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Sample records for protection icrp dosimetric

  1. Dosimetric radiation protection quantities. Impact of the forthcoming ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.L.; Kim, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The physical quantities namely fluence, kerma and absorbed dose provide the base for the operational and the protection quantities. The absorbed dose continues to be the fundamental physical quantity for the radiological protection. The most striking feature relating the quantities in the forthcoming recommendations is the updating of the radiation and tissue weighting factors based on the latest available scientific information on radiobiology and the physics of radiation exposure. This is bound to make a significant impact in arriving at the equivalent doses and effective dose. For external exposures of neutrons, the forthcoming recommendations are going to improve the relationship between the operational and protection quantities. The changes in the tissue weighting factors of some tissues/organs, the inclusion of several new tissues/organs for the consideration of tissue weighting factors and the use of the proposed Reference Male and Reference Female voxel phantoms would require new conversion coefficients and dose coefficients for external and internal exposures. The other striking feature appears to be the details of the concepts to ensure that the protections quantities are used for the appropriate and intended purposes only and the misuse is avoided. (author)

  2. Dosimetric methodology of the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1994-01-01

    Establishment of guidance for the protection of workers and members of the public from radiation exposures necessitates estimation of the radiation dose to tissues of the body at risk. The dosimetric methodology formulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is intended to be responsive to this need. While developed for radiation protection, elements of the methodology are often applied in addressing other radiation issues; e.g., risk assessment. This chapter provides an overview of the methodology, discusses its recent extension to age-dependent considerations, and illustrates specific aspects of the methodology through a number of numerical examples

  3. The revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1992-05-01

    A task group has revised the dosimetric model of the respiratory tract used to calculate annual limits on intake of radionuclides. The revised model can be used to project respiratory tract doses for workers and members of the public from airborne radionuclides and to assess past exposures. Doses calculated for specific extrathoracic and thoracic tissues can be adjusted to account for differences in radiosensitivity and summed to yield two values of dose for the respiratory tract that are applicable to the ICRP tissue weighted dosimetry system

  4. Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection: A revision of the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) appointed a task group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. The model was originally published in 1966, modified slightly in Publication No. 19, and again in Publication No. 30 (in 1979). The task group concluded that research during the past 20 y suggested certain deficiencies in the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. Research has also provided sufficient information for a revision of the model. The task group's approach has been to review, in depth, morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract; deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract; clearance of deposited materials; and the nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled radioactive substances. This review has led to a redefinition of the regions of the respiratory tract for dosimetric purposes. The redefinition has a morphologic and physiological basis and is consistent with observed deposition and clearance of particles and with resultant pathology. Regions, as revised, are the extrathoracic (E-T) region, comprising the nasal and oral regions, the pharynx, larynx, and upper part of the trachea; the fast-clearing thoracic region (T[f]), comprising the remainder of the trachea and bronchi; and the slow-clearing thoracic region (T[s]), comprising the bronchioles, alveoli, and thoracic lymph nodes. A task group report will include models for calculating radiation doses to these regions of the respiratory tract following inhalation of representative alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting particulate and gaseous radionuclides. The models may be implemented as a package of computer codes available to a wide range of users

  5. Dosimetric applications of the new ICRP lung model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has adopted a new dosimetric model of the human respiratory tract, to be issued as ICRP Publication 66. This chapter presents a summary of the main measures of the new model. The model is a general update of that in Publication 30, but is significantly broader in scope. It applies explicitly to workers and all members of the public: for inhalation of particles, gases and vapors; evaluation of dose per unit intake or exposure; and interpretation of bioassay data. The approach is fundamentally different from the Publication 30 model which calculates only the average dose to the lungs. The new model takes account of differences in radiosensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they may receive, and calculates specific tissue doses. The model readily incorporates specific information related to the subject (age, physical activity, smoking or health status) or the exposure (aerosol size and chemical form). The application of the new model to calculate equivalent lung dose and effective dose per unit intake is illustrated for several α- and ∂-emitting radionuclides, and the new values obtained are compared with those given by the ICRP Publication 30 lung model

  6. The new ICRP respiratory model for radiation protection (ICRP 66) : applications and comparative evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, C.M.; Luciani, A.

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this report is to present the New ICRP Respiratory Model Tract for Radiological Protection. The model allows considering anatomical and physiological characteristics, giving reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5,10, and 15 years for adults; it also takes into account aerosol and gas characteristics. After a general description of the model structure, deposition, clearance and dosimetric models are presented. To compare the new and previous model (ICRP 30), dose coefficients (committed effective dose for unit intake) foe inhalation of radionuclides by workers are calculated considering aerosol granulometries with activity median aerodynamic of 1 and 5 μm, reference values for the respective publications. Dose coefficients and annual limits of intakes concerning respective dose limits (50 and 20 mSv respectively for ICRP 26 and 60) for workers and for members of population in case of dispersion of fission products aerosols, are finally calculated

  7. Uses and limitations of dosimetric data in ICRP 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    The ICRP recommendations of Publications 26 and 30 provide a well founded, logical approach to radiation protection. These recommendations lend themselves to scientific scrutiny and evaluation much more than the earlier recommendations. While there are many issues which national authorities may find necessary to address as they develop their national radiation protection guidance, the long awaited revision of the ICRP recommendations provides the technical bases upon which such guidance can be developed. The acceptance of the new recommendations by national authorities and the radiation protection community appears to be related to the lack of substantial departure in the numerical value of the secondry limits from the previous limits. This reflects an apparent concensus that the earlier recommendations provided an adequate level of protection. It thus appears reasonable to suggest that a similar level of protection is offered by the new recommendations. 24 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  8. The ICRP task group respiratory tract model - an age-dependent dosimetric model for general application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.; Birchall, A.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRP Task Group on Human Respiratory Tract Models for Radiological Protection has developed a revised dosimetric model for the respiratory tract. Papers outlining the model, and describing each aspect of it were presented at the Third International Workshop on Respiratory Tract Dosimetry (Albuquerque 1-3 July 1990), the Proceedings of which were recently published in Radiation Protection Dosimetry Volume 38 Nos 1-3 (1991). Since the model had not changed substantially since the Workshop at Albuquerque, only a summary of the paper presented at Schloss Elmau is included in these Proceedings. (author)

  9. Environmental radiation protection. The new ICRP concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaps, C.; Lorenz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Protection of the environment regarding radiation protection was so far reduced to the concept: if man is protected the environment is protected well enough. This was derived from the radiosensitivity curve, according to which highly developed organisms are more sensible to radiation than less highly developed. ICRP publication 103 put this simple concept in question. Even before, ICRP set up a committee to discuss this theme. End of 2012 ICRP released a new concept of environmental protection regarding different exposure situations and brought it up for discussion in the internet. This concept is based on Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) and analogous to the concept of the protection for man. The exposure for representative organisms regarding ionizing radiation shall be estimated and compared with Derived Consideration Reference Levels (DCRLs). If the DCRLs are reached or exceeded there is a need to react. This concept raises several questions. (orig.)

  10. Interim report of the JHPS expert committee on radiation protection of the lens of the eye (4). Current activities of ICRP and ICU: External dosimetric concepts for the lens of the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Iimoto, Takeshi; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwai, Satoshi; Ohguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Kazuko; Yamauchi-Kawaura, Chiyo; Tsujimura, Norio; Hotta, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2015-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) have been defined operational quantities and protection quantities. Dose limits have been also recommended by the ICRP using protection quantities. These quantities and some related values for main radiation such as photons, electrons, and neutrons, are summarized in this article with some historical considerations. The ICRP indicated conversion coefficients for the lens of the eye as absorbed dose per fluence as protection quantities. equivalent dose is not used because a protection quantity that uses radiation weighting factors is not intended to be calculated for tissue reactions. So far, the ICRP has not indicated a specific RBE value for cataract formation. Operational quantities are used for measurements. There have been three types of phantoms, namely a slab phantom, a reduced phantom, and a cylindrical phantom, but none of them has been definitely recommended for the lens of the eye by the ICRP or the ICRU. Although conversion coefficients to personal dose equivalent, H p (3), for electrons have been recommended, no other conversion coefficients to personal dose equivalent for the lens of the eye has been indicated by the ICRP or the ICRU. However, there have been several studies described personal dose equivalent. Ambient dose equivalent, H * (3), and directional dose equivalent, H(3, α), have been indicated in several limited conditions by the ICRP and the ICRU. These status are overviewed in this article. (author)

  11. Radiation protection. Basic concepts of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tsutomu; Hirata, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The title subject is easily explained. Main international organizations for radiation protection are United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The UNSCEAR objectively summarizes and publishes scientific findings; ICRP, an NGO, takes part in recommending the radiological protection from the expertized aspect; and IAEA, a UN autonomy, aims at peaceful usage of atomic power. These organizations support the legal regulation and standard of nations. The purpose of the ICRP recommendation (Pub. 103, 2007) is to contribute to the appropriate protection of radiation hazardous effects, which are assumed to be linearly proportional (the model of linear no-threshold, LNT) that radiation risk exists even at the lowest dose. When a change in the single cell results in hazardous alteration, the causative effects are called stochastic effects, which include the mutation leading to cancer formation and genetic effect in offspring (not observed in man). ICRP says the validity of LNT for the stochastic effects essentially from the protective aspect, although epidemiological data support it at >100 mSv exposure. The deterministic effects are caused by loss of cell itself or of its function, where the threshold is defined to be the dose causing >1% of disorder or death. Radiation protective system against exposure is on the situation (programmed, emergent and natural), category (occupational, public and medical) and 3 principles of justification, optimization and application of dose limit. (T.T.)

  12. ICRP-Radiation protection principles and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    A brief survey is given of the history of ICRP, its basic standards and recommendations and their rationale, from its foundation in 1928 to the latest major review of its recommendation in 1977. In this time the basic radiation standard for whole body irradiation of a radiation worker has dropped from the equivalent of 50 r per year (in 1934) through 15 rem per year (1954) to 5 rem per year in 1958. ICRP recommendations include maximum permissible doses for particular organs and a comprehensive list of derived limits governing the intake of radionuclides into the body, and dose limits for members of the public. Emphasis in current radiation protection practice is on avoiding all unnecessary exposures and keeping doses as far below dose limits as is reasonably achievable. The use of cost-benefit analysis to optimize protection and some of its inherent difficulties, is discussed

  13. The new ICRP respiratory model for radiation protection (ICRP 66) : applications and comparative evaluations; Nuovo modello polmonare della ICRP per radioprotezione (ICRP 66)azioni e confronti con la modellistica precedenteIl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.; Luciani, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this report is to present the New ICRP Respiratory Model Tract for Radiological Protection. The model allows considering anatomical and physiological characteristics, giving reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5,10, and 15 years for adults; it also takes into account aerosol and gas characteristics. After a general description of the model structure, deposition, clearance and dosimetric models are presented. To compare the new and previous model (ICRP 30), dose coefficients (committed effective dose for unit intake) foe inhalation of radionuclides by workers are calculated considering aerosol granulometries with activity median aerodynamic of 1 and 5 {mu}m, reference values for the respective publications. Dose coefficients and annual limits of intakes concerning respective dose limits (50 and 20 mSv respectively for ICRP 26 and 60) for workers and for members of population in case of dispersion of fission products aerosols, are finally calculated.

  14. ICRP-26, the recommendations on radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the last ICRP recommendations on radiological protection was pubished in 1966 as it's publication 9, the revised edition of the recommendations had first been published in 1977, accommodating up-to-date knowledge of radiobiology and operational experiences of radiation protection built up for over a decade. In this article, the new version of the recommendations is reviewed in comparison with those of the publication 9, while the corrections and modifications made afterward are introduced together with the recent trends and responses of the experts in various countries for the pracical adoption or legislation of the recommendations. (Author)

  15. Radiologic protection in pediatric radiology: ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Ramon; Khong, Pek-Lan; Ringertz, Hans

    2013-01-01

    ICRP has provided an updated overview of radiation protection principles in pediatric radiology. The authors recommend that staff, radiologists, medical physicists and vendors involved in pediatric radiology read this document. For conventional radiography, the report gives advice on patient positioning, immobilization, shielding and appropriate exposure conditions. It describes extensively the use of pulsed fluoroscopy, the importance of limiting fluoroscopy time, and how shielding and geometry must be used to avoid unnecessary radiation to the patient and operator. Furthermore, the use of fluoroscopy in interventional procedures with emphasis on dose reduction to patients and staff is discussed in light of the increasing frequency, complexity and length ofthe procedures. CT is the main reason that medical imaging in several developed countries is the highest annual per capita effective radiation dose from man-made sources. The ICRP report gives extensive descriptions of how CT protocols can be optimized to minimize radiation exposure in pediatric patients. The importance of balancing image quality with acceptable noise in pediatric imaging and the controversies regarding the use of protective shielding in CT are also discussed.

  16. Foetal dosimetry--is the ICRP dosimetric system for humans now complete?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Steve [Westlakes Research Institute, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-01

    Internal dosimetry is possibly the most complex area of science associated with radiological protection, and has a long history. Primary control of internal exposure now relied on control of annual intakes rather than limitation of organ burdens. Although it took nearly a decade for regulations and hence the practice of occupational radiation protection to fully adopt the new recommendations, the new dosimetric concepts were quite rapidly adopted in the assessment of public exposure because the new methods provided a more natural means of assessing the significance of exposure to a combination of external and internal exposure involving a number of different radionuclides. As a result, following the ICRP's initial publication of dosimetric models for occupational exposure, adaptations became available to cover environmental exposure, including the exposure of infants and children. Increasingly sophisticated biokinetic and dosimetric models have now been developed which, together with the welcome availability of dose per unit intake factors in CD-ROM form make it easy for the radiation protection practitioner to assess committed effective doses, and committed equivalent doses to individual organs, to occupationally exposed adults and environmentally exposed infants, children and adults. The inability to readily assess doses to the developing foetus has, however, long been perceived as a significant gap in knowledge with implications for the study of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations and possibly also the control of occupational exposure for women of child-bearing age. The first systematic assessment of doses to the foetus was in connection with the study of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of Sellafield in the UK, for which preliminary models were developed. Since that time a few publications giving guidance on the calculation of foetal doses have emerged and more sophisticated assessments of foetal dose have been reported

  17. Simulation of The ICRP-30 Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaddui, T.; Atia, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Matlab was used to write a simulation program (ACID1) to simulate the ICRP-30 dosimetric model for the respiratory tract. The program (a new version of the one presented at the sixth Arab conference held in Cairo 2002) calculates a series of dosimetric quantities for the reference man as a result of the inhalation of any radionuclide. The program also plots the variation of activity with time for all organs and provided with a graphical user interface to make it friendly user. The results obtained by this program was compared with similar results obtained by other source and found to be very close. (Authors)

  18. Dosimetric Significance of the ICRP's Updated Guidance and Models, 1989-2003, and Implications for U.S. Federal Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.

    2003-09-10

    Over the past two decades the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a series of Federal guidance documents for the purpose of providing the Federal and State agencies with technical information to assist their implementation of radiation protection programs. Currently recommended dose conversion factors, annual limits on intake, and derived air concentrations for intake of radionuclides are tabulated in Federal Guidance Report No. 11 (FGR 11), published in 1988. The tabulations in FGR 11 were based on dosimetric quantities and biokinetic and dosimetric models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) developed for application to occupational exposures. Since the publication of FGR 11 the ICRP has revised some of its dosimetric quantities and its models for workers and has also developed age-specific models and dose conversion factors for intake of radionuclides by members of the public. This report examines the extent of the changes in the inhalation and ingestion dose coefficients of FGR 11 implied by the updated recommendations of the ICRP, both for workers and members of the public.

  19. Radiological protection: a summary handbook of ICRP publications and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaratnam, A.

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of radiation and potential risks therefrom far exceeds the knowledge of any other hazardous agent, whether in the industrial field, or in the general environment affecting members of the public. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has been playing a pioneering role for decades in this direction. The extensive database that has been established over the decades by the ICRP, the methodologies, techniques and the organizational structures that have been developed to control radiation hazards, and, above all, the philosophy of risk evaluation and management that has been evolved by ICRP, would serve as valuable guides not only to those concerned with radiological protection but to scientist, technologist and administrators involved in all facets of occupational and industrial safety, as well as those concerned with environmental protection. From 1959 to the end of 1993 ICRP has brought out 64 publications running to around 9000 pages. It is important that everyone connected with the uses of ionizing radiations should be familiar with at least the basic features of the thinking of ICRP as embodied in these publications. The present handbook attempts to give in a concise, consolidated and codified form the salient features of all the relevant information contained in the voluminous ICRP publications. The material has been presented in 7 parts, each dealing with one major aspect of the recommendations, and summarizing the various publications connected with it. A separate note following the preface gives a brief summary of the way the contents of the handbook have been arranged. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Recommendations of ICRP for radiation protection in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L. E.

    2004-01-01

    The present recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were published in 1991, and since then, the ICRP has provided additional recommendations. The system of protection has become increasingly co plex with time, and the Commission has decided to adopt a new set of recommendations in 2005- These should be seen as a consolidation of earlier recommendations. The new recommendations will recognize where the responsibility for justifying the introduction of a new practice lies, maintain the existing dose limits for individuals, develop the concept of dose constraints, require optimisation of protection from any source to ensure that exposures are as law as reasonably achievable, include of a policy for protection of non-human species, and clarify the dramatics quantities. The Commission intends to adopt the new recommendations in 2005, and this will be 15 years after the current recommendations were adopted. (Author) 13 refs

  1. Data file on retention and excretion of inhaled radionuclides calculated using ICRP dosimetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigure, Nobuhito; Nakano, Takashi; Enomoto, Hiroko; Shimo, Michikuni; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    The authors have computed whole-body or a specific organ content and the daily urinary and faecal excretion rate of some selected radionuclides following acute intake by inhalation and ingestion, where the ICRP new respiratory tract model (ICRP Publication 66) and the latest ICRP biokinetic models were applied. The results were compiled in a file of MS Excel. The file was tentatively called MONDAI for reference. MONDAI contains the data for all radionuclides in ICRP Publications 54 and 78 and, in addition, some other radionuclides which are important from the viewpoint of occupational exposure in nuclear industry, research and medicine. They are H-3, P-32, Cr-51, Mn-54, Fe-59, Co-57, Co-58, Co-60, Zn-65, Rb-86, Sr-85, Sr-89, Sr-90, Zr-95, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Sb-124, Sb-125, I-125, I-129, I-131, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ba-140, Ce-141, Ce-144, Hg-203, Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, Th-232, U-234, U-235, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244 and Cf-252. The day-by-day data up to 1000 days and the data at every 10 days up to 10000 days are presented. The following ICRP default values for the physical characteristics of the radioactive aerosols were used: AMAD=5 micron, geometric SD=2.5, particle density = 3 g/cm 3 , particle shape factor = 1.5. The subject exposed to the aerosols is the ICRP reference worker doing light work: light exercise with the ventilation rate of 1.5 m 3 /h for 5.5 h + sitting with the ventilation rate of 0.54 m 3 /h for 2.5 h. MONDAI was originally made by Version 7.0 of MS Excel for Windows 95, but the file was saved in the form of Ver. 4.0 as well as Ver. 7.0. Therefore, if the user has Ver. 4.0 or an upper version, he can open the file and operate it. With the graph-wizard of MS Excel the user can easily make a diagram for the retention or daily excretion of a radionuclide of interest. The dose coefficient (Sv/Bq intake) of each radionuclide for each absorption type given in ICRP Publication 68 was also written in each sheet. Therefore

  2. Radiological protection in medicine. ICRP Publication 105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to underpin the Commission's 2007 Recommendations with regard to the medical exposure of patients, including their comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research. It addresses the proper application of the fundamental principles (justification, optimisation of protection, and application of dose limits) of the Commission's 2007 Recommendations to these individuals. With regard to medical exposure of patients, it is not appropriate to apply dose limits or dose constraints, because such limits would often do more harm than good. Often, there are concurrent chronic, severe, or even life-threatening medical conditions that are more critical than the radiation exposure. The emphasis is then on justification of the medical procedures and on the optimisation of radiological protection. In diagnostic and interventional procedures, justification of procedures (for a defined purpose and for an individual patient), and management of the patient dose commensurate with the medical task, are the appropriate mechanisms to avoid unnecessary or unproductive radiation exposure. Equipment features that facilitate patient dose management, and diagnostic reference levels derived at the appropriate national, regional, or local level, are likely to be the most effective approaches. In radiation therapy, the avoidance of accidents is a predominant issue. With regard to comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research, dose constraints are appropriate. Over the last decade, the Commission has published a number of documents that provided detailed advice related to radiological protection and safety in the medical applications of ionising radiation. Each of the publications addressed a specific topic defined by the type of radiation source and the medical discipline in which the source is applied, and was written with the intent of communicating directly with the relevant medical practitioners and supporting medical staff. This report

  3. ICRP Publication 105. Radiological Protection in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, Bernard; Biau, Alain; Derreumaux, Sylvie; Etard, Cecile; Rannou, Alain; Rehel, Jean-Luc; Roch, Patrice Elle a ete validee par le Professeur Jean-Marc Cosset

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to underpin the Commission's 2007 Recommendations with regard to the medical exposure of patients, including their comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research. It addresses the proper application of the fundamental principles (justification, optimisation of protection, and application of dose limits) of the Commission's 2007 Recommendations to these individuals. With regard to medical exposure of patients, it is not appropriate to apply dose limits or dose constraints, because such limits would often do more harm than good. Often, there are concurrent chronic, severe, or even life-threatening medical conditions that are more critical than the radiation exposure. The emphasis is then on justification of the medical procedures and on the optimisation of radiological protection. In diagnostic and interventional procedures, justification of procedures (for a defined purpose and for an individual patient), and management of the patient dose commensurate with the medical task, are the appropriate mechanisms to avoid unnecessary or unproductive radiation exposure. Equipment features that facilitate patient dose management, and diagnostic reference levels derived at the appropriate national, regional, or local level, are likely to be the most effective approaches. In radiation therapy, the avoidance of accidents is a predominant issue. With regard to comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research, dose constraints are appropriate. Over the last decade, the Commission has published a number of documents that provided detailed advice related to radiological protection and safety in the medical applications of ionising radiation. Each of the publications addressed a specific topic defined by the type of radiation source and the medical discipline in which the source is applied, and was written with the intent of communicating directly with the relevant medical practitioners and supporting medical staff. This

  4. ICRP and radiological protection in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousins, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Standards in relation to radiological protection in medicine are well-documented, particularly with the recent update of the Basic Safety Standards. The principles of justification and optimisation remain key, as dose limitation is not applicable in medical practice. Appropriate justification relies on the knowledge, experience and discretion of the relevant medical practitioners and this may be overlooked in the race for diagnosis and treatment. One argument would be further regulation of medical exposures, although it is difficult to see how this could be imposed without denying patients essential investigations and treatments. Another contentious issue is individual patient dose management with the possible creation of a 'radiation passport'. Individual radiation susceptibility is a topic that has attracted much attention, but how to manage such persons, if identified, raises further questions. Communicating radiation risks and benefits to patients appropriately needs to be addressed, including who should be responsible for this, given accurate knowledge is a prerequisite. Ethics in radiological protection is also being widely discussed and this in relation to medical practice, which already involves numerous ethical issues, is likely to be open to debate in the near future. (authors)

  5. ICRP 2015. International symposium on the radiation protection system. Report and reflection on a significant symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The ICRP international symposium on the radiation protection system provides always extensive information on new developments in radiation protection. The ICRP 2105 discussed the following issues: radiation effects of low dose irradiation, dose coefficients for internal and external exposures, radiation protection in nuclear medicine, application of ICRP recommendations, environmental protection, studies on existing exposure situations, medical radiation protection today, science behind radiation doses, new developments in radiation effects, and ethics in radiation protection.

  6. Radiological protection in medicine: work of ICRP Committee 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vañó, E.; Cosset, J.M.; Rehani, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Committee 3 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is concerned with protection in medicine, and develops recommendations and guidance on the protection of patients, staff, and the public against radiation exposure in medicine. This paper presents an overview of the work of Committee 3 over recent years, and the work in progress agreed at the last annual meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 2011. The reports published by ICRP dealing with radiological protection in medicine in the last 10 years cover topics on: education and training in radiological protection; preventing accidental exposures in radiation therapy; dose to patients from radiopharmaceuticals; radiation safety aspects of brachytherapy; release of patients after therapy with unsealed radionuclides; managing patient dose in digital radiology and computed tomography; avoidance of radiation injuries from medical interventional procedures; pregnancy and medical radiation; and diagnostic reference levels in medical imaging. Three new reports will be published in the coming months dealing with aspects of radiological protection in fluoroscopically guided procedures outside imaging departments; cardiology; and paediatric radiology. The work in progress agreed by Committee 3 is also described.

  7. ICRP Recommendations to the Protection of People Living in Long-Term Contaminated Areas ICRP publication 111 in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.; Gomaa, M. A.; Rashad, S.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to through some lights on ICRP free release publication at 4 April 2011-Internationally Known as ICRP publication 111. The title of the publication is (application of the commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency). Nuclear accidents or a radiation emergency may cause contamination. The contamination may be spread on a large area. There are people living in these areas. For many factors the people refuse to leave their homes. They want to stay along their life as in the case of the normal conditions. So, it is important to facilitate their stay and make it safe. This is not easy. But it is possible without neglect the radiation hazard. The radiation hazard is effective on the life fields. It is harmful in plants, animals, foods, water, milk and the buildings it self. With considering the radiological protection principles the living of the people for a long time could be a fact of the life and will be more easy and safe. Optimization principle has priority to apply. This publication achieves these purposes.The ICRP-111 is translated into Arabic at August 2012. This work is a continuation of the efforts series to translate some of the most important of the ICRP radiological protection references into the Arabic; aiming to maximize the benefit. The previous translations include, ICRP-105 (radiation protection in medicine) and ICRP -113 (education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures).

  8. The mandate and work of ICRP Committee 3 on radiological protection in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D L; Martin, C J; Rehani, M M

    2018-01-01

    The mandate of Committee 3 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is concerned with the protection of persons and unborn children when ionising radiation is used in medical diagnosis, therapy, and biomedical research. Protection in veterinary medicine has been newly added to the mandate. Committee 3 develops recommendations and guidance in these areas. The most recent documents published by ICRP that relate to radiological protection in medicine are 'Radiological protection in cone beam computed tomography' (ICRP Publication 129) and 'Radiological protection in ion beam radiotherapy' (ICRP Publication 127). A report in cooperation with ICRP Committee 2 entitled 'Radiation dose to patients from radiopharmaceuticals: a compendium of current information related to frequently used substances' (ICRP Publication 128) has also been published. 'Diagnostic reference levels in medical imaging' (ICRP Publication 135), published in 2017, provides specific advice on the setting and use of diagnostic reference levels for diagnostic and interventional radiology, digital imaging, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, paediatrics, and multi-modality procedures. 'Occupational radiological protection in interventional procedures' was published in March 2018 as ICRP Publication 139. A document on radiological protection in therapy with radiopharmaceuticals is likely to be published in 2018. Work is in progress on several other topics, including appropriate use of effective dose in collaboration with the other ICRP committees, guidance for occupational radiological protection in brachytherapy, justification in medical imaging, and radiation doses to patients from radiopharmaceuticals (an update to ICRP Publication 128). Committee 3 is also considering the development of guidance on radiological protection in medicine related to individual radiosusceptibility, in collaboration with ICRP Committee 1.

  9. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian

  10. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J

    2002-12-01

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian

  11. Dose concepts and the achievability of protection for the disposal of long-lived solid waste according to ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.; Schneider, Th.

    2010-01-01

    Th. Schneider introduced the subject explaining that the main strength of the ICRP is to set up a unified protection system applicable to all types of exposure situations. In 2007, the ICRP issued ICRP 103 which formally replaces the previous recommendations that were issued in 1991 as ICRP 60. One of the major features of the new recommendations is the evolution from 'the previous process-based protection approach using practices and interventions to a situation-based approach applying the fundamental principles of protection to all controllable exposure situations' in a similar way. In the case of radioactive waste disposal, the long timescale to be dealt with led ICRP to publish the dedicated recommendations ICRP 81 (1999) based on ICRP 60. Th. Schneider presented then a series of issues raised by the radioactive waste management community, relating the recommendations of ICRP 81 to the new orientations provided by ICRP 103. Radiation detriment is a complex construction based on not directly measurable quantities such as equivalent and effective doses. Effective dose is a risk-related quantity and should not be used in assessing health effects on a specific individual. Dose and risk as well as the radiation detriment are still appropriate for long term evaluation even though there are uncertainties associated with the assessment of the dose. It would be a mistake to consider that the ICRP dosimetric quantities and the radiation detriment are not appropriate for long term evaluations, but their meaning must be understood. What is at stake is not to evaluate the level of health of a group of population in 10 6 years from now, but to estimate through a comparison (risk indicator associated with several options of protection at the design level of the repository) the level of protection achieved by a radioactive waste strategy. Current radiological protection criteria are a reasonable basis to assess the disposal strategy. They give a general appreciation of the

  12. International radiation protection recommendations. Five years experience of ICRP Publication 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.; Beninson, D.; Sowby, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has issued radiation protection recommendations since 1928. The latest set of basic recommendations was adopted by the Commission on 17 January 1977, and subsequently published as ICRP Publication 26. This document has met with a wider interest than any of the previous ICRP recommendations. It has been considered to mark a radical change in the protection policy advocated by ICRP. It is not often appreciated that recommendations which are believed to be 'new' in ICRP Publication 26 had already been made in ICRP Publication 9 more than ten years earlier. In any event, ICRP Publication 26 has had a substantial impact on regulatory work in countries all over the world. It forms the basis for the Basic Safety Standards of the international organizations IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and WHO. The paper refers to the experience gained in using the new ICRP recommendations over the five years that have passed since ICRP Publication 26 was adopted and discusses some of the problems that have arisen in the practical application of the new recommendations in various countries. (author)

  13. A perspective on the ICRP approach to Radiation protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    The ICRP, in response to concerns by the environmental community, has begun the process of addressing radiation protection of non-human species. Concerns have been raised that the current framework for radiation protection fails to adequately protect the environment. Although most everyone agrees that some change to the ICRP radiation protection framework is called for, the extent of the revision is debatable. In May 2000, the ICRP set up a Task Group to provide advice on the development of a policy for the protection of the environment and to suggest a framework for environmental protection based on scientific, ethical, and philosophical principles. Based on Task Group input, ICRP intends to develop a framework for protection of the environment that can be integrated into an overall system of protection. This paper explores four major issues that serve to identify questions that ICRP should consider in its 2005 recommendations regarding radiation protection of the environment: (1) the role of ICRP, (2) defining the environment and criteria for protection, (3) the framework for environmental protection, and (4) risk management. (author)

  14. The recommendations 2007 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.; Lecomte, J.F.; Nenot, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), in particular in the situations of emergency exposure, after an accident or to natural radioactivity. (authors)

  15. Radiobiological basis of radiation protection and ICRP 2007 general recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    The ICRP 2007 General Recommendations are based on the detailed review of the new information on the biological effects and risk evaluation done during the last decade. Most of this information reinforces the validity of earlier findings. Since the publication of ICRP 60 general recommendations in 1991(ICRP 1991b), sufficient new information on the health effects of ionizing radiations has accrued based on radiobiological and epidemiological studies (UNSCEAR 2000, ICRP Publication 99). There is an improvement in understanding the mechanistic aspects of the induction of radiation damage at cellular level. Biophysical studies based on Monte Carlo track structure codes have provided information on the nature of critical damage to DNA leading to the radiation effects at cellular level. Experimental work with model animal systems has provided information on the role of post irradiation repair processes and the genes influencing the process of radiation carcinogenesis. Longer follow up of A-Bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provides a more reliable risk estimate based on the cancer incidence data and also a better model for the transfer of risk among different populations with varying frequency of background incidence. At present it is clear that the breast cancer contributes substantially to the radiation risk and provides quantitative risk estimates for brain and salivary glands. In the light of the new information, Tissue Weighting factors (WT) have been revised

  16. Proceedings of the 15th nuclear safety research association symposium ICRP's 2005 Recommendations on radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This is the document of the Symposium in the title, held in Tokyo, 2003. The document contains the greeting by chairperson (Toshiso Kosako, International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) member, Tokyo University): lecture 1; for the title subject presented as ''ICRP's 2005 Recommendations on Radiological Protection'' with its slides entitled ''The Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection-The Justification for ICRP's 2005 Recommendations'' by L.-E. Holm (ICRP Vice-Chairman, Swedish Radiation Protection Authority): lecture 2; ''Protection of the Environment: from Ethics to Genetics''' with slides, ''Ionising Radiation and the Environment'', by R. J. Pentreath (ICRP member, The University of Reading, the United Kingdom (UK)): respectively followed by discussion with 3 Japanese panelists for each lecture: and chairperson's summary. The chair's greeting is about the rise of interest in environmental radiation protection, its background, and related trends in The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). L-EH's presentation involves sections of the background of the recommendations and protection of the environment, mentioning some of the proposed changes in the Commission's recommendations for its 2005 Recommendations. RJP's presentation involves sections of a philosophical platform, environmental management, relevance to radiation and its effects, points of reference and discussion where the impact of radionuclides and radiation in environment on various biological systems is mentioned in view for future. (R.T.)

  17. Review of ICRP Publication 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinmiller, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    The recommendations of the ICRP were last formulated in 1977. The ICRP has periodically reviewed the recommendations and issued supplementary reports on specific topics. Over the last several years, enough new information accumulated on health effects from exposure to ionizing radiation to change appreciably the assumed risk estimates from such exposure, and to prompt the ICRP to reassess its recommendations for radiological protection. The resulting recommendations were approved by the ICRP in 1990 November. This report examines the recommendations from three perspectives. The first section of the report presents background information on the development of the recommendations and the risk estimates on which they are based. The main reasons for the increase in current risk estimates from previous estimates are given. The second section of the report outlines the basic ICRP recommendations that are relevant to occupational and public radiological protection, and offers interpretation where needed. The third section of the report examines implications of the recommendations for dosimetry. the ICRP is currently working on improvements to some metabolic and dosimetric models. Because it is difficult, in some instances, to decouple the implications of this modelling work and the implications of the new recommendations, both are examined in this third section. This report documents why radiological protection standards have changed recently, what the current standards are, and how they might affect radiation dosimetry. (4 tabs., 15 refs.)

  18. Education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures ICRP 113 in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.; Gomaa, M. A.; Alshoufi, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) is the primary body in protection against ionizing radiation. Among its latest publication is ICRP publication 113 e ducation and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures . This document introduces diagnostic and interventional medical procedures using ionizing radiations in deep details. The document is approved by the commission in October 2010 and translated into Arabic at December 2011. This work is a continuation of the efforts series to translate some of the most important of the radiological protection references into the Arabic; aiming to maximize the benefit. The previous translation include WHO handbook on indoor radon: a public health perspective, issued by world health organization 2009 and Radiation Protection in Medicine, ICRP Publication 105 2007 that translated into Arabic with support of Arab atomic energy authority at 2011.

  19. User's manual to the ICRP Code: a series of computer programs to perform dosimetric calculations for the ICRP Committee 2 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.B.; Ford, M.R.

    1980-02-01

    A computer code has been developed that implements the recommendations of ICRP Committee 2 for computing limits for occupational exposure of radionuclides. The purpose of this report is to describe the various modules of the computer code and to present a description of the methods and criteria used to compute the tables published in the Committee 2 report. The computer code contains three modules of which: (1) one computes specific effective energy; (2) one calculates cumulated activity; and (3) one computes dose and the series of ICRP tables. The description of the first two modules emphasizes the new ICRP Committee 2 recommendations in computing specific effective energy and cumulated activity. For the third module, the complex criteria are discussed for calculating the tables of committed dose equivalent, weighted committed dose equivalents, annual limit of intake, and derived air concentration

  20. User's manual to the ICRP Code: a series of computer programs to perform dosimetric calculations for the ICRP Committee 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S.B.; Ford, M.R.

    1980-02-01

    A computer code has been developed that implements the recommendations of ICRP Committee 2 for computing limits for occupational exposure of radionuclides. The purpose of this report is to describe the various modules of the computer code and to present a description of the methods and criteria used to compute the tables published in the Committee 2 report. The computer code contains three modules of which: (1) one computes specific effective energy; (2) one calculates cumulated activity; and (3) one computes dose and the series of ICRP tables. The description of the first two modules emphasizes the new ICRP Committee 2 recommendations in computing specific effective energy and cumulated activity. For the third module, the complex criteria are discussed for calculating the tables of committed dose equivalent, weighted committed dose equivalents, annual limit of intake, and derived air concentration.

  1. Effect of new ICRP guidelines on radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new limits proposed by ICRP and under consideration (at the time of writing) by AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada) reduce the maximum exposure of atomic radiation workers from 50 to 20 mSv per year, and that of the general public from 5 to 1 mSv. The new guidelines will have three main effects: first, some licensees may have difficulty in complying; secondly, many workers may have to be reclassified as atomic radiation workers; thirdly, extensive retraining will be needed. Activities affected include reactor retubing and underground uranium mining

  2. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection norm and ICRP recommendations published in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Servico de Radioprotecao. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Campus Pocos de Caldas; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (GETA/LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Mortagua, Valter, E-mail: Valter@inb.gov.br [Usina de lnterlagos (USIN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Coordenacao

    2013-07-01

    In the year 2007, ICRP published a set of recommendations (The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Publication 103), which changed some important concepts. This work aims to compare the Brazilian radiation protection basic norm with the new ICRP recommendations, by checking the existing differences. The main difference between ICRP publication 60 and ICRP publication 103 is the changing of the concept of protection based on process, by using the concepts of practice and intervention, to the protection based in the exposition situation, by using the concepts of planned exposure, emergency and existing situation. Other important difference lies in the values of the radiation and tissue weighting factors, in the quantities equivalent and effective dose, and updating the radiation detriment based on the latest available scientific information of the biology and physics of radiation exposure. At last, the demonstration of the environment radiation protection must be clear, and this concept is not found in Brazilian nuclear legislation. Also some similarities were found. The fundamental principles of the Brazilian norms are the same as that of ICRP 103, which are the justification principle, the optimization principle and the application of dose limits. The individual effective dose limit of Brazilian norm is the same of the ICRP 103, established as 20 mSv per year. In order to adequate the Brazilian norm it is necessary to change its concept of protection and the values of radiation and tissue weighting, and updating the radiation detriment, besides making clear the concept of protection of the environment. It is important to notice that although the Brazilian norm is not in complete agreement with all international recommendations, it must be completely followed as the norm which is in use in the country. (author)

  3. On revision of definition of doses for radiation protection in ICRP 1990 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Michio

    1995-01-01

    The recommendation of ICRP is to give the guideline to the organizations and experts concerned to radiation protection including regulatory authorities on the basic rule which becomes the basis of proper radiation protection, and the radiation protection in respective countries has been carried out, respecting this ICRP recommendation. In 1990, ICRP revised this basic recommendation, and published as Publication 60. In this 1990 recommendation, as the matters that give impact to the dose evaluation of external exposure, the introduction of the new concept of dose, namely radiation weighting factor and equivalent dose, the revision of radiation quality factor and so on are enumerated. As to the 1990 recommendation, absorbed dose and organ dose, radiation weighting factor, equivalent dose, effective dose, quality factor-LET relation, the summation with the former quantities and the operational quantity of ICRU are described. The reason why radiation weighting factor and equivalent dose were introduced are discussed, including the inference of the author. (K.I.)

