mechanistic numerical model was employed to give insight into the thermal burden of the evaluated CBRN-PPC concepts. Combining layers results in substantially higher protection that is more than the sum of the individual layers. Reducing the airflow on the protective layer closest to the skin seems to play an important role in this, since combining the NTS with the sBDU also resulted in substantially higher protection. As expected, the thermal strain posed by the different clothing layer combinations decreases as the level of protection decreases. This study has shown that the concept of adjustable protection and thermal strain through multiple layers of CBRN-PPC works. Adjustable CBRN-PPC allows for optimization of the CBRN-PPC in relation to the threat level, thermal environment, and tasks at hand in an operational setting. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  15. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  16. Protective clothing[Occupational safety of personnel in the event of a sodium fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C; Regnier, J [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    The present operational and intervention suits are described. Research work is currently in progress to improve the performance of the existing suits and to develop more resistant protective clothing. (author)

  17. WS-010: EPR-First Responders: Personal monitoring techniques and protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this working session is that the participant can apply their knowledge in relation to the personal monitoring techniques and protective clothing. They have to know the use of the radiation measurement instrumentation available in each region

  18. Plasma Surface Modification of Polyaramid Fibers for Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Mohamad

    2011-12-01

    ever. Plasma technology has made surface chemistry functionalization of Kevlar more straightforward and easier to perform, which opens new avenues for achieving functional and multifunctional Kevlar fabrics using a fast, more economic and environmentally friendly continuous process for niche market such as military applications and protective clothing for emergency responders.

  19. Clothing, equipment and devices for personnel protection: Its selection according to occupational risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Venezuelan standard establishes the selection of the type of clothing, equipment and devices for personnel protection, to be used by workers according to the occupational risk they deal with, in order to avoid or to reduce the factors that can, directly or indirectly, affect their physical integrity. For the risks not contemplated in this norm, the selection of the type of clothing, equipment and devices for personnel protection, must be done following the corresponding international standard [es

  20. Protective clothing and hot particle control: EPRI workshop gives the issues an airing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    A recent workshop organized by the Electric Power Research Institute on Protective Clothing Topics and Hot Particle Control brought together working-level engineers, industry experts and vendors. Ideas arising from the accident recovery efforts at Three Mile Island were exchanged. Among the topics discussed were the role of fabric colour in the retention of radionuclides, modesty garments, laundering of protective clothing and worker heat stress. (author)

  1. REACTION OF THE FEMALE BODY TO STRESS IN A CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří SLABOTINSKÝ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the reaction of the female body to the use of an insulation chemical protective clothing combined with working – thermal and mental stress to which the female is exposed. The article provides a concise overview of protective chemical clothings and factors affecting their comfort; it describes the regularities corresponding to the physiological reaction, important for the body’s reaction to the use of a chemical protective clothing. Further, the article contains a description of the measurement and evaluation of physiological parameters of non-acclimated women during testing of these clothings and, finally, comparison with the results for males under the same stress which is unfavourable for women.

  2. 30 CFR 77.1710 - Protective clothing; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... footwear. (f) Snug-fitting clothing when working around moving machinery or equipment. (g) Safety belts and... Section 77.1710 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND...

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Thermal Insulation of Traditional and Newly Designed Protective Clothing for Foundry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Frydrych

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An objective of the undertaken research was checking the applicability of aluminized basalt fabrics for the production of clothing for foundry workers. The results of flammability, the resistance to contact, convective and radiation heat, as well as the resistance to big molten metal splashes confirmed the thesis of applicability of the packages with the use of aluminized basalt fabric content for the assumed purpose; therefore, such protective clothing was produced. Thermal comfort of foundry workers is very important and related to many factors, i.e., the structure of the protective clothing package, the number of layers, their thickness, the distance between the body and appropriate underwear. In the paper, a comparison of the results of thermal insulation measurement of two kinds of protective clothing is presented: the traditional one made of aluminized glass fabrics and the new one made of aluminized basalt fabrics. Measurements of clothing thermal insulation were conducted using a thermal manikin dressed in the protective clothing and three kinds of underwear products covering the upper and lower part of the manikin.

  4. Post-Secondary Analysis of Clothing/Textiles Technology Programs in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosson, Linda R.; And Others

    A study examined postsecondary occupational programs in clothing and textiles technology in Texas in order to (1) identify common essential competencies taught in postsecondary clothing/textiles technology programs, (2) develop and distribute student competency profiles of essential common competencies shared by the eight areas of study within…

  5. Procedures to evaluate the efficiency of protective clothing worn by operators applying pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espanhol-Soares, Melina; Nociti, Leticia A S; Machado-Neto, Joaquim Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    The evaluation of the efficiency of whole-body protective clothing against pesticides has already been carried out through field tests and procedures defined by international standards, but there is a need to determine the useful life of these garments to ensure worker safety. The aim of this article is to compare the procedures for evaluating efficiency of two whole-body protective garments, both new and previously used by applicators of herbicides, using a laboratory test with a mannequin and in the field with the operator. The evaluation of the efficiency of protective clothing used both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, leading to a proposal for classification according to efficiency, and determination of the useful life of protective clothing for use against pesticides, based on a quantitative assessment. The procedures used were in accordance with the standards of the modified American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F 1359:2007 and International Organization for Standardization 17491-4. The protocol used in the field was World Health Organization Vector Biology and Control (VBC)/82.1. Clothing tested was personal water repellent and pesticide protective. Two varieties of fabric were tested: Beige (100% cotton) and Camouflaged (31% polyester and 69% cotton). The efficiency in exposure control of the personal protective clothing was measured before use and after 5, 10, 20, and 30 uses and washes under field conditions. Personal protective clothing was worn by workers in the field during the application of the herbicide glyphosate on weed species in mature sugar cane plantations using a knapsack sprayer. The modified ASTM 1359:2007 procedure was chosen as the most appropriate due to its greater repeatability (lower coefficient of variation). This procedure provides quantitative evaluation needed to determine the efficiency and useful life of individual protective clothing, not just at specific points of failure, but according to dermal

  6. A review of heat transfer phenomena and the impact of moisture on firefighters' clothing and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Aude; Bedek, Gauthier; Salaün, Fabien; Dupont, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing with high insulation properties helps to keep the wearer safe from flames and other types of hazards. Such protection presents some drawbacks since it hinders movement and decreases comfort, in particular due to heat stress. In fact, sweating causes the accumulation of moisture which directly influences firefighters' performance, decreasing protection due to the increase in radiant heat flux. Vaporisation and condensation of hot moisture also induces skin burn. To evaluate the heat protection of protective clothing, Henrique's equation is used to predict the time leading to second-degree burn. The influence of moisture on protection is complex, i.e., at low radiant heat flux, an increase in moisture content increases protection, and also changes thermal properties. Better understanding of heat and mass transfer in protective clothing is required to develop enhanced protection and to prevent burn injuries. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of heat and mass transfer inside firefighters' protective clothing to enhance safety. The focus is on the influence of moisture content and the prevention of steam burn.

  7. The effect of moisture content within multilayer protective clothing on protection from radiation and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun; Song, Guowen

    2018-06-01

    The moisture from skin sweat and atmospheric water affects the thermal protective performance provided by multilayer protective clothing. Four levels of moisture content were selected to evaluate the impact of moisture on thermal protection under dry (thermal radiation) and wet (thermal radiation and low-pressure steam) heat exposure. Also, the role of moisture and its relationship with exposure time were analyzed based on skin heat flux and Henriques integral value. The addition of moisture to a fabric system was found to result in differences in second-degree and third-degree skin burn times. When moisture is added to a fabric system, it both acts as a thermal conductor to present a negative effect and provides a positive effect owing to thermal storage of water and evaporative heat loss. The positive or negative effects of moisture are mainly dependent on the thermal exposure time, the moisture content and the presence of hot steam.

  8. Evaluation of the integrity of radiological protection clothing used in veterinary radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Paola da Costa; Barros, Frieda Saicla; Costa, Douglas Siqueira da, E-mail: paah_dacosta@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Radiologia e Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Biomedica

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the integrity of radiological protection clothing used by veterinarians in veterinary radiology facilities, and whether they are available in an adequate quantity for the team. Inspection was performed by palpation, followed by X-ray scanning in 189 clothing from 29 veterinary facilities. The results indicate that 5% of the clothes evaluated in this study were considered inadequate due to the failure of the integrity of the lead, being most lead aprons. All facilities have at least two lead aprons and one Thyroid protectors. 24% of the facilities have lead glasses, pointing to a risk to veterinarians by radiosensitivity of the eyes. Also, 24% of the facilities do not have lead gloves, which also presents a risk due to the hand's exposure to the primary beam. Most lead clothing has shield equivalence of 0.5mmPb. The method used in the study was effective in attesting the adequacy of lead clothing. It is recommended to periodically evaluate clothing to ensure that users are always protected. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the integrity of radiological protection clothing used in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Paola da Costa; Barros, Frieda Saicla; Costa, Douglas Siqueira da

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the integrity of radiological protection clothing used by veterinarians in veterinary radiology facilities, and whether they are available in an adequate quantity for the team. Inspection was performed by palpation, followed by X-ray scanning in 189 clothing from 29 veterinary facilities. The results indicate that 5% of the clothes evaluated in this study were considered inadequate due to the failure of the integrity of the lead, being most lead aprons. All facilities have at least two lead aprons and one Thyroid protectors. 24% of the facilities have lead glasses, pointing to a risk to veterinarians by radiosensitivity of the eyes. Also, 24% of the facilities do not have lead gloves, which also presents a risk due to the hand's exposure to the primary beam. Most lead clothing has shield equivalence of 0.5mmPb. The method used in the study was effective in attesting the adequacy of lead clothing. It is recommended to periodically evaluate clothing to ensure that users are always protected. (author)

  10. Military Psychology. Volume 9, Number 4, 1997. Effects of Chemical Protective Clothing on Military Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Hoarding or stealing chemical protective Rationalization (finding reasons not to train in equipment chemical protective clothing) Hypochondriasis ...overreactions involves development of bodily com- plaints, that is, somatization , which result in dramatic increases in reports for sick call or visits to the...doctor (The Adjutant General, 1979; Weisaeth, 1993). This hypochondriasis occurs as people focus attention on their bodies and internal sensations

  11. New advances in protection against solar ultraviolet radiation in textiles for summer clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, José; de Gálvez, María Victoria; Sánchez-Roldán, Cristina; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Clothing is considered one of the most important tools for photoprotection against harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The standard for sun-protective clothing is based on erythema despite other biological effects of UVR on the skin. We analyzed the potential protection against UVR in fabrics destined for summer clothing based on several action spectra. We examined 50 garments classified by type of fabric composition, structure of the fiber yarn and color. The ultraviolet protection factor was calculated based on fabric ultraviolet transmittance corrected for erythema according to the EU standard E-13758 as well as the UVA transmittance of fabrics. UVR protection was also analyzed in base of different action spectra as for previtamin D3, nonmelanoma skin cancer, photoimmunosuppression and photoaging. Most knitted fabrics used for sports T-shirts offered excellent ratings for ultraviolet protection while normal shirts showed very low ratings, particularly against photoaging. The cover is the most influential variable in fabric photoprotection, having an exponential relationship with the UPF. The relation between cover and UVA protection was linearly negative. Information about ultraviolet protection in textiles used for summer clothing should be included in labeling as some types of fabrics, especially those used for shirts, offer very low UVR protection. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  12. Examination of optimal radiation quality in the lead equivalent examination of x-ray protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shinichi; Matsuzawa, Rie; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effective lead thickness of the apron for radiation protective clothing, i.e., the lead equivalent, a method of performing the lead equivalent examination is provided in the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS). We proposed a method of computation using an attenuation coefficient, and examined the measurement accuracy and optimal radiation quality using both. We were able to compute the lead equivalent with sufficient accuracy when using radiation quality of about 60 keV in the range of radiation quality examined. This technique was also examined in the measurement used for the marketing of radiation protective clothing. (author)

  13. Effect of Air Gap Entrapped in Firefighter Protective Clothing on Thermal Resistance and Evaporative Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Hualing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat and water vapor transfer behavior of thermal protective clothing is greatly influenced by the air gap entrapped in multilayer fabric system. In this study, a sweating hot plate method was used to investigate the effect of air gap position and size on thermal resistance and evaporative resistance of firefighter clothing under a range of ambient temperature and humidity. Results indicated that the presence of air gap in multilayer fabric system decreased heat and water vapor transfer abilities under normal wear. Moreover, the air gap position slightly influenced the thermal and evaporative performances of the firefighter clothing. In this study, the multilayer fabric system obtained the highest thermal resistance, when the air space was located at position B. Furthermore, the effect of ambient temperature on heat and water vapor transfer properties of the multilayer fabric system was also investigated in the presence of a specific air gap. It was indicated that ambient temperature did not influence the evaporative resistance of thermal protective clothing. A thermographic image was used to test the surface temperature of multilayer fabric system when an air gap was incorporated. These results suggested that a certain air gap entrapped in thermal protective clothing system could affect wear comfort.

  14. Permethrin-Treated Clothing as Protection against the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti: Extent and Duration of Protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah DeRaedt Banks

    Full Text Available Dengue transmission by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, occurs indoors and outdoors during the day. Personal protection of individuals, particularly when outside, is challenging. Here we assess the efficacy and durability of different types of insecticide-treated clothing on laboratory-reared Ae. aegypti.Standardised World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES cone tests and arm-in-cage assays were used to assess knockdown (KD and mortality of Ae. aegypti tested against factory-treated fabric, home-dipped fabric and microencapsulated fabric. Based on the testing of these three different treatment types, the most protective was selected for further analysis using arm-in cage assays with the effect of washing, ultra-violet light, and ironing investigated using high pressure liquid chromatography.Efficacy varied between the microencapsulated and factory dipped fabrics in cone testing. Factory-dipped clothing showed the greatest effect on KD (3 min 38.1%; 1 hour 96.5% and mortality (97.1% with no significant difference between this and the factory dipped school uniforms. Factory-dipped clothing was therefore selected for further testing. Factory dipped clothing provided 59% (95% CI = 49.2%- 66.9% reduction in landing and a 100% reduction in biting in arm-in-cage tests. Washing duration and technique had a significant effect, with insecticidal longevity shown to be greater with machine washing (LW50 = 33.4 compared to simulated hand washing (LW50 = 17.6. Ironing significantly reduced permethrin content after 1 week of simulated use, with a 96.7% decrease after 3 months although UV exposure did not reduce permethrin content within clothing significantly after 3 months simulated use.Permethrin-treated clothing may be a promising intervention in reducing dengue transmission. However, our findings also suggest that clothing may provide only short-term protection due to the effect of washing and ironing, highlighting the need for

  15. Permethrin-Treated Clothing as Protection against the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti: Extent and Duration of Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRaedt Banks, Sarah; Orsborne, James; Gezan, Salvador A; Kaur, Harparkash; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Lindsey, Steve W; Logan, James G

    2015-01-01

    Dengue transmission by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, occurs indoors and outdoors during the day. Personal protection of individuals, particularly when outside, is challenging. Here we assess the efficacy and durability of different types of insecticide-treated clothing on laboratory-reared Ae. aegypti. Standardised World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) cone tests and arm-in-cage assays were used to assess knockdown (KD) and mortality of Ae. aegypti tested against factory-treated fabric, home-dipped fabric and microencapsulated fabric. Based on the testing of these three different treatment types, the most protective was selected for further analysis using arm-in cage assays with the effect of washing, ultra-violet light, and ironing investigated using high pressure liquid chromatography. Efficacy varied between the microencapsulated and factory dipped fabrics in cone testing. Factory-dipped clothing showed the greatest effect on KD (3 min 38.1%; 1 hour 96.5%) and mortality (97.1%) with no significant difference between this and the factory dipped school uniforms. Factory-dipped clothing was therefore selected for further testing. Factory dipped clothing provided 59% (95% CI = 49.2%- 66.9%) reduction in landing and a 100% reduction in biting in arm-in-cage tests. Washing duration and technique had a significant effect, with insecticidal longevity shown to be greater with machine washing (LW50 = 33.4) compared to simulated hand washing (LW50 = 17.6). Ironing significantly reduced permethrin content after 1 week of simulated use, with a 96.7% decrease after 3 months although UV exposure did not reduce permethrin content within clothing significantly after 3 months simulated use. Permethrin-treated clothing may be a promising intervention in reducing dengue transmission. However, our findings also suggest that clothing may provide only short-term protection due to the effect of washing and ironing, highlighting the need for improved

  16. Modeling the transmitted and stored energy in multilayer protective clothing under low-level radiant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yun; He, Jiazhen; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical model from heating source to skin tissues through multilayer fabric system is developed. • The numerical model is comprehensively validated with experimental data. • The model is used to investigate the relationship between the transmitted and stored energy and the influencing factors. - Abstract: A finite difference model was introduced to simulate the transmitted and stored energy in firefighters' protective clothing exposed to low-level thermal radiation. The model domain consists of a three-layer fire-resistant fabric system (outer shell, moisture barrier, and thermal liner), the human skin, and the air gap between clothing and the skin. The model accounted for the relationship between the transmitted heat during the exposure and the discharged heat during the cooling-down period. The numerical model predictions were compared with experimental data. Additionally, the parameters that affect the transmitted and stored energy of protective clothing were investigated. The results demonstrate that for the typical multilayer firefighter protective clothing, the transmitted heat during exposure and the discharged heat after exposure totally determine the skin burn under low-level heat exposure, especially for third-degree skin burns. The findings obtained in this study can be used to engineer fabric systems that provide better protection for the stored thermal burn.

  17. Water vapour transfer in the simulated protective clothing system with exposure to intensive solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukazawa, T.; Hartog, E.A. den; Daanen, H.A.M.; Tochihara, Y.; Havenith, G.

    2005-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to study the moisture transfer in the protective clothing exposed to a high short wave (solar) radiant heat flux at a normal condition of 20 °C with 40 % RH in terms of heat stress caused by accumulated sweat in underwear. To simulate a practical situation,

  18. Influence of a carbohydrate drink on performance of military personnel in NBC protective clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Dijk, M.J. van; Boer, L.C.; Beek, E.J. van der

    1996-01-01

    Background: The increased threat of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) weapons underlines the need of protective clothing and gas masks, but this may impair performance. Thus, attention should be focused on the nutritional requirements. Hypothesis: Optimal performance is guaranteed if the supply

  19. Review Article: Heat stress and the role of protective clothing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The body heat exchange, environmental stress and protective clothing becomes stressful in military service too. The use of microporous material and ventilation of garment significantly improve heat exchange, hence reducing physiological strain and improving tolerance to the heat. Moisture absorption ...

  20. Influence of relative humidity and temperature on quantity of electric charge of static protective clothing used in petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the working principle of static protective clothing and its testing method of quantity of electric charge are introduced, and the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quantity of electric charge (q e ) of static protective clothing is studied by measuring q e of different clothing samples. The result shows that temperature and relative humidity can influence q e of static protective clothing to some extent and the influence of relative humidity is bigger than that of temperature. According to experimental results, the relationship of q e and relative humidity and temperature was analysed, and the safety boundary of quantity of electric charge is discussed. In order to reduce the occurrence of electrostatic accidents and ensure safe production and operation of petrochemical industry, some suggestions on choosing and using of static protective clothing are given for guaranteeing its static protective performance.

  1. Influence of relative humidity and temperature on quantity of electric charge of static protective clothing used in petrochemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the working principle of static protective clothing and its testing method of quantity of electric charge are introduced, and the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quantity of electric charge (qe) of static protective clothing is studied by measuring qe of different clothing samples. The result shows that temperature and relative humidity can influence qe of static protective clothing to some extent and the influence of relative humidity is bigger than that of temperature. According to experimental results, the relationship of qe and relative humidity and temperature was analysed, and the safety boundary of quantity of electric charge is discussed. In order to reduce the occurrence of electrostatic accidents and ensure safe production and operation of petrochemical industry, some suggestions on choosing and using of static protective clothing are given for guaranteeing its static protective performance.

  2. A comprehensive approach to evaluating and classifying sun-protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, N J; Harrison, S L

    2018-04-01

    National standards for clothing designed to protect the wearer from the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been implemented in Australia/New Zealand, Europe and the U.S.A. Industry standards reflect the need to protect the skin by covering a considerable proportion of the potentially exposed body surface area (BSA) and by reducing UVR-transmission through fabric (the Ultraviolet Protection Factor; UPF). This research aimed to develop a new index for rating sun-protective clothing that incorporates the BSA coverage of the garment in addition to the UPF of the fabric. A mannequin model was fixed to an optical bench and marked with horizontal lines at 1-cm intervals. An algorithm (the Garment Protector Factor; GPF) was developed based on the number of lines visible on the clothed vs. unclothed mannequin and the UPF of the garment textile. This data was collected in 2015/16 and analysed in 2016. The GPF weights fabric UPF by BSA coverage above the minimum required by international sun-protective clothing standards for upper-body, lower-body and full-body garments. The GPF increases with BSA coverage of the garment and fabric UPF. Three nominal categories are proposed for the GPF: 0 ≤ GPF garments that 'meet' minimum standards; 3 ≤ GPF garments providing 'good' sun protection; and GPF ≥ 6 indicating 'excellent' protection. Adoption of the proposed rating scheme should encourage manufacturers to design sun-protective garments that exceed the minimum standard for BSA coverage, with positive implications for skin cancer prevention, consumer education and sun-protection awareness. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Radioactive contamination of protective clothes made of textile and their decontamination in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the radioactive contamination, its prevention, control and decontamination, related to protective clothing made of textile and usually weared in normal working conditions, within the installations where radioactive materials are handled or processed, especially as unsealed sources. The features of textile materials and contaminants, contamination mechanisms, risks related to contaminated clothes, planning of working areas, monitoring and surface contamination limits are described. Concerning to decontamination, the reagents, their action mechanisms and methods of efficiency evaluation are emphasized. The selected reagents were experimentally tested and their efficiencies in decontaminating cotton cloth samples, contaminated with uranyl nitrate solution, were evaluated by means of counting rate determined with a Geiger-Muller provided counting system. In this way, complexing agents, surfactants and commercial cleanning products were tested. The results were analysed and interpreted considering statistical, radiochemical and Radiation Protection aspects. Both, the radiactive contamination and decontamination of protective clothes are extensive matters and they still could be developed and improved; thus, many suggestions were presented as further studies. (author) [pt

  4. 30 CFR 75.1720 - Protective clothing; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 75.1720 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720 Protective... shall be used. (e) Suitable protective footwear. [36 FR 19497, Oct. 7, 1971, as amended at 39 FR 7175...

  5. Impact of Different Personal Protective Clothing on Wildland Firefighters' Physiological Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo-Leyenda, Belén; Villa, José G.; López-Satué, Jorge; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire firefighting is an extremely demanding occupation performed under hot environment. The use of personal protective clothing (PPC) is needed to protect subjects from the thermal exposure. However, the additional use of PPC may increase the wildland firefighters' physiological strain, and consequently limit their performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four different PPC on the physiological strain of wildland firefighters under moderate conditions (30?C and 30% ...

  6. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF).......Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  7. Numerical modelling of transient heat and moisture transport in protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łapka, P; Furmański, P; Wisniewski, T S

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a complex model of heat and mass transfer in a multi-layer protective clothing exposed to a flash fire and interacting with the human skin. The clothing was made of porous fabric layers separated by air gaps. The fabrics contained bound water in the fibres and moist air in the pores. The moist air was also present in the gaps between fabric layers or internal fabric layer and the skin. Three skin sublayers were considered. The model accounted for coupled heat transfer by conduction, thermal radiation and associated with diffusion of water vapour in the clothing layers and air gaps. Heat exchange due to phase transition of the bound water were also included in the model. Complex thermal and mass transfer conditions at internal or external boundaries between fabric layers and air gaps as well as air gap and skin were assumed. Special attention was paid to modelling of thermal radiation which was coming from the fire, penetrated through protective clothing and absorbed by the skin. For the first time non-grey properties as well as optical phenomena at internal or external boundaries between fabric layers and air gaps as well as air gap and skin were accounted for. A series of numerical simulations were carried out and the risk of heat injures was estimated. (paper)

  8. Selection of sorption material for tests of pesticide permeation through protective clothing fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Nazimek, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies on selecting a solid sorption material for absorbing liquid crop protection agents which permeate samples of protective clothing fabrics. The sorption materials were investigated and selected with an assumption that they should have a high recovery coefficient for biologically active substances, used as active ingredients in crop protection agents, at a presumed, acceptably high level. The selected substances were determined with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (dichlorvos, cypermethrin and 2,4-D) and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (carbofuran). The tests demonstrated that polypropylene melt-blown type unwoven cloth had high recovery coefficients for all 4 active ingredients proposed for the study. The highest recovery coefficient, -.97, was obtained for carbofuran. The recovery coefficients obtained for the 3 remaining substances were lower: .89 for cypermethrin and 2,4-D, and .84 for dichlorvos.

  9. Beta reduction factors for protective clothing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, G.L.; Gonzalez, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Beta reduction factors (f β ) for protective clothing (PC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been determined for a variety of protective clothing combinations. Data was collected to determine the experimental f β for several combinations of PCs under laboratory conditions. Radiation dose rates were measured with an open window Bicron reg-sign RSO-5 ion chamber for two distinct beta energy groups (E max = 1.218 x 10 -13 J(0.860 MeV) and 3.653 x 10 -13 J (2.280 MeV)). Data points determined, as the ratio of unattenuated (no PCs) to attenuated (PCs), were used to derive a set of equations using the Microsoft reg-sign Excel Linet function. Field comparison tests were then conducted to determine the validity of these beta reduction factors. The f β from the field tests were significantly less than the experimental f β , indicating that these factors will yield conservative results

  10. Resistance of gloves and protective clothing materials to permeation of cytostatic solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Krzemińska; Małgorzata Pośniak; Małgorzata Szewczyńska

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the work was to determine the resistance of selected protective clothing and glove materials to permeation of cytostatics such as docetaxel, fluorouracil, and doxorubicin. Material and Methods The following glove materials were used: natural rubber latex (code A), acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (code B) and chloroprene rubber (code C). In addition, we tested a layered material composed of a non-woven polyester (PES), a polypropylene (PP) film, ...

  11. Smart Clothing for Falls Protection and Detection: User-Centred Co-Design and Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Katherine; Burton, Thomas; Ariss, Steven; Bradburn, Mike; Hawley, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence and impact of hip fractures on the health and wealth of nations is a global problem and source of health inequalities. This paper reports on the co-design and feasibility testing of a new range of protective, smart clothing. The feasibility of research in a population of older adults in supported living is explored, as are the conceptualisation and measurement of adherence.

  12. Ordinary Portland Cement matrix for solidification of cellulosic protective clothes hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatta, H.A.; Saleh, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The used cellulosic protective clothes constitutes considerable fraction of the hazardous and radioactive wastes accumulated during the practical daily life. The direct solidification of these wastes with ordinary Portland cement resulted in waste forms having undesired characters, therefore, it is recommended to immobilize the secondary waste solutions coming from the oxidative degradation of the used protective clothes waste simulates rather than direct imbedding. IR analyses, X-ray diffraction and thermal characteristics for products of both direct encapsulation of the waste and the cementation of its degradation products were performed to evaluate the properties of the final waste cemented form before their disposal. Based on the results reached from X-ray diffraction, IR spectrograms and thermal analyses reports, it could be stated that no detectable changes in hydration and curing coarse of ordinary Portland cement when mixing the residual secondary waste solution resulting from the oxidative degradation of the used protective clothes waste simulate compared with mixing cement with water and in reverse with imbedding the unprocessed waste in cement matrix

  13. Effect of cold conditions on manual performance while wearing petroleum industry protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggen, Øystein Nordrum; Heen, Sigri; Færevik, Hilde; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate manual performance and thermal responses during low work intensity in persons wearing standard protective clothing in the petroleum industry when they were exposed to a range of temperatures (5, -5, -15 and -25℃) that are relevant to environmental conditions for petroleum industry personnel in northern regions. Twelve men participated in the study. Protective clothing was adjusted for the given cold exposure according to current practices. The subjects performed manual tests five times under each environmental condition. The manual performance test battery consisted of four different tests: tactile sensation (Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments), finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard), hand dexterity (Complete Minnesota dexterity test) and grip strength (grip dynamometer). We found that exposure to -5℃ or colder lowered skin and body temperatures and reduced manual performance during low work intensity. In conclusion the current protective clothing at a given cold exposure is not adequate to maintain manual performance and thermal balance for petroleum workers in the high north.

  14. Thermal comfort sustained by cold protective clothing in Arctic open-pit mining-a thermal manikin and questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussila, Kirsi; Rissanen, Sirkka; Aminoff, Anna; Wahlström, Jens; Vaktskjold, Arild; Talykova, Ljudmila; Remes, Jouko; Mänttäri, Satu; Rintamäki, Hannu

    2017-12-07

    Workers in the Arctic open-pit mines are exposed to harsh weather conditions. Employers are required to provide protective clothing for workers. This can be the outer layer, but sometimes also inner or middle layers are provided. This study aimed to determine how Arctic open-pit miners protect themselves against cold and the sufficiency, and the selection criteria of the garments. Workers' cold experiences and the clothing in four Arctic open-pit mines in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia were evaluated by a questionnaire (n=1,323). Basic thermal insulation (I cl ) of the reported clothing was estimated (ISO 9920). The I cl of clothing from the mines were also measured by thermal manikin (standing/walking) in 0.3 and 4.0 m/s wind. The questionnaire showed that the I cl of the selected clothing was on average 1.2 and 1.5 clo in mild (-5 to +5°C) and dry cold (-20 to -10°C) conditions, respectively. The I cl of the clothing measured by thermal manikin was 1.9-2.3 clo. The results show that the Arctic open-pit miners' selected their clothing based on occupational (time outdoors), environmental (temperature, wind, moisture) and individual factors (cold sensitivity, general health). However, the selected clothing was not sufficient to prevent cooling completely at ambient temperatures below -10°C.

  15. ESD - FUNCTIONAL CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCARLAT Razvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional clothing represents a sustainable development direction of in the field of technical textiles, a bridge between various activity domains, a solution to user’s complex requirements. The research and development potential in the field is supported by the new fibers/ yarns generation, the new technologies and the market niches, as well. Protective clothing is now a major part of textile classified under technical textile. Protective clothing refers to the garment and other fabric related items designed to protect the wearer from harsh environmental effects that results in injuries or death. The innovation, as a result of convergence processing technologies, consumer demands and what is viable on the market, defines the personal protective equipment field. In this article, we present the work of an ESD protective clothing development. Therefore, it has been applied a modern knitting technology, on 7E and 12E STOLL machines, using cotton and wool yarns as base yarn and conductive yarns for plaiting structures. Also, the optimal parameters establishment and the functional requirements are aspects of the research activity performed. The experimental models have been conducted in order to demonstrate the design concept used and choosing the optimal variant. The characterization of the developed experimental variants took into account the evaluation of physico-mechanical and electrical characteristics. From the electrical point of view, the variants have been mainly evaluated through “point to point” method in terms of electrical isolation efficiency dimensional changes analysis.

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Defence-related Intelligent Textiles and Clothing for Ballistic and NBC Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaraman, Sundaresan; Intelligent textiles and clothing for ballistic and NBC protection

    2012-01-01

    This volume describes the latest developments in protective clothing against nearly any kind of threat for both military and civilians. It deals with protection through the use of nanotechnology, interactive clothing and biotechnological processes. Factors such as comfort and ballistics are also considered in the book, and several practical examples are discussed. All papers are written by leading experts in their respective fields. Professionals and students alike will benefit from the knowledge and expertise imparted in these outstanding contributions.

  17. The importance of secondary radiation at radiation protection clothing; Die Bedeutung der Sekundaerstrahlung bei Strahlenschutzkleidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, Heinrich

    2017-07-01

    For a long time, the protective material lead was seen as ''gold standard'' for the shielding of photon radiation (X-ray and γ-rays). At long sight, however, lead should be eliminated from medical products. When irradiated, substitutes of lead can produce much more secondary radiation. Moreover, the radiobiological impact of the low energetic secondary radiation has to be rated higher than that of primary radiation. With the introduction of the new measuring standard IEC 6133-1 secondary radiation now is considered when evaluating attenuation properties of protective clothing.

  18. [Clothing and heat disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsumoto, Yayoi

    2012-06-01

    The influence of the clothing material properties(like water absorbency and rapid dryness, water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability and air permeability) and the design factor of the clothing(like opening condition and fitting of clothing), which contributed to prevent heat disorder, was outlined. WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) is used to show a guideline for environmental limitation of activities to prevent heat disorder. As the safety function is more important than thermal comfort for some sportswear and protective clothing with high cover area, clothing itself increases the risk of heat disorder. WBGT is corrected by CAF (clothing adjustment factor) in wearing such kind of protective clothing.

  19. Current global standards for chemical protective clothing: how to choose the right protection for the right job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN WELY, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The first standards for chemical protective clothing (CPC) emerged mid to late 1980’s and have evolved since as most standards are revisited every 5 yr. Over the past years, we have also seen a strengthening of the chemical and worker protection legislation around the globe (various forms of REACH) but also protection of workers. The most prevalent standards originate under the auspices of the International Standards Organisation (ISO), European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) or under various US standards organisations (e.g. NFPA, ASTM). Protective clothing against hazardous materials is required in many of the professional and non-professional activities of everyday life. Effective and adequate protection is important in many scenarios from household (e.g. cleaning agents, peroxides, acids and bases, paints), to agricultural (e.g. fuel, pesticides), to medical (e.g. pharmaceuticals and active ingredients), to industrial production (e.g. petro-chemicals, chemicals, paints, adhesive and coatings) but also manufacturing of many products (e.g. light bulbs, cars, semi-conductors), during various emergency activities (e.g. boat, rail or road accidents as well as fire-fighting in an urban and industrial setting), and finally, military operations or response to incidents of terrorism. Nevertheless, CPC must remain the last line of defence whenever possible through a preference for less hazardous chemicals, less dangerous processes and handling operations, and by engineering controls to reduce and minimise human contact with the chemicals. This article provides information about the selection, use, care and maintenance (SUCAM) of protective clothing against chemical and microbiological hazards. PMID:29046493

  20. Protection against ultraviolet radiation by commercial summer clothing: need for standardised testing and labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmeyer Peter

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of clothing as a means of sun protection has been recommended in recent education campaigns. Contrary to popular opinion, however, some fabrics provide insufficient ultraviolet (UV protection. Material and methods We investigated 236 apparel textiles of the spring/summer collections 2000 and 2001. In accordance with the forthcoming European standard the UV protection factor (UPF of the fabrics was determined spectrophotometrically. Results Seventy-eight (33% fabrics had UPF 15 and 30 (30+. More than 70% of the wool, polyester, and fabric blends, and only less than 30% of the cotton, linen, and viscose fabrics had UPF values of 30+. Fabrics with black, navy-blue, white, green, or beige colours provided most frequently UPF values of 30+. Conclusions It is difficult for the sun-aware consumer to choose the 'right' garment, with a third of summer clothing providing insufficient UV protection and only half of the fabrics having UPF 30+, the UPF recommended by the European standard. Therefore, apparel summer fabrics should be measured and labelled in accordance with a standard document.

  1. Significance analysis of the regional differences on icing time of water onto fire protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Jing, L. S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Bao, Z. M.; Fu, X. C.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. J.

    2017-09-01

    The object of this work was to determine the icing temperature in icing experiment. Firstly, a questionnaire investigation was carried out on 38 fire detachments in different regions. These Statistical percentage results were divided into northern east group and northern west group. Secondly, a significance analysis between these two results was made using Mann-Whitney U test. Then the icing temperature was determined in different regions. Thirdly, the icing experiment was made in the environment of -20°C in Daxing’an Mountain. The anti-icing effect of new fire protective clothing was verified in this icing.

  2. Determination of radionuclides. Fingerprint determination on protection clothing from the controlled areas in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholand, Soeren

    2014-01-01

    ENS (Euro Nuclear Services) in Coevorden, Netherlands, is decontaminating und providing protection clothing for the personnel in nuclear facilities. The capacity of the laundry is about 750 kg/h. The clean laundry section is cleaning non-contaminated or very low contaminated articles, i.e. socks or underwear. Fingerprint is defined as the activity of certain radionuclides that differs in the different nuclear facilities. For the reception inspection the dose rate measured with scintillation detectors is compared with the customer specific fingerprint. The total activity is usually 2000 Bq/g. The dose rate limit is 0.3 mSv/h.

  3. Impact of Different Personal Protective Clothing on Wildland Firefighters' Physiological Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Leyenda, Belén; Villa, José G; López-Satué, Jorge; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire firefighting is an extremely demanding occupation performed under hot environment. The use of personal protective clothing (PPC) is needed to protect subjects from the thermal exposure. However, the additional use of PPC may increase the wildland firefighters' physiological strain, and consequently limit their performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four different PPC on the physiological strain of wildland firefighters under moderate conditions (30°C and 30% RH). Eight active and healthy wildland firefighters performed a submaximal walking test wearing a traditional short sports gear and 4 different PPC. The materials combination (viscose, Nomex, Kevlar, P-140 and fire resistant cotton) used during the PPC manufacturing process was different. During all tests, to simulate a real scenario subjects wore a backpack pump (20 kg). Heart rate, respiratory gas exchange, gastrointestinal temperature, blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion and temperature and humidity underneath the PPC were recorded throughout tests. Additionally, parameters of heat balance were estimated. Wearing a PPC did not cause a significant increase in the subjects' physiological response. The gastrointestinal temperature increment, the relative humidity of the microclimate underneath the PPC, the sweat residue in PPC, the sweat efficiency, the dry heat exchange and the total clothing insulation were significantly affected according to the PPC fabric composition. These results suggest that the PPC composition affect the moisture management. This might be taken into account to increase the wildland firefighters' protection in real situations, when they have to work close to the flames.

  4. Impact of Different Personal Protective Clothing on Wildland Firefighters' Physiological Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Carballo-Leyenda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire firefighting is an extremely demanding occupation performed under hot environment. The use of personal protective clothing (PPC is needed to protect subjects from the thermal exposure. However, the additional use of PPC may increase the wildland firefighters' physiological strain, and consequently limit their performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four different PPC on the physiological strain of wildland firefighters under moderate conditions (30°C and 30% RH. Eight active and healthy wildland firefighters performed a submaximal walking test wearing a traditional short sports gear and 4 different PPC. The materials combination (viscose, Nomex, Kevlar, P-140 and fire resistant cotton used during the PPC manufacturing process was different. During all tests, to simulate a real scenario subjects wore a backpack pump (20 kg. Heart rate, respiratory gas exchange, gastrointestinal temperature, blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion and temperature and humidity underneath the PPC were recorded throughout tests. Additionally, parameters of heat balance were estimated. Wearing a PPC did not cause a significant increase in the subjects' physiological response. The gastrointestinal temperature increment, the relative humidity of the microclimate underneath the PPC, the sweat residue in PPC, the sweat efficiency, the dry heat exchange and the total clothing insulation were significantly affected according to the PPC fabric composition. These results suggest that the PPC composition affect the moisture management. This might be taken into account to increase the wildland firefighters' protection in real situations, when they have to work close to the flames.

