WorldWideScience

Sample records for protection mask design

  1. RHIC prefire protection masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drees, A.; Biscardi, C.; Curcio, T.; Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Fu, W.; Liaw, C. J.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.

    2015-01-01

    The protection of the RHIC experimental detectors from damage due to beam hitting close upstream elements in cases of abort kicker prefires requires some dedicated precautionary measures with two general options: to bring the beam close to a limiting aperture (i.e. the beam pipe wall), as far upstream of the detector components as possible or, alternatively, to bring a limiting aperture close to the circulating beam. Spontaneous and random prefires of abort kicker modules (Pulse Forming Network, PFN) have a history as long as RHIC is being operated. The abort system consist of 5 kickers in per ring, each of them equipped with its own dedicated PFN.

  2. Improved Mask Protected DES using RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Latha S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The data encryption standard is a pioneering and farsighted standard which helped to set a new paradigm for encryption standards. But now DES is considered to be insecure for some application. Asymmetric mask protected DES is an advanced encryption method for effectively protecting the advanced DES. There are still probabilities to improve its security. This paper propose a method, which introduce a RSA key generation scheme in mask protected DES instead of plain key, which result in enhancement in the security of present asymmetric mask protected DES. We further propose a Vedic mathematical method of RSA implementation which reduce the complexity of computation in RSA block thereby resulting in reduced delay (four timesthat improves the performance of overall system. The software implementation was performed using Xilinx 13.2 and Model-Sim was used for the simulation environment.

  3. Ergonomic evaluation of pilot oxygen mask designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, W.; Yang, Xiaopeng; Jung, Daehan; Park, Seikwon; Kim, Heeeun; You, Heecheon

    2018-01-01

    A revised pilot oxygen mask design was developed for better fit to the Korean Air Force pilots’ faces. The present study compared an existing pilot oxygen mask and a prototype of the revised mask design with 88 Korean Air Force pilots in terms of subjective discomfort, facial contact pressure,

  4. Design of TOPAZ masking system using EGS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    There are two sources of the beam background in the e + e - collider experiments. One source is the synchrotron radiation from many magnets. Another source comes from the spent-electron hitting the beam pipe near the interaction region. To reduce the these background, TOPAZ masking system was designed using EGS4 code. The designed masking system consists of two pairs of masks which are called mask-1 and mask-2. The mask-1 is placed to intercept the spent-electron. The aperture of the mask-2 was determined for the synchrotron radiation photons not to hit the mask-1 directly. After these masks were installed, we are taking the data in the small beam background. (author)

  5. 37 CFR 211.4 - Registration of claims of protection in mask works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protection in mask works. 211.4 Section 211.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.4 Registration of claims of protection in mask works. (a) General. This section prescribes conditions for the registration of claims of...

  6. Mask Materials and Designs for Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sik; Ahn, Jinho

    2018-03-01

    Extreme ultra violet lithography (EUVL) is no longer a future technology but is going to be inserted into mass production of semiconductor devices of 7 nm technology node in 2018. EUVL is an extension of optical lithography using extremely short wavelength (13.5 nm). This short wavelength requires major modifications in the optical systems due to the very strong absorption of EUV light by materials. Refractive optics can no longer be used, and reflective optics is the only solution to transfer image from mask to wafer. This is why we need the multilayer (ML) mirror-based mask as well as an oblique incident angle of light. This paper discusses the principal theory on the EUV mask design and its component materials including ML reflector and EUV absorber. Mask shadowing effect (or mask 3D effect) is explained and its technical solutions like phase shift mask is reviewed. Even though not all the technical issues on EUV mask are handled in this review paper, you will be able to understand the principles determining the performance of EUV masks.

  7. Evaluation of protection provided by air purifying half and full-face masks as worn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1979-01-01

    For selecting good-performing masks and estimating the protection provided by the masks, the leakage has been measured for six types of half mask and three types of full-face mask as worn. The cloud of submicron sodium chloride particles was generated within a test hood in which the subject wore his mask. The air sampled from inside the mask with a miniature pump was assessed by a flame photometer. The leakage was measured under four simulated working conditions such as normal breathing, smiling, moving head, and talking. The measured protection factors (defined as the ratio of the concentration of the test cloud outside the mask to that inside the mask) widely distributed from 10 to 3,300 for the half masks and from 100 to 3,300 for the full-face masks, depending on the persons and the working conditions. The values characterising the distribution of the protection factor for each mask are summarized. Based on these values, the performance of each mask and the effects of working conditions on the protection are discussed. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the protection factor of half-masks with respirator fitting test apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, M.; Ikezawa, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Matsui, H.; Kokubu, M.

    1980-01-01

    A respirator fitting test apparatus has been developed to select half-masks of high performance and to estimate their protective ability. With the apparatus, the facepiece leakage was measured for six different half-masks worn by 40 volunteer subjects, under simulated working conditions of normal breathing, smiling, moving head, and talking. A cloud of submicron sodium chloride particles was fed into a test hood in which the subject wore a mask. The air sampled from inside the mask with a miniature pump was assessed by a flame photometer. It is hown that the protection factor (ratio of the concentration of test cloud outside the mask to that inside) for each mask varies widely with the subject and the working conditions, and that the protection factors roughly fit a lognormal distribution. The values characterizing the distributions of respective masks are given. (H.K.)

  9. Actinic Mask Inspection at the ALS Initial Design Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barty, A; Chapman, H; Sweeney, D; Levesque, R; Bokor, J; Gullikson, E; Jong, S; Liu, Y; Yi, M; Denbeaux, G; Goldberg, K; Naulleau, P; Denham, P; Rekawa, S; Baston, P; Tackaberry, R; Barale, P

    2003-01-01

    This report is the first milestone report for the actinic mask blank inspection project conducted at the VNL, which forms sub-section 3 of the Q1 2003 mask blank technology transfer program at the VNL. Specifically this report addresses deliverable 3.1.1--design review and preliminary tool design. The goal of this project is to design an actinic mask inspection tool capable of operating in two modes: high-speed scanning for the detection of multilayer defects (inspection mode), and a high-resolution aerial image mode in which the image emulates the imaging illumination conditions of a stepper system (aerial image or AIM mode). The purpose and objective of these two modes is as follows: (1) Defect inspection mode--This imaging mode is designed to scan large areas of the mask for defects EUV multilayer coatings. The goal is to detect the presence of multilayer defects on a mask blank and to store the co-ordinates for subsequent review in AIM mode, thus it is not essential that the illumination and imaging conditions match that of a production stepper. Potential uses for this imaging mode include: (a) Correlating the results obtained using actinic inspection with results obtained using other non-EUV defect inspection systems to verify that the non-EUV scanning systems are detecting all critical defects; (b) Gaining sufficient information to associate defects with particular processes, such as various stages of the multilayer deposition or different modes of operation of the deposition tool; and (c) Assessing the density and EUV impact of surface and multilayer anomalies. Because of the low defect density achieved using current multilayer coating technology it is necessary to be able to efficiently scan large areas of the mask in order to obtain sufficient statistics for use in cross-correlation experiments. Speed of operation as well as sensitivity is therefore key to operation in defect inspection mode. (2) Aerial Image Microscope (AIM) mode--In AIM mode the tool is

  10. 76 FR 63942 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Surgical Mask With a Protective Eye Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Determination Concerning a Surgical Mask With a Protective Eye Shield AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... country of origin of a Surgical Mask with a Protective Eye Shield. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that Turkey is the country of origin of the Surgical Mask with a...

  11. Protection provided by masks sinkers in interventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pera Cegarra, O.; Alejo Luque, L.; Pifarre Martinez, J.

    2011-01-01

    The high doses that are taught in laboratories worked indispensable the use of shields and armor. In this context, the use of sinkers glasses is widespread, but not the sinkers of the masks. Qur goal is to study the effectiveness of such masks for later comparison with that provided by leaded glasses with side shields. Specifically, compare the reduction in lens dose rate for different positions and orientations of the head of specialist intervention.

  12. Design of Data Masking Architecture and Analysis of Data Masking Techniques for Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar G K,; Manjunath T. N,; Ravindra S. Hegadi,; Archana.R.A

    2011-01-01

    Data masking is the process of obscuring-masking, specific data elements within data stores. It ensures that sensitive data is replaced with realistic but not real data. The goal is that sensitive customer information is not available outside of the authorized environment. Data masking is typically done while provisioning nonproduction environments so that copies created to support test and development processes are not exposing sensitive information and thus avoiding risks of leaking. Maskin...

  13. Mechanically and electrically robust metal-mask design for organic CMOS circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Michihiro; Qin, Zhaoxing; Kuribara, Kazunori; Ogasahara, Yasuhiro; Hiromoto, Masayuki; Sato, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    The design of metal masks for fabricating organic CMOS circuits requires the consideration of not only the electrical property of the circuits, but also the mechanical strength of the masks. In this paper, we propose a new design flow for metal masks that realizes coanalysis of the mechanical and electrical properties and enables design exploration considering the trade-off between the two properties. As a case study, we apply a “stitching technique” to the mask design of a ring oscillator and explore the best design. With this technique, mask patterns are divided into separate parts using multiple mask layers to improve the mechanical strength at the cost of high resistance of the vias. By a numerical experiment, the design trade-off of the stitching technique is quantitatively analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the proposed flow is useful for the exploration of the designs of metal masks.

  14. Polarized phase shift mask: concept, design, and potential advantages to photolithography process and physical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoping; Grobman, Warren D.; Reich, Alfred J.; Thompson, Matthew A.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept and design of a novel phase shift mask technology, Polarized Phase Shift Mask (P:PSM). The P:PSM technology utilizes non-interference between orthogonally polarized light sources to avoid undesired destructive interference seen in conventional two-phase shift mask technology. Hence P:PSM solves the well-known 'phase edge' or 'phase conflict' problem. By obviating the 2nd exposure and 2nd mask in current Complementary Phase Shift Mask (C:PSM) technology, this single mask/single exposure technology offers significant advantages towards photolithography process as well as pattern design. We use examples of typical design and process difficulties associated with the C:PSM technology to illustrate the advantages of the P:PSM technology. We present preliminary aerial image simulation results that support the potential of this new reticle technology for enhanced design flexibility. We also propose possible mask structures and manufacturing methods for building a P:PSM.

  15. Experiments on the evaluation of protection provided by full-face masks as worn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Izumi, Yukio.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of a dust respirator is affected mostly by the leakage through the interstice between mask and face. Mask man-test using NaCl aerosols has been developed to evaluate protection provided by worn masks. However, there were some problems in application of man-test to field test. The sampling method of the NaCl aerosols inside the mask was discussed. The tool for sampling operated easily was selected, and the best sampling position at the mask was decided. The correction of the measured values was also discussed. Because of NaCl aerosols deposition in the respiratory tract and sampling lines, the leakage might be underestimated. The correction coefficient was experimentally measured and discussed. (author)

  16. "Slit Mask Design for the Giant Magellan Telescope Multi-object Astronomical and Cosmological Spectrograph"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Darius; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Schmidt, Luke M.; Prochaska, Travis; DePoy, Darren L.

    2018-01-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope Multi-object Astronomical and Cosmological Spectrograph (GMACS) is currently in development for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). GMACS will employ slit masks with a usable diameter of approximately 0.450 m for the purpose of multi-slit spectroscopy. Of significant importance are the design constraints and parameters of the multi-object slit masks themselves as well as the means for mapping astronomical targets to physical mask locations. Analytical methods are utilized to quantify deformation effects on a potential slit mask due to thermal expansion and vignetting of target light cones. Finite element analysis (FEA) is utilized to simulate mask flexure in changing gravity vectors. The alpha version of the mask creation program for GMACS, GMACS Mask Simulator (GMS), a derivative of the OSMOS Mask Simulator (OMS), is introduced.

  17. Security Hi-tech Individual Extra-light Device Mask: a new protection for [soccer] players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascone, Piero; Petrucci, Bernardino; Ramieri, Valerio; Marianetti, Titto Matteo; TitoMatteo, Marianetti

    2008-05-01

    Among professional [soccer] players, a relevant incidence of maxillofacial trauma has been reported. The main challenge in these particular patients is to give them the possibility of a very short convalescence period and to make possible their agonistic activity as soon as possible. The authors here present an innovative technique to realize this--the Security Hi-tech Individual Extra-Light Device Mask, a customizable protective shield based on the player's face cast. A completely customized mask was forged over the player's face cast to protect the injured area. This mask shortens convalescence period, and due to its realization, it is comfortable and easy fitting, thus allowing the player to perform at a professional level in his sport activity in the shortest time possible.

  18. Mask design and fabrication in coded aperture imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutler, Paul M.E.; Springham, Stuart V.; Talebitaher, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the new concept of a row-spaced mask, where a number of blank rows are interposed between every pair of adjacent rows of holes of a conventional cyclic difference set based coded mask. At the cost of a small loss in signal-to-noise ratio, this can substantially reduce the number of holes required to image extended sources, at the same time increasing mask strength uniformly across the aperture, as well as making the mask automatically self-supporting. We also show that the Finger and Prince construction can be used to wrap any cyclic difference set onto a two-dimensional mask, regardless of the number of its pixels. We use this construction to validate by means of numerical simulations not only the performance of row-spaced masks, but also the pixel padding technique introduced by in ’t Zand. Finally, we provide a computer program CDSGEN.EXE which, on a fast modern computer and for any Singer set of practical size and open fraction, generates the corresponding pattern of holes in seconds

  19. Silicon microneedle formation using modified mask designs based on convex corner undercut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, N.; Morrissey, A.

    2007-02-01

    In this work, we present microneedle fabrication using the mechanism of silicon convex corner undercutting for modified etch masks in aqueous KOH solution (29% KOH, 79 °C). The presented modified mask designs include three different shapes, as well as different compensation structures applied to a square mask shape. We have found that square mask shapes present an optimum needle structure in contrast to circular or diamond shapes. The use of compensation structures facilitates an increase in needle density of 33-50% over that otherwise achieved.

  20. Review of economic evaluations of mask and respirator use for protection against respiratory infection transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Shohini; MacIntyre, C Raina; Newall, Anthony T

    2015-10-13

    There has been increasing debate surrounding mask and respirator interventions to control respiratory infection transmission in both healthcare and community settings. As decision makers are considering the recommendations they should evaluate how to provide the most efficient protection strategies with minimum costs. The aim of this review is to identify and evaluate the existing economic evaluation literature in this area and to offer advice on how future evaluations on this topic should be conducted. We searched the Scopus database for all literature on economic evaluation of mask or respirator use to control respiratory infection transmission. Reference lists from the identified studies were also manually searched. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria from the initial 806 studies identified by the search strategy and our manual search. Five studies considered interventions for seasonal and/or pandemic influenza, with one also considering SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome). The other two studies focussed on tuberculosis transmission control interventions. The settings and methodologies of the studies varied greatly. No low-middle income settings were identified. Only one of the reviewed studies cited clinical evidence to inform their mask/respirator intervention effectiveness parameters. Mask and respirator interventions were generally reported by the study authors to be cost saving or cost-effective when compared to no intervention or other control measures, however the evaluations had important limitations. Given the large cost differential between masks and respirators, there is a need for more comprehensive economic evaluations to compare the relative costs and benefits of these interventions in situations and settings where alternative options are potentially applicable. There are at present insufficient well conducted cost-effectiveness studies to inform decision-makers on the value for money of alternative mask/respirator options.

  1. Designing radiation protection signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines

  2. Reflective Occultation Mask for Evaluation of Occulter Designs for Planet Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Lyon, Richard; Shiri, Shahram; Roman, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Advanced formation flying occulter designs utilize a large occulter mask flying in formation with an imaging telescope to block and null starlight to allow imaging of faint planets in exosolar systems. A paper describes the utilization of subscale reflective occultation masks to evaluate formation flying occulter designs. The use of a reflective mask allows mounting of the occulter by conventional means and simplifies the test configuration. The innovation alters the test set-up to allow mounting of the mask using standard techniques to eliminate the problems associated with a standard configuration. The modified configuration uses a reflective set-up whereby the star simulator reflects off of a reflective occulting mask and into an evaluation telescope. Since the mask is sized to capture all rays required for the imaging test, it can be mounted directly to a supporting fixture without interfering with the beam. Functionally, the reflective occultation mask reflects light from the star simulator instead of transmitting it, with a highly absorptive carbon nanotube layer simulating the occulter blocking mask. A subscale telescope images the star source and companion dim source that represents a planet. The primary advantage of this is that the occulter can be mounted conventionally instead of using diffractive wires or magnetic levitation.

  3. Optimum design of a coded mask X-ray telescope for rocket applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunson, J.; Polychronopulos, B.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the principles of current X-ray telescopes is made with particular emphasis on two-step imaging techniques involving coding masks. The merits and limitations of the various types of coding masks in use are examined in detail. The limitations are shown to arise from the finite nature of practical masks. By postulating periodicity, 'optimum masks' can be constructed with ideal imaging qualities. The theory for the design of such masks and the practical considerations involved in the design of a rocket-borne X-ray telescope system are discussed in full, with particular attention paid to resolution, field of view and image noise. The main emphasis throughout the paper is on one-dimensional masks but two-dimensional masks are also studied. It is concluded that optimum masks could prove very valuable in astronomical applications and also in other fields such as radiography, where high imaging quality coupled with high sensitivity and low cost are of utmost importance. (author)

  4. Design of aerosol face masks for children using computerized 3D face analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirav, Israel; Luder, Anthony S; Halamish, Asaf; Raviv, Dan; Kimmel, Ron; Waisman, Dan; Newhouse, Michael T

    2014-08-01

    Aerosol masks were originally developed for adults and downsized for children. Overall fit to minimize dead space and a tight seal are problematic, because children's faces undergo rapid and marked topographic and internal anthropometric changes in their first few months/years of life. Facial three-dimensional (3D) anthropometric data were used to design an optimized pediatric mask. Children's faces (n=271, aged 1 month to 4 years) were scanned with 3D technology. Data for the distance from the bridge of the nose to the tip of the chin (H) and the width of the mouth opening (W) were used to categorize the scans into "small," "medium," and "large" "clusters." "Average" masks were developed from each cluster to provide an optimal seal with minimal dead space. The resulting computerized contour, W and H, were used to develop the SootherMask® that enables children, "suckling" on their own pacifier, to keep the mask on their face, mainly by means of subatmospheric pressure. The relatively wide and flexible rim of the mask accommodates variations in facial size within and between clusters. Unique pediatric face masks were developed based on anthropometric data obtained through computerized 3D face analysis. These masks follow facial contours and gently seal to the child's face, and thus may minimize aerosol leakage and dead space.

  5. The JWST/NIRCam Coronagraph: Mask Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista, John E.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Beichman, Charles A.; Echternach, Pierre M.; Green, Joseph J.; Liewer, Kurt M.; Muller, Richard E.; Serabyn, Eugene; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Trauger, John T.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope will provide coronagraphic imaging from lambda =1-5 microns of high contrast sources such as extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks. A Lyot coronagraph with a variety of circular and wedge-shaped occulting masks and matching Lyot pupil stops will be implemented. The occulters approximate grayscale transmission profiles using halftone binary patterns comprising wavelength-sized metal dots on anti-reflection coated sapphire substrates. The mask patterns are being created in the Micro Devices Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory using electron beam lithography. Samples of these occulters have been successfully evaluated in a coronagraphic testbed. In a separate process, the complex apertures that form the Lyot stops will be deposited onto optical wedges. The NIRCam coronagraph flight components are expected to be completed this year.

  6. Expanding the printable design space for lithography processes utilizing a cut mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, Jerome; Salama, Mohamed; Wilkinson, William; Curtice, Mark; Feng, Jui-Hsuan; Gao, Shao Wen; Asthana, Abhishek

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of a cut-mask in semiconductor patterning processes has been in practice for logic devices since the inception of 32nm-node devices, notably with unidirectional gate level printing. However, the microprocessor applications where cut-mask patterning methods are used are expanding as Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) processes become mainstream for 22/14nm fin diffusion, and sub-14nm metal levels. One common weakness for these types of lithography processes is that the initial pattern requiring the follow-up cut-mask typically uses an extreme off-axis imaging source such as dipole to enhance the resolution and line-width roughness (LWR) for critical dense patterns. This source condition suffers from poor process margin in the semi-dense (forbidden pitch) realm and wrong-way directional design spaces. Common pattern failures in these limited design regions include bridging and extra-printing defects that are difficult to resolve with traditional mask improvement means. This forces the device maker to limit the allowable geometries that a designer may use on a device layer. This paper will demonstrate methods to expand the usable design space on dipole-like processes such as unidirectional gate and SADP processes by utilizing the follow-up cut mask to improve the process window. Traditional mask enhancement means for improving the process window in this design realm will be compared to this new cut-mask approach. The unique advantages and disadvantages of the cut-mask solution will be discussed in contrast to those customary methods.

  7. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  8. AlGaInAs narrow stripe selective growth on substrates patterned with different mask designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, W; Pan, J Q; Yang, H; Hou, L P; Zhou, F; Zhao, L J; Zhu, H L; Wang, W

    2006-01-01

    We have performed a narrow stripe selective growth of oxide-free AlGaInAs waveguides on InP substrates patterned with pairs of SiO 2 mask stripes under optimized growth conditions. The mask stripe width varied from 0 to 40 μm, while the window region width between a pair of mask stripes was fixed at 1.5, 2.5 or 3.5 μm. Flat and smooth AlGaInAs waveguides covered by specific InP layers are successfully grown on substrates patterned with different mask designs. The thickness enhancement ratio and the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the AlGaInAs narrow stripe waveguides are strongly dependent on the mask stripe width and the window region width. In particular, a large PL wavelength shift of 79 nm and a PL FWHM of less than 64 meV are obtained simultaneously with a small mask stripe width varying from 0 to 40 μm when the window region width is 1.5 μm. We present some possible interpretations of the experimental observations in considering both the migration effect from a masked region and the lateral vapour diffusion effect

  9. Lithography-based automation in the design of program defect masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanas, George P.; Munir, Saghir; Tejnil, Edita; Bald, Daniel J.; Nagpal, Rajesh

    2004-05-01

    In this work, we are reporting on a lithography-based methodology and automation in the design of Program Defect masks (PDM"s). Leading edge technology masks have ever-shrinking primary features and more pronounced model-based secondary features such as optical proximity corrections (OPC), sub-resolution assist features (SRAF"s) and phase-shifted mask (PSM) structures. In order to define defect disposition specifications for critical layers of a technology node, experience alone in deciding worst-case scenarios for the placement of program defects is necessary but may not be sufficient. MEEF calculations initiated from layout pattern data and their integration in a PDM layout flow provide a natural approach for improvements, relevance and accuracy in the placement of programmed defects. This methodology provides closed-loop feedback between layout and hard defect disposition specifications, thereby minimizing engineering test restarts, improving quality and reducing cost of high-end masks. Apart from SEMI and industry standards, best-known methods (BKM"s) in integrated lithographically-based layout methodologies and automation specific to PDM"s are scarce. The contribution of this paper lies in the implementation of Design-For-Test (DFT) principles to a synergistic interaction of CAD Layout and Aerial Image Simulator to drive layout improvements, highlight layout-to-fracture interactions and output accurate program defect placement coordinates to be used by tools in the mask shop.

  10. Designing physical protection technology for insider protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, A.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1986-01-01

    Since its inception, the nuclear industry has been engaged in providing protection against an insider threat. Although insider protection activities have been fairly successful in the past, present societal conditions require increased protection to further minimize the existence of an insider or the consequences of an insider-perpetrated incident. Integration of insider protection techniques into existing administrative and operational procedures has resulted in economic and operational impacts. Future increases in insider protection may result in even greater impacts, so we must proceed wisely as new approaches are developed. Increased emphasis on background investigations, security clearances, human reliability programs, security awareness activities, and the development of technology to address the insider threat are evidence of continuing concern in this area. Experience ranging from operational test and evaluation of developmental equipment to conceptual designs for new facilities has led to the development of general principles and conclusions for mitigating the insider threat while minimizing adverse impacts on site operations. Important principles include real-time monitoring of personnel and material and requiring that the physical protection and material control and accounting systems to be much more coordinated and integrated than in the past

  11. Transmission and signal loss in mask designs for a dual neutron and gamma imager applied to mobile standoff detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Hayward, Jason P.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    In order to design a next-generation, dual neutron and gamma imager for mobile standoff detection which uses coded aperture imaging as its primary detection modality, the following design parameters have been investigated for gamma and neutron radiation incident upon a hybrid, coded mask: (1) transmission through mask elements for various mask materials and thicknesses; and (2) signal attenuation in the mask versus angle of incidence. Each of these parameters directly affects detection significance, as quantified by the signal-to-noise ratio. The hybrid mask consists of two or three layers: organic material for fast neutron attenuation and scattering, Cd for slow neutron absorption (if applied), and one of three of the following photon or photon and slow neutron attenuating materials—Linotype alloy, CLYC, or CZT. In the MCNP model, a line source of gamma rays (100–2500 keV), fast neutrons (1000–10,000 keV) or thermal neutrons was positioned above the hybrid mask. The radiation penetrating the mask was simply tallied at the surface of an ideal detector, which was located below the surface of the last mask layer. The transmission was calculated as the ratio of the particles transmitted through the fixed aperture to the particles passing through the closed mask. In order to determine the performance of the mask considering relative motion between the source and detector, simulations were used to calculate the signal attenuation for incident radiation angles of 0–50°. The results showed that a hybrid mask can be designed to sufficiently reduce both transmission through the mask and signal loss at large angles of incidence, considering both gamma ray and fast neutron radiations. With properly selected material thicknesses, the signal loss of a hybrid mask, which is necessarily thicker than the mask required for either single mode imaging, is not a setback to the system's detection significance

  12. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1996-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of N95 respirators and medical masks to protect healthcare workers in China from respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Shohini; MacIntyre, C Raina; Seale, Holly; Wang, Quanyi; Yang, Peng; Wang, Xiaoli; Newall, Anthony T

    2017-07-03

    There are substantial differences between the costs of medical masks and N95 respirators. Cost-effectiveness analysis is required to assist decision-makers evaluating alternative healthcare worker (HCW) mask/respirator strategies. This study aims to compare the cost-effectiveness of N95 respirators and medical masks for protecting HCWs in Beijing, China. We developed a cost-effectiveness analysis model utilising efficacy and resource use data from two cluster randomised clinical trials assessing various mask/respirator strategies conducted in HCWs in Level 2 and 3 Beijing hospitals for the 2008-09 and 2009-10 influenza seasons. The main outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per clinical respiratory illness (CRI) case prevented. We used a societal perspective which included intervention costs, the healthcare costs of CRI in HCWs and absenteeism costs. The incremental cost to prevent a CRI case with continuous use of N95 respirators when compared to medical masks ranged from US $490-$1230 (approx. 3000-7600 RMB). One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that the CRI attack rate and intervention effectiveness had the greatest impact on cost-effectiveness. The determination of cost-effectiveness for mask/respirator strategies will depend on the willingness to pay to prevent a CRI case in a HCW, which will vary between countries. In the case of a highly pathogenic pandemic, respirator use in HCWs would likely be a cost-effective intervention.

  14. Radiation protection/shield design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation protection/shielding design of a nuclear facility requires a coordinated effort of many engineering disciplines to meet the requirements imposed by regulations. In the following discussion, the system approach to Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) radiation protection will be described, and the program developed to implement this approach will be defined. In addition, the principal shielding design problems of LMFBR nuclear reactor systems will be discussed in realtion to LWR nuclear reactor system shielding designs. The methodology used to analyze these problems in the U.S. LMFBR program, the resultant design solutions, and the experimental verification of these designs and/or methods will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  15. Protection by Face Masks against H1N1 Virus on Trans-Pacific Passenger Aircraft, 2009

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ article, Protection by Face Masks against H1N1 Virus on Trans-Pacific Passenger Aircraft, 2009.  Created: 7/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/11/2013.

  16. Optimizing the taste-masked formulation of acetaminophen using sodium caseinate and lecithin by experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Thi, Thanh Huong; Lemdani, Mohamed; Flament, Marie-Pierre

    2013-09-10

    In a previous study of ours, the association of sodium caseinate and lecithin was demonstrated to be promising for masking the bitterness of acetaminophen via drug encapsulation. The encapsulating mechanisms were suggested to be based on the segregation of multicomponent droplets occurring during spray-drying. The spray-dried particles delayed the drug release within the mouth during the early time upon administration and hence masked the bitterness. Indeed, taste-masking is achieved if, within the frame of 1-2 min, drug substance is either not released or the released amount is below the human threshold for identifying its bad taste. The aim of this work was (i) to evaluate the effect of various processing and formulation parameters on the taste-masking efficiency and (ii) to determine the optimal formulation for optimal taste-masking effect. Four investigated input variables included inlet temperature (X1), spray flow (X2), sodium caseinate amount (X3) and lecithin amount (X4). The percentage of drug release amount during the first 2 min was considered as the response variable (Y). A 2(4)-full factorial design was applied and allowed screening for the most influential variables i.e. sodium caseinate amount and lecithin amount. Optimizing these two variables was therefore conducted by a simplex approach. The SEM and DSC results of spray-dried powder prepared under optimal conditions showed that drug seemed to be well encapsulated. The drug release during the first 2 min significantly decreased, 7-fold less than the unmasked drug particles. Therefore, the optimal formulation that performed the best taste-masking effect was successfully achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Design specific joint optimization of masks and sources on a very large scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K.; Gabrani, M.; Demaris, D.; Casati, N.; Torres, A.; Sarkar, S.; Strenski, P.; Bagheri, S.; Scarpazza, D.; Rosenbluth, A. E.; Melville, D. O.; Wächter, A.; Lee, J.; Austel, V.; Szeto-Millstone, M.; Tian, K.; Barahona, F.; Inoue, T.; Sakamoto, M.

    2011-04-01

    Joint optimization (JO) of source and mask together is known to produce better SMO solutions than sequential optimization of the source and the mask. However, large scale JO problems are very difficult to solve because the global impact of the source variables causes an enormous number of mask variables to be coupled together. This work presents innovation that minimize this runtime bottleneck. The proposed SMO parallelization algorithm allows separate mask regions to be processed efficiently across multiple CPUs in a high performance computing (HPC) environment, despite the fact that a truly joint optimization is being carried out with source variables that interact across the entire mask. Building on this engine a progressive deletion (PD) method was developed that can directly compute "binding constructs" for the optimization, i.e. our method can essentially determine the particular feature content which limits the process window attainable by the optimum source. This method allows us to minimize the uncertainty inherent to different clustering/ranking methods in seeking an overall optimum source that results from the use of heuristic metrics. An objective benchmarking of the effectiveness of different pattern sampling methods was performed during postoptimization analysis. The PD serves as a golden standard for us to develop optimum pattern clustering/ranking algorithms. With this work, it is shown that it is not necessary to exhaustively optimize the entire mask together with the source in order to identify these binding clips. If the number of clips to be optimized exceeds the practical limit of the parallel SMO engine one can starts with a pattern selection step to achieve high clip count compression before SMO. With this LSSO capability one can address the challenging problem of layout-specific design, or improve the technology source as cell layouts and sample layouts replace lithography test structures in the development cycle.

  18. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and...

  19. Cryptographic analysis on the key space of optical phase encryption algorithm based on the design of discrete random phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Li, Zengyan

    2013-07-01

    The key space of phase encryption algorithm using discrete random phase mask is investigated by numerical simulation in this paper. Random phase mask with finite and discrete phase levels is considered as the core component in most practical optical encryption architectures. The key space analysis is based on the design criteria of discrete random phase mask. The role of random amplitude mask and random phase mask in optical encryption system is identified from the perspective of confusion and diffusion. The properties of discrete random phase mask in a practical double random phase encoding scheme working in both amplitude encoding (AE) and phase encoding (PE) modes are comparably analyzed. The key space of random phase encryption algorithm is evaluated considering both the encryption quality and the brute-force attack resistibility. A method for enlarging the key space of phase encryption algorithm is also proposed to enhance the security of optical phase encryption techniques.

  20. ProTEK PSB as Biotechnology Photosensitive Protection Mask on 3C-SiC-on-Si in MEMS Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsi, N.; Majlis, B. Y.; Mohd-Yasin, F.; Hamzah, A. A.; Mohd Rus, A. Z.

    2016-11-01

    This project presents the fabrication of MEMS employing a cubic silicon carbide (3C- SiC) on silicon wafer using newly developed ProTEK PSB as biotechnology photosensitive protection mask. This new biotechnology can reduce the number of processes and simplify the process flow with minimal impact on overall undercut performance. The 680 pm thick wafer is back-etched, leaving the 3C-SiC thin film with a thickness of 1.0 μm as the flexible diaphragm to detect pressure. The effect of the new coating of ProTEK PSB on different KOH solvents were investigated depending on various factors such as development time, final cure temperature and the thickness of the ProTEK PSB deposited layer. It is found that 6.174 μm thickness of ProTEK PSB offers some possibility of reducing the processing time compared to silicon nitride etch masks in KOH (55%wt, 80°C). The new ProTEK PSB biotechnology photosensitive protection mask indicates good stability and sustains its performance in different treatments under KOH and IPA for 8 hours. This work also revealed that the fabrication of MEMS sensors using the new biotechnology photosensitive protection mask provides a simple assembly approach and reduces manufacturing costs. The MEMS sensor can operate up to 500 °C as indicated under the sensitivity of 0.826 pF/MPa with nonlinearity and hysteresis of 0.61% and 3.13%, respectively.

  1. Evaluation of protection factors provided by full-face masks using man-test method at workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Yukio; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Ikezawa, Yoshio.

    1994-01-01

    From a practical angle of view to estimate the protection factors (PFs) provided by full-face masks, a number of protection factors were measured with a man-test apparatus just before the wearers started to do radiation work in radiation controlled area. PFs of the total number of 2,279 cases were measured under five simulated working conditions. The measured PFs were widely distributed from 2.3 to 6,700. About 95% of workers obtained PFs more than 50, and about 64% showed much higher PFs more than 1,000 due to good fitting. In the case of some persons, the measured PFs irregularly varied and changed to a large degree. This method is a reliable technique that has been confirmed to protect unexpected internal exposure. From the results obtained, the method should be necessary to provide a better mask and higher PF for each worker. (author)

  2. SMART core protection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Park, H. Y.; Koo, I. S.; Park, H. S.; Kim, J. S.; Son, C. H.

    2003-01-01

    SMART COre Protection System(SCOPS) is designed with real-tims Digital Signal Processor(DSP) board and Network Interface Card(NIC) board. SCOPS has a Control Rod POSition (CRPOS) software module while Core Protection Calculator System(CPCS) consists of Core Protection Calculators(CPCs) and Control Element Assembly(CEA) Calculators(CEACs) in the commercial nuclear plant. It's not necessary to have a independent cabinets for SCOPS because SCOPS is physically very small. Then SCOPS is designed to share the cabinets with Plant Protection System(PPS) of SMART. Therefor it's very easy to maintain the system because CRPOS module is used instead of the computer with operating system

  3. Primer3_masker: integrating masking of template sequence with primer design software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõressaar, Triinu; Lepamets, Maarja; Kaplinski, Lauris; Raime, Kairi; Andreson, Reidar; Remm, Maido

    2018-06-01

    Designing PCR primers for amplifying regions of eukaryotic genomes is a complicated task because the genomes contain a large number of repeat sequences and other regions unsuitable for amplification by PCR. We have developed a novel k-mer based masking method that uses a statistical model to detect and mask failure-prone regions on the DNA template prior to primer design. We implemented the software as a standalone software primer3_masker and integrated it into the primer design program Primer3. The standalone version of primer3_masker is implemented in C. The source code is freely available at https://github.com/bioinfo-ut/primer3_masker/ (standalone version for Linux and macOS) and at https://github.com/primer3-org/primer3/ (integrated version). Primer3 web application that allows masking sequences of 196 animal and plant genomes is available at http://primer3.ut.ee/. maido.remm@ut.ee. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Protection provided by masks sinkers in interventional techniques; Proteccion ofrecida por mascaras plomadas en tecnicas intervencionistas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pera Cegarra, O.; Alejo Luque, L.; Pifarre Martinez, J.

    2011-07-01

    The high doses that are taught in laboratories worked indispensable the use of shields and armor. In this context, the use of sinkers glasses is widespread, but not the sinkers of the masks. Our goal is to study the effectiveness of such masks for later comparison with that provided by leaded glasses with side shields. Specifically, compare the reduction in lens dose rate for different positions and orientations of the head of specialist intervention.

  5. Design of an Image-Servo Mask Alignment System Using Dual CCDs with an XXY Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jer Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mask alignment of photolithography technology is used in many applications, such as micro electro mechanical systems’ semiconductor process, printed circuits board, and flat panel display. As the dimensions of the product are getting smaller and smaller, the automatic mask alignment of photolithography is becoming more and more important. The traditional stacked XY-Θz stage is heavy and it has cumulative flatness errors due to its stacked assembly mechanism. The XXY stage has smaller cumulative error due to its coplanar design and it can move faster than the traditional XY-Θz stage. However, the relationship between the XXY stage’s movement and the commands of the three motors is difficult to compute, because the movements of the three motors on the same plane are coupling. Therefore, an artificial neural network is studied to establish a nonlinear mapping from the desired position and orientation of the stage to three motors’ commands. Further, this paper proposes an image-servo automatic mask alignment system, which consists of a coplanar XXY stage, dual GIGA-E CCDs with lens and a programmable automatic controller (PAC. Before preforming the compensation, a self-developed visual-servo provides the positioning information which is obtained from the image processing and pattern recognition according to the specified fiducial marks. To obtain better precision, two methods including the center of gravity method and the generalize Hough Transformation are studied to correct the shift positioning error.

  6. Designing Data Protection Safeguards Ethically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Pagallo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 1990s, lawmakers and scholars have worked on the idea of embedding data protection safeguards in information and communication technology (ICT with the aim to access and control personal data in compliance with current regulatory frameworks. This effort has been strengthened by the capacities of computers to draw upon the tools of artificial intelligence (AI and operations research. However, work on AI and the law entails crucial ethical issues concerning both values and modalities of design. On one hand, design choices might result in conflicts of values and, vice versa, values may affect design features. On the other hand, the modalities of design cannot only limit the impact of harm-generating behavior but also prevent such behavior from occurring via self-enforcement technologies. In order to address some of the most relevant issues of data protection today, the paper suggests we adopt a stricter, yet more effective version of “privacy by design.” The goal should be to reinforce people’s pre-existing autonomy, rather than having to build it from scratch.

  7. Design criteria for small coded aperture masks in gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembay, S.; Gehrels, N.

    1990-01-01

    Most theoretical work on coded aperture masks in X-ray and low-energy γ-ray astronomy has concentrated on masks with large numbers of elements. For γ-ray spectrometers in the MeV range, the detector plane usually has only a few discrete elements, so that masks with small numbers of elements are called for. For this case it is feasible to analyse by computer all the possible mask patterns of given dimension to find the ones that best satisfy the desired performance criteria. In this paper we develop a particular set of performance criteria for comparing the flux sensitivities, source positioning accuracies and transparencies of different mask patterns. We then present the results of such a computer analysis for masks up to dimension 5x5 unit cell and conclude that there is a great deal of flexibility in one's choice of mask pattern for each dimension. (orig.)

  8. DFM for maskmaking: design-aware flexible mask-defect analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Frank A. J. M.; Westra, J.; Scheffer, M.; Kawakami, K.; Tsujimoto, E.; Yamaji, M.; Kawashima, T.; Hayashi, N.

    2007-10-01

    We present a novel software system that combines design intent as known by EDA designers with defect inspection results from the maskshop to analyze the severity of defects on photomasks. The software -named Takumi Design- Driven Defect Analyzer (TK-D3A)- analyzes defects by combining actions in the image domain with actions in the design domain and outputs amongst others flexible mask-repair decisions in production formats used by the maskshop. Furthermore, TK-D3A outputs clips of layout (GDS/OASIS) that can be viewed with its graphical user interface for easy review of the defects and associated repair decisions. As inputs the system uses reticle defect-inspection data (text and images) and the respective multi-layer design layouts with the definitions of criticalities. The system does not require confidential design data from IDM, Fabless Design House, or Foundry to be sent to the maskshop and it also has minimal impact on the maskshop's mode of operation. The output of TK-D3A is designed to realize value to the maskshop and its customers in the forms of: 1) improved yield, 2) reduction of delivery times of masks to customers, and 3) enhanced utilization of the maskshop's installed tool base. The system was qualified together with a major IDM on a large set of production reticles in the 90 and beyond-65 nm technology nodes of which results will be presented that show the benefits for maskmaking. The accuracy in detecting defects is extremely high. We show the system's capability to analyze defects well below the pixel resolution of all inspection tools used, as well as the capability to extract multiple types of transmission defects. All of these defects are analyzed design-criticality-aware by TK-D3A, resulting in a large fraction of defects that do not need to be repaired because they are located in non-critical or less-critical parts of the layout, or, more importantly, turn out to be repairable or negligible despite of originally being classified as

  9. FAULT-TOLERANT DESIGN FOR ADVANCED DIVERSE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG GYUN OH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For the improvement of APR1400 Diverse Protection System (DPS design, the Advanced DPS (ADPS has recently been developed to enhance the fault tolerance capability of the system. Major fault masking features of the ADPS compared with the APR1400 DPS are the changes to the channel configuration and reactor trip actuation equipment. To minimize the fault occurrences within the ADPS, and to mitigate the consequences of common-cause failures (CCF within the safety I&C systems, several fault avoidance design features have been applied in the ADPS. The fault avoidance design features include the changes to the system software classification, communication methods, equipment platform, MMI equipment, etc. In addition, the fault detection, location, containment, and recovery processes have been incorporated in the ADPS design. Therefore, it is expected that the ADPS can provide an enhanced fault tolerance capability against the possible faults within the system and its input/output equipment, and the CCF of safety systems.

  10. Formulation, evaluation and 3(2) full factorial design-based optimization of ondansetron hydrochloride incorporated taste masked microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, Vandana; Saharan, Vikas Anand; Dev, Kapil; Jadhav, Hemant; Purohit, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    Masking the bitter taste of Ondansetron hydrochloride (ONS) may improve palatability, acceptance and compliance of ONS products. ONS-loaded, taste-masked microspheres were prepared with a polycationic pH-sensitive polymer and 3(2) full factorial design (FFD) was applied to optimize microsphere batches. Solvent evaporation, in acetone--methanol/liquid paraffin system, was used to prepare taste-masked ONS microspheres. The effect of varying drug/polymer (D/P) ratios on microspheres characteristics were studied by 3(2) FFD. Desirability function was used to search the optimum formulation. Microspheres were evaluated by FTIR, XRD and DSC to examine interaction and effect of microencapsulation process. In vitro taste assessment approach based on bitterness threshold and drug release was used to assess bitterness scores. Prepared ONS microspheres were spherical and surface was wrinkled. ONS was molecularly dispersed in microspheres without any incompatibility with EE100. In hydrochloric acid buffer pH 1.2, ONS released completely from microsphere in just 10 min. Contrary to this, ONS release at initial 5 min from taste-masked microspheres was less than the bitterness threshold. Full factorial design and in vitro taste assessment approach, coupled together, was successfully applied to develop and optimize batches of ONS incorporated taste-masked microspheres.

  11. Evaluation of phoneme compression schemes designed to compensate for temporal and spectral masking in background noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedegebure, A.; Goedegebure-Hulshof, M.; Dreschler, W. A.; Verschuure, J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phonemic compression has been studied on speech intelligibility in background noise in hearing-impaired listeners with moderate-to-severe high-frequency losses. One configuration, anti-upward-spread-of-masking (anti-USOM) focuses on a release from spectral masking of high-frequency

  12. Design, development, installation and commissioning of water-cooled pre-masks for undulator front-ends of Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuvanshi, V.K.; Prasad, Vijendra; Garg, S.R.; Jain, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Recently two undulators U1 and U2 are installed in Indus-2 storage ring at RRCAT, Indore. When U1 and U2 are put in operation, a bright synchrotron radiation (SR) is produced which is transmitted through the zero degree port of the dipole vacuum chamber. In addition, a part of SR beam from the bending magnets, at the upstream and downstream of the undulator, is also overlapped with the undulator SR beam and transmitted in to the front-end through the same port. The front-end is a long ultra high vacuum (UHV) assembly consisting of water-cooled pre-mask, water-cooled shutters, UHV valves, diagnostic devices, safety shutter, vacuum pumps etc which acts as an interface between Indus-2 ring and beamline. Water-cooled pre- masks have been designed to cut a part of unwanted SR beam from the bending magnets. The pre-mask is a first active component in the undulator front-end which is also capable of absorbing high thermal load due to mis-steering of the SR beam from the undulator in the worst case scenario. The watercooled pre-mask consists of a copper block which has fixed aperture with slant faces to distribute the heat flux over a large surface area. The cooling channels are made on outer periphery of the block. The copper block is vacuum brazed with two conflat flanges of stainless steel at the two ends. The pre-mask is designed to absorb thermal load of 3 kW of synchrotron beam from undulator U1 and 2 kW of synchrotron beam from undulator U2. The thermal analysis of the pre-masks was carried out with the help of ANSYS® and the design was optimized with different cooling configurations. The main design criteria was to limit the maximum temperature of the mask less than 60 °C. This is to avoid substantial thermal outgassing from the heated portion which may deteriorate the ultra high vacuum. Pre-masks have been successfully tested, installed and commissioned with synchrotron beam in the undulator front-ends and are operating under vacuum of 5x10 -10 mbar. (author)

  13. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, design evaluation, and probably a redesign or refinement. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary's capabilities, and range of adversary's tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, open-quotes what to protect against whom.close quotes The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control elements, procedures, communication devices, and protective forces personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. This paper reviews the physical protection system design and methodology mentioned above. Examples of the steps required and a brief introduction to some of the technologies used in modem physical protections system are given

  14. Bio-mimic design of PM2.5 anti-smog masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic property of anti-smog masks is to block PM2.5 with excellent air permeability. A multi-layer nanofiber woven fabric with hierarchical structure is the best candidate for this purpose.

  15. Particulate face masks for protection against airborne pathogens - one size does not fit all: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Susan; Thomas, Jane H; Stephens, Dianne P; Davis, Joshua S

    2010-03-01

    To determine the proportion of hospital staff who pass fit tests with each of three commonly used particulate face masks, and factors influencing preference and fit test results. Observational study. 50 healthy hospital staff volunteers in an 18-bed general intensive care unit in an Australian teaching hospital. Participants were administered a questionnaire about mask use and their preferred mask and underwent qualitative fit-testing with each of three different particulate masks: Kimberly-Clark Tecnol FluidShield N95 particulate filter respirator (KC), 3M Flat Fold 9320 particulate respirator and 3M 8822 particulate respirator with exhalation valve. Participants who failed fittesting were trained in correct mask donning, and fittesting was repeated. Proportion of participants who passed the fit test for each mask and the effect of training. The proportion of participants who passed a fit test was low for all three masks tested (KC, 16%; flat fold, 28%; and valved, 34%). Rates improved after training: the first mask tested fitted in 18% of participants pre-training and 40% post-training (P = 0.02). None of the masks fitted for 28% of participants. There were no significant predictors of fit-test results. A large proportion of individuals failed a fit test with any given mask, and we were not able to identify any factors that predicted mask fit in individuals. Training on mask use improved the rates of adequate fit. Hospitals should carry a range of P2 masks, and should conduct systematic P2 mask training and fit-testing programs for all staff potentially exposed to airborne pathogens.