  4. ICRP 's view on protection of non-human species from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing its existing recommendations for radiological protection. Up till now, it has not published any recommendations as to how assessment or management of radiation effects in non-human organisms should be carried out. The Commission set up a Task Group in the year 2000 to address this issue, and recently adopted the Task Group's report. The report addresses the role that ICRP could play in this important and developing area, building on the approach that has been developed for human protection. ICRP will develop a small set of Reference Fauna and Flora, plus their relevant databases to serve as a basis for the more fundamental understanding and interpretation of the relationships between exposure and dose, and between dose and certain categories of effect. The concept of Reference Fauna and Flora is similar to that of Reference Man used for human radiological protection, in that it is intended to act as a basis for calculations and decision-making. The decision by the Commission to develop a framework for the assessment of radiation effects in non-human species has not been driven by any particular concern over environmental radiation hazards. It has rather been developed to fill a conceptual gap in radiological protection, and to clarify how ICRP can contribute to the attainment of society's goals of environmental protection by developing a protection policy based on scientific and ethical-philosophical principles. (author)

  5. ICRP 2015. International symposium on the radiation protection system. Report and reflection on a significant symposium; ICRP 2015. 3. Internationales Symposium zum System des Strahlenschutzes. Bericht und Reflexion ueber ein bedeutsames Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Bernd

    2016-08-01

    The ICRP international symposium on the radiation protection system provides always extensive information on new developments in radiation protection. The ICRP 2105 discussed the following issues: radiation effects of low dose irradiation, dose coefficients for internal and external exposures, radiation protection in nuclear medicine, application of ICRP recommendations, environmental protection, studies on existing exposure situations, medical radiation protection today, science behind radiation doses, new developments in radiation effects, and ethics in radiation protection.

  6. Optimization of radiological protection and dose constraints in the new draft ICRP Recommendations 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    2007-01-01

    The overall concept of the new ICRP Recommendations 2006 is analyzed, the concept of dose constraints as a basic tool of radiological protection management is described, arguments and criticisms against the current proposal are cited and points of dispute highlighted, and perspectives of the Recommendations are assessed. (author)

  7. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  8. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: Radiological Protection in Geological Disposal of Long-lived Solid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.; Larsson, C-M.; McKenney, C.; Minon, J-P.; Mobbs, S.; Schneider, T.; Umeki, H.; Hilden, W.; Pescatore, C.; Vesterlind, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission’s three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  9. ICRP Publication 139: Occupational Radiological Protection in Interventional Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, P Ortiz; Dauer, L T; Loose, R; Martin, C J; Miller, D L; Vañó, E; Doruff, M; Padovani, R; Massera, G; Yoder, C

    2018-03-01

    In recent publications, such as Publications 117 and 120, the Commission provided practical advice for physicians and other healthcare personnel on measures to protect their patients and themselves during interventional procedures. These measures can only be effective if they are encompassed by a framework of radiological protection elements, and by the availability of professionals with responsibilities in radiological protection. This framework includes a radiological protection programme with a strategy for exposure monitoring, protective garments, education and training, and quality assurance of the programme implementation. Professionals with responsibilities in occupational radiological protection for interventional procedures include: medical physicists; radiological protection specialists; personnel working in dosimetry services; clinical applications support personnel from the suppliers and maintenance companies; staff engaged in training, standardisation of equipment, and procedures; staff responsible for occupational health; hospital administrators responsible for providing financial support; and professional bodies and regulators. This publication addresses these elements and these audiences, and provides advice on specific issues, such as assessment of effective dose from dosimeter readings when an apron is worn, estimation of exposure of the lens of the eye (with and without protective eyewear), extremity monitoring, selection and testing of protective garments, and auditing the interventional procedures when occupational doses are unusually high or low (the latter meaning that the dosimeter may not have been worn).

  10. Views from the japanese nuclear industry and radiation protection professionals on the draft ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Y.; Choi, H.S.; Muto, S.; Oda, K.; Ishiguchi, T.

    2007-01-01

    The views of the Japanese nuclear industry, radiation protection professionals, and medical professionals on the concepts of the draft recommendations were presented. Specific concerns and suggestions were expressed in each of these fields based on practical considerations and experiences in operational radiation protection. It was noted that there is no need to complicate the current system, in particular without effectively expressed and rational reasoning. However, in general, speakers and participants in these discussions showed an understanding of ICRP publications. (authors)

  11. The work of ICRP on the ethical foundations of the system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kun-Woo

    2017-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established Task Group 94 (TG 94) to develop a publication on the ethical foundations of the system of radiological protection aiming to consolidate the basis of ICRP's recommendations, to improve the understanding of the system and to provide a basis for communication on radiation risk and its perception. Through the review of the publications of the Commission and the conduct of a series of workshops, TG 94 has identified the key components of the ethical theories and principles relevant to the system of radiological protection. The purpose of eliciting the ethical values underpinning the system of radiological protection is not only to clarify the rationale of the recommendations made by the Commission, but also to assist in discussions related to its practical implementation. The report nearing completion by TG 94 will present the key steps concerning the scientific, ethical and practical evolutions of the system of radiological protection since the first ICRP publication in 1928, describe the core ethical values underpinning the present system and address the key procedural aspects for its implementation. (authors)

  12. ICRP Publication 125: Radiological Protection in Security Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, D A; Lazo, E; Tattersall, P; Simeonov, G; Niu, S

    2014-07-01

    The use of technologies to provide security screening for individuals and objects has been increasing rapidly, in keeping with the significant increase in security concerns worldwide. Within the spectrum of technologies, the use of ionizing radiation to provide backscatter and transmission screening capabilities has also increased. The Commission has previously made a number of statements related to the general topic of deliberate exposures of individuals in non-medical settings. This report provides advice on how the radiological protection principles recommended by the Commission should be applied within the context of security screening. More specifically, the principles of justification, optimisation of protection, and dose limitation for planned exposure situations are directly applicable to the use of ionising radiation in security screening. In addition, several specific topics are considered in this report, including the situation in which individuals may be exposed because they are concealed (‘stowaways’) in a cargo container or conveyance that may be subject to screening. The Commission continues to recommend that careful justification of screening should be considered before decisions are made to employ the technology. If a decision is made that its use is justified, the framework for protection as a planned exposure situation should be employed, including optimization of protection with the use of dose constraints and the appropriate provisions for authorisation and inspection.

  13. The ICRP principles applied to radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, S.; Mattsson, S.

    1994-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has published new recommendations in Publication 60. These take account of the new biological information and trends in the setting of radiation protection standards since 1977. The main principle for radiation protection of the patient is that the exposure should be justified not only at a broad level but also with respect to the individual patient. Protection arrangements should be optimised using reference dose levels as an upper bound of the optimisation process. The reference levels should be applied with flexibility and based on sound clinical judgement. (authors)

  14. The ICRP principles applied to radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, S [Department of Medical Physics, s-451 80 Uddevalla (Sweden); Mattsson, S [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Lund, S-214 01 Malmo (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has published new recommendations in Publication 60. These take account of the new biological information and trends in the setting of radiation protection standards since 1977. The main principle for radiation protection of the patient is that the exposure should be justified not only at a broad level but also with respect to the individual patient. Protection arrangements should be optimised using reference dose levels as an upper bound of the optimisation process. The reference levels should be applied with flexibility and based on sound clinical judgement. (authors). 7 refs.

  15. Protection of the Environment: Current ICRP Work and EC-Funded Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.M.; Holm, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    The requirement for assessments of the environmental effects of radiation, i.e. effects on non-human biota, is increasing due to growing public concern for environmental protection issues and integration of environmental impact assessments into the regulatory process. Thus, there is a strong need to establish a framework for the assessment of environmental impact of ionising radiation, as well as a system for protection of the environment from ionising radiation. These ambitions are reflected in a number of international efforts and various 'systems' have been proposed or are under development. This paper considers the current discussions on environmental protection within the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), as part of the Commission's ongoing revision of its recommendations as laid out in Publication 60. Furthermore, the paper reviews work within the EC-funded FASSET (Framework for ASSessment of Environmental impacT) project. The concepts developed both by ICRP and FASSET are similar, and the FASSET approach and results may illustrate how forthcoming ICRP recommendations could be turned into practical application. (orig.)

  16. ICRP proposal on radiation protection of non-human species - with TAEA perspective-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okyar, H. B.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the protection of the environment has greatly increased in recent years, in relation to all aspects of human activities. Such interest has been accompanied by the development and application of various means of assessing and managing the many forms of human impact upon it. Up to now, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has not published any recommendations on how to assess or manage radiation effects in non-human species. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) which is the regulatory body of Turkey in radiation protection also recognises that there is a current lack of consistency at international level with respect to addressing such issues in relation to radioactivity, and therefore believes that a more proactive approach is now necessary. The Commission has decided to develop a framework for the assessment of radiation effects in non-human species in order to fill a conceptual gap in radiation protection. The proposed system does not intend to set regulatory standards, but rather to provide guidance and help regulators and operators demonstrate compliance with existing legislation. ICRP developed a small set of reference animals and plants, plus their relevant data bases to serve as a basis for the more fundamental understanding and interpretation of the relationships between exposure and dose, and between dose and certain categories of effect. This concept is similar to that of the reference individual (reference man) used for human radiological protection, in that it is intended to act as a basis for calculations and decisions. The Commission has now established a system to continue the work with defining effects end-points of interest, the types of reference organisms to be used by ICRP, and defining a set of reference dose models for assessing and managing radiation exposure in non-human species. This talk will provide a review of ICRP proposed framework for radiation protection of the environment with TAEA comments

  17. Application of the ICRP recommendations to revised secondary radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Corley, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    In 1977, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued Publication No. 26 containing its recommendations for major changes in the conceptual basis for radiation protection. The new recommendations consider total risk (to the whole body) instead of controlling (critical-organ) risk. Subsequent publications and explanatory statements most useful for providing clarification of the intent of the new recommendations have not resolved practical problems encountered in attempting to apply them to either occupational or public exposures. Some of the problems that still exist in applying these recommendations for estimating doses to members of the public include the following: allowance for age differences within an exposed population group, definition of 50-y dose versus lifetime (70-y) dose, definition of negligible risk levels for individual and collective doses, and derivation of appropriate concentration guidelines. The United States is in the process of adopting the revised recommendations of the ICRP. In addition to adopting versions of the primary radiation protection standards, both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy have developed draft secondary standards that are similar to the Derived Air Concentration values given by the ICRP. This paper presents a brief history of the development of these revised secondary standards, discusses their technical bases, provides a comparison of them, and discusses their limitations and potential misapplication

  18. Transition of radiation protection standards in ICRP recommendations and Japan's response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirabe, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiation protection standards are the standards set for the purpose of preventing radiation hazard and other damage. This paper confirm what the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended against the standard value on public exposure in Japan's laws and regulations, and how the Japanese government responded in introducing it into Japan's laws and regulations. There were delays of 6 to 12 years for the introduction of ICRP recommendations into the laws and regulations. Compared with response to the copyright treaty, which was extremely quick with the delays of only 1 to 2 years, these delays were very large. In Japan's laws and regulations, there are no regulations on the standard value for public exposure, and introduction of the recommended standard value of 1 mSv/year from ICRP has been avoided by the government. It is supposed that the reason for not introducing radiation dose limit and dose constraint value of public exposure was due to the lobbying of electric companies. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, the former Nuclear Safety Commission set the reference level for emergency exposure situation at 20 mSv/year. Although there is the long-term target of 1 mSv/year for existing exposure, no reference level has been set yet. Due to these delays or avoidances, the rights of people suffering from radiation exposure are restricted, while perhaps the benefits of electric companies are being protected. (A.O.)

  19. Environmental protection against ionizing radiations: the way proposed by the ICRP, its origin and its analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.

    2003-01-01

    Face to the conceptual lack relative to the radiation protection of environment and when numerous legislative texts begin to come about the species protection, the ICRP began a thought that aims to recommend a frame according to evaluate the impact of ionizing radiations on environment. This choice emphasizes the parallel man-environment by putting the two parts to protect at the same level. The unknown part is essentially the interactions of ecosystem but the future knowledge will be progressively integrated as they will be known. (N.C.)

  20. ICRP Publication 138: Ethical Foundations of the System of Radiological Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K-W; Cantone, M-C; Kurihara-Saio, C; Le Guen, B; Martinez, N; Oughton, D; Schneider, T; Toohey, R; ZöLzer, F

    2018-02-01

    Despite a longstanding recognition that radiological protection is not only a matter of science, but also ethics, ICRP publications have rarely addressed the ethical foundations of the system of radiological protection explicitly. The purpose of this publication is to describe how the Commission has relied on ethical values, either intentionally or indirectly, in developing the system of radiological protection with the objective of presenting a coherent view of how ethics is part of this system. In so doing, it helps to clarify the inherent value judgements made in achieving the aim of the radiological protection system as underlined by the Commission in Publication 103. Although primarily addressed to the radiological protection community, this publication is also intended to address authorities, operators, workers, medical professionals, patients, the public, and its representatives (e.g. NGOs) acting in the interest of the protection of people and the environment. This publication provides the key steps concerning the scientific, ethical, and practical evolutions of the system of radiological protection since the first ICRP publication in 1928. It then describes the four core ethical values underpinning the present system: beneficence/ non-maleficence, prudence, justice, and dignity. It also discusses how these core ethical values relate to the principles of radiological protection, namely justification, optimisation, and limitation. The publication finally addresses key procedural values that are required for the practical implementation of the system, focusing on accountability, transparency, and inclusiveness. The Commission sees this publication as a founding document to be elaborated further in different situations and circumstances.

  1. The implications of the new ICRP recommendations on the legislation community radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriskat, H.

    1992-01-01

    One of the fundamental tasks attributed to the European Community by the Euratom Treaty is to establish uniform safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionising radiation. Ever since 1959, when for the first time, following a proposal by the Commission, the Council of Ministers issued the Basic Safety Standards under form of a Directive, they were reviewed and amended on a regular basis taking into account to a large extent the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The aim of the ongoing revision of the Basic Safety Standards Directives (80/836 EURATOM and 84/466 EURATOM) is to reinforce radiation protection thoughout the Community to assure the best possible protection of the workers and public. This partial revision of the basic safety standards needs careful interpretation of the ICRP recommendations, taking into account existing legislation in Member States and an evaluation of the applicability of such a revision in both implementation in legislation and in the daily practice of radiation protection. At the same time, the actual revision's impact on other community Directives in the area of radiation protection has to be considered and, if necessary, these Directives have to be brought in line with the modified Basic Safety Standards. Finally, this revision has to take into account as well the possible repercussion on radiation protection of the future single European Market in order to continue to assure the high level of protection obtained until now. (author)

  2. Innovative characteristics of the new dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract studied by the ICRP appointed Task Group of Committee 2

    CERN Document Server

    Melandri, C; Tarroni, G

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, the ICRP appointed a Task Group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the current lung dosimetric model. On the basis of the knowledge acquired during the past 20 years, the Task Group's approach has been to review, in depth, the morphology and physiology of the human respiratory tract, inspirability of aerosols and regional deposition of inhaled particles as functions of aerosol size and breathing parameters, clearance of deposited materials, nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory system caused by inhaled radioactive substances. In the proposed model, clearance from the three regions of the respiratory tract (extrathoracic ET, fast-clearing thoracic T sub f and slow-clearing thoracic T sub s , comprising lymph nodes) is described in terms of competition between the mechanical processes moving particles, which do not depend on the substances, and those of absorption into the blood, determined solely by the material. A Task Group report will also include models for calcula...

  3. The new ICRP recommendations' project: A broader approach of the optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the preparation of its new recommendations ICRP has developed a new text on the optimisation of radiological protection. This text prolongs the previous publications on the principle (Publications 37 and 45) reminding the need to adopt a pragmatic approach combining quantitative techniques when they are relevant as well as know-how and past experience which are often sufficient to ensure good protection. Moreover, it aims at adapting the optimisation process to the recent evolutions of risk management with the increasing role of stakeholder involvement in the decision framing. (author)

  4. Implications of ICRP recommendations on the management of radiation protection of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    The new ICRP recommendations [1] give a slightly revised definition of occupational exposure. Guidance is given with respect to the exposure at work related no natural radiation sources. Where ICRP recommends a source related definition of occupational exposure, the Basic Safety Standards of the European Communities [3] and consequently legislation in member states depart from an effect related definition of workers. Mutual divergence regarding this identification issue will be discussed in this paper. Operational radiation protection is commonly based on the principles of classification of workers, classification of working conditions and classification of places of work. From the management view point, the rationale for applying classification is to balancing the nature and the scale of control measures, monitoring and surveillance, using resources in the most appropriate way. In previous recommendations [2] ICRP has given criteria for classification, based on the projected level of individual annual dose, relative to the recommended dose limits for occupational exposure. This guidance is now regarded as crude and arbitrary and therefore withdrawn. This paper will address some consequences of the revised recommendations as well as options for implementation in the European Community basic safety standards. (author)

  5. Derived limits for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Si Young; Lee, Byung Soo

    2000-01-01

    In Korea the dose limits are reduced and are set at the ICRP-60 limits. However, derived limits tabulated as MPC in air and water are sill specified in Notice Nol 98-12. There are some discrepancies between the primary dose limits and MPCs in air and water. Therefore, in order to accept ICRP-60 recommendations fully, derived limits such as ALI, DAC, ECL for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations were calculated using modified methods of those of 10 CFR part 20, dose limits and committed effective dose coefficients of the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA. The derived limits in this study were also compared with those prescribed in 10 CFR part 20 as well as MPCs of Notice No.98-12 in order to analyze the impact of implementing derived limits on nuclear facilities. ECLs in air and water for the control of radioactive discharge into the environment in this study are shown to have lower values (i.e. more conservative), for most part, than those in Notice No. 98-12. Especially, for uranium elements, ECLs in water are approximately a magnitude in the order of two lower than those in Notice No. 98-12. (author)

  6. Analysis of the criteria used by the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) to justify the setting of numerical reference values. Report No. 277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Lochard, J.; Crouail, P.

    2005-05-01

    Following its Publication 60, ICRP has proposed nine reports specifying quantified values for dose constraints, action levels, etc. Some 25 values have been identified in all these publications. Since a few years, ICRP is preparing new recommendations in order to provide 'a more coherent and comprehensible system'. The objective of ICRP is to propose to select among the existing quantified values, a few values that could encompass all the other ones. These values are not intended to replace the currently recommended values which remain valid. In this perspective, IRSN has asked CEPN to make a review of all the values introduced in the ICRP publications in order to obtain a broad view of the rationalities proposed by ICRP in the determination of these values. The following Publications of ICRP have been reviewed: - ICRP 60 - 1990 - 1990 Recommendations of ICRP, - ICRP 62 - 1992 - Radiological protection in biomedical research, - ICRP 63 - 1992 - Principles for intervention for protection of the public in a radiological emergency, - ICRP 64 - 1993 - Protection from potential exposure: a conceptual framework, - ICRP 65 - 1993 - Protection against radon-222 at home and at work, - ICRP 68 - 1994 - Dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by workers, - ICRP 75 - 1997 - General principles for the radiation protection of workers, - ICRP 77 - 1997 - Radiological protection policy for the disposal of radioactive waste, - ICRP 81 - 2000 - Radiation protection recommendations as applied to the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste, - ICRP 82 - 2000 - Protection of the public in situations of prolonged radiation exposure. The different quantitative values found in these publications are presented in this report, grouped by type of value: individual dose limits, 'maximum' individual dose, dose constraints, exemption, action and intervention levels. The rationalities proposed by ICRP for setting these values are presented, mainly based on the quotation of ICRP

  7. Optimisation of Protection as applicable to geological disposal: the ICRP view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.

    2010-01-01

    Wolfgang Weiss (BfS), vice-chair of ICRP Committee 4, recalled that the role of optimisation is to select the best protection options under the prevailing circumstances based on scientific considerations, societal concerns and ethical aspects as well as considerations of transparency. An important role of the concept of optimisation of protection is to foster a 'safety culture' and thereby to engender a state of thinking in everyone responsible for control of radiation exposures, such that they are continuously asking themselves the question, 'Have I done all that I reasonably can to avoid or reduce these doses?' Clearly, the answer to this question is a matter of judgement and necessitates co-operation between all parties involved and, as a minimum, the operating management and the regulatory agencies, but the dialogue would be more complete if other stakeholders were also involved. What kinds of checks and balances or factors would be needed to be considered for an 'optimal' system? Can indicators be identified? Quantitative methods may provide input to this dialogue but they should never be the sole input. The ICRP considers that the parameters to take into account include also social considerations and values, environmental considerations, as well as technical and economic considerations. Wolfgang Weiss approached the question of the distinction to be made between system optimisation (in the sense of taking account of social and economic as well as of all types of hazards) and optimisation of radiological protection. The position of the ICRP is that the system of protection that it proposes is based on both science (quantification of the health risk) and value judgement (what is an acceptable risk?) and optimisation is the recommended process to integrate both aspects. Indeed, there has been evolution since the old system of intervention levels to the new system, whereby, even if the level of the dose or risk (which is called constraint in ICRP-81 ) is met

  8. The regulatory consequences of Publication 60 of the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, Annie

    1992-01-01

    The system of radiological protection recommended by the ICRP for future and existing proposed and continuing practices is based on the following general principles: justification, optimisation and limitation of exposure levels. This means that no practice involving exposures to radiation should be adopted unless it produces sufficient benefit to the exposed individuals or to the society to offset the radiation detriment it causes. In relation to any particular source within a practice, the magnitude of individual doses, the number of people exposed, and the likelihood of incurring exposures where these are not certain to be received should all be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. The exposure of individuals resulting from the combination of all the relevant practices should be subject to dose limits, or to some control of risk in the case of potential exposures. The system for radiological protection and the values of the limits associated with it, are related the state of knowledge of the effects of radiation. This explains the periodic revision of the corresponding regulatory texts. In a field of such complexity, concerned by disciplines as diverse as medicine, biology, chemistry, statistics, etc., the question naturally arises as to which authority has the capacity to determine an agreed policy. As far as the European Community is concerned, the basic standards related to radiation protection are the subject of Directives which have to be incorporated into national laws by each member state. These directives are under review taking into account explicitly the ICRP recommendations. International agencies whose mission is concerned with the effects of ionising radiation, publish also basic standards related to radiological protection which are not imposed to the participating states except when they collaborate with those bodies, and which mainly act as international references. Such norms also comply with

  9. The radiation protection policy of the ICRP: new approaches and false debates, by the Dr Nenot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The thoughts led within the ICRP during the last months and the new approach for the radiation protection policy presented by its president Roger Clarke arouse in the specialized media, numerous debates and interpretations. In an article called 'Low and very low doses: towards a change of regulation?' the R.G.N. has evoked some aspects of themes in discussion(number 3 - 1999 - may-june). In this article, the Dr Jean-Claude Nenot relates the context in which the debate has been developed and gives some interpretation errors that if they should last, would risk to maintain a sterile controversy. (N.C.)

  10. Application of the ICRP approach for radiological protection of the marine environment in generic impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliaus, Viktoryia [Republican Scientific-Practical Centre of Hygiene, Laboratory of Radiation Safety, Akademicheskaya str. 8, 220012, Minsk (Belarus); Telleria, Diego M. [IAEA-Assessment and Management of Environmental Releases Unit, Wagramer Strasse 5 - PO Box 100, A-1400, Vienna (Austria); Cabianca, Tiberio [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, PHE, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a way to use the ICRP approach for protection of the environment in generic assessments of the radiological impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. Generic assessments of radiological impact to the environment are needed in certain circumstances, for example, when input data are limited or when the likely radiological consequences are expected to be not significant. Under these circumstances the effort in performing the assessment must be commensurate with the potential radiological consequences. The generic assessment described in this paper is a simple tool which provides reasonable and cautious results and is applicable to multiple exposure scenarios associated with the assessment of the radiological impact of releases to the marine the environment. This generic assessment can be also used to provide preliminary results which, when compared to radiological criteria, may determine the need of further specific assessments. The ICRP based its approach to protect the environment in the definition of a set of reference animals and plants and the use of related radiological criteria, in the form of derived consideration reference levels. The paper discusses selection and exposure conditions of the reference animals and plants, methods to estimate their doses and the use of the radiological criteria, for the purpose of a generic assessment. The IAEA is elaborating applications of these generic impact assessments presented in the paper to be included in international guidance under development. (authors)

  11. Policy and technical matters for the application of ICRP 1977 recommendations to Japanese radiation protection regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tatsuji

    1987-01-01

    Tens years has passed since 1977 when the ICRP recommendations were made, and the work of revising the Japanese radiation regulations in response to the recommendations is almost completed. The work has been conducted mainly by an elemental group established under the Radiation Council. The elemental group submitted the first interim report to the Council in 1980, which presented recommendations on the objectives of radiation protection, dose equivalent limits for the general public, facilities inspection and products testing, medical surveillance, etc. After making deliberations in response to studies by the ICRP working group, the elemental group compiled the second interim report in July 1981. Further studies were conducted and the final report was submitted to the Council in March 1983. The final report covered the definitions of such terms as 'dose equivalent', dose equivalent limit for workers, exposure dose in the event of emergency, dose equivalent limit for the general public, various standards for protection, classification of workers by working conditions, classification of work sites monitoring of exposure dose, and implementation of medical surveillance. After making deliberations, the Council submitted a report in 1986 to government agencies concerned, whose contents are almost the same as those of the above final report except for some amendments. (Nogami, K.)

  12. International recommendations on scope of radiological protection regulations - ICRP Publication 104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, Gabriel; Avadanei, Camelia; Ghilea, Simion

    2011-01-01

    The system of radiological protection applies, in principle, to all exposures to ionising radiation. Nevertheless, in practice, the measures taken in order to control these exposures should be limited for pragmatic reasons. ICRP Publication 104 deals with the scope of radiological protection control measures and describes the instruments that can be used for this purpose: exclusion, exemption, clearance. This paper aims to present the ICRP recommendations on scope of regulations in all types of exposure situations: planned, emergency and existing. Also, there are discussed the instruments available to regulators in different exposure situations. Exclusion refers to the deliberate omission of exposure situations from the scope of regulatory requirements, and exemption refers to waiving regulatory requirements if their application is not warranted. A special case of exemption, termed 'clearance', refers to the relinquishing of regulatory control if such a control becomes unwarranted. Societal attitudes to the control of exposure situations are taken into account in determining what can be excluded or exempted from regulatory control. People have higher demands for controlling 'artificial' exposure situations than for dealing with 'natural' exposure situations. Therefore, account should be taken not only of the justification and optimisation of controlling measures, but also of the different expectations of those affected by the exposure situations. The recommendations in this report are intended to assist in defining what needs to be the subject of regulatory requirements for radiological protection and what does not. The application of regulatory controls should achieve a net benefit in protection; otherwise, regulatory control is not justified. Similarly, regulatory requirements should be applied in a manner that optimises protection, otherwise the application of regulatory requirements is not warranted. (authors)

  13. Development of derived limits for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. Y.; Lee, B. S.

    1999-01-01

    Derived limits such as the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI), Derived Air Concentration (DAC) and Effluent Concentration Limit (ECL) for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations were calculated using dose limits and committed effective dose coefficients of the basic Safety Standards of IAEA (i.e. safety series 115; BSS-96). Derived limits regarding occupational exposure were derived using methodologies of ICRP-61 and dose limit stated in ICRP -60. ECL in air and water for the control of radioactive discharge into the environment were derived using methodologies of 10 CFR part 20 and dose limit stated in ICRP-60. In order to analyze the impact of implementing derived limits on nuclear facilities, the derived values in this study were compared with those prescribed in 10 CFR part 20 as well as the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of Notice No. 98-12 of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). According to the comparison results, ECLs in air and water for the control of radioactive discharge into the environment in this study are shown to have lower values (i.e. more conservative), for most part, than those in Notice No. 98-12. These differences are due to the reduction of dose limit, adoption of a weighting factor for age-dependency in dose coefficients, and application of new respiratory tract model and bio-kinetics model. Especially, for uranium elements (i.e., 235 U, 238 U, etc.), which are governing ones in the nuclear fuel industries, ECLs in water are approximately a magnitude in the order of two lower than those in Notice No. 98-12. These are attributable to the adoption of a weighting factor for age-dependency in dose coefficients, newly recommended dose coefficients for ingestion pathway, and reduction of dose limit. It was found out that the differences in ECLs in water for uranium elements originated mostly from ingestion dose coefficients recommended by BSS-96. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  14. Optimisation and decisions in radiological protection - A report of the work of an ICRP task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    In 1984 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) established a Task Group of Committee 4 to produce a report on methods for optimisation of protection other than cost-benefit analysis. As the work of the task group progressed it became clear that it would be more useful to produce a report on the entire field of application of optimisation, mainly to show how the various techniques including cost-benefit analysis could be applied appropriately to problems at different levels of complexity. This paper reports on the main ideas that have been developed by the task group. It must be emphasised that these ideas have not been endorsed by Committee 4 nor approved by the Commission so they can not yet be considered as recommendations

  15. The evolution of the system of radiological protection: the justification for new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    ICRP has been encouraging discussion during the past few years on the best way of expressing radiological protection philosophy in its next recommendations, which it plans to publish in 2005. The present recommendations were initiated by Publication 60 in 1990 and have been complemented by additional publications over the last 12 years. It is now clear that there is a need for the Commission to summarise the totality of the number of numerical values that it has recommended in some ten reports. This has been done in this paper, and from these a way forward is indicated to produce a simplified and more coherent statement of protection philosophy for the start of the 21st century. A radical revision is not envisaged, rather a coherent statement of current policy and a simplification in its application. (memorandum)

  16. The evolution of the system of radiological protection: the justification for new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    ICRP has been encouraging discussion, during the past few years, on the best way of expressing radiological protection philosophy in its next Recommendations, which it plans to publish in 2005. The present Recommendations were initiated by Publication 60 in 1990 and have been complemented by additional publications over the last twelve years. It is now clear that there is a need for the Commission to summarize the totality of the number of numerical values that it has recommended in some ten reports. This has been done in this paper and from these, a way forward is indicated to produce a simplified and more coherent statement of protection philosophy for the start of the 21. century. A radical revision is not envisaged, rather a coherent statement of current policy and a simplification in its application. (author)

  17. Innovative characteristics of the new dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract studied by the ICRP appointed Task Group of Committee 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, C.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1991-02-01

    In 1984, the ICRP appointed a Task Group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the current lung dosimetric model. On the basis of the knowledge acquired during the past 20 years, the Task Group's approach has been to review, in depth, the morphology and physiology of the human respiratory tract, inspirability of aerosols and regional deposition of inhaled particles as functions of aerosol size and breathing parameters, clearance of deposited materials, nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory system caused by inhaled radioactive substances. In the proposed model, clearance from the three regions of the respiratory tract (extrathoracic ET, fast-clearing thoracic T f and slow-clearing thoracic T s , comprising lymph nodes) is described in terms of competition between the mechanical processes moving particles, which do not depend on the substances, and those of absorption into the blood, determined solely by the material. A Task Group report will also include models for calculating radiation doses to tissues of the respiratory system following inhalation of α, β and γ emitting particulate and gaseous radionuclides. (author)

  18. Release of patients after radionuclide therapy. With contributions from the [International Commission on Radiological Protection] ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The use of unsealed radiopharmaceuticals for treatment of disease is common practice worldwide. This approach was widely employed some years ago and, following a decline, there has recently been a resurgence of interest in it. The combination of newly accessible radionuclides, improved labelling technology and developments in biotechnology has resulted in more enthusiasm and a wider range of applications for this form of therapy. Radionuclide treatments are performed with either the patient admitted to hospital or as an outpatient only. The criteria to determine which approach is best vary considerably, and are not always closely linked with the well established standards of radiation protection practice. Safety issues for the patient, their family, associated carers, staff and the general public arise with either approach. The potential risks are from both external irradiation and contamination. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) specify the dose constraints and limits for all of these groups, and their more general provisions with respect to the as low as reasonably achievable principle and justification also apply. One way of managing exposures of the various groups is to control when patients are released from hospital. While they are in hospital, it is relatively easy to control exposure. Once they have returned to their family in the community, they must be advised on how to restrict the exposure of those people that they will come into contact with. Until recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) did not provide specific advice in this area, and relied on the application of dose limits and constraints. However, regulators in some countries took a prescriptive approach, often using estimates of retained activity as a release criterion. These only loosely relate to dose limits. This publication attempts to bring newly available advice

  19. Intercomparison between ICRP60 and ICRP103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, M. T. A.

    2014-04-01

    In this project inter-comparison between the recommendations from ICRP publication 60, 1900 and the recommendations from ICRP publication 103, 2007 is made. The present 2007 recommendations is an update based on the latest available scientific information of the biology and physics of radiation exposure .This comparison covers the Exposure situations, Tissue Weighting Factors wT, Radiation Weighting Factors wR, and the three Fundamental Principles of Radiological Protection and the protection of the environment. ICRP has retained its fundamental hypothesis for the induction of stochastic effects of linearity of dose and effect without threshold and a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) of 2 to derive nominal risk coefficients for low doses and low dose rates. While the overall detriment from low radiation doses has remained unchanged, ICRP has made adjustments to the values of the radiation and tissue weighting factors. In particular, the tissue weighting factor for breast has increased while that for gonads has decreased. There are some presentational changes to the system of protection. While ICRP has maintained the three fundamental principles-justification, optimization of protection, and dose limitation-it has attempted to develop a more holistic approach to radiological protection covering all exposure situations-planned, existing and emergency and all radiation sources, whether of natural or artificial origin. Dose constraints and reference levels are categorized into three bands which should assist in rationalizing the many values of dose restrictions given in earlier ICRP publications. (au)

  20. Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: the role of the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Warren K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and NCRP in 1993 and the composition of the radiation health detriment on which they are based. The main component of this detriment is the risk of radiation induced cancer which is now estimated to be about three times greater than a decade or so earlier. Uncertainties in these risk estimates are discussed. Some special radiation protection problems, such as those for the embryo or fetus are described. The article also addresses future progress in radiation protection particularly with regard to future improvements in the scientific basis for radiation protection recommendations

  1. Radiation Protection for Radon in Dwellings - Consequences of the ICRP Publication 115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzam, Jai T.; Breckow, J.; Grimm, V.; Grund, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade several epidemiological studies on risk estimations due to exposure to radon in dwellings revealed higher risks to radon exposure than estimated previously. Thus, in ICRP Publication 115 (ICRP, 2011) a revised nominal probability coefficient for radon and its progeny-induced lung cancer was propounded. Based on the results of the exposure from residential studies and underground miners, the risk of lung cancer was estimated as 5x10 -4 per WLM (lifetime excess absolute risk, LEAR) and 8x10 -1 0 per Bqxh/m 3 , respectively. In the former Publication 65 (ICRP, 1993), the coefficient has been 2.83x10 -4 per WLM and 4x10 -1 0 per Bqxh/m 3 , respectively. Typical radon activity concentration in dwellings is about 60 Bq/m? in many parts of Europe. According to the ICRP Publication 65-dose coefficients, this concentration leads to a mean annual effective dose of 1.2 mSv. If the new nominal risk coefficient from ICRP Publication 115 is applied, the effective dose due to radon in dwellings increases to approximately 2.3 mSv per year. Referring the reference level of 10 mSv/a for radon exposure in dwellings in ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) and based on the new recommendations in ICRP Publication 115, actions have to be taken to reduce the upper reference level for radon gas in dwellings from 600 Bq/m 3 to 300 Bq/m 3 .(author)

  2. A nuclear power plant operator's view on the effects of ICRP recommendation 26 upon his radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selleslagh, E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of ICRP recommendation 26 on rules to be implemented by nuclear power plant operators in their radiation protection program, are examined from various points of view: legal and para-legal aspects such as implementation by local authorities and interference with the regulatory process, external and internal irradiation control and limitation, ALARA and cost-benefit aspects, and the record keeping and monitoring requirements. It appears that certain parts of ICRP 26 were not retained by Euratom and thus have little chance of appearing in modified European law. Nonetheless, they are applied through licensing practices. ICRP 26 itself either confirms existing practice, which was often more conservative than law, or relaxes limits, and provides a more logical context for non-whole body exposures. ALARA-rules and practices cause an additional administrative burden, but this already existed and provides useful data for the plant management. The problem of ''zero dose'' and of converting in vivo measurements to dose in case the intakes are unknown, are addressed briefly. It is concluded that ICRP 26 brings no real changes for radiation protection in nuclear power plants, except maybe some increased flexibility, and that the operators are pretty happy with it, but less so with the way it is being imposed on them. (author)

  3. Discussion on concepts for radiological dosimetric quantities in the Japan Health Physics Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Oda, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    Many dosimetric quantities have been used for radiation protection purpose. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended protection quantities and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has introduced operational quantities to provide a reasonable estimate of the protection quantities. Enthusiastic discussions are continuously made on the issues of the dosimetric quantities, such as basic biological data for the definition of these quantities and applicability of the quantities to actual radiation protection practice. At the moment, some changes are being proposed concerning dosimetric quantities in the draft recommendations of ICRP, opened for consultation in recent years. Thus, the Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) established the Expert Committee on concepts of Dosimetric Quantities used in radiological protection (ECDQ) in April 2005 to reviewed and discuss issues in the dosimetric quantities. (author)

  4. Report of ICRP Task Group 80: 'radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W

    2012-01-01

    The report of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group 80 entitled 'Radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste' updates and consolidates previous ICRP recommendations related to solid waste disposal (ICRP Publications 46, 77, and 81). The recommendations given in this report apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the 2007 system of radiological protection, described in ICRP Publication 103, can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report is written as a self-standing document. It describes the different stages in the lifetime of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that influences application of the protection system over the different phases in the lifetime of a disposal facility is the level of oversight that is present. The level of oversight affects the capability to reduce or avoid exposures. Three main time frames have to be considered for the purpose of radiological protection: time of direct oversight when the disposal facility is being implemented and active oversight is taking place; time of indirect oversight when the disposal facility is sealed and indirect oversight is being exercised to provide additional assurance on behalf of the population; and time of no oversight when oversight is no longer exercised because memory is lost. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection standard and the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection published in 2007; Comparacao entre a norma brasileira de radioprotecao e a recomendacao da International Commission on Radiological Protection - ICRP, publicadas em 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Itatiaia, RJ (Brazil). Fabrica do Combustivel Nuclear. Servico de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, J.R.S. [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Direito

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the differences between the CNEN's standard and the publication of ICRP-103, analyzing the philosophy for radiation protection, dose limits and other relevant aspects of radiation protection.