  5. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  6. The Potential of RFID Technology in the Textile and Clothing Industry: Opportunities, Requirements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnani, Elena; Cavalieri, Sergio; Pinto, Roberto; Dotti, Stefano

    In the current competitive environment, companies need to extensively exploit the use of advanced technologies in order to develop a sustainable advantage, enhance their operational efficiency and better serve customers. In this context, RFID technology has emerged as a valid support for the company progress and its value is becoming more and more apparent. In particular, the textile and clothing industry, characterised by short life-cycles , quick response production , fast distribution, erratic customer preferences and impulsive purchasing, is one of the sectors which can extensively benefit from the RFID technology. However, actual applications are still very limited, especially in the upstream side of the supply network. This chapter provides an insight into the main benefits and potentials of this technology and highlights the main issues which are currently inhibiting its large scale development in the textile and clothing industry. The experience of two industry-academia projects and the relative fallouts are reported.

  7. Verification and validation of an advanced model of heat and mass transfer in the protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapka, Piotr; Furmański, Piotr

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents verification and validation of an advanced numerical model of heat and moisture transfer in the multi-layer protective clothing and in components of the experimental stand subjected to either high surroundings temperature or high radiative heat flux emitted by hot objects. The developed model included conductive-radiative heat transfer in the hygroscopic porous fabrics and air gaps as well as conductive heat transfer in components of the stand. Additionally, water vapour diffusion in the pores and air spaces as well as phase transition of the bound water in the fabric fibres (sorption and desorption) were accounted for. All optical phenomena at internal or external walls were modelled and the thermal radiation was treated in the rigorous way, i.e., semi-transparent absorbing, emitting and scattering fabrics with the non-grey properties were assumed. The air was treated as transparent. Complex energy and mass balances as well as optical conditions at internal or external interfaces were formulated in order to find values of temperatures, vapour densities and radiation intensities at these interfaces. The obtained highly non-linear coupled system of discrete equations was solved by the Finite Volume based in-house iterative algorithm. The developed model passed discretisation convergence tests and was successfully verified against the results obtained applying commercial software for simplified cases. Then validation was carried out using experimental measurements collected during exposure of the protective clothing to high radiative heat flux emitted by the IR lamp. Satisfactory agreement of simulated and measured temporal variation of temperature at external and internal surfaces of the multi-layer clothing was attained.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness Offered by Different Types of Personal Protective Clothing Against Nanoaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domat, M.; Pla, J.; Cadavid-Rodríguez, M. C.; Fito, C.

    2017-06-01

    The rapid expansion of nanotechnology is outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. Thus, there is a lack of information about the effects that nanomaterials can induce in the human health. Nevertheless, workers in nanotechnology-related industries are potentially at risk of being exposed to nanomaterials. Therefore, there is a need of characterize the behaviour of personal protective equipment against penetration nanoparticles, in order to provide an adequate protection to the workers. In this study, the efficiency of several protective dermal equipment against water-based NaCl aerosol was evaluated. For this purpose, different protective clothing and gloves were selected to carry out the assays, simulating typical use conditions of protective equipment under occupational settings. Results obtained exposed that the level of protection offered by the distinct types of personal protective coveralls depended not only on the fabric, but also on their fitting to the body of the subject. On the other hand, the efficiency of the protective gloves was set in the range from 95% to 99%, depending on the thickness and the type of material.

  9. REORGANIZATION OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL FLOW AT CLOTHING COMPANY THROUGH THE PRODUCTION SCHEDULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHELBET Angela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main difficulties that light industry, namely clothing manufacturing sector faces today is inadequate organization of production processes. This is one of the most common and most serious obstacles in companies in the country, leading to low productivity. In order to reveal the causes of the problem and to develop solutions for change, it is proposed to conduct a study of a company facing difficulties in organizing the production process. It is important that the method/tool applied for the study is able to solve the problems occurring in the production process with minimum effort and maximum efficiency. The study was conducted within the process of manufacturing of a model of special clothing, namely clothing for doctors. The study was conducted within February-March 2016 at a clothing company of the Republic of Moldova. The study conducted shows that the transport issue in the technological flow can be solved by applying the production schedule, which eventually increases labor productivity by eliminating the time necessary to transport the labor object from one place of work to another, leading to economic growth considerable for the company. Following the assessments referring to the proposed improvements to organize the technological flow, there should be a 20% reduction in manufacturing time of a product, which will directly increase the revenue of the company by at least 10%.

  10. Resistance of gloves and protective clothing materials to permeation of cytostatic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Pośniak, Małgorzata; Szewczyńska, Małgorzata

    2018-01-15

    The objective of the work was to determine the resistance of selected protective clothing and glove materials to permeation of cytostatics such as docetaxel, fluorouracil, and doxorubicin. The following glove materials were used: natural rubber latex (code A), acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (code B) and chloroprene rubber (code C). In addition, we tested a layered material composed of a non-woven polyester (PES), a polypropylene (PP) film, and a non-woven PP used for protective coats (code D). The cytostatics were analyzed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The tested samples were placed in a purpose-built permeation cell modified to be different from that specified in the standard EN 6529:2001. The tested materials were characterized by good resistance to solutions containing 2 out of the 3 selected cytostatics: doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil, as indicated by a breakthrough time of over 480 min. Equally high resistance to permeation of the third cytostatic (docetaxel) was exhibited by natural rubber latex, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, and chloroprene rubber. However, docetaxel permeated much more readily through the clothing layered material, compromising its barrier properties. It was found that the presence of additional components in cytostatic preparations accelerated permeation through material samples, thus deteriorating their barrier properties. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(3):341-350. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Exploration of nano-finished non-wovens for potential use in protective clothing for agricultural workers in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zwane, PE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The global trade requirements have made protective clothing paramount in the agricultural sector. The aim of the study was to find the views of farmers on the use of protective garment for the agricultural sector in South Africa, and to measure...

  12. Application of waterproof breathable fabric in thermal protective clothing exposed to hot water and steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Li, R.; Song, G.; Li, J.

    2017-10-01

    A hot water and steam tester was used to examine thermal protective performance of waterproof and breathable fabric against hot water and steam hazards. Time to cause skin burn and thermal energy absorbed by skin during exposure and cooling phases was employed to characterize the effect of configuration, placing order and properties of waterproof and breathable fabric on the thermal protective performance. The difference of thermal protective performance due to hot water and steam hazards was discussed. The result showed that the configuration of waterproof and breathable fabric presented a significant effect on the thermal protective performance of single- and double-layer fabric system, while the difference between different configurations in steam hazard was greater than that in hot water hazard. The waterproof and breathable fabric as outer layer provided better protection than that as inner layer. Increasing thickness and moisture regain improved the thermal protective performance of fabric system. Additionally, the thermal energy absorbed by skin during the cooling phase was affected by configuration, thickness and moisture regain of fabric. The findings will provide technical data to improve performance of thermal protective clothing in hot water and steam hazards.

  13. Use of insecticide-treated clothes for personal protection against malaria: a community trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuria Isabel W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study sought to determine the effect of using insecticide-treated clothes (ITCs on personal protection against malaria infection. The specific objectives were to determine the effect of using ITCs on the rate of infection with malaria parasites and the effect on indoor mosquito density. Methods This study was done in Dadaab refugee camps, North Eastern Province Kenya between April and August 2002, and involved a total of 198 participants, all refugees of Somali origin. The participants were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Half of the participants (treatment group had their personal clothes worn on a daily basis (Diras, Saris, Jalbaabs, Ma'awis and shirts and their bedding (sheets and blankets treated with insecticide (permethrin. The other half (comparison group had their clothes treated with placebo (plain water. Indoor mosquito density was determined from twelve households belonging to the participants; six in the treatment block and six in the comparison block. During pre-test and post-test, laboratory analysis of blood samples was done, indoor mosquito density determined and questionnaires administered. Using STATA statistical package, tests for significant difference between the two groups were conducted. Results Use of ITCs reduced both malaria infection rates and indoor mosquito density significantly. The odds of malaria infection in the intervention group were reduced by about 70 percent. The idea of using ITCs for malaria infection control was easily accepted among the refugees and they considered it beneficial. No side effects related to use of the ITCs were observed from the participants. Conclusion The use of ITCs reduces malaria infection rate and has potential as an appropriate method of malaria control. It is recommended, therefore, that this strategy be considered for use among poor communities like slum dwellers and other underprivileged communities, such as street children and refugees

  14. Flexible technologies and smart clothing for citizen medicine, home healthcare, and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, Fabrice; Schmitt, Pierre Michael; Gehin, Claudine; Delhomme, Georges; McAdams, Eric; Dittmar, André

    2005-09-01

    Improvement of the quality and efficiency of healthcare in medicine, both at home and in hospital, is becoming more and more important for patients and society at large. As many technologies (micro technologies, telecommunication, low-power design, new textiles, and flexible sensors) are now available, new user-friendly devices can be developed to enhance the comfort and security of the patient. As clothes and textiles are in direct contact with about 90% of the skin surface, smart sensors and smart clothes with noninvasive sensors are an attractive solution for home-based and ambulatory health monitoring. Moreover, wearable devices or smart homes with exosensors are also potential solutions. All these systems can provide a safe and comfortable environment for home healthcare, illness prevention, and citizen medicine.

  15. Directions of Increasing Competition in Clothes and Textiles Industry on the Basis of Information Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daina Jansevičiūtė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the clothes and textile sector in Lithuanian economy is discussed and declining trends of the sector values for the economy warns about the problems of competitiveness in the current economic conditions. The main factors behind the decline in the competitiveness of the sector are provided; and directions of the development, which are associated with the intensified use of information technologies to create new competitive advantages of the sector, are analysed.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Cold or hot wash: Technological choices, cultural change, and their impact on clothes-washing energy use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-01-01

    Usage pattern of clothes washing (and clothes washers) are strongly related to local cultural practices. Such practices have led to the development of distinctive clothes-washing technologies in the US, Europe, and Japan. In emerging markets such as China, several types of technologies often co-exist. Some use less energy but more water (the impeller type), and some use more energy but less water (the horizontal axis type). The competition between different technologies is thought to lead to better consumer choices. However, it could also lead to changes in clothes-washing habits-from cold to hot wash, and therefore to much higher energy use. This paper examines the standard development process in China to illustrate that adoption of foreign technologies and technical standards, if not carefully calibrated to the local cultural practices, could have unintended consequences for energy use and environment

  17. Evaluation technology of clothing comfortableness; Ifuku tekigosei hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwaya, H.

    1999-10-26

    Modern apparel industries are required to supply many kinds of products corresponding to various needs of consumers. Among consumers' needs, comfortableness to wear such as size-fitness is primarily important. To facilitate apparel industries, it is expected to develop a new technology of pattern designing of comfortable garment and measuring garment pressure distribution. Our research is aimed at developing technology that uses computer simulation to predict and evaluate wear comfort, including size suitability, without the need to actually sew up a garment. First, we developed a basic system to predict wearing silhouette, garment pressure, and ease looseness of the garment. Using this system, we carried on the following study. The 3-dimensional distributions of the garment pressure and ease looseness were reversely mapped on the paper pattern in order to indicate the preferable modification. The system was extended for several poses, e.g. twist, bend. From various parameters, we examined the factors of garment pressure and ease looseness. In addition, we selected the parameters for the size-fit indicators and investigated size-fit evaluation indicators. (author)

  18. EMP protection technology interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Investigation and assessment of the potential degrading and destructive effects associated with the nuclear electromagnetic (EMP) phenomena has created a large technological base. This base is indeed quite broad owing to the unique and system-pervasive character of the EMP. One of the aims of an emerging discipline, such as that associated with EMP, is to provide for adequate transfer and integration of the developing technology into the overall engineering community. The needs of the community and how EMP hardening and protection information can be transferred or exchanged are reviewed. Many of the current and generally available sources of information are listed, examples of interchange methods are provided, and problems of developing specifications, standards, and suitable guidelines for design and incorporation of protection are also discussed

  19. The rectal temperature estimation method based on tympanic temperature for workers wearing protective clothing in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoki; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    At nuclear facilities, workers wear impermeable protective clothing to prevent radioactive contamination during inspection and maintenance activities. The heat stroke risk of the workers wearing protective clothing gradually increases, because of retaining heat and humidity inside of protective clothing. Normally, the rectal temperature is used to manage the heat stroke risk. But the rectal temperature measurement is very difficult at the working place. We have already reported that the measurement of infrared tympanic temperature is more realistic than that of rectal temperature to manage the heat stroke risk. But tympanic temperature indicates high temperature compared to rectal temperature. So, the use of the tympanic temperature overestimates core temperature and decreases the work efficiency. Therefore, we attempted to make formulas to predict rectal temperature from measured tympanic temperature, and to use calculated rectal temperature for safer and more efficient management. The rectal temperature predicted with the formulas agreed with the actual measurement within the range of measurement error (±0.1degC). Combination of tympanic temperature measurement and heat rate evaluation enabled the safer management of the heat stroke risk with wearing protective clothing. (author)

  20. Radiation protection clothes in X-ray-diagnostics. Comparison of test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, T.; Schoepf, T.; Ennemoser, O.

    2009-01-01

    For testing the attenuation of the protection clothes the standard EN 61331-1 for attenuation measurements in the ''narrow and broad beam'' is available as well as the DIN 6857-1 for determination of shielding properties in the so called ''inverse broad-beam geometry''. The attenuation measurements in the narrow beam don't consider scattered radiation and fluorescence due to the arrangement. This leads to the fact that the protective effect of lead-free-Materials will be miss-estimated when compared to lead. In this work the measurements of shielding properties in inverse broad-beam geometry according to the DIN 6857-1 were compared with attenuation measurements according to the EN 61331-1. Also the dependence of the chamber was studied. Attenuation measurements were performed with lead- and lead-free-materials. Additional certificated lead-foils with high purity and precise thickness of 0.1 to 2 mm were used. For measuring a cylinder chamber of 30 cm 3 and two flat chambers of 75 cm 3 (SFD) and 112 cm 3 (FC) were used. The measurements in inverse broad-beam geometry according to the DIN 6857-1 show adequate results, also in testing lead-free protection materials. The results in attenuation correspond to a large extent to those, which are determined by measurements in the broad beam. When performing measurements in inverse geometry however the characteristic of the used chamber is not negligible. (orig.)

  1. Ebola Response: Modeling the Risk of Heat Stress from Personal Protective Clothing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Potter

    Full Text Available A significant number of healthcare workers have responded to aid in the relief and containment of the 2013 Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak in West Africa. Healthcare workers are required to wear personal protective clothing (PPC to impede the transmission of the virus; however, the impermeable design and the hot humid environment lead to risk of heat stress.Provide healthcare workers quantitative modeling and analysis to aid in the prevention of heat stress while wearing PPC in West Africa.A sweating thermal manikin was used to measure the thermal (Rct and evaporative resistance (Ret of the five currently used levels of PPC for healthcare workers in the West Africa EVD response. Mathematical methods of predicting the rise in core body temperature (Tc in response to clothing, activity, and environment was used to simulate different responses to PPC levels, individual body sizes, and two hot humid conditions: morning/evening (air temperature: 25°C, relative humidity: 40%, mean radiant temperature: 35°C, wind velocity: 1 m/s and mid-day (30°C, 60%, 70°C, 1 m/s.Nearly still air (0.4 m/s measures of Rct ranged from 0.18 to 0.26 m2 K/W and Ret ranged from 25.53 to 340.26 m2 Pa/W.Biophysical assessments and modeling in this study provide quantitative guidance for prevention of heat stress of healthcare workers wearing PPC responding to the EVD outbreak in West Africa.

  2. Ebola Response: Modeling the Risk of Heat Stress from Personal Protective Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Adam W; Gonzalez, Julio A; Xu, Xiaojiang

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of healthcare workers have responded to aid in the relief and containment of the 2013 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. Healthcare workers are required to wear personal protective clothing (PPC) to impede the transmission of the virus; however, the impermeable design and the hot humid environment lead to risk of heat stress. Provide healthcare workers quantitative modeling and analysis to aid in the prevention of heat stress while wearing PPC in West Africa. A sweating thermal manikin was used to measure the thermal (Rct) and evaporative resistance (Ret) of the five currently used levels of PPC for healthcare workers in the West Africa EVD response. Mathematical methods of predicting the rise in core body temperature (Tc) in response to clothing, activity, and environment was used to simulate different responses to PPC levels, individual body sizes, and two hot humid conditions: morning/evening (air temperature: 25°C, relative humidity: 40%, mean radiant temperature: 35°C, wind velocity: 1 m/s) and mid-day (30°C, 60%, 70°C, 1 m/s). Nearly still air (0.4 m/s) measures of Rct ranged from 0.18 to 0.26 m2 K/W and Ret ranged from 25.53 to 340.26 m2 Pa/W. Biophysical assessments and modeling in this study provide quantitative guidance for prevention of heat stress of healthcare workers wearing PPC responding to the EVD outbreak in West Africa.

  3. Resistance of Type 5 chemical protective clothing against nanometric airborne particles: Behavior of seams and zipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinches, Ludwig; Hallé, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    In the field of dermal protection, the use of chemical protective clothing (CPC) (including coveralls) are considered as the last barrier against airborne engineered nanomaterials (ENM). In the majority of cases, Type 5 CPC, used against solid particles (ISO 13982-1), perform well against ENM. But in a recent study, a penetration level (PL) of up to 8.5% of polydisperse sodium chloride airborne nanoparticles has been measured. Moreover, in all the previous studies, tests were performed on a sample of protective clothing material without seams or zippers. Thus, the potential for permeation through a zipper or seams has not yet been determined, even though these areas would be privileged entry points for airborne ENM. This work was designed to evaluate the PL of airborne ENM through coveralls and specifically the PL through the seams on different parts of the CPC and the zipper. Eight current models of CPC (Type 5) were selected. The samples were taken from places with and without seams and with a zipper. In some cases, a cover strip can be added to the zipper to enhance its sealing. Polydisperse nanoparticles were generated by nebulization of a sodium chloride solution. A penetration cell was developed to expose the sample to airborne nanometric particles. The NaCl particle concentration in number was measured with an ultrafine particle counter and the PL was defined as the downstream concentration divided by the upstream concentration. The results obtained show that the PL increased significantly in the presence of seams and could reach up to 90% depending on the seam's design. Moreover, this study classifies the different types of seams by their resistance against airborne ENM. As for the penetration of airborne NaCl particles through the zipper, the PL was greatly attenuated by the presence of a cover strip, but only for certain models of coveralls. Finally, the values of the pressure drop were directly linked to the type of seam. All of these conclusions provide

  4. Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, V L; Wilkinson, D M; Blacker, S D; Horner, F E; Carter, J; Rayson, M P; Havenith, G

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of insulated skin temperature (T is ) to predict rectal temperature (T re ) for use as a non-invasive measurement of thermal strain to reduce the risk of heat illness for emergency service personnel. Volunteers from the Police, Fire and Rescue, and Ambulance Services performed role-related tasks in hot (30 °C) and neutral (18 °C) conditions, wearing service specific personal protective equipment. Insulated skin temperature and micro climate temperature (T mc ) predicted T re with an adjusted r 2 = 0.87 and standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 0.19 °C. A bootstrap validation of the equation resulted in an adjusted r 2 = 0.85 and SEE = 0.20 °C. Taking into account the 0.20 °C error, the prediction of T re resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 91%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature and T mc can be used in a model to predict T re in emergency service personnel wearing CBRN protective clothing with an SEE of 0.2 °C. However, the model is only valid for T is over 36.5 °C, above which thermal stability is reached between the core and the skin. (paper)

  5. Effective personal protective clothing for health care workers attending patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas K S; Chung, Joanne W Y; Li, Y; Chan, Wai F; Ching, Patricia T Y; Lam, Conita H S; Chow, Chun B; Seto, Wing H

    2004-04-01

    Optimal usability is crucial in providing protection for health care workers who are exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome day and night while taking care of patients with the virus. No research study has yet tested the usability of personal protective clothing (PPC). The study was carried out in 3 stages. PPC available in Hong Kong were sorted by their physical properties in the first stage. The second stage was a single-blinded study examining the different usability aspects of the PPC. The third stage was a simulated viral load test. Four types were identified: good water repellency and water resistance, poor air permeability (Type A PPC); good water repellency and air permeability, poor water resistance (Type B PPC); poor water repellency, poor water resistance, and fair air permeability (Type C PPC); and good water repellency, poor air permeability, and fair water resistance (Type D PPC). Type D PPC had a significantly higher number of contamination sites on the subjects' dorsum and palm. Type C PPC had the highest contamination over the trunk. Findings in the viral load test showed that there was a significant difference in the contamination of the face (t=4.69, df=38, Phand contamination is lowest among the 4 groups in the current study.

  6. Research of Acoustic Properties of Materials with the Purpose of Their Use at Design of Special Noise Protective Clothes for Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drofa, E. A.; Lipilina, E. Yu

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the substantiation of the choice of a rational package of materials, which has the greatest noise-protective properties when designing special clothes with reference to the oil and gas industry. Studies were conducted to assess the factors that have the most significant effect on the noise-protective properties of clothing. Conclusions are made about the possibility of using the developed technique for studying the noise-protective properties of materials in selecting rational packages of materials for the production of special clothes with high noise-protective properties.

  7. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module I-D-4: Applications and Implications of New Technology in Textiles and Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Marjory

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on applications and implications of new technology in textiles and clothing is the fourth in a set of four modules on consumer education related to textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching…

  8. Clothing industry: development problems, regional dislocation and modern management technologies for small enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hristoforova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses issues related to the problems of development of light industry in the territory of the former Soviet Union, systematize industry regions and analyzes modern management technologies used by small businesses garment industry. The aim of the article is the analysis of the organizational and economic aspects of light industry on the example of clothing companies. The objectives of the article: to sistematize the major regions of the dislocation of light industry: textile, footwear, clothing; to characterize the current state of the apparel industry enterprises; to show the value of small clothing companies; to study the need for the introduction of flexible manufacturing systems (FMS on small sewing factories; to analyze the range of the scientific development of national universities in the study of flexible manufacturing systems and give them a brief description.Methodology. The methodological basis of the paper is the following scientific methods: deduction, comparative and group analysis, desk research. The Results. The result of the study is to identify the main issues and trends in the development of light industry, ordering the placement of the industry in the territory of the former Soviet Union, the definition of the most popular management techniques used in small businesses garment industry.Conclusions / significance. The above article analyzes the development of light industry has allowed to identify the main trends and formulate problems for the enterprises. New conditions require the development of small enterprises and the introduction of modern technologies in production processes and management.

  9. Determination of solvents permeating through chemical protective clothing with a microsensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Zellers, E T

    2000-08-01

    The performance of a novel prototype instrument in determining solvents and solvent mixtures permeating through samples of chemical protective clothing (CPC) materials was evaluated. The instrument contains a mini-preconcentrator and an array of three polymer-coated surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) microsensors whose collective response patterns are used to discriminate among multiple permeants. Permeation tests were performed with a 2.54 cm diameter test cell in an open-loop configuration on samples of common glove materials challenged with four individual solvents, three binary mixtures, and two ternary mixtures. Breakthrough times, defined as the times required for the permeation rate to reach a value of 1 microg cm(-2) min(-1), determined by the instrument were within 3 min of those determined in parallel by manual sampling and gas chromatographic analysis. Permeating solvents were recognized (identified) from their response patterns in 59 out of 64 measurements (92%) and their vapor concentrations were quantified to an accuracy of +/- 31% (typically +/- 10%). These results demonstrate the potential for such instrumentation to provide semi-automated field or bench-top screening of CPC permeation resistance.

  10. Mars Technology Program Planetary Protection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the NASA Planetary Protection program are to preserve biological and organic conditions of solar-system bodies for future scientific exploration and to protect the Earth from potential hazardous extraterrestrial contamination. As the exploration of solar system continues, NASA remains committed to the implementation of planetary protection policy and regulations. To fulfill this commitment, the Mars Technology Program (MTP) has invested in a portfolio of tasks for developing necessary technologies to meet planetary protection requirements for the next decade missions.

  11. Human skin in vitro permeation of bentazon and isoproturon formulations with or without protective clothing suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Aurélie; Hopf, Nancy B; Miles, Alexandra; Spring, Philipp; Charrière, Nicole; Garrigou, Alain; Baldi, Isabelle; Vernez, David

    2014-01-01

    Skin exposures to chemicals may lead, through percutaneous permeation, to a significant increase in systemic circulation. Skin is the primary route of entry during some occupational activities, especially in agriculture. To reduce skin exposures, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is recommended. PPE efficiency is characterized as the time until products permeate through material (lag time, Tlag). Both skin and PPE permeations are assessed using similar in vitro methods; the diffusion cell system. Flow-through diffusion cells were used in this study to assess the permeation of two herbicides, bentazon and isoproturon, as well as four related commercial formulations (Basagran(®), Basamais(®), Arelon(®) and Matara(®)). Permeation was measured through fresh excised human skin, protective clothing suits (suits) (Microchem(®) 3000, AgriSafe Pro(®), Proshield(®) and Microgard(®) 2000 Plus Green), and a combination of skin and suits. Both herbicides, tested by itself or as an active ingredient in formulations, permeated readily through human skin and tested suits (Tlag < 2 h). High permeation coefficients were obtained regardless of formulations or tested membranes, except for Microchem(®) 3000. Short Tlag, were observed even when skin was covered with suits, except for Microchem(®) 3000. Kp values tended to decrease when suits covered the skin (except when Arelon(®) was applied to skin covered with AgriSafe Pro and Microgard(®) 2000), suggesting that Tlag alone is insufficient in characterizing suits. To better estimate human skin permeations, in vitro experiments should not only use human skin but also consider the intended use of the suit, i.e., the active ingredient concentrations and type of formulations, which significantly affect skin permeation.

  12. Maintenance of influenza virus infectivity on the surfaces of personal protective equipment and clothing used in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hiroko; Wada, Koji; Kajioka, Jitsuo; Watanabe, Mayumi; Nakano, Ryuichi; Hirose, Tatsuko; Ohta, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2010-11-01

    The maintenance of infectivity of influenza viruses on the surfaces of personal protective equipment and clothing is an important factor in terms of controlling viral cross-infection in the environment and preventing contact infection. The aim of this study was to determine if laboratory-grown influenza A (H1N1) virus maintained infectivity on the surfaces of personal protective equipment and clothing used in healthcare settings. Influenza A virus (0.5 mL) was deposited on the surface of a rubber glove, an N95 particulate respirator, a surgical mask made of non-woven fabric, a gown made of Dupont Tyvek, a coated wooden desk, and stainless steel. Each sample was left for 1, 8, and 24 h, and hemagglutination (HA) and 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50))/mL were measured. The HA titer of this influenza A virus did not decrease in any of the materials tested even after 24 h. The infectivity of influenza A virus measured by TCID(50) was maintained for 8 h on the surface of all materials, with the exception of the rubber glove for which virus infectivity was maintained for 24 h. Our results indicate that the replacement/renewal of personal protective equipment and clothing by healthcare professionals in cases of exposure to secretions and droplets containing viruses spread by patients is an appropriate procedure to prevent cross-infection.

  13. An Analysis on the Moisture and Thermal Protective Performance of Firefighter Clothing Based on Different Layer Combinations and Effect of Washing on Heat Protection and Vapour Transfer Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Atalay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabric assemblies for firefighting clothing have been tested for heat protection and comfort. The constituent materials and fabric structures have been specifically selected and tailored for firefighters’ clothing. In order to do this, four types of outer shell fabrics, four types of moisture barrier fabrics, and four types of heat barriers with different weights and material compositions were used to make a multilayered fabric assembly. Heat transfer (flame, heat transfer (radiant, and water vapour resistance tests were conducted according to the latest EN469 test standard which also recommends washing tests. These tests reveal that material content and material brand have considerable effect on the required performance levels of heat protection. In addition, while washing tests have improved water vapor transfer properties, they have a deteriorating effect on heat protection performance. Considering heat protection and moisture comfort properties, the optimal assemblies are thereby identified.

  14. Advanced Clothing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  15. An integrated approach to develop, validate and operate thermo-physiological human simulator for the development of protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psikuta, Agnes; Koelblen, Barbara; Mert, Emel; Fontana, Piero; Annaheim, Simon

    2017-12-07

    Following the growing interest in the further development of manikins to simulate human thermal behaviour more adequately, thermo-physiological human simulators have been developed by coupling a thermal sweating manikin with a thermo-physiology model. Despite their availability and obvious advantages, the number of studies involving these devices is only marginal, which plausibly results from the high complexity of the development and evaluation process and need of multi-disciplinary expertise. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach to develop, validate and operate such devices including technical challenges and limitations of thermo-physiological human simulators, their application and measurement protocol, strategy for setting test scenarios, and the comparison to standard methods and human studies including details which have not been published so far. A physical manikin controlled by a human thermoregulation model overcame the limitations of mathematical clothing models and provided a complementary method to investigate thermal interactions between the human body, protective clothing, and its environment. The opportunities of these devices include not only realistic assessment of protective clothing assemblies and equipment but also potential application in many research fields ranging from biometeorology, automotive industry, environmental engineering, and urban climate to clinical and safety applications.

  16. Improvement of thermophysiological stress in participants wearing protective clothing for spraying pesticide, and its application in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, C; Tokura, H

    2000-04-01

    Thermoregulatory responses were compared under two experimental conditions, in the laboratory (Experiment I), and in the field (Experiment II), between two kinds of protective clothing for spraying pesticides. One was currently being used (Type A), and was composed of ready made Gore-Tex clothing, mask, polyurethane gloves and rubber boots. The other one was newly designed (Type B), and was composed of pesticide-proof clothing (100% cotton with water repellent finish), mask, Gore-Tex gloves, and special boots consisting of rubber for the feet and ankle and Gore-Tex around the legs. In addition, the head and chest were cooled by frozen gel strips fixed in the cap and undershirt. In Experiment I, five female adults took part, in a climate-chamber controlled at an ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. In Experiment II, five farmers (one male and four female) were tested in an apple orchard in July, August and September. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) change of rectal temperature was inhibited more effectively in Type B in Experiment I, (2) change of heart rate tended to be lower in Type B than in Type A in both experiments, (3) salivary lactic acid concentration at the end of the first exercise was significantly higher in Type A than in Type B in Experiment I, (4) the number of contractions in the handgrip exercise which was performed immediately after the third exercise, was significantly smaller in Type A than in Type B in Experiment I, (5) subjective comfort sensation was significantly improved in Type B in Experiments I and II. Thus, it was concluded that the newly designed protective clothing could reduce thermal stress during the spraying of pesticides in an apple orchard in summer.

  17. Mars Technology Program: Planetary Protection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Planetary Protection Technology in the Mars Technology Program. The goal of the program is to develop technologies that will enable NASA to build, launch, and operate a mission that has subsystems with different Planetary Protection (PP) classifications, specifically for operating a Category IVb-equivalent subsystem from a Category IVa platform. The IVa category of planetary protection requires bioburden reduction (i.e., no sterilization is required) The IVb category in addition to IVa requirements: (i.e., terminal sterilization of spacecraft is required). The differences between the categories are further reviewed.

  18. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  19. A suggested approach to the selection of chemical and biological protective clothing--meeting industry and emergency response needs for protection against a variety of hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Jeffrey O

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a comprehensive decision logic for selection and use of biological and chemical protective clothing (BCPC). The decision logic recognizes the separate areas of BCPC use among emergency, biological, and chemical hazards. The proposed decision logic provides a system for type classifying BCPC in terms of its compliance with existing standards (for emergency applications), the overall clothing integrity, and the material barrier performance. Type classification is offered for garments, gloves, footwear, and eye/face protection devices. On the basis of multiple, but simply designed flowcharts, the type of BCPC appropriate for specific biological and chemical hazards can be selected. The decision logic also provides supplemental considerations for choosing appropriate BCPC features.

  20. Evaluation of a passive method for determining particle penetration through protective clothing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Peter A; Portnoff, Lee

    2017-12-01

    The risk of workers' exposure to aerosolized particles has increased with the upsurge in the production of engineered nanomaterials. Currently, a whole-body standard test method for measuring particle penetration through protective clothing ensembles is not available. Those available for respirators neglect the most common challenges to ensembles, because they use active vacuum-based filtration, designed to simulate breathing, rather than the positive forces of wind experienced by workers. Thus, a passive method that measures wind-driven particle penetration through ensemble fabric has been developed and evaluated. The apparatus includes a multidomain magnetic passive aerosol sampler housed in a shrouded penetration cell. Performance evaluation was conducted in a recirculation aerosol wind tunnel using paramagnetic Fe 3 O 4 (i.e., iron (II, III) oxide) particles for the challenge aerosol. The particles were collected on a PVC substrate and quantified using a computer-controlled scanning electron microscope. Particle penetration levels were determined by taking the ratio of the particle number collected on the substrate with a fabric (sample) to that without a fabric (control). Results for each fabric obtained by this passive method were compared to previous results from an automated vacuum-based active fractional efficiency tester (TSI 3160), which used sodium chloride particles as the challenge aerosol. Four nonwoven fabrics with a range of thicknesses, porosities, and air permeabilities were evaluated. Smoke tests and flow modeling showed the passive sampler shroud provided smooth (non-turbulent) air flow along the exterior of the sampler, such that disturbance of flow stream lines and distortion of the particle size distribution were reduced. Differences between the active and passive approaches were as high as 5.5-fold for the fabric with the lowest air permeability (0.00067 m/sec-Pa), suggesting the active method overestimated penetration in dense fabrics

  1. Designing physical protection technology for insider protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, A.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1986-01-01

    Since its inception, the nuclear industry has been engaged in providing protection against an insider threat. Although insider protection activities have been fairly successful in the past, present societal conditions require increased protection to further minimize the existence of an insider or the consequences of an insider-perpetrated incident. Integration of insider protection techniques into existing administrative and operational procedures has resulted in economic and operational impacts. Future increases in insider protection may result in even greater impacts, so we must proceed wisely as new approaches are developed. Increased emphasis on background investigations, security clearances, human reliability programs, security awareness activities, and the development of technology to address the insider threat are evidence of continuing concern in this area. Experience ranging from operational test and evaluation of developmental equipment to conceptual designs for new facilities has led to the development of general principles and conclusions for mitigating the insider threat while minimizing adverse impacts on site operations. Important principles include real-time monitoring of personnel and material and requiring that the physical protection and material control and accounting systems to be much more coordinated and integrated than in the past

  2. Dry cleaning device for protective cloths for use in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshikazu.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the use of fron 113 as laundry liquid so that sterilizing effect can also be attained during drying. Constitution: After cleaning various kinds of contaminations deposited to cloths in a laundry drum with fron 113 (trichlorofluoroethane), gases in the drum are recycled by a blower passing through a drying condenser and a heater to evaporize solvents or moisture content remained in the cloths. The evaporated solvent or moistures are condensated to recover when they pass through the condenser cooled by the coolants of a refrigerator. Accordingly, since high temperature drying is enabled and moistures can be dried as well by the use of fron 113, no additional provision of the drier is required and sterilizing effect can also be effected at high temperature drying. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Application of mixed based membrane technology from component materials bintaro, zeolite and bentonite to reduction of songket waste liquid cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Muhammad Hatta; Saleh, Abdullah; Asip, Faisol; Makmun, Akbar; Defi

    2017-11-01

    Application of membrane technology based on clay mixture, Activated Carbon from Bintaro, Zeolite and Bentonit to process the waste water of Songket cloth is Palembang traditionally cloth. The applied research is into the superior field of industrial and household waste processing with membrane ceramic technology. The objective of this research is to design the liquid waste separation tool of jumputan cloth using better and simpler ceramic membrane so that it can help the artisans of Palembang songket or songket in processing the waste in accordance with the standard of environmental quality standard (BML) and Pergub Sumsel no. 16 in 2005. The specific target to be achieved can decrease the waste of cloth jumputan in accordance with applicable environmental quality standards the method used in achieving the objectives of this study using 2 processes namely the adsorption process using activated carbon and the separation process using a ceramic membrane based on the composition of the mixture. The activated carbon from bintaro seeds is expected to decrease the concentration of liquid waste of Songket cloth. Bintaro seeds are non-edible fruits where the composition contains organic ingredients that can absorb because contains dyes and filler metals. The process of membranization in the processing is expected to decrease the concentration of waste better and clear water that can be used as recycled water for household use. With the composition of a mixture of clay-based materials: zeolite, bentonit, activated carbon from bintaro seeds are expected Find the solution and get the novelty value in the form of patent in this research

  4. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  5. NOVEL ECOMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY: FASHIONPHORIA-A SOCIAL FASHION PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VYNIAS Dionysios

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashion industry is one of the most vibrant and creative sector in Europe. Having over 5 million people directly employed in the fashion value chain and 850,000 companies established, this industry provides an important contribution to the EU economy with an annual turnover of EUR 525 billion. Despite the global competition, European retailers have managed to be competitive by moving to high- added value products, serving niche markets and investing on technology and novel ecommerce tools. Fashion is in a transition phase where digital brands and eshops try to engage more shoppers, provide unique experiences and increase revenues. However, conversion rates are still low, competition is fierce and novel products and services are required in order to capture the attention of the consumer. More customer behaviors regarding fashion preferences of the users are needed and new advertising techniques have to be implemented in the sector. In this paper, the market trends regarding clothing and eCommerce in Europe are provided. In addition, a market research is presented that reveals the need for a social fashion platform in Greece coupled with the expectations that an shopper has for a fashion aggregator. The basic functionalities of Fashionphoria, a novel social fashion platform are presented and the benefits for the fashionistas and the brands are outlined.

  6. Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

  7. Methods of evaluating protective clothing relative to heat and cold stress: thermal manikin, biomedical modeling, and human testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Catherine; Blanchard, Laurie A; Cadarette, Bruce S; Endrusick, Thomas L; Xu, Xiaojiang; Berglund, Larry G; Sawka, Michael N; Hoyt, Reed W

    2011-10-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to clothing and equipment designed to protect individuals from chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive hazards. The materials used to provide this protection may exacerbate thermal strain by limiting heat and water vapor transfer. Any new PPE must therefore be evaluated to ensure that it poses no greater thermal strain than the current standard for the same level of hazard protection. This review describes how such evaluations are typically conducted. Comprehensive evaluation of PPE begins with a biophysical assessment of materials using a guarded hot plate to determine the thermal characteristics (thermal resistance and water vapor permeability). These characteristics are then evaluated on a thermal manikin wearing the PPE, since thermal properties may change once the materials have been constructed into a garment. These data may be used in biomedical models to predict thermal strain under a variety of environmental and work conditions. When the biophysical data indicate that the evaporative resistance (ratio of permeability to insulation) is significantly better than the current standard, the PPE is evaluated through human testing in controlled laboratory conditions appropriate for the conditions under which the PPE would be used if fielded. Data from each phase of PPE evaluation are used in predictive models to determine user guidelines, such as maximal work time, work/rest cycles, and fluid intake requirements. By considering thermal stress early in the development process, health hazards related to temperature extremes can be mitigated while maintaining or improving the effectiveness of the PPE for protection from external hazards.