  16. Availability, consistency and evidence-base of policies and guidelines on the use of mask and respirator to protect hospital health care workers: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad; Seale, Holly; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina

    2013-05-31

    Currently there is an ongoing debate and limited evidence on the use of masks and respirators for the prevention of respiratory infections in health care workers (HCWs). This study aimed to examine available policies and guidelines around the use of masks and respirators in HCWs and to describe areas of consistency between guidelines, as well as gaps in the recommendations, with reference to the WHO and the CDC guidelines. Policies and guidelines related to mask and respirator use for the prevention of influenza, SARS and TB were examined. Guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), three high-income countries and six low/middle-income countries were selected. Uniform recommendations are made by the WHO and the CDC in regards to protecting HCWs against seasonal influenza (a mask for low risk situations and a respirator for high risk situations) and TB (use of a respirator). However, for pandemic influenza and SARS, the WHO recommends mask use in low risk and respirators in high risk situations, whereas, the CDC recommends respirators in both low and high risk situations. Amongst the nine countries reviewed, there are variations in the recommendations for all three diseases. While, some countries align with the WHO recommendations, others align with those made by the CDC. The choice of respirator and the level of filtering ability vary amongst the guidelines and the different diseases. Lastly, none of the policies discuss reuse, extended use or the use of cloth masks. Currently, there are significant variations in the policies and recommendations around mask and respirator use for protection against influenza, SARS and TB. These differences may reflect the scarcity of level-one evidence available to inform policy development. The lack of any guidelines on the use of cloth masks, despite widespread use in many low and middle-income countries, remains a policy gap. Health organizations and countries should

  17. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'', and DOE 6430.1A, ''General Design Criteria''. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ''Glove Box Fire Protection'' and ''Filter Plenum Fire Protection''. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities

  18. Pipelines cathodic protection design methodologies for impressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several inadequate designs of cathodically polarized offshore and onshore pipelines have been reported in Nigeria owing to design complexity and application of the cathodic protection system. The present study focused on critical and detailed approach in impressed current and sacrificial anode design calculation ...

  19. Mechanical design and protection of superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, Alfred M

    1978-01-01

    The principles of the mechanical design of superconducting magnets of concentric configuration, with iron low-temperature and room- temperature screening, are outlined. Measures for protection of such magnets against quench forces, are considered. (4 refs).

  20. The Moody Mask Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarke Alexander; Andkjær, Kasper Ingdahl; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new relation model, called "The Moody Mask model", for Interactive Digital Storytelling (IDS), based on Franceso Osborne's "Mask Model" from 2011. This, mixed with some elements from Chris Crawford's Personality Models, is a system designed for dynamic interaction between ch...

  1. On the Legal Protection of Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann-Lock, Stina

    2011-01-01

    be judged. In 1839 the Designs Registration Act in the UK introduced a fundamental modernization of registration for designs. Paradigmatic of the modern way of registration is the use of 'representative registration'. According to the 1839 Act, applicants for a design registration were required either...... to deposit three samples of the design, or to submit a pictorial or written representation thereof. The latter system of 'representative registration' has since become virtually universal in intellectual property law relating to designs around the world. Today, the discursive representation of design is more...... not apply to any aspect which is dictated by its function. Accordingly, if a design is to qualify for legal protection, its description (or illustration) must make a clear distinction between form and function. According to the intellectual property laws of many nations today, designs may also be protected...

  2. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system (PPS) includes the determination of the PPS objectives, the initial design of a PPS, the evaluation of the design, and probably, the redesign or refinement of the system. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary's capabilities, and range of adversary's tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the PPS, that is, ''what to protect against whom.'' The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control devices, communication devices, procedures, and protective force personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a PPS is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the PPS objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. After the system is installed, the threat and system parameters may change with time. If they do, the analysis must be performed periodically to ensure the system objectives are still being met

  3. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moti, S.

    1981-01-01

    A protective face mask is designed to shield an x-ray technician or machine operator primarily from random secondary or scatter x-rays deflected towards his face, head and neck by the table, walls, equipment and other reflecting elements in an x-ray room or chamber. The face mask and chest shield device can be mounted on a patient's shoulders in reverse attitude to protect the back of a patient's head and neck from the x-ray beam. The face mask is relatively or substantially transparent and contains lead in combination with a plastic ionomer or comonomer, which to a degree absorbs or resists penetration of the random deflected secondary or scatter x-rays or the x-ray beam through the mask. The face mask is removably attachable to the chest shield for easy application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of the technician or the patient. (author)

  4. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; MacDougall, Colin C.; Johnstone, Jennie; Copes, Ray A.; Schwartz, Brian; Garber, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conflicting recommendations exist related to which facial protection should be used by health care workers to prevent transmission of acute respiratory infections, including pandemic influenza. We performed a systematic review of both clinical and surrogate exposure data comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks for the prevention of transmissible acute respiratory infections. Methods: We searched various electronic databases and the grey literature for relevant studies published from January 1990 to December 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and case–control studies that included data on health care workers wearing N95 respirators and surgical masks to prevent acute respiratory infections were included in the meta-analysis. Surrogate exposure studies comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks using manikins or adult volunteers under simulated conditions were summarized separately. Outcomes from clinical studies were laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection, influenza-like illness and workplace absenteeism. Outcomes from surrogate exposure studies were filter penetration, face-seal leakage and total inward leakage. Results: We identified 6 clinical studies (3 RCTs, 1 cohort study and 2 case–control studies) and 23 surrogate exposure studies. In the meta-analysis of the clinical studies, we found no significant difference between N95 respirators and surgical masks in associated risk of (a) laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection (RCTs: odds ratio [OR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64–1.24; cohort study: OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.03–6.41; case–control studies: OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.25–3.36); (b) influenza-like illness (RCTs: OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.19–1.41); or (c) reported workplace absenteeism (RCT: OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.57–1.50). In the surrogate exposure studies, N95 respirators were associated with less filter penetration, less face-seal leakage and less total inward leakage under laboratory experimental conditions

  5. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D; MacDougall, Colin C; Johnstone, Jennie; Copes, Ray A; Schwartz, Brian; Garber, Gary E

    2016-05-17

    Conflicting recommendations exist related to which facial protection should be used by health care workers to prevent transmission of acute respiratory infections, including pandemic influenza. We performed a systematic review of both clinical and surrogate exposure data comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks for the prevention of transmissible acute respiratory infections. We searched various electronic databases and the grey literature for relevant studies published from January 1990 to December 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and case-control studies that included data on health care workers wearing N95 respirators and surgical masks to prevent acute respiratory infections were included in the meta-analysis. Surrogate exposure studies comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks using manikins or adult volunteers under simulated conditions were summarized separately. Outcomes from clinical studies were laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection, influenza-like illness and workplace absenteeism. Outcomes from surrogate exposure studies were filter penetration, face-seal leakage and total inward leakage. We identified 6 clinical studies (3 RCTs, 1 cohort study and 2 case-control studies) and 23 surrogate exposure studies. In the meta-analysis of the clinical studies, we found no significant difference between N95 respirators and surgical masks in associated risk of (a) laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection (RCTs: odds ratio [OR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.24; cohort study: OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.03-6.41; case-control studies: OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.25-3.36); (b) influenza-like illness (RCTs: OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.19-1.41); or (c) reported workplace absenteeism (RCT: OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.57-1.50). In the surrogate exposure studies, N95 respirators were associated with less filter penetration, less face-seal leakage and less total inward leakage under laboratory experimental conditions, compared with surgical masks. Although N95

  6. Mask quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Larry; Paulson, Neil; Reynolds, James A.

    1994-02-01

    Product quality and timely delivery are two of the most important parameters, determining the success of a mask manufacturing facility. Because of the sensitivity of this data, however, very little is known about industry performance in these areas. Using Arthur Andersen & Co. to protect contributor identity, the authors have conducted a blind quality survey of mask shops which represents over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the US. Quantities such as return rate, plate survival yield, performance to schedule and reason for return were requested from 1988 through Q2 1993. Data is analyzed and conclusions are presented.

  7. Gilded Silver Mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    This gilded silver mask from the Liao Dynasty is 31 cm long and 22.2 cm wide. The plump oval face was designed with a protruding brow ridge, narrow eyes, high-bridged nose and closed mouth. The chin is slightly round against a thin neck, the ears are long and the hair can be clearly seen from the finely carved lines. The use of masks was recorded as

  8. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  9. The importance of verifiable fire protection design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medonos, Sava [Petrellus Ltd. (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: smm@petrellus.co.uk; Geddes, Paul [Global Solutions UK Ltd. (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: paul@globalsolutionsuk.com

    2004-07-01

    Simplistic methods based on the Hp/A ratio between the heated surface area and volume or a 2-dimensional analysis may be sufficient for the determination of fire protection coatings for simple components. For the optimization of fire protection of pressure systems and load bearing structures, however, they have proved to be inadequate, as they do not represent the response taking place. This often leads to over-protection or inadequate fire resistance. In the past 10 years there have been claims in petrochemical industry of 'methods' for fire protection 'optimization' based on a walk-down through a topside or plant, or a heat-up calculation of a few cross sections with no regard to stress. These methods are wrong. In the best case these 'methods of optimization' lead to high unnecessary costs and in the worst case in an explosion of a vessel, structural collapse, domino effects and cataclysmic fire throughout the plant. The operator or design contractor should always require a Method Statement including a proof of verification to obtain the adequate quality of fire protection. (author)

  10. A novel anti-influenza copper oxide containing respiratory face mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkow, Gadi; Zhou, Steve S; Page, Tom; Gabbay, Jeffrey

    2010-06-25

    Protective respiratory face masks protect the nose and mouth of the wearer from vapor drops carrying viruses or other infectious pathogens. However, incorrect use and disposal may actually increase the risk of pathogen transmission, rather than reduce it, especially when masks are used by non-professionals such as the lay public. Copper oxide displays potent antiviral properties. A platform technology has been developed that permanently introduces copper oxide into polymeric materials, conferring them with potent biocidal properties. We demonstrate that impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent biocidal properties in addition to their inherent filtration properties. Both control and copper oxide impregnated masks filtered above 99.85% of aerosolized viruses when challenged with 5.66+/-0.51 and 6.17+/-0.37 log(10)TCID(50) of human influenza A virus (H1N1) and avian influenza virus (H9N2), respectively, under simulated breathing conditions (28.3 L/min). Importantly, no infectious human influenza A viral titers were recovered from the copper oxide containing masks within 30 minutes (masks. Similarly, the infectious avian influenza titers recovered from the copper oxide containing masks were masks 5.03+/-0.54 log(10)TCID(50). The copper oxide containing masks successfully passed Bacterial Filtration Efficacy, Differential Pressure, Latex Particle Challenge, and Resistance to Penetration by Synthetic Blood tests designed to test the filtration properties of face masks in accordance with the European EN 14683:2005 and NIOSH N95 standards. Impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent anti-influenza biocidal properties without altering their physical barrier properties. The use of biocidal masks may significantly reduce the risk of hand or environmental contamination, and thereby subsequent infection, due to improper handling and disposal of the masks.

  11. New concept of microprocessor protective devices design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition from electromechanical to digital protective relays is accompanied with serious technical problems. The author offers a new approach in designing the digital relays capable of solving these problems. It is proposed to construct digital relays in the form of standard modules from which it would be possible to assemble the digital relay in the same way as now a personal computer.

  12. Developing biomedical devices design, innovation and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Colombo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades incredible progress has been achieved in the instruments and devices used in the biomedical field. This progress stems from continuous scientific research that has taken advantage of many findings and advances in technology made available by universities and industry. Innovation is the key word, and in this context legal protection and intellectual property rights (IPR) are of crucial importance. This book provides students and practitioners with the fundamentals for designing biomedical devices and explains basic design principles. Furthermore, as an aid to the dev

  13. Design principles for radiological protection instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1981-02-01

    This Code of Practice takes the form of recommendations intended for designers and installers of Radiological Protection Instrumentation, and should also be of value to the newcomer to the R.P.I. field. Topics are discussed under the following headings: outline of R.P.I. requirements, specifying the requirement, satisfying the requirements, (overall design, availability and reliability, information display, human factors, power supplies, manufacture, quality assurance, testing, and cost analysis), supply, location and operation of the equipment, importance of documentation. (U.K.)

  14. Model assessment of protective barrier designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Conbere, W.; Heller, P.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1985-11-01

    A protective barrier is being considered for use at the Hanford site to enhance the isolation of previously disposed radioactive wastes from infiltrating water, and plant and animal intrusion. This study is part of a research and development effort to design barriers and evaluate their performance in preventing drainage. A fine-textured soil (the Composite) was located on the Hanford site in sufficient quantity for use as the top layer of the protective barrier. A number of simulations were performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to analyze different designs of the barrier using the Composite soil as well as the finer-textured Ritzville silt loam and a slightly coarser soil (Coarse). Design variations included two rainfall rates (16.0 and 30.1 cm/y), the presence of plants, gravel mixed into the surface of the topsoil, an impermeable boundary under the topsoil, and moving the waste form from 10 to 20 m from the barrier edge. The final decision to use barriers for enhanced isolation of previously disposed wastes will be subject to decisions resulting from the completion of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement, which addresses disposal of Hanford defense high-level and transuranic wastes. The one-dimensional simulation results indicate that each of the three soils, when used as the top layer of the protective barrier, can prevent drainage provided plants are present. Gravel amendments to the upper 30 cm of soil (without plants) reduced evaporation and allowed more water to drain

  15. An engineered design of a diffractive mask for high precision astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Kaitlin; Ammons, S. Mark; Garrel, Vincent; Marin, Eduardo; Sivo, Gaetano; Bendek, Eduardo; Guyon, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    AutoCAD, Zemax Optic Studio 15, and Interactive Data Language (IDL) with the Proper Library are used to computationally model and test a diffractive mask (DiM) suitable for use in the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) on the Gemini South Telescope. Systematic errors in telescope imagery are produced when the light travels through the adaptive optics system of the telescope. DiM is a transparent, flat optic with a pattern of miniscule dots lithographically applied to it. It is added ahead of the adaptive optics system in the telescope in order to produce diffraction spots that will encode systematic errors in the optics after it. Once these errors are encoded, they can be corrected for. DiM will allow for more accurate measurements in astrometry and thus improve exoplanet detection. The mechanics and physical attributes of the DiM are modeled in AutoCAD. Zemax models the ray propagation of point sources of light through the telescope. IDL and Proper simulate the wavefront and image results of the telescope. Aberrations are added to the Zemax and IDL models to test how the diffraction spots from the DiM change in the final images. Based on the Zemax and IDL results, the diffraction spots are able to encode the systematic aberrations.

  16. Protective containment behaviour under exceeded design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, I.; Stepan, J.; Maly, J.; Schererova, K.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution describes the calculation results of the behaviour of containment structure if loaded in excess of its design load. The Temelin NPP comprises two WWER 1000 blocks and containment consists of a pre-stressed reinforced concrete structure with a system of unbonded cables. The objective of the calculations was to determine the level of load caused by the internal pressure and temperature at which the containment protective function would fail. In the first step, the maximum overpressure was determined, which may be transferred by the containment structure. In further steps analyses were made of various combinations of simultaneous pressure and temperature loads. The contribution presents relevant calculation results, including the evaluation of containment structure behaviour including liner under loads that exceed its design parameters. (author)

  17. Design of Polymeric Nanofiber Gauze Mask to Prevent Inhaling PM2.5 Particles from Haze Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhou Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 micron or less has become a major health hazard from the polluted air in many cities in China. The regular gauze masks are used to prevent inhaling the PM2.5 fine particles; however, those masks are not able to filter out the PM2.5 because of the large porosity of the mask materials. Some well-prevented masks usually have poor breathability, which increases other health risks. In this study, a polysulfone based nanofiber for mask filtration material was synthesized by electrospinning. That nanofiber mask material was characterized by SEM, air permeability test, and PM2.5 trapping experiment. The results indicate that nanofiber mask material can efficiently filter out the PM2.5 particles and simultaneously preserve a good breathability. We attribute such improvement to the nanoscaled fibers, having the same porosity as that of regular gauze mask but with extremely reduced local interfiber space.

  18. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R; Ferron, John

    2017-06-10

    Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of Type I error. In masked visual analysis (MVA), response-guided decisions are made by a researcher who is blinded to participants' identities and treatment assignments. MVA also makes it possible to conduct a hypothesis test assessing the significance of treatment effects. This tutorial describes the principles of MVA, including both how experiments can be set up and how results can be used for hypothesis testing. We then report a case study showing how MVA was deployed in a multiple-baseline across-subjects study investigating treatment for residual errors affecting rhotics. Strengths and weaknesses of MVA are discussed. Given their important role in the evidence base that informs clinical decision making, it is critical for single-case experimental studies to be conducted in a way that allows researchers to draw valid inferences. As a method that can increase the rigor of single-case studies while preserving the benefits of a response-guided approach, MVA warrants expanded attention from researchers in communication disorders.

  19. Design an online course of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, R.; Del Sol F, S.; Rivera M, T.; Sanchez G, D.

    2015-10-01

    Currently there is a vast research about the harmful effects of the use of ionizing radiation in medical procedures and in recent years struck by the rapid innovation in imaging equipment, considerably increasing the radiation dose received both patients and professionals in the radiodiagnosis area, service having the greatest demand in our country. The main strategy that has so far is education, that is, to inform all those involved in managing ionizing radiation about the applications and risks associated with them. Generally it requires that all personnel occupationally exposed attesting a course of radiation protection. However, the high demand for this type of medical services and poorly trained staff, makes taking a classroom course for personnel occupationally exposed is complicated. So that in the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) we are designing a course in radiation protection to be implemented online, through the virtual platform Moodle in a first stage, and a massive open online course as the second stage so that can be carried by anyone interested in the subject, without having to appear in person. This will allows to reach the largest possible number of personnel occupationally exposed to just have a computer with internet access. (Author)

  20. Design Constraints for Liquid-Protected Divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Yoda, M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work on liquid-surface-protected plasma facing components has resulted in the establishment of operating windows for candidate liquids, as well as limits on the maximum allowable liquid surface temperature in order to limit plasma impurities from liquid evaporation. In this study, an additional constraint on the maximum allowable surface temperature gradient (i.e., heat flux gradient) has been quantified. Spatial variations in the wall and liquid surface temperatures are expected due to variations in the incident radiation and particle fluxes. Thermocapillary forces created by such temperature gradients can lead to film rupture and dry spot formation in regions of elevated local temperatures. Here, attention has been focused on ''non-flowing'' thin liquid films similar to those formed on the surface of porous wettedwall components. Future analyses will include the effects of macroscopic fluid motion, and MHD forces.A numerical model using the level contour reconstruction method was used to follow the evolution of the liquid free surface above a non-isothermal solid surface. The model was used to develop generalized charts for the maximum allowable spatial temperature gradients (i.e., the critical Marangoni number) as a function of the governing non-dimensional variables, viz. the Weber, Froude, and Prandtl numbers, and aspect ratio. Attention was focused on the asymptotic limit for thin liquid films (i.e., low aspect ratio) which provides a lower bound for the maximum allowable temperature gradients. Specific examples for lithium, Flibe, lithium-lead, tin, and gallium are presented. The generalized charts developed in this investigation will allow reactor designers to identify design windows for successful operation of liquid-protected plasma facing components for various coolants, film thicknesses, and operating conditions

  1. Effective EUVL mask cleaning technology solutions for mask manufacturing and in-fab mask maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter; Waehler, Tobias; Singh, Sherjang; Jonckheere, Rik; Baudemprez, Bart

    2011-03-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is considered the leading lithography technology choice for semiconductor devices at 16nm HP node and beyond. However, before EUV Lithography can enter into High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) of advanced semiconductor devices, the ability to guarantee mask integrity at point-of-exposure must be established. Highly efficient, damage free mask cleaning plays a critical role during the mask manufacturing cycle and throughout the life of the mask, where the absence of a pellicle to protect the EUV mask increases the risk of contamination during storage, handling and use. In this paper, we will present effective EUVL mask cleaning technology solutions for mask manufacturing and in-fab mask maintenance, which employs an intelligent, holistic approach to maximize Mean Time Between Cleans (MBTC) and extend the useful life span of the reticle. The data presented will demonstrate the protection of the capping and absorber layers, preservation of pattern integrity as well as optical and mechanical properties to avoid unpredictable CD-linewidth and overlay shifts. Experiments were performed on EUV blanks and pattern masks using various process conditions. Conditions showing high particle removal efficiency (PRE) and minimum surface layer impact were then selected for durability studies. Surface layer impact was evaluated over multiple cleaning cycles by means of UV reflectivity metrology XPS analysis and wafer prints. Experimental results were compared to computational models. Mask life time predictions where made using the same computational models. The paper will provide a generic overview of the cleaning sequence which yielded best results, but will also provide recommendations for an efficient in-fab mask maintenance scheme, addressing handling, storage, cleaning and inspection.

  2. Protecting count queries in study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinterbo, Staal A; Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems.

  3. Clay Mask Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Masks can represent so many things, such as emotions (happy, sad, fearful) and power. The familiar "comedy and tragedy" masks, derived from ancient Greek theater, are just one example from mask history. Death masks from the ancient Egyptians influenced the ancient Romans into creating similar masks for their departed. Masks can represent many…

  4. Methodology for Designing Fault-Protection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin; Levison, Jeffrey; Kan, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    A document describes a methodology for designing fault-protection (FP) software for autonomous spacecraft. The methodology embodies and extends established engineering practices in the technical discipline of Fault Detection, Diagnosis, Mitigation, and Recovery; and has been successfully implemented in the Deep Impact Spacecraft, a NASA Discovery mission. Based on established concepts of Fault Monitors and Responses, this FP methodology extends the notion of Opinion, Symptom, Alarm (aka Fault), and Response with numerous new notions, sub-notions, software constructs, and logic and timing gates. For example, Monitor generates a RawOpinion, which graduates into Opinion, categorized into no-opinion, acceptable, or unacceptable opinion. RaiseSymptom, ForceSymptom, and ClearSymptom govern the establishment and then mapping to an Alarm (aka Fault). Local Response is distinguished from FP System Response. A 1-to-n and n-to- 1 mapping is established among Monitors, Symptoms, and Responses. Responses are categorized by device versus by function. Responses operate in tiers, where the early tiers attempt to resolve the Fault in a localized step-by-step fashion, relegating more system-level response to later tier(s). Recovery actions are gated by epoch recovery timing, enabling strategy, urgency, MaxRetry gate, hardware availability, hazardous versus ordinary fault, and many other priority gates. This methodology is systematic, logical, and uses multiple linked tables, parameter files, and recovery command sequences. The credibility of the FP design is proven via a fault-tree analysis "top-down" approach, and a functional fault-mode-effects-and-analysis via "bottoms-up" approach. Via this process, the mitigation and recovery strategy(s) per Fault Containment Region scope (width versus depth) the FP architecture.

  5. Design Of Photovoltaic Powered Cathodic Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golina Samir Adly

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion caused by chemical reaction between metallic structures and surrounding mediums such as soil or water .the CP cathodic protection system is used to protect metallic structure against corrosion. Cathodic protection CP used to minimize corrosion by utilizing an external source of electrical current which forces the entire structure to become a cathode. There are two Types of cathodic protection system Galvanic current Impressed current.the Galvanic current is called a sacrificial anode is connected to the protected structure cathode through a DC power supply. In Galvanic current system a current passes from the sacrificing anode to the protected structure .the sacrificial anode is corroded rather than causing the protected structure corrosion .protected structure requires a constant current to stop the corrosion which determined by area structure metal and the surrounding medium. The rains humidity are decrease soil resistivity and increase the DC current .The corrosion and over protection resulting from increase in the DC current is harmful for the metallic structure. This problem can be solved by conventional cathodic protection system by manual adjustment of DC voltage periodically to obtain a constant current .the manual adjustment of DC voltage depends on experience of the technician and using the accuracy of the measuring equipment. The errors of measuring current depend on error from the technician or error from the measuring equipment. the corrosion of structure may occur when the interval between two successive adjustment is long .An automatically regulated cathodic protection system is used to overcome problems from conventional cathodic protection system .the regulated cathodic protection system adjust the DC voltage of the system automatically when it senses the variations of surrounding medium resistivity so the DC current is constant at the required level.

  6. 37 CFR 211.3 - Mask work fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mask work fees. 211.3 Section... PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.3 Mask work fees. (a) Section 201.3 of this chapter prescribes the fees or charges established by the Register of Copyrights for services relating to mask works. (b) Section...

  7. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial...

  8. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  9. Mask fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

  10. venice: Mask utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean

    2018-02-01

    venice reads a mask file (DS9 or fits type) and a catalogue of objects (ascii or fits type) to create a pixelized mask, find objects inside/outside a mask, or generate a random catalogue of objects inside/outside a mask. The program reads the mask file and checks if a point, giving its coordinates, is inside or outside the mask, i.e. inside or outside at least one polygon of the mask.

  11. Safety design guides for fire protection for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide establishes design requirements to ensure the radiological risk to the public due to fire is acceptable and operating personnel are adequately protected from the hazards of fires. This safety design guide also specifies the safety criteria for fire protection to be applied to mitigate fires and recommends the fire protection program to be established to initiate, coordinate and document the design activities associated with fire protection. The requirements for fire protection outlined in this safety design guide shall be satisfied in the design stage and the change status of the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and incorporated into this safety design guide accordingly. 1 fig., (Author) .new

  12. Mask industry quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strott, Al; Bassist, Larry

    1994-12-01

    Product quality and timely delivery are two of the most important parameters in determining the success of a mask manufacturing facility. Because of the sensitivity of this data, very little was known about industry performance in these areas until an assessment was authored and presented at the 1993 BACUS Symposium by Larry Regis of Intel Corporation, Neil Paulsen of Intel Corporation, and James A. Reynolds of Reynolds Consulting. This data has been updated and will be published and presented at this year's BACUS Symposium. Contributor identities will again remain protected by utilizing Arthur Andersen & Company to compile the submittals. Participation was consistent with last year's representation of over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the United States. The data compiled includes shipments, customer return rate, customer return reasons from 1988 through Q2, 1994, performance to schedule, plate survival yield, and throughput time (TPT).

  13. Human physiology as the determining factor in protective clothing design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing is designed to protect humans against risks like fire, chemicals or blunt impact. Although protect¡ve clothing diminishes the effects of external risks, it may hinder people in functioning and it may also introduce new (internal) risks. Manufacturers are often not aware of the

  14. Respiratory source control using a surgical mask: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev B; Skaria, Shaji D; Mansour, Mohamed M; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2016-07-01

    Cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene are forms of source control encouraged to prevent the spread of respiratory infection. The use of surgical masks as a means of source control has not been quantified in terms of reducing exposure to others. We designed an in vitro model using various facepieces to assess their contribution to exposure reduction when worn at the infectious source (Source) relative to facepieces worn for primary (Receiver) protection, and the factors that contribute to each. In a chamber with various airflows, radiolabeled aerosols were exhaled via a ventilated soft-face manikin head using tidal breathing and cough (Source). Another manikin, containing a filter, quantified recipient exposure (Receiver). The natural fit surgical mask, fitted (SecureFit) surgical mask and an N95-class filtering facepiece respirator (commonly known as an "N95 respirator") with and without a Vaseline-seal were tested. With cough, source control (mask or respirator on Source) was statistically superior to mask or unsealed respirator protection on the Receiver (Receiver protection) in all environments. To equal source control during coughing, the N95 respirator must be Vaseline-sealed. During tidal breathing, source control was comparable or superior to mask or respirator protection on the Receiver. Source control via surgical masks may be an important adjunct defense against the spread of respiratory infections. The fit of the mask or respirator, in combination with the airflow patterns in a given setting, are significant contributors to source control efficacy. Future clinical trials should include a surgical mask source control arm to assess the contribution of source control in overall protection against airborne infection.

  15. EUV mask manufacturing readiness in the merchant mask industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Choi, Yohan; Ham, Young; Kamberian, Henry; Progler, Chris; Tseng, Shih-En; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Miyazaki, Junji; Lammers, Ad; Chen, Alek

    2017-10-01

    As nodes progress into the 7nm and below regime, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) becomes critical for all industry participants interested in remaining at the leading edge. One key cost driver for EUV in the supply chain is the reflective EUV mask. As of today, the relatively few end users of EUV consist primarily of integrated device manufactures (IDMs) and foundries that have internal (captive) mask manufacturing capability. At the same time, strong and early participation in EUV by the merchant mask industry should bring value to these chip makers, aiding the wide-scale adoption of EUV in the future. For this, merchants need access to high quality, representative test vehicles to develop and validate their own processes. This business circumstance provides the motivation for merchants to form Joint Development Partnerships (JDPs) with IDMs, foundries, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and other members of the EUV supplier ecosystem that leverage complementary strengths. In this paper, we will show how, through a collaborative supplier JDP model between a merchant and OEM, a novel, test chip driven strategy is applied to guide and validate mask level process development. We demonstrate how an EUV test vehicle (TV) is generated for mask process characterization in advance of receiving chip maker-specific designs. We utilize the TV to carry out mask process "stress testing" to define process boundary conditions which can be used to create Mask Rule Check (MRC) rules as well as serve as baseline conditions for future process improvement. We utilize Advanced Mask Characterization (AMC) techniques to understand process capability on designs of varying complexity that include EUV OPC models with and without sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). Through these collaborations, we demonstrate ways to develop EUV processes and reduce implementation risks for eventual mass production. By reducing these risks, we hope to expand access to EUV mask capability for

  16. 14 CFR 25.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... also enable the flightcrew to use radio equipment. (4) The part of the equipment protecting the eyes... Regulations: (1) The equipment must be designed to protect the appropriate crewmember from smoke, carbon... must include— (i) Masks covering the eyes, nose and mouth, or (ii) Masks covering the nose and mouth...

  17. pipelines cathodic protection design methodologies for impressed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    oil and gas pipelines corrosion in the United State of. American alone ... or preventing external corrosion of pipeline steels and other metallic .... 2.1 Materials and Impressed Current Design. Carbon steel ..... Research Analysis, Vol. 2, pp 2277 ...

  18. Safety design guide for pipe rupture protection for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide for pipe rupture protection identifies high-energy systems in which pipe ruptures must be postulated to occur, as well as systems that must be protected from the dynamic effects of such ruptures. Dynamic effects considered in this SDG consist of pipe whip (including missiles generated by pipe ruptures, if any) and jet impingement, Requirements for protection against the dynamic effects of a postulated pipe rupture and method of protection of essential structures, systems and components are specified for these effects. The change status for the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and this safety design guide shall be updated accordingly. 2 tabs., 5 refs. (Author) .new

  19. Safe design of protective structures of tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahat, M.A.Z.

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to explain how to use a tunnel, constructed from reinforced concrete, passes under a river to protect some people. The computer code is used (MCNP) (the transfer photon and neutron) at this model for such tunnel which passes under a river to account attenuation of both neutrons and gamma rays passing through the river water, clay, soil and reinforced concrete wall layers ,the last one (thickness 40 cm)constructed the tunnel construction. And to account the dose inside the tunnel, and to account neutron dose, gamma dose, prompt gamma dose, total gamma dose and total (neutron + gamma) dose estimated by μSv/h. At different depths from the earth surface layer depths 100 cm, 250 cm, 500 cm, 750 cm , 1000 cm, 1300 cm, 1700 cm, 1900 cm, 2020 cm, 2500 cm). And then account these doses for three cases which are a nuclear bomb its intensity 20 kt, another bomb its intensity 100 kt, and the last one its intensity is 1000 kt. This research aims to account the required safe depth to protect some people in this tunnel, passing under a river from the dangerous effects of neutron and gamma rays, emitted from the nuclear bomb.

  20. Measuring the extent of overlaps in protected area designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguignet, Marine; Arnell, Andy; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Shi, Yichuan; Bingham, Heather; MacSharry, Brian; Kingston, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, a number of national policies and international conventions have been implemented to promote the expansion of the world's protected area network, leading to a diversification of protected area strategies, types and designations. As a result, many areas are protected by more than one convention, legal instrument, or other effective means which may result in a lack of clarity around the governance and management regimes of particular locations. We assess the degree to which different designations overlap at global, regional and national levels to understand the extent of this phenomenon at different scales. We then compare the distribution and coverage of these multi-designated areas in the terrestrial and marine realms at the global level and among different regions, and we present the percentage of each county's protected area extent that is under more than one designation. Our findings show that almost a quarter of the world's protected area network is protected through more than one designation. In fact, we have documented up to eight overlapping designations. These overlaps in protected area designations occur in every region of the world, both in the terrestrial and marine realms, but are more common in the terrestrial realm and in some regions, notably Europe. In the terrestrial realm, the most common overlap is between one national and one international designation. In the marine realm, the most common overlap is between any two national designations. Multi-designations are therefore a widespread phenomenon but its implications are not well understood. This analysis identifies, for the first time, multi-designated areas across all designation types. This is a key step to understand how these areas are managed and governed to then move towards integrated and collaborative approaches that consider the different management and conservation objectives of each designation.

  1. Design and evaluation of physical protection systems of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jin Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Hwang, In Koo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Yung Myung

    2001-06-01

    Nuclear material and safety equipment of nuclear facilities are required to be protected against any kind of theft or sabotage. Physical protection is one of the measures to prevent such illegally potential threats for public security. It should cover all the cases of use, storage, and transportation of nuclear material. A physical protection system of a facility consists of exterior intrusion sensors, interior intrusion sensors, an alarm assessment and communication system, entry control systems, access delay equipment, etc. The design of an effective physical protection system requires a comprehensive approach in which the designers define the objective of the system, establish an initial design, and evaluate the proposed design. The evaluation results are used to determine whether or not the initial design should be modified and improved. Some modelling techniques are commonly used to analyse and evaluate the performance of a physical protection system. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed a prototype of software as a part of a full computer model for effectiveness evaluation for physical protection systems. The input data elements for the prototype, contain the type of adversary, tactics, protection equipment, and the attributes of each protection component. This report contains the functional and structural requirements defined in the development of the evaluation computer model.

  2. A New Physical Protection System Design and Evaluation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Kim, Myungsu; Bae, Yeongkyoung; Na, Janghwan [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) had established security-related department and has been strengthening security measures against possible sabotage. IAEA enforces the recommendations for the physical protection of NPPs in the INFCIRC/ 225/Rev.5 to the member states and U.S. NRC also enforces the similar requirements in 10 CFR 73.55. Thus, in order to let Korean NPPs meet the new requirements in INFCIRC/225/Rev.5 or U.S. NRC requirements, Korea nuclear licensee should develop or establish appropriate physical protection system (PPS) design methods for the physical protection of the operating NPPs and new NPPs. KHNP is doing the project of 'Development of APR1400 Physical Protection System Design (2012- 2015, KHNP/KAERI /KEPCO E-C)'. This paper describes overview of a physical protection system (PPS) design and evaluation for an advanced nuclear power plant. It found that a new physical protection system (PPS)design and evaluation. KHNP is doing the project of Physical Protection System design according to U.S. NRC requirements and IAEA requirements in INFCIRC /225 /Rev.5 and will complete by 7.31, 2015 for development of APR1400 Physical Protection System. After completing this project, the results of project are expected to apply new NPPs.

  3. Radiation protection and shielding design - Strengthening the link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, J.; Cooper, A.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement in quality and flexibility of shielding methods and data has been progressive and beneficial in opening up new opportunities for optimising radiation protection in design. The paper describes how these opportunities can best be seized by taking a holistic view of radiation protection, with shielding design being an important component part. This view is best achieved by enhancing the role of 'shielding assessors' so that they truly become 'radiation protection designers'. The increase in speed and efficiency of shielding calculations has been enormous over the past decades. This has raised the issue of how the assessor's time now can be best utilised; pursuing ever greater precision and accuracy in shielding/dose assessments, or improving the contribution that shielding assessment makes to radiological protection and cost-effective design. It is argued in this paper that the latter option is of great importance and will give considerable benefits. Shielding design needs to form part of a larger radiation protection perspective based on a deep understanding/appreciation of the opportunities and constraints of operators and designers, enabling minimal design iterations, cost optimisation of alternative designs (with a 'lifetime' perspective) and improved realisation of design intent in operations. The future of shielding design development is argued to be not in improving the 'tool-kit', but in enhanced understanding of the 'product' and the 'process' for achieving it. The holistic processes being developed in BNFL to realise these benefits are described in the paper and will be illustrated by case studies. (authors)

  4. A novel anti-influenza copper oxide containing respiratory face mask.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi Borkow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protective respiratory face masks protect the nose and mouth of the wearer from vapor drops carrying viruses or other infectious pathogens. However, incorrect use and disposal may actually increase the risk of pathogen transmission, rather than reduce it, especially when masks are used by non-professionals such as the lay public. Copper oxide displays potent antiviral properties. A platform technology has been developed that permanently introduces copper oxide into polymeric materials, conferring them with potent biocidal properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent biocidal properties in addition to their inherent filtration properties. Both control and copper oxide impregnated masks filtered above 99.85% of aerosolized viruses when challenged with 5.66+/-0.51 and 6.17+/-0.37 log(10TCID(50 of human influenza A virus (H1N1 and avian influenza virus (H9N2, respectively, under simulated breathing conditions (28.3 L/min. Importantly, no infectious human influenza A viral titers were recovered from the copper oxide containing masks within 30 minutes (< or = 0.88 log(10TCID(50, while 4.67+/-1.35 log(10TCID(50 were recovered from the control masks. Similarly, the infectious avian influenza titers recovered from the copper oxide containing masks were < or = 0.97+/-0.01 log(10TCID(50 and from the control masks 5.03+/-0.54 log(10TCID(50. The copper oxide containing masks successfully passed Bacterial Filtration Efficacy, Differential Pressure, Latex Particle Challenge, and Resistance to Penetration by Synthetic Blood tests designed to test the filtration properties of face masks in accordance with the European EN 14683:2005 and NIOSH N95 standards. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent anti-influenza biocidal properties without altering their physical

  5. Green clay and aloe vera peel-off facial masks: response surface methodology applied to the formulation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly Beringhs, André; Rosa, Julia Macedo; Stulzer, Hellen Karine; Budal, Rosane Maria; Sonaglio, Diva

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the optimization of a peel-off facial mask formulation. An investigation was carried out on the parameters of the formulation that most affect the desirable characteristics of peel-off facial masks. Cereal alcohol had a significant effect on the drying time at concentrations of 1-12% (w/w). The applicability of the evaluated formulations was influenced by both carbomer (0-2.4%; w/w) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA; 2.5-17.5%; w/w) content due to their ability to alter the formulation viscosity. Inverse concentrations of carbomer and PVA led to formulations with optimum viscosity for facial application. Film-forming performance was influenced only by the PVA concentration, achieving maximum levels at concentrations of around 11% (w/w). The optimized formulation, determined mathematically, contained 13% (w/w) PVA and 10% (w/w) cereal alcohol with no addition of carbomer. This formulation provided high levels of applicability and film-forming performance, the lowest drying time possible and excellent homogeneity of the green clay particles and aloe vera before and after drying. The preliminary stability study indicated that the optimized formulation is stable under normal storage conditions. The microbiological stability evaluation indicated that the preservative was efficient in terms of avoiding microbial growth. RSM was shown to be a useful statistical tool for the determination of the behavior of different compounds and their concentrations for the responses studied, allowing the investigation of the optimum conditions for the production of green clay and aloe vera peel-off facial masks.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  7. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  8. Aircraft-crash-protected roof design for the European SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posta, B.A.; Kadar, I.; Rao, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The European utility requirement document (EURD) places significant emphasis on aircraft crash protection of the reactor building - Alternative concepts were evaluated for protecting the dry-well head and the fuel pool from the effect of the spalling concrete for the General Electric Company's European simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR) designs

  9. Model assessment of protective barrier designs: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.

    1987-11-01

    Protective barriers are being considered for use at the Hanford Site to enhance the isolation of radioactive wastes from water, plant, and animal intrusion. This study assesses the effectiveness of protective barriers for isolation of wastes from water. In this report, barrier designs are reviewed and several barrier modeling assumptions are tested. 20 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Basing of a complex design measures for protection against fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuger, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fire impact on NPP radiation safety is analyzed. The general industry requirements to the protection system against fire are shown to be insufficient for NPPs. A complex of protection measures against fire is suggested that should be taken into account in the NPP designs [ru

  11. Fast Disintegrating Combination Tablet of Taste Masked Levocetrizine Dihydrochloride and Montelukast Sodium: Formulation Design, Development, and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prepare fast disintegrating combination tablet of taste masked Levocetrizine dihydrochloride and Montelukast sodium by using direct compression method. To prevent bitter taste and unacceptable odour of the Levocetrizine dihydrochloride drug, the drug was taste masked with ion exchange resins like Kyron-T-104 and Tulsion-412. Among the two resins, Kyron-T-104 was selected for further studies because of high drug loading capacity, low cost, and better drug release profile. An ion exchange resin complex was prepared by the batch technique and various parameters; namely, resin activation, drug: resin ratio, pH, temperature, and stirring time, and swelling time were optimized to successfully formulate the tasteless drug resin complex (DRC. The tablets were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH 102 as diluent along with crospovidone (CP, croscarmellose sodium (CCM, and sodium starch glycolate (SSG as a superdisintegrants. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time (DT, and dissolution study and it was concluded that the tablet formulation prepared with 2% SSG + CCS showed better disintegration time in comparison with other formulation and good drug release. The stability studies were carried out for the optimized batch for three months and it showed acceptable results.

  12. Reactor protection system design using micro-computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbrother, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Reactor protection systems for nuclear power plants have traditionally been built using analog hardware. This hardware works quite well for single parameter trip functions; however, optimum protection against DNBR and KW/ft limits requires more complex trip functions than can easily be handled with analog hardware. For this reason, Babcock and Wilcox has introduced a Reactor Protection System, called the RPS-II, that utilizes a micro-computer to handle the more complex trip functions. The paper describes the design of the RPS-II and the operation of the micro-computer within the Reactor Protection System

  13. Reactor protection system design using micro-computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbrother, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    Reactor Protection Systems for Nuclear Power Plants have traditionally been built using analog hardware. This hardware works quite well for single parameter trip functions; however, optimum protection against DNBR and KW/ft limits requires more complex trip functions than can easily be handled with analog hardware. For this reason, Babcock and Wilcox has introduced a Reactor Protection System, called the RPS-II, that utilizes a micro-computer to handle the more complex trip functions. This paper describes the design of the RPS-II and the operation of the micro-computer within the Reactor Protection System

  14. Seismic design criteria of fire protection systems for DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.; Cushing, R.; Driesen, G.

    1991-01-01

    Fire protection systems are critical to the safety of personnel and to the protection of inventory during any kind of emergency situation that involves a fire. The importance of these fire protection systems is hightened for DOE facilities which often house nuclear, chemical or scientific processes. Current research into the topic of open-quotes fires following earthquakesclose quotes has demonstrated that the risks of a fire starting as a result of a major earthquake can be significant. Thus, fire protection systems need to be designed to withstand the anticipated seismic event for the site in question

  15. The radiation protection design of CSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Youwu; Zheng Huazhi; Zhu Xiaolong; Li Shuwei [Institute of modern physics, the Chinese academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China)

    2000-05-01

    The construction of CSR (Cooling Storage Ring) which include a main ring (CSRm) and an experimental ring (CSRe) will be started in this year. Heavy ions of carbon to uranium will be accelerated up to 900MeV/u and 400MeV/u at intensity of 10{sup 8} pps. For the shielding design of CSR, the secondary neutron yields due to ion beam loss and their spectra, angular distributions were estimated based on the experimental results for 400 MeV/u {sup 12}C+Cu reaction by K. Nakamura et.al.. The equivalent dose at the shield surface and in the surrounding environment, skyshine neutron dose equivalent and air-induced radioactivity were also estimated in this study. It is found that the most important environmental radiation impact component of CSR is the skyshine neutrons, and the environmental impact due to air and cooling water induced radioactivity were lesser. (author)

  16. The radiation protection design of CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Youwu; Zheng Huazhi; Zhu Xiaolong; Li Shuwei

    2000-01-01

    The construction of CSR (Cooling Storage Ring) which include a main ring (CSRm) and an experimental ring (CSRe) will be started in this year. Heavy ions of carbon to uranium will be accelerated up to 900MeV/u and 400MeV/u at intensity of 10 8 pps. For the shielding design of CSR, the secondary neutron yields due to ion beam loss and their spectra, angular distributions were estimated based on the experimental results for 400 MeV/u 12 C+Cu reaction by K. Nakamura et.al.. The equivalent dose at the shield surface and in the surrounding environment, skyshine neutron dose equivalent and air-induced radioactivity were also estimated in this study. It is found that the most important environmental radiation impact component of CSR is the skyshine neutrons, and the environmental impact due to air and cooling water induced radioactivity were lesser. (author)

  17. Empirical Design of Scour Protections around Monopile Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, L.; De Rouck, J.; Troch, P.

    2012-01-01

    combined wave and current loading. In part 1 (De Vos et al., 2011), preceding this paper, a static design guideline for a scour protection around a monopile is suggested, based on a combined wave and current flow field. By allowing some movement of the top layer stones of the scour protection, a more...... economical design is obtained. This paper describes the derivation of a dynamic design formula to calculate the required stone size for a scour protection around a monopile foundation in a combined wave and current climate. The formula is based on the results of an experimental model study, described...... in this paper. The formula gives an expected damage level to the scour protection, based on the wave orbital velocity, wave period, steady current velocity, water depth, relative stone density and stone size. When applying the formula for a typical situation in the North Sea, a reduction of 20% to 80...

  18. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  19. 1995 mask industry quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Strott, Al

    1995-12-01

    The third annual mask industry assessment will again survey various industry companies for key performance measurements in the areas of quality and delivery. This year's assessment is enhanced to include the area of safety and further breakdown of the data into 5-inch vs. 6- inch. The data compiled includes shipments, customer return rate, customer return reason, performance to schedule, plate survival yield, and throughput time (TPT) from 1988 through Q2, 1995. Contributor identities remain protected by utilizing Arthur Andersen & Company to ensure participant confidentiality. Participation in the past included representation of over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the United States. This year's assessment is expected to result in expanded participation by again inviting all mask suppliers domestically to participate as well as an impact from inviting international suppliers to participate.