  6. An approach to the new ICRP recommendations on protection of the environment for the control of radioactive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telleria, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Full text: For many years it has been agreed at the international level that the regulations for the control of discharges during normal operation from nuclear installation shall be based in the principles of individual dose limitation and optimization of the radiation protection focused on man. These regulations using a process of constrained optimization of protection, when properly applied to limit the discharges of radionuclides, were assumed to protect also other species than man and, within the available level of scientific knowledge, this assumption is still likely to be certain. After the International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Stockholm, 2003, many national, international, regional and non-governmental organizations have been working to develop a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from effects attributable to exposures to ionizing radiation. One of the key issues to solve is how to include in the analysis and judgment process explicitly non-human species. Most of the organizations, particularly at the international level, have expressed their expectative in connection with the results of the work of the ICRP. In December 2007 the ICRP published its new recommendations and during 2008 key documents for the international community like the UNSCEAR document on effects of radiation on non-human biota and the ICRP publication on the approach to a framework for non-human protection using the concept of reference plants and animals could close, at least, the first chapter in this complex evolutionary process in the field of radiation protection. While some of the relevant topics for the protection of the environment from all the pollutants, like the global distribution patterns, the long term bioaccumulation effects, the relation of the individual effects regarding the communities and populations, Etc are still not fully discerned and noting that ICRP in its

  7. The evolution of the international system of radiological protection: stakeholder views from the 1st and 2nd NEA/ICRP fora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Ted

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency's (NEA's) Committee on Radiological Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has collaborated closely with the ICRP in its efforts to develop new recommendations for radiological protection at the start of the 21st century. As part of this effort, the NEA organised, in collaboration with the ICRP, two fora to discuss the radiological protection of the environment (Taormina, February 2002) and the future policy for radiological protection (Lanzarote, April 2003). Both these meetings were attended by a broad representation of stakeholders. The CRPPH and other stakeholders universally appreciated the opportunity to speak directly with the ICRP on these important subjects. This report summarises the main conclusions made during these two meetings to advance the deliberations of the ICRP to create a new set of recommendations responsive to stakeholder needs, firmly rooted in science, and that can be implemented in a timely, efficient and cost-effective manner. (memorandum)

  8. The evolution of the international system of radiological protection: stakeholder views from the 1st and 2nd NEA/ICRP fora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Ted [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 12, Boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2003-12-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency's (NEA's) Committee on Radiological Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has collaborated closely with the ICRP in its efforts to develop new recommendations for radiological protection at the start of the 21st century. As part of this effort, the NEA organised, in collaboration with the ICRP, two fora to discuss the radiological protection of the environment (Taormina, February 2002) and the future policy for radiological protection (Lanzarote, April 2003). Both these meetings were attended by a broad representation of stakeholders. The CRPPH and other stakeholders universally appreciated the opportunity to speak directly with the ICRP on these important subjects. This report summarises the main conclusions made during these two meetings to advance the deliberations of the ICRP to create a new set of recommendations responsive to stakeholder needs, firmly rooted in science, and that can be implemented in a timely, efficient and cost-effective manner. (memorandum)

  9. Protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident: the guidance of ICRP Publication 111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection provides guidance for the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies in ICRP Publication 111 (Ann. ICRP 2009, 39(3)). The prolonged exposures resulting from such events are defined as existing exposure situations and the driving principle for managing exposure situations is the optimization of protection. In conjunction with optimization, the Commission recommends the use of reference levels to restrict individual doses. To be effective, protection strategies to maintain and reduce exposure as low as reasonably achievable should include actions implemented by public authorities and private businesses, but also by the affected population itself. The process through which inhabitants living in a contaminated environment identify problems and apply their own protective actions has been named 'self-help protection' by the Commission. Such a process supposes that affected individuals are fully aware of the situation and are well informed. It is the responsibility of the authorities to establish programmes for continuous radiation monitoring, information and education of the population. The involvement of local professionals and inhabitants in the definition and implementation of protection strategies is a key factor for the sustainability of long-term rehabilitation programmes. (note)

  10. Radon dosimetry for workers: ICRP's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, James W.; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot

    2017-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently published two reports on radon exposure; Publication 115 on lung cancer risks from radon and radon progeny and Publication 126 on radiological protection against radon exposure. A specific graded approach for the control of radon in workplaces is recommended where a dose assessment is required in certain situations. In its forthcoming publication on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides (OIR) document, Part 3, effective dose coefficients for radon and thoron will be provided. These will be calculated using ICRP reference biokinetic and dosimetric models. Sufficient information and dosimetric data will be given so that site-specific dose coefficients can be calculated based on measured aerosol parameter values. However, ICRP will recommend a single dose coefficient of 12 mSv per working level month (WLM) for inhaled radon progeny to be used in most circumstances. This chosen reference value was based on both dosimetry and epidemiological data. In this paper, the application and use of dose coefficients for workplaces are discussed including the reasons for the choice of the reference value. Preliminary results of dose calculations for indoor workplaces and mines are presented. The paper also briefly describes the general approach for the management of radon exposure in workplaces based both on ICRP recommendations and the European directive (2013/59/EURATOM). (authors)

  11. Safety philosophy of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuaki

    1995-01-01

    Measures are important as the means to realize philosophy. Accordingly, it is meaningful to take measures as the object when the philosophy of ICRP is considered. As to controllable risk factors, restraint shall be done so as to make the risk being brought about as small as possible. When it is not necessary to limit restraining means, risk-free is ideal. Ionizing radiation is one of risk factors. The risk that ICRP speaks is the loss of the probability of maintaining life. The object of radiation protection is limited to the exposure to controllable radiation, and the aim of protection is to minimize risk under the condition of as low as reasonably achievable. The philosophy of ICRP and the problems in the measures are discussed. ICRP and ICRU must reconfirm the allotment of roles. Radiation protection system is composed of system of radiation dosimetry and system of dose limitation. The mission of ICRP is to recommend political decision, and it may make the political declaration 'The radiation below a certain amount may be regarded as safe'. It is better only to recommend the conversion relation of radiation dose and risk. The desire and demand to ICRP are mentioned. (K.I.)

  12. ICRP - history and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokan, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    A brief history is presented of the evolution of radiation protection concepts, largely through the activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and their adoption in Australia by the National Health and Medical Research Council. Changes which have taken place since the preparation of the Code of Practice for Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores (1980) are described, and likely future directions in radiation protection are suggested. A list of the ICRP publications since ICRP-26 is provided. 4 refs

  13. The new ICRP recommendations on radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Schneider, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste management has been the subject of several recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) since 1985. The aim of the new Publication 122 (2013) is to describe how the 2007 general recommendations of the Commission (Publication 103) can be applied in the context of geological disposal. For this purpose, it is important to emphasise that the new approach developed by ICRP is based on three types of exposure situations: planned, emergency and existing: - Planned exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from the operation of deliberately introduced sources. Exposures can be planned and fully controlled. - Emergency exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from the loss of control of a source within a planned exposure, or from an unexpected situation (e.g. malevolent event). These situations require urgent actions to prevent or mitigate exposures. - Existing exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from sources that already exist when decisions are taken to control them. The characterisation of exposure is therefore a prerequisite for their control. The application of the three basic radiological protection principles - justification, optimisation of protection and limitation of individual doses - are therefore considered in this new framework with justification and optimisation applying to the three types of exposure situations and limitation only to planned exposure situations. The main points highlighted in Publication 122 for the application of the system of radiological protection to geological disposal of long-life solid radioactive waste are summarized

  14. ICRP new recommendations. Committee 2's efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may release new primary radiation protection recommendation in 2007. Committee 2 has underway reviews of the dosimetric and biokinetic models and associated data used in calculating dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and exposures to external radiation fields. This paper outlines the work plans of Committee 2 during the current term, 2005-2009, in anticipation of the new primary recommendations. The two task groups of Committee 2 responsible for the computations of dose coefficients, INDOS and DOCAL, are reviewing the models and data used in the computations. INDOS is reviewing the lung model and the biokinetic models that describe the behavior of the radionuclides in the body. DOCAL is reviewing its computational formulations with the objective of harmonizing the formulation with those of nuclear medicine, and developing new computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference individuals of ICRP Publication 89. In addition, DOCAL will issue a publication on nuclear decay data to replace ICRP Publication 38. While the current efforts are focused on updating the dose coefficients for occupational intakes of radionuclides plans are being formulated to address dose coefficients for external radiation fields which include consideration of high energy fields associated with accelerators and space travel and the updating of dose coefficients for members of the public. (author)

  15. ICRP path forward to the next recommendations. WNA (World Nuclear Association) preliminary views on the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) proposed profound changes to the current RP system and on continuing to build an international consensus towards an improved proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2006-01-01

    For several years, international policy on radiological protection has been under discussion with a view to a significant revision (recently delayed until 2006-2007). The focal point of this discussion has been an evolving draft proposal of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ICRP's seminal role in its field is well-known. Generally, ICRP recommendations are translated into the international and national standards that govern industry operations worldwide. (author)

  16. The role of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric calibration in the implementation of the dosimetric magnitudes with radiological protection aims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Medina O, V.; Alvarez R, J.T.; Tovar M, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    It is very well-known the paper of the net of secondary laboratories of dosimetric calibration of the OAS in the dissemination of the traceability of the dosimetric magnitudes: kerma in air and absorbed dose in water, to the radiotherapy departments, given the high accuracy and precision that require the radiotherapy treatments. However the LSCD has other important areas at least for the development, implementation and evaluation of dosimetric magnitudes denominated operative magnitudes with ends of radiological protection: environmental equivalent dose H*(10), directional equivalent dose H'(0.07) and personal equivalent dose Hp. In the case of radiological protection the LSCD-ININ has been implementing the infrastructure to give service of personal dosimetry for photons and beta particles in terms of the operative magnitudes. For photons: X and gamma rays, it account with a secondary pattern camera PTW T34035 gauged in H * and Hp in the primary laboratory of Germany PTB. For the case of beta radiation its account with an extrapolation camera PTW 23392 with a secondary pattern kit of sources of the type I, gauged in terms of H'(0.07) in the PTB. (Author)

  17. Impact of ICRP 117 recommendations in the operational protection of vascular radiology unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Pablo Luis; Fernandez, Manuel; Verde, Jose Maria; Perez, Maria Esperanza; Gomez, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    This paper lists and discusses the results obtained in the teams of the different specialties: traumatology, gastroenterology, hemodynamics, vascular radiology and neurosurgery at different care centres with various care portfolios and notable differences of technical resources. The results show a noticeable difference between the equipment used in gastroenterology, vascular radiology and hemodynamic reference services with other services and disciplines. Taking into account the recent 117 of ICRP publication it has been initiated a procedure for the estimation of dose of foot and ankle of the vascular radiologists and in crystalline. This paper shows the results obtained as well as the correlations between the mentioned area dose and values of dose of lapel, wrist, ankles and crystalline of the professionals

  18. ZZ NUCDECAY, Nuclear Decay Data for Radiation Dosimetry Calculation for ICRP and MIRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Westfall, R.J.; Ryman, J.C.; Cristy, M.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: - ICRP38: Format: Special format. Number of groups: Energies and intensities of radiations emitted; designed to address the needs in medical, environmental, and occupational radiation protection. Nuclides: 825 + 13 radionuclides. Origin: ENSDF (data used in preparing ICRP Publication 38). - MIRD: Format: Special format. Number of groups: Energies and intensities of radiations emitted; designed to address the needs in medical, environmental, and occupational radiation protection. Nuclides: 242 radionuclides. Origin: ENSDF (monograph of the MIRD Committee). The unabridged data used in preparing ICRP Publication 38 and a monograph of the MIRD Committee are distributed in electronic form in this package. The data are assembled in two collections. The collection referred to as ICRP38 consists of data on the energies and intensities of radiations emitted by the 825 radionuclides reported, although abridged, in ICRP Publication 38 plus an additional 13 radionuclides evaluated during preparation of a monograph for the MIRD Committee. The second collection, denoted as MIRD, contains data for the 242 radionuclides in the MIRD monograph noted above. Each collection consists of three ASCII files: (1) the index file (ICRP38.IDX or MIRD.IDX) is a sorted list of the radionuclides with pointers into the data files; (2) the radiation file (ICRP38.RAD or MIRD.RAD) contains data on the energies and intensities of the emitted radiations; (3) the beta spectra file (ICRP38.BET or MIRD.BET) contains the spectra for all beta emitters in the collection. 161 radionuclides of the MIRD collection have later ENSDF dates than those in the ICRP38 collection. In most instances, the differences are of no dosimetric significance, but considerable differences may exist for some nuclides. 2 - Method of solution: This data base has been designed to address the needs in medical, environmental, and occupational radiation protection. Calculations of the spatial

  19. The computation of ICRP dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides with PLEIADES: biokinetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, T P

    2007-01-01

    The ICRP has published dose coefficients for the ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides in a series of reports covering intakes by workers and members of the public including children and pregnant or lactating women. The calculation of these coefficients conveniently divides into two distinct parts--the biokinetic and dosimetric. This paper gives a brief summary of the methods used to solve the biokinetic problem in the generation of dose coefficients on behalf of the ICRP, as implemented in the Health Protection Agency's internal dosimetry code PLEIADES.

  20. The computation of ICRP dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides with PLEIADES: biokinetic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ICRP has published dose coefficients for the ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides in a series of reports covering intakes by workers and members of the public including children and pregnant or lactating women. The calculation of these coefficients conveniently divides into two distinct parts - the biokinetic and dosimetric. This paper gives a brief summary of the methods used to solve the biokinetic problem in the generation of dose coefficients on behalf of the ICRP, as implemented in the Health Protection Agency's internal dosimetry code PLEIADES. (author)

  1. 1990 recommendations of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Main Commission of ICRP finalised its new recommendations during its November 1990 meeting. The recommendations will appear in the Annals of the ICRP in 1991 as Publication 60. This paper represents a personal summary of these recommendations. It covers the basic biological risk estimates and the conceptual framework of the system of radiological protection, the definition of radiation detriment and its use both in the definition of radiation quantities and in the establishment of the dose limits adopted by the Main Commissions. (author)

  2. Review of ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Events in both the scientific world and in the public domain have added pressure to review the recommendations of the ICRP on which radiation protection legislation in most countries is founded. A brief editorial pleads for clarity in ICRP recommendations, suggests the use solely of cumulative with age individual occupational dose limits, suggests that collective doses including both occupational and to the public should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, judged on quantitative economic grounds, and suggests the setting of a probability for serious accidents which may be disregarded in planning. (UK)

  3. Progress by ICRP in the development of radiological protection for the start of the 21 st century?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Roger H.

    2002-01-01

    The Main Commission of ICRP began the process of restating and consolidating its recommendations in 1999 when it published proposals for change. These proposals were the subject of debate at the 10th IRPA Congress in Hiroshima in 2000. As a result, the Commission published a further consultative paper in June 2001. The new Commission and Committees for the period July 2001 to June 2005 have agreed programmes of work that will provide foundation documents which will form the bases upon which the Commission will state its philosophy for radiological protection at the start of the 21st Century. This paper gives an overview of the developing principles for a radiological system that first provides for a basic level of individual protection and then uses optimisation to achieve the optimum level of health protection from a source. The issue of protection of the environment is also being included and the current state of conceptual thinking is presented. The major topics being addressed by the Committees on matters such as the risks from low dose exposures, on the definition of the individual and on optimisation are also outlined. (author)

  4. Dosimetric considerations and radiation protection of patients in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Arandjic, D.; Kosutic, D.; Loncar, B.

    2009-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of measurements of relevant dosimetric quantities in interventional cardiology. Dosimetric data were collected for 117 coronary angiography (CA) procedures, 69 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and 41 combined procedures (CA+PCI), taking into account two quantities: air kerma area product (KAP) d air kerma in international reference point (K IRP ). Mean KAP values were 78 Gy·cm 2 , 113 Gy·cm 2 and 141 Gy·cm 2 for CA, PCI i CA+PCI, respectively. Corresponding mean K IRP values were 1.2 Gy, 1.8 Gy and 2.2 Gy. With respect to high dose values, risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions, dose management methods were proposed. (author) [sr

  5. The ICRP 2007 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2007-01-01

    The last comprehensive International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations have been published in 1991(1). Since that time new data in physics and biology that are relevant for radiological protection have appeared in the scientific literature. Also, the general thinking about safety standards at the workplace as well as for the protection of the public has developed. Thus, a review of the recommendations is needed. However, as the present standards have worked well, these new recommendations should build on the present ones. Only a process of further development should take place allowing for the following key points: - new biological and physical information and trends in the setting of safety standards; - improvement in the presentation of the recommendations; as much stability in the recommendations as is consistent with the new information and environmental aspects will be included. The fundamental principles of radiological protection will remain the same as they have been described in ICRP publication 60(1): Justification: Actions involving new exposures or changes in exposures of individuals have to be justified in advance. A positive net benefit must result. Optimisation: Exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable and should be optimised in relation to with dose constraints. Dose limits: The values will not to be changed from Publication 60. Dose constraints: Development of the concept proposed in Publication 60 will be explained. The ICRP Committees have prepared foundation documents in the fields for which they are responsible and their members have the corresponding expertise. These foundation documents will support the decisions and explain the various statements of the Main Commission in a broader sense. Some of them will be published as Annexes to the recommendations (Annex A: Biological and Epidemiological Information on Health Risks Attributable to Ionising Radiation; Annex B: Quantities used in Radiological

  6. The ICRP 2007 recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, C. [Chairman of ICRP Committee 2, Institute of Science and Ethics, University Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The last comprehensive International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations have been published in 1991(1). Since that time new data in physics and biology that are relevant for radiological protection have appeared in the scientific literature. Also, the general thinking about safety standards at the workplace as well as for the protection of the public has developed. Thus, a review of the recommendations is needed. However, as the present standards have worked well, these new recommendations should build on the present ones. Only a process of further development should take place allowing for the following key points: - new biological and physical information and trends in the setting of safety standards; - improvement in the presentation of the recommendations; as much stability in the recommendations as is consistent with the new information and environmental aspects will be included. The fundamental principles of radiological protection will remain the same as they have been described in ICRP publication 60(1): Justification: Actions involving new exposures or changes in exposures of individuals have to be justified in advance. A positive net benefit must result. Optimisation: Exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable and should be optimised in relation to with dose constraints. Dose limits: The values will not to be changed from Publication 60. Dose constraints: Development of the concept proposed in Publication 60 will be explained. The ICRP Committees have prepared foundation documents in the fields for which they are responsible and their members have the corresponding expertise. These foundation documents will support the decisions and explain the various statements of the Main Commission in a broader sense. Some of them will be published as Annexes to the recommendations (Annex A: Biological and Epidemiological Information on Health Risks Attributable to Ionising Radiation; Annex B: Quantities used in Radiological

  7. Radiation protection principles as applied to the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste and protection of the public. Commentary of ICRP publication 81 and publication 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    2001-01-01

    This commentary is for ICRP Publication 81 concerning the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste to which the Publication 82 giving theoretical basis for protection of the public exposed for a long period. The primary object for prevention is the public in this disposal, which is quite different from the concept hitherto where the object is the facility. The essential points in the prevention are the definition and direction for the protection of future generations, critical group, potential exposures, protection optimization, principles in the technology and management, consistency of the principle, and evidence of observance to radiological standards. Dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/y or 10 -5 risk, reasonable measures taken for reduction of probable human invasion of its influence and observance to technological and control principles are recommended. Publication 82 principally describes and discusses the reference level for intervention and dose limits to the public due to action.(K.H.)

  8. New ICRP recommendations on occupational limits for radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ICRP has recommended in 1959 for the first time a maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for the occupational exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters. Since this time more realistic dosimetric models for radon daughters have been developed. Taking into account epidemiological and new dosimetric findings the ICRP has adopted in March this year new recommendations on occupational limits for inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their short-lived daughters. This report will be published this year as ICRP Publication 32 (ICRP 1981). The recommended limits for radon daughters were derived from the basic dose and risk limits as they were proposed by ICRP in its new basic recommendations (ICRP Publ. 26, 1977). In the following this basic system of dose limitation is shortly outlined before the special recommendations for radon daughters are described

  9. ICRP Publication 103. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, Jean-Claude; Brenot, Jean; Laurier, Dominique; Rannou, Alain; Thierry, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    These revised Recommendations for a System of Radiological Protection formally replace the Commission's previous, 1990, Recommendations; and update, consolidate, and develop the additional guidance on the control of exposure from radiation sources issued since 1990. Thus, the present Recommendations update the radiation and tissue weighting factors in the quantities equivalent and effective dose and update the radiation detriment, based on the latest available scientific information of the biology and physics of radiation exposure. They maintain the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection, namely justification, optimisation, and the application of dose limits, clarifying how they apply to radiation sources delivering exposure and to individuals receiving exposure. The Recommendations evolve from the previous process-based protection approach using practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the exposure situation. They recognise planned, emergency, and existing exposure situations, and apply the fundamental principles of justification and optimisation of protection to all of these situations. They maintain the Commission's current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They reinforce the principle of optimisation of protection, which should be applicable in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to the following restrictions on individual doses and risks; dose and risk constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment

  10. Organization for radiation protection. Operations of the ICRP and NCRP: 1928-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1979-09-01

    The protection of people against the real or possible harmful effects of ionizing radiation reflects a unique combination of efforts involving art, science, engineering and philosophy. The existence of the potential hazard was recognized within a few weeks after the discovery in November 1895, of x rays, the first form of ionizing radiation known to man. Since that early time, almost continuous attention has been directed, in varying degree, to the problem of protecting man against any harmful effects of radiation, with the result that the nature of the problem and its amelioration is probably better understood than for any other toxic agent of such great value to mankind and yet of concomitant possible great harm. Hence is is felt that many valuable lessons may be learned from a detailed understanding of the methods, strategies, mistakes, and successes involved in the development of radiation protection practices that may be usefully applied in cases of other potentially harmful agents. Throughout the development of radiation protection standards, there has been steady growth in the understanding of radiation effects but many uncertainties and important differences of interpretation yet remain. Some of these points of issue will be touched upon, but their evaluation and reconciliation will not be attempted; that is the role of a treatise on radiobiology, since the ultimate solutions bear on many areas other than radiation protection. As events have shown, certain biomedical conclusions have become accepted, within the overall knowledge of the time, only to be radically altered as new knowledge has been developed. Changes in accepted conclusions have importantly influenced the philosophy and practice of radiation protection

  11. ICRP PUBLICATION 121: Radiological Protection in Paediatric Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khong, P-L.; Ringertz, H.; Donoghue, V.; Frush, D.; Rehani, M.; Appelgate, K.; Sanchez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Paediatric patients have a higher average risk of developing cancer compared with adults receiving the same dose. The longer life expectancy in children allows more time for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. This publication aims to provide guiding principles of radiological protection for referring clinicians and clinical staff performing diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures for paediatric patients. It begins with a brief description of the basic concepts of radiological protection, followed by the general aspects of radiological protection, including principles of justification and optimisation. Guidelines and suggestions for radiological protection in specific modalities – radiography and fluoroscopy, interventional radiology, and computed tomography – are subsequently covered in depth. The report concludes with a summary and recommendations. The importance of rigorous justification of radiological procedures is emphasised for every procedure involving ionising radiation, and the use of imaging modalities that are non-ionising should always be considered. The basic aim of optimisation of radiological protection is to adjust imaging parameters and institute protective measures such that the required image is obtained with the lowest possible dose of radiation, and that net benefit is maximised to maintain sufficient quality for diagnostic interpretation. Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction measures when purchasing new imaging equipment for paediatric use. One of the unique aspects of paediatric imaging is with regards to the wide range in patient size (and weight), therefore requiring special attention to optimisation and modification of equipment, technique, and imaging parameters. Examples of good radiographic and fluoroscopic technique include attention to patient positioning, field size and adequate collimation

  12. Reliability of the ICRP's dose coefficients for members of the public: IV. Basis of the human alimentary tract model and uncertainties in model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.; Harrison, J.; Phipps, A.

    2007-01-01

    The biokinetic and dosimetric model of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract applied in current documents of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was developed in the mid-1960's. The model was based on features of a reference adult male and was first used by the ICRP in Publication 30, Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers (Part 1, 1979). In the late 1990's an ICRP task group was appointed to develop a biokinetic and dosimetric model of the alimentary tract that reflects updated information and addresses current needs in radiation protection. The new age-specific and gender-specific model, called the Human Alimentary Tract Model (HATM), has been completed and will replace the GI model of Publication 30 in upcoming ICRP documents. This paper discusses the basis for the structure and parameter values of the HATM, summarises the uncertainties associated with selected features and types of predictions of the HATM and examines the sensitivity of dose estimates to these uncertainties for selected radionuclides. Emphasis is on generic biokinetic features of the HATM, particularly transit times through the lumen of the alimentary tract, but key dosimetric features of the model are outlined, and the sensitivity of tissue dose estimates to uncertainties in dosimetric as well as biokinetic features of the HATM are examined for selected radionuclides. (authors)

  13. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on `Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantit...

  14. The optimisation principle and the new ICRP recommendations: practical implications on operational radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1992-01-01

    The formulation of the optimisation principle proposed by the International Commission of Radiological Protection in its new recommendations is largely oriented towards better control of individual doses. In this perspective, the concept of doe constraint and the reference to equity in dose distributions are becoming key elements within the optimisation process. This paper discusses some first reflexions regarding this new orientation and outlines the main impacts that must be forwarded to the practical level. (author)

  15. UK experience with ICRP26 and ICRP30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dray, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    ICRP26 was adopted in January 1977 which took into account information emerging since the adoption of ICRP9 in September 1969 and specified the basic criteria for dose limitation which still apply today. ICRP30 defines the limits for intakes for radionuclides for workers, and enables the health physicist and regulatory bodies to make appropriate limits for annual intake, air contamination etc, to comply requirements of dose-equivalent commitment and committed dose equivalent. The publication of ICRP26 is reflected in European Communities directive 80/836/Euratom. Council Directive of 15th July 1980 amending the Directive laying down the basic safety standards for the health protection of general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations. This document being required the member states to bring the requirements of the directive within their legislation. In the United Kingdom this was accomplished by the publication of the Ionizing Radiations Regulations 1985

  16. Practical implications of the ICRP recommendations (1977) and the revised IAEA basic safety standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: The Seminar provided a forum for exchange of views concerning the practical problems associated with the implementation of the recommendations published in ICRP report No. 26 The papers presented and the discussions which followed will greatly help the IAEA, WHO, ILO and OECD/NEA to finalize the draft of the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection. The papers and discussions centered mainly on three items - risk assessments and the associated detriment which might result from exposure to ionizing radiation as encountered in radiation work, optimization of protection; and some practical difficulties associated with the implementation of the recommendations Examples of the application of optimization were presented which helped clarify the methodology of optimizing protection. General and panel discussions helped to clarify the question of intuitive versus quantitative optimization. The consensus was that optimization of protection is mainly an intuitive operation, the quantitative tools being an aid to the process. These tools are more important in optimizing the design of installations and equipment, while the process is less quantitative in the case of optimization of operations. The value of the man-rem was discussed in a few papers and in panel and other discussions. It became clear that its value can be different in different cases of justification and different again in justification and optimization assessments. Therefore a range of values is needed rather than a single universal value. However, for optimization assessments where parts of the collective dose occur in different countries, the principal of geographical equity was advocated, implying the same value to the man-rem in all countries. Some papers and discussions centered around the identification and evaluation of detriment. Two types of detriment were identified, namely 'objective' detriment (composed of stochastic effects which could be assessed f r om knowledge of the

  17. 21. century challenges in radiation protection and shielding: Draft 2005 recommendations of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.

    2005-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection regularly examines the status of its recommendations and reviews the increasing knowledge of the effects of exposure to ionising radiation in order to decide whether new recommendations are needed. The Commission strives to make its system more coherent and comprehensible, while recognising the need for stability in international and national regulations, many of which have, only fairly recently, implemented the 1990 Recommendations. However, new scientific data have been produced since 1990 and there have been societal developments in that more openness or transparency is expected in developing new recommendations and, in addition, there has been a move from the utilitarian approach of 'the greatest good for the greatest number', to one with more concern for the 'individual', all of which have inevitably led to some changes in the formulation of the recommendations. This paper outlines the proposals for the 2005 Recommendations. (authors)

  18. External dose-rate conversion factors of radionuclides for air submersion, ground surface contamination and water immersion based on the new ICRP dosimetric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Song Jae; Jang, Han-Ki; Lee, Jai-Ki; Noh, Siwan; Cho, Gyuseong

    2013-01-01

    For the assessment of external doses due to contaminated environment, the dose-rate conversion factors (DCFs) prescribed in Federal Guidance Report 12 (FGR 12) and FGR 13 have been widely used. Recently, there were significant changes in dosimetric models and parameters, which include the use of the Reference Male and Female Phantoms and the revised tissue weighting factors, as well as the updated decay data of radionuclides. In this study, the DCFs for effective and equivalent doses were calculated for three exposure settings: skyshine, groundshine and water immersion. Doses to the Reference Phantoms were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNPX 2.7.0 radiation transport code for 26 mono-energy photons between 0.01 and 10 MeV. The transport calculations were performed for the source volume within the cut-off distances practically contributing to the dose rates, which were determined by a simplified calculation model. For small tissues for which the reduction of variances are difficult, the equivalent dose ratios to a larger tissue (with lower statistical errors) nearby were employed to make the calculation efficient. Empirical response functions relating photon energies, and the organ equivalent doses or the effective doses were then derived by the use of cubic-spline fitting of the resulting doses for 26 energy points. The DCFs for all radionuclides considered important were evaluated by combining the photon emission data of the radionuclide and the empirical response functions. Finally, contributions of accompanied beta particles to the skin equivalent doses and the effective doses were calculated separately and added to the DCFs. For radionuclides considered in this study, the new DCFs for the three exposure settings were within ±10 % when compared with DCFs in FGR 13.

  19. Correspondence of the ICRP database of dose coefficients (1996) to 2007 recommendations of the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadatskaya, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The new IAEA international safety standards, issued in 2011, recommend in practical implementation of the 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP continue to use dosimetric database developed in 1996. This article presents method and results of the calculation of committed effective dose of internal exposure in accordance with the new definition of this quantity given in 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP. It is shown that in the control of internal doses in accordance with the 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP it is allowed to use dose factors which were released in 1996. (authors)

  20. ICRP: Engaging with the RP profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Ch

    2014-01-01

    Just as the ICRP system of radiological protection must adapt to changes in scientific understanding, social and ethical values, and practical experience, ICRP itself continues to adapt as an organisation. One aspect of the continual modernisation of ICRP is a greater emphasis on engaging with the radiological protection profession.Ten years ago, on August 8, 2004, ICRP formally began open consultation on what was then referred to as the draft “2005 Recommendations of ICRP”. As most readers will know, this was published in due course as ICRP Publication 103, “The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection” (ICRP, 2007).Being managed through the ICRP website, it opened up the possibility for anyone, anywhere, with an internet connection and an interest in radiological protection, to review the draft document and submit comments directly to ICRP.Open consultation on draft publications is but one aspect of ICRP’s efforts to become a more open and transparent organisation, and to increase engagement with the radiological protection profession. A modern arrangement for formal relations with other international organisations was established in 2012 with the objective of being more inclusive, effective, and efficient. In addition, there are efforts underway to seek the support needed to enable ICRP to broaden awareness of our recommendations, particularly in the medical field, and to increase engagement through social media and at relevant conferences, symposia, meetings, etc

  1. Prehistory of the ICRP and participation of Czechoslovakia in the beginnings of international cooperation in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesinska, Emilie

    2010-01-01

    National and international initiatives in the first half of the 20th century preceding the founding of the ICRP are described and the involvement of Czechoslovakia in the initiatives and their impact on the development of radiology in the country is outlined

  2. Ten years of a National Service of Dosimetric calibration at radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.A.; Jova, L.; Hernandez, E.; Campa, R.; Walwyn, G.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1986, the CPHR has offered a national service of calibration of dosimetric instruments at levels of radiation protection. The history of such a service is the chronology of efforts to reduce the uncertainties of the calibration process, expand the ranges of useful dose rates, and enhance the radiological safety when using the sources. The crowning of those efforts is the complement and start-up of the secondary la laboratory of dosimetric calibration (SLDC), which is currently a member of the IAEA/WHO. SLDC international network. As a result of this service, 256 instruments have been calibration and 867 personal dosimeters film badges and TLD and 72 environmental TLD dosimeters have been irradiated at known doses. The service rendered has benefited 62 national institutions which are users of ionizing radiations

  3. Remarks of the SFRP working group about ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    Remarks of the SFRP working group about ICRP recommendations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has proposed last summer on its Web site the draft text of the 2005 ICRP recommendations for consultation. As it was done for the previous drafts, the French Society for Radiation Protection, has sent his comments to the ICRP, through a specific working group. The text sent to the ICRP is presented here to the readers of the SFRP's Journal. (author)

  4. Possible implications of draft ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has, since its inception, worked to develop and improve international norms in the area of radiological protection of the public, workers and the environment. International radiological protection norms continue to evolve, with significant new steps having been taken by the International Radiological Protection Commission (ICRP). Since the issuance of its 1990 recommendations, which form the basis of the international system of radiological protection, the ICRP has continued to add to them. The sum of these recommendations has become overly complicated and at times incoherent. In 1999 the ICRP therefore began to re-evaluate its recommendations with the aim of consolidation, simplification and clarification. New ICRP recommendations are due to be published in 2005. The CRPPH is contributing to the development of these new recommendations by providing the views of regulators and practitioners from its member countries. This report summarises the views of the CRPPH regarding the conceptual framework that the ICRP has recently proposed as the basis for its forthcoming detailed recommendations. The CRPPH highly appreciates the open stakeholder process that the ICRP has initiated to gather input for the development of new recommendations. This document, which is supported by the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health, and by the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee, provides detailed suggestions with regard to the proposed ICRP framework. The stakeholder views expressed in this report have been presented to the ICRP at the second NEA/ICRP Forum in April 2003, and have persuaded the ICRP to reintroduce several key concepts into its proposed new system. (author)

  5. ICRP putting wealth before health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.

    1990-01-01

    Reductions in recommended dose limits for radiation workers set by the International Commission for Radiological Protection do not go far enough. The ICRP has put industry profitability before worker safety, and their recommendations should not be the basis for UK or European law. (author)

  6. ICRP 60 - the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Thomson, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Following the publication in 1990 of the recommendations proposed by the International Commission on Radiological protection (ICRP 60), this editorial briefly highlights the advice given by the NRPB to UK government departments on how to implement those recommendations regarding occupational, medical and public exposure. (UK)

  7. Dosimetric evaluation of indigenously developed non-lead bilayered radiation protective aprons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, S.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation shielding garments are commonly used to protect medical patients and radiation workers from X-radiation exposure during diagnostic imaging in hospitals. Originally, protective aprons consisted of lead-impregnated vinyl with a shielding equivalent given in millimeters of lead. All contained up to 2 mm of lead. While lead has long been used to shield patients from X-rays, its toxicity poses a health threat if the protective apron containing the metal wear out or the lead gets damaged. However, lead garments must be treated as hazardous waste for disposal and are heavy, causing back strain and other orthopedic problems for those who must wear them for long periods of time. The main purpose of this work was to indigenously develop light weight non lead based bilayered radiation protective aprons and evaluate dosimetrically with different combination of fabricated non lead materials and commercially available lead based aprons

  8. Comparisons of calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles based on the NCRP/ITRI model and the new ICRP66 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Phalen, R.F. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chang, I. [Lovelace Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the United States and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been independently reviewing and revising respiratory tract dosimetry models for inhaled radioactive aerosols. The newly proposed NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model represents a significant change in philosophy from the old ICRP Task Group model. The proposed NCRP model describes respiratory tract deposition, clearance, and dosimetry for radioactive substances inhaled by workers and the general public and is expected to be published soon. In support of the NCRP proposed model, ITRI staff members have been developing computer software. Although this software is still incomplete, the deposition portion has been completed and can be used to calculate inhaled particle deposition within the respiratory tract for particle sizes as small as radon and radon progeny ({approximately} 1 nm) to particles larger than 100 {mu}m. Recently, ICRP published their new dosimetric model for the respiratory tract, ICRP66. Based on ICRP66, the National Radiological Protection Board of the UK developed PC-based software, LUDEP, for calculating particle deposition and internal doses. The purpose of this report is to compare the calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles using the NCRP/ITRI model and the ICRP66 model, under the same particle size distribution and breathing conditions. In summary, the general trends of the deposition curves for the two models were similar.

  9. Comparisons of calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles based on the NCRP/ITRI model and the new ICRP66 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Phalen, R.F.; Chang, I.

    1995-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the United States and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been independently reviewing and revising respiratory tract dosimetry models for inhaled radioactive aerosols. The newly proposed NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model represents a significant change in philosophy from the old ICRP Task Group model. The proposed NCRP model describes respiratory tract deposition, clearance, and dosimetry for radioactive substances inhaled by workers and the general public and is expected to be published soon. In support of the NCRP proposed model, ITRI staff members have been developing computer software. Although this software is still incomplete, the deposition portion has been completed and can be used to calculate inhaled particle deposition within the respiratory tract for particle sizes as small as radon and radon progeny (∼ 1 nm) to particles larger than 100 μm. Recently, ICRP published their new dosimetric model for the respiratory tract, ICRP66. Based on ICRP66, the National Radiological Protection Board of the UK developed PC-based software, LUDEP, for calculating particle deposition and internal doses. The purpose of this report is to compare the calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles using the NCRP/ITRI model and the ICRP66 model, under the same particle size distribution and breathing conditions. In summary, the general trends of the deposition curves for the two models were similar

  10. ICRP guidance on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued recommendations for a system of radiological protection in 1991 as the 1990 Recommendations. Guidance on the application of these recommendations in the general area of waste disposal was issued in 1997 as Publication 77 and guidance specific to disposal of solid long-lived radioactive waste was issued as Publication 81. This paper summarises ICRP guidance in radiological protection requirements for waste disposal concentrating on the ones of relevance to the geological disposal of solid radioactive waste. Suggestions are made for areas where further work is required to apply the ICRP guidance. (author)

  11. Radiation-induced cataracts: the Health Protection Agency's response to the ICRP statement on tissue reactions and recommendation on the dose limit for the eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffler, Simon; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Gilvin, Phil; Harrison, John

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the response of the Health Protection Agency (HPA) to the 2011 statement from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on tissue reactions and recommendation of a reduced dose limit for the lens of the eye. The response takes the form of a brief review of the most recent epidemiological and mechanistic evidence. This is presented together with a discussion of dose limits in the context of the related risk and the current status of eye dosimetry, which is relevant for implementation of the limits. It is concluded that although further work is desirable to quantify better the risk at low doses and following protracted exposures, along with research into the mechanistic basis for radiation cataractogenesis to inform selection of risk projection models, the HPA endorses the conclusion reached by the ICRP in their 2011 statement that the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye should be reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year, averaged over a five year period, with no year's dose exceeding 50 mSv.

  12. Impact on Dose Coefficients Calculated with ICRP Adult Mesh-type Reference Computational Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Choi, Chan Soo; Lee, Han Jin; Han, Hae Gin; Han, Min Cheol; Shin, Bang Ho; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In 2016, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) formulated a new Task Group (TG) (i.e., TG 103) within Committee 2. The ultimate aim of the TG 103 is to develop the mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) that can address dosimetric limitations of the currently used voxel-type reference computational phantoms (VRCPs) due to their limited voxel resolutions. The objective of the present study is to investigate dosimetric impact of the adult MRCPs by comparing dose coefficients (DCs) calculated with the MRCPs for some external and internal exposure cases and the reference DCs in ICRP Publications 116 and 133 that were produced with the adult VRCPs. In the present study, the DCs calculated with the adult MRCPs for some exposure cases were compared with the values in ICRP Publications 116 and 133. This comparison shows that in general the MRCPs provide very similar DCs for uncharged particles, but for charged particles provide significantly different DCs due to the improvement of the MRCPs.