  8. Effect of adverse environmental conditions and protective clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Wood, Andrew W

    2017-07-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, simulating a radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) worker wearing protective clothing subject to RF-EMF exposure, and subject to various environmental conditions including high ambient temperature and high humidity, with full thermoregulatory mechanisms in place. How the human body responds in various scenarios was investigated, and the information was used to consider safety limits in current international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards. It was found that different environmental conditions had minimal impact on the magnitude of the thermal response due to RF-EMF exposure, and that the current safety factor of 10 applied in international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards for RF-EMF workers is generally conservative, though it is only narrowly so when workers are subjected to the most adverse environmental conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:356-363, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Development of a high-density nonwoven structure to improve the stab resistance of protective clothing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Limin; Wang, Yanling; Baba, Takeichiro; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Wakatsuki, Kaoru; Morikawa, Hideaki

    2017-12-07

    The purpose of this research was to enhance the stab resistance of protective clothing material by developing a new high-density nonwoven structure. Ice picks often injure Japanese police officers due to the strict regulation of swords in the country. Consequently, this study was designed to improve stab resistance against ice picks. Most existing anti-stab protective clothing research has focused on various fabrics impregnated with resin, an approach that brings with it problems of high cost and complicated processing. Seldom has research addressed the potential for improving stab resistance by using nonwoven structures, which exhibit better stab resistance than fabric. In this research, we prepared a series of nonwoven structures with densities ranging from about 0.14 g/cm 3 to 0.46 g/cm 3 by varying the number of stacked layers of Kevlar/polyester nonwoven under a hot press. We then proposed two methods for producing such hot-press nonwovens: the multilayer hot-press method and the monolayer hot-press method. Stab resistance was evaluated according to NIJ Standard-0115.00. We also investigated the relationship among nonwoven density, stab resistance, and flexural rigidity, and here we discuss the respective properties of the two proposed methods. Our results show that stab resistance and flexural rigidity increase with nonwoven density, but flexural rigidity of nonwovens prepared using the monolayer hot-press method only shows a slight change as nonwoven density increases. Though the two methods exhibit little difference in maximum load, the flexural rigidity of nonwovens prepared using the monolayer hot-press method is much lower, which contributes to superior wear comfort. Finally, we investigated the mechanism behind the stabbing process. Stabbing with an ice pick is a complicated process that involves many factors. Our findings indicate that nonwovens stop penetration primarily in two ways: nonwoven deformation and fiber fractures.

  10. Determination of the standards of the thermo-physiological tolerance for working in basic nuclear installation in TIVA protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, P.; Daret, J.L.; Besnard, Y.; Clerc, N.; Savourey, G.; Launay, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the duration limited exposure (DLE) for working in a contaminated zone in a basic nuclear installation using the new ventilated TIVA protective clothing. Five subjects underwent a treadmill exercise (3.5 km/h, 3% of slope) of up to 2 h in a climatic chamber at 25, 35, and 45 deg. C. Cardiac frequency, rectal temperature and skin temperature were continuously recorded. The dehydration level was measured by the loss of weight during the exercise. At 25 deg. C, thermal and cardiovascular thresholds are not reached; the risk is dehydration if the exercise is prolonged. In contrast, the thresholds for Tre at 39 deg. C (97 ± 29 and 69 ± 28 min for 35 and 45 deg. C, respectively) and for the increase in Tre (+1.5 deg. C) are reached earlier (84 ± 38 min and 57 ± 21 min at 35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). This leads to a higher heat storage (42.2 ± 22.9 W/m 2 and 63.7 ± 29.4 W/m 2 , at 35 and 45 deg. C, respectively), which constitutes a higher risk of heat illnesses. The dehydration level is 2% of the weight for the tests at 35 and 45 deg. C. As a consequence, DLE for working in a contaminated zone in a basic nuclear installation in environmental conditions and using the new ventilated TIVA protective clothing, as encountered in our experiments, are proposed to avoid hyperthermic accidents. (authors)

  11. Clothing and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

  12. X-ray protective clothing. Does DIN 6857-1 allow an objective comparison between lead-free and lead-composite materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, H.; Schlattl, H.; Hoeschen, C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The validity of DIN 6857-1 to establish lead equivalence for protective clothing is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. Materials and Methods: Commercially available protective clothing made of lead, lead-free and lead-composite materials has been tested regarding its protective efficacy. The analysis has been performed on the one hand in accordance with the test conditions described in the manufacturing standard DIN EN 61331-3 and on the other hand following the new DIN 6857-1 standard. Additionally, measurements have been carried out under simulated patient conditions by using an Alderson-Rando phantom. Results: Following DIN EN 61331-3, the lead-free protective clothing achieved the required protective efficacy only at a restricted tube-voltage range. The test according to DIN 6857-1 showed that the protective criteria were fulfilled only by one lead-composite apron, but not by the three lead-free aprons examined. Thus, in order to guarantee the same protection as lead between 50 and 120 kV, the conditions of DIN 6857-1 must be fulfilled. Conclusion: A modification of DIN EN 61331-3 to account for secondary radiation is strongly advised in the case of lead-free materials. In summary, most of the protective lead-free aprons in use should be used with care, particularly for examinations with a high dose. (orig.)

  13. Five years of experience with external laundry service for alpha-contaminated protective clothing in the decommissioning period Siemens PG formerly Siemens fuel rod factory Hanau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, E.; Hadders, R.; Wilke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The external decontamination of protective clothing is a new concept in Europe in the past, companies ran their own laundries and decontaminated their clothing themselves. Running a laundry within a nuclear facility bears a great deal of complicated problems. Firstly the operator must find suitable staffs, which has to pass the strict vetting and still not be overqualified for the job. In addition to the problem of finding and employing suitable, reliable staff the workload varies very much. Although this is not the main problem for the decommissioning project Siemens PG fuel rod factory. Nuclear power plants have to employ additional staff for their laundries during outages. (orig.)

  14. New technologies, virtual reality and multimedia, in Radiation Protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.; Lamela, B.; Merino, A.; Sarti, F.

    2003-01-01

    Iberdrola Ingenieria y Consultoria (Iberinco) has developed some computer applications based in New Technologies, Virtual Reality and Multimedia, with the aim to optimise the formation and training of professionally exposed workers as well as to inform the public. The use of the new technologies could be an important help for the workers training. Virtual Reality Projects developed by Iberinco are: a) CIPRES: Interactive Calculations of Radiological Protection in a Simulation Environmental and, b) ACEWO: Workers Control Access to Nuclear Power Plants, virtual Reality could be directly applicable to several aspects related with Radiological Protection Training, for example. An application that workers could used to learn the main aspects of Radiological Protection related with: a) Physical concepts, b) Regulations, c) Use of protective clothing, d) Access into and exit out controlled areas, e) ALARA criterion. An examples is the project ACEWO. A training program based on Virtual Reality systems with simulations of procedures in which the operators could receive high doses. In this way, the operation time and dose could be minimised according to the ALARA criterion owing to the ability of repeating the exercise, or the work, as many times as be necessary, like project CIPRES. Iberinco has been developed an educational CD multimedia on nuclear energy and the protection measures foreseen in the emergency plans for the Spanish Civil Protection Agency, with the aim of being distributed to all the schools placed near a nuclear power plant. (Author) 4 refs

  15. FRC : fire retardant clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denhard, G. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation provided details of the Manitoba Hydro's flame resistant clothing (FRC) program, which was devised after 2 separate incidents in 1998 where clothing contributed to the extent of personnel injuries. The FRC program became corporate-wide in 2005, after the utility's FRC steering committee completed an investigation of the relevant industry standards and regulatory requirements needed to develop an FRC implementation plan. Standards used to prepare the FRC policy included the standard performance specification for textile materials; the standard test method for determining arc thermal performance values of materials for clothing; the standard specification for arc and flame resistant rainwear; and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 1910.269 regulation, which states that employers shall ensure that employees are not wearing clothing that could increase the extent of potential injuries. A consultation of the utility's corporate policies included the uniform, clothing and equipment policy, and the corporate safety and occupational health rule. As a result of the FRC program, Manitoba Hydro now provides personal protective clothing and equipment; flame resistant clothing; and clothing for regular exposure to certain conditions. FRC must be worn when entering energized AC or DC switchyards; operational maintenance or construction sites where a clothing ignition hazard exists; and in any area designated as requiring workers to wear FRC. The program was designed using a risk-based approach, and employees were divided into the following 4 groups: groups requiring that all layers of their clothing be FRC; groups requiring FRC as the outer layer of their clothing; groups required to wear FRC only when entering certain work sites; and special case personnel dealt with on a case-by-case basis. Implementation costs of the program were estimated at $2.3 million, with a $500,000 annual cost. However, annual costs for 2005 were

  16. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  17. A recirculation aerosol wind tunnel for evaluating aerosol samplers and measuring particle penetration through protective clothing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Peter A; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Gao, Pengfei

    2011-08-01

    A recirculation aerosol wind tunnel was designed to maintain a uniform airflow and stable aerosol size distribution for evaluating aerosol sampler performance and determining particle penetration through protective clothing materials. The oval-shaped wind tunnel was designed to be small enough to fit onto a lab bench, have optimized dimensions for uniformity in wind speed and particle size distributions, sufficient mixing for even distribution of particles, and minimum particle losses. Performance evaluation demonstrates a relatively high level of spatial uniformity, with a coefficient of variation of 1.5-6.2% for wind velocities between 0.4 and 2.8 m s(-1) and, in this range, 0.8-8.5% for particles between 50 and 450 nm. Aerosol concentration stabilized within the first 5-20 min with, approximately, a count median diameter of 135 nm and geometric standard deviation of 2.20. Negligible agglomerate growth and particle loss are suggested. The recirculation design appears to result in unique features as needed for our research.

  18. Chemical protective clothing; a study into the ability of staff to perform lifesaving procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M.; Jundi, A.; James, M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the ability of medical and nursing staff to perform certain tasks while wearing a chemical protection suit with a respirator. Tasks chosen were those that would be required before decontamination. Methods—Ten experienced accident and emergency doctors (middle grade and consultants) and 10 nurses were asked to perform certain tasks that were judged to be life saving, relevant to triage, or necessary to confirm death, on an advanced life support manikin, while wearing a TST-Sweden chemical protection suit. The operators were objectively assessed by one of the authors for achieving each task, then asked to make a subjective assessment of the difficulty experienced. Results—Medical staff were asked to ventilate the manikin using a bag-valve-mask, intubate within 30 seconds, apply monitor electrodes and cables and check cardiac rhythm, apply gel pads and defibrillate safely, and finally, fold the cruciform triage card to show "RED", and attach it to the manikin. All the doctors completed these tasks, except for one, who could only intubate the manikin after several attempts. Nursing staff were asked to open and apply an oxygen mask, adjust oxygen flow, size and insert an oropharyngeal airway, ventilate the manikin using a bag-valve-mask, apply a pressure bandage to a limb, and fold the cruciform triage card to show "YELLOW", and attach it to the manikin. All the nurses completed these tasks. Operators reported varying degrees of difficulty, the most difficult tasks were those requiring fine movements or delicate control. Generally, operators found the butyl rubber gloves cumbersome. Communication difficulties were frequently reported. Although only intubation was formally timed, tasks were perceived to take longer. Some operators found the suits too warm and uncomfortable. Conclusion—Should the need arise, the TST-Sweden chemical protection suits would enable experienced doctors and nurses to perform lifesaving measures effectively

  19. Victim’s posture and protective clothing changes the approach in an edged-weapon attack

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, D; Mahoney, P; Godhania, K; Cowper, E; Malbon, C

    2017-01-01

    Diverse groups of people use edged-weapons (i.e. knives, spears, swords) professionally. The training received affects how the edged-weapon is used and the area of the body targeted. There is a growing body of information available on the internet which is aimed at the training individuals in offensive knife attacks. This poster aims to raise awareness of this issue and highlight how a trained individual modifies an attack sequence depending on their victim’s posture and the protective clothi...

  20. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Cloth dyeing by geothermal steam. An experiment in technology transfer from Japan to Hawaii, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumoto, A.S.

    1987-12-31

    This was an experiment to test whether cloth dyeing using geothermal steam (already proven in Japan) would be feasible in Hawaii. Results: Using a fabricated steam vat, cotton, silk, and synthetic can be dyed; the resulting material received high grades for steadfastness and permanency under dye testing. Techniques that were successful in Matsukawa, were replicated in Puna. However, attempts to embed leaf patterns on cloth using natural leaves and to extract natural dyes from Hawaiian plants were unsuccessful; the color of natural dyes deteriorated in hours. But chemical dyes gave brilliant hues or shades, in contrast to those in Japan where the steam there gave subdued tones. It is concluded that geothermal dyeing can be a viable cottage industry in Puna, Hawaii.

  1. Report on achievements of research and development of an automatic sewing system in fiscal 1986. Cloth handling technology; 1986 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kiji handling gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The Automatic Sewing System Technology Research Association was commissioned from the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology on the 'development of an automatic sewing system'. The association has performed the research and development by dividing the subject into such component technologies as a total system and sewing preparation and processing technology, a sewing and assembling technology, a cloth handling technology, and a system management and control technology. This paper reports the achievement of the research on the cloth handling technology. This technology may be divided into such component technologies as (1) the cloth holding technology, (2) the high-functional positioning technology, and (3) the soft cloth moving technology. For the technology (1), development was made on the principle models, such as the vertical holding and parallel holding type modules and the cloth operating type module, as well as on the principle model for an auxiliary equipment for holding cloth edges. For the technology (2), development was made on the handler, controller, and coordinated operation control and teaching system. Discussions were given on optimal device configuration, functions required in the devices, and evaluation methods, as the high-functional positioning technology for the sewing process and pressing process. Prototype devices were designed and fabricated. For the technology (3), prototype models of the improved version were fabricated for the stock module and confluence model, their functions and performances were confirmed, and problems and points requiring improvement were extracted for prototype fabrication. (NEDO)

  2. Report on achievements of research and development of an automatic sewing system in fiscal 1986. Cloth handling technology; 1986 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kiji handling gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The Automatic Sewing System Technology Research Association was commissioned from the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology on the 'development of an automatic sewing system'. The association has performed the research and development by dividing the subject into such component technologies as a total system and sewing preparation and processing technology, a sewing and assembling technology, a cloth handling technology, and a system management and control technology. This paper reports the achievement of the research on the cloth handling technology. This technology may be divided into such component technologies as (1) the cloth holding technology, (2) the high-functional positioning technology, and (3) the soft cloth moving technology. For the technology (1), development was made on the principle models, such as the vertical holding and parallel holding type modules and the cloth operating type module, as well as on the principle model for an auxiliary equipment for holding cloth edges. For the technology (2), development was made on the handler, controller, and coordinated operation control and teaching system. Discussions were given on optimal device configuration, functions required in the devices, and evaluation methods, as the high-functional positioning technology for the sewing process and pressing process. Prototype devices were designed and fabricated. For the technology (3), prototype models of the improved version were fabricated for the stock module and confluence model, their functions and performances were confirmed, and problems and points requiring improvement were extracted for prototype fabrication. (NEDO)

  3. The Development of an IMU Integrated Clothes for Postural Monitoring Using Conductive Yarn and Interconnecting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Won; Choi, Hyeob; Park, Hyung-Il; Choi, Byoung-Gun; Im, Hyobin; Shin, Dongjun; Jung, Young-Giu; Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Hong-Won; Park, Sukyung; Roh, Jung-Sim

    2017-11-07

    Spinal disease is a common yet important condition that occurs because of inappropriate posture. Prevention could be achieved by continuous posture monitoring, but most measurement systems cannot be used in daily life due to factors such as burdensome wires and large sensing modules. To improve upon these weaknesses, we developed comfortable "smart wear" for posture measurement using conductive yarn for circuit patterning and a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) for interconnections. The conductive yarn was made by twisting polyester yarn and metal filaments, and the resistance per unit length was about 0.05 Ω/cm. An embroidered circuit was made using the conductive yarn, which showed increased yield strength and uniform electrical resistance per unit length. Circuit networks of sensors and FPCBs for interconnection were integrated into clothes using a computer numerical control (CNC) embroidery process. The system was calibrated and verified by comparing the values measured by the smart wear with those measured by a motion capture camera system. Six subjects performed fixed movements and free computer work, and, with this system, we were able to measure the anterior/posterior direction tilt angle with an error of less than 4°. The smart wear does not have excessive wires, and its structure will be optimized for better posture estimation in a later study.

  4. The Development of an IMU Integrated Clothes for Postural Monitoring Using Conductive Yarn and Interconnecting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Won Kang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinal disease is a common yet important condition that occurs because of inappropriate posture. Prevention could be achieved by continuous posture monitoring, but most measurement systems cannot be used in daily life due to factors such as burdensome wires and large sensing modules. To improve upon these weaknesses, we developed comfortable “smart wear” for posture measurement using conductive yarn for circuit patterning and a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB for interconnections. The conductive yarn was made by twisting polyester yarn and metal filaments, and the resistance per unit length was about 0.05 Ω/cm. An embroidered circuit was made using the conductive yarn, which showed increased yield strength and uniform electrical resistance per unit length. Circuit networks of sensors and FPCBs for interconnection were integrated into clothes using a computer numerical control (CNC embroidery process. The system was calibrated and verified by comparing the values measured by the smart wear with those measured by a motion capture camera system. Six subjects performed fixed movements and free computer work, and, with this system, we were able to measure the anterior/posterior direction tilt angle with an error of less than 4°. The smart wear does not have excessive wires, and its structure will be optimized for better posture estimation in a later study.

  5. A Contribution to Guide the Use of Support Tools for Technology Roadmapping: a Case Study in the Clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Johanna Ibarra González

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents guidelines regarding the use of tools to support technology roadmapping based on a case study of an exploratory and descriptive nature in a small company in the clothing sector. After introducing a systematic approach to technology roadmapping with their support tools, an empirical analysis is then presented of the application of the tools of the market layer – a questionnaire for consultation with the consumers and bibliographical research – and the business layer – SWOT matrix, through illustrative examples. Each tool was analyzed in relation to the complexity, time, cost of implementation, relevance and quality of the resulting information, the most common problems associated with their use. Here we show that the tools of the market layer proved to be easiest to use when compared with the tools of business layer, varying the time required, but involving, in general, a low cost in its application to obtain relevant and quality results for the development of the roadmap. Based on the results, general guidelines for the use of these tools to assist in the process of technology roadmapping were established as well as a comparison between the tools.

  6. Cloth in the Cult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; Perna, Massimo

    2001-01-01

    analysis of the use and function of cloth in the Mycenaean cult. It is demonstrated that there is a division between cloth for offerings and cloth for culk personnel......analysis of the use and function of cloth in the Mycenaean cult. It is demonstrated that there is a division between cloth for offerings and cloth for culk personnel...

  7. Validation of standard ASTM F2732 and comparison with ISO 11079 with respect to comfort temperature ratings for cold protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuansi; Lin, Li-Yen; Halder, Amitava; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2015-01-01

    American standard ASTM F2732 estimates the lowest environmental temperature for thermal comfort for cold weather protective clothing. International standard ISO 11079 serves the same purpose but expresses cold stress in terms of required clothing insulation for a given cold climate. The objective of this study was to validate and compare the temperature ratings using human subject tests at two levels of metabolic rates (2 and 4 MET corresponding to 116.4 and 232.8 W/m(2)). Nine young and healthy male subjects participated in the cold exposure at 3.4 and -30.6 °C. The results showed that both standards predict similar temperature ratings for an intrinsic clothing insulation of 1.89 clo and for 2 MET activity. The predicted temperature rating for 2 MET activity is consistent with test subjects' thermophysiological responses, perceived thermal sensation and thermal comfort. For 4 MET activity, however, the whole body responses were on the cold side, particularly the responses of the extremities. ASTM F2732 is also limited due to its omission and simplification of three climatic variables (air velocity, radiant temperature and relative humidity) and exposure time in the cold which are of practical importance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. The Supply Chain Has No Clothes: Technology Adoption of Blockchain for Supply Chain Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoffer Francisco; David Swanson

    2018-01-01

    Blockchain technology, popularized by Bitcoin cryptocurrency, is characterized as an open-source, decentralized, distributed database for storing transaction information. Rather than relying on centralized intermediaries (e.g., banks) this technology allows two parties to transact directly using duplicate, linked ledgers called blockchains. This makes transactions considerably more transparent than those provided by centralized systems. As a result, transactions are executed without relying o...

  9. The Supply Chain Has No Clothes: Technology Adoption of Blockchain for Supply Chain Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blockchain technology, popularized by Bitcoin cryptocurrency, is characterized as an open-source, decentralized, distributed database for storing transaction information. Rather than relying on centralized intermediaries (e.g., banks this technology allows two parties to transact directly using duplicate, linked ledgers called blockchains. This makes transactions considerably more transparent than those provided by centralized systems. As a result, transactions are executed without relying on explicit trust [of a third party], but on the distributed trust based on the consensus of the network (i.e., other blockchain users. Applying this technology to improve supply chain transparency has many possibilities. Every product has a long and storied history. However, much of this history is presently obscured. Often, when negative practices are exposed, they quickly escalate to scandalous, and financially crippling proportions. There are many recent examples, such as the exposure of child labor upstream in the manufacturing process and the unethical use of rainforest resources. Blockchain may bring supply chain transparency to a new level, but presently academic and managerial adoption of blockchain technologies is limited by our understanding. To address this issue, this research uses the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT and the concept of technology innovation adoption as a foundational framework for supply chain traceability. A conceptual model is developed and the research culminates with supply chain implications of blockchain that are inspired by theory and literature review.

  10. USING RF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROTECTED ASSET TRACKING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younkin, James R.; Pickett, Chris A.; Richardson, Dave; Stinson, Brad J.

    2008-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is working on systems that use a new radio frequency (RF) technology called Rubee to manage and inventory many types of protected assets, including weapons housed in Department of Energy (DOE) armories, tooling, and nuclear material containers. Rubee is being considered for an IEEE Standard, and is used on several projects at ORNL because of its high performance when used in, on, and around metal-an environment that is typical of that found in an armory vault and that of many other protected assets locations within nuclear facilities. The primary objective using Rubee is to supply sustainable technology that provides timely information on the status and location of protected assets. This paper focuses on the results from a deployment of this technology at a DOE armory and discusses the applicability of Rubee for use with other protected assets within nuclear facilities. Key Words: Rubee, low radio frequency, protected assets

  11. A user-centred design process of new cold-protective clothing for offshore petroleum workers operating in the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesgaard, Ole Petter; Storholmen, Tore Christian Bjørsvik; Wiggen, Øystein Nordrum; Reitan, Jarl

    2017-12-07

    Petroleum operations in the Barents Sea require personal protective clothing (PPC) to ensure the safety and performance of the workers. This paper describes the accomplishment of a user-centred design process of new PPC for offshore workers operating in this area. The user-centred design process was accomplished by mixed-methods. Insights into user needs and context of use were established by group interviews and on-the-job observations during a field-trip. The design was developed based on these insights, and refined by user feedback and participatory design. The new PPC was evaluated via field-tests and cold climate chamber tests. The insight into user needs and context of use provided useful input to the design process and contributed to tailored solutions. Providing users with clothing prototypes facilitated participatory design and iterations of design refinement. The group interviews following the final field test showed consensus of enhanced user satisfaction compared to PPC in current use. The final cold chamber test indicated that the new PPC provides sufficient thermal protection during the 60 min of simulated work in a wind-chill temperature of -25°C. Accomplishing a user-centred design process contributed to new PPC with enhanced user satisfaction and included relevant functional solutions.

  12. Patent protection for microbial technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S

    2017-11-01

    Microbial technologies often serve as the basis of fundamental research tools in molecular biology. These present a variety of ethical, legal and social issues concerning their patenting. This commentary presents several case studies of these issues across three major microbiological tools: CRISPR, viral vectors and antimicrobial resistance drugs. It concludes that the development of these technologies-both scientifically and commercially-depend, in part, on the patent regime available for each, and researchers' willingness to enforce those patents against others. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. FY 1987 report on the result of the R and D of an automatic sewing system. Cloth handling technology; 1987 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kiji handling gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The paper summarized the R and D of a cloth handling technology which is an element technology of an automatic sewing system by the Automatic Sewing System Technology Research Association. The cloth handling technology is divided into the following three: (1) cloth grasp technology; (2) high-functional positioning technology; (3) element technology of soft cloth conveying technology. In (1), development of the following was conducted: vertical grasp-type module, horizontal grasp-type module, cloth handling-type module, and auxiliary device. Prototypes of each were trially manufactured for experiment on the function confirmation. In (2), the following were conducted: development of experimental models of module handler and module controller for commercialization; study of visual/tactile sense composite multiple-arm cooperative movement control. In (3), in the studies having been made so far, specifications for an experimental model for joint sawing and specifications for the conveying system were studied, and experimental models of stock module and junction module were manufactured/tested/evaluated to study confirmation of function/performance. In this fiscal year, in the light of these results obtained, prototypes of each element device were developed. At the same time, the connection of these element devices made up an experimental model for joint sawing, and effectiveness of the element technology was confirmed in the system. (NEDO)

  14. Proceedings: 2003 Radiation Protection Technology Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Health physics professionals within the nuclear industry are continually upgrading their programs with new methods and technologies. The Third Annual EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference facilitated this effort by communicating technical developments, program improvements, and experience throughout the nuclear power industry. When viewed from the perspective of shorter outages, diminishing numbers of contract RP technicians and demanding emergent work, this information flow is critical for the industry

  15. Chemical Protective Clothing for Law Enforcement Patrol Officers and Emergency Medical Services when Responding to Terrorism with Chemical Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arca, Victor J; Marshall, Stephen M; Lake, William A; Fedele, Paul D

    1999-01-01

    .... This testing examined how well the complete protective suit ensembles protect the wearer against vapor adsorption at the skin by exposing test participants wearing the suits to a chemical agent simulant (methyl salicylate...

  16. Chemical Protective Clothing for Law Enforcement Patrol Officers and Emergency Medical Services when Responding to Terrorism with Chemical Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arca, Victor

    2001-01-01

    .... This testing examined how well the complete protective suit ensembles protect the wearer against vapor adsorption by the skin by exposing test participants wearing the suits to a chemical agent simulant (methyl salicylate...

  17. Plasma processing of fibre materials for enhanced impact protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Simor, M.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of lightweight impact protective clothing depends on the constituting materials, their assembly in a system and interaction under various dynamic impact conditions. In this paper an overview of options for improved impact protective clothing systems based on a new plasma technology

  18. Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield.

  19. Protection of civil rights and technological development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H

    1985-01-01

    The question of how the consequences of technological development are to be mastered on the legal level is not primarily a problem of the administrative procedure. The essential point in the discussion on protection of basic rights is not to be seen in the citizen's right to participate in administrative procedures, but rather in the substantive civil rights of individual persons as against the government, together with the system of values established in the Basic Law and derived from the basic rights, as well as in the proper functioning of the principle of separation of powers (legislature, administration, and judicature). The law on procedure and thus the idea of (protection of civil rights by rules of procedure) in this context only have an enhancing effect. Practical protection of civil rights is also ascertained in the Federal Republic of Germany by the particularly well-established guarantee of access to the courts. Another idea to be mentioned in this context is an approach that can be termed as 'protection of civil rights by government-funded research'. Other facts contributing to building a protective shield against infringement of civil rights by technology, activities or installations, include e.g. the federal structure of the state and the administration, type and scope of organisation of the public service, the established system of environmental protection and the safety provided by the current system of expert opinions. (orig./HSCH).

  20. Protection of civil rights and technological development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1985-01-01

    The question of how the consequences of technological development are to be mastered on the legal level is not primarily a problem of the administrative procedure. The essential point in the discussion on protection of basic rights is not to be seen in the citizen's right to participate in administrative procedures, but rather in the substantive civil rights of individual persons as against the government, together with the system of values established in the Basic Law and derived from the basic rights, as well as in the proper functioning of the principle of separation of powers (legislature, administration, and judicature). The law on procedure and thus the idea of (protection of civil rights by rules of procedure) in this context only have an enhancing effect. Practical protection of civil rights is also ascertained in the Federal Republic of Germany by the particularly well-established guarantee of access to the courts. Another idea to be mentioned in this context is an approach that can be termed as 'protection of civil rights by government-funded research'. Other facts contributing to building a protective shield against infringement of civil rights by technology, activities or installations, include e.g. the federal structure of the state and the administration, type and scope of organisation of the public service, the established system of environmental protection and the safety provided by the current system of expert opinions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. INJECTION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH OF THE PROTECTIVE SCREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENEJLYUK A. I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. This article contains information about the methods and the planning principles used in experimental research study of the injection technology of impervious screen. Today, there are ways to create impervious screens and curtains solve soil protection issues in the field impermeable layer arrangement at a shallow depth. However, for Ukraine, in the burial sites of radiation and other wastes is urgent issue of protection of underground space in places with deep impermeable layer. Classical methods can not fully solve such problems. To solve them, you need to develop innovative technology to create such a screen, which will lie authentic sole object to be protected, at the project depth. For the experiments, it is necessary to choose the most important indicator, and technological factors affecting it. This is due to the fact that the proposed technology provides for lesser known technical solutions, the use of which should ultimately result in impervious screens with desired properties. Goal. The aim of this study is the selection of technological parameters of injection, design of experiments and the selection of indicators characterizing the efficient operation of the screen. Such constructs must first have almost zero permeability. In this paper, it was of interest to study the influence of process parameters on the filtration rate of the protective screen. Conclusion. As a result of the design of experiments, the basic technological factors that have a significant effect on the studied parameters. varying levels of these factors are also identified, which in turn makes it possible to determine the optimum process parameters creating a screen that meets all the desired properties and characteristics. Based on a series of experiments it is possible to obtain optimal formulations for different types of soils.

  2. People's clothing behaviour according to external weather and indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Carli, M.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Zarrella, A.

    2007-01-01

    In prehistoric times man wore furs of animals to protect himself from the cold. Successively over the centuries clothing has become also a tool to distinguish ourselves in society. Clothing has in addition an important impact on people's perception of the indoor environment. Clothing behaviour ha...

  3. Radiation protection clothing in X-ray diagnostics. Comparison of attenuation equivalents in narrow beam and inverse broad-beam geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, Thomas; Schoepf, T.; Ennemoser, O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Standard DIN EN 61 331-1 for attenuation measurements in the narrow and broad beam as well as DIN 6857-1 for the determination of shielding properties in the inverse broad-beam geometry are available for testing the attenuation of protection clothing. The attenuation measurements in the narrow beam don't consider scattered radiation and fluorescence due to the arrangement. This leads to the fact that the protective effect of lead-free materials will be misestimated when compared to lead. Therefore, the differences in attenuation equivalents, determined by both test methods for topical radiation protection aprons, were examined. Materials and Methods: The attenuations in inverse broad-beam geometry according to DIN 6857-1 and in the narrow beam according to DIN EN 61 331-1 were measured using commercially available aprons. They were made of lead, lead-reduced and lead-free materials. For determination of the attenuation equivalents, certificated lead-foils with high purity and a precise thickness of 0.1 to 1.25 mm were used. Results: The measurements in the narrow beam according to DIN EN 61 331-1 showed that nearly all aprons reach the required lead equivalent at mid-range tube voltages of 100 kV. At higher and lower tube voltages, the requirements of DIN EN 61 331-3 were largely not met. In contrast, the testing of the same aprons in inverse broad-beam geometry according to DIN 6857-1 showed that only a few aprons meet the requirements for being classified in the nominal protection class. Conclusion: The measurements suggest that testing method DIN 6857-1 has yet to prevail and that manufacturers are just beginning to develop the appropriate protective materials. (orig.)

  4. Clothing creator trademark : Business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, B.

    1990-10-01

    SYMAGERY has developed a patented process to manufacture clothing without direct human labor. This CLOTHING CREATOR{trademark}, will have the ability to produce two (2) perfect garments every 45 seconds or one (1) every 30 seconds. The process will combine Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) technology with heat molding and ultrasonic bonding/cutting techniques. This system for garment production, will have the capacity to produce garments of higher quality and at lower productions costs than convention cut and sew methods. ADVANTAGES of the process include: greatly reduced production costs; increased quality of garments; reduction in lead time; and capacity to make new class of garments. This technology will accommodate a variety of knit, woven and nonwoven materials containing a majority of synthetic fibers. Among the many style of garments that could be manufactured by this process are: work clothing, career apparel, athletic garments, medical disposables, health care products, activewear, haz/mat garments, military clothing, cleanroom clothing, outdoor wear, upholstery, and highly contoured stuffed toy shells. 3 refs.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Clothes Washers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 8.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Washers that are effective as of...

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Clothes Dryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Dryers that are effective as of January...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Clothes Washers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 8.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Washers that are effective as of...

  8. Radiation protection in newer imaging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Not even a week passes without a paper getting published in peer reviewed journals on radiation protection in newer imaging technologies that either did not exist 10 y ago or were not established for routine use. Computed tomography (CT) happens to be a common element in most of these technologies. Radiation protection is high on the agenda of manufacturers and researchers and that is becoming a driving force for users and international organisations. The media and thus the public have their own share in increasing the momentum. The slice war seems to be shifting to dose war. Manufacturers are now chasing the target of sub-mSv CT. The era of two digit mSv effective dose for a CT procedure is far from losing ground, although cardiac CT within 5 mSv seems possible. A few years ago the change in technology was faster than adoption of dose management but currently even the development of dose reduction techniques is faster than its adoption. There is dearth of large scale surveys of practice and lack of surveys with change in technology. (authors)

  9. Protection and Control with FPGA technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, K. Y.; Yi, W. J. [Korea Reliability Technology and System, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Koo, I. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To cope with the experiences such as unsatisfied response time of control and protection system, components obsolescence of those systems, and outstanding coercion of system modernization, nuclear society is striving to resolve this issue fundamentally. The reports and standards issued from IAEA and other standard organization like IBC is interested in the FPGA technology, which is fairly mature technology in other fields of industry. Intuitively it is replacing the high level of micro-processor type equipped with various software and hardware, which causes to accelerate the aging and obsolescence, and demands for system modernization in I and C system in Nuclear Power Plant. Thus utility has to spend much time and effort to upgrade I and C system throughout a decease. This paper summarizes the need of FPGA technology in Nuclear Power Plant, describing the characteristics of FPGA, test methodology and design requirements. Also the specific design and implementation experiences brought up in the course of FPGA-based controller, which has been conducted in KoRTS. The certification and verification and validation process to ensure the integrity of FPGA-based controller will be addressed. After that, Diverse Protection System (DPS) for YGN Unit 3 and 4 that is implemented via VHDL through SDLC is loaded on FPGA-based controller for run-time experimentations such as functionality, performance, integrity and reliability. Some of the test data is addressed in this paper.

  10. Protection and Control with FPGA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, K. Y.; Yi, W. J.; Koo, I. S.

    2012-01-01

    To cope with the experiences such as unsatisfied response time of control and protection system, components obsolescence of those systems, and outstanding coercion of system modernization, nuclear society is striving to resolve this issue fundamentally. The reports and standards issued from IAEA and other standard organization like IBC is interested in the FPGA technology, which is fairly mature technology in other fields of industry. Intuitively it is replacing the high level of micro-processor type equipped with various software and hardware, which causes to accelerate the aging and obsolescence, and demands for system modernization in I and C system in Nuclear Power Plant. Thus utility has to spend much time and effort to upgrade I and C system throughout a decease. This paper summarizes the need of FPGA technology in Nuclear Power Plant, describing the characteristics of FPGA, test methodology and design requirements. Also the specific design and implementation experiences brought up in the course of FPGA-based controller, which has been conducted in KoRTS. The certification and verification and validation process to ensure the integrity of FPGA-based controller will be addressed. After that, Diverse Protection System (DPS) for YGN Unit 3 and 4 that is implemented via VHDL through SDLC is loaded on FPGA-based controller for run-time experimentations such as functionality, performance, integrity and reliability. Some of the test data is addressed in this paper

  11. Report on achievements of research and development of an automatic sewing system in fiscal 1985. Cloth handling technology; 1985 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kiji handling gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes the cloth handling technology, extracted from the achievement report for fiscal 1985 on developing an automatic sewing system. Development, experiment and evaluation were made on prototype cloth holding modules of vertical type and horizontal type. For a cloth operation type module, a principle model was developed. The cloth holding technology has a number of problems to be solved in the future, including systematization and application conditions of the holding devices. In improving the function of sewing process positioning, problems in devices were extracted, and functions to be added were put in order. Basics of the concept for the pressing process positioning was made clear, examples of the process layout drawings were prepared, and weights by processes were measured and put in order to discuss the holding force. The handler was given redundancy, and constructed with seven shafts to make it capable of avoiding obstacles, thereby having reduced the weight and size by 15%. The calculation operating time in a servo control module was shortened. The basic design was completed on the specifications for a coordinated operation control system. Discussions were given on functions and specifications of different constituting modules as a study on formation of the system to transport flexible cloths. (NEDO)

  12. Perceived exertion is as effective as the perceptual strain index in predicting physiological strain when wearing personal protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, David N; Costello, Joseph T; Bach, Aaron J; Stewart, Ian B

    2017-02-01

    The perceptual strain index (PeSI) has been shown to overcome the limitations associated with the assessment of the physiological strain index (PSI), primarily the need to obtain a core body temperature measurement. The PeSI uses the subjective scales of thermal sensation and perceived exertion (RPE) to provide surrogate measures of core temperature and heart rate, respectively. Unfortunately, thermal sensation has shown large variability in providing an estimation of core body temperature. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine if thermal comfort improved the ability of the PeSI to predict the PSI during exertional-heat stress. Eighteen healthy males (age: 23.5years; body mass: 79.4kg; maximal aerobic capacity: 57.2ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) wore four different chemical/biological protective garments while walking on treadmill at a low (temperatures 21, 30 or 37°C. Trials were terminated when heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum, when core body temperature reached 39°C, at 120min or due to volitional fatigue. Core body temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, thermal comfort and RPE were recorded at 15min intervals and at termination. Multiple statistical methods were used to determine the most accurate perceptual predictor. Significant moderate relationships were observed between the PeSI (r=0.74; pestimate physiological strain during exertional-heat stress under these work conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. KASTAMONU TRADITIONAL WOMEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure. One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women's clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined, it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history. These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated . The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. According to the findings of the study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing are examined and adapted to todays’ clothing.