  20. Design aspects of radiation protection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Safety Guide deals with the provisions to be made in the design of thermal neutron reactor power plants to protect site personnel and the public from undue exposure to ionizing radiation during operational states and accident conditions. The effective radiation protection is a combination of good design, high quality construction and proper operation. The document gives guidance on how to satisfy the objectives contained in Subsection 2.2 and Section 9 of the Code of Practice on Design for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants

  1. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  2. Cathodic Protection Design Algorithms for Refineries Aboveground Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosay Abdul sattar Majbor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Storage tanks condition and integrity is maintained by joint application of coating and cathodic protection. Iraq southern region rich in oil and petroleum product refineries need and use plenty of aboveground storage tanks. Iraq went through conflicts over the past thirty five years resulting in holding the oil industry infrastructure behind regarding maintenance and modernization. The primary concern in this work is the design and implementation of cathodic protection systems for the aboveground storage tanks farm in the oil industry. Storage tank external base area and tank internal surface area are to be protected against corrosion using impressed current and sacrificial anode cathodic protection systems. Interactive versatile computer programs are developed to provide the necessary system parameters data including the anode requirements, composition, rating, configuration, etc. Microsoft-Excel datasheet and Visual Basic.Net developed software were used throughout the study in the design of both cathodic protection systems. The case study considered in this work is the eleven aboveground storage tanks farm situated in al-Shauiba refinery in southern IRAQ. The designed cathodic protection systems are to be installed and monitored realistically in the near future. Both systems were designed for a life span of (15-30 years, and all their parameters were within the internationally accepted standards.

  3. Binaural masking level differences in nonsimultanuous masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlrausch, A.G.; Fassel, R.; Gilkey, R.H.; Anderson, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter investigates the extent to which binaural unmasking occurs with nonsimultaneous presentation of masker and signal, particularly in forward masking. The majority of previous studies that addressed this question found that there is a substantial binaural masking level difference (BMLD) in

  4. Design and testing of integrated circuits for reactor protection channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Vandermolen, R.I.; Jagadish, U.; Swail, B.K.; Naser, J.

    1995-01-01

    Custom and semicustom application-specific integrated circuit design and testing methods are investigated for use in research and commercial nuclear reactor safety systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working together through a cooperative research and development agreement to apply modern technology to a nuclear reactor protection system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate to the nuclear industry an alternative approach for new or upgrade reactor protection and safety system signal processing and voting logic. Motivation for this project stems from (1) the difficulty of proving that software-based protection systems are adequately reliable, (2) the obsolescence of the original equipment, and (3) the improved performance of digital processing. A demonstration model for protection system of PWR reactor has been designed and built

  5. Comparison of face masks in the bag-mask ventilation of a manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, D; Rassam, S; Stacey, M R; Mecklenburgh, J S

    2006-02-01

    We conducted a study investigating the effectiveness of four face mask designs in the bag-mask ventilation of a special manikin adapted to simulate a difficult airway. Forty-eight anaesthetists volunteered to bag-mask ventilate the manikin for 3 min with four different face masks. The primary outcome of the study was to calculate mean percentage leak from the face masks over 3 min. Anaesthetists were also asked to rate the face masks using a visual analogue score. The single-use scented intersurgical face mask had the lowest mean leak (20%). This was significantly lower than the mean leak from the single-use, cushioned 7,000 series Air Safety Ltd. face mask (24%) and the reusable silicone Laerdal face mask (27%) but not significantly lower than the mean leak from the reusable anatomical intersurgical face mask (23%). There was a large variation in both performance and satisfaction between anaesthetists with each design. This highlights the importance of having a variety of face masks available for emergency use.

  6. PLAY HANDS PROTECTIVE GLOVES: TECHNICAL NOTE ON DESIGN AND CONCEPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Hicks, Michele; Lura, Derek J; Highsmith, M Jason

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood motor disability, with a global incidence of 1.6 to 2.5/1,000 live births. Approximately 23% of children with CP are dependent upon assistive technologies. Some children with developmental disabilities have self-injurious behaviors such as finger biting but also have therapeutic needs. The purpose of this technical note is to describe design considerations for a protective glove and finger covering that maintains finger dexterity for children who exhibit finger and hand chewing (dermatophagia) and require therapeutic range of motion and may benefit from sensory stimulation resulting from constant contact between glove and skin. Protecting Little and Adolescent Youth (PLAY) Hands are protective gloves for children with developmental disorders such as CP who injure themselves by biting their hands due to pain or sensory issues. PLAY Hands will be cosmetically appealing gloves that provide therapeutic warmth, tactile sensory feedback, range of motion for donning/ doffing, and protection to maximize function and quality of life for families of children with developmental disorders. The technology is either a per-finger protective orthosis or an entire glove solution designed from durable 3D-printed biodegradable/bioabsorbable materials such as thermoplastics. PLAY Hands represent a series of protective hand wear interventions in the areas of self-mutilating behavior, kinematics, and sensation. They will be made available in a range of protective iterations from single- or multi-digit finger orthoses to a basic glove design to a more structurally robust and protective iteration. To improve the quality of life for patients and caregivers, they are conceptualized to be cosmetically appealing, protective, and therapeutic.

  7. Empirical Design of Scour Protections around Monopile Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, L.; De Rouck, J.; Troch, P.

    2011-01-01

    in a current alone situation), at present, little design guidelines exist for the specific case of a scour protection around a monopile foundation subjected to a combined wave and current loading. This paper describes the derivation of a static design formula to calculate the required stone size for a scour......Together with new opportunities, offshore wind farms raise new engineering challenges. An important aspect relates to the erosion of bottom material around the foundation of the wind turbines, caused by the local increase of the wave and current induced flow velocities by the pile's presence....... Typically, the expected scour has a considerable impact on the stability and dynamic behavior of the wind turbine and a scour protection is placed to avoid erosion of the soil close to the foundation. Although much experience exists on the design of scour protections around bridge piers (which are placed...

  8. Recommendation of federal protected area designation for Sable Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    A report by the Canada - Nova Scotia Sable Island Task Group (TG) and its partners recommends the appropriate federal protected area designation for Sable Island as being either that of a national wildlife area or of a national park, and includes objectives and a synopsis of the analyses of the designation options. It was found that both protected area designations are feasible and would ensure equivalent and comprehensive conservation of the ecology and wildlife on the Island, including the horses, but the TG's preferred recommendation is the designation of Sable Island as a National Park under the Canada National Parks Act. The next steps include consultations and a review of the issues identified during these consultations to facilitate the designation.

  9. Evasion of immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria by IgM masking of protective IgG epitopes in infected erythrocyte surface-exposed PfEMP1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Dalgaard, Michael B; Pleman, Suzan T

    2011-01-01

    1 (PfEMP1) family is central to both. Here, we present evidence of a P. falciparum evasion mechanism not previously documented: the masking of PfEMP1-specific IgG epitopes by nonspecific IgM. Nonspecific IgM binding to erythrocytes infected by parasites expressing the PfEMP1 protein VAR2CSA...

  10. Masks in Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, David

    2016-01-01

    In Drama Education mask work is undertaken and presented as both a methodology and knowledge base. There are numerous workshops and journal articles available for teachers that offer knowledge or implementation of mask work. However, empirical examination of the context or potential implementation of masks as a pedagogical tool remains…

  11. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  12. Architecture, design and protection of power distribution networks; Architecture, conception et protection des reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrel, J.P. [Schneider Electric SA, 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    2000-10-01

    The design of all-electric ships calls for high power levels in the propulsion systems. Merchant ships and especially naval vessels demand rugged, reliable propulsion systems with high availability, low maintenance and ease of operation. These constraints imply the choice of an optimized single winding system. The design of the network topology and protection system, and the choice of operating voltage and HT neutral configuration are the main steps in the design. (author)

  13. A Westinghouse designed distributed mircroprocessor based protection and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Reid, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    For approximately five years, Westinghouse has been involved in the design and licensing of a distributed microprocessor based system for the protection and control of a pressurized water reactor nuclear steam supply system. A 'top-down' design methodology was used, in which the system global performance objectives were specified, followed by increasingly more detailed design specifications which ultimately decomposed the system into its basic hardware and software elements. The design process and design decisions were influenced by the recognition that the final product would have to be verified to ensure its capability to perform the safety-related functions of a class 1E protection system. The verification process mirrored the design process except that it was 'bottom-up' and thus started with the basic elements and worked upwards through the system in increasingly complex blocks. A number of areas which are of interest in a distributed system are disucssed, with emphasis on two systems. The first, the Integrated Protection System is primarily responsible for processing signals from field mounted sensors to provide for reactor trips and the initiation of the Engineered Safety Features. The Integrated Control System, which is organized in a parallel manner, processes other sensor signals and generates the necessary analog and on-off signals to maintain the plant parameters within specified limits. Points covered include system structure, systems partitioning strategies, communications techniques, software design concepts, reliability and maintainability, commercial component availability, interference susceptibility, licensing issues, and applicability. (LL)

  14. Protective design of critical infrastructure with high performance concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, W.; Nöldgen, M.; Stolz, A.; Roller, C.

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: High performance concrete constructions will allow innovative design solutions for critical infrastructures. Validation of engineering methods can reside on large and model scale experiments conducted on conventional concrete structures. New consistent impact experiments show extreme protection potential for UHPC. Modern FEM with concrete models and explicit rebar can model HPC and UHPC penetration resistance. SDOF and TDOF approaches are valuable design tools on local and global level. Combination of at least 2 out of 3 design methods FEM – XDOF- EXP allow reliable prediction and efficient innovative designs

  15. Design guide for fire protection of grouped electrical cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungan, K.W.

    1991-05-01

    This paper develops design guidance for fire protection of grouped electrical cables using previous research and the concept of design objectives based on damage limits. A quantitative approach is taken to establishing performance-oriented design objectives and addressing fires exposing cables as well as cable fires. A one-page Design Calculation Checklist is developed and examples are shown. In addition, testing was done for placement of linear thermal detection on cable trays and recommendations are given. 32 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Entropy Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Stone, Leland (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper details two projects that use the World Wide Web (WWW) for dissemination of curricula that focus on remote sensing. 1) Presenting grade-school students with the concepts used in remote sensing involves educating the teacher and then providing the teacher with lesson plans. In a NASA-sponsored project designed to introduce students in grades 4 through 12 to some of the ideas and terminology used in remote sensing, teachers from local grade schools and middle schools were recruited to write lessons about remote sensing concepts they could use in their classrooms. Twenty-two lessons were produced and placed in seven modules that include: the electromagnetic spectrum, two- and three-dimensional perception, maps and topography, scale, remote sensing, biotic and abiotic concepts, and landscape chi rise. Each lesson includes a section that evaluates what students have learned by doing the exercise. The lessons, instead of being published in a workbook and distributed to a limited number of teachers, have been placed on a WWW server, enabling much broader access to the package. This arrangement also allows for the lessons to be modified after feedback from teachers accessing the package. 2) Two-year colleges serve to teach trade skills, prepare students for enrollment in senior institutions of learning, and more and more, retrain students who have college degrees in new technologies and skills. A NASA-sponsored curriculum development project is producing a curriculum using remote sensing analysis an Earth science applications. The project has three major goals. First, it will implement the use of remote sensing data in a broad range of community college courses. Second, it will create curriculum modules and classes that are transportable to other community colleges. Third, the project will be an ongoing source of data and curricular materials to other community colleges. The curriculum will have these course pathways to a certificate; a) a Science emphasis, b

  17. Atmospheric electricity. [lightning protection criteria in spacecraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Atmospheric electricity must be considered in the design, transportation, and operation of aerospace vehicles. The effect of the atmosphere as an insulator and conductor of high voltage electricity, at various atmospheric pressures, must also be considered. The vehicle can be protected as follows: (1) By insuring that all metallic sections are connected by electrical bonding so that the current flow from a lightning stroke is conducted over the skin without any gaps where sparking would occur or current would be carried inside; (2) by protecting buildings and other structures on the ground with a system of lightning rods and wires over the outside to carry the lightning stroke into the ground; (3) by providing a zone of protection for launch complexes; (4) by providing protection devices in critical circuits; (5) by using systems which have no single failure mode; and (6) by appropriate shielding of units sensitive to electromagnetic radiation.

  18. GRA prospectus: optimizing design and management of protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard; Halsing, David

    2001-01-01

    Protected areas comprise one major type of global conservation effort that has been in the form of parks, easements, or conservation concessions. Though protected areas are increasing in number and size throughout tropical ecosystems, there is no systematic method for optimally targeting specific local areas for protection, designing the protected area, and monitoring it, or for guiding follow-up actions to manage it or its surroundings over the long run. Without such a system, conservation projects often cost more than necessary and/or risk protecting ecosystems and biodiversity less efficiently than desired. Correcting these failures requires tools and strategies for improving the placement, design, and long-term management of protected areas. The objective of this project is to develop a set of spatially based analytical tools to improve the selection, design, and management of protected areas. In this project, several conservation concessions will be compared using an economic optimization technique. The forest land use portfolio model is an integrated assessment that measures investment in different land uses in a forest. The case studies of individual tropical ecosystems are developed as forest (land) use and preservation portfolios in a geographic information system (GIS). Conservation concessions involve a private organization purchasing development and resource access rights in a certain area and retiring them. Forests are put into conservation, and those people who would otherwise have benefited from extracting resources or selling the right to do so are compensated. Concessions are legal agreements wherein the exact amount and nature of the compensation result from a negotiated agreement between an agent of the conservation community and the local community. Funds are placed in a trust fund, and annual payments are made to local communities and regional/national governments. The payments are made pending third-party verification that the forest expanse

  19. LMFBR plant design features for sodium spill and fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Design features have been developed for an LMFBR plant to protect the concrete structures from potential liquid spills and fires and prevent sodium-concrete reactions. The inclusion of these features in the plant design reduces the severity of design basis accident conditions imposed on containment and other critical plant structures. Steel liners are provided in cells containing radioactive sodium systems, and catch pans are located in non-radioactive sodium system cells. The design requirements and descriptions of each of these protective features are presented. The loading conditions, analytical approach and numerical results are also included. Design of concrete cell structures that are subject to high temperature effects from sodium spills is discussed. The structural design considers the influence of high temperature on design properties of concrete and carbon steel materials based on results of a comprehensive test program. The development of these design features and high temperature design considerations for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are presented in this paper

  20. 2013 mask industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  1. Designing concept on lightning protection of overhead power distribution line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shigeru [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)], E-mail: yokoyama@criepi.denken.or.jp

    2007-07-01

    The principle is shown for lightning protection of power distribution lines taking the effects of surge arresters, overhead ground wires and their combined use into consideration. Moreover an outline of a rational design method targeting direct lightning hits, induced over voltages and back flow currents from high structures. (author)

  2. Design concepts to enhance nuclear power plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Varnado, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Using a modern design for a nuclear power plant as a point of departure, this study examines the enhancement of protection which may be achieved by changes to the design. These changes include concepts such as complete physical separation of redundant trains of safety equipment, hardened enclosures for water storage tanks, and hardened shutdown heat removal systems. The degree of enhancement (value) is examined in terms such as the potential reduction in the number of vital areas and the increase in probability of adversary sequence interruption. The impacts considered include constraints imposed upon operations and maintenance personnel and increased capital and operating costs. The study concludes that structural design changes alone do not provide significant increases in protection

  3. Equipment design for reliability testing of protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny; Tjahjono, H.; Santosa, A. Z.; Tjahjani, S.DT.; Ismu, P.H; Haryanto, D.; Mulyanto, D.; Kusmono, S

    1999-01-01

    The equipment for reliability testing of cable of protection system has been designed as a a furnace with the electric heater have a 4 kW power, and need time 10 minute to reach the designed maximum temperature 3000C. The dimension of furnace is 800 mm diameter and 2000 mm length is isolated use rockwool isolator and coated by aluminium. For the designed maximum temperature the surface temperature is 78 0c. Assemble of specimens is arranged horizontally in the furnace. The failure criteria will be defined based on the behaviour of the load circuit in each line of cable specimens

  4. Internal fire protection analysis for the United Kingdom EPR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laid, Abdallah [Nuclear New Build Generation Company Ltd. (NNB GenCo), Barnwood (United Kingdom). EDF Energy Plc.; Cesbron, Mickael [Service Etudes et Project Thermiques et Nucleaires (SEPTEN), Lyon (France). EDF-SA

    2015-12-15

    In the deterministic design basis analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) EPR based nuclear power plants all postulated initiating events are grouped into two different types, internal faults and internal/external hazards. ''Internal Fires'' is one of the internal hazards analysed at the design stage of the UK EPR. In effect, the main safety objective for fire protection is to ensure that all the required safety functions are performed in the event of an internal fire. To achieve this safety objective, provisions for protection against fire risks are taken to: (i) limit the spread of a fire, protect the safety functions of the facility; (ii) limit the propagation of smoke and dispersion of toxic, radioactive, inflammable, corrosive or explosive materials, and (iii) ensure the achievement of a safe shutdown state, personnel evacuation and all other necessary emergency actions. This paper presents the UK EPR approach on how the above provisions are applied. Such provisions involve implementing means of fire prevention, surveillance, firefighting and limiting fire consequences, appropriate to the risks inherent to the facility. Overall, the design of the UK EPR fire protection systems is based on three types of measures: prevention, containment and control.

  5. Metacontrast masking is processed before grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Michael Patrick; Bridgeman, Bruce; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the physiological mechanism of grapheme-color synesthesia using metacontrast masking. A metacontrast target is rendered invisible by a mask that is delayed by about 60 ms; the target and mask do not overlap in space or time. Little masking occurs, however, if the target and mask are simultaneous. This effect must be cortical, because it can be obtained dichoptically. To compare the data for synesthetes and controls, we developed a metacontrast design in which nonsynesthete controls showed weaker dichromatic masking (i.e., the target and mask were in different colors) than monochromatic masking. We accomplished this with an equiluminant target, mask, and background for each observer. If synesthetic color affected metacontrast, synesthetes should show monochromatic masking more similar to the weak dichromatic masking among controls, because synesthetes could add their synesthetic color to the monochromatic condition. The target-mask pairs used for each synesthete were graphemes that elicited strong synesthetic colors. We found stronger monochromatic than dichromatic U-shaped metacontrast for both synesthetes and controls, with optimal masking at an asynchrony of 66 ms. The difference in performance between the monochromatic and dichromatic conditions in the synesthetes indicates that synesthesia occurs at a later processing stage than does metacontrast masking.

  6. Design guides for cell atmosphere controls, utilities and fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, A.J. Jr.; Peishel, F.L.; Slattery, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    Facilities for handling radioactive and toxic materials must be designed not only for efficient operation, but also for protection of the operating personnel and the public. The ventilation system is of primary importance in maintaining containment of any airborne radioactivity. The type, number, and location of in-cell services must be adequate for planned operations, but also must allow flexibility to accommodate expansion in the scope of operations or changes in programs. Fire protection systems and operational controls are mandatory to maintain containment of radioactivity in the event of an operating error or process accident that may result in a fire

  7. Nitinol Embolic Protection Filters: Design Investigation by Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Michele; de Beule, Matthieu; Mortier, Peter; van Loo, Denis; Verdonck, Pascal; Vermassen, Frank; Segers, Patrick; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Verhegghe, Benedict

    2009-08-01

    The widespread acceptance of carotid artery stenting (CAS) to treat carotid artery stenosis and its effectiveness compared with surgical counterpart, carotid endarterectomy (CEA), is still a matter of debate. Transient or permanent neurological deficits may develop in patients undergoing CAS due to distal embolization or hemodynamic changes. Design, development, and usage of embolic protection devices (EPDs), such as embolic protection filters, appear to have a significant impact on the success of CAS. Unfortunately, some drawbacks, such as filtering failure, inability to cross tortuous high-grade stenoses, malpositioning and vessel injury, still remain and require design improvement. Currently, many different designs of such devices are available on the rapidly growing dedicated market. In spite of such a growing commercial interest, there is a significant need for design tools as well as for careful engineering investigations and design analyses of such nitinol devices. The present study aims to investigate the embolic protection filter design by finite element analysis. We first developed a parametrical computer-aided design model of an embolic filter based on micro-CT scans of the Angioguard™ XP (Cordis Endovascular, FL) EPD by means of the open source pyFormex software. Subsequently, we used the finite element method to simulate the deployment of the nitinol filter as it exits the delivery sheath. Comparison of the simulations with micro-CT images of the real device exiting the catheter showed excellent correspondence with our simulations. Finally, we evaluated circumferential basket-vessel wall apposition of a 4 mm size filter in a straight vessel of different sizes and shape. We conclude that the proposed methodology offers a useful tool to evaluate and to compare current or new designs of EPDs. Further simulations will investigate vessel wall apposition in a realistic tortuous anatomy.

  8. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Ferron, John

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of…

  9. Design and testing of integrated circuits for reactor protection channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Vandermolen, R.I.; Jagadish, U.; Swail, B.K.; Naser, J.; Rana, I.

    1995-01-01

    Custom and semicustom application-specific integrated circuit design and testing methods are investigated for use in research and commercial nuclear reactor safety systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working together through a cooperative research and development agreement to apply modern technology to a nuclear reactor protection system. Purpose of this project is to demonstrate to the nuclear industry an alternative approach for new or upgrade reactor protection and safety system signal processing and voting logic. Motivation for this project stems from (1) the difficulty of proving that software-based protection systems are adequately reliable, (2) the obsolescence of the original equipment, and (3) the improved performance of digital processing

  10. An investigation into the efficiency of disposable face masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K B

    1980-01-01

    Disposable face masks used in hospitals have been assessed for the protection afforded the patient and the wearer by challenges of simulated natural conditions of stress. Operating theatre masks made of synthetic materials allow the wearer to breathe through the masks, and these have been shown to protect the patient well but the wearer slightly less. Cheaper paper masks are worn for ward duties, and of these only the Promask protected in area in front of the wearer: air does not pass through this mask, expired air is prevented from passing forward, and the wearer breathes unfiltered air. All the other paper masks tested allowed many bacteria-laden particles to pass through them. PMID:7440756

  11. Crumple zone design for pedestrian protection using impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyung Il; Jeon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Young; Kim, Heon Young [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Product Development Team, Gyeongsan si (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    This paper describes the design process for an automobile crumple zone for pedestrian protection. The impact load and bending moments predicted by impact analysis were used to design a plastic structure that may help reduce pedestrian injuries to the thigh area. The fracture effect was incorporated into the model by calculating the damage to the plastic material during impact, and the analysis was conducted under the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) test conditions, using the upper legform developed by ESI Corporation. In addition, the values predicted by the analysis were validated by comparison with results of actual impact tests.

  12. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  13. Crumple zone design for pedestrian protection using impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Il; Jeon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Young; Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Yong Soo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design process for an automobile crumple zone for pedestrian protection. The impact load and bending moments predicted by impact analysis were used to design a plastic structure that may help reduce pedestrian injuries to the thigh area. The fracture effect was incorporated into the model by calculating the damage to the plastic material during impact, and the analysis was conducted under the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) test conditions, using the upper legform developed by ESI Corporation. In addition, the values predicted by the analysis were validated by comparison with results of actual impact tests

  14. Gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions in protective barriers: Experimental design, construction, and initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, W.J.

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the interactive effects of gravel admix and greater precipitation on soil water storage and plant abundance. The study is one of many tasks in the Protective Barrier Development Program for the disposal of Hanford defense waste. A factorial field-plot experiment was set up at the site selected as the borrow area for barrier topsoil. Gravel admix, vegetation, and enhanced precipitation treatments were randomly assigned to the plots using a split-split plot design structure. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover were monitored using neutron probe and point intercept methods, respectively. The first-year results suggest that water extraction by plants will offset gravel-caused increases in soil water storage. Near-surface soil water contents were much lower in graveled plots with plants than in nongraveled plots without plants. Large inherent variability in deep soil water storage masked any effects gravel may have had on water content below the root zone. In the future, this source of variation will be removed by differencing monthly data series and testing for changes in soil water storage. Tests of the effects of greater precipitation on soil water storage were inconclusive. A telling test will be possible in the spring of 1988, following the first wet season during which normal precipitation is doubled. 26 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Computing Challenges in Coded Mask Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This slide presaentation reviews the complications and challenges in developing computer systems for Coded Mask Imaging telescopes. The coded mask technique is used when there is no other way to create the telescope, (i.e., when there are wide fields of view, high energies for focusing or low energies for the Compton/Tracker Techniques and very good angular resolution.) The coded mask telescope is described, and the mask is reviewed. The coded Masks for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) instruments are shown, and a chart showing the types of position sensitive detectors used for the coded mask telescopes is also reviewed. Slides describe the mechanism of recovering an image from the masked pattern. The correlation with the mask pattern is described. The Matrix approach is reviewed, and other approaches to image reconstruction are described. Included in the presentation is a review of the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) / High Energy Telescope (HET), with information about the mission, the operation of the telescope, comparison of the EXIST/HET with the SWIFT/BAT and details of the design of the EXIST/HET.

  16. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  17. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-12-10

    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  18. Dependable Design Flow for Protection Systems using Programmable Logic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M

    2011-01-01

    Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) are becoming more prevalent in protection and safety-related electronic systems. When employing such programmable logic devices, extra care and attention needs to be taken. The final synthesis result, used to generate the bit-stream to program the device, must be shown to meet the design’s requirements. This paper describes how to maximize confidence using techniques such as Formal Methods, exhaustive Hardware Description Language (HDL) code simulation and hardware testing. An example is given for one of the critical functions of the Safe Machine Parameters (SMP) system, used in the protection of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. CERN is also working towards an adaptation of the IEC- 61508 lifecycle designed for Machine Protection Systems (MPS), and the High Energy Physics environment, implementation of a protection function in FPGA code is only one small step of this lifecycle. The ultimate aim of this project is to cre...

  19. Mask Phenomenon in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎丽璇

    2013-01-01

    People sometimes wear masks. Abusive expression may be used to convey love while polite words can be exchanged among enemies. This essay describes and discusses this special phenomenon in communication and analyzes the elements that con-tribute to the success of a mask communication.

  20. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  1. Mask materials in powderblasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1999-01-01

    Powderblasting has the opportunity to become a standard technology in micromachining. To machine small details with powderbalsting, it is necessary to use a suiabled mask. In this paper four mask types ares examined. BF400 resist foil is most suitable for standard use in powderblasting for reason of

  2. Improved Design of Unequal Error Protection LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandberg Sara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an improved method for designing unequal error protection (UEP low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. The method is based on density evolution. The degree distribution with the best UEP properties is found, under the constraint that the threshold should not exceed the threshold of a non-UEP code plus some threshold offset. For different codeword lengths and different construction algorithms, we search for good threshold offsets for the UEP code design. The choice of the threshold offset is based on the average a posteriori variable node mutual information. Simulations reveal the counter intuitive result that the short-to-medium length codes designed with a suitable threshold offset all outperform the corresponding non-UEP codes in terms of average bit-error rate. The proposed codes are also compared to other UEP-LDPC codes found in the literature.

  3. Contact printed masks for 3D microfabrication in negative resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded into the ......We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded...... into the negative resist to protect buried material from UV-exposure. Unlike direct evaporation-deposition of a mask onto the SU-8, printing avoids high stress and radiation, thus preventing resist wrinkling and prepolymerization. We demonstrate effective monolithic fabrication of soft, 4-μm thick and 100-μm long...

  4. Game theoretic analysis of physical protection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canion, B.; Schneider, E.; Bickel, E.; Hadlock, C.; Morton, D.

    2013-01-01

    The physical protection system (PPS) of a fictional small modular reactor (SMR) facility have been modeled as a platform for a game theoretic approach to security decision analysis. To demonstrate the game theoretic approach, a rational adversary with complete knowledge of the facility has been modeled attempting a sabotage attack. The adversary adjusts his decisions in response to investments made by the defender to enhance the security measures. This can lead to a conservative physical protection system design. Since defender upgrades were limited by a budget, cost benefit analysis may be conducted upon security upgrades. One approach to cost benefit analysis is the efficient frontier, which depicts the reduction in expected consequence per incremental increase in the security budget

  5. What's in a mask? Information masking with forward and backward visual masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2011-10-01

    Three experiments tested how the physical format and information content of forward and backward masks affected the extent of visual pattern masking. This involved using different types of forward and backward masks with target discrimination measured by percentage correct in the first experiment (with a fixed target duration) and by an adaptive threshold procedure in the last two. The rationale behind the manipulation of the content of the masks stemmed from masking theories emphasizing attentional and/or conceptual factors rather than visual ones. Experiment 1 used word masks and showed that masking was reduced (a masking reduction effect) when the forward and backward masks were the same word (although in different case) compared to when the masks were different words. Experiment 2 tested the extent to which a reduction in masking might occur due to the physical similarity between the forward and backward masks by comparing the effect of the same content of the masks in the same versus different case. The result showed a significant reduction in masking for same content masks but no significant effect of case. The last experiment examined whether the reduction in masking effect would be observed with nonword masks--that is, having no high-level representation. No reduction in masking was found from same compared to different nonword masks (Experiment 3). These results support the view that the conscious perception of a rapidly displayed target stimulus is in part determined by high-level perceptual/cognitive factors concerned with masking stimulus grouping and attention.

  6. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  7. Effects of hard mask etch on final topography of advanced phase shift masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortenbach, Olga; Rolff, Haiko; Lajn, Alexander; Baessler, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Continuous shrinking of the semiconductor device dimensions demands steady improvements of the lithographic resolution on wafer level. These requirements challenge the photomask industry to further improve the mask quality in all relevant printing characteristics. In this paper topography of the Phase Shift Masks (PSM) was investigated. Effects of hard mask etch on phase shift uniformity and mask absorber profile were studied. Design of experiments method (DoE) was used for the process optimization, whereas gas composition, bias power of the hard mask main etch and bias power of the over-etch were varied. In addition, influence of the over-etch time was examined at the end of the experiment. Absorber depth uniformity, sidewall angle (SWA), reactive ion etch lag (RIE lag) and through pitch (TP) dependence were analyzed. Measurements were performed by means of Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) using critical dimension (CD) mode with a boot-shaped tip. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) cross-section images were prepared to verify the profile quality. Finally CD analysis was performed to confirm the optimal etch conditions. Significant dependence of the absorber SWA on hard mask (HM) etch conditions was observed revealing an improvement potential for the mask absorber profile. It was found that hard mask etch can leave a depth footprint in the absorber layer. Thus, the etch depth uniformity of hard mask etch is crucial for achieving a uniform phase shift over the active mask area. The optimized hard mask etch process results in significantly improved mask topography without deterioration of tight CD specifications.

  8. Masking Period Patterns & Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-related effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H.; Menezes, Denise C.; Porter, Heather L.; Griz, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Design Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-aged (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions, and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. Results The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. Conclusions This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated non-simultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise. PMID:26230495

  9. System 80+{trademark} standard design incorporates radiation protection lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crom, T.D.; Naugle, C.L. [Duke Engineering & Services, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Turk, R.S. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Many lessons have been learned from the current generation of nuclear plants in the area of radiation protection. The following paper will outline how the lessons learned have been incorporated into the design and operational philosophy of the System 80+{trademark} Standard Design currently under development by ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) with support from Duke Engineering and Services, Inc. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation in the Balance-of-Plant design. The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design is a complete nuclear power plant for national and international markets, designed in direct response to utility needs for the 1990`s, and scheduled for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Design Certification under the new standardization rule (10 CFR Part 52). System 80+{trademark} is a natural extension of System 80{sup R} technology, an evolutionary change based on proven Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde in Arizona and under construction at Yonggwang in the Republic of Korea. The System 80+{trademark} Containment and much of the Balance of Plant design is based upon Duke Power Company`s Cherokee Plant, which was partially constructed in the late 1970`s, but, was later canceled (due to rapid declined in electrical load growth). The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design meets the requirements given in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Requirements Document. One of these requirements is to limit the occupational exposure to 100 person-rem/yr. This paper illustrates how this goal can be achieved through the incorporation of lessons learned, innovative design, and the implementation of a common sense approach to operation and maintenances practices.

  10. Reactor protection system design using application specific integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Bryan, W.L.; Kisner, R.A.; Wilson, T.L. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Implementing reactor protection systems (RPS) or other engineering safeguard systems with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) offers significant advantages over conventional analog or software based RPSs. Conventional analog RPSs suffer from setpoints drifts and large numbers of discrete analog electronics, hardware logic, and relays which reduce reliability because of the large number of potential failures of components or interconnections. To resolve problems associated with conventional discrete RPSs and proposed software based RPS systems, a hybrid analog and digital RPS system implemented with custom ASICs is proposed. The actual design of the ASIC RPS resembles a software based RPS but the programmable software portion of each channel is implemented in a fixed digital logic design including any input variable computations. Set point drifts are zero as in proposed software systems, but the verification and validation of the computations is made easier since the computational logic an be exhaustively tested. The functionality is assured fixed because there can be no future changes to the ASIC without redesign and fabrication. Subtle error conditions caused by out of order evaluation or time dependent evaluation of system variables against protection criteria are eliminated by implementing all evaluation computations in parallel for simultaneous results. On- chip redundancy within each RPS channel and continuous self-testing of all channels provided enhanced assurance that a particular channel is available and faults are identified as soon as possible for corrective actions. The use of highly integrated ASICs to implement channel electronics rather than the use of discrete electronics greatly reduces the total number of components and interconnections in the RPS to further increase system reliability. A prototype ASIC RPS channel design and the design environment used for ASIC RPS systems design is discussed

  11. Evaluation of protection factor of respiratory protective equipment using indigenously developed protection factor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkulkar, D.S.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Assigned protection factor (APF) is an indicator representing effectiveness of a respirator and it provides workplace level of respiratory protection for workers in providing protection against exposure to airborne contaminants Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) specifies 'Respirator APF' and 'Maximum Use Concentration' (MUC - a term derived using APF) shall be an integral part of Respirator Protection Standard. MUC establishes the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant in which a respirator with a given APF may be used. The use of particulate respirators such as half face mask, full face mask and powered air purifying respirators is essential for radioactive jobs in nuclear facilities to prevent any intake of radionuclide. With this impetus, the Protection Factor Test Facility (PFTF) for testing and evaluation of respiratory protective equipment meeting relevant applicable standards was designed, fabricated and installed in Respiratory Protective Equipment Laboratory of Health Physics Division

  12. US EPA Regional Masks Web Service, US, 2015, US EPA, SEGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following map layers: masks and labels for EPA regions 1 through 10. Mask layers are drawn at all scales. Label layers draw at scales...

  13. Examples of radiation protection optimization in design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Palacios, E.; Curti, A.; Agatiello, O.; Majchrzak, J.

    1982-01-01

    The practical use of the requirement of optimization of radiological protection is presented. Application examples for designing ventilation systems and for maintenance operations of nuclear plants are given. A method is developed for the application of the optimization requirement to the design of ventilation systems in contaminated environments. Representative values of the main parameters are presented and their relevant features are discussed. A practical example shows actual results for a radioisotope production plant. Causes influencing collective doses incurred by the workers during maintenance operations are analyzed. A method is presented for the optimization of both the level of training of personnel and the apportionment of individual doses. As an example, this methodology is applied to the maintenance operations in a nuclear power plant. (author)

  14. Preliminary design of the thermal protection system for solar probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirling, R. B., Jr.; Loomis, W. C.; Heightland, C. N.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary design of the thermal protection system for the NASA Solar Probe spacecraft is presented. As presently conceived, the spacecraft will be launched by the Space Shuttle on a Jovian swing-by trajectory and at perihelion approach to three solar radii of the surface of the Earth's sun. The system design satisfies maximum envelope, structural integrity, equipotential, and mass loss/contamination requirements by employing lightweight carbon-carbon emissive shields. The primary shield is a thin shell, 15.5-deg half-angle cone which absorbs direct solar flux at up to 10-deg off-nadir spacecraft pointing angles. Secondary shields of sandwich construction and low thickness-direction thermal conductivity are used to reduce the primary shield infrared radiation to the spacecraft payload.

  15. Office noise: Can headphones and masking sound attenuate distraction by background speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahncke, Helena; Björkeholm, Patrik; Marsh, John E; Odelius, Johan; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2016-11-22

    Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction. The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound. Quiet was deployed as a baseline condition. Thirty students participated in an experiment employing a repeated measures design. Performance (serial short-term memory) was impaired by background speech (1 voice), but this impairment was attenuated when the speech was masked - and in particular when it was masked by nature sound. Furthermore, perceived workload was lowest in the quiet condition and significantly higher in all other sound conditions. Notably, the headphones tested as a sound-attenuating device (i.e. without masking) did not protect against the effects of background speech on performance and subjective work load. Nature sound was the only masking condition that worked as a protector of performance, at least in the context of the serial recall task. However, despite the attenuation of distraction by nature sound, perceived workload was still high - suggesting that it is difficult to find a masker that is both effective and perceived as satisfactory.

  16. Failsafe design criteria for computer based reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The design criteria proposed are an extrapolation of the failsafe mode of operation used in the UK in hardwired reactor protection systems. This is achieved by making the operational condition of the reactor dependent upon an energetic state of the protection system components. An important objective of the proposed design criteria is to eliminate, or at least to minimize, the need for a failure-mode-and-effect-analysis (FMEA) of the computer software. This demands some well defined but simple constraints upon the way in which data are stored in the computers, but the objective is achieved almost entirely by hardware properties of the system. The first of these is the systematic use of hardwired test inputs which cause transient excursions into the tripped state in a uniquely ordered but easily recognizable sequence. The second is the use of hardwired pattern recognition logic which generates a dynamic healthy stimulus for the shutdown actuators only in response to the unique sequence formed by the hardwired input signal pattern. It therefore detects abnormal states of any of the system inputs, software errors, wiring errors and hardware failures. This hardwired logic is conceptually simple, failsafe, and is amenable to simple FMEA. (U.K.)

  17. Masked Photocathode for Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2010-01-01

    In this research note, we propose a scheme to insert a photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto the electrode, a masked electrode with small hole is used to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material very simple by rotating the photocathode behind the mask into the hole. This will significantly increase the usage lifetime of a photocathode. Furthermore, this also helps reduce the dark current or secondary electron emission from the photocathode. The hole on the mask also provides a transverse cut-off to the Gaussian laser profile which can be beneficial from the beam dynamics point of view.

  18. Design options for improving protective gloves for industrial assembly work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Haslegrave, Christine M; Stedmon, Alex W

    2014-07-01

    The study investigated the effects of wearing two new designs of cotton glove on several hand performance capabilities and compared them against the effects of barehanded, single-layered and double cotton glove conditions when working with hand tools (screwdriver and pliers). The new glove designs were based on the findings of subjective hand discomfort assessments for this type of work and aimed to match the glove thickness to the localised pressure and sensitivity in different areas of the hand as well as to provide adequate dexterity for fine manipulative tasks. The results showed that the first prototype glove and the barehanded condition were comparable and provided better dexterity and higher handgrip strength than double thickness gloves. The results support the hypothesis that selective thickness in different areas of the hand could be applied by glove manufacturers to improve the glove design, so that it can protect the hands from the environment and at the same time allow optimal hand performance capabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Masks: The Artist in Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Whether masks are made from cardboard, papier-mache, metal, wood, leather, fabric, clay or any combination of these materials, they bring out the artist in people. Young children like to wear masks when they play to pretend they were another person or animal. Masks let them fantasize and be creative. The author's students made masks representing…

  20. Designing trails for subaquatic tourism in Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Piñeiro-Corbeira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the range of touristic activities that take place in the sea has greatly expanded in recent years, the marine realm continues to be one of the least known to the public. Scuba diving and snorkeling are popular activities in the marine environment. Among its benefits, snorkeling is simple, cheap, and accessible to a wide range of population. In this regard, it has considerable potential as a tool for environmental education as it allows a firsthand observation of the subaquatic seascape as well as a direct interaction with marine wildlife. These attributes, together with its low ecological impact, make snorkeling an activity particularly suitable for marine protected areas. Yet, its implementation in marine protected areas requires new tools for an appropriate use. Here, we show an innovative procedure for assessing the underwater seascape that should help in the designation of touristic subaquatic trails analogous to those commonly used in terrestrial landscapes. We elaborated a system of 18 “Perceptible Seascape Elements”, grouped into 9 Concepts, that leads to a “Potential Observation Index” summarizing the seabed landscape qualities that can be observed while snorkeling. Tests of this approach in a National Park (Parque Nacional Marítimo-Terrestre de las Islas Atlánticas de Galicia led to the design and ranking of 6 underwater trails. On the other hand, we used standardized questionnaires to determine the attributes of park’s visitors, their expectative, their perception of the marine environment, and previous skills in snorkeling. Many visitors were mostly unaware of the qualities of the marine environment of the National Park but we found considerable interest in new alternatives to enjoy the marine environment such as snorkeling. Our procedure and results could help to add snorkeling to the set of environmental education strategies already used in the Park.

  1. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  2. Individuals and Their Masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Altuna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay works on the opposition between face and mask, where ‘face’ is understood as that which makes every human being singular, and makes visible her or his unique worth, while ‘mask’ is understood as whatever hides that singularity, and refers to a category, stereotype or cliché. The etymological history that relates face and mask to the concept of person, and the history of modern portrait painting, which alternates representations of face and mask, both lead to a discussion with authors who diagnose a contemporary “defeat of the face” as a result of the crisis of humanism and of ethical individualism, which give meaning and dignity to that face.

  3. Model-based virtual VSB mask writer verification for efficient mask error checking and optimization prior to MDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Robert C.; Standiford, Keith; Lukanc, Todd; Ning, Guo Xiang; Verma, Piyush; Batarseh, Fadi; Chua, Gek Soon; Fujimura, Akira; Pang, Linyong

    2014-10-01

    A methodology is described wherein a calibrated model-based `Virtual' Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) mask writer process simulator is used to accurately verify complex Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) mask designs prior to Mask Data Preparation (MDP) and mask fabrication. This type of verification addresses physical effects which occur in mask writing that may impact lithographic printing fidelity and variability. The work described here is motivated by requirements for extreme accuracy and control of variations for today's most demanding IC products. These extreme demands necessitate careful and detailed analysis of all potential sources of uncompensated error or variation and extreme control of these at each stage of the integrated OPC/ MDP/ Mask/ silicon lithography flow. The important potential sources of variation we focus on here originate on the basis of VSB mask writer physics and other errors inherent in the mask writing process. The deposited electron beam dose distribution may be examined in a manner similar to optical lithography aerial image analysis and image edge log-slope analysis. This approach enables one to catch, grade, and mitigate problems early and thus reduce the likelihood for costly long-loop iterations between OPC, MDP, and wafer fabrication flows. It moreover describes how to detect regions of a layout or mask where hotspots may occur or where the robustness to intrinsic variations may be improved by modification to the OPC, choice of mask technology, or by judicious design of VSB shots and dose assignment.

  4. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially Protected...

  5. Structure and thermal analysis of the water cooling mask at NSRL front end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Feiyun; Xu Chaoyin; Wang Qiuping; Wang Naxiu

    2003-01-01

    A water cooling mask is an important part of the front end, usually used for absorbing high power density synchrotron radiation to protect the apparatus from being destroyed by heat load. This paper presents the structure of the water cooling mask and the thermal analysis results of the mask block at NSRL using Program ANSYS5.5

  6. 37 CFR 211.2 - Recordation of documents pertaining to mask works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pertaining to mask works. 211.2 Section 211.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.2 Recordation of documents pertaining to mask works. The conditions prescribed in § 201.4 of this chapter for recordation of transfers...

  7. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.75 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be...

  8. 37 CFR 211.6 - Methods of affixation and placement of mask work notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... placement of mask work notice. 211.6 Section 211.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.6 Methods of affixation and placement of mask work notice. (a) General. (1) This section specifies methods of affixation and placement...

  9. Developmental framework to validate future designs of ballistic neck protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, J; Midwinter, M J; Pope, D; Porter, K; Hepper, A E; Clasper, J

    2013-01-01

    The number of neck injuries has increased during the war in Afghanistan, and they have become an appreciable source of mortality and long-term morbidity for UK servicemen. A three-dimensional numerical model of the neck is necessary to allow simulation of penetrating injury from explosive fragments so that the design of body armour can be optimal, and a framework is required to validate and describe the individual components of this program. An interdisciplinary consensus group consisting of military maxillofacial surgeons, and biomedical, physical, and material scientists was convened to generate the components of the framework, and as a result it incorporates the following components: analysis of deaths and long-term morbidity, assessment of critical cervical structures for incorporation into the model, characterisation of explosive fragments, evaluation of the material of which the body armour is made, and mapping of the entry sites of fragments. The resulting numerical model will simulate the wound tract produced by fragments of differing masses and velocities, and illustrate the effects of temporary cavities on cervical neurovascular structures. Using this framework, a new shirt to be worn under body armour that incorporates ballistic cervical protection has been developed for use in Afghanistan. New designs of the collar validated by human factors and assessment of coverage are currently being incorporated into early versions of the numerical model. The aim of this paper is to describe this developmental framework and provide an update on the current progress of its individual components. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the OxyMask and Venturi Mask in the Delivery of Supplemental Oxygen: Pilot Study in Oxygen-Dependent Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Beecroft, Jaime M; Hanly, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The OxyMask (Southmedic Inc, Canada) is a new face mask for oxygen delivery that uses a small ‘diffuser’ to concentrate and direct oxygen toward the mouth and nose. The authors hypothesized that this unique design would enable the OxyMask to deliver oxygen more efficiently than a Venturi mask (Hudson RCI, USA) in patients with chronic hypoxemia.METHODS: Oxygen-dependent patients with chronic, stable respiratory disease were recruited to compare the OxyMask and Venturi mask in a ra...

  11. Effect of mask dead space and occlusion of mask holes on delivery of nebulized albuterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinski, Ariel

    2014-08-01

    Infants and children with respiratory conditions are often prescribed bronchodilators. Face masks are used to facilitate the administration of nebulized therapy in patients unable to use a mouthpiece. Masks incorporate holes into their design, and their occlusion during aerosol delivery has been a common practice. Masks are available in different sizes and different dead volumes. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different degrees of occlusion of the mask holes and different mask dead space on the amount of nebulized albuterol available at the mouth opening in a model of a spontaneously breathing child. A breathing simulator mimicking infant (tidal volume [VT] = 50 mL, breathing frequency = 30 breaths/min, inspiratory-expiratory ratio [I:E] = 1:3), child (VT = 155 mL, breathing frequency = 25 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2), and adult (VT = 500 mL, breathing frequency = 15 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2) breathing patterns was connected to a collection filter hidden behind a face plate. A pediatric size mask and an adult size mask connected to a continuous output jet nebulizer were sealed to the face plate. Three nebulizers were loaded with albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/3 mL) and operated with 6 L/min compressed air for 5 min. Experiments were repeated with different degrees of occlusion (0%, 50%, and 90%). Albuterol was extracted from the filter and measured with a spectrophotometer at 276 nm. Occlusion of the holes in the large mask did not increase the amount of albuterol in any of the breathing patterns. The amount of albuterol captured at the mouth opening did not change when the small mask was switched to the large mask, except with the breathing pattern of a child, and when the holes in the mask were 50% occluded (P = .02). Neither decreasing the dead space of the mask nor occluding the mask holes increased the amount of nebulized albuterol captured at the mouth opening.

  12. Robust source and mask optimization compensating for mask topography effects in computational lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lam, Edmund Y

    2014-04-21

    Mask topography effects need to be taken into consideration for a more accurate solution of source mask optimization (SMO) in advanced optical lithography. However, rigorous 3D mask models generally involve intensive computation and conventional SMO fails to manipulate the mask-induced undesired phase errors that degrade the usable depth of focus (uDOF) and process yield. In this work, an optimization approach incorporating pupil wavefront aberrations into SMO procedure is developed as an alternative to maximize the uDOF. We first design the pupil wavefront function by adding primary and secondary spherical aberrations through the coefficients of the Zernike polynomials, and then apply the conjugate gradient method to achieve an optimal source-mask pair under the condition of aberrated pupil. We also use a statistical model to determine the Zernike coefficients for the phase control and adjustment. Rigorous simulations of thick masks show that this approach provides compensation for mask topography effects by improving the pattern fidelity and increasing uDOF.