  13. Adaptation of the present concept of dosimetric radiation protection quantities for external radiation to radiation protection practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Thompson, I. M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The present concept of dosimetric radiation protection quantities for external radiation is reviewed. For everyday application of the concept some adaptations are recommended. The check of the compliance with dose limits should be performed either by the comparison with values of the respective operational quantities directly or by the calculation of the protection quantity by means of the operational quantity, the appertaining conversion coefficient and additional information of the radiation field. Only four operational quantities are regarded to be sufficient for most applications in radiation protection practice. The term equivalent should be used in the connection dose equivalent only. Proposals are made for names of frequently used operational quantities which are denoted up to now by symbols only. (authors)

  14. Interim report of the JHPS expert committee on radiation protection of the lens of the eye (1). Overview of the lens, radiogenic cataract, and equivalent dose limit for the lens newly recommended by the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Iimoto, Takeshi; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwai, Satoshi; Ohguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Kazuko; Yamauchi, Chiyo; Tsujimura, Norio; Hotta, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued the statement on tissue reactions. This stimulated interest in many countries. The Expert Committee on Radiation Protection of the Lens of the Eye was established in the Japanese Health Physics Society, and in April 2013, started discussion about the international developments and recent studies related to the dosimetry of the lens of the eye. This committee now publishes the interim report consisting of parts I-VI. Of these, this Part I overviews the structure of the eye and lens, cataract types and the scientific evidence of its new dose threshold and equivalent dose limit newly recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  15. Comparison of Radiation Dose Rates with the Flux to Dose Conversion Factors Recommended in ICRP-74 and ICRP-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Kil, A Reum; Lee, Jo Eun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee; Hwang, Won Tae

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of radiation shielding has been performed for the design and maintenance of various facilities using radioactive sources such as nuclear fuel, accelerator, and radionuclide. The conversion of flux to dose mainly used in nuclear and radiation fields has been generally made with the dose coefficients presented in ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP- 74), which are produced based on ICRP Publication 60. On the other hand, ICRP Publication 116 (ICRP-116), which adopts the protection system of ICRP Publication 103, has recently been published and provides the dose conversion coefficients calculated with a variety of Monte Carlo codes. The coefficients have more than an update of those in ICRP-74, including new particle types and a greatly expanded energy range. In this study, a shielding evaluation of a specific container for neutron and gamma sources was performed with the MCNP6 code. The dose rates from neutron and gamma-ray sources were calculated using the MCNP6 codes, and these results were based on the flux to dose conversion factors recommended in ICRP-74 and ICRP-116. As a result, the dose rates evaluated with ICRP-74 were generally shown higher than those with ICRP-116. For neutrons, the difference is mainly occurred by the decrease of radiation weighting factors in a part of energy ranges in the ICRP-116 recommendations. For gamma-rays, the ICRP-74 recommendation applied with the kerma approximation leads to overestimated results than the other assessment

  16. Legal verification of the dosimetric instrumentation using for radiation protection in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walwyn, A.; Morales, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    By April of 1998 the Decree law 183 of Metrology was published at the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Cuba. It establishes the principles and general regulations for the organisation and juridical system of the metrological activity in Cuba. In the radiation protection field this legislation promote the establishment of a verification service of radiation measuring instruments used in the practices with radiation sources in the country. The limitations of old Cuban standards of verification related to dosimetric quantities and to the types of instruments for those which these standards are applicable; and in addition, the publication of new international standards that includes the operational quantities used for the measurement of instruments, led to the elaboration of the X and Gamma Radiation Meters Used in Radiation Protection standard. The requirements of metrological aptitude are taken from some test procedures described in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards on photon monitoring equipment. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centre for Radiation Protection and Higiene will start the verification service of Radiation Protection instruments. The beginning of the service is an essential element in the improvement of the accuracy of ionisation radiation metrology in Cuba, and have an evident impact in the protection of the occupationally exposed workers, because having the instruments in good technical condition became a legal exigency to the users of ionisation radiation

  17. Historical accounts of the radiation protection- Dosimetric surveillance of L. Berard Center personnel from 1960 to 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, H.

    1990-09-01

    In this thesis, the author describes the discovery of radiations, their first medical applications and first accidents that have been in the beginning of radiation protection and of its development. The author explains how the dosimetric monitoring has been organized at L. Berard Centre in Lyon (France)

  18. ICRP recommendations on 'managing patient dose in digital radiology'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.

    2005-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) approved the publication of a document on 'Managing patient dose in digital radiology' in 2003. The paper describes the content of the report and some of its key points, together with the formal recommendations of the Commission on this topic. With digital techniques exists not only the potential to improve the practice of radiology but also the risk to overuse radiation. The main advantages of digital imaging: wide dynamic range, post-processing, multiple viewing options, electronic transfer and archiving possibilities are clear but overexposures can occur without an adverse impact on image quality. It is expected that the ICRP report helps to profit from the benefits of this important technological advance in medical imaging with the best management of radiation doses to the patients. It is also expected to promote training actions before the digital techniques are introduced in the radiology departments and to foster the industry to offer enough technical and dosimetric information to radiologists, radiographers and medical physicists to help in the optimisation of the imaging. (authors)

  19. Workers and the ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbib, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    In both the preparation and the application of the recommendations presented by the ICRP one important voice has been absent: that of the workers in the nuclear industry. A large number of specialists are studying their situation from all points of view, in their different capacities as workers, consumers and male or female members of the public, but this extensive study is being done without consulting them, without their opinion even being asked for. The paper discusses such deficiencies, in particular all those aspects which distinguish these recommendations from a legal text. The lack of conciseness in the definition of the limit which the average annual dose to a large group of workers must not exceed (500 mrad) is considered. The possibility of a large number of workers being exposed for a long period is not acceptable if the decision is left to the manager of a nuclear facility alone. Cost-benefit analysis, as it is described in the ICRP text, cannot be considered to provide credible protection from the point of view of workers. Moreover, the various ICRP recommendations fail to mention such important matters as allowance for low-dose effects, disparities in the social security coverage offered to various categories of workers in the event of occupational illness, and the increasing use of migrant workers for difficult decontamination and maitenance tasks. At a time when it is thought that nuclear technology can be standardized, the French Democratic Labour Confederation (CFDT) expresses its fears concerning the practical application of the ICRP recommendations; for example, the text of ICRP Publication 26 has not yet been translated into French, but Euratom has already proposed directives for its application in Member States

  20. Current Activities and Plans of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is established to advance for the public benefit the science of (ionising) radiation protection by providing recommendations and guidance, aiming at an appropriate standard of protection without unduly limiting beneficial practices. The Main Commission of ICRP recently launched a Task Group on new, consolidated Recommendations, based on world-wide consultations through IRPA on concepts proposed by the ICRP Chairman. It has also established a Task Group on protection of the environment, to review the Commission's policy that if humans are protected to the degree thought necessary, then other species are adequately protected. Task Groups of Committee 1 (Radiation effects) are planning reports on cancer risks at low doses; radiation effects on the embryo/fetus; and radiation quality effects. Committee 2 (Doses from radiation exposures) has Task Groups on internal dosimetry and on dose calculations, currently drafting reports on embryo/fetus dose coefficients; application of the ICRP lung model, and radionuclide transfer to breast milk. Task Groups on the human alimentary tract and on reference man are also preparing reports. Committee 3 (Protection in medicine) has initiated a series of practical reports on pregnancy and medical radiation; interventional radiology; accident prevention in radiotherapy; computed tomography; and release of patients after therapy with unsealed sources; as well as its series on new radiopharmaceuticals. Committee 4 (Application of ICRP recommendations) is providing input to the Main Commission Task Groups and is proposing a Task Group on radiation in space flight. Information about ICRP activities is available at www.icrp.org. (author)

  1. Some important issues in developing basic radiation protection recommendations: dosimetric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1984-03-01

    Some aspects of the difficulties encountered in the dose equivalent system used in radiation protection are explored and recent work to improve these deficiencies described. The philosophical advantages of a departure from the dose equivalent-based system and its replacement by a risk-based system are briefly discussed. The definition of dose equivalent and the debate concerning its physical dimensions and units are described. Dose equivalent is related to other physiological quantities in physics and the treatment of these quantities in the International System of Units compared. Practical problems in the determination of dose equivalent are illustrated using neutrons as an example. The proliferation of operational quantities for the evaluation of neutron dose equivalent and the concomitant potential for confusion when determinations of neutron dose equivalent are intercompared is described. The evaluation of fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients and methods of interpolation between recommended values are described. Particular emphasis is given to the accuracy and precision of dose equivalent estimation. Recent work of a Task Group of the ICRP to improve recommended conversion coefficients and the work of an ICRU committee to improve the definition of operational dose equivalent quantities is summarized. 125 references, 11 figures, 4 tables

  2. Some important issues in developing basic radiation protection recommendations: dosimetric aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1984-03-01

    Some aspects of the difficulties encountered in the dose equivalent system used in radiation protection are explored and recent work to improve these deficiencies described. The philosophical advantages of a departure from the dose equivalent-based system and its replacement by a risk-based system are briefly discussed. The definition of dose equivalent and the debate concerning its physical dimensions and units are described. Dose equivalent is related to other physiological quantities in physics and the treatment of these quantities in the International System of Units compared. Practical problems in the determination of dose equivalent are illustrated using neutrons as an example. The proliferation of operational quantities for the evaluation of neutron dose equivalent and the concomitant potential for confusion when determinations of neutron dose equivalent are intercompared is described. The evaluation of fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients and methods of interpolation between recommended values are described. Particular emphasis is given to the accuracy and precision of dose equivalent estimation. Recent work of a Task Group of the ICRP to improve recommended conversion coefficients and the work of an ICRU committee to improve the definition of operational dose equivalent quantities is summarized. 125 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Discussion on Implementation of ICRP Recommendations Concerning Reference Levels and Optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103, 'The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection', issued in 2007, defines emergency exposure situations as unexpected situations that may require the implementation of urgent protective actions and perhaps longer term protective actions. The ICRP continues to recommend optimisation and the use of reference levels to ensure an adequate degree of protection in regard to exposure to ionising radiation in emergency exposure situations. Reference levels represent the level of dose or risk above which it is judged to be inappropriate to plan to allow exposures to occur and for which protective actions should therefore be planned and optimised. National authorities are responsible for establishing reference levels. The Expert Group on the Implementation of New International Recommendations for Emergency Exposure Situations (EGIRES) performed a survey to analyse the established processes for optimisation of the protection strategy for emergency exposure situations and for practical implementation of the reference level concept in several member states of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). The EGIRES collected information on several national optimisation strategy definitions, on optimisation of protection for different protective actions, and also on optimisation of urgent protective actions. In addition, national criteria for setting reference levels, their use, and relevant processes, including specific triggers and dosimetric quantifies in setting reference levels, are focus points that the EGIRES also evaluated. The analysis of national responses to this 2011 survey shows many differences in the interpretation and application of the established processes and suggests that most countries are still in the early stages of implementing these processes. Since 2011, national authorities have continued their study of the ICRP recommendations to incorporate them into

  4. New ICRP human respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The new ICRP dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses. The model is also directly applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. The requirement to describe intake, and deposition, clearance and dosimetry in each respiratory tract region, for a wide range of subjects at various levels of exercise necessarily means that the model is more complex than that of ICRP Publication 30. The widespread use of powerful personal computers, and the availability of user-friendly software to implement the model, however, will make it widely and readily accessible when the report is published. (Author)

  5. A special gonad protection for comparing sciatic radiographs of infants with dosimetric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepler, P.; Havranek, C.; Nava, N.

    1976-01-01

    For comparing radiographs to recognize sciatic dysplasias, a special gonad protection was applied leaving unprotected, in the manner of a window, only those parts of the skeleton which are of importance for this examination, while all surrounding parts including the gonads are covered by a 1.5 mm lead sheet. The testicles are additionally protected against scattered rediation by a trough-shaped 1.5 mm lead sheet. The effectiveness of this device has been tested by dosimetric studies with LiF and CaF 2 dosemeters directly on the patient. For correcting the energy dependence of the CaF 2 dosemeters, a special method was applied. Besides the intake and exit dose the gonad exposure was determined by measurements behind the scrotum and in the rectum, 7 cm above the anus. The smallest radiation exposure at still satisfactory quality of the picture was achieved by the setting of 60 kV, 1 mAs, namely 0.12 +- 0.04 mrads for the ovary and 0.03 - 0.07 mR for the scrotum. For girls this would correspond to half the natural daily radiation exposure, for boys to only one tenth of this value. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Intercomparison of concepts in ICRP 60 and ICRP 103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssif, B. E.

    2013-04-01

    The ICRP has produced recommendation three times in the last 30 years, In 2007, the ICRP approved new recommendations, These revised Recommendations for a System of Radiological Protection formally replace the Commission’s previous, 1990, Recommendations; and updated, consolidated, and developed the additional guidance on the control of exposure from radiation sources issued since 1990. The purpose of this study is to highlight and review some of major changes that have taken place. To compare between the 1990 recommendations (ICRP 60) and the 2007 recommendations (ICRP 103) according to radiological studies updated. The 2007 Recommendations update the radiation and tissue weighting factors in the quantities equivalent and effective dose .The major differences for tissue weighting factors increased by about a factor of two for breast and remainder tissues. Whilst the gonads are decreased by about a factor of two. The major change of WR for protons is a reduction from five to two reflecting a better understanding of the dosimetry of proton. For neutrons there is a reduction of WR of about a factor of two for thermal neutrons. An update on the radiation detriment has been made; based on the latest available scientific information of the biology and physics of radiation exposure. The detrimental nominal risk coefficient in 2007 Recommendations is lower by about 25% compared to 1990 Recommendations. Publication 103 maintains the Commission’s three fundamental principles of radiological protection, namely justification, optimisation, and the application of dose limits, clarifying how they apply to radiation sources delivering exposure and to individuals receiving exposure. The 2007 Recommendations evolve from the previous process-based protection approach using practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the exposure situation. The recommendations recognise planned, emergency, and existing exposure situations, and apply the fundamental principles

  7. Potential impacts of ICRP 60 and 61 on the transportation regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.; Eckerman, K.F.; Wangler, M.E.; Punch, F.; Carriker, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has been providing recommendations for limitations on radiation exposure for decades. The ICRP recommendations address ionizing radiation and are concerned with protecting humans from its effects. These recommendations assist regulatory and advisory agencies in establishing and promulgating national regulations and practices in radiation Protection. Most countries have incorporated at least some aspect of the recommendations in their regulations since about 1956 when the first basic prowdon standard was Published in ICRP 2. Since that time ICRP has issued two major revisions to the recommendations. ICRP 26 was published in 1977 and ICRP 60 was published in 1991. These last two publications have companion works, ICRP 30 atid ICRP 61, that contain Annual Limits of Intake (ALI) for radiation workers. This report discusses the impacts of ICRP 60 and 61 on transport regulations

  8. A biokinetic and dosimetric model for the metabolism of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Bertelli, L.; Durbin, P.W.; Eckerman, K.F.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Singh, N.P.

    1995-10-01

    Experiments involving injection and inhalation of uranium compounds into several animal species as well as those associated with humans are described and analyzed. A revised biokinetic and dosimetric model for the metabolism of uranium suitable for bioassay procedures is proposed. The model consists of a systematic part coupled to a model of the respiratory tract. The model has been tested against human data which incorporates in vivo measurements over the chest and measurements of urine, feces, and autopsy and biopsy samples.In particular the lung model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Publication 30 ( ICRP-30 ), has been modified in order to provide a model which more nearly predicts urinary excretion in accord with the experiences in humans and animals. We have also tested the data against the new ICRP (LUDEP) lung model. (author). 55 refs., 14 tabs., 33 figs

  9. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1978-04-01

    A review is presented of basic radiation physics with particular relevance to radiological protection. The processes leading to the production and absorption of ionising radiation are outlined, and the important dosimetric quantities and their units of measurements. The review is the first of a series of reports presenting the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  10. Optimization and decision making in radiological protection: a report of the work of an ICRP task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984 the International Commission on Radiological Protection established a task group to a report on optimization of protection. This paper outlines the current state of work of the task group, with particular emphasis on the development of various techniques to assist with optimization analyses. It is shown that these quantitative techniques fit within the concept of optimization as a structured approach to problems, and that appropriate technique depends on the level of complexity of the problem. This approach is illustrated by applying a range of different techniques to the same example problem. Finally some comments are made on the application of the procedure, noting the importance of identifying responsibilities from those of individuals to those of competent authorities

  11. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich; Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina; Ruehm, Werner; Lecomte, Jean-Francois; Harrison, John; Breckow, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m -3 ). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  12. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie, Essen (Germany); Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Ruehm, Werner [German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Lecomte, Jean-Francois [International Affaires Directorate, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, P.O. Box 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Harrison, John [Oxford Brookes University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Breckow, Joachim [THM University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m{sup -3}). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  13. Impact of ICRP 117 recommendations in the operational protection of vascular radiology unit; Impacto de las recomendaciones de ICRP 117 en la proteccion operacional de una unidad de radiologia vascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Pablo Luis; Fernandez, Manuel; Verde, Jose Maria; Perez, Maria Esperanza; Gomez, Nuria, E-mail: pablog11@eresmas.com [Hospital Universitario de Salamanca (Spain). Servicio de Radio fisica y Proteccion Radiologica

    2013-07-01

    This paper lists and discusses the results obtained in the teams of the different specialties: traumatology, gastroenterology, hemodynamics, vascular radiology and neurosurgery at different care centres with various care portfolios and notable differences of technical resources. The results show a noticeable difference between the equipment used in gastroenterology, vascular radiology and hemodynamic reference services with other services and disciplines. Taking into account the recent 117 of ICRP publication it has been initiated a procedure for the estimation of dose of foot and ankle of the vascular radiologists and in crystalline. This paper shows the results obtained as well as the correlations between the mentioned area dose and values of dose of lapel, wrist, ankles and crystalline of the professionals.

  14. Basic concepts and assumptions behind the ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1981-03-01

    The paper gives a review of the current radiation protection recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It discusses concepts like stochastic effects, radiation detriments, collective dose, dose equivalent and dose limits. (G.B.)

  15. Development of a personalized dosimetric tool for radiation protection in case of internal contamination and targeted radiotherapy in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavassa, S.

    2005-12-01

    Current internal dosimetric estimations are based on the M.I.R.D. formalism and used standard mathematical models. These standard models are often far from a given patient morphology and do not allow to perform patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized dosimetric tool, which takes into account real patient morphology, composition and densities. This tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., a French acronym of Tool for the Evaluation of Personalized Internal Dose, is a user-friendly graphical interface. O.E.D.I.P.E. allows to create voxel-based patient-specific geometries and associates them with the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code. Radionuclide distribution and absorbed dose calculation can be performed at the organ and voxel scale. O.E.D.I.P.E. can be used in nuclear medicine for targeted radiotherapy and in radiation protection in case of internal contamination. (author)

  16. Application of the latest ICRP recommendations to the protection of patients. Optimization of the diagnostic use of labelled aerosols in pulmonary pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beau, P.G.; Roy, M.; Gongora, G.

    1982-01-01

    The philosophy developed by ICRP in Publication 26 for the protection of workers and the population from the potential risk associated with the operation of nuclear facilities applies, in the medical field, to the exposure of patients. The essential step appears to be optimization through reduction of the doses delivered, due allowance being made for physiological, technological and ethical requirements. This approach is illustrated by the example of a nuclear technique developed for the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary diseases. The study of pulmonary clearance, involving complex phenomena, some of which occur over a long period, is well suited for optimization research. The present study was carried out with three aerosols combining an inert vector insoluble in biological media and a gamma-emitting tracer allowing measurements with an external detector. The first aerosol, 111 In-labelled iron hydroxide, is well suited to the study of tracheo-bronchial clearance, which, being rapid, requires only a short-term investigation. 51 Cr-labelled polystyrene latex is suitable for the study of alveolar clearance; a slow process, this requires a long-term investigation, which is performed by means of a gamma-spectrometric apparatus. The third aerosol, colloidal 198 Au, could not be used for the optimization approach. Reduction of the dose delivered is continued until the disadvantages resulting therefrom outweigh the expected benefit. Diminution of the activity administered has consequences for the measurement itself and the investigation as a whole. A study is made of these consequences, their acceptability, the instrumentation and methodology needed to overcome them, and their limits

  17. Impact of ICRP publication 68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.; Woods, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    ICRP Publication 61 was a temporary replacement for ICRP Publication 30. It gave ALIs but not the underlying dose conversion factors. ICRP Publication 68 has now been issued to replace Publication 61; it contains the dose conversion factors but not the ALIs, so comparison is impossible without carrying out calculations. This paper presents comparisons between the two publications and calculates the ICRP Publication 68 ALIs for some of the more common radionuclides. (author)

  18. The ICRP working party on bioassay interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Birchall, A.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there have been many developments in modelling the behaviour of radionuclides in the human body. The current generation of models are designed to be more 'realistic' than the previous generation of simple compartment models. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) uses these models to produce dose coefficients and recognises that there is a need to give more guidance on how these models can be used to interpret bioassay data. A working party has been set up to address the issue. This paper describes some of the problems, some approaches to solving the problems and the progress of the ICRP working party. (author)

  19. Pregnancy and medical irradiation. ICRP-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A translation to Spanish of the ICRP document number 84. The exposure to ionising radiation of pregnant patients and radiation workers is a relevant subject in radiation protection, concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. Great anxiety and unnecessary termination of pregnancies may be the consequences of the lack of correlation between the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals and their real magnitude. The International Commission on Radiation Protection has edited in 2000 the document ICRP 84 'Pregnancy and Medical Irradiation', addressed to medical and sanitary personnel. This document has been written as a practical guide which describes the effects of prenatal exposure to ionising radiation , the dose-thresholds and their relationship with the gestational age. It includes occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures could be associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every 'in utero' exposure will increase their probability. With the aim of facilitating the diffusion of this document in the Ibero-American community , the Argentine Society of Radiation Protection (SAR) and the Spanish Society of Radiation Protection (SEPR) have worked together to producing a spanish version of ICRP84 , that is now presented in this publication, authorized by the ICRP

  20. A constructive critique to the ICRP's system and counter proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, K.

    1998-01-01

    In the author's opinion, there is a need for continuous efforts in revising the systems of radiation protection designed and operated according to ICRP recommendations. The fundamentals of the ICRP system of radiation protection are analyzed and classified into scientific and political or strategic features. Several proposals for changes are presented, concerning the restoration of the causality relation for radiation protection, the criteria for safety controlling, and the methodology of exposure control. (A.K.)

  1. The new ICRP general recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Ch.; Kosako, T.; Kuniyoshi, H.; Kiryu, Y.; Choi, H.S.; Burns, P.A.; Pan, Z.Q.; Xia, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory views from Japan, South Korea, Australia, China and Indonesia were explained based on their regional context. Some issues, for example 'optimisation', 'dose constrains', 'natural radioactivity', were addressed from the viewpoint of how each country's current regulation system would adopt these new recommendations. It was noted that there would be a need for some flexibility in applying these new recommendations since different countries have different regulatory criteria and benchmarks as well different decision-making processes. It was also noted that definitions and terminologies should be given serious consideration with regard to non-English speaking countries to assure that the new ICRP recommendations are clearly understood, not misinterpreted, easily translated and finally applied in the field of radiation protection. In addition, some recent radiation protection activities, as well as views on utilisation of nuclear power in several countries were presented. (authors)

  2. What we expect of ICRP new recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    2004-01-01

    We believe that it is essential for Japan to continue to maintain and promote nuclear power generation. To promote nuclear power generation, we believe it is important that the effect of low-level radiation on humans and the exposure dose limits have to be widely and properly understood by the general public and radiation workers. From such a point of view, we express our agreement with ICRP latest attempt that is aimed at preparing a simple and easy-to understanding radiological protection system. We would like to express some of our opinions about ICRP new recommendations. - The relation between PAL and the conventional dose limit should be shown clearly. - Optimisation on low-enough level (natural background level) should be omitted. - The process of optimisation must take the state of affairs in each country into consideration. - The dose limits (100 mSv/5 yrs and 50 mSv/yr) for workers should not be changed. (Single-year dose limit of 20 mSv/yr has no flexibility and has serious impact on nuclear power operators.). - Full discussion is necessary to establish the radiological protection criteria for environment. We appreciate ICRP's releases and calls for opinions regarding the new recommendations. We hope ICRP continues to disclose the status of discussion in a timely manner, and invite opinions. (author)

  3. Evolution of dosimetric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this oration evolution of the dosimetric phantoms for radiation protection and for medical use is briefly reviewed. Some details of the development of Indian Reference Phantom for internal dose estimation are also presented

  4. Dosimetric studies in the radiological examination of the hips in young infants with a special fenestration method of gonad protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepler, P; Vana, N; Havranek, C

    1977-01-01

    A special lead shield of 1,5 mm Pb, with a fenestration was used for gonad protection during X-Ray of the hips for detection of dysplasia. The window allows the delineation of all parts of the skeleton required to make a correct diagnosis and check the standardized position of the pelvis, while all other parts, especially the gonads are safely shielded. The scattered radiation for the testes was further reduced by a trough-shaped lead shield behind the scrotum. The effectiveness of this gonad protection was measured by direct dosimetric studies on the infant with LiF and CaF2: Dy dosimeters at different adjustments of the X-ray generator and with medium and ultra high speed screen-film combinations.

  5. The new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.

    1977-01-01

    The new ICRP recommendations are based on the concept of risk. The doses received by workers have to be justified and kept as low as practically achievable. The acceptable annual occupational risk is of the order of 10 -4 . This corresponds to an average annual dose equivalent of about 5 mSv(0.5 Rem). The annual dose equivalent limit for whole body irradiation will remain 50 mSv/year (5 Rem/year) provided that the average is about 1/10th of this value. The concept of the critical organ is abandoned and is replaced by the concept of equidetriment. (author)

  6. ZZ NUCDECAYCALC, Nuclear Decay Data for Radiation Dosimetry Calculation for ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description or function: The Dosimetry Research Group (DRG) of the Health Sciences Research Division at ORNL has for several years maintained data bases of nuclear decay data for use in dosimetric calculations. The data on mean and unique energy plus intensity have been previously published, in abridged form, in Publication 38 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1983). This data base was designed to address the needs in medical, environmental, and occupational radiation protection. DLC-172/NUCDECAY is required by the CCC-620/SEECAL program to calculate age-dependent specific effective energies. 2 - Methods: The unabridged data used in preparing ICRP Publication 38 are distributed in electronic form in this package. The collection consists of data on the energies and intensities of radiations emitted by the 825 radionuclides reported, although abridged, in ICRP Publication 38 plus an additional 13 radionuclides evaluated during preparation of a monograph for the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Each collection is contained in an ASCII file (INDEXR.DAT) which is a sorted list of the radionuclides containing the decay chain information. The utility code DecayCalc extracts the decay data from the library for radionuclide(s) specified by the user. It computes the activities of radionuclides present after decay and ingrowth over a user-specified time period from 1 minute to 50 years. Decay data for any decay chain may be displayed and printed either in tabular form or graphically. DecayCalc, in a slightly modified version, will be a part of CCC-553/Rascal v3. DecayCalc is a Windows application that runs under Microsoft Windows 95 or 98, or Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 or later. The Compac Fortran 77 compiler was used to compile the code. The full source for DecayCalc is not provided but will be distributed when Rascal V3 is released

  7. Pregnancy and medical irradiation. ICRP-84; Embarazo e irradiacion medica. ICRP-84

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A translation to Spanish of the ICRP document number 84. The exposure to ionising radiation of pregnant patients and radiation workers is a relevant subject in radiation protection, concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. Great anxiety and unnecessary termination of pregnancies may be the consequences of the lack of correlation between the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals and their real magnitude. The International Commission on Radiation Protection has edited in 2000 the document ICRP 84 'Pregnancy and Medical Irradiation', addressed to medical and sanitary personnel. This document has been written as a practical guide which describes the effects of prenatal exposure to ionising radiation , the dose-thresholds and their relationship with the gestational age. It includes occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures could be associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every 'in utero' exposure will increase their probability. With the aim of facilitating the diffusion of this document in the Ibero-American community , the Argentine Society of Radiation Protection (SAR) and the Spanish Society of Radiation Protection (SEPR) have worked together to producing a spanish version of ICRP84 , that is now presented in this publication, authorized by the ICRP.

  8. The recommendations of ICRP Publication 111 in the light of the ICRP dialogue initiative in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochard, J

    2016-12-01

    Publication 111, published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2009, provided the first recommendations for dealing with the long-term recovery phase after a nuclear accident. Its focus is on the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident, drawing on the experience of the Belarus population, Cumbrian sheep farmers in the UK, and Sami reindeer herders in Norway affected by the fallout from Chernobyl. The ICRP dialogue initiative in Fukushima confirmed what had been identified after Chernobyl, namely the very strong concern for health, particularly that of children, loss of control over everyday life, apprehension about the future, disintegration of family life and of the social and economic fabric, and the threat to the autonomy and dignity of affected people. Through their testimonies and reflections, the participants of the 12 dialogue meetings shed light on this complex situation. The ICRP dialogue initiative also confirmed that the wellbeing of the affected people is at stake, and radiological protection must focus on rehabilitation of their living conditions. The challenge is to incorporate the important clarifications resulting from the ICRP dialogue initiative into the updated version of Publication 111 that is currently in development. This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  9. Historical revision of the exposure magnitude and the dosimetric magnitudes used in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, F.; Alvarez R, J. T.

    2014-10-01

    In this work a historical revision of the exposure magnitude development and their roentgen unit (1905 - 2011) is made, noting that it had their origin in the electric methods for the detection of the ionizing radiation in the period of 1895 at 1937. However, the ionization is not who better characterizes the physical, chemical and biological effects of the ionizing radiations, but is the energy deposited by this radiation in the interest bodies, which led historically to the development of dosimetric magnitudes in energy terms like they are: the absorbed dose D (1950), the kerma K (1958) and the equivalent dose H (1962). These dosimetric magnitudes culminated with the definition of the effective equivalent dose or effective dose which is not measurable and should be considered with the operative magnitudes ICRU: H environmental equivalent dose and/or H directional equivalent dose, which can be determined by means of a conversion coefficient that is applied to the exposure, kerma in air, fluence, etc. (Author)

  10. Fundamental ICRP recommendations at the start of the 21st century: status of the revision of ICRP publication 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2002-01-01

    The basic recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, are either re-stated or revised at intervals of about 15 years, most recently in ICRP Publication 60, adopted in 1990. ICRP plan to issue its next recommendations around 2005. Through extensive consultation, the active participation of the radiological protection community was recruited already at the conceptual stage. Based on the vast input received, ICRP is currently preparing draft recommendations. These are likely to emphasise egalitarian values more than utilitarian ones, to be holistic rather than anthropocentric, and to be formatted as a relatively concise set of actual recommendations underpinned by separate publications with more detail. The draft will again be circulated worldwide and comments will be discussed in 2004 with a view to approval of the recommendations in 2005 and publication in 2005 or 2006. Thus, integration into legislation would be possible sometime between 2006 and 2010, say. (orig.) [de

  11. The new ICRP general recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Lochard, J.; Holm, L.E.; Niwa, O.; Ishigure, N.; Kosako, T.; Kai, M.

    2007-01-01

    The new draft ICRP recommendations was presented by the ICRP chair, Professor Lars-Eric Holm. His presentation was followed by presentations by Japanese members of the various (CRP committees, discussing their views of the draft recommendations based on their own technical experience. After these presentations, questions from the floor raised many of the key issues of the conference: dose constrains, the LNT hypothesis, dose bands, etc. This showed that the conference participants had carefully and completely read the draft, and were very interested in building a final ICRP recommendation that appropriately addresses all their concerns. These issues were also discussed throughout the entire conference. (author)

  12. Some Dosimetric and Radiation Protection Aspects of Cellular Irradiation from Incorporated Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R. [Department of Radiation Physics, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1968-06-15

    In looking for any contribution of recoil or transmutation processes with internally deposited radioactive isotopes by comparison with the biological effects following gamma radiation exposure to produce the same absorbed dose, the various factors affecting local energy deposition must be carefully considered. For the same activity per unit volume of culture medium a higher specific activity results in increased nuclear incorporation and resultant cell lethality. Also for materials localized in the nucleus only (e.g. thymidine) the dimensions of the deposit may limit the nuclear dose, so that although {sup 14}C disintegrations release some ten times more energy than {sup 3}H, the biological effects demonstrated for the same nuclear activity (in {mu}Ci) are similar. Although the ICRP Recommendations give a QF of 1.7 for {sup 3}H beta particles, published results vary from 1.0 to about 2.0. Recent experiments using both mammalian cells in culture and bean roots have shown clearly that the RBE varies with dose rate, from unity for dose rates of 1 rad/min or above to 1.7 for dose rates of about 1 rad/h, a conclusion which is in fact in agreement with other published results. In this connection the local energy distribution is considered theoretically for {sup 3}H disintegrations and for gamma radiation, using in the latter case the data published by Rossi. If for a similar nuclear dose H beta particles have an RBE of unity relative to gamma radiation, it appears that there is no significant extra contribution to damage from recoil or transmutation processes. As {sup 14}C appears to be no more damaging than SH under similar conditions the same conclusion also applies for this nuclide. (author)

  13. Current knowledge on radon risk: implications for practical radiation protection? radon workshop, 1/2 December 2015, Bonn, BMUB (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit; Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wolfgang-Ulrich; Giussani, Augusto; Rühm, Werner; Lecomte, Jean-Francois; Harrison, John; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina; Breckow, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m(-3)). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop.

  14. New ICRP recommendations 2005: without full consensus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Ionising radiation is viewed as one of the most studied of all known carcinogens. Over the last 50 years Recommendations of International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been changed regularly every 10 years. At the beginning these changes were significant, sometimes even radical, according to quick acquiring of new scientific evidence on physical, biological and health effects of radiation. In order to handle each new situation evolution of the radiation protection system has been extended and new portions have been added (the ubiquitous exposure of public to radon gas and its progeny, and the need to develop an appropriate response to emergency situations, increasing social desire to participate in decision making processes, concern for the protection of non-human species and environment), that resulted in a system that is increasingly complicated. Over the last few years very broad discussions of major radiation protection concepts have been encouraged by the ICRP in order to achieve consensus on a more operational and coherent system of radiation protection elaborated in a transparent fashion, and presented in readily understandable terms. This process for the first time involves a broad spectrum of stake holders in these discussions. It is further assumed that these debates will eventually result in consensus on the basis for the next round of ICRP general recommendations, probably in the 2005. While now it is certain that the consensus is not yet reached within the international community and the discussion of these issues will continue for some time the new recommendations should be seen as a consolidation of recommendations from 1990 to give a single unified set that can be simply and coherently expressed. The paper presents essential issues of the outcome of the Commission discussions and improvement of the current system of radiation protection.(author)

  15. The direction of ICRP - new recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    ICRP has been stimulating discussion, during the past three years, on the best way of expressing protection philosophy for the next publication of its Recommendations, which it hopes will be by 2005. The present recommendations were initiated by Publication 60 in 1990 and have subsequently been complemented by additional publications over the last twelve years. In this paper the totality of those recommendations is summarised and used to indicate a way forward to produce a simplified and more coherent statement of protection philosophy for the start of the 21. century. (author)

  16. Board advice following publication of the 1990 Recommendations of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published new Recommendations and the Board has a statutory duty to advise Government and those with responsibilities for radiation protection on the acceptability to and the applicability in the UK of those Recommendations. The Board wishes to consult widely before finalising the advice which is proposed in this document. In general, the Board endorses the conceptual framework for radiological protection recommended by ICRP. In particular, the distinction between practices and intervention is useful and is consistent with the way in which the Board has presented its recent advice. A major new concept is that of a constraint. The Board believes that the introduction of constraints provides a powerful method for improving protection against ionising radiation. The advice in this consultative document is for maximum generic values of dose constraints for both workers and the public. Finally the Board proposes to endorse the use of the radiological quantities recommended by ICRP. (author)

  17. Key implications of the new ICRP recommendations: contribution of the C.R.P.P.H. expert group on the implications of ICRP recommendations (E.G.I.R.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2003-01-01

    The International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has embarked on a broad programme of consultation in order to collect concepts, ideas and views regarding how radiological protection should be managed at the start of the 21 st century. The results of this consultation will be a new set of comprehensive ICRP recommendations, updating and consolidating ICRP publication 60 and all subsequent ICRP recommendations. It is expected that the new ICRP general recommendations will be published in 2005 with additional more detailed building block recommendations being published in subsequent years. (N.C.)