  14. ASTM F739 method for testing the permeation resistance of protective clothing materials: critical analysis with proposed changes in procedure and test-cell design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, D H; Zellers, E T; Sulewski, R

    1998-08-01

    ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Method F739-96 specifies a test-cell design and procedures for measuring the permeation resistance of chemical protective clothing. Among the specifications are open-loop collection stream flow rates of 0.050 to 0.150 L/min for a gaseous medium. At elevated temperatures the test must be maintained within 1 degree C of the set point. This article presents a critical analysis of the effect of the collection stream flow rate on the measured permeation rate and on the temperature uniformity within the test cell. Permeation tests were conducted on four polymeric glove materials with 44 solvents at 25 degrees C. Flow rates > 0.5 L/min were necessary to obtain accurate steady-state permeation rate (SSPR) values in 25 percent of the tests. At the lower flow rates the true SSPR typically was underestimated by a factor of two or less, but errors of up to 33-fold were observed. No clear relationship could be established between the need for a higher collection stream flow rate and either the vapor pressure or the permeation rate of the solvent, but test results suggest that poor mixing within the collection chamber was a contributing factor. Temperature gradients between the challenge and collection chambers and between the bottom and the top of the collection chamber increased with the water-bath temperature and the collection stream flow rate. Use of a test cell modified to permit deeper submersion reduced the gradients to < or = 0.5 degrees C. It is recommended that all SSPR measurements include verification of the adequacy of the collection stream flow rate. For testing at nonambient temperatures, the modified test cell described here could be used to ensure temperature uniformity throughout the cell.

  15. The Effect of Cooling Vest on Heat Strain Indexes and Reaction Time While Wearing Chemical-Microbial-Radioactive Protective Clothing in Hot and Dry Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Heat is a harmful factor in workplaces that causes physiologic and cognitive changes in workers. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cooling vest on heat strain and reaction time while wearing chemical-biological-nuclear protective clothes. Methods Twelve male students with mean age of 25 ± 2 and body mass index (BMI of 23 ± 1.5 were recruited in the experiment. Each student ran on a treadmill with a speed of 2.4 km/hour in the climate chamber at 35°C and 30% relative humidity. physiological strain index score, oral temperature, heart rate, reaction time and number of errors were measured at the end of the two levels and analyzed by the SPSS software. Results Wilcoxon test showed that the differences of physiological strain index score (P = 0.02, oral temperature (P = 0.02, reaction time (P = 0.02, heart Rate (P = 0.02 and errors (P = 0.03 with and without the cooling vest were significant. The mean physiological strain index score without cooling vest was 4.038 ± 0.882 and with the cooling vest was 1.42 ± 0.435. The mean reaction time without and with the cooling vest was 0.769 ± 0.0972 and 0.539 ± 0.977, respectively. Conclusions The results of the study showed that the cooling vest reduces the physiological strain, reaction time and errors rate of workers.

  16. Textiles and clothing sustainability nanotextiles and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the sustainability aspects of textiles and clothing sector in light of nanomaterials and technologies. The invasion of nano in every industrial sector has been important and has made remarkable changes as well as posed new challenges, including the textiles and clothing sector. There is quite a great deal of research happening in terms of nano materials for textiles across the globe, some of which are covered in this book. .

  17. Suitability of integrated protection diodes from diverse semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wanum, Maurice; Lebouille, Tom; Visser, Guido; van Vliet, Frank Edward

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this article diodes from three different semiconductor technologies are compared based on their suitability to protect a receiver. The semiconductor materials involved are silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride. The diodes in the diverse semiconductor technologies themselves are

  18. European workshop on technologies for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesing, J H; Pippich, B [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Current European research activities in the field of environmental technologies are discussed under the following headings: photocatalysis; emission abatement - catalytic processes (mainly NO{sub x} reduction catalysts for vehicles and industrial boilers); emission abatement - biological and chemical processes; biological wastewater treatment; chemical and physical wastewater treatment; integrated wastewater treatment; environmental technologies in pulp and paper industry; environmental technologies in surface treatment; selected examples of `clean technologies`; environmental technologies in ceramic and cement industry and policy and strategies.

  19. Azerbaijan's Medieval Clothes and Jewelry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegana Aghamaliyeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 16thcentury high level of culture and art has positively influenced the development of clothing in Azerbaijan. In the 17thcentury in spite of paleness of manufactured fabric and its ornaments, clothing style completely reminds 16thcentury clothes. 18thcentury clothes distinguish with its high level of form and composition. In that period clothes were decorated by sewing. Traditional clothing set was completed by jewelries considered for neck, chest, arm and waist. In the second half of the 19th century, replacing of national clothes primarily happened in the capital city, and further spread in the other territories of Azerbaijan. Traditional clothing completely lost out at the beginning of the 20thcentury due to its unsustainability to compete with mass-produced clothes. Currently, when fashion designers prepare modern costumes they refer to the rich elements of our ancient clothing and apply them to their collections. Thus, they add historical national spirit to their clothing collections.

  20. Physical Protection of Nuclear Safeguards Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, Richard

    2004-01-01

    IAEA's Nuclear Security Plan is established to assist Member States in implementing effective measures against nuclear terrorism. Four potential threats were identified: theft of nuclear weapon, nuclear explosive device, radiological dispersal device and an attack on radiation facility. In order to achieve effective protection of nuclear materials and facilities, the IAEA sponsored the Convention of the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials which focuses on the protection of nuclear materials 'in international transport. The IAEA also promoted INFCIRC/255 entitled the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities and published TECDOC/967 for the protection of nuclear materials and facilities against theft and sabotage and during transport. Assistance is available for the Member States through the International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) and the International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ). (author)

  1. Present Situation and Future Development Trend of Smart Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Fengfan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science and technology, our daily clothes are changing quietly. Wearable smart clothing has gradually the leading role in the clothing market. This article first explains the concept of wearable intelligent clothing in china, and then I analyze the various types of wearable smart clothing that is currently facing problems, and summarized about the key points and future directions of wearable intelligent clothing design. From the beginning of 2013, smart watches, bracelets, glasses have entered the public vision, become a "trendsetter who sought the object", this year the industry was identified as "the first year of wearable equipment". In simple terms, a wearable device is a portable device that can be worn directly on the body, or integrated into the user's clothing or accessories. However, with the development of wireless sensor technology, kinds of wearable smart clothing gradually appeared in people's life, the smart clothing is made up of small chip, electronic components, power equipment, embedded into clothing, can achieve a specific function, in order to facilitate people's life.

  2. Economical motor protection using microcomputer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, N.

    1983-09-01

    A trend to design new motors closer to their design limits and the high cost of plant shutdown has increased the need for better protection of smaller three phase motors. A single chip microcomputer relay can be applied to replace thermal overloads which are of limited effectiveness on low and medium voltage machines with comprehensive, economical motor protection. The requirement for different protection features and how they are achieved is presented. All the protection features discussed are commercially available in a compact unit that uses a single chip microcomputer.

  3. Technology under Planetary Protection Research (PPR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary protection involves preventing biological contamination on both outbound and sample return missions to other planetary bodies. Numerous areas of research...

  4. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  5. River Protection Project Technology and Innovation Roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, D. S. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Wooley, T. A. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, S. E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-14

    The Technology and Innovation Roadmap is a planning tool for WRPS management, DOE ORP, DOE EM, and others to understand the risks and technology gaps associated with the RPP mission. The roadmap identifies and prioritizes technical areas that require technology solutions and underscores where timely and appropriate technology development can have the greatest impact to reduce those risks and uncertainties. The roadmap also serves as a tool for determining allocation of resources.

  6. The design of clothing washable labels based on NFC

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Zhengdong; Ma Tianyu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, With the rapid development of NFC (Near Field Communication) technology and the digital advancement of clothing industry, a kind of clothing washable labels based on NFC is proposed and designed in this paper. It can be used to compose a clothing information system together with NFC mobile phones, mobile Internet, enterprise information centers, etc. By experiment, consumers can read and write NFC washable labels through their mobile phones, which can be quicker and more conven...

  7. Exercise clothing and shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form-fitting, stretchy clothing for activities like: Running Biking Advanced yoga/Pilates Swimming You may be able ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  8. Distribution system protection with communication technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Due to the communication technologies’ involvement in the distribution power system, the time-critical protection function may be implemented more accurately, therefore distribution power systems’ stability, reliability and security could be improved. This paper presents an active distribution...

  9. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

  10. Data Protection Issues in Higher Education with Technological Advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Adhering to laws whilst working or studying in an educational establishment is often fraught with challenges. The Irish Data Protection Act 1988 (Amendment 2003) strives to protect the individual where their personal data is potentially being abused. The advancements in technologies have facilitated educational establishments by improving…

  11. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  12. Proceedings: Radiation Protection Technology Conference: Providence, RI, November 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Health physics (HP) professionals within the nuclear industry are continually upgrading their respective programs with new methods and technologies. The move to shorter outages combined with a diminishing group of contract HP technicians and demanding emergent work makes such changes even more important. The EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference focused on a number of key health physics issues and developments

  13. [Applications of DNA identification technology in protection of wild animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ping-Ya; Pei, Li; Ge, Wen-Dong; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Xue-Ying; Xu, Xiao-Yu; Tu, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    With the development of biotechnology, forensic DNA identification technology in protection of wild animals has been used more and more widely. This review introduces the global status of wildlife crime and the relevant protection to wildlife, outlines the practical applications of forensic DNA identification technology with regard to species identification, determination of geographic origin, individual identification and paternity identification. It focus on the techniques commonly used in DNA typing and their merits and demerits, as well as the problems and prospects of forensic DNA technology for wildlife conservation.

  14. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project. This project is a U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies, and technologies for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Technologies Project staff.

  15. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    and Estonia, it was assumed that over 100 collected items 60 would be reused, 30 recycled in other ways and 10 go to final disposal Using these inputs, the LCA showed that the collection, processing and transport of second-hand clothing has insignificant impacts on the environment in comparison to the savings...... of establishing the net benefits from introducing clothes reuse. Indeed, it enables to take into consideration all the activities connected to reusing clothes, including, for instance, recycling and disposal of the collected clothes not suitable for reuse. In addition, the routes followed by the collected clothes....... Conclusions The results of the study show that clothes reuse can significantly contribute to reducing the environmental burden of clothing. Recommendations and perspectives It would be beneficial to apply other methods for estimating the avoided production of new clothes in order to check the validity...

  16. Microencapsulation Technologies for Corrosion Protective Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation technologies for functional smart Coatings for autonomous corrosion control have been a research area of strong emphasis during the last decade. This work concerns the development of pH sensitive micro-containers (microparticles and microcapsules) for autonomous corrosion control. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in the field of microencapsulation for corrosion control applications, as well as the technical details of the pH sensitive microcontainer approach, such as selection criteria for corrosion indicators and corrosion inhibitors; the development and optimization of encapsulation methods; function evaluation before and after incorporation of the microcontainers into coatings; and further optimization to improve coating compatibility and performance.

  17. Web Technologies in Radiation Protection Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco Arboli, M.; Hernando Velasco, E.; Rodriguez Suarez, M; Gomez Ros, J. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Villaroel, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the major advances already done in the educational web site maintained on the CIEMAT server and accessible through the CSN web. This training project attempts to propose the use of a web site as the standardisation of radiation protection training programmes. The main objective of this project is to provide training material for course organisers, trainers and professionals, and to promote the exchange of expertise between workers involved in all activities using radiation sources. The web site is being developed to provide educational material based on a modular design and in Spanish. We present the initial results of this useful tool for practitioners. The user can choose to obtain the information included in the web site by downloading the complete course or by obtaining the individual modules stepwise. Task in each of the training modules has been designed to develop specific competence taking into account different target groups. Complete materials for trainers and trainees will be available in the web site, to ease courses performance. The project also aims to obtain necessary standardisation of the Rp knowledge provided to workers. (Author) 12 refs

  18. Clothes make the man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, A.

    2014-01-01

    When it is winter you will wear a warm jumper, a heavy coat and gloves, during summertime a pair of shorts and a shirt are enough. You adapt your clothes to the climate conditions you live in. However, if you are working under extreme weather circumstances it is a different story, because how do you

  19. Mestizaje and clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    self-consciousness as mestizos and Mexicans. The determinants and implications of movement are traced through clothing, in relation to when, why and how men and women in small town Mexico adopted 'modern' styles of dress. Migration to the US opened up possibilities of dressing to cross social as well...

  20. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... prescription skin cream for the ``face, neck, hands, arms, or any area not covered by clothing may come into... the clothing or outergarment due to a second appliance or medication.'' This language will clarify that a second clothing allowance may be paid when a second appliance and/or medication increases the...

  1. Technological measures of protection in the copyright system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital exploitation of works often exceed the limit to which the holder can control the exploitation of their intellectual creations, and the protection provided by legal norms are, in the era of a fast exchange of information, may prove to be insufficiently effective. For these reasons, the rights holders are increasingly opting for preventive care through placement of physical obstacles to the exploitation of copyright works, generic called technological protection measures (known as digital right management (DRM. Simultaneously with the development of the application of these measures flows the process of finding ways to circumvent them. Therefore, the effectiveness of technological measures depends on exactly the question of their legal protection, which now exists in most of modern legal systems. However, in the normative solutions there are differences, which reflect the problems in finding adequate forms of protection. They mostly stem from the fact that the sanctioning of circumvention (or preparatory actions of technological measures put into the question the purpose of copyright protection in general. Hence, in this paper we tried to point out the normative solutions accepted in modern legal systems and practical implications of what they have. Conclusion that arises is that the legal shaping of technological measures is not completed and that further technological developments open new dilemmas.

  2. What can information technology do for environmental protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauboth, H.

    1987-01-01

    Information technology plays an important role in the accomplishment of an effective environmental protection. Prerequisite for its comprehensive implementation is the legal and economic achievement of closed material cycles for supply and waste discharge in production and consumption as well as in nuclear technology. Modern information processing may be used for the inventory of natural and emission sources, to gain knowledge on the functioning mechanisms of nature, for the planning of a considerate exploitation of natural recources and for the ecology-oriented monitoring and control of industrial plants. The state of the art of the corresponding information technology and new areas of research especially in measurement technology are shown. The breadth of the great opportunities of information technology for environmental protection is discribed. (orig.) [de

  3. UNHCR and the pursuit of international protection: accountability through technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov; Sandvik, Kristin B.

    2018-01-01

    Better management and new technological solutions are increasingly portrayed as the way to improve refugee protection and enhance the accountability of humanitarian actors. Taking concepts of legibility, quantification and co-production as the point of departure, this article explores how techno-bureaucratic...... practices shape conceptions of international refugee protection. We do this by examining the evolving roles of results-based management (RBM), biometrics and cash-based interventions as ‘accountability technologies’ in the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’ international protection efforts...

  4. The design of clothing washable labels based on NFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhengdong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, With the rapid development of NFC (Near Field Communication technology and the digital advancement of clothing industry, a kind of clothing washable labels based on NFC is proposed and designed in this paper. It can be used to compose a clothing information system together with NFC mobile phones, mobile Internet, enterprise information centers, etc. By experiment, consumers can read and write NFC washable labels through their mobile phones, which can be quicker and more convenient to obtain clothing washing and maintenance information. Moreover, the NFC washable labels conform to the washing requirements of washable labels. The emergence of the NFC washable labels provides a physical basis for smart matching recommendations and precise directional push of clothing advertising information for consumers.

  5. The Use of Speech Technology to Protect the Document Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr M. Alyushin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The wide current paper documents implementation in practice workflows are shown. The basic aspects of document protection related to the protection of their content and legal components are underlined. For contextual component assigned semantic information aspect of the document is considered. For legal component attributed facts and conditions for the creation, approval, negotiation of the document to specific persons is viewed. The documents protection problem importance is shown in connection with possible terrorist threats. The importance of such factor as the time of fraud detection towards the efficiency of documents protection is shown. The fraud detection time requirements for documents of different nature – financial, legal, management is analyzed. The documents used for the operational management of dangerous objects is point out as the most sensitive to the falsification. It is shown that their deliberate falsification can lead to accidents and technogenic catastrophes and human casualties. A comparative analysis of currently used protecting documents methods are presented. Biometric and non-biometric methods of documents protection are point out.Theanalysis of their short comings are given. The conclusion about the prospects of document protection on the basis of the voice signature technology are done. The basic steps of voice information processing in the implementation of this technology are analyzed. The software that implements a documents counterfeiting new protection technology is proposed. The technology is based on the audiomarkers usage at the end of the document, which contains a general information about it. The technology is applicable to the wide range of documents such as financial and valuable papers, contracts, etc. One of the most important advantages of this technology is that any changes in the document can not be done without the author of the document because audiomarker keeps the biometric data of the person

  6. THE ROMANIAN CLOTHING MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    MARIUS BOTA

    2009-01-01

    Today, more than ever, the business environment is continually changing. Competition intensifies in almost every industry, so companies must develop innovative products and business processes to survive. The Romanian clothing market is a crowded one with a lot of powerful competitors, especially Asian firms with their cheep products. Companies are today aware that they must offer the right product, in the right place, at the right price and at the right moment of time in order to be competiti...

  7. CLIQ. A new quench protection technology for superconducting magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravaioli, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    CLIQ, the Coupling-Loss Induced Quench system, is a new method for protecting superconducting magnets after a sudden transition to the normal state. It offers significant advantages over the conventional technology due to its effective mechanism for heating the superconductor relying on coupling

  8. Dictionary of terms and definitions used in radiation protection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The dictionary contains terms and definitions used in radiation protection technology. This document is developed by the Section of CMEA Secretariat on peaceful atomic energy application on the basis of materials provided by member states. The dictionary contains versions of terms and definitions in the languages of member states. Total number of terms is 94. (I.T.)

  9. Leveraging physical protection technology for international safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glidewell, Don

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In an effort to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and reliability of equipment used for International Safeguards, the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) Reflection Group requested the ESARDA Containment and Surveillance Working Group to investigate the feasibility of employing physical protection technologies for international safeguards applications. The physical protection market has traditionally been much greater than the international safeguards market. Consequently, physical protection technology has been subjected to greater testing and evaluation, and has enjoyed much greater real world experience. The larger market yields economies of scale, and the greater testing and experience should arguably result in improved reliability. This paper will compare requirements for physical protection versus international safeguards equipment, and identify types of physical protection equipment, which have potential for safeguards applications. It will evaluate both Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) and non-COTS equipment. Finally, for selected physical protection equipment, the paper will evaluate the degree of modification that would be needed to make it acceptable for safeguards applications. (author)

  10. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted interim groundwater remedial activities on the Hanford Site since the mid-1990s for several groundwater contamination plumes. DOE established the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project (Technologies Project) in 2006 to evaluate alternative treatment technologies. The objectives for the technology project are as follows: develop a 300 Area polyphosphate treatability test to immobilize uranium, design and test infiltration of a phosphate/apatite technology for Sr-90 at 100-N, perform carbon tetrachloride and chloroform attenuation parameter studies, perform vadose zone chromium characterization and geochemistry studies, perform in situ biostimulation of chromium studies for a reducing barrier at 100-D, and perform a treatability test for phytoremediation for Sr-90 at 100-N. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the Technologies Project. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is based on the quality assurance requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory?s Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the technology project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan.

  11. RE FLECTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CLOTHES OF KONYA REGION TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is the way of wearing that is owned by a society, or a job. There is the essance of social statue and differance rather than fashion. In this aspect made a way of wearing according to their own custom and social organism. One of the specialities of setting apart the societies and defining their cultural differances and social classes is the way of wearing. As it is known, Turkish clothes reflecting the specialities of Turki sh culture and way of living them are the greatest heritage coming from ancient times. Between those heritages, women clothes show a great variety of examples. If you look into those examples, you will see the delight of past, way of art, way of living. Th ose clothes also are at the quality of certificate showing the delight of Turkish people. In this study, traditional Anatolian part of our culture in the position of clothes to protect , promote and special occasions using the transfer to future generation s in terms of Konya traditional women's clothes from the old carpets , rugs and ethnographic goods trading profession dealing with Velinaci Gezgin's stores located in the clothes were examined This study identified and the traditional dresses fabric , patterns and motifs are made by making use of designs suitable to the present day fashion . The technique used in the research is defined firstly the survey of written resources. As the result of research made in that area, observations, research and findi ngs are transferred into text.

  12. Hearing Protection - Needs, Technologies and Performance (Protection de l’ouie - besoins, technologies et resultats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Hearing Protection Selection Considerations 6-1 6.1 Education, Training and Motivation 6-1 6.2 Overprotection 6-1 6.3 Localization and...be carefully chosen to minimize the risk of hearing damage without overprotecting and reducing situational awareness. For many operators the major...performance of the hearing protector itself. 6.2 OVERPROTECTION Hearing protectors must limit the noise exposure for the user, without reducing the

  13. CLIQ. A new quench protection technology for superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, Emmanuele; ten Kate, H H J

    CLIQ, the Coupling-Loss Induced Quench system, is a new method for protecting superconducting magnets after a sudden transition to the normal state. It offers significant advantages over the conventional technology due to its effective mechanism for heating the superconductor relying on coupling loss and its robust electrical design, which makes it more reliable and less interfering with the coil winding process. The analysis of the electro-magnetic and thermal transients during and after a CLIQ discharge allows identifying the system parameters that affect the system performance and defining guidelines for implementing this technology on coils of various characteristics. Most existing superconducting magnets can be protected by CLIQ as convincingly shown by test results performed on magnets of different sizes, superconductor types, geometries, cables and strand parameters. Experimental results are successfully reproduced by means of a novel technique for modeling non-linear dynamic effects in superconducting...

  14. Development and environmental applications of activated carbon cloths

    OpenAIRE

    Cukierman, Ana Lea

    2017-01-01

    Activated carbon cloths have received growing attention because they offer comparative advantages over the traditional powdered or granular forms of this well-known adsorbent, providing further potential uses for technological innovations in several fields. The present article provides an overview of research studies and advances concerned with the development of activated carbon cloths and their use as adsorbent in environmental applications, mostly reported in the last years. The influence ...

  15. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and specific time, as specified below: For Meyrin site: Bldg. 2/ R-402 Every second Thursday between 8-00 and 9-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: Bldg. 933/ R-007. Every second Thursday between 10-00 and 11-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  16. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and at specific times, as follows: For Meyrin site: in Bldg. 2/ R-402 Each second Thursday between 8-00 and 9-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: in Bldg. 933/ R-007. Each second Thursday between 10-00 and 11-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  17. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and specific time, as specified below: For Meyrin site: Bldg. 2/ R-402 Every second Thursday between 8.00 a.m. and 9.30 a.m. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: Bldg. 933/ R-007. Every second Thursday between 10.00 a.m. and 11.30 a.m. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  18. Lifestyle and Women’s Clothing in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Hamidi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at finding different lifestyles of female clothing in Tehran. To this end, it describes women’s diverse types of clothing in different social and cultural environments. The main questions advanced in the article are about special lifestyles and logic of choosing clothes by women. The authors try to discover whether distinction, identity making or some kinds of primary functions such as protection, decoration, and chastity are considered the most important factors for women. To find answers, the authors conducted deep interviews with 40 female residents of Tehran and extracted their social positions and lifestyle in clothing. Based on these findings, the authors could distinguish nine different social types.

  19. Determination of clothing microclimate volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein; Hatcher, Kent; Havenith, George

    2005-01-01

    The average air layer thickness between human skin and clothing is an important factor in heat transfer. The trapped volume between skin and clothing is an estimator for everage air layer thickness. Several techniques are available to determine trapped volume. This study investigates the reliability

  20. New technologies, virtual reality and multimedia, in Radiation Protection training; Nuevas tecnologias, realidad virtual y multimedia, aplicadaas a la formacion en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.; Lamela, B.; Merino, A.; Sarti, F.

    2003-07-01

    Iberdrola Ingenieria y Consultoria (Iberinco) has developed some computer applications based in New Technologies, Virtual Reality and Multimedia, with the aim to optimise the formation and training of professionally exposed workers as well as to inform the public. The use of the new technologies could be an important help for the workers training. Virtual Reality Projects developed by Iberinco are: a) CIPRES: Interactive Calculations of Radiological Protection in a Simulation Environmental and, b) ACEWO: Workers Control Access to Nuclear Power Plants, virtual Reality could be directly applicable to several aspects related with Radiological Protection Training, for example. An application that workers could used to learn the main aspects of Radiological Protection related with: a) Physical concepts, b) Regulations, c) Use of protective clothing, d) Access into and exit out controlled areas, e) ALARA criterion. An examples is the project ACEWO. A training program based on Virtual Reality systems with simulations of procedures in which the operators could receive high doses. In this way, the operation time and dose could be minimised according to the ALARA criterion owing to the ability of repeating the exercise, or the work, as many times as be necessary, like project CIPRES. Iberinco has been developed an educational CD multimedia on nuclear energy and the protection measures foreseen in the emergency plans for the Spanish Civil Protection Agency, with the aim of being distributed to all the schools placed near a nuclear power plant. (Author) 4 refs.

  1. The issue of thermal comfort of medical clothing in the operating room

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Isabel; Ribeiro, Patrícia; Abreu, Maria José

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Medical clothes have the primary function of protection. However this function must be correlated with a good comfort experience to the user. The comfort is a very important issue, since professionals are exposed to stress situations that can influence, negatively, their performance work. More specific, thermal comfort plays a crucial role for the best performance of OR medical clothing, involving heat regulation and mass transfer between a clothed body and the environment, once clot...

  2. 78 FR 48683 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Personal Protective Technology (PPT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Technology (PPT) Program; Framework Document for the Healthcare Worker Personal Protective Equipment Action... titled ``Framework for Setting the NIOSH PPT Program Action Plan for Healthcare Worker Personal... NIOSH personal protective technology (PPT) program publishes and periodically updates its research...

  3. Environmental protection technologies and prospect for uranium mining and metallurgy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie

    2002-01-01

    Based on practices of production and environmental protection of China's uranium mining and metallurgy, control and protection of the three wastes in uranium mining and metallurgy are discussed. Prospects for environmental protection technologies of uranium mining and metallurgy is made

  4. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement......A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...

  5. Facility for protection of technological, especially power assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichon, S.; Hahn, J.; Malatek, K.; Randak, O.; Vitovec, P.; Zidek, M.

    1987-01-01

    The facility consists of sensors producing analog signals, used as input information for the evaluation of process conditions or equipment failures. The sensors are fitted to partial functional parts of technological assemblies, such as nuclear reactors. The individual sensors are connected via unification converters to the respective protection units. The facility is resistant to breakdowns of the analog sensors and other components including the computer; it features the possibility of in-service failure detection and the capability of immediate regeneration following a failure. This capability prevents, with high probability, the production of non-accident failures of the technological assembly. The block diagram is described of the facility and its operation in the event of an emergency. (J.B.). 1 fig

  6. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkee, Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Mike [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  7. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Durkee, Jr., Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  8. Selection criteria for wastewater treatment technologies to protect drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water bodies used as sources for drinking water is intimately linked to the adoption of adequate technologies for the treatment of the wastewater generated in the catchment area. The paper presents a general overview of the main technologies used for the treatment of domestic sewage, with a special emphasis on developing countries, and focussing on the main parameters of interest, such as BOD, coliforms and nutrients. A series of tables, figures and charts that can be used for the preliminary selection of treatment technologies is presented. The systems analysed are: stabilisation ponds, activated sludge, trickling filters, anaerobic systems and land disposal. Within each system, the main process variants are covered. Two summary tables are presented, one for quantitative analysis, including easily usable information based on per capita values (US$/cap, Watts/cap, m2 area/cap, m3 sludge/cap), and another for a qualitative comparison among the technologies, based on a one-to-five-star scoring system. The recent trend in tropical countries in the use of UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactors is also discussed.

  9. Implications of science and technology on the radiological protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; LAZO, T.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The mission of the Nuclear Energy Agency (Nea) Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (C.R.P.P.H.) includes providing member -country governments with insight into evolving or emerging issues that could affect radiation protection policy, regulation or application. Although it can not be currently said that the scientific understanding of radiological risks has significantly changed recently, ongoing radio-biological and epidemiological research could challenge the conventional paradigm in the mid -term future. The C.R.P.P.H. finalized in March 2006 finalize a study of possible challenges and their implications. This study includes two principle areas: challenges arising from scientific developments; and, challenges to the implementation of radiation protection. This report updates the earlier C.R.P.P.H. report, 'Developments in Radiation Health Sciences and their Impact on Radiation Protection' (Nea 1998). Broadly speaking, ongoing radiation biology studies present the possibility that our current practice of summing various type s of exposures into a single value of effective dose is not scientifically supported because of significantly differing dose/response relationships (chronic vs. acute, internal vs. external, high Let versus low Let, etc.). In addition, non-targeted effects, and the possibility of individual hyper-sensitivity to radiation further challenge our current notion of the relationship between detriment and dose. Although there is no conclusive evidence for this at this time, the possible implications of such changes will be investigated to better prepare governments and the radiation protection community should sound scientific evidence emerge. In addition to these possible scientific challenges, the applications and events that would require radiological protection input are also evolving. In particular, the use of radiation in medicine, with new techniques and the spread of existing technologies

  10. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  11. Radiation shielding cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yasuo; Fujinuma, Tadashi; Tamura, Shoji.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation shielding cloth having radiation shielding layers comprising a composition of inorganic powder of high specific gravity and rubber are excellentin flexibility and comfortable to put on. However, since they are heavy in the weight, operators are tired upon putting them for a long time. In view of the above, the radiation ray shielding layers are prepared by calendering sheets obtained by preliminary molding of the composition to set the variation of the thickness within a range of +15% to -0% of prescribed thickness. Since the composition of inorganic powder at high specific gravity and rubber used for radiation ray shielding comprises a great amount of inorganic powder at high specific gravity blended therein, it is generally poor in fabricability. Therefor, it is difficult to attain fine control for the sheet thickness by merely molding a composition block at once. Then, the composition is at first preliminarily molded into a sheet-like shape which is somewhat thickener than the final thickness and then finished by calendering, by which the thickness can be reduced in average as compared with conventional products while keeping the prescribed thickness and reducing the weight reduce by so much. (N.H.)

  12. Protective coatings for high temperature alloys state of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goward, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings used on nickel- and cobalt-base superalloy blades and vanes in gas turbine engines typify the state of coating technology for high temperature alloys. Coatings formed by interdiffusion of aluminum with the alloys to form layers consisting mainly of intermetallic compounds, such as NiAl and CoAl, were the first systems used for protection of gas turbine airfoils. The protectivity of these systems is derived from the formation of protective alumina scales. In a general way, coating degradation occurs by cyclic oxidation, molten salt hot corrosion and, at higher temperatures, interdiffusion with the substrate. Thermal fatigue properties are governed by the brittle-ductile transition behavior of the intermetallic compounds NiAl and CoAl. Both positive and negative effects occur, depending on the shapes of thermal strain-temperature curves for particular applications. Significant increases in hot corrosion and oxidation resistance have been obtained by the incorporation of noble metals, such as platinum, in aluminide coatings. The so-called MCrAlY overlay coatings, based on nickel, cobalt, iron and combinations thereof with chromium, aluminum and yttrium can be formulated over a wide range of compositions nominally independent of those of substrate alloys. Improved oxidation resistance and, in part, hot corrosion resistance is derived from yttrium which enhances protective oxide adherence. Mechanical properties, principally ductility, and therefore thermal fatigue resistance, can be adjusted to the requirements of specific applications. Incremental improvements in performance of the MCrAlY coatings are expected as research programs define degradation mechanisms in greater detail and more complex compositions are devised. More basic evaluations of mixed metal-ceramic insulative coatings have been initiated to determine if these systems are capable of effecting further increases in airfoil durability

  13. Radiation protection technology. Specific course for authorized radiation protection representatives according the qualification guidelines technology for the radiation protection regulations (StrlSchV) and X-ray regulation (RoeV). 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The specific course for authorized radiation protection representatives according the qualification guidelines technology for the radiation protection regulations (StrlSchV) and X-ray regulation (RoeV). Covers the following issues: radiation protection - generally; licenses and notifications; scientific fundamentals; dosimetry, surveillance, control, documentation; technical radiation protection; radiation protection calculations.

  14. The role of clothing in participation of persons with a physical disability: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Alida; Poncet, Frédérique; Rochette, Annie; Auger, Claudine; Billebaud, Christophe; de Guise, Élaine; Ducharme, Isabelle; Kehayia, Eva; Labbé, Delphine; Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Lessard, Isabelle; Vermeersch, Olivier; Swaine, Bonnie

    2018-03-08

    Clothing is an important aspect of nearly all human societies from performing social and cultural functions to indicating social status, a form of protection and a way for self-expression. It can help or hinder the ability to fulfil everyday activities and social roles and with the rising industry of wearable technologies, smart textiles are adding health-monitoring functions to clothing. The influence that clothing can have on the life of someone with a physical disability is significant, and further research is needed to understand it better. To achieve this, a scoping review will be performed with the aim of understanding the role of clothing in participation (ie, at home, in the community, etc) of individuals with a physical disability. This article presents the protocol and procedure to be adopted. An in-depth iterative analysis of the scientific literature from six databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO and ERIC) as well as a hand search of grey literature and reference lists will be performed. After an abstract and full-text review of references by three reviewers independently, data from the selected articles will be tabulated and synthesised with a qualitative and quantitative approach using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying conceptual framework. A multidisciplinary consultation group of experts from various stakeholder groups will be involved in multiple steps to ensure validation and relevance of the data. As this is a review involving analysis of data available in the public domain and does not involve human participants, ethical approval was not required. Results will be presented in a co-constructed format with the expert consultation group to ensure validity and maximise its practicality moving forward. Our dissemination plan includes peer-reviewed publications, presentations and stakeholder meetings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  15. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  16. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment

  17. Technology transfer - insider protection workshop (Safeguards Evaluation Method - Insider Threat)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.; Renis, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Safeguards Evaluation Method - Insider Threat, developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a field-applicable tool to evaluate facility safeguards against theft or diversion of special nuclear material (SNM) by nonviolent insiders. To ensure successful transfer of this technology from the laboratory to DOE field offices and contractors, LLNL developed a three-part package. The package includes a workbook, user-friendly microcomputer software, and a three-day training program. The workbook guides an evaluation team through the Safeguards Evaluation Method and provides forms for gathering data. The microcomputer software assists in the evaluation of safeguards effectiveness. The software is designed for safeguards analysts with no previous computer experience. It runs on an IBM Personal Computer or any compatible machine. The three-day training program is called the Insider Protection Workshop. The workshop students learn how to use the workbook and the computer software to assess insider vulnerabilities and to evaluate the benefits and costs of potential improvements. These activities increase the students' appreciation of the insider threat. The workshop format is informal and interactive, employing four different instruction modes: classroom presentations, small-group sessions, a practical exercise, and ''hands-on'' analysis using microcomputers. This approach to technology transfer has been successful: over 100 safeguards planners and analysts have been trained in the method, and it is being used at facilities through the DOE complex

  18. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under....... The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m3); for exposed clothes...... the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m3), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6...

  19. Substantiation of the permissible radioactive contamination of working clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, V.L.; Korostin, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    A permissible level of working clothes contamination was determined on the base of the main migration routes of radioactive contaminants: permeation directly through the clothes into subclothes space on skin surface, emission into the air with amount of contaminants subsequently got by the organism of a working person through inhalation as well as transfer in the process of contacting of contaminated working clothes and surfaces of premises equipment, working person hands with amount of contaminants posteriorly got by the organism by alimentary or inhalation ways. Using the experimental and literature data available the permissible levels of working clothes contamination for the mentioned migration routes of radioactive materials have been calculated. According to the data obtained the permissible levels of working clothes contamination must not exceed 4 alpha-part/(cm 2 xmin) for contamination with high-tonic isotopes, 20 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) with other alpha-detine isotopes, 1000 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active ones. The permissible level of contamination of additional materials of the individual protection in the case of their contamination with high-tonic alpha-actine isotopes must not exceed 50 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin), 200 alpha-part./(cm 2 xmin) for contamination th other alpha-active isotopes and 400 beta-part./(cm 2 xmin) with beta-active isotopes

  20. Technology and the use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Radojkova Nikolovska, Vеrа; Zabokova Bilbilova, Efka; Mijoska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Acrylics are compounds polymerized from monomers of acrylic, metacrylic acid or acrylonitrates. The purpose of this paper is to present the technology and use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection in the practice of dental prosthodontics. For this reason, we followed 120 clinical cases from the everyday clinical practice, divided into 4 groups of 30 patients who needed prosthetic reconstruction. The first group included cases in which we applied celluloid crowns for dentine protection, for the second group we used acrylic teeth from a set of teeth for complete dentures; in the third and fourth groups the fabrication was done with the system of an impression matrix and the acrylic resin block technique respectively. In all the examined patients, the gingival index by Silness and Loe and the vitality of the dental pulp were verified clinically, after preparation and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown. The value for dental sensitivity measured after preparation was 2.59, and 8 days after the placement of the provisional crown it bwas 3.1. From these results we can conclude that after the 8th day from the placement of the provisional crown, there was an adaptation period, characterized by a decrease in the painful sensations. The value of the Silness and Loe gingival index measured after the preparation was 1.34, and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown was 0.94. The results inclined us to the fact that the provisional acrylic crowns facilitated the reparation of the periodontal tissue.

  1. Research on application of carbon fiber heating material in clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanhong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of society, the way of keeping warm clothing is also developing. Carbon fiber has the advantages of high efficiency, safety, mobility and comfort. As a heating element, it has good application prospect. In this paper, the main technology, application issues and design method of carbon fiber heating garment are analyzed, and the key problems in industrialization are also put forward.

  2. Interpretation of clothing heritage for contemporary tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilman Proje, J.; Bizjak, M.

    2017-10-01

    In tourism is the first impression of essential meaning as tourists falling by what they see. In designing the clothing image, for commercial use in tourist sector, should be considered that clothes are consistent with the clothing habits of the region and that comply with the heritage story and style of the geographical area. Clothing image of the tourism representatives of the Bohinj region (Slovenia) has been developed. When designing, the inspiration was sought in historical and contemporary clothing image and heritage stories, in elements that representatives of the community recognize as their own cultural heritage. Affiliated clothes for tourism employees should have a useful function of comfortable workwear with heritage expression, meaning clothes are to be accepted as “everyday” clothes and not as a costume.

  3. Crew Clothing Odor Absorbing Stowage Bag

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clothing accounts for a significant portion of the logistical mass launched on current space missions: 277 kg (including 62 kg of exercise clothing) for an ISS crew...