  13. Simulation-based MDP verification for leading-edge masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo; Syrel, Oleg; Pomerantsev, Michael; Hagiwara, Kazuyuki; Pearman, Ryan; Pang, Leo; Fujimara, Aki

    2017-07-01

    For IC design starts below the 20nm technology node, the assist features on photomasks shrink well below 60nm and the printed patterns of those features on masks written by VSB eBeam writers start to show a large deviation from the mask designs. Traditional geometry-based fracturing starts to show large errors for those small features. As a result, other mask data preparation (MDP) methods have become available and adopted, such as rule-based Mask Process Correction (MPC), model-based MPC and eventually model-based MDP. The new MDP methods may place shot edges slightly differently from target to compensate for mask process effects, so that the final patterns on a mask are much closer to the design (which can be viewed as the ideal mask), especially for those assist features. Such an alteration generally produces better masks that are closer to the intended mask design. Traditional XOR-based MDP verification cannot detect problems caused by eBeam effects. Much like model-based OPC verification which became a necessity for OPC a decade ago, we see the same trend in MDP today. Simulation-based MDP verification solution requires a GPU-accelerated computational geometry engine with simulation capabilities. To have a meaningful simulation-based mask check, a good mask process model is needed. The TrueModel® system is a field tested physical mask model developed by D2S. The GPU-accelerated D2S Computational Design Platform (CDP) is used to run simulation-based mask check, as well as model-based MDP. In addition to simulation-based checks such as mask EPE or dose margin, geometry-based rules are also available to detect quality issues such as slivers or CD splits. Dose margin related hotspots can also be detected by setting a correct detection threshold. In this paper, we will demonstrate GPU-acceleration for geometry processing, and give examples of mask check results and performance data. GPU-acceleration is necessary to make simulation-based mask MDP verification

  14. Competing for Consciousness: Prolonged Mask Exposure Reduces Object Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate…

  15. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sande, Marianne; Teunis, Peter; Sabel, Rob

    2008-07-09

    Governments are preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. Therefore they need data to assess the possible impact of interventions. Face-masks worn by the general population could be an accessible and affordable intervention, if effective when worn under routine circumstances. We assessed transmission reduction potential provided by personal respirators, surgical masks and home-made masks when worn during a variety of activities by healthy volunteers and a simulated patient. All types of masks reduced aerosol exposure, relatively stable over time, unaffected by duration of wear or type of activity, but with a high degree of individual variation. Personal respirators were more efficient than surgical masks, which were more efficient than home-made masks. Regardless of mask type, children were less well protected. Outward protection (mask wearing by a mechanical head) was less effective than inward protection (mask wearing by healthy volunteers). Any type of general mask use is likely to decrease viral exposure and infection risk on a population level, in spite of imperfect fit and imperfect adherence, personal respirators providing most protection. Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission.

  16. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    incentives to clear natural forests through CDM crediting for afforestation and reforestation, we recommend for the first commitment period that policymakers establish an early base year, such as 1990, such that lands cleared after that year would be ineligible for crediting. We further recommend an exception to this rule for CDM projects that are explicitly designed to promote natural forest restoration and that pass rigorous environmental impact review. Restoration efforts are typically most effective on lands that are adjacent to standing forests and hence likely to have been recently cleared. Thus, we recommend for these projects establishing a more recent base year, such as 2000. For the second and subsequent commitment periods, we recommend that climate policymakers act to restrain inter-annex leakage and its impacts by ensuring that crediting for forest management in industrialized countries is informed by modelling efforts to anticipate the scale of leakage associated with different Annex I 'Land use, land-use change and forestry' policy options, and coupled with effective measures to protect natural forests in developing countries. The latter should include expanding the options permitted under the CDM to carbon crediting for projects that protect threatened forests from deforestation and forest degradation. Ultimately, carbon market incentives for forest clearing can be reduced and incentives for forest conservation most effectively strengthened by fully capturing carbon emissions associated with deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries under a future emissions cap. Finally, we note that these recommendations have broader relevance to any forest-based measures to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions developed outside of the specific context of the Kyoto Protocol.

  17. Joint optimization of source, mask, and pupil in optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2014-03-01

    Mask topography effects need to be taken into consideration for more advanced resolution enhancement techniques in optical lithography. However, rigorous 3D mask model achieves high accuracy at a large computational cost. This work develops a combined source, mask and pupil optimization (SMPO) approach by taking advantage of the fact that pupil phase manipulation is capable of partially compensating for mask topography effects. We first design the pupil wavefront function by incorporating primary and secondary spherical aberration through the coefficients of the Zernike polynomials, and achieve optimal source-mask pair under the condition of aberrated pupil. Evaluations against conventional source mask optimization (SMO) without incorporating pupil aberrations show that SMPO provides improved performance in terms of pattern fidelity and process window sizes.

  18. Tornado Protection: Selecting and Designing Safe Areas in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, James J.

    Tornadoes and extreme winds cause heavy loss of life and property damage throughout the United States. Most buildings offer significant protection from this danger, and building administrators should know the areas where this protection is available. This booklet presents a review of three schools, all of which were struck by tornadoes on April 3,…

  19. Design of an adaptive overcurrent protection scheme for microgrids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microgrid is a new phenomenon regarded to Distributed Generation (DG) penetration in the existing distribution systems. In this paper adaptive over current (OC) protection technique for a distribution system with DG penetration is proposed. This scheme takes into account general protection requirements, impacts of DG on ...

  20. Mechanical and thermal modeling of the SCALPEL mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C. J.; Semke, W. H.; Dicks, G. A.; Engelstad, R. L.; Lovell, E. G.; Liddle, J. A.; Novembre, A. E.

    1999-01-01

    Scattering with angular limitation projection electron-beam lithography (SCALPEL) is being developed by Lucent Technologies for sub-130 nm lithography. The mask fabrication and exposure processes produce mask distortions that result in pattern placement errors. In order to understand these distortions, and determine how to reduce them to levels consistent with the error budget, structural and heat transfer finite element models have been generated to simulate the mechanical and thermal response of the mask. In addition, sensitivity studies of the distortions due to key design parameters that may be used to refine the SCALPEL mask configuration have been conducted. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  1. Comparison of the OxyMask and Venturi Mask in the Delivery of Supplemental Oxygen: Pilot Study in Oxygen-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime M Beecroft

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The OxyMask (Southmedic Inc, Canada is a new face mask for oxygen delivery that uses a small ‘diffuser’ to concentrate and direct oxygen toward the mouth and nose. The authors hypothesized that this unique design would enable the OxyMask to deliver oxygen more efficiently than a Venturi mask (Hudson RCI, USA in patients with chronic hypoxemia.

  2. Energy enhancer for mask based laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    A device capable of drastically improving the energy efficiency of present mask based laser materials processing systems is presented. Good accordance between experiments and simulations for a TEA-CO2 laser system designed for laser marking has been demonstrated. The energy efficiency may...... be improved with a factor of 2 - 4 for typical mask transmittances between 10 - 40%....

  3. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  4. Mask_explorer: A tool for exploring brain masks in fMRI group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdoš, Martin; Mikl, Michal; Mareček, Radek

    2016-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of the human brain are appearing in increasing numbers, providing interesting information about this complex system. Unique information about healthy and diseased brains is inferred using many types of experiments and analyses. In order to obtain reliable information, it is necessary to conduct consistent experiments with large samples of subjects and to involve statistical methods to confirm or reject any tested hypotheses. Group analysis is performed for all voxels within a group mask, i.e. a common space where all of the involved subjects contribute information. To our knowledge, a user-friendly interface with the ability to visualize subject-specific details in a common analysis space did not yet exist. The purpose of our work is to develop and present such interface. Several pitfalls have to be avoided while preparing fMRI data for group analysis. One such pitfall is spurious non-detection, caused by inferring conclusions in the volume of a group mask that has been corrupted due to a preprocessing failure. We describe a MATLAB toolbox, called the mask_explorer, designed for prevention of this pitfall. The mask_explorer uses a graphical user interface, enables a user-friendly exploration of subject masks and is freely available. It is able to compute subject masks from raw data and create lists of subjects with potentially problematic data. It runs under MATLAB with the widely used SPM toolbox. Moreover, we present several practical examples where the mask_explorer is usefully applied. The mask_explorer is designed to quickly control the quality of the group fMRI analysis volume and to identify specific failures related to preprocessing steps and acquisition. It helps researchers detect subjects with potentially problematic data and consequently enables inspection of the data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. NSTX-U Digital Coil Protection System Software Detailed Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) currently uses a collection of analog signal processing solutions for coil protection. Part of the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) entails replacing these analog systems with a software solution running on a conventional computing platform. The new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) will replace the old systems entirely, while also providing an extensible framework that allows adding new functionality as desired.

  6. Occupational radiation protection organisation, facility and design safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    There is no absolute standard or excellence in radiation protection. The concept of excellence implies a continuous search for improvement in performance and full utilization of available resources. Radiation protection requires the commitment of all plant staff, including higher levels of executive management. The improvements in performance must therefore be based primarily on management rather than technical factors and must be aimed at more effective use of investments already made in plant facilities

  7. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  8. Development of movable mask system to cope with high beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Shibata, K.; Sanami, T.; Kageyama, T.; Takeuchi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The KEK B factory (KEKB), a high current electron-positron collider, has a movable mask (or collimator) system to reduce the background noise in the BELLE detector coming from spent particles. The early movable masks, however, had severe problems of heating, arcing, and vacuum leaks over the stored beam current of several hundred mA. The cause is intense trapped higher order modes (HOMs) excited at the mask head, where the cross section of the beam chamber changed drastically. The mask head, made of copper-tungsten alloy or pure copper, was frequently damaged by hitting of the high energy beam at the same time. Since the problems of the mask were revealed, several kinds of improved masks have been designed employing rf technologies in dealing with the HOM and installed to the ring step by step. Much progress has come from adopting a trapped-mode free structure, where the mask was a bent chamber itself. Recently the further improved mask with a reduced HOM design or HOM dampers was developed to suppress the heating of vacuum components near the mask due to the HOM traveling from the mask. To avoid damage to the mask head, on the other hand, a titanium mask head was tried. The latest masks are working as expected now at the stored beam current of 1.5 A. Presented are the problems and experiences on the movable mask system for the KEKB, which are characteristic of and common in a high intensity accelerator

  9. Counteracting Power Analysis Attacks by Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Elisabeth; Mangard, Stefan

    The publication of power analysis attacks [12] has triggered a lot of research activities. On the one hand these activities have been dedicated toward the development of secure and efficient countermeasures. On the other hand also new and improved attacks have been developed. In fact, there has been a continuous arms race between designers of countermeasures and attackers. This chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-the art in the arms race in the context of a countermeasure called masking. Masking is a popular countermeasure that has been extensively discussed in the scientific community. Numerous articles have been published that explain different types of masking and that analyze weaknesses of this countermeasure.

  10. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-08-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.

  11. 76 FR 8917 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Automatic Speed Protection for Design Dive Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... high speed protection system. These proposed special conditions contain the additional safety standards... Design Features The GVI is equipped with a high speed protection system that limits nose down pilot... incorporation of a high speed protection system in the GVI flight control laws. The GVI is equipped with a high...

  12. Aperture Mask for Unambiguous Parity Determination in Long Wavelength Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Brent

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a new parity pupil mask design that allows users to unambiguously determine the image space coordinate system of all the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) science instruments by using two out-of-focus images. This is an improvement over existing mask designs that could not completely eliminate the coordinate system parity ambiguity at a wavelength of 5.6 microns. To mitigate the problem of how the presence of diffraction artifacts can obscure the pupil mask detail, this innovation has been created with specifically designed edge features so that the image space coordinate system parity can be determined in the presence of diffraction, even at long wavelengths.

  13. Design and implementation based on the classification protection vulnerability scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Lu Zhigang; Liu Baoxu

    2010-01-01

    With the application and spread of the classification protection, Network Security Vulnerability Scanning should consider the efficiency and the function expansion. It proposes a kind of a system vulnerability from classification protection, and elaborates the design and implementation of a vulnerability scanning system based on vulnerability classification plug-in technology and oriented classification protection. According to the experiment, the application of classification protection has good adaptability and salability with the system, and it also approves the efficiency of scanning. (authors)

  14. Analyzing nature's protective design: The glyptodont body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Anton; Broeckhoven, Chris; Yadroitsev, Igor; Yadroitsava, Ina; le Roux, Stephan Gerhard

    2018-06-01

    Many animal species evolved some form of body armor, such as scales of fish and bony plates or osteoderms of reptiles. Although a protective function is often taken for granted, recent studies show that body armor might comprise multiple functionalities and is shaped by trade-offs among these functionalities. Hence, despite the fact that natural body armor might serve as bio-inspiration for the development of artificial protective materials, focussing on model systems in which body armor serves a solely protective function might be pivotal. In this study, we investigate the osteoderms of Glyptotherium arizonae, an extinct armadillo-like mammal in which body armor evolved as protection against predators and/or tail club blows of conspecifics. By using a combination of micro-computed tomography, reverse-engineering, stress simulations and mechanical testing of 3D printed models, we show that the combination of dense compact layers and porous lattice core might provide an optimized combination of strength and high energy absorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of a Haptic Feedback System for Flight Envelope Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baelen, D.; Ellerbroek, J.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2018-01-01

    Current Airbus aircraft use a fly-by-wire control device: a passive spring-damper system which generates, without any force feedback, an electrical signal to the flight control computer. Additionally, a hard flight envelope protection system is used which can limit the inputs of the pilot when

  16. X-ray face mask and bib device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forshee, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray protective face mask is made of a relatively transparent lead containing radiation shielding plastics material, and is removably attachable to a chest or bib shield for application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of a technician or a patient. Alternatively, the face mask is formed of a lens portion supported in a plastics frame, upon the lower portion of which is removably attached a bib shield that in turn is removably attachable to an apron. The frame of the face mask, bib shield and apron are preferably lined with lead sheets to protect the neck, face, chest and body of the technician from the random secondary or scatter x-ray beams. The face mask and bib shield can be formed of a moulded plastics material as a unitary device, the lens portion being attached to the frame therefor. (author)

  17. Designing cathodic protection systems for marine structures and vehicles. ASTM special technical publication 1370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, H.P. [ed.

    1999-07-01

    Cathodic protection is an important method of protecting structures and ships from the corrosive effects of seawater. Poor designs can be far more costly to implement than optimal designs, Improper design can cause overprotection, with resulting paint blistering and accelerated corrosion of some alloys, underprotection, with resultant structure corrosion, or stray current corrosion of nearby structures. The first ASTM symposium specifically aimed at cathodic protection in seawater was intended to compile all the criteria and philosophy for designing both sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems for structures and vehicles in seawater. The papers which are included in this STP are significant in that they summarize the major seawater cathodic protection system design philosophies. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  18. RCC-F: Design and construction rules for PWR fire protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The RCC-F code defines the rules for designing, building and installing the fire protection systems used to manage the nuclear hazards inherent in the outbreak of a fire inside the facility and thereby control the fundamental nuclear functions. The code provides fire protection recommendations in terms of: the industrial risk (loss of assets and/or operation), personnel safety, the environment. The code is divided into five main sections: generalities, design safety principles, fire protection design bases, construction provisions, rules for installing the fire protection components and equipment. The RCC-F code is available as an ETC-F version specifically for EPR projects (European pressurized reactor). Contents of the 2013 edition of the ETC-F code: Volume A - Generalities: Structure of ETC-F general points, documentation (in progress), chapter (provision) quality assurance; Volume B - Design safety principles: design nuclear safety principles; Volume C - Fire protection design bases: fire protection design bases; Volume D - Construction provisions: construction provisions; Volume E - Installation rules for fire protection: rules for installing the fire protection, components and equipment

  19. Radiation protection. Clothing for protection against radioactive contamination. Design, selection, testing and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The present Standard gives the characteristics of clothing protecting the wearer against radioactive contamination brought about by contact with liquid or solid substances or by atmospheric pollutants, such as solid particles, mist, gases or vapours. The Standard applies to two types of clothing: firstly, ventilated-pressurized garments; secondly, unventilated-unpressurized garments. A test method according to which any new type of garment can be assigned a protection factor that makes it easier for the user to make a choice is described. The report also gives methods for measuring leak-tightness and air supply flow rates of ventilated-pressurized garments. For guidance purposes only, recommendations for choosing protective clothing are given. 5 figs, 2 tabs [fr

  20. Protection of citizens' rights by appropriate design of legal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemel, W.

    1982-01-01

    The author regards the Muehlheim-Kaerlich ruling by the Federal Constitutional Court of December 12, 1979 as a ruling which stipulates the protection of basic rights as a main function of the citizen participation. The essential importance of this ruling is specified by the statement that the shaping of procedures - of courts and authorities - has a constitutional importance, that the shaping of procedures is an essential element of an effective guarantee of basic rights. He expressly extends the above mentioned jurisdiction of the Federal Constitutional Court beyond the influence of the substantive basic rights on the procedural law to the administrative procedural law. The procedural basic right of article 19, section 4 of the constitution is supplemented by the claim for an effective legal protection which directly results from the substantive basic right of article 14, section 1, paragraph 1 of the constitution. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Overlay improvement by exposure map based mask registration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Chen, Ming; Lu, Max; Li, Gordon; Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of semiconductor electronic devices, the design rules of advanced semiconductor devices shrink dramatically. [1] One of the main challenges of lithography step is the layer-to-layer overlay control. Furthermore, DPT (Double Patterning Technology) has been adapted for the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, corresponding overlay budget becomes even tighter. [2][3] After the in-die mask registration (pattern placement) measurement is introduced, with the model analysis of a KLA SOV (sources of variation) tool, it's observed that registration difference between masks is a significant error source of wafer layer-to-layer overlay at 28nm process. [4][5] Mask registration optimization would highly improve wafer overlay performance accordingly. It was reported that a laser based registration control (RegC) process could be applied after the pattern generation or after pellicle mounting and allowed fine tuning of the mask registration. [6] In this paper we propose a novel method of mask registration correction, which can be applied before mask writing based on mask exposure map, considering the factors of mask chip layout, writing sequence, and pattern density distribution. Our experiment data show if pattern density on the mask keeps at a low level, in-die mask registration residue error in 3sigma could be always under 5nm whatever blank type and related writer POSCOR (position correction) file was applied; it proves random error induced by material or equipment would occupy relatively fixed error budget as an error source of mask registration. On the real production, comparing the mask registration difference through critical production layers, it could be revealed that registration residue error of line space layers with higher pattern density is always much larger than the one of contact hole layers with lower pattern density. Additionally, the mask registration difference between layers with similar pattern density

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying facility fire protection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) fire protection system (FPS). The FPS provides fire detection, suppression, and loss limitation for the CVDF structure, personnel, and in-process spent nuclear fuel. The system provides, along with supporting interfacing systems, detection, alarm, and activation instrumentation and controls, distributive piping system, isolation valves, and materials and controls to limit combustibles and the associated fire loadings

  3. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  4. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  5. APPLIED OF IMPRESSED CURRENT CATHODIC PROTECTION DESIGN FOR FUEL PIPELINE NETWORK AT NAVAL BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    k. Susilo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Navy (TNI AL is the main component for Maritime Security and Defence. Because of that, TNI AL needs Indonesian Warship (KRI to covered Maritime area. The main requirement from KRI is fulfilled by demand. To pock of fuel demand from KRI at Naval Base, it needs a new pipeline of fuel distribution network system. The pipeline network system used for maximum lifetime must be protected from corrosion. Basically, there are five methods of corrosion control such as change to a more suitable material, modification to the environment, use of protective coating, design modification to the system or component, and the application of cathodic or anodic protection. Cathodic protection for pipeline available in two kinds, namely Sacrifice Anode and Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP. This paper makes analysis from design of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection and total current requirement in the method. This paper showed both experimental from speciment test and theoritical calculation. The result showed that design of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection on fuel distribution pipeline network system requires voltage 33,759 V(DC, protection current 6,6035 A(DC by theoritical calculation and 6,544 A(DC from pipeline specimen test, with 0,25 mpy for corrosion rate. Transformer Rectifier design needs requirements 45 V with 10 A for current. This research result can be made as literature and standardization for Indonesian Navy in designing the Impressed Current Cathodic Protection for fuel distribution pipeline network system.

  6. Summary report of workshop on sabotage protection in nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    During the Summer of 1976, Sandia Laboratories hosted a workshop on Sabotage Protection in Nuclear Power Plant Design in which 11 consultants from the nuclear power industry participated. Each consultant is highly qualified and experienced in nuclear power plant design. The objective of the workshop was to identify practicable design measures which could be employed in future nuclear power plants to provide increased protection against sabotage. The report summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the workshop

  7. Akathisia masked by hypokinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, K; Lauerma, H; Holi, M M; Honkonen, T; Rimon, R

    2000-07-01

    Here, we will discuss the concept of subjective akathisia and present a patient case. Our patient was suffering from neuroleptic-induced hypokinesia and akathisia at the same time. The typical motor manifestations of akathisia were masked by hypokinesia, which made the diagnosis difficult. However, the subjective symptoms of akathisia were evident and distressing. Although not observable to bare eye, the pathognomonic pattern of motor activity detected in akathisia was demonstrated by actometric recording. Changing the conventional neuroleptic to an atypical one brought relief to the subjective symptoms of akathisia and hypokinesia, while the motor activity was clearly diminished in actometric recording. Actometric recording may be useful in diagnosing akathisia masked by hypokinesia, but the typical subjective symptoms of akathisia should not be ignored, even when actometry is not available to demonstrate the missing motor component of akathisia. Not only akathisia defined by DSM-IV but also subjective akathisia should be adequately treated to relieve the subjective distress, and to diminish the unfavorable effects on psychotic symptoms, behavior, and drug compliance.

  8. Designing an Innovative Composite Armor System for Affordable Ballistic Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Zheng-Dong; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yushun; Rose, Douglas; Socks, Adria; Ostberg, Donald

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper focuses on the frontal armor plate and back plate design problems with demonstration examples, including both results of the virtual prototyping and ballistic testing for proof-of-concept...

  9. Bridge Failure Due to Inadequate Design of Bed Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yogita; Kaur, Suneet; Dindorkar, Nitin

    2017-12-01

    The shallow foundation is generally provided on non-erodible strata or where scour depth is less. It is also preferable for low perennial flow or standing water condition. In the present case study shallow foundation is adopted for box type bridge. The total length of the bridge is 132.98 m, consisting of eight unit of RCC box. Each unit is composed of three cell box. The bottom slab of box unit is acted as raft foundation, founded 500 mm below ground level. River bed protection work is provided on both upstream and downstream side along the whole length of the bridge as it is founded above scour level. The bridge collapsed during the monsoon just after two years of service. The present paper explains the cause of failure. This study on failure of the bridge illustrates the importance of bridge inspection before and after monsoon period and importance of the timely maintenance. Standard specifications of Indian Road Congress for the river bed protection work are also included.

  10. The implementation of Mask-Ed: reflections of academic participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Searl, Kerry; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Cooper, Simon; Happell, Brenda

    2014-09-01

    This paper profiles the findings from a study that explored the perspectives and experiences of nurse educators who implemented a novel simulation approach termed Mask-Ed. The technique involves the educator wearing a silicone mask and or body parts and transforming into a character. The premise of this approach is that the masked educator has domain specific knowledge related to the simulation scenario and can transmit this to learners in a way that is engaging, realistic, spontaneous and humanistic. Nurse educators charged with the responsibility of implementing Mask-Ed in three universities were invited to participate in the study by attending an introductory workshop, implementing the technique and then journaling their experiences, insights and perspectives over a 12 month period. The journal entries were then thematically analysed. Key themes were categorised under the headings of Preparation, Implementation and Impact; Reflexivity and Responsiveness; Student Engagement and Ownership; and Teaching and Learning. Mask-Ed is a simulation approach which allows students to interact with the 'characters' in humanistic ways that promote person-centred care and therapeutic communication. This simulation approach holds previously untapped potential for a range of learning experiences, however, to be effective, adequate resourcing, training, preparation and practice is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New method of 2-dimensional metrology using mask contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Yamagata, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling and measuring of a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, this edge detection method is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. This method realizes two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern that had been difficult to measure conventionally by utilizing high precision contour profile. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. This is to say, demands for quality is becoming strenuous because of enormous quantity of data growth with increasing of refined pattern on photo mask manufacture. In the result, massive amount of simulated error occurs on mask inspection that causes lengthening of mask production and inspection period, cost increasing, and long delivery time. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method of a DFM solution using two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern.

  12. Simulation based mask defect repair verification and disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Eric; Zhao, Shirley; Zhang, Skin; Qian, Sandy; Cheng, Guojie; Vikram, Abhishek; Li, Ling; Chen, Ye; Hsiang, Chingyun; Zhang, Gary; Su, Bo

    2009-10-01

    As the industry moves towards sub-65nm technology nodes, the mask inspection, with increased sensitivity and shrinking critical defect size, catches more and more nuisance and false defects. Increased defect counts pose great challenges in the post inspection defect classification and disposition: which defect is real defect, and among the real defects, which defect should be repaired and how to verify the post-repair defects. In this paper, we address the challenges in mask defect verification and disposition, in particular, in post repair defect verification by an efficient methodology, using SEM mask defect images, and optical inspection mask defects images (only for verification of phase and transmission related defects). We will demonstrate the flow using programmed mask defects in sub-65nm technology node design. In total 20 types of defects were designed including defects found in typical real circuit environments with 30 different sizes designed for each type. The SEM image was taken for each programmed defect after the test mask was made. Selected defects were repaired and SEM images from the test mask were taken again. Wafers were printed with the test mask before and after repair as defect printability references. A software tool SMDD-Simulation based Mask Defect Disposition-has been used in this study. The software is used to extract edges from the mask SEM images and convert them into polygons to save in GDSII format. Then, the converted polygons from the SEM images were filled with the correct tone to form mask patterns and were merged back into the original GDSII design file. This merge is for the purpose of contour simulation-since normally the SEM images cover only small area (~1 μm) and accurate simulation requires including larger area of optical proximity effect. With lithography process model, the resist contour of area of interest (AOI-the area surrounding a mask defect) can be simulated. If such complicated model is not available, a simple

  13. Applying formal method to design of nuclear power plant embedded protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Kim, Il Gon; Sung, Chang Hoon; Choi, Jin Young; Lee, Na Young

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power embedded protection systems is a typical safety-critical system, which detects its failure and shutdowns its operation of nuclear reactor. These systems are very dangerous so that it absolutely requires safety and reliability. Therefore nuclear power embedded protection system should fulfill verification and validation completely from the design stage. To develop embedded system, various V and V method have been provided and especially its design using Formal Method is studied in other advanced country. In this paper, we introduce design method of nuclear power embedded protection systems using various Formal-Method in various respect following nuclear power plant software development guideline

  14. Design And Construction Of Mounds For Breakwaters And Coastal Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Barends, F.B.J.; Brebner, A.

    Design and construction of mound breakwaters has during the last 5 to 10 years entered a new era. The major reason for that is the realization of problems encountered as it became necessary to erect port structures on more exposed shores and in deeper waters. As a consequence of that the P.I.A.N....... they were exposed to. The following sections discuss the stability of mound breakwaters, reasons for failure and design principles. A number of major failures are mentioned specifically. In each case an attempt has been made to explore and explain the reason for the failure....

  15. Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs

  16. Radiation protection/shield design: a need for a systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation protection/shielding design of a nuclear facility requires a coordinated effort of many engineering disciplines to meet the requirements imposed by regulations. The system approach to Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) radiation protection is described, and the program developed to implement this approach is defined. In addition, the principal shielding design problems for LMFBR nuclear reactor systems are discussed in relation to LWR nuclear reactor system shielding designs. The methodology used to analyze these problems in the U.S. LMFBR program, the resultant design solutions, and the experimental verification of these designs and/or methods are discussed

  17. Design and development of laser eye protection filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K; Khan, A N; Rauf, A; Gul, A; Aslam, M

    2013-01-01

    Laser based devices, have been operational for measurement of distances horizontally and vertically in avionics and surveillance industries. These equipments are functional on pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm, this wavelength elevate the risk of eye exposure to personnel at unexpected levels. In this paper the eye protection filters, for the wavelength 1064nm were developed with soft (ZnS) and hard (TiO 2 ) coating materials by using thin film vacuum coating technique. The damage threshold of the filter is 0.2 J/cm 2 . Transmission characteristics are measured and discussed. Optical damage threshold (for eye 5 × 10 −6 J/cm2) at various distances is also simulated.

  18. SEMATECH EUVL mask program status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Henry; Goodwin, Frank; Huh, Sungmin; Orvek, Kevin; Cha, Brian; Rastegar, Abbas; Kearney, Patrick

    2009-04-01

    As we approach the 22nm half-pitch (hp) technology node, the industry is rapidly running out of patterning options. Of the several lithography techniques highlighted in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the leading contender for the 22nm hp insertion is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). Despite recent advances with EUV resist and improvements in source power, achieving defect free EUV mask blank and enabling the EUV mask infrastructure still remain critical issues. To meet the desired EUV high volume manufacturing (HVM) insertion target date of 2013, these obstacles must be resolved on a timely bases. Many of the EUV mask related challenges remain in the pre-competitive stage and a collaborative industry based consortia, such as SEMATECH can play an important role to enable the EUVL landscape. SEMATECH based in Albany, NY is an international consortium representing several of the largest manufacturers in the semiconductor market. Full members include Intel, Samsung, AMD, IBM, Panasonic, HP, TI, UMC, CNSE (College of Nanoscience and Engineering), and Fuller Road Management. Within the SEMATECH lithography division a major thrust is centered on enabling the EUVL ecosystem from mask development, EUV resist development and addressing EUV manufacturability concerns. An important area of focus for the SEMATECH mask program has been the Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC). At the MBDC key issues in EUV blank development such as defect reduction and inspection capabilities are actively pursued together with research partners, key suppliers and member companies. In addition the mask program continues a successful track record of working with the mask community to manage and fund critical mask tools programs. This paper will highlight recent status of mask projects and longer term strategic direction at the MBDC. It is important that mask technology be ready to support pilot line development HVM by 2013. In several areas progress has been

  19. Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief Template. Hydrogen Refueling Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Groth, Katrina M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Building a hydrogen infrastructure system is critical to supporting the development of alternate- fuel vehicles. This report provides a methodology for implementing a performance-based design of an outdoor hydrogen refueling station that does not meet specific prescriptive requirements in NFPA 2, The Hydrogen Technologies Code . Performance-based designs are a code-compliant alternative to meeting prescriptive requirements. Compliance is demonstrated by comparing a prescriptive-based fueling station design with a performance-based design approach using Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) methods and hydrogen risk assessment tools. This template utilizes the Sandia-developed QRA tool, Hydrogen Risk Analysis Models (HyRAM), which combines reduced-order deterministic models that characterize hydrogen release and flame behavior with probabilistic risk models to quantify risk values. Each project is unique and this template is not intended to account for site-specific characteristics. Instead, example content and a methodology are provided for a representative hydrogen refueling site which can be built upon for new hydrogen applications.

  20. 29 CFR 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contacts effectively grounded except for receptacles mounted on portable and vehicle-mounted generators in... types of current (ac or dc) on the same premises shall be of such design that the attachment plugs used... premises wiring shall be grounded as follows: (i) All 3-wire dc systems shall have their neutral conductor...

  1. Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) Design: Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-20

    following provisions: • Ceiling sprinkler design area must be increased by 10 percent. ESFR sprinklers must increase the required number to be...Control System ESFR Early Suppression Fast-Response Sprinklers ETL Engineering Technical Letters FAAA Fire Administration Authorization Act FM

  2. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall...

  3. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.198 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  4. New method of contour-based mask-shape compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Onizawa, Akira; Sato, Hidetoshi; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, it is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method for a DFM solution in which two dimensional data are extracted for an error free practical simulation by precise reproduction of a real mask shape in addition to the mask data simulation. The flow centering around the design data is fully automated and provides an environment where optimization and verification for fully automated model calibration with much less error is available. It also allows complete consolidation of input and output functions with an EDA system by constructing a design data oriented system structure. This method therefore is regarded as a strategic DFM approach in the semiconductor metrology.

  5. 37 CFR 212.3 - Registration of claims for protection of eligible designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... color as well as color contrast. (ii) The use of broken lines in drawings depicting the design is... design. (4) Photographs. High quality black and white or color photographs will be accepted provided that... protection of eligible designs. 212.3 Section 212.3 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE...

  6. 78 FR 20123 - Extension of the Designation of Honduras for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Docket No. USCIS-2012-0016] RIN 1615-ZB18 Extension of the Designation of Honduras for Temporary... the designation of Honduras for Temporary Protected Status (TPS) for 18 months from July 6, 2013... Honduras that prompted the TPS designation continue to be met. There continues to be a substantial, but...

  7. De-novo design of antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Zeitler

    Full Text Available This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of "healthy" food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents.

  8. Functional Design of Breakwaters for Shore Protection: Empirical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    prepred by the Principal Investigator of the work unit, Ms. Julie Dean Rosati, Hy1. aulic Engineer, EAU, CSEB. COL Larry B. Fulton, EN, was Commander and...transmissibility, wave climate , etc.), morphologica. beach response may be either a salient or tombolo. Reef breakwaters are a type of detached breakwaters... climate chosen for design (USAED, Buffalo 1975; Pope and Dean 1986), as waves from the northwest were inappropriately weighted. Pope and Dean (1986) 26

  9. Design of thermal protection system for 8 foot HTST combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, S.

    1973-01-01

    The combustor in the 8-foot high temperature structures tunnel at the NASA-Langley Research Center has encountered cracking over a period of 50-250 tunnel tests within a limited range of the required operating envelope. A program was conducted which analyzed the failed combustor liner hardware and determined that the mechanism of failure was vibratory fatigue. A vibration damper system using wave springs located axially between the liner T-bar and the liner support was designed as an intermediate solution to extend the life of the current two-pass regenerative air-cooled liner. The effects of liner wall thickness, cooling air passage height, stiffener ring geometry, reflective coatings, and liner material selection were investigated for these designs. Preliminary layout design arrangements including the external water-cooling system requirements, weight estimates, installation requirements and preliminary estimates of manufacturing costs were prepared for the most promissing configurations. A state-of-the-art review of thermal barrier coatings and an evaluation of reflective coatings for the gasside surface of air-cooled liners are included.

  10. Cybersecurity Protection: Design Science Research toward an Intercloud Transparent Bridge Architecture (ITCOBRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joe M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses design science research and engineering to develop a cloud-based simulator for modeling next-generation cybersecurity protection frameworks in the United States. The claim is made that an agile and neutral framework extending throughout the cyber-threat plane is needed for critical infrastructure protection (CIP). This…

  11. Defense against common-mode failures in protection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of digital instrumentation and control into reactor safety systems creates a heightened concern about common-mode failure. This paper discusses the concern and methods of cope with the concern. Common-mode failures have been a 'fact-of-life' in existing systems. The informal introduction of defense-in-depth and diversity (D-in-D and D) - coupled with the fact that hardware common-mode failures are often distributed in time - has allowed systems to deal with past common-mode failures. However, identical software operating in identical redundant systems presents the potential for simultaneous failure. Consequently, the use of digital systems raises the concern about common-mode failure to a new level. A more methodical approach to mitigating common-mode failure is needed to address these concerns. Purposeful introduction of D-in-D and D has been used as a defense against common-mode failure in reactor protection systems. At least two diverse systems are provided to mitigate any potential initiating event. Additionally, diverse displays and controls are provided to allow the operator to monitor plant status and manually initiate engineered safety features. A special form of common-mode failure analysis called 'defense-in-depth and diversity analysis' has been developed to identify possible common-mode failure vulnerabilities in digital systems. An overview of this analysis technique is provided. (author)

  12. Defense against common-mode failures in protection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    The introduction of digital instrumentation and control into reactor safety systems creates a heightened concern about common-mode failure. This paper discusses the concern and methods to cope with the concern. Common-mode failures have been a ''fact-of-life'' in existing systems. The informal introduction of defense-in-depth and diversity (D-in-D ampersand D)-coupled with the fact that hardware common-mode failures are often distributed in time-has allowed systems to deal with past common-mode failures. However, identical software operating in identical redundant systems presents the potential for simultaneous failure. Consequently, the use of digital systems raises the concern about common-mode failure to a new level. A more methodical approach to mitigating common-mode failure is needed to address these concerns. Purposeful introduction of D-in-D ampersand D has been used as a defense against common-mode failure in reactor protection systems. At least two diverse systems are provided to mitigate any potential initiating event. Additionally, diverse displays and controls are provided to allow the operator to monitor plant status and manually initiate engineered safety features. A special form of conimon-mode failure analysis called ''defense-in-depth and diversity analysis'' has been developed to identify possible conimon-mode failure vulnerabilities in digital systems. An overview of this analysis technique is provided

  13. Designing Local-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks in the Central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs around the world are at risk from overexploitation and climate change, and coral reefs of the Red Sea are no exception. Science-based designation of marine protected areas (MPAs), within which human activities are restricted, has become

  14. Bioinspired Design of Building Materials for Blast and Ballistic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacre in abalone shell exhibits high toughness despite the brittle nature of its major constituent (i.e., aragonite. Its specific structure is a major contributor to the energy absorption capacity of nacre. This paper reviews the mechanisms behind the performance of nacre under shear, uniaxial tension, compression, and bending conditions. The remarkable combination of stiffness and toughness on nacre can motivate the development of bioinspired building materials for impact resistance applications, and the possible toughness designs of cement-based and clay-based composite materials with a layered and staggered structure were discussed.

  15. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  16. Exploiting Small Leakages in Masks to Turn a Second-Order Attack into a First-Order Attack and Improved Rotating Substitution Box Masking with Linear Code Cosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTrano, Alexander; Karimi, Naghmeh; Karri, Ramesh; Guo, Xiaofei; Carlet, Claude; Guilley, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Masking countermeasures, used to thwart side-channel attacks, have been shown to be vulnerable to mask-extraction attacks. State-of-the-art mask-extraction attacks on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm target S-Box recomputation schemes but have not been applied to scenarios where S-Boxes are precomputed offline. We propose an attack targeting precomputed S-Boxes stored in nonvolatile memory. Our attack targets AES implemented in software protected by a low entropy masking scheme and recovers the masks with 91% success rate. Recovering the secret key requires fewer power traces (in fact, by at least two orders of magnitude) compared to a classical second-order attack. Moreover, we show that this attack remains viable in a noisy environment or with a reduced number of leakage points. Eventually, we specify a method to enhance the countermeasure by selecting a suitable coset of the masks set. PMID:26491717

  17. Alternative designs for petroleum product storage tanks for groundwater protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke Adeleke, Samson

    In developing countries, there are numerous occurrences of petroleum product spillage in groundwater. The current practice of burying storage tanks beneath the surface without adequate safety devices facilitates this phenomenon. Underground tanks rust and leak, and spilled petroleum products migrate downward. The movement of the oil in the soil depends on its viscosity and quantity, the permeability of the soil/rock, and the presence of fractures within the rock. The oil spreads laterally in the form of a thin pancake due to its lower specific gravity, and soluble components dissolve in water. The pollution plume of petroleum products and dissolved phases moves in the direction of groundwater flow in the aquifer within the pores of soil and sediments or along fractures in basement complex areas. Most communities reply heavily on groundwater for potable and industrial supplies. However, the sustainability of this resource is under threat in areas where there are filling stations as a result of significant groundwater contamination from petroleum product spillage. Drinking water becomes unpalatable when it contains petroleum products in low concentrations, and small quantities may contaminate large volumes of water. Considering the losses incurred from spillage, the cost of cleaning the aquifer, and the fact that total cleansing and attenuation is impossible, the need to prevent spillage and if it happens to prevent it from getting into the groundwater system is of paramount importance. This paper proposes alternative design procedures with a view to achieving these objectives.

  18. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y.

    1998-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed

  19. OPTIMIZING THE DESIGN OF THE SYSTEMS OF INFORMATION PROTECTION IN AUTOMATED INFORMATIONAL SYSTEMS OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. L'vovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Now to increase of indicators of efficiency and operability of difficult systems apply an automation equipment. The increasing role of information which became universal goods for relationship between various structures is noted. The question of its protection becomes the most actual. Special value is allocated for optimum design at creation of systems of the protection, allowing with the greatest probability to choose the best decisions on a set of alternatives. Now it becomes actual for the majority of the industrial enterprises as correctly designed and introduced system of protection will be pledge of successful functioning and competitiveness of all organization. Stages of works on creation of an information security system of the industrial enterprise are presented. The attention is focused on one of the most important approaches to realization of optimum design – multialternative optimization. In article the structure of creation of system of protection from the point of view of various models is considered, each of which gives an idea of features of design of system as a whole. The special attention is paid to a problem of creation of an information security system as it has the most difficult structure. Tasks for processes of automation of each of design stages of system of information security of the industrial enterprises are designated. Idea of each of stages of works is given at design of system of protection that allows to understand in the best way internal structure of creation of system of protection. Therefore, it is given the chance of evident submission of necessary requirements to creation of a reliable complex of information security of the industrial enterprise. Thereby it is given the chance of leveling of risks at early design stages of systems of protection, the organization and definition of necessary types of hardware-software complexes for future system.

  20. A survey of Alberta physicians' use of and attitudes toward face masks and face shields in the operating room setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip J; Spady, Donald; Forgie, Sarah E D

    2007-09-01

    There is little evidence that surgical mask use by physicians in the operating room (OR) reduces surgical site infections (SSIs), but masks do protect the wearer from potentially infectious splashes. Face shields offer even more protection because they cover the eyes, but they may be perceived as offering less protection to the patient than do masks. The objectives of this study were to ascertain if there were predictors to determine which OR physicians are continuing to use masks and what their reasons are for doing so, and which OR physicians would accept face shields and their reasons for doing so. We surveyed the province of Alberta's surgeons, general practice (GP) surgeons, anesthesiologists, and GP anesthetists to determine how many physicians in the OR wear surgical masks, their reasons for wearing surgical masks (ethical, legal, protection of the patient, protection of the wearer), and if they believe that face shields offer more protection to the patient or to the wearer. We also sought to examine which demographic factors affected their responses. The data were examined with chi(2) analysis to assess the relationships of age and practitioner type, and for various outcome variables. A significance level of P masks; masks are worn to prevent the spread of disease, not because it is tradition to do so; masks protect the wearer more than do face shields; and wearing face shields alone will subject the patient to higher rates of SSIs. Surgeons are more likely than are anesthesiologists to wear surgical masks in the OR and wear a surgical mask and a face shield if the patient has risk factors for a blood borne infection. According to our survey, age and profession were the most important variables that affected the potential use of surgical masks and face shields. Younger OR physicians likely would be amenable to using face shields in addition to masks in the OR to protect themselves from exposure to blood or bodily fluids.

  1. Propagation of resist heating mask error to wafer level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, S. V.; Karklin, Linard

    2006-10-01

    As technology is approaching 45 nm and below the IC industry is experiencing a severe product yield hit due to rapidly shrinking process windows and unavoidable manufacturing process variations. Current EDA tools are unable by their nature to deliver optimized and process-centered designs that call for 'post design' localized layout optimization DFM tools. To evaluate the impact of different manufacturing process variations on final product it is important to trace and evaluate all errors through design to manufacturing flow. Photo mask is one of the critical parts of this flow, and special attention should be paid to photo mask manufacturing process and especially to mask tight CD control. Electron beam lithography (EBL) is a major technique which is used for fabrication of high-end photo masks. During the writing process, resist heating is one of the sources for mask CD variations. Electron energy is released in the mask body mainly as heat, leading to significant temperature fluctuations in local areas. The temperature fluctuations cause changes in resist sensitivity, which in turn leads to CD variations. These CD variations depend on mask writing speed, order of exposure, pattern density and its distribution. Recent measurements revealed up to 45 nm CD variation on the mask when using ZEP resist. The resist heating problem with CAR resists is significantly smaller compared to other types of resists. This is partially due to higher resist sensitivity and the lower exposure dose required. However, there is no data yet showing CD errors on the wafer induced by CAR resist heating on the mask. This effect can be amplified by high MEEF values and should be carefully evaluated at 45nm and below technology nodes where tight CD control is required. In this paper, we simulated CD variation on the mask due to resist heating; then a mask pattern with the heating error was transferred onto the wafer. So, a CD error on the wafer was evaluated subject to only one term of the

  2. Assessment of a respiratory face mask for capturing air pollutants and pathogens including human influenza and rhinoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S Steve; Lukula, Salimatu; Chiossone, Cory; Nims, Raymond W; Suchmann, Donna B; Ijaz, M Khalid

    2018-03-01

    Prevention of infection with airborne pathogens and exposure to airborne particulates and aerosols (environmental pollutants and allergens) can be facilitated through use of disposable face masks. The effectiveness of such masks for excluding pathogens and pollutants is dependent on the intrinsic ability of the masks to resist penetration by airborne contaminants. This study evaluated the relative contributions of a mask, valve, and Micro Ventilator on aerosol filtration efficiency of a new N95 respiratory face mask. The test mask was challenged, using standardized methods, with influenza A and rhinovirus type 14, bacteriophage ΦΧ174, Staphylococcus aureus ( S . aureus ), and model pollutants. The statistical significance of results obtained for different challenge microbial agents and for different mask configurations (masks with operational or nonoperational ventilation fans and masks with sealed Smart Valves) was assessed. The results demonstrate >99.7% efficiency of each test mask configuration for exclusion of influenza A virus, rhinovirus 14, and S . aureus and >99.3% efficiency for paraffin oil and sodium chloride (surrogates for PM 2.5 ). Statistically significant differences in effectiveness of the different mask configurations were not identified. The efficiencies of the masks for excluding smaller-size (i.e., rhinovirus and bacteriophage ΦΧ174) vs. larger-size microbial agents (influenza virus, S . aureus ) were not significantly different. The masks, with or without features intended for enhancing comfort, provide protection against both small- and large-size pathogens. Importantly, the mask appears to be highly efficient for filtration of pathogens, including influenza and rhinoviruses, as well as the fine particulates (PM 2.5 ) present in aerosols that represent a greater challenge for many types of dental and surgical masks. This renders this individual-use N95 respiratory mask an improvement over the former types of masks for protection against

  3. Mechanical alignment of substrates to a mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Honan, Michael; Amato, Luigi G.; Grant, Christopher Neil; Strassner, James D.

    2016-11-08

    A plurality of masks is attached to the underside of a mask frame. This attachment is made such that each mask can independently move relative to the mask frame in three directions. This relative movement allows each mask to adjust its position to align with respective alignment pins disposed on a working surface. In one embodiment, each mask is attached to the mask frame using fasteners, where the fasteners have a shaft with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the mounting hole disposed on the mask. A bias element may be used to allow relative movement between the mask and the mask frame in the vertical direction. Each mask may also have kinematic features to mate with the respective alignment pins on the working surface.