  18. The recommendations of the ICRP: the reasons for a change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.; Nenot, J.C.; Lecomte, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1928, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has regularly produced recommendations on the protection against ionising radiation; these recommendations are currently taken up by international organisations and by states. Since 1990, date of issue of the most recent recommendations (Publication 60), advances in scientific knowledge, technical developments, feedback and desire to meet modern societal developments, have incited the ICRP to modify its system of protection. The latest draft, which was recently presented openly for consultation and proposals, is described and discussed. (author)

  19. Acute ingestion dosimetry using the ICRP 30 gastrointestinal tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the gastrointestinal (GI) tract model used for dosimetry as outlined in ICRP30, to allow quick calculations of effective dose equivalents for acute radionuclide ingestion. A computer program has been developed to emulate the GI tract model. The program and associated data files are structured so that the GI tract model parameters can be varied, while the file structure and algorithm for the GI tract model should require minimal modification to allow the same theories that apply in this model to be used for other dosimetric models

  20. A method for rapid estimation of internal dose to members of the public from inhalation of mixed fission products (based on the ICRP 1994 human respiratory tract model for radiological protection)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jieli

    1999-01-01

    Based on the computing principle given in ICRP-30, a method had been given by the author for fast estimating internal dose from an intake of mixed fission products after nuclear accident. Following the ICRP-66 Human respiratory tract model published in 1994, the method was reconstructed. The doses of 1 Bq intake of mixed fission products (its AMAD = 1 μm, decay rate coefficient n = 0.2∼2.0) during the period of 1∼15 d after an accident were calculated. It is lower slightly based on ICRP 1994 respiratory tract model than that based on ICRP-30 model

  1. Potential impacts of ICRP 60 and 61 on transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has issued its ''1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection'' that provide guidance on controlling exposure to ionizing radiation (1). The ICRP recommendations and their incorporation into the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) ''Basic Safety Standards,'' Safety Series No. 9, provide the basis on which the IAEA ''Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials,'' Safety Series No. 6, are built. The transportation regulations are developed to ensure safety during the movement of radioactive materials and to provide reasonable assurance the transportation activities comply with the basic radiation protection principles of Safety Series No. 9. During the 1985 revision of the IAEA transport regulations, a comprehensive model was developed to derive Type A (non-accident resistant) package contents limits that were consistent with Safety Series No.9 and, consequently, the earlier ICRP recommendations (2). Now that ICRP 60 has been published, the IAEA and Member States are faced with the task of evaluating how the transport regulations need to be revised to conform with the new recommendations. Several potentially significant issues need to be addressed to determine whether the old linkages between the recommendations and the transport regulations require modification. This paper addresses the issues that arise from the revisions to the ICRP recommendations and how the transportation regulations may be affected

  2. Implementation of the ICRP 2007 recommendations in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kun-Woo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is about to publish new recommendations on radiation protection. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is also under process in revising its International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) to take into account of the changes of the ICRP recommendations. As soon as the revision of the BSS is completed, Korean government is considering to implement those changes in the BSS and the ICRP recommendations into its national radiation protection laws and regulations. This paper introduces the current activities and future prospects in this matter. In the 2007 ICRP recommendations, there are some new concepts, principles and quantities such as the changes in the nominal risk coefficient for cancer and hereditary effects, new definitions on the tissue weighting factors and radiation weighting factors for neutron and proton, extended application of the dose constraints in all exposure situations in source-related radiation protection, and the introduction of new system of protection for non-human species. Based on the study carried out by KINS so far, the following points are identified as major areas that need for further in-depth review and consideration for the implementation of the ICRP 2007 recommendations into Korean radiation protection laws and regulations; changes in the radiation risk factors, radiation weighting factors and tissue weighting factors, maintenance of the ICRP 60 dose limits, practical application of the dose constraints and determination of the reference levels in many source to individual exposure relationships, change from process-based system to exposure situation-based system, strengthening of the principle of optimization in all exposure situations, system of radiation protection for the environment, practical application of the exclusion and exemption principles, active participation of the stake holders, changes in glossary etc. The study for the implementation of the ICRP

  3. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  4. A stake holder dialogue on the implications of the ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Since its inception the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been involved in the assessment and implementation of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The development of new general ICRP recommendations, to replace those of the 1990 ICRP Publication 60, was thus of great interest to the NEA and its member countries. As a result, the NEA initiated a process of interaction and dialogue with the ICRP to ensure that the views and concerns of NEA member countries could be voiced and appropriately addressed in the new ICRP recommendations. The new ICRP recommendations were approved by the ICRP Main Commission in March 2007, by which point the NEA had sponsored 7 international conferences and produced 13 publications on the subject. This report is the summary of the three international dialogue conferences (held in Tokyo, 5-6 July 2006, Washington, DC, 28-29 August 2006, and Prague, 24-25 October 2006) that were organised to provide the ICRP with feedback regarding the June 2006 draft of its new recommendations. It includes a presentation of the key points of the draft recommendations, a summary of the suggestions made during the three conferences, and an assessment of the significant evolution that has been seen in the ICRP presentation of its draft recommendations over the course of the conference series. (authors)

  5. Model dosimetric for Radon and Daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, J.A.; Cardenas, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    You elaborates a model dosimetric for radon and their products of decline of short half life starting from the new model of the breathing tract of the publication 66 of the ICRP and the use of the systemic models proposed in the publication 67, 68 and 69 of the same commission. The correlated used methodology the incorporation of these radionuclides with the activity in organs and you excrete, considering the difference of metabolic behavior of the products of decline and of their predecessor

  6. Application in the Nordic countries of ICRP publication 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The radiation protection institutes of the five Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, published in 1976 a joint report on the applicability of international radiation protection recommendations in the Nordic countries. The report was mainly based on the set of recommendations issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In the report it was stated that 'if the basic recommendations of ICRP are subsequently revised, it is the intention of the radiation protection institutes to consider equivalent changes in the recommended basis for regulatory texts and, if there is full agreement, jointly to announce changes which may be made in respect to the principles which have been recommended here'. In 1977 ICRP published its revised basic recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) which resulted from the examination of new information during the last decade and since the Commission's previous basic recommendations (ICRP Publication 9 adopted in 1965. In 1978 the representatives of the radiation protection institutes of the Nordic countries agreed at their meeting in Helsinki to prepare a joint policy document on the application of the revised ICRP recommendations in the Nordic countries. In common with the previous joint report of the Nordic radiation protection institutes of 1976 the present recommendations deal only with ionizing radiation. In the new recommendations ICRP has more clearly than in the previous recommendations systematized the basic principles in radiation protection by crystallizing its system of dose limitation in three main points: a) no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit; b) all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account; and C) the dose equivalent to individuals shall not exceed the limits recommended for the appropriate circumstances by the Commission. The levels for basic dose

  7. The models of internal dose calculation in ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    There are a lot discussions about internal dose calculation in ICRP. Many efforts are devoted to improvement in models and parameters. In this report, we discuss what kind of models and parameters are used in ICRP. Models are divided into two parts, the dosimetric model and biokinetic model. The former is a mathematical phantom model, and it is mainly developed in ORNL. The results are used in many researchers. The latter is a compartment model and it has a difficulty to decide the parameter values. They are not easy to estimate because of their age dependency. ICRP officially sets values at ages of 3 month, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year, 15 year and adult, and recommends to get values among ages by linear age interpolate. But it is very difficult to solve the basic equation with these values, so we calculate by use of computers. However, it has complex shame and needs long CPU time. We should make approximated equations. The parameter values include much uncertainty because of less experimental data, especially for a child. And these models and parameter values are for Caucasian. We should inquire whether they could correctly describe other than Caucasian. The body size affects the values of calculated SAF, and the differences of metabolism change the biokinetic pattern. (author)

  8. Effect of blood activity on dosimetric calculations for radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Alexandra; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Li, Wei Bo; Schlattl, Helmut; Oeh, Uwe; Zankl, Maria; Graner, Frank Philipp; Hoeschen, Christoph; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Parodi, Katia; Schwaiger, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of the definition of blood as a distinct source on organ doses, associated with the administration of a novel radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging—(S)-4-(3-18F-fluoropropyl)-L-glutamic acid (18F-FSPG). Personalised pharmacokinetic models were constructed based on clinical PET/CT images from five healthy volunteers and blood samples from four of them. Following an identifiability analysis of the developed compartmental models, person-specific model parameters were estimated using the commercial program SAAM II. Organ doses were calculated in accordance to the formalism promulgated by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) using specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons previously derived for the ICRP reference adult computational voxel phantoms. Organ doses for two concepts were compared: source organ activities in organs parenchyma with blood as a separate source (concept-1); aggregate activities in perfused source organs without blood as a distinct source (concept-2). Aggregate activities comprise the activities of organs parenchyma and the activity in the regional blood volumes (RBV). Concept-1 resulted in notably higher absorbed doses for most organs, especially non-source organs with substantial blood contents, e.g. lungs (92% maximum difference). Consequently, effective doses increased in concept-1 compared to concept-2 by 3-10%. Not considering the blood as a distinct source region leads to an underestimation of the organ absorbed doses and effective doses. The pronounced influence of the blood even for a radiopharmaceutical with a rapid clearance from the blood, such as 18F-FSPG, suggests that blood should be introduced as a separate compartment in most compartmental pharmacokinetic models and blood should be considered as a distinct source in

  9. Import of ICRP 60 for general mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the ubiquity of natural, the International Commission on Radiological Protection limits the definition of occupational exposure to circumstances that can reasonably be regarded as the responsibility of management. Radon in workplaces in given as the prime example in ICRP Publication 60, the new recommendations of the Commission. But not all workplaces are to be included, and the Commission advises that agencies should identify the particular circumstances in which protection is required. It offers some guidance: spas, uranium mines, other underground mines and caves are mentioned. Few would dispute the suggestion that underground exposure to radon in general non-uranium mining may be appreciable and that the system of protection needs to be applied in the industry. Conditions in underground mining are examined in this paper. (author)

  10. Experiences of a secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration from the radiation protection and hygiene center CPHR in its first year of work and the procedures for quality assessment used in the calibration and quality control service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.A.; Campa, R.; Jova Sed, L.

    1996-01-01

    Experiences of a secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration from the Radiation Protection and Hygiene Center (CPHR) in first year of work and the procedures for quality assessment used in the calibration and quality control service of radiotherapeutic equipment. For the yield calibration of the calibrated sources an ionometric method was used using ionizing chambers coupled to electrometers. Those determination were based on dosimetric American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM)

  11. Non-stochastic effects: compatibility with present ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Upton, A.C.; New York Univ., NY

    1985-01-01

    The present recommendations of the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) are almost entirely based on 'stochastic effects' of ionizing radiation, i.e. cancer induction and heritable effects. In a recent report the compatibility of present recommendations with non-stochastic effects has been considered. The present paper is a summary of these findings. (author)

  12. Overview of ICRP Committee 4: application of the Commission's recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, D A

    2016-06-01

    Committee 4 develops principles and recommendations on radiological protection of people in all exposure situations. The committee meeting in 2014 was hosted by GE Healthcare in Arlington Heights, IL, USA on 27 July-1 August 2014. The programme of work of Committee 4 encompasses several broad areas, including a series of reports covering various aspects of existing exposure situations, leading the efforts of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to update and elaborate recommendations in light of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant for emergencies and living in contaminated areas, elaborating the underpinnings of the system of radiological protection, and developing focussed reports on specific topic areas in consultation with ICRP's special liaison organisations. Committee 4 has six active Task Groups working on naturally occurring radioactive material; cosmic radiation in aviation; updates of ICRP Publications 109 and 111; ethics of radiological protection; surface and near-surface disposal of solid radioactive waste; and exposures resulting from contaminated sites from past industrial, military, and nuclear activities. In addition, there is a Working Party on tolerability of risk, and ongoing work with the various special liaison organisations of ICRP. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  13. Rethinking basic concepts in ICRP's system of dose limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.; Mossman, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The present criterion for radiation protection appears to be exposure reduction rather than adequate protection of health. The 1990 ICRP draft recommendations for a system of dose limitation would further implement this more restrictive criterion by implementing certain academic concepts and assumptions. These concepts and assumptions are discussed and the suggestion is made that the radiation protection community needs to carefully examine the need for the complex system proposed

  14. Internal dosimetry data and methods of ICRP. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.R.; Bernard, S.R.; Dillman, L.T.; Watson, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology being used to update the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report of Committee 2, ICRP Publication 2 on Permissible Dose for Internal Radiation, is described. The system of differential equations, which is used to calculate the cumulated activity in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, other body organs, and the transfer compartment of reference man, is presented. These equations describe the physical decay and metabolism of a radionuclide as governed by the lung and gastrointestinal tract models adopted by Committee 2 from models developed for the ICRP. The equations also take into account organ uptake and retention following intake into blood and the contribution of activity from radioactive daughter nuclides. Additionally, the scheme for estimating the dose from immersion in a radioactive cloud and the scheme for computing the nuclear decay data needed for all of the dose computations are presented. In computing the immersion dose, estimates for both the infinite and the finite cloud are considered

  15. Small bowel protection in IMRT for rectal cancer. A dosimetric study on supine vs. prone position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeck, Julia; Kromer, Katharina; Siebenlist, Kerstin; Mai, Sabine; Fleckenstein, Jens; Wenz, Frederik [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Lohr, Frank [Az. Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Modena, Unita Operativa di Radioterapia, Dipartimento di Oncologia, Modena (Italy); Baack, Tobias [GRN Clinic Weinheim, Department of Internal Medicine, Weinheim (Germany); Buettner, Sylvia [University of Heidelberg, Department of Biomathematics and Medical Statistics, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    This treatment planning study analyzes dose coverage and dose to organs at risk (OAR) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of rectal cancer and compares prone vs. supine positioning as well as the effect of dose optimization for the small bowel (SB) by additional dose constraints in the inverse planning process. Based on the CT datasets of ten male patients in both prone and supine position, a total of four different IMRT plans were created for each patient. OAR were defined as the SB, bladder, and femoral heads. In half of the plans, two additional SB cost functions were used in the inverse planning process. There was a statistically significant dose reduction for the SB in prone position of up to 41% in the high and intermediate dose region, compared with the supine position. Furthermore, the femoral heads showed a significant dose reduction in prone position in the low dose region. Regarding the additional active SB constraints, the dose in the high dose region of the SB was significantly reduced by up to 14% with the additional cost functions. There were no significant differences in the dose distribution of the planning target volume (PTV) and the bladder. Prone positioning can significantly reduce dose to the SB in IMRT for rectal cancer and therefore should not only be used in 3D conformal radiotherapy but also in IMRT of rectal cancer. Further protection of the SB can be achieved by additional dose constraints in inverse planning without jeopardizing the homogeneity of the PTV. (orig.) [German] Diese Planungsstudie analysiert die Dosisverteilung im Zielvolumen und in den Risikoorganen (''organs at risk'', OAR) bei der intensitaetsmodulierten Strahlentherapie (''intensity-modulated radiotherapy'', IMRT) des Rektumkarzinoms und vergleicht hierbei Bauch- und Rueckenlagerung sowie die Effekte der Dosisoptimierung fuer den Duenndarm (DD) durch zusaetzliche Dosiseinschraenkungen bei der inversen Planung. Anhand der

  16. ICRP Publication 111 - Application of the Commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochard, J; Bogdevitch, I; Gallego, E; Hedemann-Jensen, P; McEwan, A; Nisbet, A; Oudiz, A; Oudiz, T; Strand, P; Janssens, A; Lazo, T; Carr, Z; Sugier, A; Burns, P; Carboneras, P; Cool, D; Cooper, J; Kai, M; Lecomte, J-F; Liu, H; Massera, G; McGarry, A; Mrabit, K; Mrabit, M; Sjöblom, K-L; Tsela, A; Weiss, W

    2009-06-01

    In this report, the Commission provides guidance for the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas resulting from either a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency. The report considers the effects of such events on the affected population. This includes the pathways of human exposure, the types of exposed populations, and the characteristics of exposures. Although the focus is on radiation protection considerations, the report also recognises the complexity of post-accident situations, which cannot be managed without addressing all the affected domains of daily life, i.e. environmental, health, economic, social, psychological, cultural, ethical, political, etc. The report explains how the 2007 Recommendations apply to this type of existing exposure situation, including consideration of the justification and optimisation of protection strategies, and the introduction and application of a reference level to drive the optimisation process. The report also considers practical aspects of the implementation of protection strategies, both by authorities and the affected population. It emphasises the effectiveness of directly involving the affected population and local professionals in the management of the situation, and the responsibility of authorities at both national and local levels to create the conditions and provide the means favouring the involvement and empowerment of the population. The role of radiation monitoring, health surveillance, and the management of contaminated foodstuffs and other commodities is described in this perspective. The Annex summarises past experience of longterm contaminated areas resulting from radiation emergencies and nuclear accidents, including radiological criteria followed in carrying out remediation measures.

  17. An empirical model describing the postnatal growth of organs in ICRP reference humans: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    An empirical model is presented for describing the postnatal mass growth of lungs in ICRP reference humans. A combined exponential and logistic function containing six parameters is fitted to ICRP 23 lung data using a weighted non-linear least squares technique. The results indicate that the model delineates the data well. Further analysis shows that reference male lungs attain a higher pubertal peak velocity (PPV) and adult mass size than female lungs, although the latter reach their PPV and adult mass size first. Furthermore, the model shows that lung growth rates in infants are two to three orders of magnitude higher than those in mature adults. This finding is important because of the possible association between higher radiation risks in infants' organs that have faster cell turnover rates compared to mature adult organs. The significance of the model for ICRP dosimetric purposes will be discussed. (author)

  18. Potential impacts of ICRP 60 and 61 on transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (IGRP) has issued its '1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection' that provide guidance on controlling exposure to ionizing radiation. The ICRP recommendations and their incorporation into the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) 'Basic Safety Standards', Safety Series No. 9, provide the basis on which the IAEA 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials', Safety Series No. 6, are built. The transportation regulations are developed to ensure safety during the movement of radioactive materials and to provide reasonable assurance the transportation activities comply with the basic radiation protection principles of Safety Series No. 9. During the 1985 revision of the IAEA transport regulations, a comprehensive model was developed to derive Type A (non-accident resistant) package contents limits that were consistent with Safety Series No. 9 and, consequently, the earlier ICRP recommendations. Now that ICRP 60 has been published, the IAEA and Member States are faced with the task of evaluating how the transport regulations need to be revised to conform with the new recommendations. Several potentially significant issues need to be addressed to determine whether the old linkages between the recommendations and the transport regulations require modification. This paper addresses the issues that arise from the revisions to the ICRP recommendations and how the transportation regulations may be affected. (author)

  19. Basic concepts and assumptions behind the new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of some of the basic concepts and assumptions behind the current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP Publications 26 and 28, which form the basis for the revision of the Basic Safety Standards jointly undertaken by IAEA, ILO, NEA and WHO. Special attention is given to the assumption of a linear, non-threshold dose-response relationship for stochastic radiation effects such as cancer and hereditary harm. The three basic principles of protection are discussed: justification of practice, optimization of protection and individual risk limitation. In the new ICRP recommendations particular emphasis is given to the principle of keeping all radiation doses as low as is reasonably achievable. A consequence of this is that the ICRP dose limits are now given as boundary conditions for the justification and optimization procedures rather than as values that should be used for purposes of planning and design. The fractional increase in total risk at various ages after continuous exposure near the dose limits is given as an illustration. The need for taking other sources, present and future, into account when applying the dose limits leads to the use of the commitment concept. This is briefly discussed as well as the new quantity, the effective dose equivalent, introduced by ICRP. (author)

  20. ICRP (1991) and deterministic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    A critical review of ICRP Publication 60 (1991) shows that considerable revisions are needed in both language and thinking about deterministic effects (DE). ICRP (1991) makes a welcome and clear distinction between change, caused by irradiation; damage, some degree of deleterious change, for example to cells, but not necessarily deleterious to the exposed individual; harm, clinically observable deleterious effects expressed in individuals or their descendants; and detriment, a complex concept combining the probability, severity and time of expression of harm (para42). (All added emphases come from the author.) Unfortunately these distinctions are not carried through into the discussion of deterministic effects (DE) and two important terms are left undefined. Presumably effect may refer to change, damage, harm or detriment, according to context. Clinically observable is also undefined although its meaning is crucial to any consideration of DE since DE are defined as causing observable harm (para 20). (Author)

  1. Measurement methods and optimization of radiation protection: the case of internal exposure by inhalation to natural uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Gibert, B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to discuss the ability of different measurement methods (air sampling and biological examinations) to answer to demands in the particular case of internal exposure by inhalation to natural uranium compounds. The realism and the sensitivity of each method are studied, on the base of new dosimetric models of the ICRP. The ability of analysis of these methods in order to optimize radiation protection are then discussed. (N.C.)

  2. Board advice following publication of the 1990 Recommendations of ICRP

    CERN Document Server

    United Kingdom. At. Energy Res. Establ. Nat. Radiolog. Protect. Board. Harwell

    1991-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published new Recommendations and the board has a statutory duty to advise Government and those with responsibilities for radiation protection on the acceptability to and the applicability in the UK of those Recommendations. The Board wishes to consult widely before finalising the advice which is proposed in this document. In general, the Board endorses the conceptual framework for radiological protection recommended by ICRP. In particular, the distinction between practices and intervention is useful and is consistent with the way in which the Board has presented its recent advice. A major new concept is that of a constraint. The Board believes that the introduction of constraints provides a powerful method for improving protection against ionising radiation. The advice in this consultative document is for maximum generic values of dose constraints for both workers and the public. Finally the Board proposes to endorse the use of the radiologic...

  3. Development of polygonal surface version of ICRP reference phantoms: Preliminary study for posture change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tat Thang; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2013-01-01

    Even though International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) officially adopted a set of adult male and female voxel phantoms as the ICRP reference phantoms, there are several critical limitations due to the nature of voxel geometry and their low voxel resolutions. In order to overcome these limitations of the ICRP phantoms, we are currently developing polygonal surface version of ICRP reference phantoms by directly converting the ICRP voxel phantoms to polygonal surface geometries. Among the many advantages of the ICRP polygonal surface phantom, especially, it is flexible and deformable. In principle, it is, therefore, possible to make the posture-changed ICRP phantoms which can provide more accurate dose values for exposure situations strongly relevant to worker's postures. As a preliminary study for developing the posture-changed ICRP phantoms, in this work we changed the posture of the preliminary version of ICRP male polygon-surface phantom constructed in the previous study. Organ doses were then compared between original and posture-changed phantoms. In the present study, we successfully changed a posture of the preliminary version of ICRP male polygon-surface phantom to the walking posture. From this results, it was explicitly shown that the polygon-surface version of the ICRP phantoms can be sufficiently modified to be various postures with the posture-changing method used in this study. In addition, it was demonstrated that phantom's posture must be considered in certain exposure situations, which can differ dose values from the conventional standing-posture phantom

  4. Assessing dose of the representative person for the purpose of radiation protection of the public. ICRP publication 101. Approved by the Commission in September 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Commission intended that its revised recommendations should be based on a simple, but widely applicable, system of protection that would clarify its objectives and provide a basis for the more formal systems needed by operating managers and regulators. The recommendations would establish quantified constraints, or limits, on individual dose from specified sources. These dose constraints apply to actual or representative people who encounter occupational, medical, and public exposures. This report updates the previous guidance for estimating dose to the public. Dose to the public cannot be measured directly and, in some cases, it cannot be measured at all. Therefore, for the purpose of protection of the public, it is necessary to characterise an individual, either hypothetical or specific, whose dose can be used for determining compliance with the relevant dose constraint. This individual is defined as the 'representative person'. The Commission's goal of protection of the public is achieved if the relevant dose constraint for this individual for a single source is met and radiological protection is optimised. This report explains the process of estimating annual dose and recognises that a number of different methods are available for this purpose. These methods range from deterministic calculations to more complex probabilistic techniques. In addition, a mixture of these techniques may be applied. In selecting characteristics of the representative person, three important concepts should be borne in mind: reasonableness, sustainability, and homogeneity. Each concept is explained and examples are provided to illustrate their roles. Doses to the public are prospective (may occur in the future) or retrospective (occurred in the past). Prospective doses are for hypothetical individuals who may or may not exist in the future, while retrospective doses are generally calculated for specific individuals. The Commission recognises that the level of detail afforded by its

  5. Use of personal radiation protection tools and individual dosimetric monitoring in a sample of interventional cardiologists in France, 2005-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, S.; Bertrand, A.; Laurier, D.; Bernier, M.O.; Scanff, P.

    2014-01-01

    Interventional cardiologists (ICs) are repeatedly exposed to scattered ionising radiation during the cardiac procedures they perform, and radiation protection is an important issue for these medical professionals. The use of radiation protection tools is particularly relevant to this population. SISERI (Systeme d'Information de la Surveillance de l'Exposition aux Rayonnement Ionisants, that is, an information system for monitoring exposure to ionising radiation) is a register that stores personal dosimeter readings for dosimetric monitoring. This paper, based on data for a sample of French ICs from the O'CLOC epidemiological study, aims to provide an overview of the use of radiation protection equipment and dosimetric devices reported by ICs in a specific questionnaire as well as the dosimetric information found in the SISERI database for this population. Material and Methods - Annual information on interventional cardiology activity for the period from 01/01/2005 to 31/12/2009 was collected in an occupational questionnaire. ICs were asked to report the frequency in which they used individual dosimeter and radiation protection tools (lead apron, thyroid shield, eye-wear or face shield, ceiling-suspended shield) as follows: never (0% of the time), occasionally ( 50%), always (100%). We retrieved their medical radiation exposure information (monitored status and monthly effective doses) from the SISERI database for the period 2005-2009. Results - Information for 132 ICs (mean age in 2005 = 46 ± 7 years) was available. All ICs reported routine use of lead aprons, in contrast to their occasional use of lead eye-wear or face shields. During the study period, 49% reported systematic use of personal dosimeters, and 21% more regular use. On the other hand, 18% never used a dosimeter during this period. The SISTERI database included 92% of our population, 73% of whom had complete annual dose monitoring in SISERI (corresponding to at least 11 months per year of recorded

  6. The system of radiation dose assessment and dose conversion coefficients in the ICRP and FGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Ra; Min, Byung Il; Park, Kihyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk [Nuclear Environmental Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations and the Federal Guidance Report (FGR) published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been widely applied worldwide in the fields of radiation protection and dose assessment. The dose conversion coefficients of the ICRP and FGR are widely used for assessing exposure doses. However, before the coefficients are used, the user must thoroughly understand the derivation process of the coefficients to ensure that they are used appropriately in the evaluation. The ICRP provides recommendations to regulatory and advisory agencies, mainly in the form of guidance on the fundamental principles on which appropriate radiological protection can be based. The FGR provides federal and state agencies with technical information to assist their implementation of radiation protection programs for the U.S. population. The system of radiation dose assessment and dose conversion coefficients in the ICRP and FGR is reviewed in this study. A thorough understanding of their background is essential for the proper use of dose conversion coefficients. The FGR dose assessment system was strongly influenced by the ICRP and the U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), and is hence consistent with those recommendations. Moreover, the ICRP and FGR both used the scientific data reported by Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) and United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) as their primary source of information. The difference between the ICRP and FGR lies in the fact that the ICRP utilized information regarding a population of diverse races, whereas the FGR utilized data on the American population, as its goal was to provide guidelines for radiological protection in the US. The contents of this study are expected to be utilized as basic research material in the areas of radiation protection and dose assessment.

  7. Implications of recent ICRP recommendations for risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted a new set of recommendations in November 1990 which were issued at ICRP Publication No. 60 in March 1991. These recommendations incorporate new radiobiological information and outline a comprehensive system of radiological protection. This paper evaluates the implications of these new recommendations vis a vis risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

  8. The system of radiation dose assessment and dose conversion coefficients in the ICRP and FGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Ra; Min, Byung Il; Park, Kihyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk

    2016-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations and the Federal Guidance Report (FGR) published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been widely applied worldwide in the fields of radiation protection and dose assessment. The dose conversion coefficients of the ICRP and FGR are widely used for assessing exposure doses. However, before the coefficients are used, the user must thoroughly understand the derivation process of the coefficients to ensure that they are used appropriately in the evaluation. The ICRP provides recommendations to regulatory and advisory agencies, mainly in the form of guidance on the fundamental principles on which appropriate radiological protection can be based. The FGR provides federal and state agencies with technical information to assist their implementation of radiation protection programs for the U.S. population. The system of radiation dose assessment and dose conversion coefficients in the ICRP and FGR is reviewed in this study. A thorough understanding of their background is essential for the proper use of dose conversion coefficients. The FGR dose assessment system was strongly influenced by the ICRP and the U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), and is hence consistent with those recommendations. Moreover, the ICRP and FGR both used the scientific data reported by Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) and United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) as their primary source of information. The difference between the ICRP and FGR lies in the fact that the ICRP utilized information regarding a population of diverse races, whereas the FGR utilized data on the American population, as its goal was to provide guidelines for radiological protection in the US. The contents of this study are expected to be utilized as basic research material in the areas of radiation protection and dose assessment

  9. Status of ICRP recommendations at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Masahito

    1996-01-01

    Results of actual radiation exposure in nuclear power plants and related matters were presented for discussion of the principle of radiation protection involved in ICRP recommendations, which is prerequisite for safe operation of the plants and for treatment of radioactive waste. There were no personnel with actual exposure dose exceeding 50 mSv/y in 1995. Total exposure dose was 66.32 psn.Sv. and mean dose equivalent/personnel, 1.0 mSv. The amount of radioactive gasses and liquids released in the environment was far lower (<1/7,000) than that for the exposure index of 50 microSv/y in the public around the plant. The marked decrease in the amount of radioactive solid waste was noted in the plants. The laws and ICRP recommendations have been the basis for agreement between labor and management in the plant: e.g., the proposed voluntary dose was 30 mSv/y. This was also true for the recommendations in 1990. Finally, followings were proposed to ICRP: re-examination of linear theory without threshold, consideration for the balance between the radiation and other kind of hazardous materials and factors, carefulness in changing the recommendation concept, and exclusion of more severe limitations than those included in ICRP recommendations. (K.H.)

  10. Potential impact of ICRP-30 on the calculated risk from waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the large body of information that has been gathered since ICRP-2 was published (1959), the ICRP has undertaken the task of updating its radiation protection guidance. This update involves revision of the primary radiation guidance as well as the recalculation of intake limits (ICRP-30) based on update biological models, updated nuclide decay schemes, and a new method accounting for simultaneous dose to more than one organ. A detailed analysis of the impacts of ICRP-30 on waste repository safety and risk analyses would require an extensive and detailed study that has not yet been undertaken. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify, in an approximate manner, the impact of using ICRP-30 instead of 10 CFR 20/ICRP-2 in calculating the risk from radioactive repositories. Toward this end, the numerical guidance of ICRP-30 has been obtained and converted into RCG values for the general public using the same methods that were employed in deriving 10 CFR 20. The conversion was cross-checked by comparing 10 CFR 20 and ICRP-30-based values that were known to have remained the same. The most restrictive ICRP-30 RCGs were incorporated into the ORIGEN2 computer code, which was then used to calculate the toxicity of some radioactive materials of interest in waste repository considerations. As a basis for discussion, the toxicities of the spent fuel from a PWR and of the uranium ore required to make the fuel are given for both the 10 CFR 20 and ICRP-30-based RCGs. As is evident, the use of the revised RCGs reduces the toxicity of the spent fuel at times less than 100 years and increases the toxicity at times thereafter

  11. Conversion of ICRP male reference phantom to polygon-surface phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi

    2013-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantoms, developed based on computed tomography images of human bodies, provide much more realism of human anatomy than the previously used MIRD5 (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) mathematical phantoms. It has been, however, realized that the ICRP reference phantoms have some critical limitations showing a considerable amount of holes for the skin and wall organs mainly due to the nature of voxels of which the phantoms are made, especially due to their low voxel resolutions. To address this problem, we are planning to develop the polygon-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms by directly converting the ICRP reference phantoms (voxel phantoms) to polygon-surface phantoms. The objective of this preliminary study is to see if it is indeed possible to construct the high-quality polygon-surface phantoms based on the ICRP reference phantoms maintaining identical organ morphology and also to identify any potential issues, and technologies to address these issues, in advance. For this purpose, in the present study, the ICRP reference male phantom was roughly converted to a polygon-surface phantom. Then, the constructed phantom was implemented in Geant4, Monte Carlo particle transport code, for dose calculations, and the calculated dose values were compared with those of the original ICRP reference phantom to see how much the calculated dose values are sensitive to the accuracy of the conversion process. The results of the present study show that it is certainly possible to convert the ICRP reference phantoms to surface phantoms with enough accuracy. In spite of using relatively less resources (original ICRP reference phantoms, it is believed that the polygon-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms properly developed will not only provide the same or similar dose values (say, difference <5 or 10%) for highly penetrating radiations, but also provide correct dose values for the weakly penetrating

  12. ICRP policy for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    Jean-Claude Nenot (IPSN, France) gave an overview of recommendations from ICRP during the past 25 years that are relevant to the safety of waste disposal. These recommendations were primarily concerned with public exposure, and suggested that the necessary system of protection should be controlled through the principles of constrained optimisation and prescriptive limits. The principles of justification, optimisation and dose and risk limitation were applicable to waste management. Justification should however be applied to the practice resulting in the generation of waste rather than to waste management per se. As regards optimisation, this should be interpreted in a subtler manner than the simple application of cost-benefit analysis, as an aggregation of very small doses over future world populations would be essentially meaningless. The primary criterion should therefore be the dose to an individual from a relevant critical group, and optimisation should also take account of social and economic factors. The application of dose limits had intrinsic difficulties because of multiple sources, through restrictions determined as a result of monitoring could be envisaged. The approach to dealing with potential future intrusion presented a particular difficulty (as compared to natural processes) because the probability of occurrence could not realistically be determined and therefore a risk-based approach was not recommended. Instead, prospective doses should be assessed against criteria for intervention situations, as proposed in ICRP 82, i.e. action (in terms of a preventative design change, for example) was unlikely to be justifiable at hypothetical and uncertain future dose levels below about 10 mSv/year

  13. ICRP recommendations and the safe disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Barraclough, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    There are some special difficulties in setting up and applying radiological protection principle to the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. These were recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). One difficulty is the uncertain or probabilistic nature of some of the events or processes that could occur and affect the integrity of a waste repository. The other feature of solid waste disposal that causes difficulty is the length of time period of concern. The practical problem is the difficulties in predicting future conditions and in making the useful estimate of long term radiation impact with sufficient confidence. In this paper, the proposals made by the ICRP to deal with the above difficulties are briefly reviewed. Some suggestions are made as to how the criteria might be clarified, and the necessary calculation made to match the criteria. The reappraisal of the criteria for assessing the radiological safety of waste repositories is needed. (K.I.)

  14. Thermoluminescent dosimetric characterization of the perovskite, KMgF3, activated with lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda M, F.

    2003-01-01

    The new ICRP regulation about the Radiological Protection allows to the different groups to study new thermoluminescent materials highly sensitive for dosimetric applications (personal and environmental). This work reports the relative experimental results to the thermoluminescent characteristic of a new preparation of the fluorine perovskite activated with lanthanum absorbed in polytetrafluoroethylene (KMgF 3 : LaF 3 + Ptfe). The main thermoluminescent properties investigated were: the TL response like a function of the absorbed dose, the attainable accuracy in the dose measurement, the reproducibility of the TL readings and the threshold dose. The obtained results were compared with the requirements of the ANSI protocol for the environmental dosimetry, resulting in a very good agreement with the required yields. (Author)

  15. Adaptation of the ICRP models for the Techa River populations to estimate in utero and postnatal haemopoietic tissue doses from ingested strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagina, Natalia; Tolstykh, Evgenia; Degteva, Marina; Fell, Tim; Harrison, John

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Reliable estimation of tissue doses for exposed individuals is very important in epidemiological studies. Long-term cohort studies of the Techa River populations exposed in the early 1950s due to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Southern Urals, Russia) are unique in allowing the quantification of risks from low-level chronic exposure of the general population and providing information on risks for persons exposed in utero. Strontium isotopes were the most important contributors to haemopoietic tissue doses for people living in the riverside settlements. Large-scale monitoring of the exposed population has provided a comprehensive database, including post mortem and in vivo measurements of 90 Sr in bones and whole body, for use in the estimation of doses. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to members of the public, including doses from in utero exposures and from intakes with breast milk. However, the ICRP models as applied to Sr required modification to provide best estimates of doses to Techa River residents. Adaptations were made to the ICRP model for Sr in children and adults to take account of population-specific features relating to bone mineral turnover and to model age and gender differences in strontium retention. Refinements in the ICRP model for Sr uptake and retention in the fetus were made to improve the treatment of discrimination against Sr, relative to Ca, in transfer from maternal to foetal blood and to take account of population-specific data on the calcium content of the maternal and fetal skeleton. Modification of the ICRP model for Sr transfer in breast-milk included adaptations relating to changes in maternal mineral metabolism during lactation and consideration of population-specific features of breast feeding in the rural population. The improved models were successfully

  16. Implications of draft ICRP recommendations: the View of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, S.; Lazo, T.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has taken an active interest in the work being performed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to develop a new set of general recommendations. As several key junctures, the Nea, through the lead of its Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (C.R.P.P.H.) has performed in-depth analyses of the possible implications that draft ICRP materials, in order to inform policy makers of the regulatory and application implications that would result should draft ICRP Recommendations for a system of radiological protection be published. Comments from the Nea have constructively contributed to the ICRP development process, and it is hoped that the final ICRP recommendations in this area will be developed to best serve the needs of national and international radiation protection policy makers, regulators and implementers. Having assessed and commented on previous drafts, the C.R.P.P.H. has co-ordinated the views of all the relevant standing technical committees within the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide constructive suggestions as to how the text could be usefully improved. Comments were requested from the Nea committees dealing with radioactive waste management, nuclear safety, nuclear regulatory activities, nuclear development and nuclear science. The present paper summarises the results of the C.R.P.P.H. review process related to the new ICRP recommendations. (author)

  17. The new recommendations of ICRP and their possible consequences for operating nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Hesse, Johannes; Schwarz, Wolfgang; Kapteinat, Heinzpeter; Holl, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Full text: After an extensive and very open debate within the Radiation Protection Community the new recommendations of the ICRP on the basic principles of radiation protection have been issued in 2007. The German nuclear industry has watched the process intensively and tried to bring in their large amount of experience from the daily radiation protection practice in numerous nuclear installations. Notably the ICRP seemed to follow some of the comments given by those experienced operators. The ICRP key message 'stability and continuity' is highly welcomed by industry. The dose levels resulting from well managed operations today are far below the dose limits due to a working system of ALARA thinking and doing. The basic principles of radiation protection as pointed out by ICRP decades ago have been proven to be an effective tool and are an essential part of the legal system of most countries with developed nuclear industries. Unfortunately, not all of the comments of the experienced operators have been considered to the desirable extend. A mayor point of criticism is the central role ICRP devoted to the use of dose constraints for any source. Dose constraints do play a role in today's practice of radiation protection but they have been rather supplementary than central in the system. The idea that for all sources, and there might be Hundreds or Thousands sometimes very tiny sources in a practice, a dose constraint shall exist sounds quite inappropriate. Another example which might disturb the great vision of 'stability and continuity' is the change of ICRP into a different view on protection. Instead of processes now situations are in the focus. There are some doubts about the benefits of such a move. People will always ask if there is a change of content when using a different terminology. A lot of fruitless discussions will probably result. Nevertheless, in spite of some criticism the new ICRP will contribute to strengthen the protection regime and industry will

  18. Implications of the 1990 ICRP recommendations for the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Significant radiological protection problems arise in the mining and processing of uranium and thorium bearing ores, beach sands and other materials that have enhanced levels of uranium (e.g. phosphate). They are at their most extreme in the underground mining of uranium. Under the new ICRP 60 occupational dose limits it may be necessary to subject virtually all mining operations to some degree of radiological surveillance. There are three principal modes of radiation exposure in uranium mining operations: gamma rays, an external whole body radiation hazard; the inhalation of radon daughter products; and the inhalation of ore dust containing the long-lived alpha emitting daughter products of uranium, principally 230Th and 226Ra. A number of the new recommendations in ICRP60 considered to have significant implications for the mining industry in general and the above mentioned issues in particular are discussed. These include the definition of occupational exposure occupational dose limit, the review of the radon dose limits, the system of radiological protection. The major conclusions and recommendation of the IAEA Technical Committee to Explore the Impact of the new ICRP Occupational Dose Limits in the operation of underground mines are also summarized. 18 refs., 1 tab

  19. Implementation of the 1990 recommendations of the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, R.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed investigations have been made of the consequences of ICRP Publication 60 for nuclear power plants. A methodology has not yet been defined for handling the aspect of design against accidents within the framework of ICRP 60. Other new requirements, i.e. new individual limits and the application of higher risk factors, may pose minor problems for plants of older design. In plants of recent collective doses for plant personnel and for the public are already so low that the increase in risk factors will not require additional protection measures. The new limit for the individual dose accumulated during five calendar years may require additional surveillance of a few persons in plants of older design. Intakes of radionuclides are a minor contributor to dose, even at these low levels of exposure. Uncertainties in the determination of a committed dose rather than the actual dose can therefore be tolerated. (Author)

  20. Calculation of skin dose due to beta contamination using the new quantity of the ICRP 116: the local skin dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, L.; Menard, S.; Comte, N.