  4. Competitive situation of clothing and textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jansevičiūtė, Daina

    2010-01-01

    This paper is up for discussing the composed competitive situation of Lithuanian clothing and textile industry. Author concisely proposes aspects of competitive ability conception, explores the main statistical information illustrating importance of clothing and textile industry in all manufacturing and economics. Willing to accomplish a statistical data analysis of trade clothing and textile industry competitors and advantages which they have and which influence Lithuanian clothing and texti...

  5. Making Complex Electrically Conductive Patterns on Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew; Fink, Patrick W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.; Scully, Robert C.; Trevino, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A method for automated fabrication of flexible, electrically conductive patterns on cloth substrates has been demonstrated. Products developed using this method, or related prior methods, are instances of a technology known as 'e-textiles,' in which electrically conductive patterns ar formed in, and on, textiles. For many applications, including high-speed digital circuits, antennas, and radio frequency (RF) circuits, an e-textile method should be capable of providing high surface conductivity, tight tolerances for control of characteristic impedances, and geometrically complex conductive patterns. Unlike prior methods, the present method satisfies all three of these criteria. Typical patterns can include such circuit structures as RF transmission lines, antennas, filters, and other conductive patterns equivalent to those of conventional printed circuits. The present method overcomes the limitations of the prior methods for forming the equivalent of printed circuits on cloth. A typical fabrication process according to the present method involves selecting the appropriate conductive and non-conductive fabric layers to build the e-textile circuit. The present method uses commercially available woven conductive cloth with established surface conductivity specifications. Dielectric constant, loss tangent, and thickness are some of the parameters to be considered for the non-conductive fabric layers. The circuit design of the conductive woven fabric is secured onto a non-conductive fabric layer using sewing, embroidery, and/or adhesive means. The portion of the conductive fabric that is not part of the circuit is next cut from the desired circuit using an automated machine such as a printed-circuit-board milling machine or a laser cutting machine. Fiducials can be used to align the circuit and the cutting machine. Multilayer circuits can be built starting with the inner layer and using conductive thread to make electrical connections between layers.

  6. UNHCR and the pursuit of international protection: accountability through technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov; Sandvik, Kristin B.

    2018-01-01

    -bureaucratic practices shape conceptions of international refugee protection. We do this by examining the evolving roles of results-based management (RBM), biometrics and cash-based interventions as ‘accountability technologies’ in the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’ international protection efforts...... of protection (ie the problem to be addressed), we also show what dimensions of protection get omitted in this co-production of technical solutions and socio-political problems....

  7. Marketing Strategies in the Clothing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷丽娜

    2011-01-01

    Chinese clothing industry has stepped into a new era when the fierce competition,the internationalization and the pluralism coexist.If the clothing enterprises want to catch the market opportunities,and stand out in the clothing industry,they should chang

  8. Shopping for clothes: Body satisfaction, appearance investment, and functions of clothing among female shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lacey, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the link between clothing and body experience in women of different ages. Participants were 162 female clothes shoppers between the ages of 18 and 55 who completed questionnaire measures of body image, functions of clothing, self-esteem, and enjoyment of clothes shopping. It was found that clothing was worn primarily for assurance and fashion by women of all ages. On the other hand, BMI and body dissatisfaction were related to the use of clothing for camouflage purposes and to a more negative clothes shopping experience. Both components of appearance investment were related to choice of clothes for fashion and assurance. However, the self-evaluative salience component was negatively related, while the motivational salience was positively related, to enjoyment of clothes shopping. It was concluded that although clothing is an under-researched aspect of body image, it represents an important part of women's appearance management, whatever their age.

  9. ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN CIVILIZATION OF FASHION INDUSTRY: CLOTHES CONCEPT REFLECTION IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mustami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept Apparel in Islamic education. This was currently a lot of variety of fashion in dress. Although the general function of clothes was a human genitalia cover and protect the body from the heat of the sun. However hijab at this time not just cover the nakedness, but rather as a fashion style that became a common thing now was infecting the womenfolk including Muslim. Ranging from clothes, pants, until hijab began in innovation so as to attract the eye. Although it is not yet represent the shape and fashion model/standard clothes, but felt able to express Islamic education in the dressing (hijab and a fashion model/Islamic clothing. Obviously keep on religious norms, ethical and moral teachings. Substance of clothing in Islam is polite in accordance with the values of Islamic Education.

  10. CCS - environmental protection framework for an emerging technology. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Ralf; Boehringer, Alexander; Charisse, Thomas (and others)

    2009-10-15

    With this paper, the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) updates1 its position paper of 20062 on the technical capture and geological storage3 of carbon dioxide (CCS: carbon capture and storage). After a brief description of the development status of the process steps of capture, transport and geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Chapter 1, we look into the possible risks for human health and the environment (Chapter 2), which up to now have been little discussed or researched. These risks will largely depend on the integrity of storage sites. On the assumption of functioning capture technology at cost-effective conditions, the capacity of available and secure storage sites will decisively determine the scale of possible greenhouse gas emission reductions through CCS (Chapter 3). In examining storage capacity, it has always to be considered that the geological storage of CO2 can compete with other uses of underground geological formations, such as geothermics or compressed-air and natural-gas storage (Chapter 4). The Federal Environment Agency takes the view that these factors determine the role that CCS can play as an additional climate protection measure (Chapter 5). In Chapter 6 we show how CCS, in its application, should be integrated into emissions trading. CO2 emission reduction should in our view only be acknowledged when it is effectively and demonstrably ensured through permanent storage. Chapter 7 deals with necessary reforms of liability law, which legislators should undertake in order to assign the dangers and risks of CCS to those responsible for them. In Chapter 8, we summarize the fundamental demands on legislators, while Chapter 9 is devoted to issues concerning the source and application of funds for research and development. (orig.)

  11. Valuation of cloths for decontamination by wiping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Reif, D.J.; Fink, S.D.; Luckenbach, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Treated polyester cloth was evaluated in laboratory-scale and larger-scale tests as an alternative to atomic wipes and cotton cloth for use in decontamination by wiping. The advantages of the treated polyester are as follows: Does not react with nitric acid to form unstable product, More fire resistant, Less volume of radioactive waste generated (versus atomic wipes), and Product can be recovered by soaking the polyester cloths in nitric acid. Results are that even though treated polyester wiping cloths are slightly less effective than atomic wipes and cotton cloth, its many other benefits greatly outweigh this slight disadvantage. 1 ref., 5 figs

  12. Technical and Sociological Approaches for Curriculum Innovation on Clothing Education Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristantie, N.

    2018-02-01

    Education in the context of social and technical development is defined as the main factor in the learning process which is implied into curriculum. It needs to be anticipated responsively how the goals of Clothing Education Department should be achieved. The sociological and technological through curriculum innovation at Clothing Education Department aims to gain good profile of the professional graduates in the future. By using the literature study, it is found out that sociological development and technological approach are the main foundation for sustainability of Clothing Education Department.

  13. Lightning protection technology for small general aviation composite material aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.; Setzer, T. E.; Siddiqi, S.

    1993-01-01

    An on going NASA (Small Business Innovative Research) SBIR Phase II design and development program will produce the first lightning protected, fiberglass, General Aviation aircraft that is available as a kit. The results obtained so far in development testing of typical components of the aircraft kit, such as the wing and fuselage panels indicate that the lightning protection design methodology and materials chosen are capable of protecting such small composite airframes from lightning puncture and structural damage associated with severe threat lightning strikes. The primary objective of the program has been to develop a lightening protection design for full scale test airframe and verify its adequacy with full scale laboratory testing, thus enabling production and sale of owner-built, lightning-protected, Stoddard-Hamilton Aircraft, Inc. Glasair II airplanes. A second objective has been to provide lightning protection design guidelines for the General Aviation industry, and to enable these airplanes to meet lightening protection requirements for certification of small airplanes. This paper describes the protection design approaches and development testing results obtained thus far in the program, together with design methodology which can achieve the design goals listed above. The presentation of this paper will also include results of some of the full scale verification tests, which will have been completed by the time of this conference.

  14. Additional Safeguards for Children Using Biometric Technologies in the European Union Multilevel System from the Perspective of Fundamental Rights Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Sarrión Esteve, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    I. Motivation. II. Methodology III. The advances of biometric technologies. A particular focus on DNA technology. IV. DNA technology legal framework V. Fundamental rights protection in EU Multilevel System VI. Additional Safeguards for Children Conclusions? I. Motivation. II. Methodology III. The advances of biometric technologies. A particular focus on DNA technology. IV. DNA technology legal framework V. Fundamental rights protection in EU Multileve...

  15. E-COMMERCE SIDEWALK CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ariffiana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce merupakan aplikasi perdagangan barang atau jasa berbasis web melalui media internet.  Sidewalk Clothing saat ini dalam melakukan proses jual beli masih mengharuskan pembeli dan penjual bertatap muka secara langsung. E-commerce atau yang lebih dikenal dengan toko online memberikan kemudahan dalam melakukan proses jual beli sehingga transaksi jual beli menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien. Hasil yang dicapai dalam pembuatan e-commerce ini adalah mempermudah proses transaksi jual beli tanpa terikat waktu dan tempat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini pemilik toko dimudahkan dalam memperbaharui informasi mengenai produk yang dijual dan dapat sekaligus meningkatkan penjualan. Pembeli dimudahkan dalam dalam mendapatkan informasi produk yang ditawarkan dan pembeli bisa membeli produk tersebut setiap saat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini dapat memudahkan transaksi jual beli antara pemilik toko dan pembeli, serta memudahkan pemilik toko dalam memperbaharui informasi sehingga dengan adanya e- commerce omset penjualan akanmeningkat. Kata Kunci:E-commerce, website, Sidewalk Clothing

  16. Blackout cloth for dormancy induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Jopson

    2007-01-01

    The use of blackout cloth to create long night photoperiods for the induction of dormancy in certain conifer species has been an established practice for a long time. Its use was suggested by Tinus and McDonald (1979) as an effective technique, and the practice has been commonly used in Canadian forest nurseries for a number of years. Cal-Forest Nursery installed its...

  17. Three distinct surgical clothing systems in a turbulent mixing operating room equipped with mobile ultraclean laminar airflow screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadrizadeh, Sasan; Holmberg, Sture; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2016-01-01

    on the operating and instrument tables with and without the additional mobile airflow screen. Three different source strengths (the mean bacteria-carrying particle value emitted from one person per second) due to staff clothing variety were considered. Model validation was performed through result comparisons...... a clothing system with high protective capacity reduced particle concentration....

  18. Nuclear technology in materials testing and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, R.

    1975-01-01

    A report of the 1974 activities of the laboratories for physical and measuring technical fundamentals, radiation effects and radiation protection, application of radionuclides and testing of radioactive materials of the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung (BAM) is given. (RW/LH) [de

  19. Application of radiation technology for industry and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueo Machi

    1996-01-01

    The world population today is 5.7 billion and increasing by 94 million per year. In order to meet the increasing consumption of food and energy due to the tremendous population growth, unproved technologies which are environmentally friendly, are indispensable. In this context. a number of advanced technologies have been brought about by the LISC of radiation and isotopes. This paper highlights radiation technology, applications in industry, environmental conservation, and agriculture

  20. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  1. Origin of clothing lice indicates early clothing use by anatomically modern humans in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Melissa A; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.

  2. Clothing Preferences of Older Women: Implications for Gerontology and the American Clothing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruiell, Phyllis R.; Jernigan, Marian

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the clothing preferences and problems of older women, using personal interviews. Presents results of preferred styles in detail. Discusses implications of the research for gerontologists in higher education and for the American clothing industry. (RC)

  3. Keep an Eye on Your Eyes: Technologies for Protecting Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease,” Miller says. “With current technology, thousands of cells must die before it’s detected.” His team’s new method would allow eye doctors to see the damage earlier. In glaucoma, ...

  4. Privacy Protection: Regulations and Technologies, Opportunities and Threats

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRESCHI, Dino; BONCHI, Francesco; TURINI, Franco; VERYKIOS, Vassilios; Atzori, Maurizio; Malin, Brad; MOELANS, Bart; SAYGIN, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    nformation and communication technologies (ICTs) touch many aspects of our lives. The integration of ICTs is enhanced by the advent of mobile, wireless, and ubiquitous technologies. ICTs are increasingly embedded in common services, such as mobile and wireless communication, Internet browsing, credit card e-transactions, and electronic health records. As ICT-based services become ubiquitous, our everyday actions leave behind increasingly detailed digital traces in the information systems of I...

  5. Radiation Protection in the Application of Active Detection Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    BECKER, S.M. (2004). “Emergency communication and information issues in terrorism events involving radioactive materials,” Biosecur Bioterror. 2(3...National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Considerations Regarding the Unintended Radiation Exposure of the Embryo, Fetus or Nursing

  6. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  7. A review of technology for contact protection of remediation manipulators (WHC Issue 39)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunborg, S.

    1994-09-01

    Remediation of waste from Underground Storage Tanks (UST) at Hanford will require the use of large remotely controlled equipment. Inherent safety methods need to be identified and incorporated into the retrieval system to prevent contact damage to the UST or to the remediation equipment. This report discusses the requirements for an adequate protection system and reviews the major technologies available for inclusion in a damage protection system. The report proposes that adequate reliability of a protection system can be achieved through the use of two fully-independent subsafety systems. Safety systems technologies reviewed were Force/Torque Sensors, Overload Protection Devices, Ultrasonic Sensors, Capacitance Sensors, Controller Software Limit Graphic Collision Detection, and End Point Tracking. A relative comparison between retrieval systems protection technologies is presented

  8. The development of anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Albert P C; Guo, Y P; Wong, Francis K W; Li, Y; Sun, S; Han, X

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop anti-heat stress clothing for construction workers in hot and humid weather. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, the design situation was explored, including clothing fabric heat/moisture transporting properties and UV protection and the aspects of clothing ergonomic design (mobility, convenience, and safety). The problem structure was derived from the results of the surveys in three local construction sites, which agreed well with the task requirements and observations. Specifications were consequently described and 30 commercially available fabrics were identified and tested. Fabric testing data and design considerations were inputted in S-smart system to predict the thermal functional performance of the clothing. A new uniform prototype was developed and evaluated. The results of all measurements suggest that the new uniform which incorporated fabrics with superior heat/moisture transporting properties and loose-fitting design could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance. Practitioner Summary: The construction workers' uniform currently used in Hong Kong during summer was unsatisfactory. Following DeJonge's functional clothing design process, an anti-heat stress uniform was developed by testing 30 fabrics and predicting clothing thermal functional performance using S-smart system. The new uniform could reduce the workers' heat stress and improve their comfort and work performance.

  9. A RESEARCH ON EXAMINATION OF SWIMMER CLOTHING FOR INCREASING SPORTSMAN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ÖLÇER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present the problems of swimmers about swimming clothing in trainings or competitions and their expectations from swimming clothing for increasing their performan ce . Descriptive method was used in the research . Survey was developed as a data collection tool on clothing comfort parameters and functional design p roperties that swimming clothing should have . The universe of the r esearch is composed of male and female swimmers interested in swimming sport in T urkey, in the province of Çorum. And the sample is composed of 50 swimmers who participate in the research v oluntarily among the members of Olympic Indoor Swimming Pool serving in Çorum Provincial Directorate of Youth Services and Spor ts . The findings were analyzed in Statistics Package Program in Social Sciences (SPSS. As a result of the r esearch ; it was determined that the problems experienced with the clothing were quick deform ation, restriction of movements, and the fact that fabric texture and sewing properties discomfort the skin and expectations from clothing were durability, ease of movement , to accord with the body and easy maintenance . It is considered that r esearch results shall be a guide for research and development activities to be performed about clothing comfort on both academic and sector basis for increasing sportive performan ce in running sport and protection of sportsmen health .

  10. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  11. Recent advances in reactor protection and control system technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    After a first-generation digital integrated protection system has been installed on all 1300 MWe PWR units in France, a new digital protection system was developed for the 1450 MWe units, using local area networks, fiber optics, Motorola 68000 microprocessors, and a modular design allowing for the design of any system on the basis of around 50 types of standard cards. In 1993, an upgrading program for this equipment was launched in order to reduce costs, in particular software development costs, further improve hardware modularity and facilitate integration and connection to existing equipment. The basic principles of the units are described together with the implementation of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, interfaces with hard-wired equipment, and multiplexed connections. The nuclear instrumentation systems at the Fessenheim and Bugey plants have been renovated with these equipment

  12. Periodic inspections of lightning protection systems in intermediate storage facilities of nuclear technological plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzel, Andre; Schulz, Olav

    2013-01-01

    Especially for nuclear technological plants, periodic inspections of lightning protection systems are of great importance. This article shows the sequence of maintenance programs using the examples of the intermediate storage facilities of the nuclear technological plants Grohnde and Unterweser as well as the central intermediate storage facility in Gorleben and gives a description of the extensive measures of inspecting the external and internal lightning protection and the global earth termination system.

  13. Hot topic - fire resistant clothing for electrical workers has no Canadian standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, R

    1996-07-01

    Fabrics which could be used for protective clothing for electrical workers was discussed. In Canada there are no stringent clothing rules for the electrical industry, but in the United States, the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have made protective clothing an issue within the industry. Dupont`s Nomex, Westex`s Indura, and Hoechst Celanese`s PBI fibres are among the materials which have been through a series of thermal protection tests and are based on proven materials which are now being applied to work wear. The testing standards cover the ignition of the basic materials, untreated cottons, wools, and the thermal protection of flame resistant materials. The final tests are based on high current arc tests conducted on the fabrics used in the industry. These tests are now being conducted at Ontario Hydro`s High Current Test Facility preliminary to a Canadian standard being formulated and proposed in the very near future. 2 figs.

  14. Innovative Technologies for the Protection of Historical Structures against Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Aras

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to represent innovative technologies and strategies to preserve the cultural heritage structures against earthquake effect. In particular, the application of fibre reinforced polymers and structural control systems are explained. Suitability of the strategies to architectural, historical and structural features and reversibility aspects are evaluated. As a case study the application of these strategies to a historical building in Istanbul is discussed.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATION OF MICROALGAE IN POWER INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmutdin M. Abdulagatov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. The aim of the study is to show the possibility and efficiency of large-scale industrial production of microalgae in the Republic of Dagestan for the development of agriculture (feed for animals and poultry and other technological applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries for the production of algalin flour (eco bread, polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3, omega-6 physiologically necessary for humans, biologically active substances (astaxanthin, phycocyanin, new-generation antibiotics, biofuels and other high added value biotechnological products. The problems of using microalgae for bioremediation of the environment, in particular, purification of geothermal waters from phenols before discharging into the sewage system are considered. Methods. Microalgae are grown in closed and open type plants. Valuable algae components can be extracted using supercritical fluid technology of continuous action. Results. We give a comparative evaluation of the efficiency of using microalgae as a biological raw material in comparison with traditionally used oilseeds. Conclusion. For Dagestan, located on the shore of the Caspian Sea, with its warm climate and an abundance of solar and geothermal energy, the development of this technology is a task of great economic importance. The advantages of microalgae technologies are the basis for the creation of large-scale production of microalgae in southern Russia. Biotechnology in Dagestan can become not only profitable, but also a high-tech and innovative industry.

  16. BIOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS FOR REAL-TIME/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in electronics and computer technology have made great strides in the field of remote sensing and biomonitoring. The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health and national se...

  17. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air......We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  18. Analysis Of Students' Performance In Clothing And Textiles In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis Of Students' Performance In Clothing And Textiles In Colleges Of ... in Clothing and Textiles more than foods and Nutrition and Home Management. ... poor attitude of students towards clothing and Textiles, lack of enough time ...

  19. Achievments of corrosion science and corrosion protection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, M.; Stehjl, R.

    1985-01-01

    Problems of corrosion-mechanical strength of metals, effect of corrosive media on creep characteristics are presented. New concepts of the mechanism of corrosion cracking and its relation to hydrogen embrittlement are described. Kinetics and mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement effect on the process of corrosion cracking of different steels and alloys are considered. The dependence of such types of failure on various structural factors is shown. Data on corrosion cracking of high-strength aluminium and titanium alloys, mechanism of the processes and protective methods are given

  20. New technology for reactor protection system of CAREM reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezzutti, J.C.; Verrastro, C.; Estryk, D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of FPGA in safety functions in a nuclear power plant, increase the reliability of software based systems, without loose any of the function required by the supervision and control systems. In this work the architecture of a Reactor Protection System is described, it use four independent measurement channels in 2 oo 4 configuration, each channel is based on diverse approach in 1 oo 2 configuration, the reliability of this system is near the same than the hardwired logic, with full performance like software based system. (author)

  1. PROTECTION OF YIELD AND SOIL: NEW MULCHING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Sorokina; L. A. Uzhaninova

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable ecovio® plastic films for mulching is a solution of BASF engineering.It offers the excellent mechanical properties, and it is completely destructedas polymer is to be fully composted. Without recycling this covering plastic filmis entirely digested by soil microorganisms. The only thing is to do after harvestingis to bury scraps of plastics into the soil to start the process of biodigestion. Development of ecovio® solution opens new page for wide use of this technology in agricu...

  2. Single-use surgical clothing system for reduction of airborne bacteria in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammelin, A; Ljungqvist, B; Reinmüller, B

    2013-07-01

    It is desirable to maintain a low bacterial count in the operating room air to prevent surgical site infection. This can be achieved by ventilation or by all staff in the operating room wearing clothes made from low-permeable material (i.e. clean air suits). We investigated whether there was a difference in protective efficacy between a single-use clothing system made of polypropylene and a reusable clothing system made of a mixed material (cotton/polyester) by testing both in a dispersal chamber and during surgical procedures. Counts of colony-forming units (cfu)/m(3) air were significantly lower when using the single-use clothing system in both settings. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heat transfer from humans wearing clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotens, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this monograph the effects of clothing on human heat transfer are described. The description is based on the physics of heat and mass transfer, depending on the design of the clothing, the climate, and the activity of the wearer. The resulting model has been stepwise implemented in computer

  4. Technological problems connected with execution of the protection sheets for nuclear power sets WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajutin, J.G.; Kriczewskij, A.Z.

    1977-01-01

    The choice of the structure and the prestressing system of the R.C. protection sheet for nuclear power sets WWER-1000 is motivated. The technological problems arised during the execution stage, as well as the technological line producing the tendons to prestress the structure by up winding are presented. (author)

  5. Hardware cloth seed-spot screens reduce high surface soil temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.A. Fowells; R.K. Arnold

    1939-01-01

    Screens made of hardware cloth are commonly used to protect seed-spots in forest plantations from the depredations of birds and rodents. It is important to know whether or not the screens influence germination and survival of seedlings in addition to furnishing protection against animals.

  6. PROTECTION OF YIELD AND SOIL: NEW MULCHING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sorokina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable ecovio® plastic films for mulching is a solution of BASF engineering.It offers the excellent mechanical properties, and it is completely destructedas polymer is to be fully composted. Without recycling this covering plastic filmis entirely digested by soil microorganisms. The only thing is to do after harvestingis to bury scraps of plastics into the soil to start the process of biodigestion. Development of ecovio® solution opens new page for wide use of this technology in agriculture. The usage of biodegradable plastic films has shown the good results in plant nursery gardens, vegetable and grape growing.

  7. Technology development for evaluation of operational quantities in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, B. H.

    2003-03-01

    Korean government recently published a national regulation on the internal exposure monitoring and dose evaluation (internal dosimetry) based on the most recent ICRP recommendation 60 and subsequent publications, which supercede the former ICRP recommendation 26 and publication 30, on which the internal dosimetry practice in Korea had been based so far. Consequently, this project, according to the demand from both government and nuclear industry, had been launched to develop a user-friendly computer code on internal dosimetry adopting the most up to date ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric model to resolve the difficulties and problems faced to nuclear industry and to develop related technology. The reliability of this code, named as BiDAS, as a result of several benchmark calculations for self assurance appeared to be excellent comparing with the foreign computer code. This computer code is expected to be successfully utilized in nuclear industry and related fields in complying with the national regulation on internal dosimetry program started from late 2003. Reference low level gamma(γ) radiation field for calibration of environmental radiation(γ) monitor and reference neutron field for calibration of n monitoring equipment have been established and characterized. International cross comparison of these reference radiation fields have been performed and radiation response of various radiation monitoring instrument has been tested by using these reference radiation fields. A technology which can directly measure the radiation quality factor and tissue absorbed dose has been established to evaluate the neutron dose in terms of operational quantity in the unknown mixed n-γ radiation field. Spherical and cylindrical TEPC systems have been designed and manufactured and a portable TEPC system to measure the neutron quality and dose in the real work field has been developed and tested in accelerator laboratory

  8. Flammability on textile of flight crew professional clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santos, M. C.; Oliveira, M. S.; Giacomin, A. M.; Laktim, M. C.; Baruque-Ramos, J.

    2017-10-01

    The issue about flammability of textile materials employed in passenger cabins of commercial aircrafts is an important part of safety routines planning. Once an in-flight emergency initiated with fire or smoke aboard, time becomes critical and the entire crew must be involved in the solution. It is part of the crew functions, notably the attendants, the in-flight firefighting. This study compares the values of textile material of flight attendant working cloths and galley curtain fabric with regard to flammability and Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI). Values to the professional clothing material indicate that they are flammable and the curtains, self-extinguishing. Thus, despite of the occurrences of fire outbreaks in aircrafts are unexceptional, the use of other materials and technologies for uniforms, such as alternative textile fibers and flame retardant finishes should be considered as well as the establishment of performance limits regarding flame and fire exposing.

  9. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  10. Development of exhaust gas treatment technologies for environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Stefanescu, I.; Stanciu, V.; Niculescu, V.; Sandru, C.; Armeanu, A.; Bucura, F.; Sisu, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the immediate term over the next 10 - 20 years at least, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO 2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO 2 and remove other pollutants such as SO x and NO x which are released in the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this types of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies will need to be developed in order to allow their large-scale use. (authors)

  11. Technology development for evaluation of operational quantities in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Lyul; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, L. T.; Kim, B. H.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Lim, G. S.; Kim, J. S.; Nam, Y. M.; Chang, J. K.; Kim, D. Y.; Yang, J. S

    2000-03-01

    A study on the fabrication of a new personal thermo-luminescence dosimeter, which can evaluate the personal dose equivalent H{sub p}(d), has been performed. Optimum conditions for fabrication of a LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL phosphor powder has been determined and a disc type TL pellet has been fabricated from this TL powder. Another type of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,Mo TL material has been also fabricated. These two TL materials have shown greater TL sensitivity than the foreign-made commercial TL materials. Mono-energetic fluorescence X-ray from 8.6 keV to 75 keV for use in performance testing of the developed TLDs energy response have been constructed and evaluated for the performance of the purity, air kerma, beam uniformity and distribution, and scattered fraction of X-rays. Reference neutron field of a D{sub 2}O moderated {sup 252}Cf source was characterized and the irradiation system using {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs sources was installed to construct the environmental gamma reference radiation and the low-level gamma radiation. A capability of calibration and measurement of KAERI In Vivo counting system for transuranic elements in the lung has been evaluated through the participation in the overseas intercomparison study on the In Vivo radioactivity measurement. An improvement and advancement of KAERI lung counting technology have been made by the analysis off uncertainties from the assumption of uniform radioactivity distribution in the lung, experimental determination and comparing of detection efficiency with different lung sets, and mathematical efficiency calibration of In Vivo counting system. (author)

  12. Analysis and study of low-carbon clothing design and fashion lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon is not only a slogan, but also a global action to protect the environment. In the clothing industry, low-carbon clothing design has drawn public focus and it also conveyed the notion that we should respect for nature and advocate the concept of conservation. Through the analysis and study of low-carbon clothing design, it comes to two conclusions: On the subjective aspect, low-carbon design consciousness of designers which humanization of costume design, design clothing beyond beauty, thinking and caring about people; on the objective aspects, low-carbon clothing design is analyzed in three main aspects: fabric, color and styling. It is necessary to put low-carbon concept into people’s behavior consciousness and let the slow fashion environmental concept return back to people’s fashion lifestyle, so that consumers can look for their self-positioning and rational thinking. Therefore, the design of low-carbon clothing should be raised to the design of humanistic care to ensure that low-carbon concept is a global need and responsibility.

  13. The modular technology of development of the CAD expansions: protection of the buildings from the lightning

    OpenAIRE

    Migunov, Vladimir V.; Kafiyatullov, Rustem R.; Safin, Ilsur T.

    2004-01-01

    The modular technology of development of the problem-oriented CAD expansions is applied to a task of designing of protection of the buildings from the lightning with realization in program system TechnoCAD GlassX. The system model of the drawings of lightning protection is developed including the structured parametric representation (properties of objects and their interdependence, general settings and default settings) and operations with it, which efficiently automate designing

  14. AN ACTION OF EXOGENOUS STEROIDAL GLYCOSIDE ON EXHIBITION OF INBREEDING DEPRESSION IN RED BEET PLANTS UNDER PROTECTED CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Kozar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The protected cultivation technology, through which the various inbred generations with the combination of economic valuable traits and different level of sterility can be produced, is used in order to accelerate the breeding program. However, there is a negative effect of inbreeding depression and self-incompatibility can often occur and cause the loss of valuable breeding forms. The aim of the work was to study the influence of steroidal glycosides capsicoside (SGC on exhibition of CMS, and morphobiological parameters of 13 inbred generations that were produced from fertile plant and partly sterile plants with level of sterility 10% and 50%. The seeds were soaked for 24 hours in water solution of SGC with concentration 10-3%, and in water control. Then the seeds were dried up and sown in the greenhouse. The stecklings and roots obtained were vernalized at 3-5Co. Mother plants were grown under 18 hour photoperiod in greenhouse with supplementary lighting. Inbreeding seeds were obtained in individual cloth isolators. It was shown that for all generations the treatment with SGC improved the seed germination (4-8% more, increased the root index and its length (12-24% more, decreased betanin content (22-48% less in comparison with control. The action of SGC on the other morphological and biochemical traits such as height of leaf rosette, leaf number, plant and root weight, head size, number of generative buds, and nitrate content was defined by the level of sterility of mother plant. The most expressed effect for all traits mentioned was seen in inbreeding generations of sterile plants with high level of sterility. After action effect of seed treatment with SGC on development of seed plants from inbreeding generations, not depending on sterility level of mother plants, showed the positive influence on plant habitus of seed mother plants, decreasing the plant height, but increasing stem number and functional parameters of microgametophyte in fertile

  15. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  16. The application and development of artificial intelligence in smart clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiong

    2018-03-01

    This paper mainly introduces the application of artificial intelligence in intelligent clothing. Starting from the development trend of artificial intelligence, analysis the prospects for development in smart clothing with artificial intelligence. Summarize the design key of artificial intelligence in smart clothing. Analysis the feasibility of artificial intelligence in smart clothing.

  17. Rise of radiation protection: science, medicine and technology in society, 1896--1935

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serwer, D.P.

    1976-12-01

    The history of radiation protection before World War II is treated as a case study of interactions between science, medicine, and technology. The fundamental concerns include the following: are how medical and technical decisions with social impacts are made under conditions of uncertainty; how social pressures are brought to bear on the development of science, medicine, and technology; what it means for medicine or technology to be scientific; why professional groups seek international cooperation; and the roles various professionals and organizations play in controlling the harmful side effects of science, medicine, and technology. These questions are addressed in the specific context of protection from the biological effects of x-rays and radium in medical use

  18. Rise of radiation protection: science, medicine and technology in society, 1896--1935

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serwer, D.P.

    1976-12-01

    The history of radiation protection before World War II is treated as a case study of interactions between science, medicine, and technology. The fundamental concerns include the following: are how medical and technical decisions with social impacts are made under conditions of uncertainty; how social pressures are brought to bear on the development of science, medicine, and technology; what it means for medicine or technology to be scientific; why professional groups seek international cooperation; and the roles various professionals and organizations play in controlling the harmful side effects of science, medicine, and technology. These questions are addressed in the specific context of protection from the biological effects of x-rays and radium in medical use.

  19. Performance/design criteria review advanced worker protection systems. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This document describes an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with a variety of articles of protective clothing and support equipment

  20. Performance/design criteria review advanced worker protection systems. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This document describes an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with a variety of articles of protective clothing and support equipment.

  1. Logistics Reduction: Advanced Clothing System (ACS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project's Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf...

  2. Folding System for the Clothes by a Robot and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    大澤, 文明; 関, 啓明; 神谷, 好承

    2004-01-01

    The works of a home robot has the laundering. The purpose of this study is to find a means of folding of the clothes and store the clothes in a drawer by a home robot. Because the shape of cloth tends to change in various ways depending on the situation, it is difficult for robot hands to fold the clothes. In this paper, we propose a realistic folding system for the clothes by a robot and tools. The function of a tool is folding the clothes in half by inserting the clothes using two plates. T...

  3. Ergonomics principles to design clothing work for electrical workers in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Juan; Cubillos, A

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of the Colombian legislation, have been identified the need to develop protective clothing to work according to specifications from the work done and in compliance with international standards. These involve the development and design of new strategies and measures for work clothing design. In this study we analyzes the activities of the workers in the electrical sector, the method analyzes the risks activity data in various activities, that activities include power generation plants, local facilities, industrial facilities and maintenance of urban and rural networks. The analyses method is focused on ergonomic approach, risk analysis is done, we evaluate the role of security expert and we use a design algorithm developed for this purpose. The result of this study is the identification of constraints and variables that contribute to the development of a model of analysis that leads to the development the work protective clothes.

  4. EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] SITE [Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation] program seeks technology proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    EPA will issue an RFP to initiate the SITE-005 solicitation for demonstration of technologies under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. This portion of the SITE program offers a mechanism for conducting a joint technology demonstration between EPA and the private sector. The goal of the demonstration program is to provide an opportunity for developers to demonstrate the performance of their technologies on actual hazardous wastes at Superfund sites, and to provide accurate and reliable data on that performance. Technologies selected must be of commercial scale and provide solutions to problems encountered at Superfund Sites. Primary emphasis in the RFP is on technologies that address: treatment of mixed, low level radioactive wastes in soils and groundwater; treatment of soils and sludges contaminated with organics and/or inorganics, materials handling as a preliminary step to treatment or further processing, treatment trains designed to handle specific wastes, are in situ technologies, especially those processes providing alternatives to conventional groundwater pump and treat techniques

  5. Architecture of Gothic Period and Its Effect to Clothing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife YILDIZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Root of the word Gothic comes from a German tribe which lives in region of the Gotland of Scandinavia. Gothic period is a movement which ends the Midde Age and opens Renaissance. Alth ough seen in all branches of the art, Gothic is widely a style of architecture. Having been originated from the Roman architecture, Gothic Architecture come out in the second half of the 12th century and continued its existence until the half of the 16th c entury when classical architecture come out. In Europe, Gothic painting, sculpture and architecture were dominant and preserved its popularity until the Renaissance. Fashion means all the temporary new styles which come out in a certain period of time with the desires of dressing up, being different, wearing the most desirable. Although seen as two different design field, when we examine closely, we can see that fashion and architecture has many common point from the past to present. As man is the common po int of this two field, they naturally affect each other. Gothic architecture inspired clothing designs, which is enough to show how much they affected each other. In this study, our purpose is to reveal effects of the Gothic architecture on the clothing d esigns. The style used in the Gothic period architecture and models and styles in clothing designs was presented with the help of table of specification. According to this, both fields' sharing common aesthetic concern and same theoritic and ideologic bas e was accompanied by stylistic and structural similarities accordingly. Designers in this two different fields turned even to themselves for inspiration and technical strategy. Environmental and cultural factors affect both fashion designers and architects . When seen as a part of historical process, clothes and buildings with their important cultural and economic conditions are priceless anthropological buildings which show technological developments within the period.

  6. Scan posture definition and hip girth measurement: the impact on clothing design and body scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simeon; Parker, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic measurement is central to product design and development; especially for body worn products and clothing. However, there is a large variation in measurement definitions, complicated by new body scanning technology that captures measurements in a posture different to traditional manual methods. Investigations of hip measurement definitions in current clothing measurement practices supports analysis of the effect of scan posture and hip measurement definition on the circumferences of the hip. Here, the hip girth is a key clothing measurement that is not defined in current body scanning measurement standards. Sixty-four participants were scanned in the standard scan posture of a [TC] 2 body scanner, and also in a natural posture similar to that of traditional manual measurement collection. Results indicate that scan posture affects hip girth circumferences, and that some current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. Recommendations are made concerning how the hip is defined in measurement practice and within body scanning for clothing product development. Practitioner Summary: The hip girth is an important measurement in garment design, yet its measurement protocol is not currently defined. We demonstrate that body posture during body scanning affects hip circumferences, and that current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. This paper also provides future measurement practice recommendations.

  7. TO SEW OR NOT TO SEW. SEAMLESS CLOTHES AND SEAMLESS APPEARANCE IN FASHION DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDOR Elena Corina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At first glance clothes are obviously made by cutting and sewing. The textile fabric is cut in different shapes and reassembled by sewing in the wanted shape and volume. Sometimes the structures can be quite complex. The truth is that there are more ways of making clothes, as we can see looking back into the history of fashion. The progress of technology in textile industry offers also very interesting directions that we could not dream about some time ago. Observing carefully the economy of seams, their presence, absence or the suitable number can move us towards creative solutions that are relevant not only for the esthetic of a garment but also for the process of making clothes suggesting alternatives for the present situation and its important problems like sustainability. This paper is a survey of alternative ways in making clothes and highlights the relation between concept and practical issues. The starting point is seamless clothing and the natural fascination of the subject. Going further on this line we should consider that the absence of the seams in a garment is not the same with a seamless appearance. So, do we really need to sew our clothes?

  8. 78 FR 12065 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal Protective Technology for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal Protective Technology for Pesticide Handlers: Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers...: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of...

  9. ANIMAL WASTE IMPACT ON SOURCE WATERSAIDED BY EPA/NSF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) SOURCE WATER PROTECTION PILOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) was established in 1995 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to encourage the development and commercialization of new environmental technologies through third part testing and reporting of performance data. By ensur...

  10. Data Protection in Financial Technology Services (A Study in Indonesian Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Purnama Anugerah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector is facing a new competitor, namely Financial Technology (Fin-tech. Fin-tech itself can be described as an industry composed of companies using a new tech-nology and innovation with available resources in order to compete in the marketplace of tradi-tional financial institutions and intermediaries in the delivery of financial services. In Indonesia, Fin-tech has been widely developed since the past 3 years. Fin-tech faces a new challenge as a new service for financial consumer which adapts to new ways of living in modern digital tech-nology era. Basically, Fin-tech offers three main categories such as payment, personal finance, and financing. In financing application there are peer to peer financing, social crowd funding, and loan marketplace. All of these kinds of application have some issues in legal framework and data protection due to the use of communication technologies such as internet, social networks, Smartphone, massive use of data with the Big Data, connected objects, etc. The use of big data and those new technologies create new opportunities for these sectors, and this development also raises significant data protection concerns. This paper discusses two legal issues of Fin-tech, the legal aspect, and the data protection.