  4. Design of the interlock and protection system for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomaro, N.; Grando, L.; Luchetta, A.; Paolucci, F.; Sartori, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A custom designed interlock and protection system for SPIDER experiment is described. •It includes two subsystems implementing slow and fast protection functions. •High reliability PLCs are adopted for slow protection. •Fiber-optic based, custom designed fast logic circuitry is proposed for fast protection. •Accelerators breakdown events are also managed by the fast subsystem. -- Abstract: Unprecedented levels of beam energy and power are required for ITER Neutral Beam Heating systems. SPIDER experiment is an experimental device aimed to test and optimize a full size beam source satisfying ITER requirements. SPIDER experiment operation involves high power, voltage, temperature, and gas pressure. All these critical conditions are present simultaneously, so that any failure if not properly detected and managed is likely to cause severe damage. The Interlock and Protection System is a high-reliability system devoted to the investment protection of SPIDER. Its main purpose is to manage abnormal events occurring in one or more plants in order to minimize adverse consequences. The Interlock System also manages the SPIDER Operating Modes, defining the set and status of the Plants used in the various possible experimental configurations. In addition, the Interlock and Protection System takes care of particular events occurring during normal SPIDER operation, i.e. electrical arcs between accelerator grids, named breakdowns. Their treatment is committed to the Interlock and Protection System, as they need to be managed timely and with absolute reliability like actual faults. To perform the required functions, the Interlock and Protection System is interfaced with most SPIDER plants and with the SPIDER Control and Data Acquisition System. The paper describes the rationale of the protection functions, their implementation in the design and the technical specifications of the system

  5. Safety Analysis in Design and Assessment of the Physical Protection of the OKG NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, P., E-mail: par.lindahl@okg.eon.se [OKG Aktiebolag, Oskarshamn (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    OKG AB operates a three unit nuclear power plant in the southern parts of Sweden. As a result of recent development of the legislation regarding physical protection of nuclear facilities, OKG has upgraded the protection against antagonistic actions. The new legislation includes requirements both on specific protective measures and on the performance of the physical protection as a whole. In short, the performance related requirements state that sufficient measures shall be implemented to protect against antagonistic actions, as defined by the regulator in the “Design Basis Threat” (DBT). Historically, physical protection and nuclear safety has been managed much as separate issues with different, sometimes contradicting, objectives. Now, insights from the work with the security upgrade have emphasized that physical protection needs to be regarded as an important part of the Defence-In-Depth (DiD) against nuclear accidents. Specifically, OKG has developed new DBT-based analysis methods, which may be characterized as probabilistically informed deterministic analysis, conformed to a format similar to the one used for conventional internal events analysis. The result is a powerful tool for design and assessment of the performance of the protection against antagonistic actions, using a nuclear safety perspective. (author)

  6. Model-based MPC enables curvilinear ILT using either VSB or multi-beam mask writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Linyong; Takatsukasa, Yutetsu; Hara, Daisuke; Pomerantsev, Michael; Su, Bo; Fujimura, Aki

    2017-07-01

    Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) is becoming the choice for Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) of advanced technology nodes in IC design and production. Multi-beam mask writers promise significant mask writing time reduction for complex ILT style masks. Before multi-beam mask writers become the main stream working tools in mask production, VSB writers will continue to be the tool of choice to write both curvilinear ILT and Manhattanized ILT masks. To enable VSB mask writers for complex ILT style masks, model-based mask process correction (MB-MPC) is required to do the following: 1). Make reasonable corrections for complex edges for those features that exhibit relatively large deviations from both curvilinear ILT and Manhattanized ILT designs. 2). Control and manage both Edge Placement Errors (EPE) and shot count. 3. Assist in easing the migration to future multi-beam mask writer and serve as an effective backup solution during the transition. In this paper, a solution meeting all those requirements, MB-MPC with GPU acceleration, will be presented. One model calibration per process allows accurate correction regardless of the target mask writer.

  7. Influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of bag-mask ventilation in a neonatal manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deindl, Philipp; O'Reilly, Megan; Zoller, Katharina; Berger, Angelika; Pollak, Arnold; Schwindt, Jens; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical face mask with an air cushion rim might be placed accidentally in a false orientation on the newborn's face or filled with various amounts of air during neonatal resuscitation. Both false orientation as well as variable filling may reduce a tight seal and therefore hamper effective positive pressure ventilation (PPV). We aimed to measure the influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of PPV. Twenty neonatal staff members delivered PPV to a modified, leak-free manikin. Resuscitation parameters were recorded using a self-inflatable bag PPV with an Intersurgical anatomical air cushion rim face mask (IS) and a size 0/1 Laerdal round face mask. Three different positions of the IS were tested: correct position, 90° and 180° rotation in reference to the midline of the face. IS masks in each correct position on the face but with different inflation of the air cushion (empty, 10, 20 and 30 mL). Mask leak was similar with mask rotation to either 90° or 180° but significantly increased from 27 (13-73) % with an adequate filled IS mask compared to 52 (16-83) % with an emptied air cushion rim. Anatomical-shaped face mask had similar mask leaks compared to round face mask. A wrongly positioned anatomical-shaped mask does not influence mask leak. Mask leak significantly increased once the air cushion rim was empty, which may cause failure in mask PPV.

  8. Image differencing using masked CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.; Webber, C.J. St. J.

    1987-01-01

    A charge coupled device has some of its ''pixels'' masked by a material which is opaque to the radiation to which the device is to be exposed, each masked region being employed as a storage zone into which the charge pattern from the unmasked pixels can be transferred to enable a subsequent charge pattern to be established on further exposure of the unmasked pixels. The components of the resulting video signal corresponding to the respective charge patterns read-out from the CCD are subtracted to produce a video signal corresponding to the difference between the two images which formed the respective charge patterns. Alternate rows of pixels may be masked, or chequer-board pattern masking may be employed. In an X-ray imaging system the CCD is coupled to image intensifying and converting means. (author)

  9. Vibrotactile masking through the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-09-01

    Touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations on the opposite side of the body. These interactions suggest an intimate connection between the two sides of the body. Here, we explore the effect of masking not across the body but through the body by measuring the effect of a masking stimulus on the back on the tactile sensitivity of the corresponding point on the front. Tactile sensitivity was measured on each side of the stomach, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to one side of the front and to points on the back including the point directly behind the test point on the front. Results were compared to sensitivity, while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the shoulder. A reduction in sensitivity of about .8 dB was found that required the masking stimulus to be within about 2 cm of the corresponding point on the back.

  10. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-01-01

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during

  11. Rapid iconic erasure without masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijus, Charles Albert; Reeves, Adam

    2004-01-01

    We report on the erasure of the iconic memory of an array of 12 black letters flashed on a continuously- present white field. Erasure is accomplished by replacing the 16 ms letter array (frame 1) with a blank white frame for 16 ms (frame 2). The letter array returns in frame 3, with from one to six letters missing. Report of the missing letters is accurate without the blank white frame but is impoverished with it, as if interposing the blank erases the icon. Erasure occurs without any obvious luminance masking, 'mud splashes', pattern masking (backward, forward, or metacontrast), lateral masking, or masking by object substitution. Erasure is greatly decreased if the blank is presented one frame earlier or later. We speculate that erasure is due to a rapid reset of the icon produced by an informational mis-match.

  12. Trademark protection for store designs. One trademark a day keeps apple’s competitors away

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Farkas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies spend a significant part of their investment in order to create a Brand experience for the consumer. Besides large sums spent on the design of consumer goods, companies such as Apple are eager to create a brand experience by implementing a certain store design. Hence, these companies have a well-reasoned urge to protect such distinct store designs utilizing the current intellectual property system. In the tradition of the U.S. approach, where the get-up of a business venue can be protected by trade dress law, the most recent European Jurisprudence seems to tend towards the protection of such a get-up by trade mark law. As this could be good news for companies with a distinct store concept and design, this new approach also raises some concern: How will the protection of the get-up of a business venue affect competition? What are the measures to guarantee only distinct and non-functional store designs will find their way into the holy land of trade mark protection? This article analyzes and compares the current legal situation in the U.S. and the EU and discusses the available measures in place that will safeguard an undistorted competition.

  13. Sandia's experience in designing and implementing integrated high security physical protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    As DOE's lead laboratory for physical security, Sandia National Laboratories has had a major physical security program for over ten years. Activities have ranged from component development and evaluation, to full scale system design and implementation. This paper presents some of the lessons learned in designing and implementing state-of-the-art high security physical protection systems for a number of government facilities. A generic system design is discussed for illustration purposes. Sandia efforts to transfer technology to industry are described

  14. Cernavoda nuclear power plant: Modifications in the fire protection measures of the CANDU 6 standard design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalschi, V.

    1998-01-01

    Having as purpose the improvement of fire safety at the Cernavoda NPP - both in the prevention and the protection aspects in the case of fire - we implemented some modifications in the CANDU 6 standard design. These improvements are inspired, mainly, from two sources: the world-wide achievements in the field of fire protection techniques, introduced in nuclear power plants since the middle of 70's, when the CANDU 6 design was completed; the national practice and experience in fire protection, usually applied in industrial objectives (conventional power plants, in particular). The absence of any incident may be considered as a proof of the efficiency of the implemented fire preventing and protection measures. (author)

  15. Design, construction and commissioning of SGPR, the fast protection system of RFX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collarin, P.; Trevisan, F.; Guarnieri, M.

    1994-01-01

    RFX, the largest machine for magnetic confinement of plasmas in the RFP line, is provided with a system named SGPR specifically designed for the machine global protection against fast faults which can develop in the plasma, in the windings, in the power supply circuits and in the control system. SGPR is a cabled logic HLL machine, able to organise in few tens of microseconds coordinated machine protection, dealing with more than forty fault signals and activating almost thirty protection commands. SGPR design, manufacture and test program conform the quality control criteria necessary to assure the required high reliability. After a careful and cumbersome commissioning work the system has assumed its protection role. Up to now it has been called to a number of interventions which, even if never due to major faults, have shown its capability of proper operation

  16. Design, construction and commissioning of SGPR, the fast protection system of RFX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarin, P.; Trevisan, F. [Instituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Padova (Italy); Guarnieri, M. [Universita di Padova (Italy)

    1994-11-01

    RFX, the largest machine for magnetic confinement of plasmas in the RFP line, is provided with a system named SGPR specifically designed for the machine global protection against fast faults which can develop in the plasma, in the windings, in the power supply circuits and in the control system. SGPR is a cabled logic HLL machine, able to organise in few tens of microseconds coordinated machine protection, dealing with more than forty fault signals and activating almost thirty protection commands. SGPR design, manufacture and test program conform the quality control criteria necessary to assure the required high reliability. After a careful and cumbersome commissioning work the system has assumed its protection role. Up to now it has been called to a number of interventions which, even if never due to major faults, have shown its capability of proper operation.

  17. Static equilibrium analysis for pipeline protection design in Iran LNG port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, A.S.; Vakili, R. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alielahi, H. [Islamic Azad Univ., Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the protection design for an intake seawater pipeline that will be built for a liquefied natural gas (LNG) project. The limit equilibrium approach was used to estimate the geometry of the protection layer with respect to the holding capacity of the drag anchors in cohesionless soil, incorporating a more realistic 3-dimensional failure pattern in the soil as well as the force acting on the back of the fluke. The study addressed all technical and executive points related to the pipeline construction, including anchor type, ship load, geotechnical properties of the protected zone and the underlying seabed, and the procedure to calculate the geometry of the protection layer. The protection layer must account for the complexity of interactions among anchor, anchor chain, sea bed, and rock armour. This analytical method provided logical results more quickly and at a lower cost than model testing. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Design Tools for Cost-Effective Implementation of Planetary Protection Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Louise; Belz, Andrea; Evans, Michael; Kastner, Jason; Satter, Celeste; Spry, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Since the Viking missions to Mars in the 1970s, accounting for the costs associated with planetary protection implementation has not been done systematically during early project formulation phases, leading to unanticipated costs during subsequent implementation phases of flight projects. The simultaneous development of more stringent planetary protection requirements, resulting from new knowledge about the limits of life on Earth, together with current plans to conduct life-detection experiments on a number of different solar system target bodies motivates a systematic approach to integrating planetary protection requirements and mission design. A current development effort at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is aimed at integrating planetary protection requirements more fully into the early phases of mission architecture formulation and at developing tools to more rigorously predict associated cost and schedule impacts of architecture options chosen to meet planetary protection requirements.

  19. Fabless company mask technology approach: fabless but not fab-careless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamura, Toshiyuki; Wu, Xin

    2009-10-01

    There are two different foundry-fabless working models in the aspect of mask. Some foundries have in-house mask facility while others contract with merchant mask vendors. Significant progress has been made in both kinds of situations. Xilinx as one of the pioneers of fabless semiconductor companies has been continually working very closely with both merchant mask vendors and mask facilities of foundries in past many years, contributed well in both technology development and benefited from corporations. Our involvement in manufacturing is driven by the following three elements: The first element is to understand the new fabrication and mask technologies and then find a suitable design / layout style to better utilize these new technologies and avoid potential risks. Because Xilinx has always been involved in early stage of advanced technology nodes, this early understanding and adoption is especially important. The second element is time to market. Reduction in mask and wafer manufacturing cycle-time can ensure faster time to market. The third element is quality. Commitment to quality is our highest priority for our customers. We have enough visibility on any manufacturing issues affecting the device functionality. Good correlation has consistently been observed between FPGA speed uniformity and the poly mask Critical Dimension (CD) uniformity performance. To achieve FPGA speed uniformity requirement, the manufacturing process as well as the mask and wafer CD uniformity has to be monitored. Xilinx works closely with the wafer foundries and mask suppliers to improve productivity and the yield from initial development stage of mask making operations. As an example, defect density reduction is one of the biggest challenges for mask supplier in development stage to meet the yield target satisfying the mask cost and mask turn-around-time (TAT) requirement. Historically, masks were considered to be defect free but at these advanced process nodes, that assumption no longer

  20. Design of a High Performance Green-Mode PWM Controller IC with Smart Sensing Protection Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Li Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A design of high performance green-mode pulse-width-modulation (PWM controller IC with smart sensing protection circuits for the application of lithium-ion battery charger (1.52 V ~ 7.5 V is investigated in this paper. The protection circuits architecture of this system mainly bases on the lithium battery function and does for the system design standard of control circuit. In this work, the PWM controller will be with an automatic load sensing and judges the system operated in the operating mode or in the standby mode. Therefore, it reduces system’s power dissipation effectively and achieves the saving power target. In the same time, many protection sensing circuits such as: (1 over current protection (OCP and under current protection (UCP, (2 over voltage protection (OVP and under voltage protection (UVP, (3 loading determintion and short circuit protection (SCP, (4 over temperature protection (OTP, (5 VDD surge-spiking protection are included. Then, it has the characteristics of an effective monitoring the output loading and the harm prevention as a battery charging. Eventually, this green-mode pulse-width-modulation (PWM controller IC will be that the operation voltage is 3.3 V, the operation frequency is 0.98 MHz, and the output current range is from 454 mA to 500 mA. Meanwhile, the output convert efficiency is range from 74.8 % to 91 %, the power dissipation efficiency in green-mode is 25 %, and the operation temperature range is between -20 0C ~ 114 0C.

  1. Failed obstetric tracheal intubation and postoperative respiratory support with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Christian; Brimacombe, Joseph; Lirk, Philipp; Pühringer, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (ProSeal LMA) provides a better seal and probably better airway protection than the classic laryngeal mask airway (classic LMA). We report the use of the ProSeal LMA in a 26-yr-old female with HELLP syndrome for failed obstetric intubation and postoperative

  2. A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.

    2006-10-01

    A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with

  3. A new suction mask to reduce leak during neonatal resuscitation: a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Laila; Maxfield, Dominic A; Dawson, Jennifer A; Kamlin, C Omar F; McGrory, Lorraine; Thio, Marta; Donath, Susan M; Davis, Peter G

    2016-09-01

    Leak around the face mask is a common problem during neonatal resuscitation. A newly designed face mask using a suction system to enhance contact between the mask and the infant's face might reduce leak and improve neonatal resuscitation. The aim of the study is to determine whether leak is reduced using the suction mask (Resusi-sure mask) compared with a conventional mask (Laerdal Silicone mask) in a manikin model. Sixty participants from different professional categories (neonatal consultants, fellows, registrars, nurses, midwives and students) used each face mask in a random order to deliver 2 min of positive pressure ventilation to a manikin. Delivered airway pressures were measured using a pressure line. Inspiratory and expiratory flows were measured using a flow sensor, and expiratory tidal volumes and mask leaks were derived from these values. A median (IQR) leak of 12.1 (0.6-39.0)% was found with the conventional mask compared with 0.7 (0.2-4.6)% using the suction mask (p=0.002). 50% of the participants preferred to use the suction mask and 38% preferred to use the conventional mask. There was no correlation between leak and operator experience. A new neonatal face mask based on the suction system reduced leak in a manikin model. Clinical studies to test the safety and effectiveness of this mask are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Lightning protection design and testing of an all composite wet wing for the Egrett

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, B. J. C.; Haigh, S. J.; Chessum, C.; Dunkley, V. P.

    1991-01-01

    The Egrett aircraft has an all composite wing comprising CFC(carbon fiber composite)/Nomex sandwich skins, full length CFC main spar caps, and GFRP (glass fiber reinforced plastics) main and auxiliary spar webs. It also has short inboard CFC auxiliary spar caps. It has fine aluminum wires woven into the surface for protection. It has an integral fuel tank using the CFC/Nomex skins as the upper and lower tank walls, and lies between the forward auxiliary spar and the forward of the two main spar webs. The fuel tank is not bagged, i.e., it is in effect a wet wing tank. It has conventional capacitive type fuel gauging. The aircraft was cleared to IFR standards and so required full lightning protection and demonstration that it would survive the lightning environment. The lightning protection was designed for the wing (and also for the remainder of the aircraft). An inner wing test samples (which included a part of the fuel tank) were tested as part of the proving program. The protection design and the testing process are described. The intrinsic structural features are indicated that improve lightning protection design and which therefore minimize the weight and cost of any added lightning protection components.

  5. Taking into account radiation protection for the EPR (European pressurized water reactor) design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michoux, X.

    2005-01-01

    For a designer, the taking into account of radiation protection for the EPR design is based on several thrusts which concern different scopes as choice of materials, checking of design's options, layout of components and systems able to contain radioactivity in different states of operation (i.e.: pressurizer, tanks, actives systems separated from non actives systems), or the optimization of shielding according to the estimated maintenance during outage or during power operation. The EPR method used for radiation protection studies is close to the safety method (use of dose gauge, demonstration of radiation protection, works with high stake regarding the radiation protection studied in priority, parametric studies with use of one field Radiation protection...). Results of this method place EPR in a satisfactory progress compared to the best existing nuclear plants, regarding collective doses and privileging the most exposed workers. This method has also induced on the EPR Project the choice of working during power operation in order to obtain shorts outages, scrupulously respecting security rules, radiation protection and human factor. (author)

  6. Thermal stress analysis of the SLAC moveable mask. Addendum 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray beams emerging from the new SLAC electron-positron storage ring (PEP) can impinge on the walls of tangential divertor channels. A moveable mask made of 6061-T6 aluminum is installed in the channel to limit wall heating. The mask is cooled with water flowing axially at 30 0 C. Beam strikes on the mask cause highly localized heating in the channel structure. Analyses were completed to determine the temperatures and thermally-induced stresses due to this heating. The current design and operating conditions should result in the entrance to the moveable mask operating at a peak temperature of 88 0 C with a peak thermal stress at 19% of the yield of 6061-T6 aluminum

  7. Rediscovery of the type series of the Acadian Masked Shrew, Sorex acadicus Gilpin, 1865 (Mammalia: Soricidae), with the designation of a neotype and a reevaluation of its taxonomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2018-01-01

    The name Sorex acadicus Gilpin, 1865 is currently recognized as the valid name for the Nova Scotian subspecies of the masked shrew, S. cinereus Kerr, 1792 (Mammalia: Soricidae), but a holotype for the taxon was never designated, and the location of the type series has been a mystery. The authority for this species, John Bernard Gilpin, was associated with the Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, NS, but that institution has no Gilpin specimens in its possession, and I could find no record of Gilpin shrews in any other Canadian Museum. I recently discovered a series of Gilpin specimens in the Mammal Collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (USNM), some of which may have been part of the original type series of S. acadicus, and I show that these specimens best represent Gilpin's concept of the taxon. From this series, I designate a neotype for S. acadicus. I also evaluate the distinctiveness of Nova Scotian S. c. acadicus compared with S. c. cinereus from Maine, New Brunswick, and New Hampshire and determine that S. acadicus should be considered a junior synonym of S. c. cinereus.

  8. Discrete-event simulation for the design and evaluation of physical protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.E.; Snell, M.K.; Madsen, M.M.; Smith, J.S.; Peters, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the use of discrete-event simulation for the design and control of physical protection systems for fixed-site facilities housing items of significant value. It begins by discussing several modeling and simulation activities currently performed in designing and analyzing these protection systems and then discusses capabilities that design/analysis tools should have. The remainder of the article then discusses in detail how some of these new capabilities have been implemented in software to achieve a prototype design and analysis tool. The simulation software technology provides a communications mechanism between a running simulation and one or more external programs. In the prototype security analysis tool, these capabilities are used to facilitate human-in-the-loop interaction and to support a real-time connection to a virtual reality (VR) model of the facility being analyzed. This simulation tool can be used for both training (in real-time mode) and facility analysis and design (in fast mode)

  9. Design and operation of the quench protection system for the Fermilab tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of a superconducting accelerator, in addition to cryogenic requirements, introduces a new complexity not present in a conventional accelerator. A method is required for protecting the magnets from possible overheating or overvoltage conditions in the event that some magnets quench, that is, are elevated in temperature so that they are no longer superconducting. The development of that system is the topic of this chapter. Any quench protection system has two very important ingredients. First, it must be designed with sufficient integrity to remain functional even under abnormal circumstances. The magnets must be protected during power failures, for example. Quenches involving a large number of components can also be hazardous because of the redistribution of voltages during the quench. Some of the system integrity can be achieved through redundancy. Frequent testing of critical elements of the system also assures the overall integrity. Second, the quench protection system must protect against damage from quenches regardless of their location or the excitation current at the time. It is not sufficient to protect just the magnet coils; either the leads between magnets must be fully stabilized or the quench protection system must protect them. The next section presents a brief discussion of the basic properties of superconductors and the phenomenon of quench propagation. 10 references, 13 figures

  10. Safeguards-by-Design: Early Integration of Physical Protection and Safeguardability into Design of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bean; S. DeMuth; P. Durst; M. Ehinger; M. Golay; D. Hebditch; J. Hockert; J. Morgan

    2009-09-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to minimize proliferation and security risks as the use of nuclear energy expands worldwide. This paper defines a generic SBD process and its incorporation from early design phases into existing design / construction processes and develops a framework that can guide its institutionalization. SBD could be a basis for a new international norm and standard process for nuclear facility design. This work is part of the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), and is jointly sponsored by the Offices of Non-proliferation and Nuclear Energy.

  11. Design methodology for the physical protection upgrade rule requirements for fixed sites. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.J. Jr.; Allen, T.

    1980-06-01

    This Design Methodology document aids the licensee in understanding how the fixed site requirements of the Physical Protection Upgrade Rule affect the design of physical protection systems for fuel processing plants, fuel manufacturing plants, or other fixed site special nuclear material operations involving possession or use of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material. The document consists of three major elements: Logic Trees, Safeguards Jobs and Component Matrices, and Effectiveness Test Questionnaires. The work is based upon a previous study conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  12. Code of practice and design principles for portable and transportable radiological protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    The Code of Practice and design principles for portable and transportable radiological protection systems are presented in three parts. Part 1 specifies the requirement for Radiological Protection Instrumentation (RPI) including operational characteristics and the effects of both a radiation and non-radiation environment. Part 2 satisfies the requirement for RPI equipment as regards the overall design, the availability, the reliability, the information display, the human factors, the power supplies, the manufacture and quality assurance, the testing and the cost. Part 3 deals with the supply, location and operation of the RPI equipment. (U.K.)

  13. A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches

    OpenAIRE

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...

  14. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of masking in plantar pressure measurement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, K; Birch, I; Mc Innes, J; Desloovere, K; Matricali, G A

    2009-10-01

    Plantar pressure measurement is an important tool in gait analysis. Manual placement of small masks (masking) is increasingly used to calculate plantar pressure characteristics. Little is known concerning the reliability of manual masking. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of masking on 2D plantar pressure footprints, in a population with forefoot deformity (i.e. hallux valgus). Using a random repeated-measure design, four observers identified the third metatarsal head on a peak-pressure barefoot footprint, using a small mask. Subsequently, the location of all five metatarsal heads was identified, using the same size of masks and the same protocol. The 2D positional variation of the masks and the peak pressure (PP) and pressure time integral (PTI) values of each mask were calculated. For single-masking the lowest inter-observer reliability was found for the distal-proximal direction, causing a clear, adverse impact on the reliability of the pressure characteristics (PP and PTI). In the medial-lateral direction the inter-observer reliability could be scored as high. Intra-observer reliability was better and could be scored as high or good for both directions, with a correlated improved reliability of the pressure characteristics. Reliability of multi-masking showed a similar pattern, but overall values tended to be lower. Therefore, small sized masking in order to define pressure characteristics in the forefoot should be done with care.

  15. Experiences and future plans of movable mask system for the high current collider KEK B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Yusuke; Kageyama, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Yasunao; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Satoh, Kotarou; Sanami, Toshiya; Hirayama, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    The movable mask is a special device for an accelerator that cuts off spent particles near the beam orbit and reduces background of the detector. For the KEKB, an electron/positron collider with two rings, sixteen movable masks had been installed for each ring. The originally designed masks, however, revealed severe troubles of heating, arcing and vacuum leaks at the stored beam currents of several hundreds mA. Several kinds of improved masks had been designed employing RF technologies and were installed to the ring step by step. The latest masks are working well except for the grooves on the mask head. Here the problems of movable masks so far are summarized and the structures of the latest movable masks and their status are presented. (author)

  16. Quench protection and design of large high-current-density superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1981-03-01

    Although most large superconducting magnets have been designed using the concept of cryostability, there is increased need for large magnets which operate at current densities above the cryostable limit (greater than 10 8 Am -2 ). Large high current density superconducting magnets are chosen for the following reasons: reduced mass, reduced coil thickness or size, and reduced cost. The design of large high current density, adiabatically stable, superconducting magnets requires a very different set of design rules than either large cryostable superconducting magnets or small self-protected high current density magnets. The problems associated with large high current density superconducting magnets fall into three categories; (a) quench protection, (b) stress and training, and (c) cryogenic design. The three categories must be considered simultaneously. The paper discusses quench protection and its implication for magnets of large stored energies (this includes strings of smaller magnets). Training and its relationship to quench protection and magnetic strain are discussed. Examples of magnets, built at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and elsewhere using the design guidelines given in this report, are presented

  17. Quench protection analysis integrated in the design of dipoles for the Future Circular Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Salmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The EuroCirCol collaboration is designing a 16 T Nb_{3}Sn dipole that can be used as the main bending magnet in a 100 km long 100 TeV hadron-hadron collider. For economic reasons, the magnets need to be as compact as possible, requiring optimization of the cable cross section in different magnetic field regions. This leads to very high stored energy density and poses serious challenges for the magnet protection in case of a quench, i.e., sudden loss of superconductivity in the winding. The magnet design therefore must account for the limitations set by quench protection from the earliest stages of the design. In this paper we describe how the aspect of quench protection has been accounted for in the process of developing different options for the 16 T dipole designs. We discuss the assumed safe values for hot spot temperatures and voltages, and the efficiency of the protection system. We describe the developed tools for the quench analysis, and how their usage in the magnet design will eventually ensure a secure magnet operation.

  18. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with...

  19. Novel material and structural design for large-scale marine protective devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Ang; Lin, Wei; Ma, Yong; Zhao, Chengbi; Tang, Youhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale protective devices with different structural designs have been optimized. • Large-scale protective devices with novel material designs have been optimized. • Protective devices constructed of sandwich panels have the best anti-collision performance. • Protective devices with novel material design can reduce weight and construction cost. - Abstract: Large-scale protective devices must endure the impact of severe forces, large structural deformation, the increased stress and strain rate effects, and multiple coupling effects. In evaluation of the safety of conceptual design through simulation, several key parameters considered in this research are maximum impact force, energy dissipated by the impactor (e.g. a ship) and energy absorbed by the device and the impactor stroke. During impact, the main function of the ring beam structure is to resist and buffer the impact force between ship and bridge pile caps, which could guarantee that the magnitude of impact force meets the corresponding requirements. The means of improving anti-collision performance can be to increase the strength of the beam section or to exchange the steel material with novel fiber reinforced polymer laminates. The main function of the buoyancy tank is to absorb and transfer the ship’s kinetic energy through large plastic deformation, damage, or friction occurring within itself. The energy absorption effect can be improved by structure optimization or by the use of new sandwich panels. Structural and material optimization schemes are proposed on the basis of conceptual design in this research, and protective devices constructed of sandwich panels prove to have the best anti-collision performance

  20. Effect of test exercises and mask donning on measured respirator fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, C D; Fairbank, E O; Greenstein, S L

    1999-12-01

    Quantitative respirator fit test protocols are typically defined by a series of fit test exercises. A rationale for the protocols that have been developed is generally not available. There also is little information available that describes the effect or effectiveness of the fit test exercises currently specified in respiratory protection standards. This study was designed to assess the relative impact of fit test exercises and mask donning on respirator fit as measured by a controlled negative pressure and an ambient aerosol fit test system. Multiple donnings of two different sizes of identical respirator models by each of 14 test subjects showed that donning affects respirator fit to a greater degree than fit test exercises. Currently specified fit test protocols emphasize test exercises, and the determination of fit is based on a single mask donning. A rationale for a modified fit test protocol based on fewer, more targeted test exercises and multiple mask donnings is presented. The modified protocol identified inadequately fitting respirators as effectively as the currently specified Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) quantitative fit test protocol. The controlled negative pressure system measured significantly (p < 0.0001) more respirator leakage than the ambient aerosol fit test system. The bend over fit test exercise was found to be predictive of poor respirator fit by both fit test systems. For the better fitting respirators, only the talking exercise generated aerosol fit factors that were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than corresponding donning fit factors.

  1. Contralateral tactile masking between forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-03-01

    Masking effects have been demonstrated in which tactile sensitivity is affected when one touch is close to another on the body surface. Such effects are likely a result of local lateral inhibitory circuits that sharpen the spatial tuning of a given tactile receptor. Mutually inhibitory pathways have also been demonstrated between cortical tactile maps of the two halves of the body. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations. Here, we measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on this contralateral masking effect. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm. Results were compared to sensitivity while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the right shoulder. Sensitivity on the forearm was reduced by over 3 dB when the arms were touching and by 0.52 dB when they were held parallel. The masking effect depended on the position of the masking stimulus. Its effectiveness fell off by 1 STD when the stimulus was 29 % of arm length from the corresponding contralateral point. This long-range inhibitory effect in the tactile system suggests a surprisingly intimate relationship between the two sides of the body.

  2. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  3. An Improved Setpoint Determination Methodology for the Plant Protection System Considering Beyond Design Basis Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.J.; Baik, K.I.; Baek, S.M.; Park, K.-M.; Lee, S.J.

    2013-06-01

    According to the nuclear regulations and industry standards, the trip setpoint and allowable value for the plant protection system have been determined by considering design basis events. In order to improve the safety of a nuclear power plant, an attempt has been made to develop an improved setpoint determination methodology for the plant protection system trip parameter considering not only a design basis event but also a beyond design basis event. The results of a quantitative evaluation performed for the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 nuclear power plant in Korea are presented herein. The results confirmed that the proposed methodology is able to improve the nuclear power plant's safety by determining more reasonable setpoints that can cover beyond design basis events. (authors)

  4. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  5. Comparison of the OxyMask and Venturi mask in the delivery of supplemental oxygen: Pilot study in oxygen-dependent patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecroft, Jaime M; Hanly, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The OxyMask (Southmedic Inc, Canada) is a new face mask for oxygen delivery that uses a small ‘diffuser’ to concentrate and direct oxygen toward the mouth and nose. The authors hypothesized that this unique design would enable the OxyMask to deliver oxygen more efficiently than a Venturi mask (Hudson RCI, USA) in patients with chronic hypoxemia. METHODS: Oxygen-dependent patients with chronic, stable respiratory disease were recruited to compare the OxyMask and Venturi mask in a randomized, single-blind, cross-over design. Baseline blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) was established breathing room air, followed in a random order by supplemental oxygen through the OxyMask or Venturi mask. Oxygen delivery was titrated to maintain SaO2 4% to 5% and 8% to 9% above baseline for two separate 30 min periods of stable breathing. Oxygen flow rate, partial pressure of inspired and expired oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2), minute ventilation, heart rate, nasal and oral breathing, SaO2 and transcutaneous PCO2 were collected continuously. The study was repeated following alterations to the OxyMask design, which improved clearance of carbon dioxide. RESULTS: Thirteen patients, aged 28 to 79 years, were studied initially using the original OxyMask. Oxygen flow rate was lower, inspired PO2 was higher and expired PO2 was lower while using the OxyMask. Minute ventilation and inspired and expired PCO2 were significantly higher while using the OxyMask, whereas transcutaneous PCO2, heart rate and the ratio of nasal to oral breathing did not change significantly throughout the study. Following modification of the OxyMask, 13 additional patients, aged 18 to 79 years, were studied using the same protocol. The modified OxyMask provided a higher inspired PO2 at a lower flow rate, without evidence of carbon dioxide retention. CONCLUSIONS: Oxygen is delivered safely and more efficiently by the OxyMask than by the Venturi mask in stable oxygen-dependent patients. PMID:16896425

  6. Legal Protection on IP Cores for System-on-Chip Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takahiko

    The current semiconductor industry has shifted from vertical integrated model to horizontal specialization model in term of integrated circuit manufacturing. In this circumstance, IP cores as solutions for System-on-Chip (SoC) have become increasingly important for semiconductor business. This paper examines to what extent IP cores of SoC effectively can be protected by current intellectual property system including integrated circuit layout design law, patent law, design law, copyright law and unfair competition prevention act.

  7. A novel OPC method to reduce mask volume with yield-aware dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chunlei; Chen Ye; Shi Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Growing data volume of masks tremendously increases manufacture cost. The cost increase is partially due to the complicated optical proximity corrections applied on mask design. In this paper, a yield-aware dissection method is presented. Based on the recognition of yield related mask context, the dissection result provides sufficient degrees of freedom to keep fidelity on critical sites while still retaining the frugality of modified designs. Experiments show that the final mask volume using the new method is reduced to about 50% of the conventional method. (semiconductor technology)

  8. Analysis and Improvement of the Generic Higher-Order Masking Scheme of FSE 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Arnab; Venkatesh, Srinivas Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Masking is a well-known technique used to prevent block cipher implementations from side-channel attacks. Higher-order side channel attacks (e.g. higher-order DPA attack) on widely used block cipher like AES have motivated the design of efficient higher-order masking schemes. Indeed, it is known that as the masking order increases, the difficulty of side-channel attack increases exponentially. However, the main problem in higher-order masking is to design an efficient and secure technique for...

  9. AutoMOPS--B2B and B2C in mask making: mask manufacturing performance and customer satisfaction improvement through better information flow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Luc; Filies, Olaf; Rodriguez, Ben; Kuijken, Aart

    2001-04-01

    Through application of modern supply chain concepts in combination with state-of-the-art information technology, mask manufacturing performance and customer satisfaction can be improved radically. The AutoMOPS solution emphasizes on the elimination of the order verification through paperless, electronically linked information sharing/exchange between chip design, mask production and prototype production stages.

  10. The performances of standard and ResMed masks during bag-valve-mask ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Youn; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Lee, Byung Kook; Lee, Seung Joon; Jung, Yong Hun; Lee, Geo Sung; Min, Yong Il; Heo, Tag

    2013-01-01

    A tight mask seal is frequently difficult to obtain and maintain during single-rescuer bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation. The ResMed mask (Bella Vista, NSW, Australia) is a continuous-positive-airway-pressure mask (CM) designed for noninvasive ventilation. In this study, we compared the ventilation performances of a standard mask (SM) and a ResMed CM using a simulation manikin in an out-of-hospital single-rescuer BVM ventilation scenario. Thirty emergency medical technicians (EMTs) performed two 2-minute attempts to ventilate a simulation manikin using BVM ventilation, alternatively, with the SM or the ResMed CM in a randomized order. Ventilation parameters including tidal volume and peak airway pressure were measured using computer analysis software connected to the simulation manikin. Successful volume delivery was defined as delivery of 440-540 mL of tidal volume in accord with present cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines. BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM produced higher mean (± standard deviation) tidal volumes (452 ± 50 mL vs. 394 ± 113 mL, p = 0.014) and had a higher proportion of successful volume deliveries (65.3% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.001) than that using the SM. Peak airway pressure was higher in BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM (p = 0.035). Stomach insufflation did not occur during either method. Twenty-nine of the participants (96.7%) preferred BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM. BVM ventilations using ResMed CM resulted in a significantly higher proportion of successful volume deliveries meeting the currently recommended range of tidal volume. Clinical studies are needed to determine the value of the ResMed CM for BVM ventilation.

  11. 78 FR 66756 - Extension of the Designation of Somalia for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services [CIS No. 2538-13; DHS Docket No. USCIS-2013-0006] RIN 1615-ZB24 Extension of the Designation of Somalia for Temporary Protected Status Correction In notice document 2013-25969 beginning on page 65690 in the issue of Friday, November...

  12. Eco-friendly design of scour protection: potential enhancement of ecological functioning in offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengkeek, Wouter; Didderen, K.; Teunis, M.; Driessen, F.; Coolen, J.W.P.; Bos, O.G.; Vergouwen, S.A.; Raaijmakers, T.; Vries, de M.B.; Koningsveld, van M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the possibilities to implement ‘Building with North Sea Nature’ in offshore infrastructures in the North Sea by providing guidelines for the eco-friendly design of scour protection structures around monopiles in planned wind farms to enhance ecological

  13. Guide for design and application of protective instrumentation for experiments in the BSR and ORR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, K.W.

    1977-03-01

    This report is a guide for the design and application of protective instrumentation for experiments that are to be operated in the Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) or the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and are to be connected to the reactor power-reduction and alarm systems

  14. Design and evaluation of a Flight Envelope Protection haptic feedback system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Rodriguez Martin, M.J.M.; Lombaerts, T; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a shared control, haptic feedback system to communicate Flight Envelope Protection System intent. The concept uses a combination of stiffness feedback and vibration to communicate proximity of the aircraft state to flight envelope boundaries. In

  15. Data protection by design als argument in het FBI vs. Appledebat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, Sascha; Cuijpers, Colette

    Adhering to a strict interpretation, Data Protection by Design (DPbD) can conflict with the needs of law enforcement in their fight against terrorism and criminality. An illustration of this tension can be found in the case of FBI vs. Apple, where the FBI wants Apple to help bypass security on an

  16. Things and Words About Them: On the Legal Protection of Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann-Lock, Stina

    2011-01-01

    Traditional registration of design relied on the deposit of an example of the thing itself; the Registrar who held things thus deposited was responsible for ensuring that they would be protected from unauthorized imitation. The material thing itself is to be the standard against which copies can ...

  17. Protection against internal fires and explosions in the design of nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Experience of the past two decades in the operation of nuclear power plants and modern analysis techniques confirm that fire may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the beginning of the design process throughout the life of the plant. Within the framework of the NUSS programme, a Safety Guide on fire protection had therefore been developed to enlarge on the general requirements given in the Code. Since its first publication in 1979, there has been considerable development in protection technology and analysis methods and after the Chernobyl accident it was decided to revise the existing Guide. This Safety Guide supplements the requirements established in Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It supersedes Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 (Rev. 1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants: A Safety Guide, issued in 1992.The present Safety Guide is intended to advise designers, safety assessors and regulators on the concept of fire protection in the design of nuclear power plants and on recommended ways of implementing the concept in some detail in practice

  18. Optimized logarithmic phase masks used to generate defocus invariant modulation transfer function for wavefront coding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Yingcai

    2010-08-01

    In a previous Letter [Opt. Lett. 33, 1171 (2008)], we proposed an improved logarithmic phase mask by making modifications to the original one designed by Sherif. However, further studies in another paper [Appl. Opt. 49, 229 (2010)] show that even when the Sherif mask and the improved one are optimized, their corresponding defocused modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are still not stable with respect to focus errors. So, by further modifying their phase profiles, we design another two logarithmic phase masks that exhibit more stable defocused MTF. However, with the defocus-induced phase effect considered, we find that the performance of the two masks proposed in this Letter is better than the Sherif mask, but worse than our previously proposed phase mask, according to the Hilbert space angle.

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection consideration in the design of research and development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear safety is a critically important aspect that must be considered in the design of a nuclear facility in order to ensure the protection of the workers, public and environment. This paper looks at the methodology, approach and incorporation of this aspect, specifically into the design of a research and development facility. The Health, Safety and Environmental Basis of Design is an initial analysis of nuclear safety and radiation protection considerations that is performed during the conceptual design phase and sets the baseline for what the design of the facility must conform to. It consists of general nuclear safety design principles, such as defence in depth and optimisation considerations, and a hazard management strategy. Following the Health, Safety and Environmental Basis of Design, a Preliminary Safety Assessment Report is generated during the basic design phase in conjunction with various analyses in order to assess the impact of hazards on the workers and members of the public. This assessment follows a hazard graded approach where the depth of the analysis will be determined by the impact of the worst case accident scenario in the facility. The assessment also includes a waste management strategy which is an essential aspect to be considered in the design in order to minimize the generation of waste. The safety assessment also demonstrates compliance to dose limits and risk criteria for the workers and members of the public set by the regulatory body and supported by a legal framework. Measures are taken to keep risk as low as reasonably achievable and prevent transgression of the risk and dose limits. However, a balance needs to be maintained between 5 reducing these doses further and the cost of such a reduction, which is known as optimization. It is therefore imperative to have nuclear safety specialists analyse the design in order to protect the worker and member of the public from unwarranted exposure to nuclear radiation. (author)

  20. Electrostatic mask for active targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J; Gangnant, P; Libin, J-F; Raabe, R; Roger, T; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Gibelin, J; Goth, M

    2012-01-01

    Active gas targets have been used in nuclear physics since 30 years. They are promising systems in view of the new exotic beams soon available at facilities like SPIRAL2 or FAIR, but the system can still be improved. One of the main limitation is the dynamic range in energy deposition. The energy deposited per unit length can be 3 decades higher for the beam than for the light reaction products and the risk to saturate the electronics or that the detector spark are not negligible. A simple solution using a wire plane to mask partially the beam is presented here. Some simulation has been realized and some experimental results are shown confirming the feasibility of this wire tunable mask. The mask can be used from full transparency to full opacity without degrading neither the drift electric field of the chamber nor the performances of detection of the beam or the light products.

  1. 14 CFR 193.7 - What does it mean for the FAA to designate information as protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What does it mean for the FAA to designate... INFORMATION § 193.7 What does it mean for the FAA to designate information as protected? (a) General. When the FAA issues an order designating information as protected under this part, the FAA does not disclose...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Watershed Index Online Hydrologically Connected Zone Mask for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Hydrologically Connected Zone (HCZ) Mask was determined using grid analysis to combine surface water features in the United States from three datasets: First,...

  3. The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) as an alternative to airway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To evaluate the possibility of airway management using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) during dental procedures on mentally retarded (MR) patients and patients with genetic diseases. Design: A prospective pilot study. Setting: University Hospital. Methods: A pilot study was designed to induce general ...

  4. Self-masking subtraction tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, D.P.; Yester, M.V.; Barnes, G.T.; Lakshminarayanan, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    The authors tested the image quality and dose savings of self-masking subtraction tomosynthesis (SST), which combines digital tomosynthesis with subtraction of a blurred self-mask. High-quality images of the inner ear of a head phantom were obtained at moderate dose savings. Although they were taken with linear motion, they did not exhibit the streaking due to off-fulcrum objects that is characteristic of conventional linear tomography. SST could reduce patient dose by a factor of at least 12 in examinations of the inner ear, and the mechanical aspects can be implemented with moderate modifications of existing instrumentation

  5. Cycle time reduction by Html report in mask checking flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lu, Min-Ying; Fang, Xiang; Shen, Ming-Feng; Ma, Shou-Yuan; Yang, Chuen-Huei; Tsai, Joe; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Liao, Hung-Yueh; Tsai, Jenny; Bowhill, Amanda; Vu, Hien; Russell, Gordon

    2017-07-01

    The Mask Data Correctness Check (MDCC) is a reticle-level, multi-layer DRC-like check evolved from mask rule check (MRC). The MDCC uses extended job deck (EJB) to achieve mask composition and to perform a detailed check for positioning and integrity of each component of the reticle. Different design patterns on the mask will be mapped to different layers. Therefore, users may be able to review the whole reticle and check the interactions between different designs before the final mask pattern file is available. However, many types of MDCC check results, such as errors from overlapping patterns usually have very large and complex-shaped highlighted areas covering the boundary of the design. Users have to load the result OASIS file and overlap it to the original database that was assembled in MDCC process on a layout viewer, then search for the details of the check results. We introduce a quick result-reviewing method based on an html format report generated by Calibre® RVE. In the report generation process, we analyze and extract the essential part of result OASIS file to a result database (RDB) file by standard verification rule format (SVRF) commands. Calibre® RVE automatically loads the assembled reticle pattern and generates screen shots of these check results. All the processes are automatically triggered just after the MDCC process finishes. Users just have to open the html report to get the information they need: for example, check summary, captured images of results and their coordinates.

  6. Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F.; Ebel, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy's International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy's program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC ampersand A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC ampersand A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC ampersand A Programs

  7. Emergency Face-Mask Removal Effectiveness: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Football Helmet Face-Mask Attachment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E.; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C.; Armstrong, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. Objective: To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Applied biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. Intervention(s): The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Main Outcome Measure(s): Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Results: Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F4,20  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F4,20  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected

  8. Clinch River breeder reactor sodium fire protection system design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.W.; Boasso, C.J.; Kaushal, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    To assure the protection of the public and plant equipment, improbable accidents were hypothesized to form the basis for the design of safety systems. One such accident is the postulated failure of the Intermediate Heat Transfer System (IHTS) piping within the Steam Generator Building (SGB), resulting in a large-scale sodium fire. This paper discusses the design and development of plant features to reduce the consequences of the accident to acceptable levels. Additional design solutions were made to mitigate the sodium spray contribution to the accident scenario. Sodium spill tests demonstrated that large sodium leaks can be safely controlled in a sodium-cooled nuclear power plant

  9. Specification of indoor climate design parameters at the assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornienko Sergey Valer’evich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to wide implementation of enveloping structures with increased heat-insulation properties in modern construction here appeared a necessity to assess their moisture conditions. Assessment of moisture conditions of enveloping structures is carried out according to maximum allowable moisture state basing on determining the surface of maximum damping. In relation to it the necessity of additional vapour barrier is checked using moisture balance equation. Though the change of indoor climate parameters in premises is not taken into account in moisture balance equations defined for different seasons. The author improves the method of calculating moisture protective parameters of enclosing structures according to the maximum allowable damping state for a year and a period of moisture accumulation. It is shown in this article that accounting of temperature and relative humidity change of inside air allows specifying calculated parameters of indoor climate in residential and office rooms in assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures for the case of an effective enclosing structure with a façade heat-insulation composite system. Coordinates of the maximum moistened surface of the envelope depends on indoor climate design parameters. It is concluded that the increase of requirements for moisture protection of enclosing structures when using design values of temperature and relative humidity of internal air according to the Russian regulation (SP 50.13330.2012 is not always reasonable. Accounting of changes of indoor climate parameters allows more precise assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures during their design.