    2017-01-01

    Values of the new protection quantity Local Skin Dose 'LSD', introduced by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 116, were calculated for 134 β - or β + emitting radionuclides, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP6. Two types of source geometry are considered: a point source and disc-type surface contamination (the source is placed in contact with the skin). This new protection quantity is compared with the operational quantity H2 (0.07, 0 deg.), leading us to conclude that, in accordance with the rules of the ICRP, the operational quantity over-estimates the protection quantity to a reasonable extent, except in very rare cases for very low average beta energies. Thus, with the new skin model described in ICRP 116, there are no longer any major differences between the operational quantities and protection quantities estimated with the skin model described in ICRP 74. (authors)

  1. ICRP-26 and skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnigan, T.; Huda, W.; Newbery, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The experience of dealing with skin contamination incidents at The Radiochemical Centre over a 3-year period is presented. Data are given for the primary isotopes involved, the duration of skin contamination, and the skin doses that arise from these incidents. The methods employed in performing dosimetry for skin contamination are discussed and examples involving the isotopes carbon-14 and indium-111 are described. For skin contamination incidents, the mode of penetration of the activity into skin is normally not known and this can be of major significance for the final skin dose estimate. The operational health physics difficulties encountered in complying with both ICRP-26 and UK legislation for skin contamination are considered. In the event of multiple exposure (i.e. skin doses calculated from whole body film badges, extremity TLD dose meters and skin contamination) there is ambiguity in the precise meaning of the skin dose. The usefulness of Derived Working Levels is also discussed. Experience at The Radiochemical Centre has shown that good plant design, proper training and prompt action in dealing with contamination incidents ensures that overexposures to skin from accidental contamination are rare occurrences. (author)

  2. Thought about ICRP TG84 report. What beyond it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Ohtsura

    2013-01-01

    Explained was the ICRP TG84 Report (Report of ICRP Task Group 84 on Initial Lessons Learned from the Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan vis-a-vis the ICRP System of Radiological Protection: Issues Identified from the NPP Accident in Japan and Recommendations to Improve the System of Radiation Protection; presented in October, 2012), together with author's thought about it. The Report contained 18 items and their related proposals: Inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients), Attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures, Quantifying radiation exposure, Assessing the importance of internal exposures, Managing emergency crisis, Protecting rescuers and volunteers, Responding with medical aid, Justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions, Transiting from an emergency to an existing situation, Rehabilitating evacuated areas, Categorizing public exposures due to an accident, Restricting individual doses of members of the public, Caring for infants and children, Considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos, Monitoring public protection, Dealing with 'contamination' of territories, rubble and residues, and consumer products, Recognizing the importance of psychological consequences, and Fostering the sharing of information. The Report also contained 11 Recommendations of actions for the Commission to take. The author had been installed as the Chair of Radiation Council in February, 2011, just before the Accident in March, and had had to concern the definition of various post-Accident dose limits in Japan, having had often faced the inefficiency of measures. He thought the ICRP protecting system was difficult to understand due to 2 reasons: one was that the system had been written aiming at experts of radiological protection and the other, that the system had been composed not only from science but also from an incorporated standard of social values, which resulted in inconsiderateness to the general

  3. Publication of ICRP 60 and 61

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfinch, E P

    1990-01-01

    After considerable deliberation and consultation, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published its 1990 recommendations and resultant annual limits on intakes for workers. The effects of these new recommendations will be considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in relation to its transport regulations and supporting documents during the current revision process. This revision process should lead to the publication of revised regulations in 1996. Initially, the immediate reaction in some areas is that the revised dose limits and annual limits should automatically result in straightforward reductions in the A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} values in the regulations, and in reduction in the permitted radiation levels on and around packages, conveyances etc. However, this reaction is questioned for the reason that it is necessary to separately examine the radiological consequences in routine transport and in accidents (''normal conditions of transport'' and ''accident conditions'' in the terminology of the regulations). Because accidents to radioactive material packaging are rare, the potential harm to individuals is not likely to be repeated. Thus a lowering of the dose limit may not be necessary. (author).

  4. ICRP publication 26. Its applicability in a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.; Donnelly, K.

    1980-01-01

    Ontario Hydro is a major Canadian provincial utility with more than 5 GW(e) installed nuclear electricity generating capacity and with a planned commitment to an additional 8.5 GW(e), all units being of the CANDU pressurized heavy-water type. The radiation protection programme, in addition to complying with Canadian Federal regulations, has been consistent with the philosophy and intent of ICRP recommendations and is frequently reviewed to ensure compliance with these recommendations, the most recent of which is ICRP-26. The application of the ALARA principle in this power reactor programme is described. A set of general guidelines has been established, the main features of which are: (a) achieving a dose consumption per unit of electricity generated which is low compared with reactors of a similar type; (b) ensuring that stations are operable with the dose equivalent of their labour-dictated manpower; (c) ensuring that the risk to atomic radiation workers is compatible with a corporate fatality rate standard of 8 man-hours worked. Achievement of these guidelines has necessitated implementing a continued dose-management programme. This programme is described generally. The cost applied to justify a dose reduction of 1 man.Sv is given, and a comparison is made with the equivalent life costs this implies and the costs used by safety agencies for other risk-reduction activities. Finally, some practical problems associated with some of the recommendations of ICRP-26 are discussed. (author)

  5. ICRP recommendations in the present and in the short term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, Jack

    2003-01-01

    The recommendations of ICRP are either re-stated or revised at intervals of about 15 years, most recently in 1990. The protection philosophy in Publication 60 comprises justification of the practice or intervention considered; optimisation of protection; dose and risk limits and constraints to restrict the options in optimisation. For medical exposures, dose and risk limits and formal constraints are irrelevant, but Diagnostic Reference Levels serve a similar purpose. Building on this foundation, ICRP plans to issue its next recommendations around 2005. The 2005 Recommendations are likely to emphasise protection of the individual more than protection of society; to aim at protection of non-human species as well as man; to summarise and simplify advice given in various reports after Publication 60, and to be formatted as concise recommendations underpinned by separate publications with more detail. The draft will be circulated and comments will be discussed in 2004 with a view approval of the recommendations in 2005 and publication in 2005 or 2006. Thus, integration into legislation may be possible sometime between 2006 and 2010. (author)

  6. A comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of age-specific biokinetic models, current retention models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) frequently are used as a point of departure for evaluation of exposures to the general population. These models were designed and intended for estimation of long-term integrated doses to the adult worker. Their format and empirical basis preclude incorporation of much valuable physiological information and physiologically reasonable assumptions that could be used in characterizing the age-specific behavior of radioelements in humans. In this paper we discuss a comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling in which consideration is given not only to changes with age in masses and relative geometries of body organs and tissues but also to best available physiological and radiobiological information relating to the age-specific biobehavior of radionuclides. This approach is useful in obtaining more accurate estimates of long-term dose commitments as a function of age at intake, but it may be particularly valuable in establishing more accurate estimates of dose rate as a function of age. Age-specific dose rates are needed for a proper analysis of the potential effects on estimates or risk of elevated dose rates per unit intake in certain stages of life, elevated response per unit dose received during some stages of life, and age-specific non-radiogenic competing risks

  7. A comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    In the absence of age-specific biokinetic models, current retention models of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) frequently are used as a point of departure for evaluation of exposures to the general population. These models were designed and intended for estimation of long-term integrated doses to the adult worker. Their format and empirical basis preclude incorporation of much valuable physiological information and physiologically reasonable assumptions that could be used in characterizing the age-specific behavior of radioelements in humans. In this paper a comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling is discussed in which consideration is given not only to changes with age in masses and relative geometries of body organs and tissues but also to best available physiological and radiobiological information relating to the age-specific biobehavior of radionuclides. This approach is useful in obtaining more accurate estimates of long-term dose commitments as a function of age at intake, but it may be particularly valuable in establishing more accurate estimates of dose rate as a function of age. Age-specific dose rates are needed for a proper analysis of the potential effects on estimates of risk of elevated dose rates per unit intake in certain stages of life, elevated response per unit dose received during some stages of life, and age-specific non-radiogenic competing risks. 16 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  8. Explanation of ICRP publication 81 in consideration of geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Hideaki

    2003-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection which has published various recommendations on the radiation protection describes the system of radiation protection on the disposal of radioactive waste in Publication 46, 77 and 81. Especially, Publication 81, Radiation Protection Recommendations as Applied to the Disposal of Long-lived Solid Radioactive Waste, was published in order to supplement, update and clarify the material in Publication 46 published in 1985 in consideration of the recent international progress in the disposal of radioactive waste. At present, the study is in progress to materialize the concept and the safety regulation of geologic disposal in Japan, and it is important to reflect appropriately these international publications. This paper explains each paragraph in Publication 81 in order to understand the system of radiation protection on the geologic disposal fully and concretely, paying attention to the mutual relationship among each paragraph, the development of ICRP recommendations and the relationship to other publications. (author)

  9. The ICRP 60 and the agency's regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggio, A.L.; Novo, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has adopted its new '1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection' in November 1990, they were published in 1991 as 'ICRP Publication 60.' Two main scenarios are considered by the new ICRP's recommendations: a) Protection in proposed and continuing practices (further subdivided as protection against actual exposures and protection against potential exposures); and b) Protection by intervention. Although intervention means any activity in order to decrease the overall exposure, removing existing sources, modifying pathways or reducing the number of exposed individuals, in relation to the transport of radioactive materials, protection by intervention is related mainly to emergency planning, while protection against actual and potential exposures can be considered as the subject of most of the requirements of the 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The on-going revision of the IAEA Safety Series No. 9, which is aimed at putting this publication in line with the new ICRP recommendations will, for the first time, provide a convalidated radiological framework for the 1996 revision of the Agency Transport Regulations. However, to adapt to the transport area the radiological principles and criteria will require a significant effort and a carefully evaluation of the overall impact of each change proposed. (J.P.N.)

  10. Fabrication of indigenous lead-free low cost bilayer radiation protective apron and dosimetric analysis for effective shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Protective aprons play a key role in the radiation protection of personnel in radiology departments. They are worn in examination rooms during radiological examinations and their specific function is to provide shielding against secondary radiation. Practically, they are used for a variety of diagnostic imaging procedures including angiography, fluoroscopy, mobiles and theatre, and are designed to shield approximately 75% of radiosensitive red bone marrow. For many years, the protective aprons play a key role in the radiation protection of personnel in imaging departments was made of lead. However, lead garments must be treated as hazardous waste for disposal and are heavy, causing back strain and other orthopedic problems for those who must wear them for long periods of time. They are worn in examination rooms during radiological examinations and their specific function is to provide shielding against secondary radiation. Originally, protective aprons consisted of lead-impregnated vinyl or rubber with a shielding equivalent given in millimetres of lead. The main purpose of this study was to fabricate light weight low cost non lead based bilayered radiation protective aprons

  11. ICRP risk estimates - an alternative view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.Z.

    1987-01-01

    This criticism of the worth of the ICRP Main Commission spans 60 years, reviewed by a member of the Commission. Beginning in 1960 two serious radiation exposure problems (occupational exposure in uranium mines and population exposure from testing of nuclear weapons) came to their attention. One might have expected ICRP to be the first to try to reduce these exposures but it was conspicuous by its silence. In 1958 ICRP set limits of exposure for radiation workers and member of the public. Nineteen years later (1977) when it was realized that the risk of radiation induced cancer was ten to thirty times what it was perceived to be in 1958, ICRP might have been expected to recommend a major reduction in permissible exposure levels, but to the dismay of some it increased them. It was also a great disappointment when in 1977, levels of MPC of radionuclides in air, water and food were increased for a large fraction of the more dangerous radionuclides. The reactor accident at Chernobyl calls for a number of new ICRP recommendations. When can we expect them? (author)

  12. Respectful doubts on the new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz de la Cruz, F.

    1992-01-01

    The admiration and deference an International Organization, as ICRP, deserves not only by its altruistic mission but also by the eminent and distinguished scientists who work for it, in some way 'dazzles' to simple students of its theories and, in some way 'force' us to accept, sometimes without any critical, serious and previous meditation, its recommendations. But it is not the bad thing this kind of 'blindness' we have before the almighty ...ICRP dixit..., the worst thing is that non-specialist and non-specialized persons believe as 'dogmas' and 'axioms' the ICRP recommednations and make of them legal dispositions through standards and regulations. Standards an regulations which can frustate an industrial or any other type of peaceful nuclear activity due to the economic or the social reasons derived from ICRP recommendations. The inflexibility (weakened in the arguments but strengthened in the recommendations) of this influent Organism on the 'linearity without threshold' in the dose-effect relationship and the compromises of the International Labor Organization (ILO) with respect ICRP recommedations provole irrational, ilogical and non desirable answers. (author)

  13. Overview of the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external idealised exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, A; Zankl, M; Bolch, W E; Eckerman, K F; Hertel, N E; Hunt, J G; Pelliccioni, M; Schlattl, H; Menzel, H-G

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the ICRP Publications 110 and 116 describing the reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external exposures. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its 2007 Recommendations made several revisions to the methods of calculation of the protection quantities. In order to implement these recommendations, the DOCAL task group of the ICRP developed computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and female and then calculated a set of dose conversion coefficients for various types of idealised external exposures. This paper focuses on the dose conversion coefficients for neutrons and investigates their relationship with the conversion coefficients of the protection and operational quantities of ICRP Publication 74. Contributing factors to the differences between these sets of conversion coefficients are discussed in terms of the changes in phantoms employed and the radiation and tissue weighting factors.

  14. The use of the ICRP principles for controlling risks from potential exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.; Gonzalez, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Heretofore, ICRP recommendations for radiation protection mainly apply to radiation exposures that are expected to occur with near certainty during normal operation of radiation sources. It is anticipated that the new ICRP recommendations will deal more comprehensively with radiation safety by including consideration of exposure which might or might not occur, but for which a probability of occurrence can be assigned (potential exposure). This paper discusses issues and principles for a system of radiation safety which accommodates both radiation protection and nuclear safety standards and covers both normal and potential exposures. The principles are formulated by interpreting and extrapolating the principles of justification, optimization and dose limitation currently employed for normal exposure

  15. A regulatory view on the applicability of the new ICRP recommendations to nuclear safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gomez, E.; Naegelin, R.; Vuorinen, A.P.U.

    1991-01-01

    The new ICRP recommendations will cause several changes in the radiological practice. This paper discusses these changes from the point of regulatory view of nuclear safety. To avoid adverse short-term effects, the new risk estimates should be adopted in radiation protection standards with great care. The ultimate objective of nuclear safety is to protect people environment and property against radiological hazards. Improvements in principles and practices developed by the ICRP are important in reaching the primary goal. A severe nuclear accident must be prevented in advance. Every scientific and technical means have to used; optimization is not the solution of the problem

  16. Application of ICRP recommendations relevant to internal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowser, K.E.; Snyder, W.S.; Struxness, E.G.

    1969-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to review several of the basic concepts of radiation protection (with emphasis on internal dose) currently recommended by the International Commission on radiological Protection (ICRP), to summarize the assumptions and methods used in the calculation of internal dose, and to illustrate by example the practical application of the pertinent guidelines. Two broad subject areas are considered: (1) standards of radiation protection and (2) bases of internal dose estimation. Topics discussed within the framework of radiation protection standards include maximum permissible dose, categories of radiation exposure, maximum permissible dose commitment, simultaneous internal and external exposure, multiple organ exposure, and size of the exposed group. Discussion of internal dose estimation is limited to selected items that include the body burden of radionuclides and the calculation of absorbed dose, the dose equivalent, the derivation of maximum permissible concentration (MPC), the relationship of stable element intake to the MPC, and short term and chronic exposure situations. (author)

  17. Application of ICRP recommendations relevant to internal dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowser, K E; Snyder, W S; Struxness, E G [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The intent of this paper is to review several of the basic concepts of radiation protection (with emphasis on internal dose) currently recommended by the International Commission on radiological Protection (ICRP), to summarize the assumptions and methods used in the calculation of internal dose, and to illustrate by example the practical application of the pertinent guidelines. Two broad subject areas are considered: (1) standards of radiation protection and (2) bases of internal dose estimation. Topics discussed within the framework of radiation protection standards include maximum permissible dose, categories of radiation exposure, maximum permissible dose commitment, simultaneous internal and external exposure, multiple organ exposure, and size of the exposed group. Discussion of internal dose estimation is limited to selected items that include the body burden of radionuclides and the calculation of absorbed dose, the dose equivalent, the derivation of maximum permissible concentration (MPC), the relationship of stable element intake to the MPC, and short term and chronic exposure situations. (author)

  18. Evolution of the radiation protection system; L'evolution du systeme de protection radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.H. [International Commission on Radiological Protection, Stockholm (Sweden); Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Brechignac, F. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2003-07-01

    The evolution of the system of radiological protection: justification for new ICRP recommendations, thoughts of the SFRP work group about the evolution of the system of radiation protection proposed by the ICRP, protection of environment against ionizing radiations seen by the ICRP are the three parts of this chapter. (N.C.)

  19. What do we know? where do we go from here? implications for ICRP developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.

    2002-01-01

    This first Nea forum is ' in collaboration with ICRP' and we wanted views from participants regarding our initiative on radiological protection of the environment. The members of the main Commission of ICRP who have attended this forum have been delighted with the outcome. ICRP has a range of options for its future activity with regard to radiological protection of the environment, starting with withdrawing altogether from the subject, through maintaining our current assertion, to fully developing a new policy. The emerging consensus from this meeting would suggest that the key elements of a system would involve a clear set of objectives and principles, an agreed set of quantities and units, a reference set of dose models for a defined number of reference fauna and flora, basic knowledge of radiation effects, a means of demonstrating compliance, regular views and revisions as new knowledge develops. (N.C.)

  20. Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protecion (1977) ICRP Publication 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The subject is dealt with under the following headings: principles of radiation protection (the reports of ICRP; basis for establishing dose limits; types of radiation harm; occupational dose limits; estimates of tissue dose equivalent; uniformity of tissue dose equivalent; systems of dose limitation; protection of members of the public; exposure of the population); radiation protection in practice (protection standards, types of exposure). (U.K.)

  1. The evolution of thoughts from ICRP 46 concept of potential exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since issuing its latest basic recommendations in 1991 as ICRP Publication 60, the Commission has reviewed these recommendations regularly and, from time to time, has issued supplementary reports in the Annals of the ICRP. The extent of these supplementary reports has indicated a need for consolidation and rationalization. New scientific data have also been published since Publication 60, and while the biological and physical assumptions and concepts remain robust, some updating is required. In addition, there have been societal developments in that more emphasis is now given on the protection of individuals and stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological risk. Finally, it has also become apparent that the radiological protection of non-human species should receive more emphasis than in the past. It is against this background that the Commission has now decided to adopt a revised set of Recommendations while at the same time maintaining stability with the previous recommendations. Following several years of an open and worldwide discussion process, mainly through web consultation, ICRP intends to publish its new recommendations in 2007. In the context of AEN/NEA seminar on safety case for the deep disposal of radioactive waste, it appeared necessary first of all to examine the above mentioned evolution of ICRP system, as well as to recall the main ICRP publications on potential exposure and waste disposal and finally to focus on the main recommendations on solid waste disposal which are still valid. (author)

  2. Radiation and your patient: A guide for medical practitioners ICRP Supporting Guidance 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2001-01-01

    This didactic text is devoted to the protection of patients against unnecessary exposure to ionising radiation. It is organised in a questions-and-answers format. There are obvious benefits to health from medical uses of radiation, in x-ray diagnostics, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy. However, there are well-established risks from high doses of radiation (radiotherapy, interventional radiology), particularly if improperly applied, and possible deleterious effects from small radiation doses (such as those used in diagnostics). Appropriate use of large doses in radiotherapy prevents serious harm, but even low doses carry a risk that cannot be eliminated entirely. Diagnostic use of radiation requires therefore such methodology that would secure high diagnostic gains while minimising the possible harm. For assessment of the risk, a quantitative measure of exposure is a necessary prerequisite. Therefore, dosimetric quantities are explained and defined (absorbed dose, effective dose). Basic facts are presented on mechanisms of action of ionising radiations on living matter. Undesired deleterious effects in man are categorised into two categories. The first one comprises sequelae resulting from massive cell killing (the so-called deterministic effects), requiring a high dose for their manifestation (exceeding the threshold dose). The second category includes those effects originating from mutational changes in the cellular DNA. These may eventually lead to development of radiation-induced cancer and to hereditary changes, transmitted to descendants of exposed individuals after irradiation of their gonads. Data on the magnitude of threshold doses for cell killing effects are presented. On the basis of experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence, assessment is also given of the probability with which cancers and hereditary mutations may be induced by doses of various magnitudes, most likely without a threshold dose (below which no

  3. Development of a personalized dosimetric tool for radiation protection in case of internal contamination and targeted radiotherapy in nuclear medicine; Developpement d'un outil dosimetrique personnalise pour la radioprotection en contamination interne et la radiotherapie vectorisee en medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavassa, S

    2005-12-15

    Current internal dosimetric estimations are based on the M.I.R.D. formalism and used standard mathematical models. These standard models are often far from a given patient morphology and do not allow to perform patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized dosimetric tool, which takes into account real patient morphology, composition and densities. This tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., a French acronym of Tool for the Evaluation of Personalized Internal Dose, is a user-friendly graphical interface. O.E.D.I.P.E. allows to create voxel-based patient-specific geometries and associates them with the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code. Radionuclide distribution and absorbed dose calculation can be performed at the organ and voxel scale. O.E.D.I.P.E. can be used in nuclear medicine for targeted radiotherapy and in radiation protection in case of internal contamination. (author)

  4. Relevance of protection quantities in medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to classify the exposures to radiation in three categories; namely 1- occupational exposure, 2- public exposure, and 3- medical exposure. Protection quantities are primarily meant for the regulatory purpose in radiological protection for controlling and limiting stochastic risks in occupational and public exposures. These are based on two basic assumptions of 1- linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship (LNT) at low doses and 2- long-term additivity of low doses. Medical exposure are predominantly delivered to individuals (patients) undergoing diagnostic examinations, interventional procedures and radiation therapy but also include individual caring for or comforting patients incurring exposure and the volunteers of biomedical medical research programmes. Radiation protection is as relevant to occupational and public exposure as to medical exposures except that the dose limits set for the formers are not applicable to medical exposure but reference levels and dose constrains are recommended for diagnostic and interventional medical procedures. In medical institutions, both the occupational and medical exposure takes place. Since the doses in diagnostic examinations are low, it has been observed that not only the protection quantities are often used in such cases but these are extended to estimate the number of cancer deaths due to such practices. One of the striking features of the new ICRP recommendations has been to elaborate the concepts of the dosimetric quantities. The limitation of protection quantities ((Effective dose, E=Σ RT D TR .W T .W R and Equivalent Dose H T =Σ RT D TR .W R ) have been brought out and this has raised a great concern and initiated debates on the use of these quantities in medical exposures. Consequently, ICRP has set a task group to provide more details and the recommendations. It has, therefore, became important to draw the attention of medical physics community

  5. New radiobiological findings bearing on the 1977 ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Recent experiments on low-level irradiation during development raise questions relevant to ICRP Publication 26. Mice and monkeys were studied; the measured endpoint was the radiation-induced loss of female germ cells. Three issues are examined. The first is the numerical value of Q (quality factor) appropriate for low-energy beta rays. Comparisons of tritium with gamma radiation were made under conditions of chronic, low-level exposure, and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was found to approach 3. Its bearing on ICRP's recommendations concerning Q applicable to tritium is discussed. Second, female germ cells in squirrel monkeys before birth were discovered to be extraordinarily radiosensitive, more easily destroyed than those of mice. If this holds for other primates too, it has radiation-protection implications hitherto overlooked. Third, the contrast between massive germ-cell loss from chronic exposure in prenatal squirrel monkeys and reported radioresistance of oocytes to acute exposure in rhesus monkeys, unless due to species difference, suggests that during development protracted irradiation may be especially injurious. This also could have important radiation-protection implications and is under investigation

  6. New ICRP recommendations and radiation safety of an NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.

    2007-01-01

    In March 2007 the fundamental radiation protection recommendations used world-widely in nuclear facilities were approved by the ICRP. Implementation of radiation safety standards in an NPP is a challenging issue related to all NPP phases from planning a site and its design to its decommissioning also because if neglected it could be very difficult if not impossible to implement improvement of radiation safety later during operation or decommissioning without a substantial cost. The standards are changing with a period of 15 years which is small regarding a prolonged lifetime of many NPPs and also foreseen lifetime of new NPPs, i.e. 60 years. The new recommendations are actually an upgrading of the ICRP 60. Among other changes new sets of wR and wT are given, as well as an update of around 50 different values related to doses. Two new concepts are also tackled i.e. terrorist attacks and protection of the environment. The influence of the new recommendations on the radiation safety of NPPs can be analysed by a selection of four renewed or new concepts: types of exposure situation, dose constraints, source-related approach and safety and security. Their implementation could lead to upgrading the radiation safety of future or existing NPPs as well as of decommissioning processes. Some of the concepts were already extensively and successfully used by designers of modifications or of new NPPs, as well as by operators. (author)

  7. Work of ICRP Committee 4 on the implementation of the new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    2010-01-01

    ICRP Mission was founded in 1928 by the international Society of Radiology to advance for the public benefit the science of radiological protection, in particular by providing recommendations and guidance on all aspects of protection against ionizing radiation. The commission has five committees, plus a scientific secretariat. It has task groups and working parties which are established either by the main commission or by the committees. It consists of 82 members from 24 countries and six continents. It has 7 approximately 100 external experts participating in task groups. It also has an international community of experts in radiological protection. Committee 4 is concerned with providing advice on the application of the recommended system of protection in all its facets for occupational and public exposure. It also acts as the major point of contact with other international organizations and professional societies concerned with protection against ionizing radiation. The priorities of Committee 4 (2009 -2013) are to: . Develop advice on the implementation of the new recommendations and contribute to their dissemination . Review the ethics and values (precautionary principles, tolerability of risk, equity, sustainable development¡¦) underlying the principles and concepts of the radiation protection system . Enhance the dialogue and cooperation with international organizations and professionals The programme of work for Committee 4 was outlined: a) Task Group N¡Æ 76 : Application of the Commission.s Recommendations to NORM b) Task Group N¡Æ 80 : Application of the Commission.s Recommendations as applied to the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste c) Task Group N¡Æ 81 : Application of the Commission.s Recommendations to radon exposure d) Committee 4 programme of work (4): Task Group (to be established): Application of the Commission.s Recommendations to the protection of aircraft crew to cosmic rays e) Committee 4 programme of work (5

  8. Role IAEA implementation of ICRP-60 on regulations the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshinawy, R.K.M.; Gomaa, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In november 1990, the (ICRP) adopted its 1990 recommendations (ICRP-60) ( 1). These recommendations will significantly influence not only IAEA's basic safety standards (safety series 9) ( 2), but also the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material ( 3) and its supporting documents ( 4-6). IAEA experts are currently engaged in the revision of the transport regulations. This revision process led to the publication of the revised transport regulations of 1966. The transport regulations are developed to ensure safety during movement of radioactive materials, and to provide reasonable assurance that the transport activities comply with the basic safety standards for radiation protection

  9. Comments on ICRP-60 rationale for dose limits for the pregnant worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1992-06-01

    ICRP Publication 60 has recently recommended new dose limits for the radiation exposure of pregnant workers. These new dose limits for pregnant workers are more restrictive than the current limits in force in Canada. Recent presentations by Dr. R.H. Mole have faulted the arguments provided by ICRP as justification for reducing the previously recommended limits for pregnant radiation workers. The present paper provides a brief review of the development of the human conceptus, of the biological effects of low doses of radiation on the foetus, and discusses R.H. Mole's comments on ICRP-60. On the critical issues concerning the presence or absence of threshold doses for induction of specific biological endpoints, Dr. Mole and ICRP-60 appear to be in agreement. The basic disagreement between Dr. Mole and ICRP-60 seems to revolve around the philosophical question of whether dose limits should be based on quantitative risks to the foetus or whether dose limits to the pregnant worker should provide a standard of protection to the foetus which is broadly comparable with that provided for members of the general public. Further research is recommended on one of the topics raised by Dr. Mole, namely, foetal doses from radionuclides inhaled or ingested by the mother

  10. Reference methodologies and datasets of ICRP Committee 2 on doses from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovskyvl, V.; Harrison, J.D.

    2018-01-01

    A quantitative characterisation of exposures is a core element of the ICRP system of protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Such prospective and retrospective characterisations, or 'dose assessments', are required by international and national safety standards for public, occupational and medical exposures that can occur in various exposure situations

  11. Application of the new ICRP respiratory tract model to inhaled plutonium nitrate using experimental biokinetic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchall, A.; Bailey, M.R.; Jarvis, N.S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the new ICRP respiratory tract model with particular reference to inhaled plutonium nitrate. The model is used to determine the absorption rates to blood for plutonium nitrate which when combined with the plutonium excretion functions were used to predict urinary excretion in man. The implications of the new model for radiological protection are discussed. (UK).

  12. ALI and DAC for transuranic elements based on the metabolic data presented in ICRP Publication 48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Yamaguchi, Yukichi; Homma, Toshimitsu

    1987-07-01

    The recently published ICRP report, ICRP Publication 48, presents the new metabolic data of some transuranic elements, compared with those employed in the calculation of ALI and DAC in ICRP Publication 30. Values of ALI and DAC for 72 radionuclides were calculated using the metabolic data presented in the Publication 48. The calculation was performed by a computer code system DOSDAC, which can systematically calculate ALI and DAC by the same method as that described in the Publication 30. The calculated values of ALI and DAC were tabulated in the same format as that of the supplements to the Publication 30. For the convenience of using in the dose assessment, also given are values of committed effective dose equivalent per intake of unit activity. It is expected that these values will be applied to the radiation protection purposes. (author)

  13. ICRP Publication 84 of the ICRP. Pregnancy and medical irradiation; ICRP publication 84 de la CIPR. Grossesse et irradiation medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In this volume, the ICRP answers questions relative to medical irradiation of pregnant women, that without responses could lead to unappropriated behaviours. It gives the circumstances for a women to be irradiated, the radiation doses delivered by the radiological procedures for a diagnosis and for a therapy. The risks for the fetus and the woman are tackled, their part in the general risks of the pregnancy and the information to give to the future mother. (N.C.)

  14. The work of committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Over the last few years the Task Group of Committee 2 of ICRP on Internal Dosimetry (INDOS), in conjunction with the Task Group on Dose Calculations (DOCAL), has prepared a series of publications that have given dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by infants, children and adults. The most recent publications have been Publication 88 that gives doses to the embryo, fetus and newborn child from intakes of radionuclides by the mother and Publication 94 that will give doses to the newborn child from intakes of radionuclides in mothers' milk. These documents have completed the programme of work of Committee 2 on dose coefficients for members of the public. The emphasis of work on internal dosimetry by Committee 2 is now concerned with occupational exposure. This is will take into account recent advice from ICRP, including the new 2005 Recommendations of ICRP which are expected to provide revised tissue weighting factors for the calculation of effective dose. In addition ICRP has issued Publication 89 on Basic Anatomical and Physiological Data for use in Radiological Protection and in addition will have published a new Human Alimentary Tract Model (HATM). It will have implemented a human phantom for dose calculations based upon medical imaging data and updated radionuclide decay data; superseding Publication 38. In addition, the systemic models for a number of elements are being revised to take account of more recent data, and the lung clearance characteristics of a wide range of compounds relevant to occupational exposure are being reviewed. It is intended to replace Publications 30 and 68 that give biokinetic data and dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and Publications 54 and 78 that give information for bioassay interpretation, with a single series of publications. This series will cover both dosimetry and data for bioassay interpretation. The first report will cover radionuclides of the 31 elements covered in the series of

  15. Comparison of the respiratory tract models of ICRP and US EPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao

    2000-01-01

    An index for the integral characterization of risk is necessary for improving risk management, comparing the effects of various practices on the environment and keeping risk as low as reasonably achievable while allowing economic development. Public health risk has been used as an index to compare and combine the risks from the presence of a variety of contaminants. In 1994, International Commission on Radiological Protection published the Publication 66 'Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection'. Meanwhile US EPA published 'Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Application of Inhalation Dosimetry'. Basically the concept of Reference Concentration (RfC) is similar to that of DAC used in radiation protection. Both of them are derived from the deposited amount of interested contaminants in the respiratory tract. In an attempt to assess the public health risk by combining the ICRP model and the deposited amount corresponding to values of RfC, the main application, especially the fractional deposition, of the respiratory tract model of US EPA is compared with the new respiratory tract model of ICRP. For normal nose breather, when the AMADs of monodisperse aerosol are 0.5 η m, 1 η m, 2 η m, 3 η m, 5 η m, 7 η m and 10 η m, minute volume is 1.2m 3 /h (20L/mim), the corresponding total fractional depositions calculated by the model of the US EPA are 0.33, 0.50, 0.72, 0.85, 0.95, 0.97 and 0.93. With the same condition, the total fractional deposition calculated by the ICRP model is 0.35, 0.51, 0.70, 0.78, 0.82, 0.81 and 0.77. For polydisperse aerosol with default values of ICRP for occupational and environmental exposures, the fractional depositions calculated by US EPA model are 0.82 and 0.50 while that by ICRP are 0.82 and 0.47. In conclusion, (1) The ICRP model is more accurate than the US EPA model and has a wider application. (2) For monodisperse aerosol, when the AMAD of aerosol is less than 3 η m there is no

  16. Handling, storage, uses and disposal of unsealed radionuclides in hospitals and medical research establishments. A report of Committees 3 and 4 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Adopted by the Commission in November 1976. ICRP Publication 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: hazards associated with radioactive sources and procedures: protection facilities; organization and responsibility; working techniques and protection of workers; protection of the patient; protection of individual members of the public; medical research; control of radioactive contamination; monitoring; radioactive waste; emergency procedures; storage and transport of radioactive materials; leakage from sealed and plated radioactive sources.

  17. Conversion of ICRP male reference phantom to polygon-surface phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi

    2013-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantoms, developed based on computed tomography images of human bodies, provide much more realism of human anatomy than the previously used MIRD5 (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) mathematical phantoms. It has been, however, realized that the ICRP reference phantoms have some critical limitations showing a considerable amount of holes for the skin and wall organs mainly due to the nature of voxels of which the phantoms are made, especially due to their low voxel resolutions. To address this problem, we are planning to develop the polygon-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms by directly converting the ICRP reference phantoms (voxel phantoms) to polygon-surface phantoms. The objective of this preliminary study is to see if it is indeed possible to construct the high-quality polygon-surface phantoms based on the ICRP reference phantoms maintaining identical organ morphology and also to identify any potential issues, and technologies to address these issues, in advance. For this purpose, in the present study, the ICRP reference male phantom was roughly converted to a polygon-surface phantom. Then, the constructed phantom was implemented in Geant4, Monte Carlo particle transport code, for dose calculations, and the calculated dose values were compared with those of the original ICRP reference phantom to see how much the calculated dose values are sensitive to the accuracy of the conversion process. The results of the present study show that it is certainly possible to convert the ICRP reference phantoms to surface phantoms with enough accuracy. In spite of using relatively less resources (<2 man-months), we were able to construct the polygon-surface phantom with the organ masses perfectly matching the ICRP reference values. The analysis of the calculated dose values also implies that the dose values are indeed not very sensitive to the detailed morphology of the organ models in the phantom

  18. Application of the Commission’s recommendations: the activities of ICRP Committee 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Committee 4 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is responsible for developing principles, recommendations, and guidance on the protection of man against radiation exposure; and considering their practical application in all exposure situations. The Committee also acts as a major point of contact between ICRP and other international organisations and professional bodies concerned with protection against ionising radiation. The current work of the Committee involves the development of a series of reports on implementation of the 2007 Recommendations, and a reflection on the ethical foundations of the radiological protection system. Following the accident in Fukushima, Committee 4 also initiated an analysis of management of the consequences of the accident, with the objective of revising, if necessary, the Commission’s publications on emergency and post-accident situations.

  19. Calculation of local skin doses with ICRP adult mesh-type reference computational phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Haegin; Choi, Chansoo; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Lee, Hanjin; Shin, Bangho; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol

    2018-01-01

    Recently, Task Group 103 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) developed new mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) for adult males and females in order to address the limitations of the current voxel-type reference phantoms described in ICRP Publication 110 due to their limited voxel resolutions and the nature of the voxel geometry. One of the substantial advantages of the MRCPs over the ICRP-110 reference phantoms is the inclusion of a 50-μm-thick radiosensitive skin basal-cell layer; however, a methodology for calculating the local skin dose (LSD), i.e., the maximum dose to the basal layer averaged over a 1-cm2 area, has yet to be developed. In the present study, a dedicated program for the LSD calculation with the MRCPs was developed based on the mean shift algorithm and the Geant4 Monte Carlo code. The developed program was used to calculate local skin dose coefficients (LSDCs) for electrons and alpha particles, which were then compared with the values given in ICRP Publication 116 that were produced with a simple tissue-equivalent cube model. The results of the present study show that the LSDCs of the MRCPs are generally in good agreement with the ICRP-116 values for alpha particles, but for electrons, significant differences are found at energies higher than 0.15 MeV. The LSDCs of the MRCPs are greater than the ICRP-116 values by as much as 2.7 times at 10 MeV, which is due mainly to the different curvature between realistic MRCPs ( i.e., curved) and the simple cube model ( i.e., flat).

  20. Development of skeletal system for mesh-type ICRP reference adult phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Wang, Zhao Jun; Tat Nguyen, Thang; Kim, Han Sung; Choi, Chansoo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Beom Sun; Zankl, Maria; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-10-01

    The reference adult computational phantoms of the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) described in Publication 110 are voxel-type computational phantoms based on whole-body computed tomography (CT) images of adult male and female patients. The voxel resolutions of these phantoms are in the order of a few millimeters and smaller tissues such as the eye lens, the skin, and the walls of some organs cannot be properly defined in the phantoms, resulting in limitations in dose coefficient calculations for weakly penetrating radiations. In order to address the limitations of the ICRP-110 phantoms, an ICRP Task Group has been recently formulated and the voxel phantoms are now being converted to a high-quality mesh format. As a part of the conversion project, in the present study, the skeleton models, one of the most important and complex organs of the body, were constructed. The constructed skeleton models were then tested by calculating red bone marrow (RBM) and endosteum dose coefficients (DCs) for broad parallel beams of photons and electrons and comparing the calculated values with those of the original ICRP-110 phantoms. The results show that for the photon exposures, there is a generally good agreement in the DCs between the mesh-type phantoms and the original voxel-type ICRP-110 phantoms; that is, the dose discrepancies were less than 7% in all cases except for the 0.03 MeV cases, for which the maximum difference was 14%. On the other hand, for the electron exposures (⩽4 MeV), the DCs of the mesh-type phantoms deviate from those of the ICRP-110 phantoms by up to ~1600 times at 0.03 MeV, which is indeed due to the improvement of the skeletal anatomy of the developed skeleton mesh models.