  11. Marginalization of end-use technologies in energy innovation for climate protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Charlie; Grubler, Arnulf; Gallagher, Kelly S.; Nemet, Gregory F.

    2012-11-01

    Mitigating climate change requires directed innovation efforts to develop and deploy energy technologies. Innovation activities are directed towards the outcome of climate protection by public institutions, policies and resources that in turn shape market behaviour. We analyse diverse indicators of activity throughout the innovation system to assess these efforts. We find efficient end-use technologies contribute large potential emission reductions and provide higher social returns on investment than energy-supply technologies. Yet public institutions, policies and financial resources pervasively privilege energy-supply technologies. Directed innovation efforts are strikingly misaligned with the needs of an emissions-constrained world. Significantly greater effort is needed to develop the full potential of efficient end-use technologies.

  12. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models

  13. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  14. TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN PLANT PROTECTION IN THE PRECISION FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Jurišić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise of precision farming as a larger amount of information is its availability to the farmer in making decision. Direct comparison of perennial parameters obtained from the plot results in purposefully, argumentative and optimal use of resources for work (while keeping in mind the ecological impact. Today, the development of satellite navigation technology and monitoring of agricultural machinery, and reducing the cost of these devices again revived the question of the precision agriculture application. Advanced farmers in developed agricultural countries already regularly apply some of the technological possibilities of precision farming. Precision agriculture and plant protection allow the farmer realizing high incomes while keeping safe natural resources. Using modern GIS technology machines collect data directly from the plot using sensors and integrate themselves into the data processing system. Processed information is used by a farmer taking GreenStar system for the new planned operation and achieving significant time and money spare. Precision agriculture offers the possibility of optimal care of each plant, not just the average, or the entire field. Low risk investments are one of the main factors of choice precise plant protection. The use of pilotless aircrafts remote sensing allow fast and economical obtaining data and sufficient precision information. Using modern technology such as Variable Rate Application (applying a variable volume and GreenStar software package it is possible to regulate the amount of care and protection.

  15. A Design and Research on Protection of Architectural Heritage Based on Digital Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Shuang Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of digital information, how to reasonably use new-tech and idea for the architectural heritage protection remains urgent. In terms of digital protection, 3D laser scanning technology can perfectly remedy the manual measurement limitation thus correctly obtaining the relevant data. Via analysis, we find that the architectural heritage bears in itself the parameterized characteristic. As Building Information Modeling (BIM can help realize the parametric design, we proposed a feasible Architectural Heritage Information Model with the BIM “family” connecting architectural heritage and BIM. Finally, the parameter-induced graphic driving is achieved based on the relation between the two.

  16. Remote and continuous gamma spectrometry for environmental radiation protection: state of the art technology and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Put, Ph.; Lellis, C.; Debauche, A.; Lacroix, J-P.

    2004-01-01

    The instruments technologies for radiological protection of the environment have been considerably enhanced since the last 20 years. From very simple warning bells in the early 80s, the instruments have been sophisticated nowadays to a degree where their performances can be compared to the performances achieved in low level laboratories. This presentation will briefly overview the evolution of these instruments by comparing their technology, their methodology and their performances. Next, it will present the concepts of the state of the art technology in the field of continuous monitoring of the environment. A discussion will follow on the performances and the limitations of this technology. Finally, the presentation will highlight the future perspective of developments by taking into account recent progress in the field of radiation detectors, telecommunication and computer sciences among others. (authors)

  17. Influence of Clothing Fabrics on Skin Microcirculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ling; PAN Ning; ZHAO Lian-ying; HUAUNG Gu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of clothing fabric on human skin microcirculation. Once skin is covered with a clothing fabric, human sensations, namely, coolness, warmth, softness, and roughness, are amused immediately, and the cutaneous micrecireulation may be changed consequently. Since the complex relationships of the human skin, the environment, and the clothing, there is few publication focusing on the physiological responses of the skin to the fabrics. In this paper, a Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) was used to test the dynamic responses of the skin blood flow when the fabric was placed on the skin. Effects of different fabrics on the skin blood flux were investigated. The results show that cold stimulation of fabric has remarkable influences on the skin blood flux, and the surface properties of fabric are of importance to affect the human skin blood flow.

  18. Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Grilec Kaurić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing industry in Croatia. The research was conducted through personal interviews with marketing and company managers in Croatia. The research identified that marketing is insufficiently implemented in Croatian textile and clothing industry, despite growing brand management importance. However, because of lack in marketing knowledge and bad brand management, development of fashion brand is the most critical factor in successful business activity in textile and clothing industry.

  19. An Environmental Perspective on Clothing Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Nielsen, Kristian S.; Mueller, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to decrease the environmental impact of today’s clothing industry across the entire process of production, purchase, maintenance, and disposal can be driven by either suppliers or consumers. Changing the behavior of the latter, however, requires an understanding of current clothing...... consumption patterns—a currently under-researched area. We therefore shed more light on these patterns in the purchase, use and maintenance, and discard phases by analyzing unique data on 4617 adult consumers (aged 18–65) from Germany, Poland, Sweden, and the U.S., who we divide into five segments based......’ different reported purchase behavior and a varying openness to alternative business models, we identify differences in willingness to pay for clothing made of material that is more environmentally friendly than conventional fabrics. These observations suggest several promising directions for environmental...

  20. Meeting United States re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection using innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P.; Winchell, F.C.; Cook, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    Procedure for meeting re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection and an overview of several new and emerging technologies regarding the development of ways to prevent fish passage through hydraulic turbines at hydroelectric power dams is described. Fish mortality and injury has long been a concern in the hydroelectric industry and research and development efforts have been ongoing since the 1970s to prevent fish passage through turbines. Several new and emerging technologies are examined that have the potential for wide-spread cost-effective applications

  1. Fire protection research for energy technology projects; FY 79 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes work performed in fiscal year 1979, on a DOE funded study entitled Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that fire protection measures for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE) evolve concurrently with the complexity of FEE. Ultimately, it is planned that the detailed study of fusion experiments will provide an analytical methodology which can be applied to the full range of energy technology projects. We attempt to achieve this objective by coordinately advancing 3 (three) major task areas; (a) determine the fire hazards of current FEE facilities (b) assess the ability of accepted fire management strategies to meet and negate the hazard, (c) perform unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire growth and damage assessment models

  2. Drug smuggling using clothing impregnated with cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Seán D; Power, John D

    2005-11-01

    A case study is presented where a woman travelling from South America to the Republic of Ireland was detained at Dublin Airport and articles of clothing she had in her luggage were found to be impregnated with cocaine. The study shows that the amount of powder recovered from the garments was approximately 14% of the total weight of the garments. The cocaine was in the form of cocaine hydrochloride and the purity was approximately 80%. An examination of the garments under filtered light highlighted the areas exposed to cocaine and indicated that the method of impregnation was by pouring liquid containing cocaine onto the clothing.

  3. Otzi, the iceman and his leather clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püntener, Alois G; Moss, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Over 5000 years ago, a man climbed up to the icy heights of the glacier in South Tyrol, Italy and died. He was found by accident in 1991, with his clothes and equipment, mummified and frozen: an archaeological sensation and a unique snapshot of a Copper Age man. For several years highly specialised research teams have examined the mummy and all accompanying items. This paper describes how fur and leather clothes of the iceman could have been tanned. Details of the analytical tests undertaken on the 5000 year old leather samples and what they revealed are presented.

  4. Preliminary engineering analysis for clothes washers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    1996-10-01

    The Engineering Analysis provides information on efficiencies, manufacturer costs, and other characteristics of the appliance class being analyzed. For clothes washers, there are two classes: standard and compact. Since data were not available to analyze the compact class, only clothes washers were analyzed in this report. For this analysis, individual design options were combined and ordered in a manner that resulted in the lowest cumulative cost/savings ratio. The cost/savings ratio is the increase in manufacturer cost for a design option divided by the reduction in operating costs due to fuel and water savings.

  5. The CSR Challenges in the Clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Księżak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the clothing and textile industry through the prism of the CSR. First of all, it investigates the ways in which companies of this sector deal with the social responsibility issues that are specifically important to the characteristics of the fashion industry. Secondly, the motivators of implementing CSR in the textile and clothing business are identified and analysed. Thirdly, the CSR practices of H&M Hennes & Mauritz AB, a wellknown multinational corporation operating in the sector of fashion, are discussed in order to illustrate the theoretical review with the case study approach.

  6. The Benevolent Hegemon: The United States National Space Protection Strategy-Anchored in Cooperation Not Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    for data distribution, and not methods of firepower delivery, protection is unnecessary. 1 In addition, since the physical loss of a satellite does...capabilities at the transmission sites, the satellites, or the user equipment; (2) physical attacks against actual spacecraft or ground stations; (3...Barry D. “Doctrine, Technology, and War.” In Warfare Studies AY10 Coursebook , edited by Sharon McBride, 15-35. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press

  7. Development of radiation protection technology for application of the retired steam generator, Kori Unit no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Jang, D. C.; Song, K. S.; Lee, S. J.; Ahn, C. S.; Kim, D. H.; Im, Y. K.; Kim, H. D. [Hanil Nuclear Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-15

    It is a field study to develop and verify maintenance technologies such as verification and technology development of ECT (Eddy current test) using failure, heat tube excavation and field pressure test regarding the utilization of retired steam generator using 2 units of Retired Steam Generator in Kori 1 that was replaced for the first time in Korea in 1998. Since May, 2003, our team has investigated Retired Steam Generator which was stored in Radioactive waste warehouse in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Kori unit no.1 Branch, in order to study natural fault ECT signal acquisition, maintenance technology verification, small tubes/samples abstraction. A temporal task zone was made focusing on 'Man Way at the bottom of Chamber 'A'.' The purpose of the study is to establish Radiological Protection and Radioactive Waste Treatment Plan by setting ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) goal systematically, which is the basic concept of Radiological Protection and reduction in exposure of radiological workers to radioactive materials with proper Radiological Protection countermeasures according to the changes in radioactivity, to prevent expansion from contamination and to manage 'Radioactive Waste Reduction Activities' effectively.

  8. 轻质芳纶无纬布防弹衣关键技术研究%Study for Key Technology of Light Kevlar Non-Woof Cloth Body Armour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴中伟; 刘元坤; 常浩

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel preventing depression of aramid non-woof cloth was prepared by adding pressure-sensitive adhesives and curing agent based on single factor experimental design methods. This non-woof cloth can be pressed into preventing depression materials without the secondary using adhesive. And a lightweight and comfortable body armour was developed by structural design of preventing depression material and optimization of pressing process. Compared to traditional body armour, the product could reach NIJ IIIA level requirements, and had the lower the density of the bullet-proof chip. The weight of product was decreased by more than 20%, and the thickness of product was reduced from 12mm to 5.5mm. These can significantly reduce the load, meanwhile, chip structure was more invisible and wearing more comfortable, these could meet current market trends.%本研究采用单因素实验设计的方法,以及采用添加压敏胶粘剂及固化剂的方法,研究了一种新型防凹陷芳纶无纬布。该无纬布无需进行二次上胶即可压制成防凹陷材料,并通过对防凹陷材料结构设计、压制工艺的优化,开发出了一种轻薄、穿着舒适的防弹衣产品。与传统的防弹衣产品相比,该结构防弹衣产品防弹性能达到NIJ IIIA级要求,防凹陷材料制备的防弹芯片面密度更低,产品重量降低了20%以上,产品的厚度由12mm减少至5.5mm,可明显减轻作战人员的负荷,芯片结构更加隐形,穿着更加舒适,满足了目前市场的发展需求。

  9. Romanian traditional motif - element of modernity in clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, L.; Stan, O.; Suteu, M. D.; Albu, A.; Bohm, G.; Tsatsarou-Michalaki, A.; Gialinou, E.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper are presented the phases for improving from an aesthetic point of view a clothing item, the jacket respectively, with a straight cut for women using software design patterns, computerised graphics and textile different modern technologies including: industrial embroidery, digital printing, sublimation. In the first phase a documentation was prepared in the Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania from Cluj Napoca where more traditional motifs were selected specific to Transylvania etnographic region and were reintepreted and stylized whilst preserving the symbolism and color range specified to the area. For the styling phase was used CorelDraw vector graphics program that allows changing the shape, size and color of the drawings without affecting the identity of the pattern. In the patterns design phase Gemini CAD software was used and for the modeling and model development Optitex software was used. The part for garnishing the model was performed using Embrodery machine software reproducing the stylized motif identically. In order to obtain a significantly improved aesthetic look and an added artistic value the pattern chosen for the jacket was done using a combination of modern textile technologies. This has allowed the realization of a particular texture on the surface of the designed product, demonstrating that traditional patterns can be reintepreted in modern clothing

  10. 48 Clothing Problems of Upper Middle Socio-Economic Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    maintaining an interest in fashion and looking young, influence of the media and price .... women are responsible for 83% of all consumer clothing purchases. Clothing is ..... promotional tactics to appeal to this market. ... decision-making styles.

  11. The concept of managerial accounting for business clothing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Luchko, М.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the problem of constructing the management accounting concept for business clothing industry taking into account factors of production decline in the current context. Concept of separate components is studies, which depend on the characteristics of clothing manufacture.

  12. Research on human physiological parameters intelligent clothing based on distributed Fiber Bragg Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Changyun; Shi, Boya; Li, Hongqiang

    2008-12-01

    A human physiological parameters intelligent clothing is researched with FBG sensor technology. In this paper, the principles and methods of measuring human physiological parameters including body temperature and heart rate in intelligent clothing with distributed FBG are studied, the mathematical models of human physiological parameters measurement are built; the processing method of body temperature and heart rate detection signals is presented; human physiological parameters detection module is designed, the interference signals are filtered out, and the measurement accuracy is improved; the integration of the intelligent clothing is given. The intelligent clothing can implement real-time measurement, processing, storage and output of body temperature and heart rate. It has accurate measurement, portability, low cost, real-time monitoring, and other advantages. The intelligent clothing can realize the non-contact monitoring between doctors and patients, timely find the diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases, and make patients get timely treatment. It has great significance and value for ensuring the health of the elders and the children with language dysfunction.

  13. Energy Assurance: Essential Energy Technologies for Climate Protection and Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Dean, David Jarvis [ORNL; Fulkerson, William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gaddis, Abigail [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Hopson, Dr Janet L [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Mason, Thom [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F [ORNL; Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Zucker, Alexander [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    We present and apply a new method for analyzing the significance of advanced technology for achieving two important national energy goals: climate protection and energy security. Quantitative metrics for U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 and oil independence in 2030 are specified, and the impacts of 11 sets of energy technologies are analyzed using a model that employs the Kaya identity and incorporates the uncertainty of technological breakthroughs. The goals examined are a 50% to 80% reduction in CO2 emissions from energy use by 2050 and increased domestic hydrocarbon fuels supply and decreased demand that sum to 11 mmbd by 2030. The latter is intended to insure that the economic costs of oil dependence are not more than 1% of U.S. GDP with 95% probability by 2030. Perhaps the most important implication of the analysis is that meeting both energy goals requires a high probability of success (much greater than even odds) for all 11 technologies. Two technologies appear to be indispensable for accomplishment of both goals: carbon capture and storage, and advanced fossil liquid fuels. For reducing CO2 by more than 50% by 2050, biomass energy and electric drive (fuel cell or battery powered) vehicles also appear to be necessary. Every one of the 11 technologies has a powerful influence on the probability of achieving national energy goals. From the perspective of technology policy, conflict between the CO2 mitigation and energy security is negligible. These general results appear to be robust to a wide range of technology impact estimates; they are substantially unchanged by a Monte Carlo simulation that allows the impacts of technologies to vary by 20%.

  14. Implications of scientific and technological developments for radiation protection in the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Paretzke, H.

    1993-01-01

    There are scientific and technological developments taking place that will affect the understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, the ability to measure the important parameters of ionizing radiation, and the ability to model radioactivity transport, both in the human body and in the environment. This paper focuses on emerging scientific and technological developments that will impact radiation protection in the next decade. Emerging scientific developments included in this paper are new methods and better analytic capabilities in epidemiology, a better understanding of the interactions between ionizing radiation and the various cellular components and more realistic models to describe the uptake, distribution, retention and excretion of radionuclides in humans. Technological developments include instruments to measure radioactivity in the humans and the environment, and better software to calculate doses from these previously measured quantities

  15. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration

  16. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  17. The Art of African Senufo Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The Senufo people create paintings on hand-woven fabric using natural fibers, natural dyes made from leaves, and mud dug from the roots of trees. The fabric of the Senufo is woven in strips approximately six-to-eight inches wide, and sewn together to make a larger fabric for painting. The stylized drawings painted on the cloth are of masked…

  18. Clothing Company Pegs Chinese Retail Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuAlun

    2003-01-01

    Using a flurry of brand and marketing strategies, Zheng Yonggang has staged the most astonishing turnaround in China's clothing industry. The once insolvent State-owned factory that Zheng was transferred to in 1989 now boasts the country's top fashion brands, and is quickly becoming a multi-business conglomerate. In 1994, the FIRS

  19. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are students provided with clothing? 670.640 Section 670.640 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB... the work force. Center operators and other service providers must issue clothing and clothing...

  20. 76 FR 971 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    .... Detergent Specifications for Clothes Dryer Test Cloth Preconditioning 5. Changes To Reflect Current Usage... conservation standard; (3) updated detergent specifications for clothes dryer test cloth preconditioning; (4... detergent specifications for clothes dryer test cloth preconditioning; (7) update the references to external...

  1. Optical Illusions and Effects on Clothing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Visual perception” is in the first ranking between the types of perception. Gestalt Theory of the major psychological theories are used in how visual perception realizes and making sense of what is effective in this process. In perception stage brain tak es into account not only stimulus from eyes but also expectations arising from previous experience and interpreted the stimulus which are not exist in the real world as if they were there. Misperception interpretations that brain revealed are called as “Pe rception Illusion” or “Optical Illusion” in psychology. Optical illusion formats come into existence due to factors such as brightness, contrast, motion, geometry and perspective, interpretation of three - dimensional images, cognitive status and color. Opti cal illusions have impacts of different disciplines within the study area on people. Among the most important types of known optical illusion are Oppel - Kundt, Curvature - Hering, Helzholtz Sqaure, Hermann Grid, Muller - Lyler, Ebbinghaus and Ponzo illusion etc . In fact, all the optical illusions are known to be used in numerous area with various techniques and different product groups like architecture, fine arts, textiles and fashion design from of old. In recent years, optical illusion types are frequently us ed especially within the field of fashion design in the clothing model, in style, silhouette and fabrics. The aim of this study is to examine the clothing design applications where optical illusion is used and works done in this subject. Some research of the design with the changing fashion of clothes of different types of optical illusions is discussed with examples of their effects on visual perception. In the study, optical illusory clothing models are scanned by visual analysis from documents like film , video, picture, web pages. The findings were analyzed in terms of the surface and design and effects of the optical illusion on clothing design has tried to put

  2. Training project on Radiological Protection in medicine. Use of new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruis-Cruces, R.; Perez-Martinez, M.; Pastor Vega, J. M.; Diez de los Rios Delgado, A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological protection training addressed to physicians should start during the teaching graduate and postgraduate studies, and a third phase only for those physicians using X rays and radioactive sources in diagnosis and treatment of diseases. To show a training project addressed to the teaching graduate students based on the new technologies, such as web online and interactive CD-ROM. Development of a web-online including information in.pdf (adobe acrobat) format and additional tools (as data bases, videos, news and class meetings, FAQ, tutorials). Moreover, we propose to development an interactive CD-ROM which will be used as a practical tool to complete the obligatory subject on radiological protection in the University of Malaga (Spain). We show the preliminary phase of the project. The web-online is being developed with the Microsoft FrontPage software. The first version of the CR-ROM is being developed in html format. These tools based on new technologies will be a very important support for radiological protection training, which is recommended by International Organizations (EC Report R116 and IAE Action Plan 2002-2006). (Author) 4 refs

  3. A state of the art on coastal environmental protection using radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Byung Jong

    2002-04-01

    Construction of artificial structures has caused a sediment process change due to the variation of hydraulic condition in Korea. Subsequently we have a serious problem of shoaling for shoreline deformation, siltation of the harbor and shipping channel. To protect those abnormal environmental changes, a large estimate has been spent for additional construction such as outer wall facilities, littoral nourishment and dredging. Systematic long-term studies should be carried out to understand the causes of environmental change. In addition, comprehensive plan is required for its monitoring and prevention. The radioisotope application studies for coastal environmental protection have not been actively performed only in the developed countries like France, Canada, and Australia etc., but also in many developing countries like Poland, India. Since KAERI has performed two experiments in costal area of Korea in 1960s, no more study has been reported. Recently the studies of radiotracer application technology is getting more interested in terms of on-line data acquisition and analysis for the validation of the numerical simulation models. The experiment using radiotracer becomes an important part of the method to solve the problems happening in coastal environment, as it supplies data with high confidence in the field. On the basis of the experience obtained from the researches for industrial application of radiotracer technology, KAERI is going to make its first step to the development of the radiotracer technology for costal environmental studies

  4. Individual protections and ergonomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The object of this conference was the protective clothing against radioactive contamination. The regulatory frame, the physiological constraints and the human factor are the different aspects studied through the conference with a constant objective, the optimization of radiation protection. (N.C.)

  5. Integrating large-scale data and RNA technology to protect crops from fungal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Joseph Girard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With a rapidly growing human population it is expected that plant science researchers and the agricultural community will need to increase food productivity using less arable land. This challenge is complicated by fungal pathogens and diseases, many of which can severely impact crop yield. Current measures to control fungal pathogens are either ineffective or have adverse effects on the agricultural enterprise. Thus, developing new strategies through research innovation to protect plants from pathogenic fungi is necessary to overcome these hurdles. RNA sequencing technologies are increasing our understanding of the underlying genes and gene regulatory networks mediating disease outcomes. The application of invigorating next generation sequencing strategies to study plant-pathogen interactions has and will provide unprecedented insight into the complex patterns of gene activity responsible for crop protection. However, questions remain about how biological processes in both the pathogen and the host are specified in space directly at the site of infection and over the infection period. The integration of cutting edge molecular and computational tools will provide plant scientists with the arsenal required to identify genes and molecules that play a role in plant protection. Large scale RNA sequence data can then be used to protect plants by targeting genes essential for pathogen viability in the production of stably transformed lines expressing RNA interference molecules, or through foliar applications of double stranded RNA.

  6. A state of the art on coastal environmental protection using radioisotope tracer technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, S H; Jin, J H; Kim, J B

    2002-01-01

    Construction of artificial structures has caused a sediment process change due to the variation of hydraulic condition in Korea. Subsequently we have a serious problem of shoaling for shoreline deformation, siltation of the harbor and shipping channel. To protect those abnormal environmental changes, a large estimate has been spent for additional construction such as outer wall facilities, littoral nourishment and dredging. Systematic long-term studies should be carried out to understand the causes of environmental change. In addition, comprehensive plan is required for its monitoring and prevention. The radioisotope application studies for coastal environmental protection have not been actively performed only in the developed countries like France, Canada, and Australia etc., but also in many developing countries like Poland, India. Since KAERI has performed two experiments in costal area of Korea in 1960s, no more study has been reported. Recently the studies of radiotracer application technology is getting...

  7. Plasma-aided surface technology for modification of materials referred to fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineff, P.; Gospodinova, D.; Kostova, L.; Vladkova, T.; Chen, E.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in dielectric barrier air discharge at atmospheric pressure and room temperature over the past decade due to the increased number of industrial applications. New plasma-aided capillary impregnation technology for flame spreading stop and fire protection of porous materials was developed. Research, based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), proves that plasma-chemical surface pre-treatment exert material change on chemical interaction between phosphorus containing flame retardant and wood matrix (Pinus sylvestris, Bulgaria; Pseudotsuga, Canada)

  8. Examination of some protective conditions on technological properties of irradiated food grade polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeil Pietranera, M.S. E-mail: pietrane@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Narvaiz, P. E-mail: narvaiz@cae.cnea.gov.ar

    2001-02-01

    Corn and cassava starches, agar-agar and kappa carrageenan, polysaccharides used as food additives, were gamma irradiated with doses suitable for microbial decontamination. Starches were analysed in paste and pudding viscosity and paper chromatography; agar and carrageenan, in viscosity and compression tests on gels and custards. Afterwards, substances were added to verify whether they could prevent irradiation technological impairment. Results revealed significant differences between control and irradiated samples in most determinations. No added substance was able to protect the functional properties of these additives. (author)

  9. Experimental investigation of centrifugal fans for personal protection equipment - effect of used 3D printing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Václav; Votrubec, Radek; Šafka, Jiří; Kracík, Jan

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the research is experimental investigation of centrifugal fans for a personal protection equipment. The aim of the fan is to drive the contaminated air containing harmful or irritating particles through the filters and then into the mask of workers, such as a fireman, a labourer or a lab worker. The fan is measured on the test stand, the characteristics and performances are evaluated, i.e. the dependencies of the working pressure on the flow rate. The characteristics are measured for three constant speed settings. The characteristics of the wheels produced by the different 3D printing technology are compared. It is found that the production technology has only a minimal effect, the performance of the wheels is more influenced by the position of the impeller on the motor shaft and hence by the mutual position of the impeller and the diffuser.

  10. The application of bioflocs technology to protect brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crab, R; Lambert, A; Defoirdt, T; Bossier, P; Verstraete, W

    2010-11-01

    To study the potential biocontrol activity of bioflocs technology. Glycerol-grown bioflocs were investigated for their antimicrobial and antipathogenic properties against the opportunistic pathogen Vibrio harveyi. The bioflocs did not produce growth-inhibitory substances. However, bioflocs and biofloc supernatants decreased quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence of V. harveyi. This suggested that the bioflocs had biocontrol activity against this pathogen because quorum sensing regulates virulence of vibrios towards different hosts. Interestingly, the addition of live bioflocs significantly increased the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged to V. harveyi. Bioflocs grown on glycerol as carbon source inhibit quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence in V. harveyi and protect brine shrimp larvae from vibriosis. The results presented in this study indicate that in addition to water quality control and in situ feed production, bioflocs technology could help in controlling bacterial infections within the aquaculture pond. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Use of a human skin in vitro model to investigate the influence of 'every-day' clothing and skin surface decontamination on the percutaneous penetration of organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C A; Wilkinson, S C; Blain, P G; Dunn, M; Aust, G A; Williams, F M

    2014-08-17

    Organophosphates (OPs) are widely used in agriculture. Many studies have investigated the capability of personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce chemical exposure; however, investigations into the protective effect of 'every-day' clothing are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of 'every-day' clothing against dermal exposure and to measure early decontamination of skin following exposure to chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos. Using human skin in vitro, absorption of (14)C-labelled chlorpyrifos (500 ng/cm(2)), was shown to be significantly reduced when applied to clothed skin (cotton shirt), regardless of application vehicle (isopropanol (IPA) or propylene glycol (PG)). The majority of applied dose was retained within the clothing after 4 h exposure. Significant reduction in absorption of chlorpyrifos (in PG) was seen through clothed skin when supplemented with skin decontamination at 4 h, compared with clothed skin decontaminated after 24 h, however, this was not observed with IPA. Absorption of dichlorvos (5 μg/cm(2)) was greater through unclothed skin than chlorpyrifos for all vehicles (IPA, isopropyl myristate (IPM) and PG). Significant reduction in absorption was observed when decontaminating clothed skin at 30 min, compared with decontamination at 24 h (post-exposure) for all vehicles. indicate that 'every-day' clothing is effective at reducing exposure to chemicals in contact with skin. Washing the skin surface immediately following removal of exposed clothing can further reduce exposure, depending on the properties of the chemical and vehicle applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alica Grilec Kaurić

    2009-01-01

    Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing i...

  13. A novel DNA vaccine technology conveying protection against a lethal herpes simplex viral challenge in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Dutton

    Full Text Available While there are a number of licensed veterinary DNA vaccines, to date, none have been licensed for use in humans. Here, we demonstrate that a novel technology designed to enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines protects against lethal herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 challenge in a murine model. Polynucleotides were modified by use of a codon optimization algorithm designed to enhance immune responses, and the addition of an ubiquitin-encoding sequence to target the antigen to the proteasome for processing and to enhance cytotoxic T cell responses. We show that a mixture of these codon-optimized ubiquitinated and non-ubiquitinated constructs encoding the same viral envelope protein, glycoprotein D, induced both B and T cell responses, and could protect against lethal viral challenge and reduce ganglionic latency. The optimized vaccines, subcloned into a vector suitable for use in humans, also provided a high level of protection against the establishment of ganglionic latency, an important correlate of HSV reactivation and candidate endpoint for vaccines to proceed to clinical trials.

  14. Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Stanton [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-12-12

    The project goal was to develop a revolutionary energy saving technology for residential clothes drying. The team developed an IR (infrared) heating system and NESP (Nebulizer and Electro-Static Precipitator) for integration into a ventless clothes dryer. The proposed technology addresses two of the major inefficiencies in current electric vented dryers by providing effective energy transfer for the removal of the water and recapture of the vapor latent heat. The IR heaters operating in the mid wave (2.5-10um) are very efficient as they target the 3-micron peak absorption of the water molecule. This allows direct energy absorption, unlike conventional element heaters where heat is transferred by convection. The low power NESP removes water vapor from the exhausted stream and recaptures the latent heat in the ESP (Electro-Static Precipitator) exchanger section. This allows the warm dry air to be recirculated back into the drum for additional efficiency savings. The remaining majority of the dryer hardware stays the same. Summing the efficiency gain from the two subcomponents we anticipated the EF (Efficiency Factor) to exceed the goal of 4.04. EF is obtained by dividing the weight (lbs) of water removed by the energy (kWhr) used, where the test load size is 8.45 lbs of bone dry clothing wetted to 57.5% or 4.8lbs of water, and dried to a remaining moisture content of 2.5-5%. Additional benefits include not having to recondition (heat or cool) the large amounts of make-up air to replace the air exhausted by a vented dryer. It was anticipated that the NESP/heat exchanger would be the most challenging and highest risk element in the program. Therefore, the team focused their efforts during Phase 1 of the program on the design, construction, testing, and optimization of the NESP/heat exchanger. At the end Phase 1, the team compared the performance of the NESP/heat exchanger with the system level requirements and made a Go/No-Go decision on proceeding with the second

  15. Data-Driven Property Estimation for Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    reliable predictions falls under the rubric “machine learning”. Inspired by the applications of machine learning in pharmaceutical drug design and...using genetic algorithms, for instance— descriptor selection can be automated as well. A well-known structured learning technique—Artificial Neural...descriptors automatically, by iteration, e.g., using a genetic algorithm [49]. 4.2.4 Avoiding Overfitting A peril of all regression—least squares as

  16. Protective Clothing Part 4. Industrial Environments (A Bibliography with Abstracts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    OGSB Biological Effects of Lead Pollution (117) Feb 76 NTIS/PS-76/0097/6GSB Burn Therapy (157) Feb 76 NTIS/PS-76/0104/OGSB Whales (115...170) Feb 76 NTIS/PS-76/0091/9GSB Tectonics. Vol 2. 1975-January 1976 (86) Feb 76 NTIS/PS-76/0092/7GSB Whales (115) Feb 76 NTIS/PS-76/0111... addiction NTIS/PS-75/147/9GSB Drugs, Cancer NTIS/PS-75/509/OGSB Drugs, Malaria NTIS/PS-75/307/9GSB NTIS/PS-75/308/7GSB Dual mode transportation NTIS

  17. Study on Aerosol Penetration Through Clothing and Individual Protective Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    8.4X10-3 mg.m-3 (2.57X105 particles per cubic meter of air) over a 30 minute period. This scenario represents a very high end threat with a large... Isokinetic air sampling was applied and the effect of aerosol losses in sampling lines and other parts of the test rig were incorporated in analysis...eliminate any “memory” effect. The aerosol sampling (airflow direction control, start of sampling) was operated manually. Isokinetic sampling conditions

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-73 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... gloves. (3) Boots or shoe covers. (4) Coveralls or lab aprons. Note: “Guidelines for the Selection of... Industrial Hygienists, 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45240-1634, provides information on the...

  19. Material Development Study for a Hazardous Chemical Protective Clothing Outfit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Analytical - X VCM Vinyl Chloride Unavailable - X ZEC Zectran Insoluble X X ZCN Zinc Cyanide Insoluble X X ZCT Zirconium Tetrachloride Water React. X 64...Environmental Rating of Plastics, Reprints of Design News, R. L. Peters , 6 December 1967, 20 December 1967, 22 November 1967, 8 November 1967. 13. Modern

  20. GLOBALIZATION AND THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE EUROPEAN TEXTILE AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girneata Adriana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the competitiveness of the European textile and clothing industry under the influence of globalization and recent economic crisis. The textile and clothing industry is an important part of the European manufacturing industry, playing a vital role in the economy and social welfare in many regions of Europe. The European textile and clothing industry has undergone significant changes in recent decades due to the technological advances, developments in production costs, the emergence major international competitors and the elimination import quotas after 2005. In response to the competitive challenges, this sector of activity has undertaken a lengthy process of restructuring and modernization. Globalization and technological progress have led to rethinking the strategy of the companies in the industry. In a competitive global market, European organizations producing textiles and garments have as main competitive advantage research and continuous innovation. Using methods of qualitative research, this paper analyses the evolution of the main financial indicators concerning this sector of activity in the period 2007 – 2013, including domestic consumption, turnover, number of employees, number of companies, imports and exports. The globalization of markets, international outsourcing and development of the Internet had a major impact on the structure and dynamics of the textile and clothing industry in Europe, and in particular on small and medium enterprises. Also, relocation, subcontracting and outsourcing of large brands in this domain have contributed significantly to the increase of imports from low-cost countries. A growing number of apparel retailers have emerged on the market, organizing supply chains globally. At the same time, producers have transferred part of their activities to low-cost countries in order to maintain market competitiveness. This was determined by the major differences in salaries across

  1. The Framework of Tunisian Textile and Clothing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we will first present the textile and the clothing sector in the Tunisian economy. It is therefore very important to situate this sector in our economy, evaluating its various features and outline its strengths and weaknesses. We also focus on the historical evolution of Tunisian textile and clothing sector. We will establish then a comparison between Tunisia and China as part of the textile and clothing industry.

  2. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable fashion and consumption

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to introduce and explain the concept of sustainable consumption with reference to the clothing sector. It uses various case studies to detail sustainable consumption behavior in the industry. Consumption is a key issue and is a major driver when it comes to sustainability in any industry, including clothing sector. Several studies which have highlighted the need for sustainable consumption in the clothing sector are discussed in this book.

  3. Eutrophication assessment of the Baltic Sea Protected Areas by available data and GIS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranft, Susanne; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Boedeker, Dieter; Paulomäki, Hanna; Fagerli, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Concerning increased degradation of marine ecosystems, there is a great political and institutional demand for an array of different tools to restore a good environmental status. Thereby, eutrophication is acknowledged as one of the major human induced stressors which has to be monitored and reduced. The present study concentrates on an assessment of the eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea Protected Areas by use of available data and GIS technologies. Two geodata layers were used for analysis: (1) a map on the eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea generated by the Helsinki Commission applying the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT), and (2) modelled data on atmospheric nitrogen deposition made available by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The results yielded comprehensive and conclusive data indicating that most of the BSPAs may be classified as being 'affected by eutrophication' and underlining the need to decrease the overall emissions of nutrients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fire-protection research for energy technology: Fy 80 year end report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, H. K.; Alvares, N. J.; Lipska, A. E.; Ford, H.; Priante, S.; Beason, D. G.

    1981-05-01

    This continuing research program was initiated in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-free analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate model and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes.

  5. Fire-protection research for energy technology: FY 80 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Priante, S.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This continuing research program was initiated in 1977 in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program has since been expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-tree analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate moel and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes

  6. Massa-individualisering in de kledingindustrie [Mass-individualisation in the clothing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    When purchasing clothing, the customer has to go through the tedious process of selecting clothing he or she likes and selecting clothing that fits his or her body. The customer is at the end of the line: the clothing is already manufactured. This has the advantage that clothing can be produced

  7. THE TRIPS AGREEMENT, INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND DEVELOPMENT: SOME LESSONS FROM STRENGTHENING IPR PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shugurov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the impact of the TRIPS Agreement provisions on further development of international technology transfer (ITT mainly to developing countries. The authors review the critical specificity of ITT connected with the adoption of TRIPS. Much attention is paid to an analysis of what is most discussed among international experts in the area of the issues on the dual results of stronger intellectual property rights (IPRs concerning various groups of developing countries. Their study also examines a number of problems with implementation of the TRIPS provisions, conducive to ITT, in the context of the TRIPS-plus era as a new stage in strengthening IPR protection. Bearing in mind the fragmentation of the international regime of IPR protection because of the adoption of numerous regional free trade agreements, the authors outline the possible position of advanced developing and least developed countries with respect to using TRIPS potentials for development of ITT under reasonable and just terms, with the aim of overall prosperity.

  8. Social Networking Technology Use and Engagement in HIV Related Risk and Protective Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary studies with homeless youth find surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest youths’ online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical first step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media especially as it relates to whom they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of Social Networking Sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult to reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N=1046) were recruited through three drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether or not they engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed. PMID:27337044

  9. Improvement of thermal comfort by cooling clothing in warm climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kolencíková, Sona

    2014-01-01

    on the inner surface. We conducted experiments with human subjects in climate chambers maintained at 30 °C and RH 50% to compare the effectiveness of the cooling clothing with that of other convective cooling devices. The use of cooling clothing with a convective cooling device improved the subjects’ thermal...... comfort compared to convective cooling alone. The supply of a small amount of water allowed the cooling clothing to provide a continuous cooling effect, whereas the effect of convective cooling alone decreased as sweat dried. However, the controllability of the cooling clothing needs to be improved....

  10. The mature female clothing shopper: Profiles and shopping behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Visser

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to profile the mature female clothing shopper. More specifically certain variables that could be attributed to differences in consumer behaviour were investigated. Mature female clothing shoppers were segmented as clothing moderates, clothing enthusiasts and the clothing unconcerned. These three cluster groups significantly differed regarding clothing involvement, clothing orientation, activities, interests, opinions, family orientation, needs and media usage. No significant differences were found among the three groups regarding evaluative criteria for clothing and clothing store attributes. Profiles of the clusters were developed, along with applicable marketing implications. Recommendations for further research are made. Opsomming  Hierdie studie is onderneem ten einde die vroulike kledingverbruikers van 55 en ouer te tipeer. Die veranderlikes wat 'n bydrae kon lewer ten opsigte van die verskille in verbruikersgedrag is ondersoek. Die verbruikers is gesegmenteer as die kledinggematigdes, kleding- entoesiaste en die kleding-onbetrokkenes. Die drie groeperings verskil beduidend van mekaar ten opsigte van die volgende veranderlikes naamlik: kleding-betrokkenheid, kleding-oriëntasie, aktiwiteite belangstellings, opinies, familie oriëntasie, behoeftes en media gebruik. Geen beduidende verskille kon gevind word tussen die drie groeperings ten opsigte van die veranderlikes evalueringskriteria van klere en winkeleienskappe nie. Profiele van die verskillende trosse is ontwikkel en die bemarkingsimplikasies is uitgewys. Aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word gedoen.