  10. Prevention of oral bacterial flora transmission by using mouth-to-mask ventilation during CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydulka, R K; Connor, P J; Myers, T F; Pavza, G; Parker, M

    1991-01-01

    The Emergency Cardiac Care Committee of the American Heart Association has recently recommended utilizing protective barrier precautions during CPR (1,2). We assessed 17 mask and faceshield resuscitation devices for adequacy of barrier protection. Eight of the devices were faceshields (CPR Microshield, Hygenic, MedCare Mask, Resusci, Samaritan, Sealeasy, Portex); 8 were mask devices (Laerdal, Dyna Med, MTM Emergency Lung Ventilator, MTM Emergency Resuscitator, Res-Q-Flo, Rightway Mouth-to-Mask Resuscitation, Trufit), and one of the devices did not meet the criteria for either faceshield or mask (Lifesaver). All masks were disinfected, applied to the investigator's face as directed by the manufacturers' instructions, and then cultured for oral aerobic bacterial flora on the rescuer side. No mask devices cultured positive for oral aerobic bacterial flora, while 6 of 8 faceshield devices cultured positive for oral aerobic bacterial flora (P less than 0.007). The CPR Microshield and the Portex faceshield were the only devices that did not develop a positive culture. We conclude that all ventilation devices with a one-way valve, except the Sealeasy device, provide adequate barrier type protection from oral aerobic bacterial flora when simulating mouth-to-barrier type protection when performing mouth-to-mouth ventilation.

  11. A Design and Research on Protection of Architectural Heritage Based on Digital Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Shuang Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of digital information, how to reasonably use new-tech and idea for the architectural heritage protection remains urgent. In terms of digital protection, 3D laser scanning technology can perfectly remedy the manual measurement limitation thus correctly obtaining the relevant data. Via analysis, we find that the architectural heritage bears in itself the parameterized characteristic. As Building Information Modeling (BIM can help realize the parametric design, we proposed a feasible Architectural Heritage Information Model with the BIM “family” connecting architectural heritage and BIM. Finally, the parameter-induced graphic driving is achieved based on the relation between the two.

  12. Masked hypertension in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood...

  13. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  14. [Thermoplastic mask in radiotherapy: a source of anxiety for the patient?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arino, C; Stadelmaier, N; Dupin, C; Kantor, G; Henriques de Figueiredo, B

    2014-12-01

    The thermoplastic mask often used to immobilize patients in radiotherapy can cause varying levels of stress and anxiety. This study aimed at evaluating the anxiety related to the use of radiotherapy masks and the coping strategies adopted by patients. Nineteen patients treated with radiotherapy mask for head and neck cancer, a brain tumour or a lymphoma, were met twice by a psychologist, either after the making of the mask and the first course of radiotherapy, or in the middle and at the end of treatment. Thirty-four semi-structured interviews were treated using a thematic content analysis and 13 patients answered to anxiety (STAI-YB) and coping (WCC) scales. The STAI-YB anxiety scores related to wearing the masks were low during the radiotherapy treatment period, and were confirmed by the remarks of patients recorded during the semi-structured interviews. Most patients had a positive perception of the mask, and considered it as a friend or protection. Twelve out of the 13 patients admitting to anxiety benefited from problem focused coping strategies. Thermoplastic mask-related anxiety is low and possibly lies in the positive representation patients have about the mask. The explanations provided by health professionals on the radiotherapy mask possibly have a very positive effect on this perception. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Marine protected area design patterns in the Mediterranean Sea: Implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D; Rodríguez, J; Blanco, J M; Abdul Malak, D

    2016-09-15

    Mediterranean marine protected area (MPA) design patterns regarding geographic distribution, size, spacing and shape were analysed as a proxy of the region's MPA's ecological effectiveness and a first step towards an ecologically coherent MPA network. Results for legally designated MPAs and ecologically functional MPAs accounting for overlaps are presented. Geographically, Mediterranean MPA area is very unevenly distributed, with four-fifths concentrated in just three countries of the north-western part of the basin. Average distance between functional MPAs lies within recommended ecological thresholds, which suggests adequate potential connectivity of the Mediterranean MPA system. Mediterranean designated MPAs are larger than MPAs worldwide on average, although they are generally smaller than international guidance suggests at different levels: ecoregion, country and designation category. On average, Mediterranean designated and functional MPAs have relatively high compactness, which makes them prone to spillover and adequate viability, and less vulnerable to edge effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of radiation protection in x rays room design in diagnostic radiography department in Omdurman locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Ahmed yusif Abdelrahman

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is conducted in order to evaluate the application of radiation protection in x-ray rooms design in diagnosis radiology department, evaluate personal monitoring devices, to assess primary scatter and leakage radiation dose, to assess monitoring devices if available, in period from March 2013 to August 2013. The design data included room size, control room size, manufacture of equipment, room surrounding areas, workload of all equipment rooms, type of x-ray equipment, radiation worker's in all hospital, number of patient in each shift, structural material and shielding, K vp and m As used in x-ray room department during examination testing. The results of this study show that there is x-ray room design, the design of x-ray equipment is accepted according to the radiation safety institute team of quality control. Also the study shows that the radiation protection devices are available and in a good condition and enough in number. The study shows that there are not personal monitoring devices and services. the radiological technologist are well trained. Also the study investigation the radiation protection in x-ray room in diagnostic department in Omdurman locality. Finally the study shows that there is compact able to ICRP recommended and National quality control in Sudan Atomic Energy Council exception, Alwedad, Abusied and Blue Nile there are have not control room concludes that there is only in relationship hospital have a window without shield.(Author)

  17. Emergency face-mask removal effectiveness: a comparison of traditional and nontraditional football helmet face-mask attachment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C; Armstrong, Charles W

    2010-01-01

    Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Controlled laboratory study. Applied biomechanics laboratory. Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F(4,20)  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected in RPE during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  43.20, P  =  .001), with participants reporting average

  18. "The Mask Who Wasn't There": Visual Masking Effect with the Perceptual Absence of the Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Amandine Eve; Riou, Benoit; Muller, Dominique; Dabic, Stéphanie; Versace, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Does a visual mask need to be perceptually present to disrupt processing? In the present research, we proposed to explore the link between perceptual and memory mechanisms by demonstrating that a typical sensory phenomenon (visual masking) can be replicated at a memory level. Experiment 1 highlighted an interference effect of a visual mask on the…

  19. Conceptual Design of the LHC Beam Dumping Protection Elements TCDS and TCDQ

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Sans-Merce, M; Weterings, W

    2004-01-01

    The Beam Dumping System for the Large Hadron Collider, presently under construction at CERN, consists, per ring, of a set of horizontally deflecting extraction kicker magnets, vertically deflecting steel septa, dilution kickers and finally, a couple of hundred metres further downstream, an absorber block. A fixed diluter (TCDS) will protect the septa in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the particle free gap or a spontaneous firing of the extraction kickers which will cause the beam to sweep over the septum. Another, mobile, diluter block (TCDQ) will protect the superconducting quadrupole immediate downstream of the extraction as well as the arc at injection energy and the triplet aperture at top energy from bunches with small impact parameters. This paper describes the conceptual design of the protection elements.

  20. Comparison of bougie-guided insertion of Proseal tm laryngeal mask airway with digital technique in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kuppusamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Proseal TM laryngeal mask airway (PLMA TM , Laryngeal Mask Company, UK was designed to improve ventilatory characteristics and offer protection against regurgitation and gastric insufflation. The PLMA is a modified laryngeal mask airway with large ventral cuff, dorsal cuff and a drain tube. These modifications improve seal around glottis and enable better ventilatory characteristics. The drain tube prevents gastric distension and offers protection against aspiration. There were occasional problems, like failed insertion and inadequate ventilation, in placing PLMA TM using the classical digital technique. To overcome these problems, newer placement techniques like thumb insertion technique, introducer tool placement and gum elastic bougie (GEB-aided placement were devised. We compared classical digital placement of PLMA TM with gum elastic bougie-aided technique in 60 anaesthetised adult patients (with 30 patients in each group with respect to number of attempts to successful placement, effective airway time, airway trauma during insertion, postoperative airway morbidity and haemodynamic response to insertion. The number of attempts to successful placement, airway trauma during insertion and haemodynamic response to insertion were comparable among the two groups, while effective airway time and oropharyngeal leak pressure were significantly higher in bougie- guided insertion of PLMA. Postoperatively, sore throat was more frequent with digital technique while dysphagia was more frequent with bougie-guided technique. Hence gum elastic bougie guided, laryngoscope aided insertion of PLMA is an excellent alternate to classical digital technique.

  1. Automatic pattern localization across layout database and photolithography mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Philippe; Brault, Frederic; Beisser, Eric; Ache, Oliver; Röth, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Advanced process photolithography masks require more and more controls for registration versus design and critical dimension uniformity (CDU). The distribution of the measurement points should be distributed all over the whole mask and may be denser in areas critical to wafer overlay requirements. This means that some, if not many, of theses controls should be made inside the customer die and may use non-dedicated patterns. It is then mandatory to access the original layout database to select patterns for the metrology process. Finding hundreds of relevant patterns in a database containing billions of polygons may be possible, but in addition, it is mandatory to create the complete metrology job fast and reliable. Combining, on one hand, a software expertise in mask databases processing and, on the other hand, advanced skills in control and registration equipment, we have developed a Mask Dataprep Station able to select an appropriate number of measurement targets and their positions in a huge database and automatically create measurement jobs on the corresponding area on the mask for the registration metrology system. In addition, the required design clips are generated from the database in order to perform the rendering procedure on the metrology system. This new methodology has been validated on real production line for the most advanced process. This paper presents the main challenges that we have faced, as well as some results on the global performances.

  2. Gestalt grouping and common onset masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Todd A; Mathis, Katherine M

    2002-11-01

    A four-dot mask that surrounds and is presented simultaneously with a briefly presented target will reduce a person's ability to identity that target if the mask persists beyond target offset and attention is divided (Enns & Di Lollo, 1997, 2000). This masking effect, referred to as common onset masking, reflects reentrant processing in the visual system and can best be explained with a theory of object substitution (Di Lollo, Enns, & Rensink, 2000). In the present experiments, we investigated whether Gestalt grouping variables would influence the strength of common onset masking. The results indicated that (1) masking was impervious to grouping by form, similarity of color, position, luminance polarity, and common region and (2) masking increased with the number of elements in the masking display.

  3. A mask quality control tool for the OSIRIS multi-object spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, J. C.; Vaz Cedillo, Jacinto Javier; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Ángel; González Escalera, Víctor

    2012-09-01

    OSIRIS multi object spectrograph uses a set of user-customised-masks, which are manufactured on-demand. The manufacturing process consists of drilling the specified slits on the mask with the required accuracy. Ensuring that slits are on the right place when observing is of vital importance. We present a tool for checking the quality of the process of manufacturing the masks which is based on analyzing the instrument images obtained with the manufactured masks on place. The tool extracts the slit information from these images, relates specifications with the extracted slit information, and finally communicates to the operator if the manufactured mask fulfills the expectations of the mask designer. The proposed tool has been built using scripting languages and using standard libraries such as opencv, pyraf and scipy. The software architecture, advantages and limits of this tool in the lifecycle of a multiobject acquisition are presented.

  4. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950's with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405's Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities' Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins)

  5. Study of shape evaluation for mask and silicon using large field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Shinichi; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2010-09-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The aim of this integration is evaluating the performance of the silicon corresponding to Hotspot on a mask. It can use the mask shape of a large field, besides. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. Currently, as semiconductor manufacture moves towards even smaller feature size, this necessitates more aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) to drive the super-resolution technology (RET). In other words, there is a trade-off between highly precise RET and mask manufacture, and this has a big impact on the semiconductor market that centers on the mask business. As an optimal solution to these issues, we provide a DFM solution that extracts 2-dimensional data for a more realistic and error-free simulation by reproducing accurately the contour of the actual mask, in addition to the simulation results from the mask data. On the other hand, there is roughness in the silicon form made from a mass-production line. Moreover, there is variation in the silicon form. For this reason, quantification of silicon form is important, in order to estimate the performance of a pattern. In order to quantify, the same form is equalized in two dimensions. And the method of evaluating based on the form is popular. In this study, we conducted experiments for averaging method of the pattern (Measurement Based Contouring) as two-dimensional mask and silicon evaluation technique. That is, observation of the identical position of a mask and a silicon was considered. The result proved its detection accuracy and reliability of variability on two-dimensional pattern (mask and silicon) and is adaptable to following fields of mask quality management. •Discrimination of nuisance defects for fine pattern. •Determination of two-dimensional variability of

  6. Protection Heater Design Validation for the LARP Magnets Using Thermal Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Marchevsky, M; Cheng, D W; Felice, H; Sabbi, G; Salmi, T; Stenvall, A; Chlachidze, G; Ambrosio, G; Ferracin, P; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Perez, J C; Todesco, E

    2016-01-01

    Protection heaters are essential elements of a quench protection scheme for high-field accelerator magnets. Various heater designs fabricated by LARP and CERN have been already tested in the LARP high-field quadrupole HQ and presently being built into the coils of the high-field quadrupole MQXF. In order to compare the heat flow characteristics and thermal diffusion timescales of different heater designs, we powered heaters of two different geometries in ambient conditions and imaged the resulting thermal distributions using a high-sensitivity thermal video camera. We observed a peculiar spatial periodicity in the temperature distribution maps potentially linked to the structure of the underlying cable. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of heat diffusion and spatial heat distribution have been conducted, and the results of simulation and experiment have been compared. Imaging revealed hot spots due to a current concentration around high curvature points of heater strip of varying cross sections and visuali...

  7. A design of high-precision BLDCM drive with bus voltage protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xuezheng; Wang, Haitao; Xie, Meilin; Huang, Wei; Li, Dawei; Jing, Feng

    2017-11-01

    In the application of space satellite turntable, the design of balance wheel is very necessary. To solve the acquisition precision of Brushless DC motor speed is low, and the encoder is also more complex, this paper improves the original hall signal measurement methods. Using the logic device to achieve the six frequency multiplication of hall signal, the signal is used as speed feedback to achieve speed closed-loop control and improve the speed stability. At the same time, in order to prevent the E.M.F of BLDC motor to raise the voltage of the bus bar when reversing or braking, and affect the normal operation of other circuit modules, the analog circuit is used to protect the bus bar voltage by the way of energy consumption braking. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical design, and the rationality and feasibility of the frequency multiplication scheme and bus voltage protection scheme are verified.

  8. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  9. Rational Design and Synthesis of Efficient Sunscreens To Boost the Solar Protection Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losantos, Raúl; Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; Aguilera, José; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique; García-Iriepa, Cristina; Campos, Pedro J; Sampedro, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in the last decades, but most of the commercial formulations used as sunscreens are designed to protect only against solar erythema. Many of the active components present in sunscreens show critical weaknesses, such as low stability and toxicity. Thus, the development of more efficient components is an urgent health necessity and an attractive industrial target. We have rationally designed core moieties with increased photoprotective capacities and a new energy dissipation mechanism. Using these scaffolds, we have synthesized a series of compounds with tunable properties suitable for their use in sunscreens, and enhanced properties in terms of stability, light energy dissipation, and toxicity. Moreover, some representative compounds were included in final sunscreen formulations and a relevant solar protection factor boost was measured. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Code of practice and design principles for installed radiological protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.G.

    1979-03-01

    For some years there has been comprehensive guidance documentation for Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation, but apparently no corresponding guide for designers and installers of Radiological Protection Instrumentation. A small group of instrumentation engineers discussed this lack of a suitable guide, and they examined the main points on which it should be based. This document attempts to present a comprehensive and detailed review of these points. It is intended to give an overall coverage and serve as a reference document for specific points; it should also be of value to the newcomer to the Radiological Protection Instrumentation field. This Code of Practice represents a standard of good practice and takes the form of recommendations only. Each installation must be assessed individually, and agreement on its suitability must be reached locally by the designers and the officers responsible for safety and operation. (author)

  11. Rock riprap design methods and their applicability to long-term protection of uranium mill tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.

    1982-08-01

    This report reviews the more accepted or recommended riprap design methods currently used to design rock riprap protection against soil erosion by flowing water. The basic theories used to develop the various methods are presented. The Riprap Design with Safety Factors Method is identified as the logical choice for uranium mill tailings impoundments. This method is compared to the other methods and its applicability to the protection requirements of tailings impoundments is discussed. Other design problems are identified and investigative studies recommended

  12. Final analysis and design of a thermal protection system for 8-foot HTST combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, S.

    1973-01-01

    The cylindrical shell combustor with T-bar supports in the 8-foot HTST at the NASA-Langley Research Center encountered vibratory fatigue cracking over a period of 50-250 tunnel tests within a limited range of the required operating envelope. A preliminary design study provided several suitable thermal protection system designs for the combustor, one of which was a two-pass regenerative type air-cooled omega-shaped segment liner. A final design layout of the omega segment liner was prepared and analyzed for steady-state and transient conditions. The design of a support system for the fuel spray bar assembly was also included. Detail drawings suitable for fabrication purposes were also prepared. Liner design problems defined during the preliminary study included (1) the ingress of gas into the attachment bulb section of the omega segment, (2) the large thermal gradient along the leg of the omega bulb attachment section and, (3) the local peak metal temperature at the radius between the liner ID and the leg of the bulb attachment. These were resolved during the final design task. Analyses of the final design of the omega segment liner indicated that all design goals were met and the design provided the capability of operating over the required test envelope with a life expectancy substantially above the goal of 1500 cycles.

  13. Design of readout electronics for BES III online dose rate monitoring and protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shiming; Gong Guanghua; Shao Beibei; Li Jin

    2006-01-01

    To protect the beam pipe of BES III, Si PIN diodes will be used as detectors to monitor the dose rate level near the IP area. Analog to digital conversion is selected to read out the current signals of Si PIN diodes. Several low current amplifying and measuring methods are compared, mainly describing the theory of operation, software and hardware design and performance of the A/D conversion circuit. (authors)

  14. Smart Clothing for Falls Protection and Detection: User-Centred Co-Design and Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Katherine; Burton, Thomas; Ariss, Steven; Bradburn, Mike; Hawley, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence and impact of hip fractures on the health and wealth of nations is a global problem and source of health inequalities. This paper reports on the co-design and feasibility testing of a new range of protective, smart clothing. The feasibility of research in a population of older adults in supported living is explored, as are the conceptualisation and measurement of adherence.

  15. Overall design concepts for the APS storage ring machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.; Fuja, R.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Shu, D.; Stepp, J.; Arnold, N.; Nawrocki, G.; Decker, G.; Chung, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The basic design and status of the machine protection system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are discussed. The machine is passively safe to the bending magnet sources, but the high power of the insertion devices requires missteering conditions to be identified and the beam aborted in less than one millisecond. The basic aspects of waterflow, temperature, beam position, etc. monitoring are addressed. Initial commissioning of subsystems and sensors is statused

  16. 21 CFR 868.5590 - Scavenging mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scavenging mask. 868.5590 Section 868.5590 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5590 Scavenging mask. (a) Identification. A scavenging mask is a device positioned over a patient's nose to deliver anesthetic or analgesic gases to the...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5580 - Oxygen mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen mask. 868.5580 Section 868.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5580 Oxygen mask. (a) Identification. An oxygen mask is a device...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5570 - Nonrebreathing mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonrebreathing mask. 868.5570 Section 868.5570...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5570 Nonrebreathing mask. (a) Identification. A nonrebreathing mask is a device fitting over a patient's face to administer oxygen. It utilizes...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5600 - Venturi mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venturi mask. 868.5600 Section 868.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5600 Venturi mask. (a) Identification. A venturi mask is a...

  20. Rates of initial acceptance of PAP masks and outcomes of mask switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachour, Adel; Vitikainen, Pirjo; Maasilta, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we noticed a considerable development in alleviating problems related to positive airway pressure (PAP) masks. In this study, we report on the initial PAP mask acceptance rates and the effects of mask switching on mask-related symptoms. We prospectively collected all cases of mask switching in our sleep unit for a period of 14 months. At the time of the study, we used ResMed™ CPAP devices and masks. Mask switching was defined as replacing a mask used for at least 1 day with another type of mask. Changing to a different size but keeping the same type of mask did not count as mask switching. Switching outcomes were considered failed if the initial problem persisted or reappeared during the year that followed switching. Our patient pool was 2768. We recorded 343 cases of mask switching among 267 patients. Of the 566 patients who began new PAP therapy, 108 (39 women) had switched masks, yielding an initial mask acceptance rate of 81 %. The reason for switching was poor-fit/uncomfortable mask in 39 %, leak-related in 30 %, outdated model in 25 %, and nasal stuffiness in 6 % of cases; mask switching resolved these problems in 61 %. Mask switching occurred significantly (p = 0.037) more often in women and in new PAP users. The odds ratio for abandoning PAP therapy within 1 year after mask switching was 7.2 times higher (interval 4.7-11.1) than not switching masks. The initial PAP mask acceptance rate was high. Patients who switched their masks are at greater risk for abandoning PAP therapy.

  1. Masking and Partial Masking in Listeners with a High-Frequency Hearing Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.T.S.; Duifhuis, H.

    1982-01-01

    3 listeners with sensorineural hearing loss ranging from moderate to moderate-severe starting at frequencies higher than 1 kHz participated in two masking experiments and a partial masking experiment. In the first masking experiment, fM = 1 kHz and LM = 50 dB SPL, higher than normal masked

  2. Cost and performance analysis of conceptual designs of physical protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, M.J.; Snell, M.S.; Sandoval, J.S.; Potter, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    CPA -- Cost and Performance Analysis -- is a methodology that joins Activity Based Cost (ABC) estimation with performance based analysis of physical protection systems. CPA offers system managers an approach that supports both tactical decision making and strategic planning. Current exploratory applications of the CPA methodology are addressing analysis of alternative conceptual designs. To support these activities, the original architecture for CPA, is being expanded to incorporate results from a suite of performance and consequence analysis tools such as JTS (Joint Tactical Simulation), ERAD (Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion) and blast effect models. The process flow for applying CPA to the development and analysis conceptual designs is illustrated graphically

  3. Architectural and structural engineering aspects of protective design for nuclear power plants against terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musacchio, J.M.; Rozen, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several threat studies which have been performed, provides collective data on costs, and discusses, in a general sense, architectural/structural aspects of passive protection design measures which have been developed and utilized at several nuclear power plants. By combining relevant architectural and structural measures in the standard design, it is possible to substantially reduce the vulnerability of nuclear power plants to terrorist attack and the estimated damage to a manageable level with a minimal investment. (orig./HP)

  4. Systematic approach to the conceptual design of physical protection systems for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    A three-step approach is described which includes (1) facility characterization, (2) development and evaluation of hardware-based safeguards systems configurations, and (3) hardware and response force trade-off analysis. The purpose of the report is to establish a vehicle for initial examination and discussion by potential industry and government users of a formal sequence of activities for the conceptual design of physical protection systems and to identify currently available design tools, such as application reports, handbooks, and computer codes which might support these activities. 17 figs

  5. 14 CFR 193.9 - Will the FAA ever disclose information that is designated as protected under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the FAA ever disclose information that... VOLUNTARILY SUBMITTED INFORMATION § 193.9 Will the FAA ever disclose information that is designated as protected under this part? The FAA discloses information that is designated as protected under this part...

  6. Applying Triple-Matrix Masking for Privacy Preserving Data Collection and Sharing in HIV Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qinglin; Chen, Shigang; Xiao, Yao; Wu, Samuel S

    2016-01-01

    Many HIV research projects are plagued by the high missing rate of selfreported information during data collection. Also, due to the sensitive nature of the HIV research data, privacy protection is always a concern for data sharing in HIV studies. This paper applies a data masking approach, called triple-matrix masking [1], to the context of HIV research for ensuring privacy protection during the process of data collection and data sharing. Using a set of generated HIV patient data, we show step by step how the data are randomly transformed (masked) before leaving the patients' individual data collection device (which ensures that nobody sees the actual data) and how the masked data are further transformed by a masking service provider and a data collector. We demonstrate that the masked data retain statistical utility of the original data, yielding the exactly same inference results in the planned logistic regression on the effect of age on the adherence to antiretroviral therapy and in the Cox proportional hazard model for the age effect on time to viral load suppression. Privacy-preserving data collection method may help resolve the privacy protection issue in HIV research. The individual sensitive data can be completely hidden while the same inference results can still be obtained from the masked data, with the use of common statistical analysis methods.

  7. Occupational Radiological Protection Principles and Criteria for Designing New Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Global demand for electricity continues to grow and numerous new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being planned or constructed in NEA member countries. Most of these new NPPs will be of the third generation, and will be designed for as long as 80 years of operation. The successful design, construction and operation of these plants will depend broadly on appropriately implementing the lessons from experience accumulated to date. This case study introduces a policy and technical framework that may be used when formulating technical assistance and guidance for senior managers of NPPs, designers, manufacturers, contractors and authorities responsible for regulating occupational radiation exposure. It is aimed in particular at assisting design and license assessments of new NPPs. Although not targeting the needs of countries introducing nuclear power for the first time, this case study can also provide valuable input on occupational radiological protection issues for the implementation of new nuclear energy programmes

  8. Design considerations for the protection from the effects of pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    The methods which are employed by Ebasco Services, Inc. to satisfy the requirement of 10 CFR 50, Appendix A, General Design Criterion (GDC) 4 are discussed. This criterion provides the design basis for protection against the dynamic effects of postulated piping failures (ruptures and cracks) in Nuclear Power Plants. The criteria for postulating pipe failure locations, determining the dynamic effects associated with the postulated failure and designing the plant to satisfactorily withstand postulated pipe failures have been the subject of a great deal of recent work by the nuclear power industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This topical report is largely based upon that work as well as upon Ebasco's independent development of analytical tools to aid in the plant design process

  9. Masked Speech Recognition and Reading Ability in School-Age Children: Is There a Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gabrielle; Lewis, Barbara; Benchek, Penelope; Buss, Emily; Calandruccio, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between reading (decoding) skills, phonological processing abilities, and masked speech recognition in typically developing children was explored. This experiment was designed to evaluate the relationship between phonological processing and decoding abilities and 2 aspects of masked speech recognition in typically…

  10. Rights to Designaton Focusing on Protected Designations and Geographical Indications of Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilková Zuzana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue covered by the field of industrial property, it deals with the right to designation, especially with characteristics of legal regulation of labeling of products with regard to their geographical origin at the Slovak, communitarian and international levels. Individual objects of the industrial property may be the result of intellectual creative activity of its creator/creators (e.g. inventions, utility models, designs or they are not the result of creative activity of a particular natural person and are considered as industrial property rights to designation. The group of rights to designation includes: business names, trademarks, designation of origin for products and geographical indications for products. The rights to designation, inter alia, shall ensure uniqueness and competitive advantage for entrepreneurs and easy identification on the market of goods and services for the consumers. The paper closely analyzes the harmonized legal regulation of designations of origin and geographical indications of agricultural products, foodstuffs, spirit drinks, and wines. At the example of Tokaj wine region, it demonstrates the importance of protected designations at the EU level, in case of which demonstrable geographical origin of the product with controlled product specification by authorized national bodies brings a guarantee of quality of this product for consumers and the competitive advantage during their commercial implementation for the entrepreneurs.

  11. Effects of rock riprap design parameters on flood protection costs for uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the problem of long-term protection of earthen covers on decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major erosive forces acting on these covers will be river flooding and overland flow from rainfall-runoff. For impoundments adjacent to rivers, overbank flooding presents the greater potential for significant erosion. To protect the earthen covers against flood erosion, rock riprap armoring will be placed over the cover surface. Because of the large size rock usually required for riprap, the quarrying, transport, and placement of the rock could be a significant part of the decommissioning cost. This report examines the sensitivity of riprap protection costs to certain design parameters at tailings impoundments. The parameters include flood discharge, riprap materials, impoundment side slopes, and an added safety factor. Two decommissioned tailings impoundments are used as case studies for the evaluation. These are the Grand Junction, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Colorado River and the Slickrock, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Dolores River. The evaluation considers only the cost of riprap protection against flood erosion. The study results show that embankment side slope and rock specific gravity can have optimum values or ranges at a specific site. For both case study sites the optimum side slope is about 5H:1V. Of the rock sources considered at Grand Junction, the optimum specific gravity would be about 2.50; however, an optimum rock specific gravity for the Slickrock site could not be determined. Other results indicate that the arbitrary safety factor usually added in riprap design can lead to large increases in protection costs. 22 references, 19 figures, 15 tables

  12. Radiation protection aspects in the design of nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the Contracting Parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  13. Radiation protection aspects of design for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the Contracting Parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  14. Extracting messages masked by chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  15. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  16. New Y2K problem for mask making (or, Surviving mask data problems after 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Roger

    1999-08-01

    The Y2K problem has analogies in the mask-making world. With the Y2K problem where a date field has just two bytes for the year, there are some cases of mask-making data in which the file size cannot exceed 2 gigabytes. Where a two-digit date field can only unambiguously use a limited range of values (00 to 99), design coordinates can only cover a range of about 4 billion values, which is getting a little uncomfortable for all of the new applications. In retrospect, with a degree of foresight and planning the Y2K date problem could have been easily solved if new encodings had been allowed in the two- digit field. Likewise, in the mask-making industry we currently have the opportunity to achieve far superior data compression if we allow some new forms of data encoding in our data. But this will require universal agreement. The correct way to look at the Y2K problem is that some information was left out of the data stream due to common understandings that made the additional information superfluous. But as the year 2000 approaches, it has become widely recognized that missing data needs to be stated explicitly, and any ambiguities in the representation of the data will need to be eliminated with precise specifications. In a similar way, old mask data generation methods have had numerous flaws that we have been able to ignore for a long time. But now is the time to fix theses flaws and provide extended capabilities. What is not yet clear is if the old data generation methods can be modified to meet these developing needs. Unilateral action is not likely to lead to much progress, so some united effort is required by all interested parties if success is to be achieved in the brief time that remains.

  17. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show...... that the proposed method is able to minimize the target speech distortion while suppressing the crosstalk to a predetermined threshold. It is observed that compared to the STFTbased masks, the proposed sinusoidal masks improve the separation performance in terms of objective measures (SSNR and PESQ) and are mostly...

  18. A coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmore, A.P.; Skinner, G.K.; Eyles, C.J.; Ramsey, B.

    1984-01-01

    A dual coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission is now in the final stages of preparation at Birmingham University. It is due for launch in late 1984/early 1985 and will be by far the largest and most sophisticated such instrument to be flown in this time-frame. The design and capabilities of the telescope will be described. (orig.)

  19. Bending Characteristics of Foldable Touch Display Panel with a Protection Structure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chie Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes and demonstrates an enhancement of a touch display panel (TDP through a polymer-based protection structure to achieve higher bendability and reliability. The bending performance of the TDP without or with the protection structure designs is addressed using three-dimensional geometry-nonlinear finite element analysis and mechanical testing. The elastic properties of the components in the TDP structure are derived from nanoindentation and uniaxial tensile/compressive testing. The calculated results are compared with each other and also against the experimental bending fatigue test data. At last, a design guideline and optimal factor setting for enhanced bending performance are sought through parametric FE analysis and Taguchi experimental design, respectively. The optimal design is compared with the original in terms of bending stress. The simulation results show that bending would create significant tensile and compressive bending stresses on the indium tin oxide/dielectric layers, which are the main cause of several commonly observed failures, such as thin film cracking and delamination, in a thin rigid film coating on a thick compliant substrate. It also turns out that a substrate with a lower stiffness has a better mechanical stability against bending stress.

  20. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  1. Measurement of leakage and design for the protective barrier of the high energy radiation therapy room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.S.; Park, C.Y.

    1981-01-01

    The logical development of an optimum structural shielding design and the computation of protective barriers for high energy radiation therapy room, Toshiba 13 MeV are presented. We obtained following results by comparison in between the precalculating values and actual survey after complete installation of radiogenerating units. 1) The calculating formula for the protective barrier written in NCRP report no. 34(1970) was the most ideal and economic calculating methods for the construction of barrier and to determine thickness for the meeting requirements of the number of patients of 80-100 in daily treatment. 2) The precalculating values of protective barrier are 5 times more protective than that of actual measurement. It is depending on radiation workload and utilization the data most securely. 3) The dose rate during exposure are 2-10 mR/hr at out of the door and the control room. 4) The foul smelling and ozone gas production from long exposure of cancer patients cannot be estimated when the room is ill ventilated. (author)

  2. Plant dynamics studies towards design of plant protection system for PFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K., E-mail: natesan@igcar.gov.in [Nuclear and Safety Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kasinathan, N.; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P. [Nuclear and Safety Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of various design basis events in a fast breeder reactor towards design of plant protection system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plant dynamic modeling of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selection of optimum set of plant parameters for considering best plant availability. - Abstract: Prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) is a 500 MWe (1250 MWt) liquid sodium cooled pool type reactor currently under construction in India. For a safe and efficient operation of the plant, it is necessary that the reactor is protected from all the transients that may occur in the plant. In order to accomplish this, adequate number of SCRAM parameters is required in the plant protection system with reliable instrumentation. For identifying the SCRAM parameters, the neutronic and thermal hydraulic responses of the plant for various possible events need to be established. Towards this, a one dimensional plant dynamics code DYANA-P has been developed with thermal hydraulic models for reactor core, hot and cold pools, intermediate heat exchangers, pipelines, steam generator, primary sodium circuits and secondary sodium circuits. The code also incorporates neutron kinetics and reactivity feedback models. By a comprehensive plant dynamics study an optimum list of SCRAM parameters and the maximum permissible response time for various instruments used for deriving them have been arrived at.

  3. Advantages, Disadvantages, Indications, Contraindications and Surgical Technique of Laryngeal Airway Mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannu, Anubhav; Shekar, Ashim; Balakrishna, Ramdas; Sudarshan, H; Veena, G C; Bhuvaneshwari, S

    2017-12-01

    The beauty of the laryngeal mask is that it forms an air tight seal enclosing the larynx rather than plugging the pharynx, and avoid airway obstruction in the oropharynx. The goal of its development was to create an intermediate form of airway management face mask and endotracheal tube. Indication for its use includes any procedure that would normally involve the use of a face mask. The laryngeal mask airway was designed as a new concept in airway management and has been gaining a firm position in anesthetic practice. Despite wide spread use the definitive role of the laryngeal mask airway is yet to be established. In some situations, such as after failed tracheal intubation or in oral surgery its use is controversial. There are several unresolved issues, for example the effect of the laryngeal mask on regurgitation and whether or not cricoids pressure prevents placement of mask. We review the techniques of insertion, details of misplacement, and complications associated with use of the laryngeal mask. We then attempt to clarify the role of laryngeal mask in air way management during anesthesia, discussing the advantages and disadvantages as well as indications and contraindications of its use in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  4. Performance of an Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin; Belikov, Ruslan; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Coronagraph technology combined with wavefront control is close to achieving the contrast and inner working angle requirements in the lab necessary to observe the faint signal of an Earth-like exoplanet in monochromatic light. An important remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light. Coronagraph bandwidth is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask, which is responsible for blocking the stellar PSF. The size of a stellar PSF scales linearly with wavelength; ideally, the size of the focal plane mask would also scale with wavelength. A conventional hard-edge focal plane mask has a fixed size, normally sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. The conventional mask is oversized for shorter wavelengths and blocks useful discovery space. Recently we presented a solution to the size chromaticity challenge with a focal plane mask designed to scale its effective size with wavelength. In this paper, we analyze performance of the achromatic size-scaling focal plane mask within a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph. We present results from wavefront control around the achromatic focal plane mask, and demonstrate the size-scaling effect of the mask with wavelength. The edge of the dark zone, and therefore the inner working angle of the coronagraph, scale with wavelength. The achromatic mask enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths compared with a conventional hard-edge occulter.

  5. Trends in radiation protection: possible effects on fusion power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eurajoki, Tapani; Frias, Manuel Pascual; Orlandi, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    Since the design of fusion power plants involves long-term issues, ranging over several decades, it is useful to try to foresee under what kind of regulations the first fusion plants are to be operated. Application of present radiological regulations and practice to a fusion power plant concept is considered. The current design phase of fusion power plants motivates the top-down dose assessment, but it is crucial to aim at bottom-up assessments to ensure radiation doses as low as reasonably achievable. Since several issues, relating both to our knowledge on radiation as well as to the practice of radiation protection, may change in the future, it is necessary to continuously follow the development in the further design of fusion power plants

  6. Designing and testing broadly-protective filoviral vaccines optimized for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Fenimore

    Full Text Available We report the rational design and in vivo testing of mosaic proteins for a polyvalent pan-filoviral vaccine using a computational strategy designed for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 but also appropriate for Hepatitis C virus (HCV and potentially other diverse viruses. Mosaics are sets of artificial recombinant proteins that are based on natural proteins. The recombinants are computationally selected using a genetic algorithm to optimize the coverage of potential cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL epitopes. Because evolutionary history differs markedly between HIV-1 and filoviruses, we devised an adapted computational technique that is effective for sparsely sampled taxa; our first significant result is that the mosaic technique is effective in creating high-quality mosaic filovirus proteins. The resulting coverage of potential epitopes across filovirus species is superior to coverage by any natural variants, including current vaccine strains with demonstrated cross-reactivity. The mosaic cocktails are also robust: mosaics substantially outperformed natural strains when computationally tested against poorly sampled species and more variable genes. Furthermore, in a computational comparison of cross-reactive potential a design constructed prior to the Bundibugyo outbreak performed nearly as well against all species as an updated design that included Bundibugyo. These points suggest that the mosaic designs would be more resilient than natural-variant vaccines against future Ebola outbreaks dominated by novel viral variants. We demonstrate in vivo immunogenicity and protection against a heterologous challenge in a mouse model. This design work delineates the likely requirements and limitations on broadly-protective filoviral CTL vaccines.

  7. Designing and testing broadly-protective filoviral vaccines optimized for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenimore, Paul W; Muhammad, Majidat A; Fischer, William M; Foley, Brian T; Bakken, Russell R; Thurmond, James R; Yusim, Karina; Yoon, Hyejin; Parker, Michael; Hart, Mary Kate; Dye, John M; Korber, Bette; Kuiken, Carla

    2012-01-01

    We report the rational design and in vivo testing of mosaic proteins for a polyvalent pan-filoviral vaccine using a computational strategy designed for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) but also appropriate for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and potentially other diverse viruses. Mosaics are sets of artificial recombinant proteins that are based on natural proteins. The recombinants are computationally selected using a genetic algorithm to optimize the coverage of potential cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Because evolutionary history differs markedly between HIV-1 and filoviruses, we devised an adapted computational technique that is effective for sparsely sampled taxa; our first significant result is that the mosaic technique is effective in creating high-quality mosaic filovirus proteins. The resulting coverage of potential epitopes across filovirus species is superior to coverage by any natural variants, including current vaccine strains with demonstrated cross-reactivity. The mosaic cocktails are also robust: mosaics substantially outperformed natural strains when computationally tested against poorly sampled species and more variable genes. Furthermore, in a computational comparison of cross-reactive potential a design constructed prior to the Bundibugyo outbreak performed nearly as well against all species as an updated design that included Bundibugyo. These points suggest that the mosaic designs would be more resilient than natural-variant vaccines against future Ebola outbreaks dominated by novel viral variants. We demonstrate in vivo immunogenicity and protection against a heterologous challenge in a mouse model. This design work delineates the likely requirements and limitations on broadly-protective filoviral CTL vaccines.

  8. Conceptual design of technical security systems for Russian nuclear facilities physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmailov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual design of technical security systems (TSS) used in the early stages of physical protection systems (PPS) design for Russia nuclear facilities is discussed. The importance of work carried out in the early stages was noted since the main design solutions are being made within this period (i.e. selection of a structure of TSS and its components). The methods of analysis and synthesis of TSS developed by ''Eleron'' (MINATOM of Russia) which take into account the specific conditions of Russian nuclear facilities and a scope of equipment available are described in the review. TSS effectiveness assessment is based on a probability theory and a simulation. The design procedure provides for a purposeful choice of TSS competitive options including a ''cost-benefit'' criterion and taking into account a prechosen list of design basis threats to be used for a particular facility. The attention is paid to a practical aspect of the methods application as well as to the bilateral Russian-American scientific and technical co-operation in the PPS design field

  9. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  10. Pathways from marine protected area design and management to ecological success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray A. Rudd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using an international dataset compiled from 121 sites in 87 marine protected areas (MPAs globally (Edgar et al., 2014, I assessed how various configurations of design and management conditions affected MPA ecological performance, measured in terms of fish species richness and biomass. The set-theoretic approach used Boolean algebra to identify pathways that combined up to five ‘NEOLI’ (No-take, Enforced, Old, Large, Isolated conditions and that were sufficient for achieving positive, and negative, ecological outcomes. Ecological isolation was overwhelming the most important condition affecting ecological outcomes but Old and Large were also conditions important for achieving high levels of biomass among large fishes (jacks, groupers, sharks. Solution coverage was uniformly low (0.50 for negative results (i.e., the absence of high biomass among the large commercially-exploited fishes, implying asymmetries in how MPAs may rebuild populations on the one hand and, on the other, protect against further decline. The results revealed complex interactions involving MPA design, implementation, and management conditions that affect MPA ecological performance. In general terms, the presence of no-take regulations and effective enforcement were insufficient to ensure MPA effectiveness on their own. Given the central role of ecological isolation in securing ecological benefits from MPAs, site selection in the design phase appears critical for success.

  11. Novel paint design based on nanopowder to protection against X and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdi, Adibe; Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Dehghan, Naser; Heidari, Emad; Masumi, Yusef; Abbaszadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Lead-based shields are the standard method of intraoperative radiation protection in the radiology and nuclear medicine department. Human lead toxicity is well documented. The lead used is heavy, lacks durability, is difficult to launder, and its disposal is associated with environmental hazards. The aim of this study was to design a lead free paint for protection against X and gamma rays. In this pilot st we evaluated several types of nano metal powder that seemed to have good absorption. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, was used to model the attenuation of X-ray photons in paints with different designs. Experimental measurements were carried out to assess the attenuation properties of each paint design. Among the different nano metal powder, nano tungsten trioxide and nano tin dioxide were the two most appropriate candidates for making paint in diagnostic photon energy range. Nano tungsten trioxide (15%) and nano tin dioxide (85%) provided the best protection in both simulation and experiments. After this step, attempts were made to produce appropriate nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paints. The density of this nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paint was 4.2 g/cm 3 . The MCNP simulation and experimental measurements for HVL (Half-Value Layer) values of this shield at 100 kVp were 0.25 and 0.23 mm, respectively. The results showed the cost-effective lead-free paint can be a great power in absorbing the X-rays and gamma rays and it can be used instead of lead

  12. Influence of geometrical and electrical parameters of masking layers on the electrochemical etching of silicon for single trench formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, G; Ventura, L; Jerisian, R

    2005-01-01

    Deep single trenches can be produced at the edge of apertures of protective films masking the surface of silicon samples. This macropore formation, from polarized HF based solutions, is electrically activated depending on the mask geometrical and physical parameters whatever the silicon type or the electrolyte composition. The mask thickness increase is known to induce deeper trenches. In this paper, we show that we can predict and localize this phenomenon by simulating two dimensional hole current distributions below the mask. We demonstrate also the influence of the material permittivity on trench depth. These 2D simulation results are correlated with experimental results

  13. Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Vassilis; Ban, Hiroshi; Welchman, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    The luminance contrast at the borders of a surface strongly influences surface's apparent brightness, as demonstrated by a number of classic visual illusions. Such phenomena are compatible with a propagation mechanism believed to spread contrast information from borders to the interior. This process is disrupted by masking, where the perceived brightness of a target is reduced by the brief presentation of a mask (Paradiso & Nakayama, 1991), but the exact visual stage that this happens remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether brightness masking occurs at a monocular-, or a binocular-level of the visual hierarchy. We used backward masking, whereby a briefly presented target stimulus is disrupted by a mask coming soon afterwards, to show that brightness masking is affected by binocular stages of the visual processing. We manipulated the 3-D configurations (slant direction) of the target and mask and measured the differential disruption that masking causes on brightness estimation. We found that the masking effect was weaker when stimuli had a different slant. We suggest that brightness masking is partly mediated by mid-level neuronal mechanisms, at a stage where binocular disparity edge structure has been extracted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards the application of stress-in-motion (SIM) results in pavement design and infrastructure protection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info De Beer_2005_3.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 53150 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name De Beer_2005_3.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Proceedings 8th International...: Conference Planners TOWARDS THE APPLICATION OF STRESS-IN-MOTION (SIM) RESULTS IN PAVEMENT DESIGN AND INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION Morris De Beer1, Colin Fisher1 and Louw Kannemeyer2 1CSIR Transportek Pretoria, 0001. Tel: +27-(0)-(012) 841-2953. Fax: +27...

  15. Lightning protection design of nuclear power plants. KTA safety code, version 6/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This KTA safety code does not cover calculation methods for determination of lightning-induced voltage inputs to control room systems within the reactor building, as the literature presents a variety of applicable methods, which however cannot be directly applied to any power plant, due to the great diversity of geometries of the electrical systems and control room systems in nuclear power plants. Compliance with the design requirements of this safety code for shielding of buildings, and installation and shielding of cables, can be considered to offer the appropriate protection. (orig./CB) [de

  16. Classification and printability of EUV mask defects from SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonil; Price, Daniel; Morgan, Paul A.; Rost, Daniel; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram L.