  1. Implementation of the ICRP-60 Recommendations by Swiss Pharmaceutical Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R. P.; Traub, K.; Berlepsch, P.; Reischmann, F. J.; Zoubek, N.

    2004-01-01

    Switzerland was among the first countries that adapted its national law to the recommendations of the ICRP-publication No. 60. Already in 1991, the Federal Parliament enacted a new Radiological Protection Act. In 1994, the Federal Government adopted the new Radiation Protection Ordinance. Federal Ministries followed with technical ordinances and guidelines, e.g., for radioactive waste in 1996, for handling open sources in 1997, for X-rays in 1998 and for the training and dosimetry of radiation workers in 1999. In 1996, the Council of the European Union (Switzerland is not a member of the EU) decreed the Directive for the Protection of the Health of Workers and the General Public against the Dangers Arising from Ionising Radiation. Based on this directive, Germany adopted a new Radiation Protection Ordinance in 2001 and a new X-Ray-Ordinance in 2002. To transform the ordinances into radiation protection in the workplace further technical ordinances and guidelines are under development. Almost ten years ago, users of ionising radiation in Switzerland had to deal with the problems of implementing the new radiation protection legislation into their local rules that Germany and other EU companies are facing now. Therefore it may be interesting and helpful for authorities and companies in the EU to learn from the experience of their Swiss colleagues. (Author) 4 refs

  2. Practical applications of the new ICRP recommendation to external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1992-01-01

    Focussing on external dosimetry for occupational exposure the consequences of the new quantities equivalent dose (radiation weighting factor), effective dose (tissue weighting factor) and the ICRU operational quantities for individual and area dosimetry are discussed. Despite some arguments against the new quantities they should be introduced as rapidly as possible to keep international uniformity in radiation protection monitoring. It is shown that they provide a conservative estimate of the effective dose for photons and neutrons. In photon dosimetry only minor changes of the conversion factors relating operational quantities to effective dose is observed. In neutron dosimetry the conversion factors change by a factor of up to 2. It is pointed out that there is a urgent need to calculate standardized conversion factors for field quantities -operational quantities- organ and effective dose in a joint effort of ICRP and ICRU. This includes standardization of calibration methods for individual dosimetry using suitable phantoms instead of the sphere. (author)

  3. Transposition of ICRP-60 recommendations into French uranium mining regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, S.

    2001-01-01

    Directive 96/29/Euratom, drawn up from recommendations of the ICRP 60, must be transposed into French legislation before 13 May 2000. For the French uranium mining sector, two ministerial decrees, one for workers, the other for the environment, must be modified to take account of the new European rules. These modifications entail new statutory limits either for the workers, or to characterise the radiological impact on the environment. For the workers, the implementation since 1980 of a policy of optimising radiation protection in French mines enables us to envisage that these limits will be respected. For the environment, the application of new limits involves a new approach for the assessment of public doses, with the precise definition of critical groups and their realistic exposure scenario. (author)

  4. Radiation safety concerns for pregnant or breast feeding patients. The positions of the NCRP and the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, protecting the fetus has been a concern of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Early recommendations focused on the possibility of a wide variety of detrimental developmental effects while later recommendations focused on the potential for severe mental retardation and/or reduction in the intelligence quotient (I.Q.). The latest recommendations also note that the risk of cancer for the fetus is probably two to three times greater per Sv than in the adult. For all these reasons, the NCRP and the ICRP have provided guidance to physicians on taking all reasonable steps to ascertain whether any woman requiring a radiological or nuclear medicine procedure is pregnant or nursing a child. The NCRP and the ICRP also advise the clinician to postpone such procedures until after delivery or cessation of nursing, if possible

  5. Radiation safety concerns for pregnant or breast feeding patients. The positions of the NCRP and the ICRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, C.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    For many years, protecting the fetus has been a concern of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Early recommendations focused on the possibility of a wide variety of detrimental developmental effects while later recommendations focused on the potential for severe mental retardation and/or reduction in the intelligence quotient (I.Q.). The latest recommendations also note that the risk of cancer for the fetus is probably two to three times greater per Sv than in the adult. For all these reasons, the NCRP and the ICRP have provided guidance to physicians on taking all reasonable steps to ascertain whether any woman requiring a radiological or nuclear medicine procedure is pregnant or nursing a child. The NCRP and the ICRP also advise the clinician to postpone such procedures until after delivery or cessation of nursing, if possible.

  6. An image-based skeletal tissue model for the ICRP reference newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Watchman, Christopher; Bourke, Vincent [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Aris, John [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shagina, Natalia [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Harrison, John; Fell, Tim [Radiation Protection Division, Health Protection Agency, Chilton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu

    2009-07-21

    Hybrid phantoms represent a third generation of computational models of human anatomy needed for dose assessment in both external and internal radiation exposures. Recently, we presented the first whole-body hybrid phantom of the ICRP reference newborn with a skeleton constructed from both non-uniform rational B-spline and polygon-mesh surfaces (Lee et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33). The skeleton in that model included regions of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue, with the remainder given as a homogenous mixture of cortical and trabecular bone, active marrow and miscellaneous skeletal tissues. In the present study, we present a comprehensive skeletal tissue model of the ICRP reference newborn to permit a heterogeneous representation of the skeleton in that hybrid phantom set-both male and female-that explicitly includes a delineation of cortical bone so that marrow shielding effects are correctly modeled for low-energy photons incident upon the newborn skeleton. Data sources for the tissue model were threefold. First, skeletal site-dependent volumes of homogeneous bone were obtained from whole-cadaver CT image analyses. Second, selected newborn bone specimens were acquired at autopsy and subjected to micro-CT image analysis to derive model parameters of the marrow cavity and bone trabecular 3D microarchitecture. Third, data given in ICRP Publications 70 and 89 were selected to match reference values on total skeletal tissue mass. Active marrow distributions were found to be in reasonable agreement with those given previously by the ICRP. However, significant differences were seen in total skeletal and site-specific masses of trabecular and cortical bone between the current and ICRP newborn skeletal tissue models. The latter utilizes an age-independent ratio of 80%/20% cortical and trabecular bone for the reference newborn. In the current study, a ratio closer to 40%/60% is used based upon newborn CT and micro-CT skeletal image analyses. These changes in

  7. New calculation of derived limits for the 1960 radiation protection guides reflecting updated models for dosimetry and biological transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Watson, S.B.; Nelson, C.B.; Nelson, D.R.; Richardson, A.C.B.; Sullivan, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents revised values for the radioactivity concentration guides (RCGs), based on the 1960 primary radiation protection guides (RPGs) for occupational exposure (FRC 1960) and for underground uranium miners (EPA 1971a) using the updated dosimetric models developed to prepare ICRP Publication 30. Unlike the derived quantities presented in Publication 30, which are based on limitation of the weighted sum of doses to all irradiated tissues, these RCGs are based on the ''critical organ'' approach of the 1960 guidance, which was a single limit for the most critically irradiated organ or tissue. This report provides revised guides for the 1960 Federal guidance which are consistent with current dosimetric relationships. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  8. The translation of the new ICRP recommendations into practice: a new challenge for International Co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilari, O.; Gonzalez, A.; Boutrif, E.; Hanson, G.; Borras, C.

    1992-01-01

    The new ICRP recommendations have introduced several elements of novelty which may have a significant impact on the requirements and costs of radiation protection in Member countries. There is now a need for a conversion of the ICRP guidance into terms that are sufficiently practical and straightforward to facilitate their transfer into regulatory texts and operational practices at the national level. The paper discusses the strategy adopted for the revision of the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection and highlights the main issues to be considered in this work.(author)

  9. Applicability of dose conversion coefficients of ICRP 74 to Asian adult males: Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2007-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reported comprehensive dose conversion coefficients for adult population, which is exposed to external photon sources in the Publication 74. However, those quantities were calculated from so-called stylized (or mathematical) phantoms composed of simplified mathematical surface equations so that the discrepancy between the phantoms and real human anatomy has been investigated by several authors using Caucasian-based voxel phantoms. To address anatomical and racial limitations of the stylized phantoms, several Asian-based voxel phantoms have been developed by Korean and Japanese investigators, independently. In the current study, photon dose conversion coefficients of ICRP 74 were compared with those from a total of five Asian-based male voxel phantoms, whose body dimensions were almost identical. Those of representative radio-sensitive organs (testes, red bone marrow, colon, lungs, and stomach), and effective dose conversion coefficients were obtained for comparison. Even though organ doses for testes, colon and lungs, and effective doses from ICRP 74 agreed well with those from Asian voxel phantoms within 10%, absorbed doses for red bone marrow and stomach showed significant discrepancies up to 30% which was mainly attributed to difference of phantom description between stylized and voxel phantoms. This study showed that the ICRP 74 dosimetry data, which have been reported to be unrealistic compared to those from Caucasian-based voxel phantoms, are also not appropriate for Asian population

  10. Where do we stand with ICRP60?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Thomson, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the implications of ICRP60 for nuclear medicine. Radiation doses to staff are currently low and reduction of the dose limits will have little impact. However, the proposed figures for the foetus may have implications for pregnant women where the workloads are high. With nursing staff on the ward, laboratory staff or indeed departmental porters there seems little problem. Radiation dose to the fingers is, however, a key factor, and ensuring that nor further restrictions are placed on the proposed dose limits is important. The concept of constraints is becoming clearer but will need further thought, particularly with regard to exposure of the general public. The previous basis for declaring controlled and supervised areas has been abandoned, and the situation is now less clear. A most important area of debate will be the patient who is a controlled area, and great care will have to be taken to ensure that the number of patients in this category is not increased so that many more patients need to be kept in hospital. Exposure of the general public is also an issue and expanding the concept of medical exposure to include carers is an important development. This should prevent a number of unnecessary restrictions and adds weight to the point that two waiting rooms are not justified in nuclear medicine departments. ICRP recommendations will soon be incorporated into the legislation of member states and it is important for everyone to ensure that drafts are read carefully and that national proposals are not too restrictive. (orig.)

  11. Overview of the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external idealised exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Akira; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Zankl, Maria; Schlattl, Helmut; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Hertel, Nolan E.; Hunt, John G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Menzel, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the ICRP Publications 110 and 116 describing the reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external exposures. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its 2007 Recommendations made several revisions to the methods of calculation of the protection quantities. In order to implement these recommendations, the DOCAL task group of the ICRP developed computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and female and then calculated a set of dose conversion coefficients for various types of idealised external exposures. This paper focuses on the dose conversion coefficients for neutrons and investigates their relationship with the conversion coefficients of the protection and operational quantities of ICRP Publication 74. Contributing factors to the differences between these sets of conversion coefficients are discussed in terms of the changes in phantoms employed and the radiation and tissue weighting factors. This paper briefly reviews the reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external exposures that were published jointly by ICRP and ICRU. Both these publications appeared as a consequence of the ICRP 2007 Recommendations; to implement these recommendations, the ICRP has developed reference computational phantoms representing the adult male and female. These phantoms are used to calculate reference dose conversion coefficients for external and internal sources. Using the reference phantoms and methodology consistent with the 2007 Recommendations, dose conversion coefficients for both effective doses and organ-absorbed doses for various types of idealised external exposures have been calculated. These data sets supersede the existing ICRP/ICRU data sets and expand the particle types and energy ranges. For neutrons, the new effective dose conversion coefficients become smaller compared with those in ICRP74, for energies below hundreds of keV. This is mainly

  12. Implementation of the 1990 Recommendations of ICRP in the countries of the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.; Clarke, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published new Recommendations in ICRP Publication 60. These 1990 Recommendations provide a System of Radiological Protection that takes account of the most recent information on the effects on health of exposure to ionizing radiation and trends in the setting of safety standards. Within the European Community the Recommendations of ICRP are implemented through a Euratom Directive which is binding on Member States and which is at present being revised by the Article 31 Group and must eventually be ratified by the Council of Ministers. It is expected that the new Directive will broadly endorse the principles of protection given in the 1990 recommendations together with the dose limits for both workers and members of the public. There are likely to be some modifications to the 1990 Recommendations that are mainly related to their practical application. As it will be some time before the Directive is incorporated in national regulations a number of Member States have taken independent initiatives. The development of dose constraints for occupational, medical and public exposure is being seen by national organizations in many countries as a significant new approach to improving standards of radiation protection. (author)

  13. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with: Objectives and basic concepts of radiation protection, basic radiobiological considerations, the ICRP system of dose limitation and with operational radiation protection (limits, reference levels, occupational exposure). (RW)

  14. Some Current Problems in Optimisation of Radiation Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Prlic, I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The current system of radiation protection is generally based on recommendations promulgated in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 60. These principles and recommendations were subsequently adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). However, in recent years certain problems have arisen such as application of risk factors at low doses, use and interpretation of a collective dose, concept of dose commitment, optimisation of all types of occupational exposure and practices, implementation of ALARA approach in the common occupational as well as in quite complex situations etc. In this paper are presented some of the issues that have to be addressed in the development of the new ICRP Recommendations that are planned to be developed in next four or five years. As the new radiation protection philosophy shifts from society-based control of stochastic risks to an individual-based policy, consequently it will require introduction of modified approach to optimisation process and probably introduction of some new dosimetric quantities. (author)

  15. Problems encountered in embodying the principles of ICRP-26 and the revised IAEA safety standards into UK national legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the United Kingdom procedures and format for safety legislation and goes on to show how the necessary legislation for radiological protection will fit into the general framework. The United Kingdom, as a member of the European Community and EURATOM, is bound to implement the Euratom Directive on radiological protection within the next few years. The latest draft of the Directive takes account of the recommendations of ICRP-26 and further, a recent draft of the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards is a composite of both the Directive and ICRP-26. Thus, the effect of embodying the principles of the Directive is to embody the principles of ICRP-26 and the Basic Safety Standards. Some of the problems which have been met are described and in particular there is discussion of the problems arising from the incorporation of the three ICRP-26 facets of dose control, namely justification, optimization and limitation, into a legislative package. The UK system of evolving safety legislation now requires considerable participation by all the parties affected (or by their representatives). This paper indicates that the involvement of persons affected, coupled with a legislative package which consists of a hierarchy of (a) regulations; (b) codes of practice; and (c) guidance notes, will result in the fundamental principles of ICRP-26 being incorporated into UK legislation in a totally acceptable way. (author)

  16. Management of radon: a review of ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant, Ludovic; Bataille, Céline

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a review of past and current ICRP publications dealing with the management of radon exposures. Its main objective is to identify and discuss the driving factors that have been used by the Commission during the last 50 years so as to better appreciate current issues regarding radon exposure management. The analysis shows that major evolutions took place in very recent years. As far as the management of radon exposures is concerned, ICRP recommended, until ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP 2007 ICRP Publication 103; Ann. ICRP 37), to use action levels and to consider only exposures above these levels. The Commission has reviewed its approach and now proposes to manage any radon exposure through the application of the optimisation principle and associated reference levels. As far as the assessment of the radon risk is concerned, it appears that the successive changes made by ICRP did not have a strong impact on the values of radon gas concentration recommended as action levels either in dwellings or in workplaces. The major change occurred in late 2009 with the publication of the ICRP Statement on Radon, which acknowledged that the radon risk has been underestimated by a factor of 2, thus inducing a major revision of radon reference levels. (review)

  17. Application of ICRP recommendations to radioactive waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.; Lindell, B.

    1984-01-01

    Some radioactive waste categories require isolation from the biosphere for extended periods of time. Various mechanisms can be expected in the future leakage of radionuclides; some are the result of 'normal', expected processes, while others would be the result of random disruptive events. In the second case, the exposures can only be evaluated on a probabilistic basis. Nevertheless, the three basic principles for protection usually recommended by ICRP still apply: individual risk limitation, optimization of protection, and justification of practice. In the individual-related assessment, the requirement should be that the overall probability of death from exposure to waste products (considering both the probability of dose and the probability of death, given the dose) should not exceed the probability of death at the dose 'upper bound' that national authorities would designate for the practice. In the source-related assessment for optimization of protection, the detriment should be assessed over relevant time periods and be the basis for marginal cost-benefit analysis of the various potential improvements in the combined isolation provided by the engineering and geological features. (author)

  18. Historical revision of the exposure magnitude and the dosimetric magnitudes used in radiological protection; Revision historica de la magnitud exposicion y las magnitudes dosimetricas empleadas en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work a historical revision of the exposure magnitude development and their roentgen unit (1905 - 2011) is made, noting that it had their origin in the electric methods for the detection of the ionizing radiation in the period of 1895 at 1937. However, the ionization is not who better characterizes the physical, chemical and biological effects of the ionizing radiations, but is the energy deposited by this radiation in the interest bodies, which led historically to the development of dosimetric magnitudes in energy terms like they are: the absorbed dose D (1950), the kerma K (1958) and the equivalent dose H (1962). These dosimetric magnitudes culminated with the definition of the effective equivalent dose or effective dose which is not measurable and should be considered with the operative magnitudes ICRU: H environmental equivalent dose and/or H directional equivalent dose, which can be determined by means of a conversion coefficient that is applied to the exposure, kerma in air, fluence, etc. (Author)

  19. Present situation and influence of new ICRP recommendations on radioactive material transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamard, J.; Ringot, C.

    1991-01-01

    The publication of new ICRP recommendations will involve the revision of IAEA standards and consequently the revision of transport regulations for radioactive materials. Transport regulations are briefly reviewed and application for radiation protection of workers and public is examined. Influence of new recommendations on transport regulations and eventual modifications on classification and transport of materials, packaging design and permissible exposure for workers and public in the prospect of regulation revision forecasted for 1995

  20. Simulation of the respiratory model of tract of Publication 66 of the ICRP and their use in biological analysis; Simulacion del modelo de tracto respiratorio de la Publicacion 66 de la ICRP y su utilizacion en bioanalisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, A. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Fisica; Bertelli, L.; Lipsztein, J. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The International Commission Radiological Protection, ICRP in its publications 67, 68, 69 and 71 provides the loss of systematic activity of the radioactive materials by the routes of excretion and recirculation, as well as effective dose by incorporation unit coefficient, using the model of respiratory tract proposed by the ICRP, in its Publication 66, but it does not provide information on as these models in biological analysis are used. There are some specific studies for inhalation of uranium compounds made by Bertelli and collaborators using the new model of the lung. In this work it have been done a simulation of the model of respiratory tract of ICRP 66 of such form that it can be used in-vitro and in-vivo biological analysis. In order to verify the simulation were used systemic models for adult of planuin, lead, uranium, bismuth and their respective descendants and the comparison with the coefficients of dose provided by the ICRP. Finally, it shows the estimation of the temporary distribution of activity in devices and the excrete of these radionuclides and in addition the model for gases and steam in the conditions is verified that the ICRP proposes.

  1. Simulation of the respiratory model of tract of Publication 66 of the ICRP and their use in biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, A.

    2001-01-01

    The International Commission Radiological Protection, ICRP in its publications 67, 68, 69 and 71 provides the loss of systematic activity of the radioactive materials by the routes of excretion and recirculation, as well as effective dose by incorporation unit coefficient, using the model of respiratory tract proposed by the ICRP, in its Publication 66, but it does not provide information on as these models in biological analysis are used. There are some specific studies for inhalation of uranium compounds made by Bertelli and collaborators using the new model of the lung. In this work it have been done a simulation of the model of respiratory tract of ICRP 66 of such form that it can be used in-vitro and in-vivo biological analysis. In order to verify the simulation were used systemic models for adult of planuin, lead, uranium, bismuth and their respective descendants and the comparison with the coefficients of dose provided by the ICRP. Finally, it shows the estimation of the temporary distribution of activity in devices and the excrete of these radionuclides and in addition the model for gases and steam in the conditions is verified that the ICRP proposes

  2. Data for radiation protection and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Endo, Akira; Sakamoto, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    Various conversion coefficients have been used in external and internal dosimetry in radiation protection practices. Radiation doses in the human body cannot be directly measured in general situation and the conversion coefficient has been used to correlate the human body dose with physical quantities such as radioactivity, particle fluence and other dosimetric quantities to be used to describe the radiation field. Fluence-to-organ dose conversion coefficients have been calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in conjunction with an anthropomorphic mathematical phantom. Neutron and photon interaction cross-section libraries are indispensable for these calculations. ICRP Publication 74 gives tables of conversion coefficients for estimation of organ doses and effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons. Based on these results, shielding calculation parameters have been prepared for simple and easy dose estimation in radiation facilities. Dose factors, organ doses and effective dose per unit intake of radionuclide, have been also calculated for internal dosimetry purpose. ICRP Publications 68 and 72 give tables of dose factors for a variety of radionuclides. Revision of radiation data library has been made to reflect updated information on radionuclides to internal dosimetry. (author)

  3. Experience in the application of the new ICRP recommendations in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztanyik, L.B.; Bojtor, I.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with the introduction of nuclear power in Hungary and the increasing use of radioactive substances and other sources of ionizing radiation for industrial, medical and research purposes, comprehensive legislation on the use of atomic energy has recently been introduced. An Atomic Energy Act was passed by Parliament, the supreme legislative body of the country, in 1980. Accompanying this, an enacting clause was issued by the Council of Ministers, and several ministerial orders were published subsequently on particular rules and regulations for atomic energy applications. In preparing this legislation, the new principles and recommendations of the ICRP on radiation protection were taken into consideration as much as possible. The basic principles of radiation protection, including justification of the proposed operation or practice, reduction of any necessary exposure to a level as low as is reasonably achievable, and limitation of dose to individuals to the values recommended by the ICRP have been adopted and incorporated into the text of the Act. Disagreement has been found, however, when the balancing of costs and benefits as well as the acceptability of the level of risk were proposed for inclusion. In the latter question some professional objections have also been encountered. Limitation of individual monitoring and assessment of dose to workers designated to work in Condition A, as recommended by the ICRP, seems to involve a risk that a major proportion of ''overexposures'', i.e. exposures exceeding the investigation level, remains undiscovered. (author)

  4. Outlines of ICRP publication 74 and new dose conversion coefficients for external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    Combined task group of ICRP and ICRU reported the ICRP Publication 74 (1996) which is a summary report of their collection, analysis and evaluation of many data and dose conversion coefficients. Concerning the new coefficients, the author described this review as follows: History until Publication 74. Doses recommended at present: for protection quantity, the mean absorption dose of organ and tissue, equivalent dose and effective dose and for operational quantity, the ambient dose equivalent, directional dose equivalent and individual dose equivalent. Changes which can have an influence on the dose evaluation; introduction of radiation weighting factor (WR), changing of tissue weighting factor (WR), changing of the equation for Q-L relation and updating of physical data. New dose conversion coefficients; for photon, neutron and electron. Comparison of new and present coefficients; concerning the quality factor Q, particularly for neutron Q. New relations of protection and operational quantities; for field and individual monitoring. General conclusion of Publication 74. The Publication gives a certain direction for problems in evaluation of external exposure dose which have been discussed since the ICRP Fundamental Recommendation 1990 was issued. However, there still remain many problems especially in validity of the WR and of equation for Q-L relation. (K.H.)

  5. Evaluation of the use of ICRP 60 dose conversion factors in a postclosure assessment of a deep geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palattao, M.V.B.; Hajas, W.C.; Goodwin, B.W.

    1997-05-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste was completed in 1994 and is currently under review by an independent Review Panel. This EIS included a postclosure assessment case study to estimate the annual effective dose equivalent in sieverts per year to members of the public; these estimates were obtained using dose conversion factors (DCFS) based on the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). However, in 1990 the ICRP revised these recommendations based on additional biological information and developments in radiation protection. This report describes a study of how the more recent recommendations of the ICRP would affect the results of the postclosure assessment case study presented in the EIS. The report includes a theoretical description of how DCFs are used and a comparison of results from computer simulations using the 1977 and the 1990 ICRP recommendations. In the EIS case study, which was based on the 1977 ICRP recommendations, the total dose rate to a member of the critical group is more than six orders of magnitude below the dose rate associated with the regulatory criterion for individual radiological risk. The total dose rate to 10 4 years is dominated by 129 I, with smaller contributions from 36 C1 and 14 C. If the 1990 ICRP recommendations were implemented, the total dose rate would be mostly affected by the new DCF for 129 I, and would increase by about 67%. Even with this increase, the total dose rate would still remain many orders of magnitude lower than the dose rate associated with the regulatory risk criterion. (author)

  6. ICRP risk assessment-another view (24 november 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.Z.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning in 1960 two serious radiation exposure problems (occupational exposure in uranium mines and population exposure from testing of nuclear weapons) came to the attention. One might have expected ICRP to be the first to try to reduce these exposures but it was conspicuous by its silence. In 1958 ICRP set limits of exposure for radiation workers and members of the public. Nineteen years later (1977) when it was realized that the risk of radiation induced cancer was ten to thirty times what it was estimated to be in 1958, ICRP might have been expected to recommend a significant reduction in permissible exposure levels, but to the dismay of some it increased them. It was also a great disappointment when in 1977, levels of maximum permissible concentration of radionuclides in air, water and food were increased for a large fraction of the more dangerous radionuclides. The reactor accident at Chernobyl calls for a number of new ICRP recommendations [fr

  7. A conception of practical application of the ICRP Publ. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numakunai, Takao

    1999-01-01

    The report of view for practical application of ICRP Publ. 60 in Japanese regulations and its technical guideline proposal were published by the Advisory Committee of radiation protection in June, 1998 and April, 1999, respectively. This paper described the summary of the above reports and essential conception for the actual application. Following items were summarized: the change of technical terms such as the use of ''dose'' in place of dose equivalent, dose limits in occupational exposure (the effective dose limit not to exceed 100 mSv/5 y and 50 mSv/y), dose limits in women's occupational exposure (not to exceed 5 mSv/3 mth), the working area (the controlled area), public dose limits with consideration for medical exposure, exposure by natural sources of radiation, exposure in volunteers and nursing persons, occupational health service for radiation workers, emergency exposure (100 mSv; 300 mSv for lens and 1 Sv for skin), intervention in the public at emergency exposure, document, and the system for radiation control. It was expected for suitable institutions and groups to develop and make the guideline through the examination of the reports. (K.H.)

  8. Waste Management within the Framework of ICRP Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Larsson, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    There are good reasons why ICRP should revisit the issue of solid radioactive waste disposal after the new recommendations have been established. One reason is the relation between radiation protection and the concept of sustainable development. Since the post-closure regulations determine the maximum burden for future generations at the disposal site, it is natural to make such a link. If we assume the continuation of the practice of nuclear power production or an alternative production with equivalent risk burdens, it is natural to consider the combined effect of present and future activities, particularly for long-lived radioactive waste. This leads to a suggested margin for dose to the public from a single repository. Another issue is the biosphere assumed in the assessment of exposure from a hypothetical outflow from the repository in the future. The existing regulations require dose or risk to be determined in most national standards. The issue of the future biosphere therefore cannot be avoided. However, if several possible future human activities in alternative biospheres have to be assumed in reviewing if the standard is met, the process can be said to take future generations need into account, also in harmony with the sustainable development. (Author)

  9. A conception of practical application of the ICRP Publ. 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numakunai, Takao [Inst. of Radiation Measurements, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The report of view for practical application of ICRP Publ. 60 in Japanese regulations and its technical guideline proposal were published by the Advisory Committee of radiation protection in June, 1998 and April, 1999, respectively. This paper described the summary of the above reports and essential conception for the actual application. Following items were summarized: the change of technical terms such as the use of ''dose'' in place of dose equivalent, dose limits in occupational exposure (the effective dose limit not to exceed 100 mSv/5 y and 50 mSv/y), dose limits in women's occupational exposure (not to exceed 5 mSv/3 mth), the working area (the controlled area), public dose limits with consideration for medical exposure, exposure by natural sources of radiation, exposure in volunteers and nursing persons, occupational health service for radiation workers, emergency exposure (100 mSv; 300 mSv for lens and 1 Sv for skin), intervention in the public at emergency exposure, document, and the system for radiation control. It was expected for suitable institutions and groups to develop and make the guideline through the examination of the reports. (K.H.)

  10. Hybrid pregnant reference phantom series based on adult female ICRP reference phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat-Motavalli, Laleh; Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Hoseinian-Azghadi, Elie

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents boundary representation (BREP) models of pregnant female and her fetus at the end of each trimester. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference voxel phantom was used as a base template in development process of the pregnant hybrid phantom series. The differences in shape and location of the displaced maternal organs caused by enlarging uterus were also taken into account. The CT and MR images of fetus specimens and pregnant patients of various ages were used to replace the maternal abdominal pelvic organs of template phantom and insert the fetus inside the gravid uterus. Each fetal model contains 21 different organs and tissues. The skeletal model of the fetus also includes age-dependent cartilaginous and ossified skeletal components. The replaced maternal organ models were converted to NURBS surfaces and then modified to conform to reference values of ICRP Publication 89. The particular feature of current series compared to the previously developed pregnant phantoms is being constructed upon the basis of ICRP reference phantom. The maternal replaced organ models are NURBS surfaces. With this great potential, they might have the feasibility of being converted to high quality polygon mesh phantoms.

  11. Current status on preparation of dose conversion factors based on 1990 ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Michio

    1996-01-01

    The current status of arrangement of dose conversion factors for operational quantities are explained on the basis of 1995 ICRP-ICRU recommendations. The dose conversion factors of photon, neutron and electron were recommended by ICRP Publ. 74. It's contents are described. The relation between new dose conversion factors and the laws in connection with protecting radiation are explained. The dose conversion factors of 1 cm-, 3 mm- and 70 μm - dose equivalent which were introduced into the laws connected therewith in Japan are accepted the same values of ICRP Publ. 51 for photon and neutron. I mentioned the points of discussing about new dose conversion factors which are expected to be recommended. The laws have to show the dose conversion factors to be used by calculation and estimation of radiation shield, etc. The limit of energy of ICRU individual dose equivalent for photon is now until 1 MeV, but the value is insufficient and necessary to 10 MeV as same as the ambient dose equivalent in due consideration of atomic energy facilities. JAERI is preparing these dose conversion factors now. (S.Y.)

  12. Basis for the ICRP's age-specific biokinetic model for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is developing age-specific biokinetic models and dose coefficients for environmentally important radionuclides. This paper describes the ICRP's age-specific biokinetic model for uranium. The model is constructed within a physiologically based framework originally developed for application to the alkaline earth elements but sufficiently general to apply to the larger class of bone-volume-seeking elements. Transfer rates for a reference adult are based mainly on: (1) measurements of uranium in blood and excreta of several human subjects who were intravenously injected with uranium; (2) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of some of those subjects; (3) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of occupationally and non-occupationally exposed subjects; (4) data on baboons, dogs, and smaller laboratory animals exposed to uranium for experimental purposes; and (5) consideration of the physiological processes thought to control retention and translocation of uranium in the body. Transfer rates for the adult are extended to children by application of a set of generic assumptions applied by the ICRP to calcium-like elements. These assumptions were derived mainly from observations of the age-specific biokinetics of the alkaline earth elements and lead in humans and laboratory animals but are consistent with available age-specific biokinetic data on uranium. 82 refs., 17 figs., 8 tabs

  13. The Involvement of IRPA in the Development of ICRP and Other International Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: One of the main items in the IRPA constitution is to encourage the establishment and continuous review of universally acceptable radiation protection standards or recommendations through the international bodies concerned. This matter was discussed in depth at the Associate Societies Forum during the IRPA-10 Congress in Hiroshima in May 2000. A clear consensus existed among societies present that IRPA must play a larger role in the standard setting process. The mechanisms to fulfil this role have still to be elaborated but two processes have been identified. One for collecting and transmitting societies views on proposals by standards-setting bodies and another for quickly informing societies about the developments within international bodies on which IRPA acts as an observer. An example of the first was when IRPA invited its Member Societies to comment on Professor Roger Clarke's Controllable Dose proposal. The IRPA 10 Congress in May 2000 in Hiroshima provided the obvious focus for discussing the responses from the various Societies. These have been brought together in a report entitled IRPA Member Societies' Contributions to the development of new ICRP Recommendations and transmitted to ICRP by the IRPA Secretariat. The second procedure is more established as IRPA has observer status with a number of organisations including ICRP, IAEA and NEA and on interagency committees such as the Interagency Committee on Radiation Safety Standards (IACRS). (author)

  14. The Nea contribution to the evolution of the international system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Since the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) initiated a dialogue in 1999 on the evolution of the system of radiological protection, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has actively engaged in providing the ICRP with input and views. The Committee's work on this subject has included eight expert group reports, seven international conferences, and four detailed review and comment assessments of draft ICRP recommendations. This report presents a chronological summary of the issues, views and concerns raised by the CRPPH as the ICRP issued various draft versions of its new recommendations (ICRP Publication 103, published in December 2007), and of the response by the ICRP as seen in its subsequent draft recommendations. The interest of this summary report is that it will not only assist readers in understanding the main themes and concepts of the new ICRP recommendations, but also why and how the changes from the previous ICRP Publication 60 recommendations came about. (author)

  15. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, J.

    1983-11-01

    Topics covered include biological radiation effects, radiation protection principles, recommendations of the ICRP and the National Health and Medical Research Council, and dose limits for individuals, particularly the limit applied to the inhalation of radon daughters

  16. A framework for assessing the impact of ionising radiation on non-human species ICRP Publication 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2003-01-01

    In its 1990 Recommendations, the ICRP indicated that it believed that the standards of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable would ensure that other species are not put at risk. The ICRP considers that its system of radiological protection has provided a fairly good indirect protection of the human habitat. However, no internationally agreed criteria or policies explicitly address protection of the environment from ionising radiation, and it is difficult to determine or demonstrate whether or not the environment is adequately protected from potential impacts of radiation under different circumstances. The present report suggests a framework, based on scientific and ethical-philosophical principles, by which a policy for the protection of non-human species could be achieved. The primary purpose of developing such a framework is to fill a conceptual gap in radiological protection; it does not reflect any particular concern over environmental radiation hazards. The proposed framework is designed to harmonise with the ICRP's approach to the protection of human beings, but does not intend to set regulatory standards. Instead, the proposed framework is intended to be a practical tool to provide high-level advice and guidance for regulators and operators. An agreed set of quantities and units, a set of reference dose models, reference dose-per-unit-intake (or unit exposure), and reference fauna and flora are required to serve as a basis for the more fundamental understanding and interpretation of the relationships between exposure and dose and between dose and certain categories of effect, for a few, clearly defined types of animals and plants. As a first step, a small set of reference fauna and flora with supporting databases will be developed by the ICRP. Others can then develop more area- and situation-specific approaches to assess and manage risks to non-human species

  17. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  18. Dosimetric studies of the eye lens using a new dosemeter – Surveys in interventional radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirchio, R.; Sánchez, H.; Domazet, W.

    2014-01-01

    During interventional radiology (IR) and cardiology (IC) procedures, medical staff can receive high doses to their eye lenses. The Retrospective Evaluation of Lens Injuries and Dose study organized in Argentina in 2010 found incipient opacity in 50% of IC physicians and 41% of IC technicians/nurses. These results, added to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, which lowered their former occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens, led us to assess the eye lens dose, Hp(3), during interventional procedures. To this end, a new dosemeter was designed and calibrated at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina to evaluate Hp(3). Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)), and Hp(3) were assessed for 3 months in two IC and IR departments. An Alderson phantom was used to simulate monthly exposures of five occupational staff members. Hp(3) and Hp(10) were obtained monthly for 14 occupational staff members exposed to 121 IR and IC procedures. We concluded that the annual effective dose and Hp(3) were lower than 0.3 and 10 mSv, respectively and the average cumulative Hp(3) for working life was lower than 400 and 200 mSv for physicians and technicians/scrub nurse, respectively. An occupational annual dose constraint of 0.3 mSv was calculated. - Highlights: • An eye lens dosimeters was designed at the Personal Dosimetry Laboratory of CNEA. • A successful dosimetric survey in two interventional departments was done. • The annual effective dose and the annual eye lens dose are lower than the ICRP dose thresholds. • In order to reduce doses actions should be promoted to maximize radiation protection

  19. Radiation hazards in uranium mining. Epidemiological and dosimetric approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Johnson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Potential health hazards resulting from exposure to various sources of radiation associated with uranium mining have been reviewed: 1) epidemiological observations on groups of miners exposed in the past to high concentrations of radon progeny have been interpreted to suggest a lifetime risk of about 3 x 10 -4 lung cancers per WLM; 2) the total risk of serious health effects resulting from exposure of workers to whole body gamma-radiation might be taken to be about 2 x 10 -2 per Sv; and 3) the potential health effects of inhalation of thoron progeny or of radioactive ore dusts can only be estimated from dosimetric calculations. A review of the uncertainties involved in these calculations suggests that ICRP estimates of the potential toxicity of inhaled thoron progeny are as good as those for inhaled radon progeny. However, the potential health hazards from inhaled uranium and thorium ore dusts have probably been overestimated by a factor of 2 to 10-fold

  20. Final storage of radioactive waste and radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.

    2008-01-01

    For operational effectiveness, ICRP built a dosimetric system based on the additivity of the effects whatever are the nature of the radiation and the origin of the exposure, external or internal. This system fulfilled the assigned role; the assessment of the protection against radiation is good. Today, the challenge to overcome with regard of the nuclear energy is to make the demonstration that the management of disposed wastes in geological formations will be without risk to the future generations. The scenario considered is related to the return towards the biosphere and an internal contamination by ingestion of long-lived radionuclides. Is the current radiological protection system adapted to this situation? What means irradiation alpha? What does one really know in dosimetric and risk terms for the chronicity of internal exposures? As many questions for which we always do not have the answer and that it is thus necessary to consider at the time when one recommends a dialogue with the stakeholders and that recent scientific observations call into question many certainties. New research programmes in radio toxicology appear absolutely necessary to answer these legitimate questions. The example of the step of pharmaceutical industry for obtaining the marketing authorizations of the drugs is to be meditated. (author)

  1. Voxel-based models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult - the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.; Eckerman, K.F.; Bolch, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    For the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) will use voxel-based computational phantoms due to their improved anatomical realism compared with the class of mathematical or stylized phantoms used previously. According to the ICRP philosophy, these phantoms should be representative of the male and female reference adults with respect to their external dimensions, their organ topology and their organ masses. To meet these requirements, reference models of an adult male and adult female have been constructed at the GSF, based on existing voxel models segmented from tomographic images of two individuals whose body height and weight closely resemble the ICRP Publication 89 reference values. The skeleton is a highly complex structure of the body, composed of cortical bone, trabecular bone, red and yellow bone marrow and endosteum ('bone surfaces' in their older terminology). The skeleton of the reference phantoms consists of 19 individually segmented bones and bone groups. Sub-division of these bones into the above-mentioned constituents would be necessary in order to allow a direct calculation of dose to red bone marrow and endosteum. However, the dimensions of the trabeculae, the cavities containing bone marrow and the endosteum layer lining these cavities are clearly smaller than the resolution of a normal CT scan and, thus, these volumes could not be segmented in the tomographic images. As an attempt to represent the gross spatial distribution of these regions as realistically as possible at the given voxel resolution, 48 individual organ identification numbers were assigned to various parts of the skeleton: every segmented bone was subdivided into an outer shell of cortical bone and a spongious core; in the shafts of the long bones, a medullary cavity was additionally segmented. Using the data from ICRP Publication 89 on elemental tissue composition, from ICRU Report 46 on material

  2. ICRP and UNSCEAR: Their roles in defining the most important biomedical effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.