  11. Postgraduate training in radiological protection by e-learning the technological platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, G.; Mayo, P.; Alcaraz, D.; Campayo, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The companies that are working in decontamination, dismantling and assessment in nuclear power plants, usually have their employees in different facilities far from its central offices. When there is a training in radiological protection applied to the nuclear field, it is difficult for these people the attendance to the course because of different reasons as the location of the formation centres which sometimes are not near from the nuclear facilities, so they usually cannot attend their daily work with the same effectiveness. In this work we present a postgraduate training in radiological protection supervised by Polytechnical University of Valencia (Spain) applied to nuclear and radioactive facilities by a technological platform developed in collaboration with the university. This platform is adapted and designed to different high level contents and applications in different areas and sections, related to a general part, radioactive facilities, nuclear facilities and advanced concepts. When the student finishes an area, an evaluation has to be done to prove the understanding of the lessons. We have included films of different activities as decontamination devices, radiation detectors..etc with the contents to make the explanations more understandable to the student. The course is complemented with a final review and exam that are not online to guarantee that the training is well finished. In addition the student has some practice related with different items explained during the training as the use of equipment in radiological protection tasks. This type of training is more flexitime and can be adapted to the necessities of each user, avoiding high costs and unnecessary displacements. (author)

  12. Postgraduate training in radiological protection by e-learning the technological platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, G., E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniera Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politcnica de Valencia (Spain); Mayo, P.; Alcaraz, D., E-mail: p.mayo@titaniast.com, E-mail: d.alcaraz@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Teconologicos, Grupo Dominguis, Valencia (Spain); Campayo, J.M., E-mail: j.campayo@lainsa.com [LAINSA, Grupo Dominguis, Valencia, (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The companies that are working in decontamination, dismantling and assessment in nuclear power plants, usually have their employees in different facilities far from its central offices. When there is a training in radiological protection applied to the nuclear field, it is difficult for these people the attendance to the course because of different reasons as the location of the formation centres which sometimes are not near from the nuclear facilities, so they usually cannot attend their daily work with the same effectiveness. In this work we present a postgraduate training in radiological protection supervised by Polytechnical University of Valencia (Spain) applied to nuclear and radioactive facilities by a technological platform developed in collaboration with the university. This platform is adapted and designed to different high level contents and applications in different areas and sections, related to a general part, radioactive facilities, nuclear facilities and advanced concepts. When the student finishes an area, an evaluation has to be done to prove the understanding of the lessons. We have included films of different activities as decontamination devices, radiation detectors..etc with the contents to make the explanations more understandable to the student. The course is complemented with a final review and exam that are not online to guarantee that the training is well finished. In addition the student has some practice related with different items explained during the training as the use of equipment in radiological protection tasks. This type of training is more flexitime and can be adapted to the necessities of each user, avoiding high costs and unnecessary displacements. (author)

  13. Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement. Part 2; Structural Analysis Technologies and Modeling Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    A technology review and assessment of modeling and analysis efforts underway in support of a safe return to flight of the thermal protection system (TPS) for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) are summarized. This review and assessment effort focuses on the structural modeling and analysis practices employed for ET TPS foam design and analysis and on identifying analysis capabilities needed in the short-term and long-term. The current understanding of the relationship between complex flight environments and ET TPS foam failure modes are reviewed as they relate to modeling and analysis. A literature review on modeling and analysis of TPS foam material systems is also presented. Finally, a review of modeling and analysis tools employed in the Space Shuttle Program is presented for the ET TPS acreage and close-out foam regions. This review includes existing simplified engineering analysis tools are well as finite element analysis procedures.

  14. Dry and wet heat transfer through clothing dependent on the clothing properties under cold conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, M.G.M.; Rossi, R.; Meinander, H.; Broede, P.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Holmér, I.; Nocker, W.; Havenith, G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture on the heat transfer through clothing in relation to the water vapour resistance, type of underwear, location of the moisture and climate. This forms part of the work performed for work package 2 of the European Union THERMPROTECT

  15. Clothing style preference of working women related to self- image/clothing-image congruity and public self-consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae Ok

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to extend knowledge concerning the influence of self-image congruity and public self-consciousness on clothing behavior from the symbolic consumption perspective. Thus, relationships among the three major constructs, public self-consciousness (PSC), self-image/clothing-image congruity (actual self-congruity, ASC and ideal social-congruity, ISSC) and clothing-style preference (CSP), were examined. The five objectives that guided the study were ...

  16. Zebrafish and clean water technology: assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Incardona, J P; Stark, J D; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L

    2014-12-01

    Urban stormwater contains a complex mixture of contaminants that can be acutely toxic to aquatic biota. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is a set of evolving technologies intended to reduce impacts on natural systems by slowing and filtering runoff. The extent to which GSI methods work as intended is usually assessed in terms of water quantity (hydrology) and quality (chemistry). Biological indicators of GSI effectiveness have received less attention, despite an overarching goal of protecting the health of aquatic species. Here we use the zebrafish (Danio rerio) experimental model to evaluate bioinfiltration as a relatively inexpensive technology for treating runoff from an urban highway with dense motor vehicle traffic. Zebrafish embryos exposed to untreated runoff (48-96h; six storm events) displayed an array of developmental abnormalities, including delayed hatching, reduced growth, pericardial edema, microphthalmia (small eyes), and reduced swim bladder inflation. Three of the six storms were acutely lethal, and sublethal toxicity was evident across all storms, even when stormwater was diluted by as much as 95% in clean water. As anticipated from exposure to cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), untreated runoff also caused heart failure, as indicated by circulatory stasis, pericardial edema, and looping defects. Bioretention treatment dramatically improved stormwater quality and reversed nearly all forms of developmental toxicity. The zebrafish model therefore provides a versatile experimental platform for rapidly assessing GSI effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT): Modeling and Simulation Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dunn, Timothy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Durbin, Samual [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Durkee, Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); England, Jeff [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ketusky, Edward [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Li, Shelly [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lindgren, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meier, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-05

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal. This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling. To aid in framing its long-term goal, during FY16, a modeling and simulation roadmap is being developed for three major areas of investigation: (1) radiation transport and sensors, (2) process and chemical models, and (3) shock physics and assessments. For each area, current modeling approaches are described, and gaps and needs are identified.

  18. The Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program: Protection of materials in the space environment subprogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lorne R.; Francoeur, J.; Aguero, Alina; Wertheimer, Michael R.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.; Martinu, L.; Blezius, J. W.; Oliver, M.; Singh, A.

    1995-01-01

    Three projects are currently underway for the development of new coatings for the protection of materials in the space environment. These coatings are based on vacuum deposition technologies. The projects will go as far as the proof-of-concept stage when the commercial potential for the technology will be demonstrated on pilot-scale fabrication facilities in 1996. These projects are part of a subprogram to develop supporting technologies for automation and robotics technologies being developed under the Canadian Space Agency's STEAR Program, part of the Canadian Space Station Program.

  19. NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR RESTORATION AND PROTECTION OF POWER EQUIPMENT WITH THE AID OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ischenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of possible variants of reconstruction of the power equipment is fulfilled and the conclusion concerning the prospects of such work with the use of composite materials is reached. The data on the technical characteristics of composite repair materials for various purposes are presented, the results of repairs of power equipment, in particular the technology for the recovery of the boarding surfaces of the diffuser rings and protection of the pumps D1250 casings are provided. The technology of the recovery pneumatic cylinder, hydraulic cylinder rod, as well as the unique technology of restoration of working surfaces of the impeller vanes of transfer pump, that had been destroyed by corrosion in conjunction with the cavitation processes and were considered as not restorable is described. The restored impeller was in operation during a year and only thereafter it was removed for restoration. Another composite material discussed in the article – diagum – makes it possible to perform a series of repairs associated with restoration of the rubber-covered surfaces of pump casings as well as with restoration of various surfaces of the conveyor belts. Taking the excellent adhesive properties of this composite into account, restoration of worn stainless steel sieve screens to remove abrasive material was fulfilled with the aid of it. The restoration was accomplished via the use of the conveyor belt which application time had expired, that was glued to a metal sieve with diagum. The use of the composites is economically justified, because the application of them in repairs reduces, firstly, terms of restoration work and, secondly, the price of repairs. Third, equipment that was damaged beyond repair is being commissioned by the use of the mentioned composites. 

  20. ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING in a CLOTHING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASNALCACI Kubra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Assembly lines take the attention of researchers and companies because of its great effect on efficiency. Efficiency in assembly lines has an important role on cost and quality which are the basic fundamentals of competition. Assembly lines contain a number of workstations and tasks (jobs are processed in these stations and are moved from station to station. The tasks are assigned to each station regarding a cycle time. The cycle time is the maximum available time for the production of a job at any workstation. The assingning of jobs to workstations is based on the objective of minimizing the workflow among the workstations, reducing the throughput time as well as the work in progress and thus increasing productivity. If the jobs are not allocated in balance, this will cause idle workstations and waste of workforce besides the loss of overall efficiency. In this study, an assebly line balancing problem was examined for a five pocket denim trousers in a clothing company. Firstly, priority associations and standard durations of operations of denim trousers were determined. Then, assembly line balancing study was carried out by using ranked positional weights assembly line balancing method developed by Helgeson and Birnie to increase the production in a clothing company manufacturing five pocket denim trousers.

  1. Research on the technology of constructing a protection with joint use of no-fines concrete and bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhasek Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To build a bank slope protection of a hydraulic structure, a technology is proposed that involves building a framework of no-fines concrete and pouring it with hot bituminous materials. Implementation of this technology requires conducting a research on bitumen penetration into the protection plate body. The research involved developing models of non-stationary filtration under varied bitumen viscosity. The research involved experimental observation in laboratory environment. Models of movement of a variable viscosity liquid in a porous medium were proposed, and their study in laboratory environment allowed for identifying the depth of penetration, which is an important result to solve engineering objectives.

  2. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  3. US/Belarusian government-to-government material protection, control, and accounting cooperation at the Sosny Science and Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, R.S. Jr.; Baumann, M.; Madsen, R.W.; Krevsum, E.; Haase, M.

    1996-01-01

    A formal program of cooperation between the US Department of Energy and the Belarusian regulatory agency Promatomnazdor (PAN) began in 1994. A visit to the Belarusian Sosny Science and Technology Center (SSTC) by representatives from the US, Sweden, Japan, and the International Atomic Energy Agency resulted in a multinational program of cooperation to enhance the existing material protection, control, and accounting systems in place at Sosny. Specific physical-protection-related recommendations included upgrades to the physical protection systems at Buildings 33 and 40 at Sosny and the security systems in the SSTC central alarm station. US experts in conjunction with the multinational team and Belarus representatives, have reviewed initial designs for physical protection upgrades at Sosny. Subsequently, the US assumed an essential role for funding and technical oversight for enhancements at the SSTC, aspects of its emergency communication systems, and the upgrade of the SSTC site access control system. This paper addresses the status of physical protection enhancements at the Sosny site

  4. Protecting the Accounting Information in the Conditions of Outsourcing with Use of the Information-Computer Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liakhovych Halyna І.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing measures of protection of accounting information in the conditions of outsourcing, using modern information-computer technologies. On the basis of processing of scientific works, the approaches to development of system of protection of the accounting information were generalized, measures of protection were grouped by users of data with definition of subjects of provision in the conditions of outsourcing. Special attention is paid to the characterization and content of internal organizational measures of protection of accounting information (normative, personnel, structural. The complex of measures on protection of the information of accountance for large and small-size enterprises has been defined. The prospect of further research is the issue of information risk management in accounting outsourcing.

  5. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zheng

    2015-08-01

    the actual state of the mural surface patch model. For the degradation of the surface of the pigment layer, we use the patch model to simulate the scan obtained from an analysis. Statistics calculated relatively objective mural surface area from volume data, providing more accurate quantitative data for the mural conservation, especially, providing a viable technology for accurate monitoring of continued degradation. We believe, in order to make use of the three-dimensional laser scanning technology in a digital heritage conservation application, the technology should not only be used to record the object geometry and play a role in record keeping aspects, but, rather, should be used during the investigation to protect against targeted degradation and a more meaningful interpretation function. Like the development of the medical application of X-ray technology not only retains a picture, but more importantly, through this technical interpretation of patient pathology, guides doctors in carrying out the treatment work. Therefore, in the process of digitization of cultural heritage research, the focus should shift to the use of digital technology in the analysis of heritage object degradation and degradation monitoring surveys can promote the application of digital technology in the conservation of cultural heritage.

  6. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    the mural surface patch model. For the degradation of the surface of the pigment layer, we use the patch model to simulate the scan obtained from an analysis. Statistics calculated relatively objective mural surface area from volume data, providing more accurate quantitative data for the mural conservation, especially, providing a viable technology for accurate monitoring of continued degradation. We believe, in order to make use of the three-dimensional laser scanning technology in a digital heritage conservation application, the technology should not only be used to record the object geometry and play a role in record keeping aspects, but, rather, should be used during the investigation to protect against targeted degradation and a more meaningful interpretation function. Like the development of the medical application of X-ray technology not only retains a picture, but more importantly, through this technical interpretation of patient pathology, guides doctors in carrying out the treatment work. Therefore, in the process of digitization of cultural heritage research, the focus should shift to the use of digital technology in the analysis of heritage object degradation and degradation monitoring surveys can promote the application of digital technology in the conservation of cultural heritage.

  7. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stories in the Cloth: Art Therapy and Narrative Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlock, Lisa Raye

    2016-01-01

    In this article I weave together the relevance of narrative textile work in therapeutic and human rights contexts; showcase Common Threads, an international nonprofit that uses story cloths with survivors of gender-based violence; outline a master's level art therapy course in story cloths; and relate how textiles helped build a sibling…

  9. Forensic Pollen Evidence from Clothes by the Tape Adhesive Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liang Wu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Collection and identification of pollen is becoming important in forensic applications. Many criminal cases have been reported to link suspects to the crime scene by analysis of pollen. Several methods have been used in the pollen collection and analysis, but they are expensive and tedious. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple method to collect pollen grains from clothes. We tried to recover pollen from clothing surface by using the sticky tapes method. The tape adhesive method has been widely used for sample collection for various purposes, but the efficiency of recovery of invisible pollen from clothes has rarely been reported. Therefore, to test the efficiency of the tape adhesive method in recovering pollen from clothes is important. The first author wore clothes that were made from textile S made by the mixture of cotton 60% and polyester fiber 40% to collect pollen from 26 different areas mostly in the northern part of Taiwan and then used cellophane tape D (Sirchie Finger Print Lab., Inc-No. 131LT4 to recover them from different body parts. Twenty-six pollen taxa were detected in different parts of clothes depending upon what kind of plant the first author stayed near. From the results, we concluded that the tape adhesive method is suitable in recovering pollen from clothes. We have suggested that the tape adhesive method could be part of methods for collecting pollen from clothes of suspects. It is simpler, faster and less expensive than other methods.

  10. Textiles and clothing sustainability implications in textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book comprehensively covers the topic of sustainability in the clothing and fashion sector. Sustainability is applied under different industrial sectors and there has to be a distinction in every industrial sector when it comes to sustainability in its application. Though the definition is common for sustainability, sustainability in the clothing sector has its unique objectives, principles, and limitations, which this book highlights.

  11. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that dermal uptake of certain semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) directly from air can be a significant exposure pathway. This has been experimentally confirmed for two phthalates (Weschler et al., 2015). Morrison et al. (2016) showed that clean clothing can impede, while cloth...

  12. Governance and Upgrading Practices in Cloth Production Value Chain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the governance _pal/ern and upgrading _practices of value chain of cloth _production, focusing on micro and small cloth _producing entetprises in Addis Ababa. The study is based on a sample of 222 respondents drawn from various actors of the value chain in the city. The value chain is found out to ...

  13. Vocational Home Economics Curriculum Guide for Occupational Clothing and Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, Margaret R.

    The training program outlined in this guide focuses upon the development of students for gainful employment through a two-year course of study in clothing and textiles. Instructional topics are provided in six areas: clothing and textiles careers; alterationist; custom dressmaker; industrial sewing; getting, keeping, and using the paycheck; and…

  14. Pre-Employment Laboratory Education. Clothing/Fashion Design Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This guidebook is designed for use in teaching students enrolled in preemployment laboratory education (PELE) clothing/fashion design programs. The first of two major sections includes an overview for teachers on planning, conducting, and evaluating a PELE clothing/fashion design program. Specific topics discussed in section 1 include (1)…

  15. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The search for easier and highly efficient ways of washing clothes ... This would help to reduce the running cost. .... It was only necessary to connect to the 8 data lines and the ... is actually a step further into complete automation of the clothes ...

  16. This Specialty Line of Clothing Really Is the "Bee's Knees"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2009-01-01

    This article features "Bee's Knees," a specialty line of clothing. While not the typical product one would think of when considering mobility equipment, this line of clothing certainly does aid in helping those with disabilities access their world more safely and comfortably. "Bee's Knees" offers pint-sized pants made of kid-friendly, durable…

  17. Mud cloth from Mali: its making and use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    book covers and wrapping paper. ... used in mud cloth can be traced back to the 12th cen- tury AD ... cluded a bogolan wrap in his winter collection (Adire .... Stencils made from cardboard or plastic are also used. These stencilled cloths can be ...

  18. Shared Emotional Values in Sustainable Clothing Design Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durrani, Marium; Petersen, Louise Ravnløkke Munk; Niinimäki, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Recent sustainable initiatives in fashion companies are framing design practices that challenge the traditional role of clothing designers. This preliminary study aims to open discussion on challenging traditional clothing design, through an exploration of the shared emotional values between user...... and designers, when designing for longevity....

  19. Clothing Problems of Upper Middle Socio-Economic Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the clothing problems of affluent female consumers in the upper middle socioeconomic group, who have money to spend, as well as some access to retail fashion. Their clothing problems were discussed in relation to fashion leadership, fashion involvement, brand typologies, maintaining an interest in ...

  20. the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in the durban. clothing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    99% of 7,510 clothing workers in Durban were X-rayed on mass ..... hands. . Clothing workers in Durban work 42t hours over a. 5 day week, and any overtime is paid for at the rate of .... the group of ]84 workers caught up in the second.

  1. The use of numerical technology for protection, control and automation - a concept description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjerde, Oddbjoern; Langdal, Bjoern Inge; Kjoelle, Gerd H.; Aaboe, Yngve

    2005-06-01

    In the regulation of network companies of today there is a great focus on supplier reliability and the demands on the use of existing networks increase. Protection, control and automation (PCA) have a central role both with respect to supplier reliability and network utilization. The supplier reliability is also dependent on the installed equipment and the chosen conditions. This also applies to the use of the network that largely depend on the operational margins. This implies that the network company costs will depend on disruptions, maintenance and investments and would be influenced by the chosen protection, control and automation solutions. In the report the concept or the ideas for the use of information from numerical technology in connection with maintenance and handling of supply reliability are described. In operation the focus is on supply reliability and handling of operation disruptions through 1) prevention of faults and avoid disruptions and 2) reduce the consequences of operation disruptions. Examples show that costs in the central network could be reduced with about 60 %. In a selection of regional and distribution networks the costs could be reduced with about 70 %. The maintenance of the primary plant and the PCA equipment may be implemented based on systems and risk considerations. A consequence analysis with respect to economy, availability in the system, the system conditions, the equipment condition and consequences for customers is included. Examples show that the methodology is at best when applied to networks with little redundancy and that the method is applicable in new constructions or refinancing. It is then believed that the network (technical solutions) may be simplified and that necessary security may be obtained at risk based maintenance more than by a high degree of redundancy

  2. An international comparison of productivity change in the textile and clothing industry: a bootstrapped Malmquist index approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Firms in the textile and clothing industry operate in competitive international markets characterized by the liberalized trade after the removal of multi-fiber agreement quotas in 2005, and have to address rapid changes in consumer preferences and production technology. Hence, improving

  3. Assessment of Superstructure Ice Protection as Applied to Offshore Oil Operations Safety: Ice Protection Technologies, Safety Enhancements, and Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    concrete to crack , encouraging freeze-thaw damage, corrosion damage, and possible struc- tural failure (Rangaraju et al. 2006). TRL: 8-9. COTS...CRREL TR 09-4 62 The acetate-based deicers cause alkali-silica reactions in concrete, which leads to swelling and cracking . Current Acquisition Cost...be investi- gated. Marine Technology Transfer Needs: Metal components are steel and should be enamelized , coated with ceramic, or coated with a

  4. 46{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2015). Key Topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence / Radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Erik [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). Radiation Protection; Bohnsted, Angelika [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Safety Research for Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection

    2015-10-15

    Summary report on the Focus Session 'Radiation Protection' of the 46{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2015) held in Berlin, 5 to 7 May 2015. Other Sessions of AMNT 2015 have been covered in atw 7 and 8 (2015) and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  5. New technologies applied to radiation protection training: Rp course for technical qualified expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorente Herranz, Cristina; Rodriguez, M.; Marco Arboli, Marisa

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows the development and results of the first Course for technical qualified expert in radiation protection (RP) using the advantages of Communication and Information Technologies (CITs). This project in modality b-learning has born as a result of the RP specialised course demand, the necessity of working-private life balance and working-training time combination as well as the geographic widespread of those interested. The methodology selected has been b-learning (blended learning), which consists of a mixture of e-learning plus face-to-face learning. The RP course for technical qualified RP expert has been designed for 10 weeks using online learning methodology and 2 days of face-to-face learning in a radioactive facility to take account practical sessions and the final knowledge evaluation. A multidisciplinary team of experts has elaborated the RP programme and the docent material, following national normative. The material consists of: a) Multimedia material with theoretical content to be visualised online; b) Additional material to be un-load or printed; c) Practical exercises within multimedia content; d) Practical online and face-to-face sessions. (author)

  6. Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Project: Advanced Clothing Ground Study Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky; Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini

    2013-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction & Repurposing (LRR) project is to bring new ideas and technologies that will enable human presence in farther regions of space. The LRR project has five tasks: 1) Advanced Clothing System (ACS) to reduce clothing mass and volume, 2) Logistics to Living (L2L) to repurpose existing cargo, 3) Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) to reprocess materials in space, 4) Trash to Gas (TTG) to extract useful gases from trash, and 5) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) to integrate these logistical components. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The ACS task is to find ways to further reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The ACS task has been broken into a series of studies on length of wear of various garments: 1) three small studies conducted through other NASA projects (MMSEV, DSH, HI-SEAS) focusing on length of wear of garments treated with an antimicrobial finish; 2) a ground study, which is the subject of this report, addressing both length of wear and subject perception of various types of garments worn during aerobic exercise; and 3) an ISS study replicating the ground study, and including every day clothing to collect information on perception in reduced gravity in which humans experience physiological changes. The goal of the ground study is first to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment, and second to learn why. Human factors considerations included in the study consist of the Institutional Review Board approval, test protocol and participants' training, and a web

  7. Protection for Children Born Through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act, B.E. 2558: The Changing Profile of Surrogacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Stasi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Legislative Assembly of Thailand has enacted on February 19, 2015 the Protection for Children Born through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act (ART Act. Its primary objective aims at protecting children born through assisted reproductive technologies and providing the legal procedures that the intended parents must follow. The focus of this article is to discuss the ongoing issues involving assisted reproduction in Thailand. After reviewing the past legal framework surrounding surrogate motherhood and the downsides of the assisted reproductive technology market in Thailand, the article will discuss the new ART Act and its regulatory framework. It will conclude that although the new law contains some flaws and limitations, it has so far been successful in tackling surrogacy trafficking and preventing reproductive scandals from occurring again.

  8. Protection for Children Born Through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act, B.E. 2558: The Changing Profile of Surrogacy in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The National Legislative Assembly of Thailand has enacted on February 19, 2015 the Protection for Children Born through Assisted Reproductive Technologies Act (ART Act). Its primary objective aims at protecting children born through assisted reproductive technologies and providing the legal procedures that the intended parents must follow. The focus of this article is to discuss the ongoing issues involving assisted reproduction in Thailand. After reviewing the past legal framework surrounding surrogate motherhood and the downsides of the assisted reproductive technology market in Thailand, the article will discuss the new ART Act and its regulatory framework. It will conclude that although the new law contains some flaws and limitations, it has so far been successful in tackling surrogacy trafficking and preventing reproductive scandals from occurring again.

  9. Optimization of radiation protection by optimizing technology of CASTOR-Cask loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Dreesen, Konrad; Hoffmann, Dietrich

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Germany Optimization of Protection is one of the basic principles of the ICRP System of Radiation Protection. Often this principle is misunderstood and people try to achieve minimal doses irrespective of the amount of manpower or money they have to afford to reach this aim. The better way of optimization is to optimize the technology or the practise which is the cause of radiation exposure and at the same time reduce the dose uptake. Three measures have been used for this purpose in the management of spent fuel in Germany in preparation for the dry storage in CASTOR-Casks. The casks have to be loaded with the spent fuel in the pond of the power plant. After the loading the cask has to be dewatered and dried. The remaining humidity has to be checked with respect to a given maximum residual humidity to avoid corrosion during the long-term storage. Initially a measuring device using the dew point mirror method was used. The mirror was often polluted and needed recalibration. This led to a large variety of measuring times, the time period needed for the above mentioned three steps ranged from 55 to 120 hours. Thus the work could not be reliably planned. To solve this problem we now use a pressure-rise method to measure the humidity within the cask. The time needed is now nearly equal and reliable for all cask loadings and considerably lower than using the dew point method. Thereby the dose uptake of the cask handling staff could be reduced to 2.5 man mSv on average in comparison to the former collective dose of 4 to 5 man mSv. A second step for reducing the dose of the staff is the introduction of remotely controlled valves for the drying process, the humidity measurement and the subsequent filling with Helium. The valves are located at the lid of the cask where a remarkable dose rate could be. The equipment for the remote valve handling has been successfully tested. In the same line is a third measure: to record the process data by computer. The supervising

  10. Development of a Midscale Test for Flame Resistant Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin, which provides both radiant and convective heat...TEST METHODS FIRE RESISTANT MATERIALS TORCHES SIMULATION TEST EQUIPMENT FLAME RESISTANT CLOTHING PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING... fabric during a fire , and even after the fire has been extinguished. The best known full scale transmitted heat flux test is the "ASTM F1930

  11. Non-iterative distance constraints enforcement for cloth drapes simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajat, R. L. L. G.; Wibowo, Arifin, Z.; Suyitno

    2016-03-01

    A cloth simulation represents the behavior of cloth objects such as flag, tablecloth, or even garments has application in clothing animation for games and virtual shops. Elastically deformable models have widely used to provide realistic and efficient simulation, however problem of overstretching is encountered. We introduce a new cloth simulation algorithm that replaces iterative distance constraint enforcement steps with non-iterative ones for preventing over stretching in a spring-mass system for cloth modeling. Our method is based on a simple position correction procedure applied at one end of a spring. In our experiments, we developed a rectangle cloth model which is initially at a horizontal position with one point is fixed, and it is allowed to drape by its own weight. Our simulation is able to achieve a plausible cloth drapes as in reality. This paper aims to demonstrate the reliability of our approach to overcome overstretches while decreasing the computational cost of the constraint enforcement process due to an iterative procedure that is eliminated.

  12. Relationship intention amongst clothing retail customers: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie W. Kuhn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Increasing competition has resulted in clothing retailers placing more emphasis on expensive relationship marketing tactics to retain customers. The retailers often use customers’ loyalty programme membership and the duration of their support to identify and target them in relationship-building efforts. Research purpose: This study determines the viability of relationship intention by measuring and categorising clothing customers according to their relationship intentions. The study also explores the duration of customer support for a clothing retailer, membership of their loyalty programme and the relationship thereof with customers’ relationship intentions towards that retailer. Motivation for the study: Relationship building efforts would be better directed at customers with relationship intentions. Research design, approach and method: Quantitative in nature, this study followed a descriptive research design and used an interviewer-administered survey to collect data from 511 clothing retail customers residing in the greater Pretoria metropolitan area. Main findings: Clothing retailers can effectively determine and categorise customers according to their relationship intentions. The duration customers have supported a clothing retailer and its loyalty programme has no relationship with their relationship intentions. Practical/Managerial implications: Clothing retailers should focus their relationship building on customers with relationship intentions, as they are more likely to respond favourably. They are more likely to be retained by the clothing retailer and provide a return on investment. Contribution/value-add: This study gives clothing retailers a reliable and valid measuring instrument that can be used to identify customers with relationship intentions, rather than relying on the duration of the customers’ support and their loyalty programme membership.

  13. Beta cloth durability assessment for Space Station Freedom (SSF) Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, S.L.; Jacobs, S.; Le, J.

    1993-03-01

    MLI blankets for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) must comply with general program requirements and recommendations for long life and durability in the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet are the most important factors in the SSF natural environment which affect materials life. Two types of Beta cloth (Teflon coated woven glass fabric), which had been proposed as MLI blanket covers, were tested for long-term durability in the LEO environment. General resistance to atomic oxygen attack and permeation were evaluated in the high velocity atomic oxygen beam system at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Long-term exposure to the LEO environment was simulated in the laboratory using a radio frequency oxygen plasma asher. The plasma asher treated Beta cloth specimens were tested for thermo-optical properties and mechanical durability. Space exposure data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility and the Intelsat Solar Array Coupon were also used in the durability assessment. Beta cloth fabricated to Rockwell specification MBO 135-027 (Chemglas 250) was shown to have acceptable durability for general use as an MLI blanket cover material in the LEO environment while Sheldahl G414500 should be used only in locations which are protected from direct Ram atomic oxygen

  14. Risk analysis and protective measures for occupationally workers with technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, R.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Elevated concentrations of these radionuclides are often found in certain geological materials, namely igneous rocks and ores. Human activities that exploit these resources may lead to enhanced concentrations of radionuclides (often referred to as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TE-NORM). Enhanced levels of natural background radiation are encountered in many occupational industrial activities involving a large number of workers. Uncontrolled activities associated with TE-NORM can contaminate the environment and pose a risk to human health. This risk can be alleviated by the adoption of controls to identify where NORM is present; and cleaning the NORM-contaminated equipment and waste management while protecting workers. The main objective of this study is to investigate the natural radioactivity and the hazard parameters in the TE-NORM samples from different industrial activities. Also to describe the models and develop the computer codes that allow one to estimate the risk of cancer resulting from any specified dose of ionizing radiation for occupationally workers in different industrial activities. The present study deals with 50 different samples. This waste generated from petroleum fields, phosphate fertilizers samples, consumer product samples from China, ceramic and zircon samples. The radon exhalation rates calculated using solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39). The value of radon exhalation rate 58.82±5.3 x10 3 , 4.28±0.49 x10 3 and 0.306±0.025 x10 3 Bq/m 2 h for scale, sludge and sand, respectively. The value of radon exhalation rate 82.67±7.98, 62.58 ±5.7, 46.16 ±3.91 and 198.51±18.68 Bq/m 2 h for phosphate fertilizers samples, consumer product samples from China, ceramic and zircon samples, respectively. The 226 Ra activity concentrations were 301.4±771.5, 52.1±438 and 2.56±55.37 kBq/kg for scale, sludge and sand, respectively. The

  15. Thin polycrystalline diamond films protecting zirconium alloys surfaces: From technology to layer analysis and application in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcheulov, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technická 4, Prague 6, CZ-160 07 (Czech Republic); Taylor, A.; Fekete, L.; Fendrych, F. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vega, R.; Shao, L. [Texas A& M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering TAMU-3133, College Station, TX TX 77843 (United States); Kalvoda, L.; Vratislav, S. [Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Cháb, V.; Horáková, K.; Kůsová, K.; Klimša, L.; Kopeček, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Sajdl, P.; Macák, J. [University of Chemistry and Technology, Power Engineering Department, Technická 3, Prague 6, CZ-166 28 (Czech Republic); Johnson, S. [Nuclear Fuel Division, Westinghouse Electric Company, 5801 Bluff Road, Hopkins, SC 29209 (United States); Kratochvílová, I., E-mail: krat@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In this work we showed that films prepared by MW-LA-PECVD technology can be used as anticorrosion protective layer for Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings at elevated temperatures (950 °C) when α phase of zirconium changes to β phase (more opened for oxygen/hydrogen diffusion). Quality of PCD films was examined by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM, AFM and SIMS analysis. • The polycrystalline diamond films were of high quality - without defects and contaminations. After hot steam oxidation (950 °C) a high level of structural integrity of PCD layer was observed. Both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} C phases were present in the protective PCD layer. Higher resistance and a lower degree of impedance dispersion was found in the hot steam oxidized PCD coated Zircaloy2 samples, which may suggest better protection of the Zircaloy2 surface. The PCD layer blocks the hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface thus protecting the material from degradation. • Hot steam oxidation tests confirmed that PCD coated Zircaloy2 surfaces were effectively protected against corrosion. Presented results demonstrate that the PCD anticorrosion protection can significantly prolong service life of Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings in nuclear reactors even at elevated temperatures. - Abstract: Zirconium alloys can be effectively protected against corrosion by polycrystalline diamond (PCD) layers grown in microwave plasma enhanced linear antenna chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Standard and hot steam oxidized PCD layers grown on Zircaloy2 surfaces were examined and the specific impact of polycrystalline Zr substrate surface on PCD layer properties was investigated. It was found that the presence of the PCD coating blocks hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface and protects Zircaloy2 material from degradation. PCD anticorrosion protection of Zircaloy2 can significantly prolong life of Zircaloy2 material in nuclear reactors even at temperatures above Zr

  16. Utilization of information communication technology (ICT) - Based training / learning for capacity building in radiation protection framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluyemi, I.O.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiation protection is the science of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, which includes both particle radiation and high energy electromagnetic radiation. It includes occupational radiation protection, which is the protection of workers; medical radiation protection, which is the protection of patients; and public radiation protection, which is about protection of individual members of the public, and of the population as a whole. ICT has made possible the development of e-learning and several Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) which can support a wide range of capacity building requirements, ranging from under-graduate and post-graduate programmes, continuing professional development courses, right through to short subject specific and research courses, thereby eliminating the problems of conventional forms of training / learning, some of which are: limited access, cost effectiveness and language / cultural barriers. This paper focuses on the utilization of these ICT-based training / learning for capacity building in radiation protection framework and concludes with suggestions on implementation strategies. (author)

  17. An Investigation of Self-Concept, Clothing Selection, and Life Satisfaction among Disabled Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyo Jung

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationships between various aspects of self-concept (i.e., generalized self-efficacy, public self-consciousness, state hope, and self-esteem), clothing selection (i.e., clothing that expresses individuality, clothing that improves the emotional state, clothing that camouflages the body), and life satisfaction…

  18. Operational Protection of Information Technology Assets. A Commander's Guide to Risk Reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamby, Janice

    1997-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is an essential part of any military action. The U.S. military increasingly relies on the force multiplier effect yielded by technological superiority and plans to conduct information warfare...

  19. ROMANIAN TRADITIONAL MOTIF ELEMENT OF MODERNITY IN CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞUTEU Marius Darius

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the phases for improving from an aesthetic point of view a clothing item, the T-shirt for women using software design patterns, computerised graphics and textile different modern technologies including: industrial embroidery, digital printing, sublimation. In the first phase a documentation was prepared in the University of Oradea and traditional motif was selected from a collection comprising a number of Romanian traditional motifs from different parts of the country and were reintepreted and stylized whilst preserving the symbolism and color range specified to the area. For the styling phase was used CorelDraw vector graphics program that allows changing the shape, size and color of the drawings without affecting the identity of the pattern. The embroidery was done using BERNINA Embroidery Software Designer Plus Software. This software allows you to export the model to any domestic or industrial embroidery machine regardless of brand. Finally we observed the resistance of the printed and embroided model to various: elasticity, resistance to abrasion and a sensory analysis on the preservation of color. After testing we noticed the imprint resistance applied to the fabric, resulting in a quality that makes possible to keep the Romanian traditional motif from generation to generation.

  20. Textile fibers coated with carbon nanotubes for smart clothing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Sandra; Lalek, Bartłomiej; Janczak, Daniel; Dybowska-Sarapuk, Łucja; Krzemiński, Jakub; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Łekawa-Raus, Agnieszka

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanomaterials: graphene, fullerenes and in particular carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are extremely interesting and extraordinary materials. It is mostly thanks to theirs unusual electrical and mechanical properties. Carbon nanotubes are increasingly examined to enable its usage in many fields of science and technology. It has been reported that there is a high possibility to use CNTs in electronics, optics, material engineering, biology or medicine. However, this material still interests and inspire scientists around the world and the list of different CNTs applications is constantly expanding. In this paper we are presenting a study on the possibility of application carbon nanotubes as a textile fiber coating for smart clothing applications. Various suspensions and pastes containing CNTs have been prepared as a possible coating onto textile fibers. Different application techniques have also been tested. Those techniques included painting with nanotube suspension, spray coating of suspensions and immersion. Following textile fibers were subject to tests: cotton, silk, polyester, polyamide and wool. Obtained composites materials were then characterized electrically by measuring the electrical resistance.

  1. THE E.U. TEXTILE AND CLOTHING TRADE AND ITS IMPACT ON SILK WORM REARING DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the major trade flows in the E.U. textile and clothing industry in close connection with the future development of sericiculture using the data provided by EU Market Access Data Base for the period 2007-2011.The world market of textile and clothing is divided into two parts: raw material providers mainly situated in Asia, but also in South America and large processors situated in the E.U. such as Italy, France, United Kingdom and Spain, whose contribution to the EU production is 75 %. The main E.U. supplier of raw material for textile and clothing industry is China, followed by India, Bangladesh, Turkey and Brazil. About 33 % of the E.U.production of textile and garments is successfully exported as long as demand/offer ratio is unbalanced at world level. Import and export price have substantially increased. At present, the EU is the 2nd silk products exporter in the world. The new E.U. policy strategy regarding sericiculture is focused on the stimulation of silk worm rearing for producing cocoons mainly in Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Spain, France and Romania where climate conditions are favorable, it is a long tradition in the field and rural population needs jobs. At the same time, the E.U. is focused on technology improvement and silk product design in order to create more value added and increase export and sales.