    2017-10-01

    Classification and Printability of EUV Mask Defects from SEM images EUV lithography is starting to show more promise for patterning some critical layers at 5nm technology node and beyond. However, there still are many key technical obstacles to overcome before bringing EUV Lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM). One of the greatest obstacles is manufacturing defect-free masks. For pattern defect inspections in the mask-shop, cutting-edge 193nm optical inspection tools have been used so far due to lacking any e-beam mask inspection (EBMI) or EUV actinic pattern inspection (API) tools. The main issue with current 193nm inspection tools is the limited resolution for mask dimensions targeted for EUV patterning. The theoretical resolution limit for 193nm mask inspection tools is about 60nm HP on masks, which means that main feature sizes on EUV masks will be well beyond the practical resolution of 193nm inspection tools. Nevertheless, 193nm inspection tools with various illumination conditions that maximize defect sensitivity and/or main-pattern modulation are being explored for initial EUV defect detection. Due to the generally low signal-to-noise in the 193nm inspection imaging at EUV patterning dimensions, these inspections often result in hundreds and thousands of defects which then need to be accurately reviewed and dispositioned. Manually reviewing each defect is difficult due to poor resolution. In addition, the lack of a reliable aerial dispositioning system makes it very challenging to disposition for printability. In this paper, we present the use of SEM images of EUV masks for higher resolution review and disposition of defects. In this approach, most of the defects detected by the 193nm inspection tools are first imaged on a mask SEM tool. These images together with the corresponding post-OPC design clips are provided to KLA-Tencor's Reticle Decision Center (RDC) platform which provides ADC (Automated Defect Classification) and S2A (SEM

  17. Participatory action research designs in applied disability and rehabilitation science: protecting against threats to social validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekins, Tom; White, Glen W

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and disability advocates have been debating consumer involvement in disability and rehabilitation science since at least 1972. Despite the length of this debate, much confusion remains. Consumer involvement may represent a spirit of democracy or even empowerment, but as a tool of science, it is necessary to understand how to judge its application. To realize consumer involvement as a design element in science, researchers need a framework for understanding how it can contribute to the scientific process. The thesis of this article is that a primary scientific function of consumer involvement is to reduce threats to the social validity of research, the extent to which those expected to use or benefit from research products judge them as useful and actually use them. Social validity has traditionally not been treated with the same rigor as concerns for internal and external validity. This article presents a framework that describes 7 threats to social validity and explains how 15 forms of consumer involvement protect against those threats. We also suggest procedures for reporting and reviewing consumer involvement in proposals and manuscripts. This framework offers tools familiar to all scientists for identifying threats to the quality of research, and for judging the effectiveness of strategies for protecting against those threats. It may also enhance the standing of consumer involvement strategies as tools for protecting research quality by organizing them in a way that allows for systematic criticism of their effectiveness and subsequent improvement. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Factors Support in the Design and Evaluation of the Reactor Protection System Cabinet Operator Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jung Woon

    2005-01-01

    A Korean project group, KNICS, is developing a new digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) and the developed system will be packaged into a cabinet with several racks. The cabinet of the RPS is used for the RPS function testing and monitoring by maintenance operators and is equipped with a flat panel display (FPD) with a touch screen capability as a main user interface for the RPS operation. This paper describes the human factors activities involved in the development process of the RPS: conceptual design, design guidance, and evaluation. The activities include a functional requirements analysis and task analysis, user interface style guide for the RPS cabinet operator module (COM), and a human factors evaluation through an experiment and questionnaires

  19. Code of practice and design principles, for installed radiological protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.G.

    1980-09-01

    The main points on which a guide for designers and installers of radiological protection instrumentation (RPI) should be based have been examined by a small group of instrumentation engineers. The purpose of this document is to present a comprehensive and detailed review of these points. It is intended to give an overall coverage and serve as a reference document for specific points; it should also be of value to newcomers to the RPI field. The code presents a standard of good practice and takes the form of recommendations only. The contents cover: the requirement for RPI; design, availability and reliability, information displays, human factors, power supplies, manufacture, quality assurance, testing, cost, installation, operation, maintenance and documentation. Appendices include: Radon and thoron decay series, air sampling, reliability of component combinations and redundancy. (28 references). (author)

  20. Novel structurally designed vaccine for S. aureus α-hemolysin: protection against bacteremia and pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan P Adhikari

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a human pathogen associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI and life threatening sepsis and pneumonia. Efforts to develop effective vaccines against S. aureus have been largely unsuccessful, in part due to the variety of virulence factors produced by this organism. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin (Hla is a pore-forming toxin expressed by most S. aureus strains and reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of SSTI and pneumonia. Here we report a novel recombinant subunit vaccine candidate for Hla, rationally designed based on the heptameric crystal structure. This vaccine candidate, denoted AT-62aa, was tested in pneumonia and bacteremia infection models using S. aureus strain Newman and the pandemic strain USA300 (LAC. Significant protection from lethal bacteremia/sepsis and pneumonia was observed upon vaccination with AT-62aa along with a Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE that is currently in clinical trials. Passive transfer of rabbit immunoglobulin against AT-62aa (AT62-IgG protected mice against intraperitoneal and intranasal challenge with USA300 and produced significant reduction in bacterial burden in blood, spleen, kidney, and lungs. Our Hla-based vaccine is the first to be reported to reduce bacterial dissemination and to provide protection in a sepsis model of S. aureus infection. AT62-IgG and sera from vaccinated mice effectively neutralized the toxin in vitro and AT62-IgG inhibited the formation of Hla heptamers, suggesting antibody-mediated neutralization as the primary mechanism of action. This remarkable efficacy makes this Hla-based vaccine a prime candidate for inclusion in future multivalent S. aureus vaccine. Furthermore, identification of protective epitopes within AT-62aa could lead to novel immunotherapy for S. aureus infection.

  1. 76 FR 3015 - Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order; Closure of National Forest System Lands To Protect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service 36 CFR Part 261 RIN 0596-AC93 Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order; Closure of National Forest System Lands To Protect Privacy of Tribal Activities AGENCY... regarding special closures to provide for closure of National Forest System lands to protect the privacy of...

  2. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model to exa...

  3. Design of first reactor protection system prototype for C A R E M reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcona, A; Lorenzo, G.; Maciel, F.; Fittipaldi, A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of a prototype of the C A R E M Reactor Protection System, which is implemented on a basis of the digital platform T E L E P E R M X S.The proposed architecture for the Reactor Protection System (R P S) has 4 redundant trains composed by a complete set of sensors, a data acquisition computer and a processing computer.The information from the 4 processing computers goes into to a two voting units with a two out of four (2004) logic and its outputs are combined by a final actuation logic with a voting scheme of one out of two (1002).The prototype is implemented with a unique train.The train inputs are simulated by an Automatic Testing Unit.The pre-established test case or procedure results are fed back into the A T U.The choice of the digital platform T E L E P E R M X S for the R P S implementation allows versatility in the design stage and permits the prototype expansion due to its modular characteristic and the software tools flexibility [es

  4. Synchronization of faulty processors in coarse-grained TMR protected partially reconfigurable FPGA designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, U.; Gomez-Cornejo, J.; Astarloa, A.; Bidarte, U.; Ser, J. Del

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of FPGA technology in numerous application fields is a fact. Single Event Effects (SEE) are a critical factor for the reliability of FPGA based systems. For this reason, a number of researches have been studying fault tolerance techniques to harden different elements of FPGA designs. Using Partial Reconfiguration (PR) in conjunction with Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) is an emerging approach in recent publications dealing with the implementation of fault tolerant processors on SRAM-based FPGAs. While these works pay great attention to the repair of erroneous instances by means of reconfiguration, the essential step of synchronizing the repaired processors is insufficiently addressed. In this context, this paper poses four different synchronization approaches for soft core processors, which balance differently the trade-off between synchronization speed and hardware overhead. All approaches are assessed in practice by synchronizing TMR protected PicoBlaze processors implemented on a Virtex-5 FPGA. Nevertheless all methods are of a general nature and can be applied for different processor architectures in a straightforward fashion. - Highlights: • Four different synchronization methods for faulty processors are proposed. • The methods balance between synchronization speed and hardware overhead. • They can be applied to TMR-protected reconfigurable FPGA designs. • The proposed schemes are implemented and tested in real hardware.

  5. Design And Development Of An Automatic Single Phase Protective Device Using Ssr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of energy safety has been a paramount subject matter. This we can see in todays electrical systems where protective devices such as fuse and circuit breakers are used to prevent fire hazards resulting from overload overvoltage and short circuits. However with all the revolution in technology these options may be considered less smart since the fuse made with wire strands calculated for specific current capacity faults permanently when the specified current rating is exceeded. While the circuit breaker which is made up of mechanical switch fails as a result of carbon forming and the wearing away of the contacts because of arcing. As a means of improvement this paper presents the design and development of an automatic single phase protective device using solid state relay SSR. This study is to ensure automatic cut off from power supply in cases of overvoltage above 240 V AC or when overload and short circuit current above 8amps is detected without permanent damage of a fuse placed along current path. Also the design will ensure that there is an automatic close circuit whenever the trigger switch is momentary switch is closed. The system is achieved via the use of PIC micro-controller current sensor and other discrete components. The system is tested and works well inhibiting the frequent faulting of fuses. It also helps to prevent hazard as a result of overvoltage overload and short circuit and ensures a close circuit when the trigger switch is closed.

  6. Marine protected area design for Bahia Portete - La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Moreno, Carolina; Alonso C, David; Segura Quintero, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Using an ecorregional planning process for the selection of conservation priority sites in the Colombian Caribbean region and the qualification of ecological criteria, Bahia Portete was identified as a potential site for the establishment of a new Marine Protected Area (MPA). This bay encompass a great variety of marine and coastal ecosystems, including fish, planktonic, and benthic communities as well as species that in conjunction with the environmental features form an area of high heterogeneity and unique biodiversity in the province of La Guajira. The purpose of this research was to design the first MPA in the north of the Province through the evaluation of ecologic criteria, as well as proposed conservation and management objectives; setting up a management category within the existing National Protected Areas System (SINAP in Spanish). Therefore, based on secondary information and following the The five S framework, methodology design by The Nature Conservancy for site planning, five conservation objectives (OdC) of coarse-filter or habitats were identified: corals, sea grasses, sandy beaches, rocky coasts and mangroves ecosystems, and three OdC of fine filter: areas with presence of Crocodylus acutus, sea turtles feeding areas, and areas of birds congregation. A viability analysis was developed for each healthy object found within the area, thus reflecting the biodiversity health of the area. The analysis of criteria, viability and the definition of the management objectives for the area, allowed the election of National Natural Park as the most appropriate management category for the area. Based on a systematic process and with the use of the MARXAN (University of Queensland) Decision Support System (DSS), three no-take zones were identified, with which the protection of a minimum of 30% of the coverage area for each of the objects is guaranteed as the initial contribution to the internal zoning of the new MPA

  7. A reference model for model-based design of critical infrastructure protection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Don; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Chon

    2015-05-01

    Today's war field environment is getting versatile as the activities of unconventional wars such as terrorist attacks and cyber-attacks have noticeably increased lately. The damage caused by such unconventional wars has also turned out to be serious particularly if targets are critical infrastructures that are constructed in support of banking and finance, transportation, power, information and communication, government, and so on. The critical infrastructures are usually interconnected to each other and thus are very vulnerable to attack. As such, to ensure the security of critical infrastructures is very important and thus the concept of critical infrastructure protection (CIP) has come. The program to realize the CIP at national level becomes the form of statute in each country. On the other hand, it is also needed to protect each individual critical infrastructure. The objective of this paper is to study on an effort to do so, which can be called the CIP system (CIPS). There could be a variety of ways to design CIPS's. Instead of considering the design of each individual CIPS, a reference model-based approach is taken in this paper. The reference model represents the design of all the CIPS's that have many design elements in common. In addition, the development of the reference model is also carried out using a variety of model diagrams. The modeling language used therein is the systems modeling language (SysML), which was developed and is managed by Object Management Group (OMG) and a de facto standard. Using SysML, the structure and operational concept of the reference model are designed to fulfil the goal of CIPS's, resulting in the block definition and activity diagrams. As a case study, the operational scenario of the nuclear power plant while being attacked by terrorists is studied using the reference model. The effectiveness of the results is also analyzed using multiple analysis models. It is thus expected that the approach taken here has some merits

  8. Sections prepared for inclusion in an IAEA technical document handbook on Designing and Implementing a Physical Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Mark K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Two major sections were drafted (each with several subsections) for the IAEA dealing with designing and implementing a Physical Protection System (PPS). Areas addressed were Search Systems and the evaluation of PPS effectiveness.

  9. A Masked Photocathode in a Photoinjector

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Ji

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a masked photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto an electrode, an electrode with small hole is used as a mask to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material easy by rotating the photocathode behind the electrode into the hole. Furthermore, this helps reduce the dark current or seconda...

  10. The design of central column protection tiles for the TCV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, R.A.; Chavan, R.; Moret, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The large variety of plasma shapes produced in the TCV tokamak places unique demands on the plasma facing surfaces. In particular, the central column graphite armour tiles are solicited during the creation of all TCV plasmas and function as power handling surfaces for both limited and diverted discharges. The higher power flux densities accompanying the addition of electron cyclotron heating systems have necessitated a new, optimized, design for these tiles. The optimization process and the subsequent new tile design are described. A basic 'two point' model of the scrape-off layer plasma in conjunction with TCV equilibrium reconstructions and a simplified representation of the local magnetic field line geometry are used to impose simulated power flux densities onto a parametric toroidal tile contour. The thermo-mechanical response of the tile is then investigated via full 3-D finite element simulations accounting for the non-linear temperature dependence of the graphite thermal diffusivity and radiation from the tile surface. The final design choice is a compromise between the requirements for adequate power handling for a range of magnetic configurations, the need to protect against tile edge misalignment in the presence of grazing field line angles of incidence and the space restrictions imposed by vacuum vessel design. (author)

  11. Westinghouse integrated protection system. An overview of the software design and maintenance features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Integrated Protection System was designed with the goal of providing a system which can be easily verified, validated, and maintained. The software design and structure promote the ease of translation from functional requirements to applications function software while also improving the ability to verify and maintain the applications function software. The use of independent, reusable, common functions software modules focuses the design, verification, and validation of the software and reduces the likelihood of errors occurring during the application and maintenance of the software. The simple continuous loop method of operation used throughout the IPS provides a standard deterministic method of operation. The IPS design also incorporates the use of embedded self-diagnostics to perform continuous hardware oriented tests of the system and the use of an independent subsystem to automatically perform a functional test of the system. Maintenance interfaces also exist to readily identify and locate faults as well as providing other maintenance capabilities. These testing and maintenance features enhance the overall reliability and availability of the system. (orig.) (2 refs., 2 figs.)

  12. Design and implementation of STD32-BUS based reactor protection trip unit on FPGA imbaby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, I.; Elnokity, O.A.; Refai, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a way to design and implement the Trip Unit of a Reactor Protection System (RPS) using a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). Instead of the traditional embedded Microprocessor based interface design method, a proposed tailor made FPGA based circuit is built to substitute the Trip Unit (TL1) existing in Egypt's 2' ' Research reactor ETRR-2. The existing embedded system is built around the STD32 field Computer Bus which used in industrial and process control applications. It is modular, rugged, reliable, and easy-to-use and is able to support a large mix of I/O cards and to easily change its configuration in the future. Therefore, the state machine of this bus is extracted from its timing diagrams and implemented in VHDL to interface the designed TU circuit. The proposed designed circuit implemented using ALTERA EPF10K10LC84-3 chip replaces the Single Board Computer which have the embedded SAY program of the TU providing the same integrated HAV and SAV functions implemented in FPGA Chip housed in an printed circuit board, which uses the same shape and specifications of STD32 boards. H/W implementation of both TU and STD32 Bus in VHDL addresses the issues of safety and reusability

  13. Improved design architecture to minimize functional complexity of plant protection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, JaeCheon

    2016-01-01

    An improved design architecture method to minimize the functional complexity of PPS (Plant Protection System) is proposed in this work. Firstly, the design concerns are identified with both AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis. AHP is able to identify the source of design concerns using pairwise comparison. AHP result shows CCF is the primary concern and the complexity is the secondly. Even though complexity is the second largest concern to the effectiveness of digital I&C system, but it has not been highlighted as CCF. This is the reason why this work focuses on the sources of complexity to maximize the effectiveness of digital system in the viewpoint of design architecture. The proposed methods are, separating non-safety functions from bistable logics and simplifying communication links and network. In order to verify the new concept, EFFBD (Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagram) models are developed for two bistable logics of PPS and the complexities are measured using Halstead’s program maintainability measures. This measure specifies what provokes functional complexity. Periodic testing and operating bypass function are the source of complexity in this analysis.

  14. Improved design architecture to minimize functional complexity of plant protection system for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, JaeCheon, E-mail: jcjung@kings.ac.kr

    2016-12-01

    An improved design architecture method to minimize the functional complexity of PPS (Plant Protection System) is proposed in this work. Firstly, the design concerns are identified with both AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis. AHP is able to identify the source of design concerns using pairwise comparison. AHP result shows CCF is the primary concern and the complexity is the secondly. Even though complexity is the second largest concern to the effectiveness of digital I&C system, but it has not been highlighted as CCF. This is the reason why this work focuses on the sources of complexity to maximize the effectiveness of digital system in the viewpoint of design architecture. The proposed methods are, separating non-safety functions from bistable logics and simplifying communication links and network. In order to verify the new concept, EFFBD (Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagram) models are developed for two bistable logics of PPS and the complexities are measured using Halstead’s program maintainability measures. This measure specifies what provokes functional complexity. Periodic testing and operating bypass function are the source of complexity in this analysis.

  15. Predicting masking release of lateralized speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    . The largest masking release (MR) was observed when all maskers were on the opposite side of the target. The data in the conditions containing only energetic masking and modulation masking could be accounted for using a binaural extension of the speech-based envelope power spectrum model [sEPSM; Jørgensen et...... al., 2013, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130], which uses a short-term equalization-cancellation process to model binaural unmasking. In the conditions where informational masking (IM) was involved, the predicted SRTs were lower than the measured values because the model is blind to confusions experienced...

  16. HIGH PERFORMANCE PIAA CORONAGRAPHY WITH COMPLEX AMPLITUDE FOCAL PLANE MASKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Belikov, Ruslan; Soummer, Remi

    2010-01-01

    We describe a coronagraph approach where the performance of a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is improved by using a partially transmissive phase-shifting focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. This approach combines the low inner working angle offered by phase mask coronagraphy, the full throughput and uncompromized angular resolution of the PIAA approach, and the design flexibility of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph. A PIAA complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) is fully described by the focal plane mask size, or, equivalently, its complex transmission which ranges from 0 (opaque) to -1 (phase shifting). For all values of the transmission, the PIAACMC theoretically offers full on-axis extinction and 100% throughput at large angular separations. With a pure phase focal plane mask (complex transmission = -1), the PIAACMC offers 50% throughput at 0.64 λ/D while providing total extinction of an on-axis point source. This performance is very close to the 'fundamental performance limit' of coronagraphy derived from first principles. For very high contrast level, imaging performance with PIAACMC is in practice limited by the angular size of the on-axis target (usually a star). We show that this fundamental limitation must be taken into account when choosing the optimal value of the focal plane mask size in the PIAACMC design. We show that the PIAACMC enables visible imaging of Jupiter-like planets at ∼1.2 λ/D from the host star, and can therefore offer almost three times more targets than a PIAA coronagraph optimized for this type of observation. We find that for visible imaging of Earth-like planets, the PIAACMC gain over a PIAA is probably much smaller, as coronagraphic performance is then strongly constrained by stellar angular size. For observations at 'low' contrast (below ∼ 10 8 ), the PIAACMC offers significant performance enhancement over PIAA. This is especially relevant for ground-based high contrast imaging systems in the near-IR, where

  17. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Tactical Aircraft (TA) A/P22P-14A Respirator Assembly (V)3: Noise Attenuation and Speech Intelligibility Performance with Double Hearing Protection, HGU-55A/P JHMCS Flight Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    descried in the Purchase Description (PD)3 as shown below. Hearing Protection / Noise Attenuation The JSAM-TA, when integrated with existing head...Continuous or Impulsive Noise Using Microphone-in-Real-Ear or Acoustic Test Fixture Procedures4. Correction factors were applied using the computation...and measurements were concluded there. The decision to not proceed with measurements at 75 dBA is detailed in the discussion. 3.0 DISCUSSION

  18. Ion beam deposition system for depositing low defect density extreme ultraviolet mask blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, V.; Kearney, P.; Sohn, J.; Harris-Jones, J.; John, A.; Godwin, M.; Antohe, A.; Teki, R.; Ma, A.; Goodwin, F.; Weaver, A.; Teora, P.

    2012-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the leading next-generation lithography (NGL) technology to succeed optical lithography at the 22 nm node and beyond. EUVL requires a low defect density reflective mask blank, which is considered to be one of the top two critical technology gaps for commercialization of the technology. At the SEMATECH Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC), research on defect reduction in EUV mask blanks is being pursued using the Veeco Nexus deposition tool. The defect performance of this tool is one of the factors limiting the availability of defect-free EUVL mask blanks. SEMATECH identified the key components in the ion beam deposition system that is currently impeding the reduction of defect density and the yield of EUV mask blanks. SEMATECH's current research is focused on in-house tool components to reduce their contributions to mask blank defects. SEMATECH is also working closely with the supplier to incorporate this learning into a next-generation deposition tool. This paper will describe requirements for the next-generation tool that are essential to realize low defect density EUV mask blanks. The goal of our work is to enable model-based predictions of defect performance and defect improvement for targeted process improvement and component learning to feed into the new deposition tool design. This paper will also highlight the defect reduction resulting from process improvements and the restrictions inherent in the current tool geometry and components that are an impediment to meeting HVM quality EUV mask blanks will be outlined.

  19. Design of test JIG for centralized interlock and protection module of ITER-India Gyrotron Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, Vipal; Rao, S.L.; Edappala, Praveenlal; Rajpal, Rachana

    2017-01-01

    Fast Interlock and protection system plays very crucial role in ensuring the safe and reliable operation of high power RF sources such as a Gyrotron system. Critical Protection Interlocks are generally implemented using hardwired components and are required to have a response time as fast as < 10 μs. In this context, an Industrial grade prototype Centralized Interlock and Protection Module (CIM) based on ITER-India design has been developed successfully with the help of local industry. This paper presents the complete requirements, approach, detailed design concept and current status of Test JIG in detail

  20. Development for 2D pattern quantification method on mask and wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Toyoda, Yasutaka; Wang, Zhigang

    2010-03-01

    We have developed the effective method of mask and silicon 2-dimensional metrology. The aim of this method is evaluating the performance of the silicon corresponding to Hotspot on a mask. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. Currently, as semiconductor manufacture moves towards even smaller feature size, this necessitates more aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) to drive the super-resolution technology (RET). In other words, there is a trade-off between highly precise RET and mask manufacture, and this has a big impact on the semiconductor market that centers on the mask business. 2-dimensional Shape quantification is important as optimal solution over these problems. Although 1-dimensional shape measurement has been performed by the conventional technique, 2-dimensional shape management is needed in the mass production line under the influence of RET. We developed the technique of analyzing distribution of shape edge performance as the shape management technique. On the other hand, there is roughness in the silicon shape made from a mass-production line. Moreover, there is variation in the silicon shape. For this reason, quantification of silicon shape is important, in order to estimate the performance of a pattern. In order to quantify, the same shape is equalized in two dimensions. And the method of evaluating based on the shape is popular. In this study, we conducted experiments for averaging method of the pattern (Measurement Based Contouring) as two-dimensional mask and silicon evaluation technique. That is, observation of the identical position of a mask and a silicon was considered. It is possible to analyze variability of the edge of the same position with high precision. The result proved its detection accuracy and reliability of variability on two-dimensional pattern (mask and

  1. Set Size and Mask Duration Do Not Interact in Object-Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Ioannis; Gellatly, Angus; Pilling, Michael; Carter, Wakefield

    2013-01-01

    Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a mask, such as four dots that surround a brief target item, onsets simultaneously with the target and offsets a short time after the target, rather than simultaneously with it. OSM is a reduction in accuracy of reporting the target with the temporally trailing mask, compared with the simultaneously…

  2. Assessment of molecular contamination in mask pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foray, Jean Marie; Dejaune, Patrice; Sergent, Pierre; Gough, Stuart; Cheung, D.; Davenet, Magali; Favre, Arnaud; Rude, C.; Trautmann, T.; Tissier, Michel; Fontaine, H.; Veillerot, M.; Avary, K.; Hollein, I.; Lerit, R.

    2008-04-01

    Context/ study Motivation: Contamination and especially Airbone Molecular Contamination (AMC) is a critical issue for mask material flow with a severe and fairly unpredictable risk of induced contamination and damages especially for 193 nm lithography. It is therefore essential to measure, to understand and then try to reduce AMC in mask environment. Mask material flow was studied in a global approach by a pool of European partners, especially within the frame of European MEDEA+ project, so called "MUSCLE". This paper deals with results and assessment of mask pod environment in term of molecular contamination in a first step, then in a second step preliminary studies to reduce mask pod influence and contamination due to material out gassing. Approach and techniques: A specific assessment of environmental / molecular contamination along the supply chain was performed by all partners. After previous work presented at EMLC 07, further studies were performed on real time contamination measurement pod at different sites locations (including Mask manufacturing site, blank manufacturing sites, IC fab). Studies were linked to the main critical issues: cleaning, storage, handling, materials and processes. Contamination measurement campaigns were carried out along the mask supply chain using specific Adixen analyzer in order to monitor in real time organic contaminants (ppb level) in mask pods. Key results would be presented: VOC, AMC and humidity level on different kinds of mask carriers, impact of basic cleaning on pod outgassing measurement (VOC, NH3), and process influence on pod contamination... In a second step, preliminary specific pod conditioning studies for better pod environment were performed based on Adixen vacuum process. Process influence had been experimentally measured in term of molecular outgassing from mask pods. Different AMC experimental characterization methods had been carried out leading to results on a wide range of organic and inorganic

  3. Establishing design basis threats for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetvergov, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the area of nuclear energy utilization, the Republic of Kazakhstan follows the standards of international legislation and is a participant of the Nuclear Weapons Non-proliferation Treaty as a country that does not have nuclear weapons. In the framework of this treaty, Kazakhstan provides for the measures to ensure the regime of nonproliferation. The Republic signed the Agreement with the IAEA on the guarantee that was ratified by the Presidential Decree in 1995. Now the Government of the RK is considering the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Kazakhstan legislation in the area of nuclear energy utilization is represented by a set of laws: the main of them is the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan 'On the utilization of atomic energy', dated April 14, 1997. According to the Law, the issues of physical protection are regulated by interdepartmental guideline documents. Nuclear science and industry of RK include: Enterprises on uranium mining and processing; Ulba metallurgical plant, manufacturing fuel pellets of uranium dioxide for heat release assemblies of RBMK and WWR reactor types, with the enrichment on U235 1.6-4.4%; Power plant in Aktau for heat and power supply and water desalination, based on fast breeder reactor BN-350; Research reactors of National Nuclear Center: WWR-K - water-water reactor, with 10 MW power, uses highly enriched uranium (up to 36% of U-235); IVG.1M - water-water heterogeneous reactor of vessel type on thermal neutrons, maximum power is 35 MW; IGR - impulse homogeneous graphite reactor on thermal neutrons, with graphite reflector; RA - high temperature gas cooled reactor on thermal neutrons, 0.5 MW power. The establishment of design basis threats for nuclear objects in the Republic of Kazakhstan is an urgent problem because of the developing military-political situation in the region. It is necessary to specify important elements affecting the specific features of the design basis threat: military operations of

  4. Shadows Alter Facial Expressions of Noh Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers’ recognition of the emotional expressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Conclusions/Significance Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa’s smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art “yugen (profound grace and subtlety)”, which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness. PMID:23940748

  5. Fast mask writers: technology options and considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Lloyd C.; Groves, Timothy; Hughes, Greg

    2011-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is under constant pressure to reduce production costs even as the complexity of technology increases. Lithography represents the most expensive process due to its high capital equipment costs and the implementation of low-k1 lithographic processes, which have added to the complexity of making masks because of the greater use of optical proximity correction, pixelated masks, and double or triple patterning. Each of these mask technologies allows the production of semiconductors at future nodes while extending the utility of current immersion tools. Low-k1 patterning complexity combined with increased data due to smaller feature sizes is driving extremely long mask write times. While a majority of the industry is willing to accept times of up to 24 hours, evidence suggests that the write times for many masks at the 22 nm node and beyond will be significantly longer. It has been estimated that funding on the order of 50M to 90M for non-recurring engineering (NRE) costs will be required to develop a multiple beam mask writer system, yet the business case to recover this kind of investment is not strong. Moreover, funding such a development poses a high risk for an individual supplier. The structure of the mask fabrication marketplace separates the mask writer equipment customer (the mask supplier) from the final customer (wafer manufacturer) that will be most effected by the increase in mask cost that will result if a high speed mask writer is not available. Since no individual company will likely risk entering this market, some type of industry-wide funding model will be needed.

  6. The imaging performance of flash memory masks characterized with AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Setten, Eelco; Wismans, Onno; Grim, Kees; Finders, Jo; Dusa, Mircea; Birkner, Robert; Richter, Rigo; Scherübl, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Flash memory is an important driver of the lithography roadmap, with its dramatic acceleration in dimensional shrink, pushing for ever smaller feature sizes. The introduction of hyper-NA immersion lithography has brought the 45nm node and below within reach for memory makers using single exposure. At these feature sizes mask topology and the material properties of the film stack on the mask play an important role on imaging performance. Furthermore, the break up of the array pitch regularity in the NAND-type flash memory cell by two thick wordlines and a central space, leads to feature-center placement (overlay) errors, that are inherent to the design. An integral optimization approach is needed to mitigate these effects and to control both the CD and placement errors tightly. In this paper we will show that aerial image measurements at mask-level are useful for characterizing the gate layer of a NAND-Flash design before exposure. The aerial image measurements are performed with the AIMSTM 45-193i. and compared to CD measurements on the wafer obtained with an XT:1900Gi hyper-NA immersion system. An excellent correlation is demonstrated for feature-center placement errors and CD variations across the mask (see Figure 1) for several features in the gate layer down to 40nm half pitch. This shows the potential to use aerial image measurements at mask-level in combination with correction techniques on the photomask, like the CDC200 tool in combination with exposure tool correction techniques, such as DoseMapperTM, to improve both across field and across wafer CD uniformity of critical layers.

  7. An optimized OPC and MDP flow for reducing mask write time and mask cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ellyn; Li, Cheng He; Park, Se Jin; Zhu, Yu; Guo, Eric

    2010-09-01

    In the process of optical proximity correction, layout edge or fragment is migrating to proper position in order to minimize edge placement error (EPE). During this fragment migration, several factors other than EPE can be also taken into account as a part of cost function for optimal fragment displacement. Several factors are devised in favor of OPC stability, which can accommodate room for high mask error enhancement factor (MEEF), lack of process window, catastrophic pattern failure such as pinch/bridge and improper fragmentation. As technology node becomes finer, there happens conflict between OPC accuracy and stability. Especially for metal layers, OPC has focused on the stability by loss of accurate OPC results. On this purpose, several techniques have been introduced, which are target smoothing, process window aware OPC, model-based retargeting and adaptive OPC. By utilizing those techniques, OPC enables more stabilized patterning, instead of realizing design target exactly on wafer. Inevitably, post-OPC layouts become more complicated because those techniques invoke additional edge, or fragments prior to correction or during OPC iteration. As a result, jogs of post OPC layer can be dramatically increased, which results in huge number of shot count after data fracturing. In other words, there is trade-off relationship between data complexity and various methods for OPC stability. In this paper, those relationships have been investigated with respect to several technology nodes. The mask shot count reduction is achieved by reducing the number of jogs with which EPE difference are within pre-specified value. The effect of jog smoothing on OPC output - in view of OPC performance and mask data preparation - was studied quantitatively for respective technology nodes.

  8. Fire protection requirements of the insurance industry and their impact on nuclear power plant design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitchman, J.V.; King, W.T. Jr.; Nashman, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    The insurance industry, with its wealth of knowledge and experience in the fire protection area and with preservation of its funds at stake, has always been heavily involved in the fire protection programs of nuclear power plants. Since it was concerned with property preservation in addition to nuclear safety, the insurance industry placed more detailed emphasis on fire protection requirements than did the nuclear regulatory bodies. Since the Browns Ferry fire, however, the insurance industry, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards and the utilities themselves have re-examined their approaches to fire protection. A more coordinated approach seems to have emerged, which is based largely upon insurance industry specifications and guidelines. The paper briefly summarizes the fire protection requirements of the insurance industry as they apply to nuclear power plants. Some of the ways these requirements affect project planning, plant design, and construction timing are reviewed, as well as some of the more controversial fire protection areas

  9. Limitations on the application of optimization methods in the design of radiation protection in large installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, R.; Brauns, J.; Steinicke, P.

    1986-01-01

    In a society where prices of goods are not regulated, optimization is best achieved by competition and not by the decisions of an authority. In order to improve its competitive position, a company may attach increasing importance to cost-benefit analyses both internally and in its discussions with customers. Some limitations and problems of this methodology are analysed in the paper. It is concluded that an increase in design effort (analysis of more options) beyond a planned level, in order to reduce radiation exposure, can only be justified in rational terms if exposure limits are involved. An increase in design effort could also be justified if solutions with lower equipment and operating costs but higher radiation exposure were acceptable. Because of the high competitive value of radiation protection, however, it is difficult to gain acceptance for such optimization. The cost of the investigation itself requires optimal procedures for the optimization process and therefore limitation of the number of options to be analysed. This is demonstrated for the example of a shielding wall. Another problem is the probabilistic nature of many of the parameters involved. In most cases this probability distribution is only inaccurately known. Deterministic 'design basis assumptions' therefore have to be made. The choice of these assumptions may greatly influence the result of the optimization, as demonstrated in an example taken from practice. (author)

  10. Coupled structure-fluid analysis for a PWR burst protection design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, A.; Hofmann, H.

    1977-01-01

    The burst protection designed to withstand hypothetical ruptures which might occur in certain components of the primary circuit including RPV (reactor pressure vessel) rupture mainly consists of cylindrical concrete vessels for the RPV and the steam generators and steel tubing for the primary pipes. A hypothetical RPV failure will result in direct excitation of single components and will lead to complex interactions between all components of the protecting structures, the primary loop, reactor core, core support structures and the coolant. The overall investigations to determine the magnitude of deformations and stresses are summaized. Economical aspects with respect to the investigations are treated biefly. The coupled structure-fluid analysis of the core and core support structure due to horizontal and vertical RPV failure will be presented in detail. Assumptions for the RPV failure modes include vertical, horizontal and screw-shaped rupture of the RPV, the detachment of RPV nozzle as well as other types of failure. On the basis of the failure modes, types of credible extremal load conditions were estimated. For vertical RPV failure modes, loads were applied to a global beam-model consisting of burst protection and primary loop structures. Nonlinear coupling between structural parts was taken into account. The nonsymmetric boundary conditions were taken into account by Fourier-expansion in circumferential direction. The mathematical solution is based on the governing equations for pressure wave propagation in fluids and vibrations in solids. Horizontal rupture of the RPV was assumed to occur in the welding connecting spherical bottom and cylinder. Inertia terms of the fluid were incorporated in the equations of the system

  11. Fail-safe design criteria for computer-based reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The increasing quantity and complexity of the instrumentation required in nuclear power plants provides a strong incentive for using on-line computers as the basis of the control and protection systems. On-line computers using multiplexed sampled data are already well established but their application to nuclear reactor protection systems requires special measures to satisfy the very high reliability which is demanded in the interests of safety and availability. Some existing codes of practice relating to segregation of replicated subsysttems continue to be applicable and lead to division of the computer functions into two distinct parts. The first computer, referred to as the Trip Algorithm Computer may also control the multiplexer. Voting on each group of status inputs yielded by the trip algorithm computers is performed by the Vote Algorithm Computer. The conceptual disparities between hardwired reactor-protection systems and those employing computers also rise to a need for some new criteria. An important objective of these criteria, minimising the need for a failure-mode-and-effect-analysis of the computer software, but is achieved almost entirely by 'hardware' properties of the system: the systematic use of hardwired test inputs which cause excursions of the trip algorithms into the tripped state in a uniquely ordered but easily recognisable sequence, and the use of hardwired 'pattern recognition logic' which generates a dynamic 'healthy' stimulus for the shutdown actuators only in response to the unique sequence generated by the hardwired input signal pattern. The adoption of the proposed design criteria ensure not only failure-to-safety in the hardware but the elimination, or at least minimisation, of the dependence on the correct functioning of the computer software for the safety system. (auth)

  12. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks.

  13. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Zandbergen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual’s address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks.

  14. Aluminum oxide mask fabrication by focused ion beam implantation combined with wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengjun; Iltanen, Kari; Chekurov, Nikolai; Tittonen, Ilkka; Grigoras, Kestutis

    2013-01-01

    A novel aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) hard mask fabrication process with nanoscale resolution is introduced. The Al 2 O 3 mask can be used for various purposes, but in this work it was utilized for silicon patterning using cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The patterning of Al 2 O 3 is a two-step process utilizing focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation combined with wet chemical etching. Gallium (Ga + ) FIB maskless patterning confers wet etch selectivity between the irradiated region and the non-irradiated one on the Al 2 O 3 layer, and mask patterns can easily be revealed by wet etching. This method is a modification of Ga + FIB mask patterning for the silicon etch stop, which eliminates the detrimental lattice damage and doping of the silicon substrate in critical devices. The shallow surface gallium FIB irradiated Al 2 O 3 mask protects the underlying silicon from Ga + ions. The performance of the masking capacity was tested by drawing pairs consisting of a line and an empty space with varying width. The best result was seven such pairs for 1 μm. The smallest half pitch was 59 nm. This method is capable of arbitrary pattern generation. The fabrication of a freestanding single-ended tuning fork resonator utilizing the introduced masking method is demonstrated. (paper)

  15. Benchmarking EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Gunion, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4 x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-(micro)m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured σ values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA

  16. Workers radiation protection. Solutions accommodate new needs. The tool box of radiation protection expands itself. Industrial radiology: workers aware of risks. To design a shielded enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, Alain; Billarand, Yann; Scanff, Pascale; Etard, Cecile; Sage, Julie; Jolivet, Patrick; Israel, Sylvain; Caplin, Helene; Couasnon, Olivier; Cordelle, Anne

    2017-01-01

    A first article proposes an overview of developments in the field of workers radiation protection. This development is notably motivated by the future dismantling works. It can be noticed that some other issues are considered as more important than radiation protection in the medical field even though radiation protection is a matter of concern for radiology manipulators. Radiation protection is also an issue for workers performing luggage X-ray controls in airports. As revealed by some measurements, artificial radioactivity should be controlled. Radiation protection is planned in relationship with an exposure scenario. The Belgium example is evoked with the development of centralised data and statistics in order to compare workers profiles. A second article comments the evolution of the activity of radiation protection with its new documents, methodologies (notably for operating rooms), and practical studies. While indicating how much the number of specialised workers increased, and how much dose control has been developed in the medical sector, and in terms of workers wearing a ring- or wrist-dosimeter between 2006 and 2015, and also indicating the distribution of controlled workers among sectors, the article outlines that a computation tool is shared between professionals, and how sheets on radionuclides are published and shared. The third article briefly addresses industrial radiology to outlines that workers are always more aware of risks. The last article briefly describes how a shielded enclosure is designed to limit workers exposure

  17. Design an online course of radiological protection; Diseno de un curso en linea de proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia S, R.; Del Sol F, S.; Rivera M, T.; Sanchez G, D., E-mail: rigarcias@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Currently there is a vast research about the harmful effects of the use of ionizing radiation in medical procedures and in recent years struck by the rapid innovation in imaging equipment, considerably increasing the radiation dose received both patients and professionals in the radiodiagnosis area, service having the greatest demand in our country. The main strategy that has so far is education, that is, to inform all those involved in managing ionizing radiation about the applications and risks associated with them. Generally it requires that all personnel occupationally exposed attesting a course of radiation protection. However, the high demand for this type of medical services and poorly trained staff, makes taking a classroom course for personnel occupationally exposed is complicated. So that in the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) we are designing a course in radiation protection to be implemented online, through the virtual platform Moodle in a first stage, and a massive open online course as the second stage so that can be carried by anyone interested in the subject, without having to appear in person. This will allows to reach the largest possible number of personnel occupationally exposed to just have a computer with internet access. (Author)

  18. IP cores design from specifications to production modeling, verification, optimization, and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Khaled Salah

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the life cycle process of IP cores, from specification to production, including IP modeling, verification, optimization, and protection. Various trade-offs in the design process are discussed, including  those associated with many of the most common memory cores, controller IPs  and system-on-chip (SoC) buses. Readers will also benefit from the author’s practical coverage of new verification methodologies. such as bug localization, UVM, and scan-chain.  A SoC case study is presented to compare traditional verification with the new verification methodologies. ·         Discusses the entire life cycle process of IP cores, from specification to production, including IP modeling, verification, optimization, and protection; ·         Introduce a deep introduction for Verilog for both implementation and verification point of view.  ·         Demonstrates how to use IP in applications such as memory controllers and SoC buses. ·         Describes a new ver...

  19. Design of the Injection and extraction system and related machine protection for the Clic Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Uythoven, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Linear machines such as CLIC have relatively low rates of collision between bunches compared to their circular counterparts. In order to achieve the required luminosity, a very small spot size is envisaged at the interaction point, thus a low emittance beam is needed. Damping rings are essential for producing the low emittances needed for the CLIC main beam. It is crucial that the beams are injected and extracted from the damping rings in a stable and repeatable fashion to minimise emittance blow-up and beam jitter at the interaction point; both of these effects will deteriorate the luminosity at the interaction point. In this paper, the parameters and constraints of the injection and extraction systems are considered and the design of these systems is optimised within this parameter space. Related machine protection is considered in order to prevent damage from potential failure modes of the injection and extraction systems.

  20. Quality uncertainty and allocation of decision rights in the European protected designation of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Martino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some issue in the governance of the European Protected Designation of Origin (PDO. The PDO systems are the outcomes of both farmers and consumers expectations and connect the valorisation of the agricultural and rural resources of given territories to the quality of typical products. A critical point in the governance of the PDO systems is represented by the connection between the quality strategies and the uncertainty. The paper argues that the PDO systems can be thought of as strictly coordinated subsystems in which the ex post governance play a critical role in coping with quality uncertainty. The study suggests that the society's inducements given raise to complex organizational systems in which the allocation of decision rights to PDO collective organizations play a major role. The empirical analysis is carried out by examining ten Italian PDO systems in order to identify the decision rights allocated.

  1. Automatic circuit analysis based on mask information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preas, B.T.; Lindsay, B.W.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The Circuit Mask Translator (CMAT) code has been developed which converts integrated circuit mask information into a circuit schematic. Logical operations, pattern recognition, and special functions are used to identify and interconnect diodes, transistors, capacitors, and resistances. The circuit topology provided by the translator is compatible with the input required for a circuit analysis program

  2. Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannjiang, Albert; Liao, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    Fourier phasing is the problem of retrieving Fourier phase information from Fourier intensity data. The standard Fourier phase retrieval (without a mask) is known to have many solutions which cause the standard phasing algorithms to stagnate and produce wrong or inaccurate solutions. In this paper Fourier phase retrieval is carried out with the introduction of a randomly fabricated mask in measurement and reconstruction. Highly probable uniqueness of solution, up to a global phase, was previously proved with exact knowledge of the mask. Here the uniqueness result is extended to the case where only rough information about the mask’s phases is assumed. The exponential probability bound for uniqueness is given in terms of the uncertainty-to-diversity ratio of the unknown mask. New phasing algorithms alternating between the object update and the mask update are systematically tested and demonstrated to have the capability of recovering both the object and the mask (within the object support) simultaneously, consistent with the uniqueness result. Phasing with a phase-uncertain mask is shown to be robust with respect to the correlation in the mask as well as the Gaussian and Poisson noises. (paper)

  3. Ipsilateral masking between acoustic and electric stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Payton; Turner, Christopher W; Gantz, Bruce J; Djalilian, Hamid R; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Residual acoustic hearing can be preserved in the same ear following cochlear implantation with minimally traumatic surgical techniques and short-electrode arrays. The combined electric-acoustic stimulation significantly improves cochlear implant performance, particularly speech recognition in noise. The present study measures simultaneous masking by electric pulses on acoustic pure tones, or vice versa, to investigate electric-acoustic interactions and their underlying psychophysical mechanisms. Six subjects, with acoustic hearing preserved at low frequencies in their implanted ear, participated in the study. One subject had a fully inserted 24 mm Nucleus Freedom array and five subjects had Iowa/Nucleus hybrid implants that were only 10 mm in length. Electric masking data of the long-electrode subject showed that stimulation from the most apical electrodes produced threshold elevations over 10 dB for 500, 625, and 750 Hz probe tones, but no elevation for 125 and 250 Hz tones. On the contrary, electric stimulation did not produce any electric masking in the short-electrode subjects. In the acoustic masking experiment, 125-750 Hz pure tones were used to acoustically mask electric stimulation. The acoustic masking results showed that, independent of pure tone frequency, both long- and short-electrode subjects showed threshold elevations at apical and basal electrodes. The present results can be interpreted in terms of underlying physiological mechanisms related to either place-dependent peripheral masking or place-independent central masking.

  4. Masked hypertension, a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.J.; Thien, Th.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2007-01-01

    Masked hypertension (blood pressure that is normal in the physicians' office but elevated elsewhere) is a common phenomenon as prevalence among studies varies from 8 to 45% and is seen at all ages. large discrepancies, however, exist between studies that have dealt with masked hypertension. It is of

  5. Tunable wavefront coded imaging system based on detachable phase mask: Mathematical analysis, optimization and underlying applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Wei, Jingxuan

    2014-09-01

    The key to the concept of tunable wavefront coding lies in detachable phase masks. Ojeda-Castaneda et al. (Progress in Electronics Research Symposium Proceedings, Cambridge, USA, July 5-8, 2010) described a typical design in which two components with cosinusoidal phase variation operate together to make defocus sensitivity tunable. The present study proposes an improved design and makes three contributions: (1) A mathematical derivation based on the stationary phase method explains why the detachable phase mask of Ojeda-Castaneda et al. tunes the defocus sensitivity. (2) The mathematical derivations show that the effective bandwidth wavefront coded imaging system is also tunable by making each component of the detachable phase mask move asymmetrically. An improved Fisher information-based optimization procedure was also designed to ascertain the optimal mask parameters corresponding to specific bandwidth. (3) Possible applications of the tunable bandwidth are demonstrated by simulated imaging.

  6. Evaluation of human body irradiation caused by radionuclides deposited in the filtration unit of gas mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, R.; Otahal, P.; Johnova, K.; Thinova, L.; Kluson, J.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive aerosol particles represent a serious risk for people facing the consequences of nuclear accident of any kind. The first responders to emergency situation need to be protected by personal protective equipment which includes radiation protection suit supplemented with gas mask. The purpose of this work is to estimate the dose to the organs of responder s body as a result of radionuclide deposition in the filtration unit of the gas mask. The problem was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. The dose absorbed by different organs for five representative radionuclides and the dose distribution over the responder s body are presented in this paper. Based on presented MC simulations, we suggest a method of evaluating the irradiation of the responder by the radionuclides deposited in the filtration unit of the gas mask. (authors)

  7. Unmasking Zorro: functional importance of the facial mask in the Masked Shrike (Lanius nubicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Reuven Yosef; Piotr Zduniak; Piotr Tryjanowski

    2012-01-01

    The facial mask is a prominent feature in the animal kingdom. We hypothesized that the facial mask of shrikes allows them to hunt into the sun, which accords them detection and surprise-attack capabilities. We conducted a field experiment to determine whether the mask facilitated foraging while facing into the sun. Male shrikes with white-painted masks hunted facing away from the sun more than birds with black-painted masks, which are the natural color, and more than individuals in the contro...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed as... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air...) All single air-purifying respirator filter units will be tested in an atmosphere concentration of 100...

  9. A study of response time of pitot pressure probes designed for rapid response and protection of transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    An eight orifice probe, designed to protect the transducer without the use of a baffle, was compared to a standard orifice-baffle probe in the small shock tube and in the expansion tube under normal run conditions. In both facilities, the response time of eight orifice probe was considerable better than the standard probe design.

  10. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some types of elastomeric respirator masks and protective eyewear such as goggles may be reused if the ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  11. CERN 's large hadron collider : Radiation protection aspects of design and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Brugger, Markus; Menzel, Hans; Roesler, Stefan; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Full text: CERN, the world's largest particle physics laboratory provides high energy hadron beams for experiments exploring matter. For this purpose various accelerators are operated and in 2008 the last link will be added to the accelerator chain: beam will be injected into CERN 's new 'flagship', the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). From then on high energy physics experiments will exploit the LHC 's colliding beams of protons and lead ions with a center of mass energy of 14 TeV and 1150 TeV, respectively. Radiation Protection aspects were taken into account during the whole duration of the design phase. Conservative design constraints were defined in 1996; some years later some of them, in particular with respect to the dose to occupational exposed workers, had to be readjusted to account for the latest development in CERN 's radiation protection rules and regulations. Numerous radiation protection studies had been performed to ensure a lay-out of the machine and its experiments in compliance with these constraints. These studies assessed all radiation risks related to the various beam-operation modes of the accelerator. In all cases external exposure was identified as the major risk: due to high energetic, mixed radiation fields during beam-on and due to beta and gamma radiation fields caused by induced radioactivity during beam-off. Counter measures were implemented like an optimized beam operation to limit beam losses, installation of thick shielding, prohibition of access to the major part of the LHC underground areas during beam-operation and optimization of the equipment and its handling during maintenance and repair. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations were performed to derive from the various beam loss scenarios the dose rates the workers will be exposed to. Individual and collective doses were projected based on the calculations and the maintenance scenarios provided by the teams concerned. In an iterative way the lay-out of the various regions were optimized

  12. New data on masking reagents in complexometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurist, I.M.; Talmud, M.M.; Zajtsev, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent literature data on employing inorganic and organic oxygen-, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing substances as masking reagents (MR) in complexonometry of alkali earths, rare earths and transition elements are reviewed for the period of 1971-1983. Effectiveness of any type of MR is shown to be dependent on the electron configuration of a cation being masked. Sr, La, Th, V(6), Zr, Hf, V(5), Nb(5), Ta(5), Mo(6), W(6) a.o. are masked by oxygen-containing ligands. Zn, Cd, Fe(2, 3), Co(2, 3), Ni, etc. are masked by nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing ligands. Thiocompounds mask mainly In, Tl(3), Sn(2), Pb, Bi

  13. An assessment of tailoring of lightning protection design requirements for a composite wing structure on a metallic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Navy A-6E aircraft is presently being modified with a new wing which uses graphite/epoxy structures and substructures around a titanium load-bearing structure. The ability of composites to conduct electricity is less than that of aluminum. This is cause for concern when the wing may be required to conduct large lightning currents. The manufacturer attempted to solve lightning protection issues by performing a risk assessment based on a statistical approach which allows relaxation of the wing lightning protection design levels over certain locations of the composite wing. A sensitivity study is presented designed to define the total risk of relaxation of the design levels.

  14. Laser etching of polymer masked leadframes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. K.; Man, H. C.; Yue, T. M.; Yuen, C. W.

    1997-02-01

    A typical electroplating production line for the deposition of silver pattern on copper leadframes in the semiconductor industry involves twenty to twenty five steps of cleaning, pickling, plating, stripping etc. This complex production process occupies large floor space and has also a number of problems such as difficulty in the production of rubber masks and alignment, generation of toxic fumes, high cost of water consumption and sometimes uncertainty on the cleanliness of the surfaces to be plated. A novel laser patterning process is proposed in this paper which can replace many steps in the existing electroplating line. The proposed process involves the application of high speed laser etching techniques on leadframes which were protected with polymer coating. The desired pattern for silver electroplating is produced by laser ablation of the polymer coating. Excimer laser was found to be most effective for this process as it can expose a pattern of clean copper substrate which can be silver plated successfully. Previous working of Nd:YAG laser ablation showed that 1.06 μm radiation was not suitable for this etching process because a thin organic and transparent film remained on the laser etched region. The effect of excimer pulse frequency and energy density upon the removal rate of the polymer coating was studied.

  15. Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG): A bibiliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Claudia; Mendes, Luís

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of the literature on food quality labels in the European Union (PDO, PGI and TSG), our search did not find any review joining the various research topics on this subject. This study aims therefore to consolidate the state of academic research in this field, and so the methodological option was to elaborate a bibliometric analysis resorting to the term co-occurrence technique. Analysis was made of 501 articles on the ISI Web of Science database, covering publications up to 2016. The results of the bibliometric analysis allowed identification of four clusters: "Protected Geographical Indication", "Certification of Olive Oil and Cultivars", "Certification of Cheese and Milk" and "Certification and Chemical Composition". Unlike the other clusters, where the PDO label predominates, the "Protected Geographical Indication" cluster covers the study of PGI products, highlighting analysis of consumer behaviour in relation to this type of product. The focus of studies in the "Certification of Olive Oil and Cultivars" cluster and the "Certification of Cheese and Milk" cluster is the development of authentication methods for certified traditional products. In the "Certification and Chemical Composition" cluster, standing out is analysis of the profiles of fatty acids present in this type of product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Designing Local-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks in the Central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2015-12-01

    Coral reefs around the world are at risk from overexploitation and climate change, and coral reefs of the Red Sea are no exception. Science-based designation of marine protected areas (MPAs), within which human activities are restricted, has become a popular method for conserving biodiversity, restoring degraded habitats, and replenishing depleted populations. The aim of this project was to explore adaptable methods for designing locally-manageable MPAs for various conservation goals near Thuwal in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea while allowing human activities to continue. First, the potential for using simple spatial habitat distribution metrics to aid in designing MPAs that are well-connected with larval supply was explored. Results showed that the degree of habitat patchiness may be positively correlated with realized dispersal distances, making it possible to space MPAs further apart in patchier habitats while still maintaining larval connectivity. However, this relationship requires further study and may be informative to MPA design only in the absence of spatially-explicit empirical dispersal data. Next, biological data was collected, and the spatial variation in biomass, trophic structure, biodiversity, and community assemblages on Thuwal reefs was analyzed in order to inform the process of prioritizing reefs for inclusion in MPA networks. Inshore and offshore reef community assemblages were found to be different and indicated relatively degraded inshore habitats. These trends were used to select species and benthic categories that would be important to conserve in a local MPA. The abundances of these “conservation features” were then modeled throughout the study area, and the decision support software “Marxan” was used to design MPA networks in Thuwal that included these features to achieve quantitative objectives. While achieving objectives relevant to fisheries concerns was relatively more challenging, results showed that it is possible to

  17. Advanced Emergency Braking Controller Design for Pedestrian Protection Oriented Automotive Collision Avoidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automotive collision avoidance system, which aims to enhance the active safety of the vehicle, has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, most of the current systems ignore the active protection of pedestrian and other vulnerable groups in the transportation system. An advanced emergency braking control system is studied by taking into account the pedestrians and the vehicles. Three typical braking scenarios are defined and the safety situations are assessed by comparing the current distance between the host vehicle and the obstacle with the critical braking distance. To reflect the nonlinear time-varying characteristics and control effect of the longitudinal dynamics, the vehicle longitudinal dynamics model is established in CarSim. Then the braking controller with the structure of upper and lower layers is designed based on sliding mode control and the single neuron PID control when confronting deceleration or emergency braking conditions. Cosimulations utilizing CarSim and Simulink are finally carried out on a CarSim intelligent vehicle model to explore the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Results display that the designed controller has a good response in preventing colliding with the front vehicle or pedestrian.

  18. Advanced emergency braking controller design for pedestrian protection oriented automotive collision avoidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Guo; Zejian, Ren; Pingshu, Ge; Jing, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Automotive collision avoidance system, which aims to enhance the active safety of the vehicle, has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, most of the current systems ignore the active protection of pedestrian and other vulnerable groups in the transportation system. An advanced emergency braking control system is studied by taking into account the pedestrians and the vehicles. Three typical braking scenarios are defined and the safety situations are assessed by comparing the current distance between the host vehicle and the obstacle with the critical braking distance. To reflect the nonlinear time-varying characteristics and control effect of the longitudinal dynamics, the vehicle longitudinal dynamics model is established in CarSim. Then the braking controller with the structure of upper and lower layers is designed based on sliding mode control and the single neuron PID control when confronting deceleration or emergency braking conditions. Cosimulations utilizing CarSim and Simulink are finally carried out on a CarSim intelligent vehicle model to explore the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Results display that the designed controller has a good response in preventing colliding with the front vehicle or pedestrian.

  19. A Behavior-Preserving Translation From FBD Design to C Implementation for Reactor Protection System Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Junbeom; Kim, Euisub; Lee, Jangsoo

    2013-01-01

    Software safety for nuclear reactor protection systems (RPSs) is the most important requirement for the obtainment of permission for operation and export from government authorities, which is why it should be managed with well-experienced software development processes. The RPS software is typically modeled with function block diagrams (FBDs) in the design phase, and then mechanically translated into C programs in the implementation phase, which is finally compiled into executable machine codes and loaded on RPS hardware - PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). Whereas C Compilers are fully-verified COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) software, translators from FBDs to C programs are provided by PLC vendors. Long-term experience, experiments and simulations have validated their correctness and function safety. This paper proposes a behavior-preserving translation from FBD design to C implementation for RPS software. It includes two sets of translation algorithms and rules as well as a prototype translator. We used an example of RPS software in a Korean nuclear power plant to demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed translation

  20. A Behavior-Preserving Translation From FBD Design to C Implementation for Reactor Protection System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Junbeom; Kim, Euisub [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Software safety for nuclear reactor protection systems (RPSs) is the most important requirement for the obtainment of permission for operation and export from government authorities, which is why it should be managed with well-experienced software development processes. The RPS software is typically modeled with function block diagrams (FBDs) in the design phase, and then mechanically translated into C programs in the implementation phase, which is finally compiled into executable machine codes and loaded on RPS hardware - PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). Whereas C Compilers are fully-verified COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) software, translators from FBDs to C programs are provided by PLC vendors. Long-term experience, experiments and simulations have validated their correctness and function safety. This paper proposes a behavior-preserving translation from FBD design to C implementation for RPS software. It includes two sets of translation algorithms and rules as well as a prototype translator. We used an example of RPS software in a Korean nuclear power plant to demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed translation.

  1. Near infrared spectroscopy is suitable for the classification of hazelnuts according to Protected Designation of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Roberto; Radicetti, Emanuele; Monarca, Danilo; Cecchini, Massimo; Massantini, Riccardo

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy for the authentication of the 'Nocciola Romana' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. cvs Tonda Gentile Romana and Nocchione) as a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) hazelnut from central Italy. Algorithms for the selection of the optimal pretreatments were tested in combination with the following discriminant routines: k-nearest neighbour, soft independent modelling of class analogy, partial least squares discriminant analysis and support vector machine discriminant analysis. The best results were obtained using a support vector machine discriminant analysis routine. Thus, classification performance rates with specificities, sensitivities and accuracies as high as 96.0%, 95.0% and 95.5%, respectively, were achieved. Various pretreatments, such as standard normal variate, mean centring and a Savitzky-Golay filter with seven smoothing points, were used. The optimal wavelengths for classification were mainly correlated with lipids, although some contribution from minor constituents, such as proteins and carbohydrates, was also observed. Near infrared spectroscopy could classify hazelnut according to the PDO 'Nocciola Romana' designation. Thus, the experimentation lays the foundations for a rapid, online, authentication system for hazelnut. However, model robustness should be improved taking into account agro-pedo-climatic growing conditions. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Techniques of preoxygenation in patients with ineffective face mask seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kundra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ineffective face mask seal is the most common cause for suboptimal pre-oxygenation. Room air entrainment can be more with vital capacity (VC breaths when the mask is not a tight fit. Aims: This study was designed to compare 5 min tidal volume (TV breathing and eight VC breaths in patients with ineffective face mask seal. Methods: Twenty eight ASA I adults with ineffective face mask seal were randomized to breathe 100% oxygen at normal TV for 5 min (Group TV and eight VC breaths (Group VC in a cross over manner through circle system at 10 L/min. End tidal oxygen concentration (EtO 2 and arterial blood gas analysis was performed to evaluate oxygenation with each technique. Statistical Analysis: Data were analysed using SPSS statistical software, version 16. Friedman′s two-way analysis of variance by ranks was used for non-parametric data. Results: Significant increase in EtO 2 (median 90 and PaO 2 (228.85 was seen in group TV when compared to group VC (EtO 2 median 85, PaO 2 147.65, P<0.05. Mean total ventilation volume in 1 min in group VC was 9.4±3.3 L/min and more than fresh gas flow (10 L/min in seven patients. In group TV, the fresh gas flow (50 L/5 min was sufficient at normal TV (mean total ventilation in 5 min 36.7±6.3 L/min. Conclusions: TV breathing for 5 min provides better pre-oxygenation in patients with ineffective mask seal with fresh gas flow of 10 L/min delivered through a circle system.

  3. Nasal mask ventilation is better than face mask ventilation in edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Mukul Chandra; Rana, Sandeep; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Vishal, Vindhya; Sikdar, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Face mask ventilation of the edentulous patient is often difficult as ineffective seating of the standard mask to the face prevents attainment of an adequate air seal. The efficacy of nasal ventilation in edentulous patients has been cited in case reports but has never been investigated. Consecutive edentulous adult patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, during a 17-month period, were prospectively evaluated. After induction of anesthesia and administration of neuromuscular blocker, lungs were ventilated with a standard anatomical face mask of appropriate size, using a volume controlled anesthesia ventilator with tidal volume set at 10 ml/kg. In case of inadequate ventilation, the mask position was adjusted to achieve best-fit. Inspired and expired tidal volumes were measured. Thereafter, the face mask was replaced by a nasal mask and after achieving best-fit, the inspired and expired tidal volumes were recorded. The difference in expired tidal volumes and airway pressures at best-fit with the use of the two masks and number of patients with inadequate ventilation with use of the masks were statistically analyzed. A total of 79 edentulous patients were recruited for the study. The difference in expiratory tidal volumes with the use of the two masks at best-fit was statistically significant (P = 0.0017). Despite the best-fit mask placement, adequacy of ventilation could not be achieved in 24.1% patients during face mask ventilation, and 12.7% patients during nasal mask ventilation and the difference was statistically significant. Nasal mask ventilation is more efficient than standard face mask ventilation in edentulous patients.

  4. Photodeposited diffractive optical elements of computer generated masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchin, N.; Peled, A.; Baal-Zedaka, I.; Margolin, R.; Zagon, M.; Lapsker, I.; Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.

    2005-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) were synthesized on plastic substrates using the photodeposition (PD) technique by depositing amorphous selenium (a-Se) films with argon lasers and UV spectra light. The thin films were deposited typically onto polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates at room temperature. Scanned beam and contact mask modes were employed using computer-designed DOE lenses. Optical and electron micrographs characterize the surface details. The films were typically 200 nm thick

  5. Cloning of MASK, a novel member of mammalian germinal center kinase-III subfamily, with apoptosis-inducing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Ippeita; Ong, Shao-En; Watanabe, Norinobu M

    2002-01-01

    We have cloned a novel human GCK family kinase that has been designated as MASK (Mst3 and SOK1-related kinase). MASK is widely expressed and encodes a protein of 416 amino acid residues, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a unique C-terminal region. Like other GCK-III subfamily kinases, MASK do...... apoptosis upon overexpression in mammalian cells that is abrogated by CrmA, suggesting involvement of MASK in the apoptotic machinery in mammalian cells. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Feb-22...

  6. Contribution of Binaural Masking Release to Improved Speech Intelligibility for different Masker types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutojo, Sarinah; van de Par, Steven; Schoenmaker, Esther

    2018-06-01

    In situations with competing talkers or in the presence of masking noise, speech intelligibility can be improved by spatially separating the target speaker from the interferers. This advantage is generally referred to as spatial release from masking (SRM) and different mechanisms have been suggested to explain it. One proposed mechanism to benefit from spatial cues is the binaural masking release, which is purely stimulus driven. According to this mechanism, the spatial benefit results from differences in the binaural cues of target and masker, which need to appear simultaneously in time and frequency to improve the signal detection. In an alternative proposed mechanism, the differences in the interaural cues improve the segregation of auditory streams, a process, which involves top-down processing rather than being purely stimulus driven. Other than the cues that produce binaural masking release, the interaural cue differences between target and interferer required to improve stream segregation do not have to appear simultaneously in time and frequency. This study is concerned with the contribution of binaural masking release to SRM for three masker types that differ with respect to the amount of energetic masking they exert. Speech intelligibility was measured, employing a stimulus manipulation that inhibits binaural masking release, and analyzed with a metric to account for the number of better-ear glimpses. Results indicate that the contribution of the stimulus-driven binaural masking release plays a minor role while binaural stream segregation and the availability of glimpses in the better ear had a stronger influence on improving the speech intelligibility. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Designing an efficient LT-code with unequal error protection for image transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Marques, F.; Schwartz, C.; Pinho, M. S.; Finamore, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    The use of images from earth observation satellites is spread over different applications, such as a car navigation systems and a disaster monitoring. In general, those images are captured by on board imaging devices and must be transmitted to the Earth using a communication system. Even though a high resolution image can produce a better Quality of Service, it leads to transmitters with high bit rate which require a large bandwidth and expend a large amount of energy. Therefore, it is very important to design efficient communication systems. From communication theory, it is well known that a source encoder is crucial in an efficient system. In a remote sensing satellite image transmission, this efficiency is achieved by using an image compressor, to reduce the amount of data which must be transmitted. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), a multinational forum for the development of communications and data system standards for space flight, establishes a recommended standard for a data compression algorithm for images from space systems. Unfortunately, in the satellite communication channel, the transmitted signal is corrupted by the presence of noise, interference signals, etc. Therefore, the receiver of a digital communication system may fail to recover the transmitted bit. Actually, a channel code can be used to reduce the effect of this failure. In 2002, the Luby Transform code (LT-code) was introduced and it was shown that it was very efficient when the binary erasure channel model was used. Since the effect of the bit recovery failure depends on the position of the bit in the compressed image stream, in the last decade many e orts have been made to develop LT-code with unequal error protection. In 2012, Arslan et al. showed improvements when LT-codes with unequal error protection were used in images compressed by SPIHT algorithm. The techniques presented by Arslan et al. can be adapted to work with the algorithm for image compression

  8. Parameter design and experimental study of a bifunctional isolator for optical payload protection and stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-yuan; Guan, Xin; Cao, Dong-jing; Tang, Shao-fan; Chen, Xiang; Liang, Lu; Zheng, Gang-tie

    2017-11-01

    With the raise of resolution, optical payloads are becoming increasingly sensitive to satellite jitter. An approach where the entire spacecraft is pointed with great accuracy requires sophisticated and expensive bus design. In an effort to lower the overall cost of space missions that require highly stable line-of-sight pointing, a method of separating the bus and the payload with low frequency isolators is proposed. This isolation system can block the transmission of disturbance and allow relatively large bus motion. However, if the isolator is linear then there is a trade-off between isolation and static deflection as the launch and the on-orbit stage have difference requirements on the isolation frequency. Otherwise, an extra locking system should be appended to protect the payload before getting into orbit, as the STABLE isolation system[1] and the MIM isolation system[2] did. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is to design a nonlinear isolator with high-static stiffness during launch and low dynamic stiffness on orbit. Several specially designed nonlinear isolators have achieved low dynamic stiffness with large static load capacity. Virgin[3] considered a structure made from a highly deformed elastic element to achieve a softening spring. Platus[4] exploited the buckling of beams under axial load in a specific configuration to achieve a negative stiffness in combination with a positive stiffness, and hence low-dynamic stiffness. Others have achieved the same by connecting linear springs with positive stiffness in parallel with elements of negative stiffness[5] [7]. In the present study, a bifunctional isolator has been developed for optical payloads. The isolator have good performance both during launch and on orbit because of its specially designed nonlinear stiffness and damping. The isolator works in a linear part with low stiffness and small damping ratio under the micro-vibration and microgravity on orbit. The transmissibility

  9. Security controls in an integrated Biobank to protect privacy in data sharing: rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nagasaki, Masao; Ogishima, Soichi; Nakamura, Naoki; Nagase, Sachiko; Nagaie, Satoshi; Saito, Tomo; Nagami, Fuji; Minegishi, Naoko; Suzuki, Yoichi; Suzuki, Kichiya; Hashizume, Hiroaki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Hozawa, Atsushi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kure, Shigeo; Tamiya, Gen; Kawaguchi, Yoshio; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2017-07-06

    With the goal of realizing genome-based personalized healthcare, we have developed a biobank that integrates personal health, genome, and omics data along with biospecimens donated by volunteers of 150,000. Such a large-scale of data integration involves obvious risks of privacy violation. The research use of personal genome and health information is a topic of global discussion with regard to the protection of privacy while promoting scientific advancement. The present paper reports on our plans, current attempts, and accomplishments in addressing security problems involved in data sharing to ensure donor privacy while promoting scientific advancement. Biospecimens and data have been collected in prospective cohort studies with the comprehensive agreement. The sample size of 150,000 participants was required for multiple researches including genome-wide screening of gene by environment interactions, haplotype phasing, and parametric linkage analysis. We established the T ohoku M edical M egabank (TMM) data sharing policy: a privacy protection rule that requires physical, personnel, and technological safeguards against privacy violation regarding the use and sharing of data. The proposed policy refers to that of NCBI and that of the Sanger Institute. The proposed policy classifies shared data according to the strength of re-identification risks. Local committees organized by TMM evaluate re-identification risk and assign a security category to a dataset. Every dataset is stored in an assigned segment of a supercomputer in accordance with its security category. A security manager should be designated to handle all security problems at individual data use locations. The proposed policy requires closed networks and IP-VPN remote connections. The mission of the biobank is to distribute biological resources most productively. This mission motivated us to collect biospecimens and health data and simultaneously analyze genome/omics data in-house. The biobank also has the

  10. An interactive tool for gamut masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Lau, Cheryl; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Artists often want to change the colors of an image to achieve a particular aesthetic goal. For example, they might limit colors to a warm or cool color scheme to create an image with a certain mood or feeling. Gamut masking is a technique that artists use to limit the set of colors they can paint with. They draw a mask over a color wheel and only use the hues within the mask. However, creating the color palette from the mask and applying the colors to the image requires skill. We propose an interactive tool for gamut masking that allows amateur artists to create an image with a desired mood or feeling. Our system extracts a 3D color gamut from the 2D user-drawn mask and maps the image to this gamut. The user can draw a different gamut mask or locally refine the image colors. Our voxel grid gamut representation allows us to represent gamuts of any shape, and our cluster-based image representation allows the user to change colors locally.

  11. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  12. Effect of Ibuprofen on masking endodontic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jason K; McClanahan, Scott B; Khan, Asma A; Lunos, Scott; Bowles, Walter R

    2014-08-01

    An accurate diagnosis is of upmost importance before initiating endodontic treatment; yet, there are occasions when the practitioner cannot reproduce the patient's chief complaint because the patient has become asymptomatic. Ibuprofen taken beforehand may "mask" or eliminate the patient's symptoms. In fact, 64%-83% of patients with dental pain take analgesics before seeing a dentist. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible "masking" effect of ibuprofen on endodontic diagnostic tests. Forty-two patients with endodontic pain underwent testing (cold, percussion, palpation, and bite force measurement) and then received either placebo or 800 mg ibuprofen. Both patients and operators were blinded to the medication received. One hour later, diagnostic testing was repeated and compared with pretreatment testing. Ibuprofen affected testing values for vital teeth by masking palpation 40%, percussion 25%, and cold 25% on affected teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and symptomatic apical periodontitis. There was no observed masking effect in the placebo group on palpation, percussion, or cold values. When nonvital teeth were included, the masking effect of ibuprofen was decreased. However, little masking occurred with the bite force measurement differences. Analgesics taken before the dental appointment can affect endodontic diagnostic testing results. Bite force measurements can assist in identifying the offending tooth in cases in which analgesics "mask" the endodontic diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Polymer Masks for nanostructuring of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta

    This PhD project is a part of Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG) activities. The aim of the project is to develop a new lithography method for creation of highly ordered nanostructures with as small as possible feature and period sizes. The method should be applicable for graphene nanostruc...... demonstrated the opening of what could be interpreted as a band gap....... polymer masks is developed. Mask fabrication is realized by microtoming of 30-60 nm thin sections from pre-aligned polymer monoliths with different morphologies. The resulting polymer masks are then transferred to both silicon and graphene substrates. Hexagonally packed hole patterns with 10 nm hole...

  14. When Bad Masks Turn Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Roberto G.

    In keeping with the spirit of a meeting on ‘masks,' this talk presents two short stories on the theme of dust. In the first, dust plays the familiar role of the evil obscurer, the enemy to bedefeated by the cunning observer in order to allow a key future technology (adaptive optics) to be exploited fully by heroic astronomers. In the second story, dust itself emerges as the improbable hero, in the form of a circumstellar debris disks. I will present evidence of a puzzling near-infrared excess in the continuum of high-redshift galaxies and will argue that the seemingly improbable origin of this IR excess is a population of young circumstellar disks formed around high-mass stars in distant galaxies. Assuming circumstellar disks extend down to lower masses,as they do in our own Galaxy, the excess emission presents us with an exciting opportunity to measure the formation rate of planetary systems in distant galaxies at cosmic epochs before our own solar system formed.

  15. Legal Design of Domestic Workers Protection Based on Gorontalo Community Local Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherawaty Thalib, Mutia

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted with an empirical juridical approach. The juridical approach was done by identifying community norms and legal policy related to the domestic workers existence, while the empirical approach was done by observing social phenomenon of housemaid and local culture that underlies the working relationship between employer and domestic workers (housemaid). In-depth interviews and group discussions were done to obtain the data. The result shows that the domestic workers existence in Gorontalo cannot be relied upon the domestic service market because it is increasingly eroded by socio-cultural changes that evolve in the rapid rise society awareness of human rights and technological development. Huyula’s culture values, timoa, ambu, bilohe, and tolianga remain as survival strategies for some domestic workers who last longer with their work. For new domestic workers, the bargaining position is increasingly high with the poor quality of work. Some of the rural workers who still hold the principle of “dila biasa” (uncustomary principle), moomu (unwilling), moolito / moqolito (shame), affect their resilience in working as domestic workers. On the other hand, domestic work relations as a social institution is not supported by strong instruments like the government. Consequently, it needs an integrated thinking and step by step designing of the form of protection for domestic workers based on the local culture values of Gorontalo people.

  16. Design and implementation of a radiotherapy programme: Clinical, medical physics, radiation protection and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the clinical aspects (diagnosis, decision, indication for treatment, follow-up) as well as the procedures related to the physical and technical aspects of patient treatment must be subjected to careful control and planning in order to ensure safe, high quality radiotherapy. Whilst it has long been recognized that the physical aspects of quality assurance in radiotherapy are vital to achieve and effective and safe treatment, it has been increasingly acknowledged only recently that a systematic approach is absolutely necessary to all steps within clinical and technical aspects of a radiotherapy programme as well. The need to establish general guidelines at the IAEA, taking into account clinical medical physics, radiation protection and safety considerations, for designing and implementing radiotherapy programmes in Member States has been identified through the Member States' increased interest in the efficient and safe application of radiation in health care. Several consultants and advisory group meetings were convened to prepare a report providing a basis for establishing a programme in radiotherapy. The present TECDOC is addressed to all professionals and administrators involved in the development, implementation and management of a radiotherapy programme in order to establish a common and consistent framework where all steps and procedures in radiotherapy are taken into account

  17. Evaluation of Criteria to Detect Masked Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N.; Muntner, Paul; Diaz, Keith M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Bello, Natalie A.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of masked hypertension, out-of-clinic daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP)≥135/85 mmHg on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) among adults with clinic SBP/DBPABPM testing criterion. In a derivation cohort (n=695), the index was clinic SBP+1.3*clinic DBP. In an external validation cohort (n=675), the sensitivity for masked hypertension using an index ≥190 mmHg and ≥217 mmHg and prehypertension status was 98.5%, 71.5% and 82.5%, respectively. Using NHANES data (n=11,778), we estimated that these thresholds would refer 118.6, 44.4 and 59.3 million US adults, respectively, to ABPM screening for masked hypertension. In conclusion, the CBP index provides a useful approach to identify candidates for masked hypertension screening using ABPM. PMID:27126770

  18. Active mask segmentation of fluorescence microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D; Kovacević, Jelena

    2009-08-01

    We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the "contour" to that of "inside and outside," or masks, allowing for easy multidimensional segmentation. It adapts to the topology of the image through the use of multiple masks. The algorithm is almost invariant under initialization, allowing for random initialization, and uses a few easily tunable parameters. Experiments show that the active mask algorithm matches the ground truth well and outperforms the algorithm widely used in fluorescence microscopy, seeded watershed, both qualitatively, as well as quantitatively.

  19. Mask-induced aberration in EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Sato, Takashi; Inanami, Ryoichi; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

    2009-04-01

    We estimated aberrations using Zernike sensitivity analysis. We found the difference of the tolerated aberration with line direction for illumination. The tolerated aberration of perpendicular line for illumination is much smaller than that of parallel line. We consider this difference to be attributable to the mask 3D effect. We call it mask-induced aberration. In the case of the perpendicular line for illumination, there was a difference in CD between right line and left line without aberration. In this report, we discuss the possibility of pattern formation in NA 0.25 generation EUV lithography tool. In perpendicular pattern for EUV light, the dominant part of aberration is mask-induced aberration. In EUV lithography, pattern correction based on the mask topography effect will be more important.

  20. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few...

  1. The fastest saccadic responses escape visual masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzet, Sébastien M.; Overgaard, Morten; Busch, Niko A.

    2014-01-01

    Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. The reduction of target visibility occurring after OSM has been suggested to result from a specific interference with reentrant......, which gives access to very early stages of visual processing, target visibility was reduced either by OSM, conventional backward masking, or low stimulus contrast. A general reduction of performance was observed in all three conditions. However, the fastest saccades did not show any sign of interference...... under either OSM or backward masking, as they did under the low-contrast condition. This finding supports the hypothesis that masking interferes mostly with reentrant processing at later stages, while leaving early feedforward processing largely intact....

  2. Attentional capture by masked colour singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Horstmann, Gernot; Worschech, Franziska

    2010-09-15

    We tested under which conditions a colour singleton of which an observer is unaware captures attention. To prevent visual awareness of the colour singleton, we used backward masking. We find that a masked colour singleton cue captures attention if it matches the observer's goal to search for target colours but not if it is task-irrelevant. This is also reflected in event-related potentials to the visible target: the masked goal-matching cue elicits an attentional potential (N2pc) in a target search task. By contrast, a non-matching but equally strong masked colour singleton cue failed to elicit a capture effect and an N2pc. Results are discussed with regard to currently pertaining conceptions of attentional capture by colour singletons. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Operational safety and radiation protection considerations in designing an HLW repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, W.; Kreienmeyer, M.; Poehler, M.; Niehues, N.

    2008-01-01

    In Germany the reference concept for disposal of heat generating radioactive waste considers emplacing canisters with vitrified waste in deep vertical boreholes drilled from the drifts of a repository mine in salt at a depth of 870 m. Spent fuel is to be disposed of in self-shielding POLLUX casks in horizontal drifts. An optimized disposal concept anticipates emplacing unshielded canisters with vitrified HLW and canisters containing the fuel rods of 3 PWR or 9 BWR fuel assemblies in boreholes with a diameter of 60 cm and a depth of up to 300 m.. In all cases the void space between POLLUX cask and drifts and canisters and borehole wall will be backfilled with crushed salt. (1) Operational Safety: Based on a detailed description of all underground disposal operation steps, the possible impacts on the disposal operations were analysed and the need for further studies determined. The disposal operation steps comprise e.g. rail bound transport from the shaft to the emplacement drift and emplacement process itself. As possible impacts the following occurrences were considered: ventilation failure, power supply failure, rock mechanics impact including cross-section convergence, irregular floor uplift and rock fall, brine and natural gas intrusion, derailing of transport carts and finally internal fire. (2) Radiation Protection: According to the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG), the design, construction and operation of a nuclear site like a final repository has to be licensed by the responsible authority. The Radiological Protection Ordinance and further guidelines i.e. concerning the emission and immission of released radioactive nuclides or the risk analysis of possible failure, build the basis for the licensing procedures. To ensure adequate protection against undue radiation exposure the repository is divided into different radiological protection areas. Generally, the handling of shielded waste packages above und under ground (including all the pathway of transport and

  4. PMJ panel discussion overview on mask complexities, cost, and cycle time in 32-nm system LSI generation: conflict or concurrent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Kunihiro; Kato, Kokoro

    2008-10-01

    This is a report on a panel discussion organized in Photomask Japan 2008, where the challenges about "Mask Complexities, Cost, and Cycle Time in 32-nm System LSI Generation" were addressed to have a look over the possible solutions from the standpoints of chipmaker, commercial mask shop, DA tool vendor and equipments makers. The wrap-up is as follows: Mask complexities justify the mask cost, while the acceptable increase rate of 32nm-mask cost significantly differs between mask suppliers or users side. The efficiency progress by new tools or DFM has driven their cycle-time reductions. Mask complexities and cost will be crucial issues prior to cycle time, and there seems to be linear correlation between them. Controlling complexity and cycle time requires developing a mix of advanced technologies, and especially for cost reduction, shot prices in writers and processing rates in inspection tools have been improved remarkably by tool makers. In addition, activities of consortium in Japan (Mask D2I) are expected to enhance the total optimization of mask design, writing and inspection. The cycle-time reduction potentially drives the lowering of mask cost, and, on the other, the pattern complexities and tighter mask specifications get in the way to 32nm generation as well as the nano-economics and market challenges. There are still many difficult problems in mask manufacturing now, and we are sure to go ahead to overcome a 32nm hurdle with the advances of technologies and collaborations by not only technologies but also finance.

  5. Active Mask Segmentation of Fluorescence Microscope Images

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C.; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D.; Kovačević, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the “contour” to that of “inside and outside”, or, masks, allowing for easy mul...

  6. Refinement of the CALIOP cloud mask algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Shuichiro; Sato, Kaori; Ohta, Kohei; Okamoto, Hajime

    2018-04-01

    A modified cloud mask algorithm was applied to the CALIOP data to have more ability to detect the clouds in the lower atmosphere. In this algorithm, we also adopt the fully attenuation discrimination and the remain noise estimation using the data obtained at an altitude of 40 km to avoid contamination of stratospheric aerosols. The new cloud mask shows an increase in the lower cloud fraction. Comparison of the results to the data observed with a PML ground observation was also made.

  7. Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Pappas, Maria K; Sinha, Arjun D

    2016-03-01

    Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is diagnosed in patients treated for hypertension who are normotensive in the clinic but hypertensive outside. In this study of 333 veterans with CKD, we prospectively evaluated the prevalence of MUCH as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring using three definitions of hypertension (daytime hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg; either nighttime hypertension ≥120/70 mmHg or daytime hypertension; and 24-hour hypertension ≥130/80 mmHg) or by home BP monitoring (hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg). The prevalence of MUCH was 26.7% by daytime ambulatory BP, 32.8% by 24-hour ambulatory BP, 56.1% by daytime or night-time ambulatory BP, and 50.8% by home BP. To assess the reproducibility of the diagnosis, we repeated these measurements after 4 weeks. Agreement in MUCH diagnosis by ambulatory BP was 75-78% (κ coefficient for agreement, 0.44-0.51), depending on the definition used. In contrast, home BP showed an agreement of only 63% and a κ coefficient of 0.25. Prevalence of MUCH increased with increasing clinic systolic BP: 2% in the 90-110 mmHg group, 17% in the 110-119 mmHg group, 34% in the 120-129 mmHg group, and 66% in the 130-139 mmHg group. Clinic BP was a good determinant of MUCH (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.87). In diagnosing MUCH, home BP was not different from clinic BP. In conclusion, among people with CKD, MUCH is common and reproducible, and should be suspected when clinic BP is in the prehypertensive range. Confirmation of MUCH diagnosis should rely on ambulatory BP monitoring. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Optimized furosemide taste masked orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs containing furosemide (FUR were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (32 full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1 and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2 on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1 was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1 and CCS (X2 on ODTs disintegration time (Y1 were insignificant (p > 0.05. Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30 min (D5 and D30, respectively, but only its effect on D30 is significant (p = 0.0004. Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10 s.

  9. Modulation cues influence binaural masking-level difference in masking-pattern experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschmann, Marc; Verhey, Jesko L

    2012-03-01

    Binaural masking patterns show a steep decrease in the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) when masker and signal have no frequency component in common. Experimental threshold data are presented together with model simulations for a diotic masker centered at 250 or 500 Hz and a bandwidth of 10 or 100 Hz masking a sinusoid interaurally in phase (S(0)) or in antiphase (S(π)). Simulations with a binaural model, including a modulation filterbank for the monaural analysis, indicate that a large portion of the decrease in the BMLD in remote-masking conditions may be due to an additional modulation cue available for monaural detection. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  10. Masking Period Patterns and Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-Related Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Menezes, Denise C; Porter, Heather L; Griz, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-age (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated nonsimultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data, suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise.

  11. Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway versus Face Mask during Neonatal Resuscitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Cavallin, Francesco; Nguyen, Loi Ngoc; Nguyen, Tien Viet; Tran, Linh Dieu; Tran, Chien Dinh; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Micaglio, Massimo; Moccia, Luciano

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of supreme laryngeal mask airway (SLMA) over face mask ventilation for preventing need for endotracheal intubation at birth. We report a prospective, randomized, parallel 1:1, unblinded, controlled trial. After a short-term educational intervention on SLMA use, infants ≥34-week gestation and/or expected birth weight ≥1500 g requiring positive pressure ventilation (PPV) at birth were randomized to resuscitation by SLMA or face mask. The primary outcome was the success rate of the resuscitation devices (SLMA or face mask) defined as the achievement of an effective PPV preventing the need for endotracheal intubation. We enrolled 142 patients (71 in SLMA and 71 in face mask group, respectively). Successful resuscitation rate was significantly higher with the SLMA compared with face mask ventilation (91.5% vs 78.9%; P = .03). Apgar score at 5 minutes was significantly higher in SLMA than in face mask group (P = .02). Neonatal intensive care unit admission rate was significantly lower in SLMA than in face mask group (P = .02). No complications related to the procedure occurred. In newborns with gestational age ≥34 weeks and/or expected birth weight ≥1500 g needing PPV at birth, the SLMA is more effective than face mask to prevent endotracheal intubation. The SLMA is effective in clinical practice after a short-term educational intervention. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01963936. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor steam-cycle/cogeneration lead plant. Plant Protection and Instrumentation System design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Plant Protection and Instrumentation System provides plant safety system sense and command features, actuation of plant safety system execute features, preventive features which maintain safety system integrity, and safety-related instrumentation which monitors the plant and its safety systems. The primary function of the Plant Protection and Instrumentation system is to sense plant process variables to detect abnormal plant conditions and to provide input to actuation devices directly controlling equipment required to mitigate the consequences of design basis events to protect the public health and safety. The secondary functions of the Plant Protection and Instrumentation System are to provide plant preventive features, sybsystems that monitor plant safety systems status, subsystems that monitor the plant under normal operating and accident conditions, safety-related controls which allow control of reactor shutdown and cooling from a remote shutdown area

  13. Phase mask coronagraphy at JPL and Palomar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serabyn E.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For the imaging of faint companions, phase mask coronagraphy has the dual advantages of a small inner working angle and high throughput. This paper summarizes our recent work in developing phase masks and in demonstrating their capabilities at JPL. Four-quadrant phase masks have been manufactured at JPL by means of both evaporation and etching, and we have been developing liquid crystal vortex phase masks in partnership with a commercial vendor. Both types of mask have been used with our extreme adaptive optics well-corrected subaperture at Palomar to detect known brown dwarf companions as close as ~ 2.5 λ/D to stars. Moreover, our recent vortex masks perform very well in laboratory tests, with a demonstrated infrared contrast of about 10−6 at 3 λ/D, and contrasts of a few 10−7 with an initial optical wavelength device. The demonstrated performance already meets the needs of ground-based extreme adaptive optics coronagraphy, and further planned improvements are aimed at reaching the 10−10 contrast needed for terrestrial exoplanet detection with a space-based coronagraph.

  14. Design of reactor protection systems for HTR plants generating electric power and process heat problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craemer, B.; Dahm, H.; Spillekothen, H.G.

    1982-06-01

    The design basis of the reactor protection system (RPS) for HTR plants generating process heat and electric power is briefly described and some particularities of process heat plants are indicated. Some particularly important or exacting technical measuring positions for the RPS of a process heat HTR with 500 MWsub(th) power (PNP 500) are described and current R + D work explained. It is demonstrated that a particularly simple RPS can be realized in an HTR with modular design. (author)

  15. Disposable surgical face masks for preventing surgical wound infection in clean surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Lipp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical face masks were originally developed to contain and filter droplets containing microorganisms expelled from the mouth and nasopharynx of healthcare workers during surgery, thereby providing protection for the patient. However, there are several ways in which surgical face masks could potentially contribute to contamination of the surgical wound, e.g. by incorrect wear or by leaking air from the side of the mask due to poor string tension. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether disposable surgical face masks worn by the surgical team during clean surgery prevent postoperative surgical wound infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 14 September 2011; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3; Ovid MEDLINE (2008 to August Week 5 2011; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process &Other Non-Indexed Citations September 13, 2011; Ovid EMBASE (2008 to 2011 Week 35; and EBSCO CINAHL (2008 to 9 September 2011. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the use of disposable surgical masks with the use of no mask. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors extracted data independently. MAIN RESULTS: Three trials were included, involving a total of 2113 participants. There was no statistically significant difference in infection rates between the masked and unmasked group in any of the trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: From the limited results it is unclear whether the wearing of surgical face masks by members of the surgical team has any impact on surgical wound infection rates for patients undergoing clean surgery.

  16. Design and Optimization of an Austenitic TRIP Steel for Blast and Fragment Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Zechariah Daniel

    In light of the pervasive nature of terrorist attacks, there is a pressing need for the design and optimization of next generation materials for blast and fragment protection applications. Sadhukhan used computational tools and a systems-based approach to design TRIP-120---a fully austenitic transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel. Current work more completely evaluates the mechanical properties of the prototype, optimizes the processing for high performance in tension and shear, and builds models for more predictive power of the mechanical behavior and austenite stability. Under quasi-static and dynamic tension and shear, the design exhibits high strength and high uniform ductility as a result of a strain hardening effect that arises with martensitic transformation. Significantly more martensitic transformation occurred under quasi-static loading conditions (69% in tension and 52% in shear) compared to dynamic loading conditions (13% tension and 5% in shear). Nonetheless, significant transformation occurs at high-strain rates which increases strain hardening, delays the onset of necking instability, and increases total energy absorption under adiabatic conditions. Although TRIP-120 effectively utilizes a TRIP effect to delay necking instability, a common trend of abrupt failure with limited fracture ductility was observed in tension and shear at all strain rates. Further characterization of the structure of TRIP-120 showed that an undesired grain boundary cellular reaction (η phase formation) consumed the fine dispersion of the metastable gamma' phase and limited the fracture ductility. A warm working procedure was added to the processing of TRIP-120 in order to eliminate the grain boundary cellular reaction from the structure. By eliminating η formation at the grain boundaries, warm-worked TRIP-120 exhibits a drastic improvement in the mechanical properties in tension and shear. In quasi-static tension, the optimized warm-worked TRIP-120 with an Mssigma

  17. Mechanical stress analysis during a quench in CLIQ protected 16 T dipole magnets designed for the future circular collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Prioli, Marco; Stenvall, Antti; Salmi, Tiina; Gao, Yuanwen; Caiffi, Barbara; Lorin, Clement; Marinozzi, Vittorio; Farinon, Stefania; Sorbi, Massimo

    2018-07-01

    Protecting the magnets in case of a quench is a challenge for the 16 T superconducting dipole magnets presently designed for the 100 TeV: Future Circular Collider (FCC). These magnets are driven to the foreseen technological limits in terms of critical current, mechanical strength and quench protection. The magnets are protected with CLIQ (Coupling-Loss Induced Quench) system, which is a recently developed quench protection method based on discharging a capacitor bank across part of the winding. The oscillation of the magnet currents and the dissipation of the high stored energy into the windings cause electrodynamic forces and thermal stresses, which may need to be considered in the magnet mechanical design. This paper focuses on mechanical stress analysis during a quench of the 16 T cos-θ and block type dipole magnets. A finite element model allowed studying the stress due to the non-uniform temperature and current distribution in the superconducting coils. Two different CLIQ configurations were considered for the cos-θ design and one for the block type magnet. The analyses of the mechanical behavior of two magnets during a quench without or with hot spot turn were separately carried out. The simulation results show that the stress related to a quench should be considered when designing a high field magnet.

  18. Conceptual Masking: How One Picture Captures Attention from Another Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Geoffrey R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five experiments studied operations of conceptual masking--the reduction of conceptual memory performance for an initial stimulus when it is followed by a masking picture process. The subjects were 337 undergraduates at the University of Washington (Seattle). Conceptual masking is distinguished from perceptual masking. (TJH)

  19. Analysis and test of laws for backward (metacontrast) masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francis, G.; Rothmayer, M.; Hermens, F.

    2004-01-01

    In backward visual masking, it is common to find that the mask has its biggest effect when it follows the target by several tens of milliseconds. Research in the 1960s and 1970s suggested that masking effects were best characterized by the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the target and mask.

  20. Orientation tuning of contrast masking caused by motion streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Deborah; Cass, John; Alais, David

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether the oriented trails of blur left by fast-moving dots (i.e., "motion streaks") effectively mask grating targets. Using a classic overlay masking paradigm, we varied mask contrast and target orientation to reveal underlying tuning. Fast-moving Gaussian blob arrays elevated thresholds for detection of static gratings, both monoptically and dichoptically. Monoptic masking at high mask (i.e., streak) contrasts is tuned for orientation and exhibits a similar bandwidth to masking functions obtained with grating stimuli (∼30 degrees). Dichoptic masking fails to show reliable orientation-tuned masking, but dichoptic masks at very low contrast produce a narrowly tuned facilitation (∼17 degrees). For iso-oriented streak masks and grating targets, we also explored masking as a function of mask contrast. Interestingly, dichoptic masking shows a classic "dipper"-like TVC function, whereas monoptic masking shows no dip and a steeper "handle". There is a very strong unoriented component to the masking, which we attribute to transiently biased temporal frequency masking. Fourier analysis of "motion streak" images shows interesting differences between dichoptic and monoptic functions and the information in the stimulus. Our data add weight to the growing body of evidence that the oriented blur of motion streaks contributes to the processing of fast motion signals.