  2. STUDY OF UNCONVENTIONAL TEXTILES USED AS INSERTION FOR CLOTHES IN TERMS OF ITS DYNAMIC TENSILE STREGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Dorina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional textiles are manufactured different from those obtained by the classic spinning weaving and knitting. They are obtained by mechanical or chemical consolidation of a textile backing up of fibrous layers or combinations of layers of fiber and yarn, fabrics and yarns, fabrics or knitted fabrics and fibers. For the apparel industry has expanded the use of unconventional fabrics especially in auxiliary materials they replace traditional materials such as woven tassel and buckram. Application of reinforcement layers have very important role in increasing the stability of form and material exploitation basic characteristics. Using unconventional fabrics used as insertions for clothing presents a desosibit advantage in terms of possible replacement joints bonded by heat sealed seam, thus saving time and using technology more accessible. For unconventional fabrics used as auxiliaries in the apparel industry is usually determined flexural stiffness, tensile strength, resistance to repeated stretches but more efficient in terms of proximity to the real conditions of the clothing is dynamic tensile resistance. Unconventional textile materials have a certain anisotropy in terms of the performed measurements. So, we followed the conducted research to highlight the anisotropy of several samples and characterization of best of unconventional materials in this regard, to be used under conditions effective as clothing industry.

  3. An Easy-to-Use Airborne LiDAR Data Filtering Method Based on Cloth Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuming Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Separating point clouds into ground and non-ground measurements is an essential step to generate digital terrain models (DTMs from airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging data. However, most filtering algorithms need to carefully set up a number of complicated parameters to achieve high accuracy. In this paper, we present a new filtering method which only needs a few easy-to-set integer and Boolean parameters. Within the proposed approach, a LiDAR point cloud is inverted, and then a rigid cloth is used to cover the inverted surface. By analyzing the interactions between the cloth nodes and the corresponding LiDAR points, the locations of the cloth nodes can be determined to generate an approximation of the ground surface. Finally, the ground points can be extracted from the LiDAR point cloud by comparing the original LiDAR points and the generated surface. Benchmark datasets provided by ISPRS (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing working Group III/3 are used to validate the proposed filtering method, and the experimental results yield an average total error of 4.58%, which is comparable with most of the state-of-the-art filtering algorithms. The proposed easy-to-use filtering method may help the users without much experience to use LiDAR data and related technology in their own applications more easily.

  4. Technology of Anticorrosive Protection of Steel Constructions by Coatings Based on Rapid-Hardening Bitumen-Latex Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nykyforchyn, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recipes of rapid-hardening bitumen-latex emulsions and coatings on its base are created, in-laboratory tests of their physical, chemical and anticorrosive properties are carried out. The technology of anticorrosive protection and the installation technical documentation for making of aqueous bitumen-latex emulsion is developed, installation is mounted and a pilot lot of rapid-hardening emulsion is produced. Experimental-industrial approbation of the technology of coating formation on pipes in oil and gas industry is carried out.

  5. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for health information technology to... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION... FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health Information...

  6. Adjusting to Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Clothing Industry ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adjusting to Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Clothing Industry (Africa South of Sahara) ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development. ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive ...

  7. Form factors and related quantities in clothed-particle representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeko Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We show new applications of the notion of clothed particles in quantum field theory. Its realization by means of the clothing procedure put forward by Greenberg and Schweber allows one to express the total Hamiltonian H and other generators of the Poincaré group for a given system of interacting fields through the creation (annihilation operators for the so-called clothed particles with physical (observed properties. Here such a clothed particle representation is used to calculate the matrix elements (shortly, form factors of the corresponding Nöther current operators sandwiched between the H eigenstates. Our calculations are performed with help of an iterative technique suggested by us earlier when constructing the NN → πNN transition operators. As an illustration, we outline some application of our approach in the spinor quantum electrodynamics.

  8. The influence of the clothing sales assistant on the female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Should the right relationship between the sales assis- tant and the ... In addition, the consumer's satisfaction with the clothing sales ... Approach consumer. • Behaviour ...... Journal of International Consumer Marketing 17(1):33-. 52. JONES, MA ...

  9. Imperialism and Loss of Identity in Second Hand Clothes: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A A JOSEPH

    styles and status found common expression (Greyson and Crewe, 2005). Most of the .... clothes in the country, import substitution, leadership by example, reducing poverty rate and cultivating ... Empire was autocratic government. Officials at ...

  10. Process analysis of an in store production of knitted clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecher, D.; Kemper, M.; Schmenk, B.; Gloy, Y.-S.; Gries, T.

    2017-10-01

    In the textile and clothing industry, global value-added networks are widespread for textile and clothing production. As a result of global networking, the value chain is fragmented and a great deal of effort is required to coordinate the production processes [1]. In addition, the planning effort on the quantity and design of the goods is high and risky. Today the fashion industry is facing an increasing customer demand for individual and customizable products in addition to short delivery times [2]. These challenges are passed down to the textile and clothing industry decreasing batch sizes and production times. Conventional clothing production cannot fulfill those demands especially when combined with more and more individual or customizable designs. Hence new production concepts have to be developed.

  11. The systematization of information: functional clothes through the mind map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete Auxiliadora Assunção Ourives

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, if checks the evolution in women's clothing design aiming at the well-being, comfort and quality of life. However, women still complain of discomfort of breast movement during physical activities carried out in factory floors and sporting activities, among other activities. This discomfort, according to the women, increases during the menstrual period. Therefore, to structure the information on the subject is important, because it will suit the functional clothing designs for these activities. The mind map is a tool suitable for this because assists the organization process of thought and understanding of the information about a particular subject. With that, this work aims to structure information for project requirements with a focus on functional female clothing. The method of research is descriptive and exploratory character. In the end, this work presented project guidelines of functional guidelines female clothing through the process of analysis the mind map.

  12. Modernising patient clothing: a Florence Nightingale Foundation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Christine

    2017-04-27

    Christine Fitzgerald, Matron at The Hillingdon Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (currently on secondment) discusses a project to boost patient self-esteem and dignity through the clothing provided for them to wear.

  13. Personal protective equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series that has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, radiation protection officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have responsibility for ensuring the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide training, instruction and information for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes clothing or other special equipment that is issued to individual workers to provide protection against actual or potential exposure to ionizing radiations. It is used to protect each worker against the prevailing risk of external or internal exposure in circumstances in which it is not reasonably practicable to provide complete protection by means of engineering controls or administrative methods. Adequate personal protection depends on PPE being correctly selected, fitted and maintained. Appropriate training for the users and arrangements to monitor usage are also necessary to ensure that PPE provides the intended degree of protection effectively. This Manual explains the principal types of PPE, including protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Examples of working procedures are also described to indicate how PPE should be used within a safe system of work. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of a more comprehensive training programme or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the RPE described in this Manual should be used under the guidance of a qualified expert

  14. Nuclear Technology. Course 30: Mechanical Inspection. Module 30-6, Protective Coating Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, John

    This sixth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Mechanical Inspection describes the duties of the nuclear quality assurance/quality control technician that are associated with protective coatings, and the national standards that govern the selection, application, and inspection of protective coatings for the reactor containment…

  15. Screening of new substances for radiation protection and technology development of efficacy improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung Sun; Park, Sun Young; Jang, Eun Jung

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of candidate compounds, we examined the effects of selenium compounds, melatonin, and propolis on the colony forming efficiency (CFE) of gamma-irradiated CHO cells. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Sodium selenite showed protective effects at low concentrations against radiation-induced toxicity in CHO cells, whereas its effects were weak at higher concentrations. Selenomethionine also reduced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Both of these compounds showed highest protective effects at the concentration of 1 uM. - Protective effects of melatonin against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Melatonin showed the protective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxicity, and the protection was highest at 1 mM concentration. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity Propolis showed dose-dependent inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. In particular, the highest inhibition was observed when propolis were treated at 0.3 and 1 ng/ml 24h prior to the hydrogen peroxide treatment. The protective effects of propolis was observed only when it was pretreated at least 8 hours before hydrogen peroxide treatment

  16. Screening of new substances for radiation protection and technology development of efficacy improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Sun; Park, Sun Young; Jang, Eun Jung [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of candidate compounds, we examined the effects of selenium compounds, melatonin, and propolis on the colony forming efficiency (CFE) of gamma-irradiated CHO cells. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Sodium selenite showed protective effects at low concentrations against radiation-induced toxicity in CHO cells, whereas its effects were weak at higher concentrations. Selenomethionine also reduced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Both of these compounds showed highest protective effects at the concentration of 1 uM. - Protective effects of melatonin against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Melatonin showed the protective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxicity, and the protection was highest at 1 mM concentration. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity Propolis showed dose-dependent inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. In particular, the highest inhibition was observed when propolis were treated at 0.3 and 1 ng/ml 24h prior to the hydrogen peroxide treatment. The protective effects of propolis was observed only when it was pretreated at least 8 hours before hydrogen peroxide treatment.

  17. Technological aspects of using protective fuses in low-voltage mine networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Z; Pudelko, H

    1986-04-01

    Protection systems are evaluated for mining equipment used in underground coal mining in Poland. Operation of contactor switches is analyzed. Systems for protection of vacuum contactor switches from overload are comparatively evaluated. Types of current reducers are reviewed. Design of the aM protection fuse which is activated only when overload current exceeds the limiting level is analyzed. Protection fuses with the aM characteristic meeting IEC and VDE requirements for fuses used in SV5, SV7 and SV8 vacuum contactors for power networks of up to 1000 V are evaluated. Characteristics of the vacuum contactors manufactured in Poland are given in 6 diagrams and 2 tables. Reliability of the vacuum contactors with aM protection fuses is analyzed. 8 references.

  18. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable textile chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the challenges in sustainable wet processing of textiles, natural dyes, enzymatic textiles and sustainable textile finishes. Textile industry is known for its chemical processing issues and many NGO’s are behind the textile sector to streamline its chemical processing, which is the black face of clothing and fashion sector. Sustainable textile chemical processes are crucial for attaining sustainability in the clothing sector. Seven comprehensive chapters are aimed to highlight these issues in the book.

  19. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    TRIPA Simona; CUC Sunhilde; YALDIZ Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was ...

  20. COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF CLOTHING SECTOR IN THE EU-28 MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-01-01

    The study presented here is aimed at analyzing the comparative advantages in the European clothing sector with the focus on Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. For all Balkan countries export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development and the clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity in this countries. The evolution of the RCA index for garment ind...

  1. Clothed Particles in Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeko Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of clothing in quantum field theory (QFT, put forward by Greenberg and Schweber and developed by M. Shirokov, is applied in quantum electrodynamics (QED and quantum chromodynamics (QCD. Along the guideline we have derived a novel analytic expression for the QED Hamiltonian in the clothed particle representation (CPR. In addition, we are trying to realize this notion in QCD (to be definite for the gauge group SU(3 when drawing parallels between QCD and QED.

  2. [Light protection: principles of UV protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, H; Mang, R

    2006-05-01

    UV radiation is responsible for the induction of epithelial and melanocytic skin cancer, photoaging, and photodermatoses. UV protection is necessary to prevent damage caused by non-physiologic exposure. UV protection includes not only reduction of sun exposure but also use of sun protective filters, UV protective clothes, DNA repair enzymes, and antioxidant supplementation. Consumers are uncertain about the possibilities and limitations of commercial sun protection measures. Dermatologists must explain protective measures to the general public which continues to believe that UV-tanned skin is healthy. The sunscreen market is a highly competitive but lucrative market. The range of products with different designations and promises makes difficult for both consumers and dermatologists to determine what is sensible UV protection.

  3. Impact of nurses clothing on anxiety of hospitalised children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Pirnia, Afsaneh; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Talaei, Mohammad; Ashrafi, Mahmood

    2009-07-01

    To investigate anxiety levels in two groups of children exposed to nurses with white vs. coloured clothing in a university hospital in Iran. Hospitalisation causes anxiety in children and it is documented that nurses have an important role in alleviating children's distress and anxiety. Nurses characteristics, including their clothing is a factor that affects quality of care through child-nurse relationship. Clinical trial. Children (n = 92) aged 7-15 years old hospitalised for 3-5 days in paediatric surgery ward were exposed to nurses in white or coloured clothing. Children's anxiety was assessed on admission and at discharge using Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale. Children exposed to white nursing uniforms showed higher anxiety levels compared with children exposed to coloured nursing clothing (p 11 years old (guidance school) and living in families with more than four members were predictors of lower global anxiety scores. Providing a child-friendly environment through colourful nursing clothing can promote nurses' relationship with hospitalised children. This can satisfy children's expectations of the nursing care and alleviates the need for meeting ideals of nursing care through wearing a white nursing uniform provided that standards of nursing care are favoured. Using colourful nursing clothing in paediatric wards reduces anxiety as a psychological parameter which delays improvement and provides a child-friendly environment that helps promotion of quality of nursing care.

  4. Space environment durability of beta cloth in LDEF thermal blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Roger C.; Whitaker, Ann F.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1993-01-01

    Beta cloth performance for use on long-term space vehicles such as Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) requires resistance to the degrading effects of the space environment. The major issues are retention of thermal insulating properties through maintaining optical properties, preserving mechanical integrity, and generating minimal particulates for contamination-sensitive spacecraft surfaces and payloads. The longest in-flight test of beta cloth's durability was on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), where it was exposed to the space environment for 68 months. The LDEF contained 57 experiments which further defined the space environment and its effects on spacecraft materials. It was deployed into low-Earth orbit (LEO) in Apr. 1984 and retrieved Jan. 1990 by the space shuttle. Among the 10,000 plus material constituents and samples onboard were thermal control blankets of multilayer insulation with a beta cloth outer cover and Velcro attachments. These blankets were exposed to hard vacuum, thermal cycling, charged particles, meteoroid/debris impacts, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO). Of these space environmental exposure elements, AO appears to have had the greatest effect on the beta cloth. The beta cloth analyzed in this report came from the MSFC Experiment S1005 (Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe) tray oriented approximately 22 deg from the leading edge vector of the LDEF satellite. The location of the tray on LDEF and the placement of the beta cloth thermal blankets are shown. The specific space environment exposure conditions for this material are listed.

  5. Forensic Analysis of High Explosive Residues from Selected Cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Afiq Mohamed Huri; Umi Kalthom Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Increased terrorist activities around the Asian region have resulted in the need for improved analytical techniques in forensic analysis. High explosive residues from post-blast clothing are often encountered as physical evidence submitted to a forensic laboratory. Therefore, this study was initiated to detect high explosives residues of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) on selected cloth in this study. Cotton swabbing technique was employed as a simple and rapid method in recovering analytes from the sample matrix. Analytes were analyzed using Griess spot test, TLC and HPLC. TLC separation employed toluene-ethyl acetate (9:1) as a good solvent system. Reversed phase HPLC separation employed acetonitrile-water (65:35) as the mobile phase and analytes detected using a programmed wavelength. RDX was detected at 235 nm for the first 3.5 min and then switched to 215 nm for PETN. Limits of detection (LODs) of analytes were in the low ppm range (0.05 ppm for RDX and 0.25 ppm for PETN). Analyte recovery studies revealed that the type of cloth has a profound effect on the extraction efficiency. Analytes were recovered better for nylon as compared to cotton cloth. However, no analytes could be recovered from denim cloth. For post-blast samples, only RDX was detected in low concentration for both nylon and cotton cloth. (author)

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Consumer Protection, Considering the Globalisation and Technological Changes, within Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel Braşoveanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent globalization and technological changes have produced significant changes in consumption patterns, shopping online becoming increasingly more important. Under these conditions, in this article we analyze the most important issues relating to the level and quality of consumer protection in the European Union countries for the period 2008-2012 . In this article we aimed to analyze the most important issues related to the level and quality of consumer protection in European Union 27 countries in the period 2008-2012. For this scope, we have chosen the most important five consumer indicators, which are the components of the Consumer Conditions Index, which provide information on both the level and the quality of consumer protection: the protection perceived by consumers (feeling protected as a consumer, illicit commercial practices, the product safety, the consumer complaints, and the redress measures. Initial data were collected from the European Commission for each Member State of the European Union 27, for the last five years, from 2008 to 2012. We have used statistical and econometric methods. For the year 2012, using the selected indicators, we have presented the descriptive statistics in order to observe their caracteristics, we have analysed the correlation matrix and we have determined the structure of four clusters, which reveals common features of countries in each cluster. In order to capture the impact of the variables illegal commercial practices and redress measures on the dependent variable protection perceived by the consumers, we have realized panel regressions with cross-section fixed effects, using data for the period 2008-2012. Also for this period, comparative statistical analyzes were performed (average, minimum, maximum, trend between Member States. The results reflect the correlations between the analyzed indicators during the period 2008-2012, and a comprehensive scan of how these indicators developed in territorial

  7. Sustainable clothing: challenges, barriers and interventions for encouraging more sustainable consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Fiona; Roby, Helen; Dibb, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Research with consumers has revealed limited awareness of the sustainability impact of clothing (Goworek et al., 2012). Semi-structured interviews conducted with a range of experts in sustainable clothing to increase understanding of the challenges for sustainable clothing revealed that a focus on sustainability alone will not drive the necessary changes in consumers’ clothing purchase, care and disposal behaviour for three reasons: (i) clothing sustainability is too complex; (ii) consumers a...

  8. Innovative technology summary report: Sealed-seam sack suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    Sealed-seam sack suits are an improved/innovative safety and industrial hygiene technology designed to protect workers from dermal exposure to contamination. Most of these disposable, synthetic-fabric suits are more protective than cotton suits, and are also water-resistant and gas permeable. Some fabrics provide a filter to aerosols, which is important to protection against contamination, while allowing air to pass, increasing comfort level of workers. It is easier to detect body-moisture breakthrough with the disposable suits than with cotton, which is also important to protecting workers from contamination. These suits present a safe and cost-effective (6% to 17% less expensive than the baseline) alternative to traditional protective clothing. This report covers the period from October 1996 to August 1997. During that time, sealed-seam sack suits were demonstrated during daily activities under normal working conditions at the C Reactor and under environmentally controlled conditions at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  9. A Study on the technology of the Protective Device Application for the power Telecommunication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.K.; Lee, S.J.; Choi, H.Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Insitute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B.H.; Jeon, D.K.; Lee, K.O.; Ahn, C.H.; Kim, S.O.; Kim, J.S. [Electrical Engineering and Science Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In order to protect the power telecommunication system from surge by lightning or switching and ground potential rise, characteristics of surge are analyzed when surge strikes communication system. Surge generator which meets international standard was made and test of protective devices was carried out by using it. Counter measures against surge is established through the analysis of ground potential which varies with transient ground impedance. Also specification for installing protective devices was recommended, which is proper to apply to the field system. (author). 186 refs., 203 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. Highly Flexible and Efficient Fabric-Based Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Clothing-Shaped Wearable Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seungyeop; Kwon, Seonil; Kim, Hyuncheol; Kim, Woohyun; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Lim, Myung Sub; Lee, Ho Seung; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2017-07-25

    Recently, the role of clothing has evolved from merely body protection, maintaining the body temperature, and fashion, to advanced functions such as various types of information delivery, communication, and even augmented reality. With a wireless internet connection, the integration of circuits and sensors, and a portable power supply, clothes become a novel electronic device. Currently, the information display is the most intuitive interface using visualized communication methods and the simultaneous concurrent processing of inputs and outputs between a wearer and functional clothes. The important aspect in this case is to maintain the characteristic softness of the fabrics even when electronic devices are added to the flexible clothes. Silicone-based light-emitting diode (LED) jackets, shirts, and stage costumes have started to appear, but the intrinsic stiffness of inorganic semiconductors causes wearers to feel discomfort; thus, it is difficult to use such devices for everyday purposes. To address this problem, a method of fabricating a thin and flexible emitting fabric utilizing organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was developed in this work. Its flexibility was evaluated, and an analysis of its mechanical bending characteristics and tests of its long-term reliability were carried out.

  11. Imported Second-Hand Clothes in South Korea: An Examination of Guje Clothing as an Autonomous Consumer Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis considers issues of individual's 'style competence' within global order. Guje (imported second-hand garments) fashion in South Korea is an ideal case study from which to examine consumer autonomy in the adoption of this Western vintage fashion trend since the 1990s. The importance of guje clothing lies in the local-cultural discrimination between the 'imported' and the local second-hand garments; guje clothes have been considered far more fashionable than the locally generated ...

  12. Buying clothes from thrift stores: an analysis of young people consuming second-hand clothing in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Borges Corrêa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research that analyzed the consumption of second-hand clothing among young people in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Theoretically speaking, the research was guided by the anthropological perspective of consumption. The research was conducted based on the ethnographic method with participant observation and in-depth interviews. The results show the relationships between consumers and merchandise and reveal the main motivations for buying second-hand clothing and accessories.

  13. Radiation protection program by the National Directorate of Nuclear Technology of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Salaberry, M.

    2002-12-01

    The present work offers to the user of ionizing radiation sources in public and private institutions a basic and synthesized guide of radiological protection indicating obligations and rights that the personnel acquires to carry out functions in these facilities

  14. Enabling Technology for Thermal Protection on HIAD and Other Hypersonic Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — S. D. Miller and Associates proposes to investigate a new class of thermal insulations that will enable thermal protection systems (TPS) on ceramic matrix composite...

  15. Enabling Technology for Thermal Protection on HIAD and Other Hypersonic Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas conduction and radiation are the two important heat transfer mechanisms in highly porous reusable thermal protection systems used for planetary entry of space...

  16. Integrating Technologies to Protect the Home Front against Ballistic Threats and Cruise Missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Yossi Arazi; Gal Perel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses active protection in response to the rocket threat to Israel’s home front. The defense establishment anticipates that in an allout war, the home front would be attacked for about thirty days, and that every day there would be about one thousand rocket and missile hits that would cause thousands of casualties as well as damage to infrastructures and strategic sites. Israel has an active protection system with five layers of interceptor missiles, and in cooperation with t...

  17. Electronic emission and electron spin resonance of irradiated clothes: (cottons, synthetic clothes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ajouz Rima, H.

    1984-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to a new method of dosimetry applicable to accidental irradiations. It is based on the use of cotton and synthetic fabric clothes as detectors. It enables absorbed doses and body dose distributions to be estimated after an accidental irradiation. A bibliography on textile fibres used for clothing is presented in the first chapter: origin, structure, industrial treatments, effects of heat, light, ionizing radiations. In the second chapter, electronic emission generated by double stimulation (thermal and optic) is described. This phenomenon reveals changes in the surface state of cotton. Exo-emission was chosen because of its high sensitivity in dosimetry. The third chapter is devoted to the application of electron paramagnetic resonance to the dosimetry of irradiated fabrics. After a brief description of the spectrometer used, the results obtained with commercial cotton fabrics and with a special fabric realized by the Institut Textile de France are described some of these fabrics were subjected to special treatments either before or after irradiation. Synthetic fabrics (polyesters and polypropylene) have also been studied. (author)

  18. Cerebral protection devices for use during carotid artery angioplasty with stenting: a health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Devidas; Stafinski, Tania

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to examine the safety, efficacy, and economic implications of the use of cerebral protection devices during carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS) in high-risk patients with severe carotid artery disease (CAD). A comprehensive search for peer- and non-peer-reviewed studies that compared carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or CAS without cerebral protection to CAS with cerebral protection and appeared in the English language literature between January 1990 and January 2005 was completed. Information from studies identified was extracted using a common data abstraction form and then critically appraised against published quality assessment criteria. Of the eight studies found, six provided information on technical or procedural success rates, with values ranging from 95.6 percent to 100 percent. Three of the four studies comparing groups of patients who received CAS with cerebral protection with those who received only CAS reported a non-statistically significantly higher 30-day incidence of death and stroke (major or minor) in the latter group. None of the three studies comparing CAS with cerebral protection to CEA demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the 30-day incidence of death, major stroke, or myocardial infarction between treatment groups. No economic analyses were found. In high-risk patients with severe CAD, the evidence suggests that CAS with cerebral protection may offer a safe and efficacious alternative to CEA, reducing the risk of embolic peri-procedural complications associated with CAS to acceptable levels.

  19. APIs and Researchers: The Emperor's New Clothes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edmond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Europeana Cloud (eCloud project, Trinity College Dublin investigated best practice in the use of web services, such as APIs, for accessing large data sets from cultural heritage collections. This research looked into the provision and use of APIs, and moreover, whether or not more customised programmatic access to datasets is what researchers want or need. In order to understand whether current patterns of API usage reflect a skills gap on the part of researchers or a mismatch of tool to purpose, we looked not only at the creators and developer/users of APIs, but also at humanists already re-using big data; approaches in cultural heritage institutions and other research infrastructures to bring API use to non-technical audiences; and the kinds of training and other support services available or emerging within the data-intensive humanities research lifecycle. We conducted both desk research and a series of 11 interviews with figures working as researchers, developers or data providers, including figures from both the API development and the data usage communities. This research, conducted under the eCloud project and supported by the European Commission’s ICT Policy and Support Programme (Grant number 325091, was begun in March 2014 and is now in its concluding validation stage. The results of the research are not yet finalised, but the contribution is already emerging of this work to the debate about APIs being either the way forward for digital cultural heritage collections, or the Emperor’s New Clothes (or maybe a bit of both.

  20. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Evaluation of Personal Chemical Vapor Protection for Patrol and Tactical Law Enforcement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fedele, Paul D; Lake, William L; Arca, Victor J; Marshall, Stephen M; Mitchell, David B

    2002-01-01

    ... functions in law enforcement. Various Level C, impermeable and charcoal impregnated, vapor-absorptive, air-permeable protective clothing ensembles, worn with the MSA Millenium respiratory protective mask/butyl hood, and seven-mil...

  2. Relationship between behavioural factors and colour preferences for clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Fornazarič

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The colour of clothing plays an important role in one’s emotional reaction and the selection of clothes, which in turn effects design, the fashion industry and sales. In our behavioural research involving the Slovenian population regarding the selection of colours, we used the results of opportunity sampling, i.e. a web survey using a sample of 204 respondents, who were invited to participate in the research using an email list sampling method. Our aim was determine how demographic and behavioural characteristics affect colour preferences for clothing. Demographic characteristics are not important in terms of the behaviour of different segments of the population, except with regard to gender. Nevertheless, we can use the results of the survey to make a correlation between colour and consumer characteristics. Those who are fond of the colour beige follow fashion trends more closely than the others, while the colour white is associated with those who follow fashion on web and in online shopping. On the contrary, consumers who prefer pink and purple primarily buy clothes in fashion shops. Those who prefer brown and beige enjoy the shopping experience more than others, while lovers of the colour pink are less inclined to buy clothes during sales than others. Consumers who prefer the colour blue are predominant in fitting shops, while those who prefer the colour black do not to buy clothes on Saturdays. Lovers of the colour blue stand out in terms of spending, while people who are fond of the colour white spend the most, although they prefer to buy less expensive clothes. People drawn to the colour grey prefer to buy less expensive jackets, while women who prefer the colour green also buy less expensive jackets. We recommend expanding the scope of the research to include historical determinants, fashion patterns, marketing communication and fashion brands, as well as other, more rational and speculative motives associated with a subject

  3. On the awareness of radiation protection. A questionnaire survey of junior college students of radiological technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayamori, Ryo; Togashi, Atsuhiko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Inakoshi, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A questionnaire survey on the awareness of radiation protection was conducted to improve our curriculum of radiation protection education, which seems to be important for the safe administrative control systems and handling techniques of radiation. A total of 426 students answered our questionnaire during the period of 1994 to 1999. They were 80 first-year, 114 second-year and 232 third-year students. The facility values of 4 questions on the influence of radiation to a human body were 50.2%, 30.3%, 28.9% and 7.0%. There was no statistically significant difference among different age groups. The facility values of 3 questions on the dose limitation of occupation exposure were 50.5% (on the effective dose equivalent), 36.4% (on the tissue dose equivalent to skin), and 40.9% (on the crystalline lens). On safe handling of radiation, only 35.7% of students correctly answered that they use a plastic board to protect themselves from β-ray, while 77.0% correctly answered the question on the decontamination method of radioactive substance from the skin. The results show the students' lack of knowledge on radiation protection. Those involved in basic science education and radiation protection education, therefore, need to clarify their teaching content and offer explicit explanations on the proper dose of radiation, effects to exposure dose, interaction between different materials and radiation. (author)

  4. Maintenance standards, care and control of the radiation protection material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasesco, L.

    2004-01-01

    The present protocol in Radiology, Tomography, surgical block and intensive care unit in the Britanic Hospital from Uruguay.Between their topics find care procedures in protective clothes, periodic and control methods, material record,and staff assigned

  5. Advanced worker protection system. Topical report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system, maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles.

  6. Social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes : the Ukrainian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Skalatskaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to consider the prospects of social and philosophical analysis of the product (clothes of fashion brand. In social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes, its fashion shows there is a range of discursive questions: the use and the definition of the concepts «designer» and «brand»; thematic focus of the brand (fabrics, colors, prints, shapes its semantics; format of representation of fashion collection in dependence; and a number of other structural elements. In the analysis of fashion trends or seasonal collections the concepts designer or brand are used. The concept «brand» contains an economic component, certain calculations, and intangible assets (goodwill; design work is subject to market needs and the interests of consumers (for analysis of the individual designer the biographical method is used. Theoretical analysis of fashion cannot be made apart from empirical material. A performative approach of K. Wolfe can be the methodology of the social and philosophical research of fashion show. The advantages of this method of the research are to determine fashion as performative space, staging ideas of the designer in the fashion show and making clothes. Implementation of performative approach allowed considering thematic focus of the brand of clothes and format of its representation in seasonal fashion shows on the example of Ukrainian brand «Domanoff». Social and philosophical analysis of brand clothes can be divided into the following main components, excluding aesthetic and economic aspects: the use of the concepts designer and brand (a set of aesthetic, economic, social and subjective components and design`s view; review of the semantics of clothes and staging (by providing clothes in the form of seasonal fashion shows of collections. For complex social and socio­philosophical analysis of fashion brand it necessary to have: the press release (description, designer`s interview (disclosure of early

  7. Perspectives of radiological protection facing the development of new medical technologies with ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz, L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of medical technologies with ionizing radiations is always showing a parallel effort on risks control. These technologies are a safe tool for accurate diagnosis and the elaboration of effective treatments. However it is not foreseen to achieve a decrease of the equivalent effective annual dose person due to medical irradiation (1.06 m Sv for OECD countries), because of the population growing and aging

  8. European cloth and "tropical" skin: clothing material and British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    As Britain's imperial and colonial ambitions intensified toward the end of the nineteenth century, the preservation of white European health in tropical climates became an increasingly important concern. Since at least the seventeenth century, the "tropics" had been seen as spaces holding vast potential wealth but also death and disease. To combat these deadly but desirable landscapes, the British built a considerable commodity culture around the preservation of white European health, and for many, tropical clothing was one of the most important and essential items in their "kits." This article investigates the composition and use of such clothing in relation to British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates. First, it considers debates that ensued over the best material--wool, cotton, linen, silk, or a combination of these materials--and the role of "black" skin and local practice in the development of tropical clothing. Second, it demonstrates the importance of location in any discussion of tropical medicine and hygiene, and the tension and ambiguity that still surrounded British ideas of health and hygiene in the tropical colonies. Third, it argues that tropical clothing was important in the maintenance of climatic etiologies despite advances in parasitology and sanitary science. Finally, it considers the relationship of tropical clothing to the formation of a unique colonial identity. To British men and women embarking for any number of tropical destinations, proper clothing was not a banal and mundane component of their outfitting. For many, the clothing signified a departure from the safe and "civil" climes of Britain for adventure in the expanding tropical empire.

  9. Creating Centralized Reporting for Microsoft Host Protection Technologies:The Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    patching are helpful, though they offer little or no protection for attacks using specialized malware or unpatched “zero-day” exploits. 2.1 Benefits...that all host-based and net- work firewalls allow communications between Windows endpoints and hosts acting in the collec- tion service role. Define a

  10. A study on the radiation and environmental safety -Development of radiation protection and measurement technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, See Yung; Lee, Tae Yung; Lee, Hyung Sub; Kim, Jan Ryul; Kim, Chang Kyung; Kim, Bong Hwan; Yoon, Kyung Soo; Jung, Kyung Kee; Jung, Duk Yun; Lee, Bong Jae; Chul, Yoon Suk; Lee, Kee Chang; Yoon, Yu Chang; Jung, Rae Ik; Lee, Sang Yoon; Han, Yung Dae; Kim, Jong Soo, I; Kim, Jong Soo, II; Suh, Kyung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyung [Han Yang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Reference X- and neutron radiation fields have been established and evaluated to support the national radiation protection programme under which performance evaluation test for domestic personal dosimetry will be implemented by the ministerial ordinance 1992-15, and to provide a basic technical support in radiation protection dosimetry. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with the KAERI reference radiation fields which comply well with those in the new ANSI N13.11(1993) to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of whole body direct bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been also developed and evaluated to be equally excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries. A BOMAB phantom for precise WBC calibration has also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. A principal method for estimating the cost for radiation protection which is important in performing a cost-benefit analysis for the radiation protection optimization study based on the ALARA principle has been preliminarily investigated and suggested. 49 figs, 67 tabs, 50 refs. (Author).

  11. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN PROTECTING T H E RIGHTS OF PATIENTS DURING TELEMEDICINE CONSULTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Yaremenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The problems of a regulatory legal tramewor k tor telemedicine consultations were set. Attention is drawn to the need to regulate these activities in the health system. First of all, we need prudential standards for the protection of patients’ rights.

  12. Child protection and new technologies of communication: the code of regulatory PEGI videogames and games on-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Mª PÉREZ ALONSO-GETA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It’s been said that the future of a village resides in its children, and not only because they’re the future, but because it’s better if we protect and teach our children well. Thus, in 1959 the United Nations published ten principles in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child. The second principle of the Declaration of the Rights states that “the child shall enjoy special protection…to enable him to develop physically, mentally, morally, spiritually and socially…” Today, a very different social context from that of 1959, the right to protection should also be settled within the diverse areas that define new communication technologies. However, current procedures established by the PEGI, while still necessary, don’t guarantee this basic childhood right.

  13. The environmental impact of coal technology: Politics and methods of achieving an international convention to protect the earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Particular attention will be paid to the following points during the international Round Table discussions: Technology transfer and political opportunities for the environmentally-compatible use of coal in developing and transitional countries who rely on coal to meet their energy needs. Supporting this challenge for the international community of coal-based energy conservation in these countries, particularly through development aid. To increasingly accept our collective responsibility for energy considerations and environmental effects, based on a better understanding of the countries' differing limits and obligations in achieving the goal of a convention to protect the earth's atmosphere. (orig.) [de

  14. Water resources protection today: end-of-pipe technology and cleaner production. Case study of the Czech Odra River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chour, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on integrated watershed-based protection and sustainable use of water resources to increase the effectiveness of water pollution abatement. The approach includes improvements in end-of-pipe waste-water treatment technologies and implementation of Cleaner Production (CP) principles and policies within the watershed. An example of the general effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by the Czech Odra River Cleaner Production Project where reductions in pollution were achieved with improved industrial production. The CP theme is worth considering as an important challenge for the IWA.

  15. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  16. Experimental investigation of centrifugal fans for personal protection equipment – effect of used 3D printing technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Václav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is experimental investigation of centrifugal fans for a personal protection equipment. The aim of the fan is to drive the contaminated air containing harmful or irritating particles through the filters and then into the mask of workers, such as a fireman, a labourer or a lab worker. The fan is measured on the test stand, the characteristics and performances are evaluated, i.e. the dependencies of the working pressure on the flow rate. The characteristics are measured for three constant speed settings. The characteristics of the wheels produced by the different 3D printing technology are compared. It is found that the production technology has only a minimal effect, the performance of the wheels is more influenced by the position of the impeller on the motor shaft and hence by the mutual position of the impeller and the diffuser.

  17. Enabling Technology to Advance Health-Protecting Individual Rights-Are We Walking the Talk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Crystal; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida

    The evolving structure and business of health care services and delivery need the functionality and capability offered by electronic health record (EHR) systems. By electronically diffusing the traditional patient record, however, this new model blurs the long-established medical data home, raising concerns about data ownership, confidentiality, access and individual rights. In 2008 the Lawson Health Research Institute began the process of instituting a robust health informatics and collaborative research infrastructure, now known as I-THINK Research. As data are migrated to the platform and policies are developed, we are forced to confront the complexity of issues around protection of individual rights. The paper presents, in a broader context, the main issues surrounding the privacy debate and the need for education, accountability and new legislation to help define and protect individual rights as new e-health business models emerge.

  18. Role of physical protection and safeguards technology used to Nuclear Material Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko-Irianto, Ign.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of nuclear materials at any nuclear facility must be in secure and must be known as safeguards purpose such as its position, from or type and amount. The clarification of the amount be reported to the national regulatory body and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as the International regulatory body. The national regulatory body and IAEA will then verify that report. The verification must be done to know there is no difference of the amount, and to give the assurance to the International community that any diversion of safeguarded nuclear material from civil use to a prescribed military purpose would be detected. To carry out verification, several verification techniques such as non-destructive analysis, surveillance, unattended and remote monitoring and environmental sampling are explained to convey the impression how those techniques are implemented. According to the security requirement, the physical protection system including all components of physical protection system have to be effectively designed

  19. The MAFF dry cloth collector programme for monitoring airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.O.; Smith, B.D.; Hunt, G.J.; Thomas, R.E.G.

    1986-01-01

    The history of the MAFF airborne radioactivity monitoring programme and its current operation using dry cloth collectors are described. The detection system has become well established as a sensitive indicator of airborne radioactivity. Details of collector materials, deployment around the major UK nuclear establishments and procedures for radiometric analysis of cloths are given. Typical results for the period 1980-82 show that at most sites only nuclear weapons fallout was detected. The systems's usefulness is exemplified by its response to the release of I-131 from Sellafield in 1981; this release was of negligible radiological significance but was easily detected. The response of dry cloths to various sources of atmospheric radioactivity and factors affecting collection efficiency are discussed. (author)

  20. Fracture detection in concrete by glass fiber cloth reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soon-Gi; Lee, Sung-Riong

    2006-04-01

    Two types of carbon (carbon fiber and carbon powder) and a glass cloth were used as conductive phases and a reinforcing fiber, respectively, in polymer rods. The carbon powder was used for fabricating electrically conductive carbon powder-glass fiber reinforced plastic (CP-GFRP) rods. The carbon fiber tows and the CP-GFRP rods were adhered to mortar specimens using epoxy resin and glass fiber cloth. On bending, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber tow attached to the mortar specimen increased greatly after crack generation, and that of the CP-GFRP rod increased after the early stages of deflection in the mortar. Therefore, the CP-GFRP rod is superior to the carbon fiber tow in detecting fractures. Also, by reinforcing with a glass fiber cloth reinforced plastic, the strength of the mortar specimens became more than twice as strong as that of the unreinforced mortar.