    The history of ICRP from its origin in the British X-ray and Radiation Protection Committee (1921) to the present is described. Particular attention is directed to the evolution of occupational dose limits, which show a gradual decline, and to the perceptions of the most important effects on human beings. Recent developments in derived (or secondary) dose limits are also described. Basic to the dose limits are the risk estimates. UNSCEAR, since its establishment in 1955, has provided leadership in estimating numerically the risks of genetic defects and malignancy from exposure to ionizing radiation. The usefulness of providing risk estimates for public education has severe limitations. (author)

  3. The implications of ICRP publication 74 for the design of the LHC shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    A joint committee of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) have recently published a report recommending new factors for the conversion of the fluence of neutrons, photons and electrons into radiologically significant quantities. Both the quantities specified and the numerical values of the conversion coefficients are different from previously published values. This report investigates the effect of these changes on the predictions of shielding requirements for the LHC and suggests that only minor policy adjustments are necessary. (author)

  4. Integrating socio-economical dimensions in the ICRP cost-benefit model (a theoretical approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques.

    1981-09-01

    This report aims at analysing, from a methodological point of view, the main problems associated with the integration of socio-economical dimensions in the cost-benefit model recommended by the ICRP in its publication no. 26. After recalling the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis, the elements to be retained in the objective function characterizing the analysis, and the question of the social benefit definitions are discussed. The theory of social surplus with an illustration taken from the radiological protection field is presented [fr

  5. Stake holders' views on the implications of the new ICRP recommendations: an environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.

    2003-01-01

    The development of the new ICRP Recommendations are of significant interest to environmental organisations. There are several issues of particular interest: 1. whether the 'approach and the numbers are right'? in the general recommendations; 2. to what extent the understandings being developed for both human and non-human species will effectively address concerns regarding protecting the health of people and the environment; and 3. to what extent these new recommendations will inform the broader regulatory and policy debates, in particular those concerning the uses of nuclear power, fuel cycle developments and radioactive waste management practices. This presentation will explore various aspects of these issues from the perspectives of environmental organisations. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the effect of change in the radiosensitive tissue weights listed in the ICRP in estimate of effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Jose W.; Leal Neto, Viriato; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J.; Lima Filho, Jose M.; Santana, Ivan E.; Andrade, Pedro H.A.; Cabral, Manuela O.M.

    2015-01-01

    For photons and electrons, the effective dose by gender is a weighted sum of the absorbed doses in radiosensitive organs and tissue of the human body. Effective dose is estimated using Exposure Computational Models (ECM) of both genders for the same age group. The FSTA and MSTA ECMs were developed by researchers from DEN/UFPE and consist of voxel phantoms representing adults coupled to EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code, which, in the folder designed for users of EGS, codes were added to simulate some radioactive sources. The reports 60 and 103 of the ICRP provide the factors that weigh the radiosensitivity of organs and tissues (W T ) required to estimate the effective dose. The two lists were placed in the FSTA and MSTA to simulate radiodiagnostic examination in different regions of the body (cranium, abdomen and thorax). The dosimetric data produced allowed an analysis of the effect of the change in the w T from the report 60 to the 103. The highest mean percent relative error, 64.3%, occurred in the results for the cranium due to the increase of the w T for most of the organs and tissues in the head and trunk in the updated list. In this case, it can be concluded that the values of the effective dose with the wT of the ICRP 60 were underestimated. Other types of simulators of radioactive sources can be used in investigating this problem and other variables related to the phantom can be considered for that proposes a W T 's list specific for the Brazilian population or recommend unrestricted use the ICRP data. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the effect of change in the radiosensitive tissue weights listed in the ICRP in estimate of effective dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Jose W.; Leal Neto, Viriato; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J.; Lima Filho, Jose M.; Santana, Ivan E., E-mail: jose.wilson@recife.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Andrade, Pedro H.A.; Cabral, Manuela O.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Lima, Vanildo J.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DA/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia; Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    For photons and electrons, the effective dose by gender is a weighted sum of the absorbed doses in radiosensitive organs and tissue of the human body. Effective dose is estimated using Exposure Computational Models (ECM) of both genders for the same age group. The FSTA and MSTA ECMs were developed by researchers from DEN/UFPE and consist of voxel phantoms representing adults coupled to EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code, which, in the folder designed for users of EGS, codes were added to simulate some radioactive sources. The reports 60 and 103 of the ICRP provide the factors that weigh the radiosensitivity of organs and tissues (W{sub T}) required to estimate the effective dose. The two lists were placed in the FSTA and MSTA to simulate radiodiagnostic examination in different regions of the body (cranium, abdomen and thorax). The dosimetric data produced allowed an analysis of the effect of the change in the w{sub T} from the report 60 to the 103. The highest mean percent relative error, 64.3%, occurred in the results for the cranium due to the increase of the w{sub T} for most of the organs and tissues in the head and trunk in the updated list. In this case, it can be concluded that the values of the effective dose with the wT of the ICRP 60 were underestimated. Other types of simulators of radioactive sources can be used in investigating this problem and other variables related to the phantom can be considered for that proposes a W{sub T}'s list specific for the Brazilian population or recommend unrestricted use the ICRP data. (author)

  8. Creation of a voxel phantom of the ICRP reference crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, E A; Higley, K A

    2013-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has modeled twelve reference animal and plant (RAP) species using simple geometric shapes in Monte-Carlo (MCNP) based simulations. The focus has now shifted to creating voxel phantoms of each RAP in order to estimate doses to biota with a higher degree of confidence. This paper describes the creation of a voxel model of a Dungeness crab from CT images with shell, gills, gonads, hepatopancreas, and heart identified and segmented. Absorbed fractions were tabulated for each organ as a source and target at twelve photon and nine electron energies: 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 4.0 MeV for photons and 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 4.0 MeV for electrons. AFs whose error exceeded 5% are marked with an underline in the data tables; AFs whose error was higher than 10% were excluded, and are shown in the tabulated data as a dashed line. A representative sample of the data is shown in Figs. 3-8; the entire data set is available as an electronic appendix. The results are consistent with previous small organism studies (Kinase, 2008; Stabin et al., 2006), and suggest that AF values are highly dependent on source organ location and mass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Decision-making about chronic radiation exposure to the public. New recommendations from the ICRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.J. [Division of Radiation and Waste Safety, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-05-01

    The paper discusses decision-making in situations of chronic exposure within the framework of a forthcoming related ICRP report on the subject which has been produced by an ICRP Task Group chaired by the author. This ICRP report will provide guidance on the application of the ICRP System of Radiological Protection to prolonged exposure situations afflicting members of the public. It will address the general application of the System to the control of prolonged exposures resulting from practices and to the undertaking of interventions in prolonged exposure situations, and will provide recommendations on generic reference levels for such interventions. It will also consider some specific situations and will discuss a number of issues that have been of concern, namely: natural radiation sources that may give rise to high doses; the restoration and rehabilitation of sites where human activities involving radioactive substances have been carried out; the return to 'normality' following an accident that has released radioactive substances to the environment; and the global marketing of commodities for public consumption that contain relatively high levels of radioactive substances. Annexes will provide some examples of prolonged exposure situations and will discuss the radiological protection quantities, radiation-induced health effects and aspects of the System of Radiological Protection relevant to prolonged exposure. The quantitative recommendations for prolonged exposures provided in the report will be as follows: generic reference levels for intervention, in terms of existing annual doses, of < or approx. 100 mSv, above which intervention is almost always justifiable (situations for which the annual dose threshold for deterministic effects in relevant organs is exceeded will almost always require intervention), and of < or approx.10 mSv, below which intervention is not likely to be justifiable (and above which it may be necessary); intervention exemption

  10. The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennart, J.

    1983-01-01

    The most recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its Publication 26 differ from all those made earlier by being based quantitatively on the risk of deleterious effects. Two types of effect are considered: stochastic and non-stochastic effects. The recommended dose limits are designed to avoid non-stochastic effects and reduce the risks of stochastic effects to acceptable values. The dose equivalent limits are only part of a much wider system that requires justification for the use of sources of ionizing radiation and consideration of costs and benefits to ensure that doses are kept as low as reasonably achievable. Annual Limits for Intakes (ALIs) of radionuclides by workers are recommended in ICRP Publication 30 and the dosimetric models and sources of data used to derive these values are described. ICRP are currently considering a statement about values of ALI for members of the public. The many factors by which these would differ from those recommended for workers are discussed. (author)

  11. Towards a coherent conceptual framework for emergency preparedness/response and rehabilitation - the application of the new ICRP recommendations given in ICRP 103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, most emphasis in planning for and response to an emergency situation has been placed on selected protective measures in the early phase of an emergency to keep the doses received below levels where severe deterministic health effects can be excluded and/or where the risk of stochastic effects in the population is considered 'acceptable'. Less emphasis has been placed on the development of comprehensive protection strategies which include considerations of the consequences of all exposure pathways and all phases, e.g. long-term rehabilitation. In its new publication 103, ICRP proposed a coherent conceptual framework for protection in all types of exposure situations including 'emergency exposure situations' and 'existing exposure situations'. In the context of developing protection strategies for these exposure situations, the Commission recommends that national authorities set reference levels between, typically, 20 mSv and 100 mSv annual effective dose (emergency exposure situation) and 1 mSv and 20 mSv (existing exposure situation). In order to optimise protection strategies, it is necessary to identify the dominant exposure pathways, the timescales over which the dose will be received, and the effectiveness of available protection options. The characteristics of the development and implementation of such protection strategies is described.

  12. Comparison of old and new ICRP models for respiratory tract dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the historical development and application of respiratory tract dosimetry models by the International Commission for Radiological Protection, ICRP, for health protection from inhaled radioactive aerosols. Three different models are discussed, those that were included in ICRP recommendations published in 1960 and 1979, and the new ICRP Publication 66. Basic features of these models are compared and contrasted. These features include model structure, sites and frequencies of particle deposition, processes and rates of clearance of the deposited material from the respiratory tract, and consideration of the parameters involved in these processes and how various factors can influence these parameters. All three models lead to the calculation of absorbed radiation doses with differing degrees of regional and local specificity. These calculations are achieved using different tools ranging from quick hand calculations to sophisticated computerized modeling approaches. A side-by-side review of these models indicates several important trends in respiratory tract dosimetry models, the most obvious of which is the increased complexity of each new model over the past 30+ years. These increases reflect both the increasing size of the knowledge base derived from studies in laboratory animals and in human subjects and the need for models more broadly applicable for both occupational and environmental exposures. It is likely that future research will be directed to those key aspects of the new model having the largest uncertainties. The detailed design of the new model and its associated software provide excellent means of identifying useful research areas and using the resulting new information in organized and productive ways

  13. Activities of the ICRP task group on dose calculations (DOCAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertelli, Luiz

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The International Commission of Radiological Protection has been doing many efforts to improve dose calculations due to intake of radionuclides by workers and members of the public. More specifically, the biokinetic models have become more and more physiologically based and developed for age-groups ranging from the embryo to the adult. The dosimetric aspects have also been very carefully revised and a new series of phantoms encompassing all developing stages of embryo and fetus were also envisaged. In order to assure the quality of the calculations, dose coefficients have been derived by two different laboratories and the results and methods have been frequently compared and discussed. A CD-ROM has been prepared allowing the user to obtain dose coefficients for the several age-groups for ingestion and inhalation of all important radionuclides. Inhalation dose coefficients will be available for several AMADs. For the particular case of embryo and fetus, doses will be calculated when the intake occurred before and during gestation for single and chronic patterns of intake

  14. Optimisation and constraints - a view from ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    The optimisation of protection has been the major policy underlying the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for more than 20 years. In earlier forms, the concept can be traced back to 1951. Constraints are more recent, appearing in their present form only in the 1990 recommendations of the Commission. The requirement to keep all exposures as low as reasonably achievable applies to both normal and potential exposures. The policy and the techniques are well established for normal exposures, i.e. exposures that are certain to occur. The application to potential exposures, i.e. exposures that have a probability of occurring that is less than unity, is more difficult and is still under international discussion. Constraints are needed to limit the inequity associated with the use of collective dose in cost-benefit analysis and to provide a margin to protect individuals who may be exposed to more than one source. (author)

  15. Development of a personalized dosimetric tool for radiation protection in case of internal contamination and targeted radiotherapy in nuclear medicine; Developpement d'un outil dosimetrique personnalise pour la radioprotection en contamination interne et la radiotherapie vectorisee en medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavassa, S

    2005-12-15

    Current internal dosimetric estimations are based on the M.I.R.D. formalism and used standard mathematical models. These standard models are often far from a given patient morphology and do not allow to perform patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized dosimetric tool, which takes into account real patient morphology, composition and densities. This tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., a French acronym of Tool for the Evaluation of Personalized Internal Dose, is a user-friendly graphical interface. O.E.D.I.P.E. allows to create voxel-based patient-specific geometries and associates them with the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code. Radionuclide distribution and absorbed dose calculation can be performed at the organ and voxel scale. O.E.D.I.P.E. can be used in nuclear medicine for targeted radiotherapy and in radiation protection in case of internal contamination. (author)

  16. The ratio of ICRP103 to ICRP60 calculated effective doses from CT: Monte Carlo calculations with the ADELAIDE voxel paediatric model and comparisons with published values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ADELAIDE voxel model of paediatric anatomy was used with the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to compare effective dose from computed tomography (CT) calculated with both the ICRP103 and ICRP60 definitions which are different in their tissue weighting factors and in the included tissues. The new tissue weighting factors resulted in a lower effective dose for pelvis CT (than if calculated using ICRP60 tissue weighting factors), by 6.5 % but higher effective doses for all other examinations. ICRP103 calculated effective dose for CT abdomen + pelvis was higher by 4.6 %, for CT abdomen (by 9.5 %), for CT chest + abdomen + pelvis (by 6 %), for CT chest + abdomen (by 9.6 %), for CT chest (by 10.1 %) and for cardiac CT (by 11.5 %). These values, along with published values of effective dose from CT that were calculated for both sets of tissue weighting factors were used to determine single values for the ratio ICRP103:ICRP60 calculated effective doses from CT, for seven CT examinations. The following values for ICRP103:ICRP60 are suggested for use to convert ICRP60 calculated effective dose to ICRP103 calculated effective dose for the following CT examinations: Pelvis CT, 0.75; for abdomen CT, abdomen + pelvis CT, chest + abdomen + pelvis CT, 1.00; for chest + abdomen CT, and for chest CT. 1.15; for cardiac CT 1.25.

  17. The USA prepares to change its radiation protection regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing to revise its basic regulation on protection of people from ionizing radiation. The current regulation, ''Standards for protection against radiation'' -commonly referred to as ''Part 20'' - was originally published for comment in 1955. The regulation was based on early recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1977, the ICRP made major changes in its recommendations, known as ICRP-26. In 1990, the NRC Commissioners approved a new Part 20 reflecting ICRP-26, but improvements are to be specified and considered before a new regulation is published. (author)

  18. A component of the Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP) focuses on the study of climate variability and its impact on agriculture. To address the role of the Bay of Bengal in monsoon variability, a process study was organised during July-August 1999, deploying research ships, buoys, INSAT, coastal radar and conventional ...

  19. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  20. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future

  1. The new recommendations of the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.; Metivier, H.

    1991-01-01

    One of the outstanding events that recently occurred in the field of radioprotection is the revision of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. In fact, the latest studies on the survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have led the experts to revise downwards the individual dose limits. What are the new elements in this document

  2. A consideration of the wider impact of present trends in radiation protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    It is argued that the radiation protection system provided by ICRP-26, while an admirable scientific hypothesis, has serious shortcomings as an effective regulatory document. Particularly vulnerable to attack is the emphasis on our ability to estimate health risks associated with established exposure limits, and our ability to interpret these risks in terms of what society considers acceptable. The emphasis on intake limits rather than deposition limits for internally deposited radionuclides, and the complexity of the dosimetric approach in deriving these limits, are also critized. It is recommended that national or international bodies employing these recommendations should provide more extensive justification of the limits, based on considerations other than health risk estimates, and that derived limits should be included that will enhance the practical applicability of the system. (author)

  3. A software to edit voxel phantoms and to calculate conversion coefficients for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, J.W.; Stosic, B.; Lima, F.R.A.; Kramer, R.; Santos, A.M.; Lima, V.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The MAX and FAX phantoms have been developed based on a male and female, respectively, adult body from ICRP and coupled to the Monte Carlo code (EGS4). These phantoms permit the calculating of the equivalent dose in organs and tissues of the human body for the radiation protection purposes . In the constructing of these anthropomorphic models, the software developed called FANTOMAS, which performs tasks as file format conversion, filtering 2D and 3D images, exchange of identifying numbers of organs, body mass adjustments based in volume, resampling of 2D and 3D images, resize images, preview consecutive slices of the phantom, running computational models of exposure FANTOMA/EGS4 and viewing graphics of conversion factors between equivalent dose and a measurable dosimetric quantity. This paper presents the main abilities of FANTOMAS and uses the MAX and/or FAX to exemplify some procedures

  4. Reference values for basic human anatomical and physiological characteristics for use in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    A new publication prepared by the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values, is focused on those human characteristics that are important for dosimetric calculations. Moving from the past emphasis on a Reference Man. the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages - newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 y, and adult. In selecting reference values, the task group has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian populations. The reference values for height and body mass are higher than those reported for various Asian populations. However, the reported masses of individual organs and tissues, particularly for China and Japan, are similar to the reference values. (author)

  5. Dosimetric approaches: pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.

    2001-01-01

    The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern to the evaluation of radiation dose since radiation protection point of view: a)- The females overall body size and organ sizes are generally smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics), the effective doses could be 25 per cent higher than a man; b)- Female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry; female gonads doses could be up to 10 or 30 higher than male gonads (usually 3 order); c)- Risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; d)- During the pregnancy due to placental transfer of radiopharmaceuticals or radiation exposure from the urinary bladder the embryo/fetus could receive doses that must be avoid; e)- In the case of nursing infant is of special concern in such an analysis to determine the interruption period to avoid doses in the nursing infant. The dosimetric approaches to take account to assess internal doses in the pregnant woman and during the breast feeding are discussed. (author)

  6. Dosimetric investigations in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metges, P.J.; Lorrain, S.

    1981-01-01

    The development film-screen detectors in radiological equipment has led us to study how to improve standard mammographic pictures (focus 0.3 x 0.3 mm, focus-film distance: 65) of thick and dense breasts by the use of an anti-scatter grid and by magnification. A dosimetric study was necessary to assess the doses delivered during mammographic examinations carried out according to various procedures. The results led to modify breast examination procedures and use an anti-scatter grid for breasts thicker than 4 cm or known as dense. The dose increase due to a better quality image is the lowest provided depth penetration is increased by 2 kV as compared to a standard picture. Absorbed doses on the X-ray axis, at 3 cm depth, are below 0.1 rad [fr

  7. Dosimetric lung models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Roy, M.

    1986-01-01

    The anatomical and physiological factors that vary with age and influence the deposition of airborne radionuclides in the lung are reviewed. The efficiency with which aerosols deposit in the lung for a given exposure at various ages from birth to adulthood is evaluated. Deposition within the lung is considered in relation to the clearance mechanisms acting in different regions or compartments. The procedure for evaluating dose to sensitive tissues in lung and transfer to other organs that is being considered by the Task Group established by ICRP to review the Lung Model is outlined. Examples of the application of this modelling procedure to evaluate lung dose as a function of age are given, for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings, and for exposure to an insoluble 239 Pu aerosol. The former represents exposure to short-lived radionuclides that deliver relatively high doses to bronchial tissue. In this case, dose rates are marginally higher in children than in adults. Plutonium exposure represents the case where dose is predominantly delivered to respiratory tissue and lymph nodes. In this case, the life-time doses tend to be lower for exposure in childhood. Some of the uncertainties in this modelling procedure are noted

  8. Recommendations of the publication ICRP-84: pregnancy and medical irradiation for radiotherapy; Recomendaciones de la publicacion ICRP-84: embarazo e irradiacion medica para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojkind, Roberto H [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    The malignant diseases in the pregnant women are relatively not much frequent, and some of these cases can be applied radiotherapy for the tumours treatment. The doses involved in the radio therapeutics procedures can produce a significant foetal damage, and the patient or worker has the right to know the magnitude and the potential effects that can be results of the radiotherapy exposure. The publication ICRP-84 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection approaches specific aspect of the individual justification of the medical exposure of the patient pregnant woman, and recommends work procedures for the dose optimization that will receive the fetus. In this communication is commented the content of the radiotherapy section of the mentioned publication.

  9. How to understand the radiation effects of small dose - some critical comments on ICRP recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, T. [Radiation Education Forum, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The widespread feeling of `radiophobia` by the general public has its basis on the ICRP`s `linear no-threshold` hypothesis in dose-response relationship for low dose radiation from the standpoint of radiation protection. Although this common feeling served as a merit for constructing the `safety culture` of society, it has now become a large obstacle for the development of peaceful uses of nuclear technology as a demerit. Recently many data have been accumulated for the radiation effects of low dose, both epidemiologically and experimentally. Although in general it is very difficult to obtain clear evidence of presence or absence of threshold, it seems to be true that the risk by radiation exposure at low level (the definition of which is below 0.2 Gy) is not so large as that of extrapolation from the high or medium dose range. In fact, many data suggest that some quite different mechanisms are working in low dose from high dose, such as `adaptive response`, and a new concept, `radiation hormesis`, has emerged, that the low level radiation is not only quite harmless but is rather necessary for living cells or beneficial for human health. In this paper, some critical comments on ICRP recommendations are given as a personal view by the author. These include: (1) a question of exact assessment of exposed dose by A-bomb survivors used for the epidemiological data, which are regarded to be the most authentic and important; (2) a brief summary of effects at the natural radiation level, including the high background area data; (3) the importance of dose rate effect, which reflects the living matter`s repairability from radiation injury, and (4) the proposal of new paradigm by adopting the reasonable `de minimis` level (below which there is no harm) both for low dose and at low dose rate. A simple mathematical analysis for representative data of dose rate effect was shown as an appendix 50 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Implementations of new ICRP recommendations in the operation of the spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollet Sanudo, E.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently reviewed its basic recommendations including a strong reduction in the annual dose limit for exposed workers to ionising radiation, New dose limits in occupational exposure will have a direct impact in all activities concerning radiation exposure. The likely effect on the nuclear industry of a major decrease in exposure limits is discussed and the approaches taken to minimize radiation exposures is presented. Changes to the philosophy of radiation protection that would allow accommodation of lower limits are suggested. Improvements to dose tracking and dose monitoring techniques are discussed. Methods for reducing existing radiation fields and for preventing future radiation field increases are briefly reviewed. Additionally, actions taken in the Spanish nuclear industry to identify collective groups and tasks potentially affected by the reduced new recommended limits are presented. (author)

  11. Implications of the new ICRP recommendations for the management of post-accidental situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Kelly, N.

    1992-01-01

    From an analysis of the new ICRP recommendations in relation with the management of post-accidental situations, there appears that no significant changes in comparison with the present situation will result. The consequences are rather an attempt to further clarify and justify the way in which the system of radiation protection applies to such situations, corresponding clearly to 'intervention situation', especially: - the use of the justification and optimization principles for the decision of implementing a protective measure. - the use of 'intervention levels' instead of individual 'dose limits'. In addition, and although there is no link at all between the dose limits applying in 'practices situations' and the intervention levels, the increase of risk factors could also result in a change of intervention levels. (author)

  12. Recommendations of ICRP-60 for occupationally exposed pregnant women. Compliance evaluation in six health centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espana, M.L.; Prieto, C.; Perez, L.; Tomasi, L.; Lopez Franco, P.

    1997-01-01

    The decrease in the limits of dose equivalent at the entry of the abdomen of occupationally exposed pregnant women, as recommended by ICRP-60, necessitates to evaluate with dosimeter the various professional positions in different services existing in a health care centre, to guarantee that such limits cannot be exceeded, and thus ensure the protection of the foetus. The results obtained in this work, related exclusively to external radiation dose, show that the radiation protection system currently in force is in compliance with the regulation in the majority of the professional positions evaluated, though stricter criteria for pregnant women workers must be established with the aim of obtaining a better dose optimization. The fact that pregnant operators are working in Nuclear Medicine requires an additional effort to ensure that doses in excess of the limits stated are prevented

  13. The future policy for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 1990's, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) launched a process for establishing new recommendations, which are expected to serve as guidelines for national systems of radiological protection. Currently the ICRP's proposed recommendations are being subjected to extensive stakeholder comment and modifications. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been actively involved in this process. Part of the Committee's work has been to undertake collaborative efforts with the ICRP through, for example, the organisation of broad stakeholder fora. The first of these, held in Taormina, Italy in 2002, focused on the development of a policy basis for the radiological protection of the environment. The second forum, held in Lanzarote, Spain in April 2003, addressed the latest concepts and approaches in the ICRP proposed recommendations for a system of radiological protection. During this meeting, the ICRP listened to the views of various stakeholder groups, including radiological protection regulators, environmental protection ministries, the nuclear power industry and NGOs. As a result, the ICRP modified its proposals to better reflect stakeholder needs and wishes. This report presents the outcomes of the discussions, examining what the ICRP proposed and how its proposals have been affected and modified as a result of stakeholder input. (author)

  14. First approval procedure of the TL dosimetric service of the NPP in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.; Pucelj, B.; Stuhec, M.; Zdesar, U.

    2001-01-01

    The individual dosimetry of exposed workers in a NPP is one of the essential parts which demonstrates the radiation protection standards achieved in a facility. According to the current legislation the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Slovenia has the authority to grant approvals to personal dosimetric services which perform the dosimetric monitoring of workers in Slovenia. Due to the fact that the detailed approval procedure is not given in national regulations, the Ministry of Health in 2000 established a group of experts with the task to prepare technical and organising requirements for such approval. Based on international documents [1,2,3] the Approval procedure for the thermoluminescence dosimetric (TL) services was created. Following this procedure the assessment of the TL dosimetric service in the NPP was performed. The problems related to the technical and organising requirements with the emphasise on the QA/QC criteria of the TL dosimetric service will be discussed.(author)

  15. Relevance of the ICRP biokinetic model for dietary organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.

    1999-10-01

    Ingested dietary tritium can participate in metabolic processes, and become synthesized into organically bound tritium in the tissues and organs. The distribution and retention of the organically bound tritium throughout the body are much different than tritium in the body water. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 56 (1989) has a biokinetic model to calculate dose from the ingestion of organically bound dietary tritium. The model predicts that the dose from the ingestion of organically bound dietary tritium is about 2.3 times higher than from the ingestion of the same activity of tritiated water. Under steady-state conditions, the calculated dose rate (using the first principle approach) from the ingestion of dietary organically bound tritium can be twice that from the ingestion of tritiated water. For an adult, the upper-bound dose estimate for the ingestion of dietary organically bound tritium is estimated to be close to 2.3 times higher than that of tritiated water. Therefore, given the uncertainty in the dose calculation with respect to the actual relevant dose, the ICRP biokinetic model for organically bound tritium is sufficient for dosimetry for adults. (author)

  16. Radon: A special case in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion conventions of ICRP 65 are based on equality of detriment, not on dosimetry. They are derived from epidemiological studies on miners by comparing the risk of having fatal lung cancer with the detriment associated with a unit of exposure in ICRP 60. Things have moved on since ICRP 65 and the new scientific evidence (numerator change, denominator change and also the dosimetric approach in ICRP 66) is pointing away from ICRP 65 in the direction of the long-established UNSCEAR conversion factor of 9 (nSv h -1 )/(Bq m -3 ) radon progeny exposure, which is 50% higher than the ICRP 65 conversion convention for members of the public. Anyhow, smoking, by the almost multiplicative relationship with radon, determines to a considerable extent the lung cancer risk. Although there is a fairly general consensus among health physicists that radon exposure constitutes the largest and most variable contribution to the population exposure from natural sources, they are divided between themselves on the numerical value of the risk estimates and on the need and urgency to incite the population to take action. This relaxed attitude to radon exposure is reflected in the regulatory approach, which is very much in line with the perceived risk by the population. (authors)

  17. ICRP-recommendations on dose limits for workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Dose limits proposed by the ICRP have been incorporated in most national and international standards and their respect has caused a distribution of doses with a average not exceeding 1/10 of the maximum permissible dose. This distribution corresponds to a risk which is well within the risks in 'safe industries'. There are at present some inconsistancies in the current system of recommended limits, for example having the same limit of 5 rem for the whole-body and also for some organs. Hopefully, this incosistancy will be removed in the next recommendation of the ICRP. But the whole-body limit of 5 rem in a year has been safe and there is little ground to reduce this limit on the basis of comparisons with 'safe industries'. (orig./HP) [de

  18. The instrumentation calibration reduction program (ICRP) at Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, R.; Blanch, P.

    1987-01-01

    Northeast Utilities (NU) funded a project to study the feasibility of determining the state of core exit thermocouple (CET) calibration without having to have direct access to the CETs. Although the CETs were the prime focus, other safety related sensors were investigated. This paper describes presumptions and methods employed in the first phase, the feasibility study. Additionally, it describes the cost/benefit analysis which can be used by any utility to determine ICRP payback

  19. Problems of using ICRP models for the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.; Roedler, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    ICRP Publication 30 refers to occupationally exposed adult persons. ICRP does not recommend the use of these data and models for calculating the committed dose equivalent for members of the public from the intake of radionuclides in the environment, with corrections only in respect to organ masses or intake. In its statement from the 1983 meeting in Washington, USA, the ICRP quantitatively assessed those factors which, from the viewpoint of age dependence, influence the limits on intake for the public and the organ dose factors from which these limits are derived. The present paper summarizes the results from these considerations. Additionally, the influence of age dependent weighting factors on the annual limits on intake is examined for selected radionuclides. Modifying factors are derived for body mass, retention, fractional distribution, absorption and age-dependent w T . A procedure is proposed to classify radionuclides and their compounds into individual classes characterized by different modifying factors, in order to apply the dose factors, as calculated for occupational exposure, also to members of the public. The future realization of this type of procedure remains to be further investigated. 24 refs.; 2 tabs

  20. The ICRP 66 Internal Radiation Exposure Control and Dose Evaluation of The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, H. F.; Hwang, W. S.; Chiu, J. H.

    2004-07-01

    The Atomic Energy Council (AEC) is the regulatory body of ionization radiation protection in Taiwan. To effectively control the safety in ionization radiation, AEC brought into force the Ionization Radiation Protection Act on 1 February, 2003 with clear statements of the penalty for violating the Law. The Article 5 of the Act provides: In order to limit the radiation exposure from radiation sources or practices, the Competent Authority shall refer to the latest standards of the International Commission on Radiological Protection to lay down the Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation. Thus, AEC is going to draft new safety standards of ionization radiation protection of Taiwan according to ICRP Publication 60. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), the governmental institute working on ionization radiation research in Taiwan, took the responsibility of assisting AEC in establishing guidelines on the control of internal radiation exposure and responding to the regulations in the new standards as soon as possible. So, according to the recommendations of ICRP Publications 60, 66,67,68,69,71,78,88, and IAEA Safety Standard Series No. RS-G- 1.1 and 1.2, INER undertook researches on the internal radiation exposure control and dose evaluations for INER's radiation workers as well as dose evaluations for the general public. The research accomplishments not only can be the reference of AEC when making new standards, but also can be followed by other radiation protection businesses. (Author) 23 refs.

  1. The ICRP 66 Internal Radiation Exposure Control and Dose Evaluation of The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, H. F.; Hwang, W. S.; Chiu, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Council (AEC) is the regulatory body of ionization radiation protection in Taiwan. To effectively control the safety in ionization radiation, AEC brought into force the Ionization Radiation Protection Act on 1 February, 2003 with clear statements of the penalty for violating the Law. The Article 5 of the Act provides: In order to limit the radiation exposure from radiation sources or practices, the Competent Authority shall refer to the latest standards of the International Commission on Radiological Protection to lay down the Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation. Thus, AEC is going to draft new safety standards of ionization radiation protection of Taiwan according to ICRP Publication 60. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), the governmental institute working on ionization radiation research in Taiwan, took the responsibility of assisting AEC in establishing guidelines on the control of internal radiation exposure and responding to the regulations in the new standards as soon as possible. So, according to the recommendations of ICRP Publications 60, 66,67,68,69,71,78,88, and IAEA Safety Standard Series No. RS-G- 1.1 and 1.2, INER undertook researches on the internal radiation exposure control and dose evaluations for INER's radiation workers as well as dose evaluations for the general public. The research accomplishments not only can be the reference of AEC when making new standards, but also can be followed by other radiation protection businesses. (Author) 23 refs

  2. Pregnancy and medical radiation, ICRP Publication 84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Thousands of pregnant patients and radiation workers are exposed to ionising radiation each year. Lack of knowledge is responsible for great anxiety and probably unnecessary termination of pregnancies. For many patients, the exposure is appropriate, while for others the exposure may be inappropriate, placing the unborn child at increased risk. Prenatal doses from most properly done diagnostic procedures present no measurably increased risk of prenatal death, malformation, or impairment of mental development over the background incidence of these entities. Higher doses, such as those involved in therapeutic procedures, can result in significant fetal harm. The pregnant patient or worker has a right to know the magnitude and type of potential radiation effects that might result from in utero exposure. Almost always, if a diagnostic radiology examination is medically indicated, the risk to the mother of not doing the procedure is greater than is the risk of potential harm to the fetus. Most nuclear medicine procedures do not cause large fetal doses. However, some radiopharmaceuticals that are used in nuclear medicine can pose significant fetal risks. It is important to ascertain whether a female patient is pregnant prior to radiotherapy. In pregnant patients, cancers that are remote from the pelvis usually can be heated with radiotherapy. This however requires careful planning. Cancers in the pelvis cannot be adequately treated during pregnancy without severe or lethal consequences for the fetus. The basis for the control of the occupational exposure of women who are not pregnant is the same as that for men. However, if a woman is, or may be, pregnant, additional controls have to be considered to protect the unborn child. In many countries, radiation exposure of pregnant females in biomedical research is not specifically prohibited. However, their involvement in such research is very rare and should be discouraged. Termination of pregnancy is an individual decision

  3. Pregnancy and medical radiation, ICRP Publication 84

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    Thousands of pregnant patients and radiation workers are exposed to ionising radiation each year. Lack of knowledge is responsible for great anxiety and probably unnecessary termination of pregnancies. For many patients, the exposure is appropriate, while for others the exposure may be inappropriate, placing the unborn child at increased risk. Prenatal doses from most properly done diagnostic procedures present no measurably increased risk of prenatal death, malformation, or impairment of mental development over the background incidence of these entities. Higher doses, such as those involved in therapeutic procedures, can result in significant fetal harm. The pregnant patient or worker has a right to know the magnitude and type of potential radiation effects that might result from in utero exposure. Almost always, if a diagnostic radiology examination is medically indicated, the risk to the mother of not doing the procedure is greater than is the risk of potential harm to the fetus. Most nuclear medicine procedures do not cause large fetal doses. However, some radiopharmaceuticals that are used in nuclear medicine can pose significant fetal risks. It is important to ascertain whether a female patient is pregnant prior to radiotherapy. In pregnant patients, cancers that are remote from the pelvis usually can be heated with radiotherapy. This however requires careful planning. Cancers in the pelvis cannot be adequately treated during pregnancy without severe or lethal consequences for the fetus. The basis for the control of the occupational exposure of women who are not pregnant is the same as that for men. However, if a woman is, or may be, pregnant, additional controls have to be considered to protect the unborn child. In many countries, radiation exposure of pregnant females in biomedical research is not specifically prohibited. However, their involvement in such research is very rare and should be discouraged. Termination of pregnancy is an individual decision

  4. Internet-based ICRP resource for healthcare providers on the risks and benefits of medical imaging that uses ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, S; Applegate, K E; Perez, M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Committee 3 Working Party was to update the 2001 web-based module 'Radiation and your patient: a guide for medical practitioners' from ICRP. The key elements of this task were: to clearly identify the target audience (such as healthcare providers with an emphasis on primary care); to review other reputable sources of information; and to succinctly publish the contribution made by ICRP to the various topics. A 'question-and-answer' format addressing practical topics was adopted. These topics included benefits and risks of imaging using ionising radiation in common medical situations, as well as pertaining to specific populations such as pregnant, breast-feeding, and paediatric patients. In general, the benefits of medical imaging and related procedures far outweigh the potential risks associated with ionising radiation exposure. However, it is still important to ensure that the examinations are clinically justified, that the procedure is optimised to deliver the lowest dose commensurate with the medical purpose, and that consideration is given to diagnostic reference levels for particular classes of examinations. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  5. Comparison of effective doses using tissue-weighting factors in the 1977, 1990, and 2007 recommendations of the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Suzuki, Shoichi

    2013-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established recommended tissue-weighting factors. Although there have been international reports on effective doses using the factors listed in the 1977, 1990, and 2007 recommendations of the ICRP, there have been no papers in Japan. The aim of this study was to evaluate effective doses using the tissue-weighting factors listed in each recommendation of the ICRP under 2011 exposure conditions in Japan. We used a human body phantom to estimate patient exposure doses during chest, abdomen, lumbar spine (anteroposterior and lateral), and head radiographs. With thermoluminescence dosimeters placed at various positions on and in the phantom, radiation doses were determined. There was little change in the effective doses to the chest and head from each recommendation. However, the effective doses recommended in 1977 were 0.2 mSv to the abdomen, 0.1 mSv to the lumbar spine anteroposteriorally, and 0.1 mSv to the lumbar spine laterally; these values are lower than those recommended in 1990 and 2007, which were 0.5 mSv to the abdomen, 0.4 mSv to the lumbar spine anteroposteriorally, and 0.6 mSv to the lumbar spine laterally. We could evaluate the effective doses using each recommendation and 2011 exposure conditions in Japan. (author)

  6. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    2000-03-01

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

  7. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  8. Dosimetric system for prolonged manned flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, E.E.; Sakovich, V.A.; Deme, Sh.; Fekher, I.; Nguen, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    Comments for the All-Union state standard 25645.202-83 named Radiation safety of a spacecraft crew during space flight. Requirements for personnel dosimetric control, are given. Devices for the dosimetric control used in manned space flights nowadays are reviewed. The performance principle and structure of the FEDOR dosimetric complex under development are discussed

  9. Dosimetric essay in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Salaberry, M.

    1998-01-01

    A neck study was observated in the tiroids glands,laryngeal zone, sensitive organs for the ionizing radiation for increase dental xray exams. Was selected 29th patients with radiography prescription complete (in the Odontology Faculty Clinics Uruguaian). It took radiographies with and without tiroids necklace and apron lead using dosemeters. Dosimetric studies had demonstrated good dose between patients. For measuring the radiation dose have been used TLD thermoluminescence dosimetric and Harshaw 6600 for read it. The thyroids necklace use and odontology postgrading for training course for dentistry was the two recommendations advised

  10. The dosimetric control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, A.

    2009-01-01

    The author first presents the thermoluminescent dosimetry method developed by the Equal-Estro Laboratory to control radiotherapy systems, according to which dosimeters are mailed by the radiotherapy centres to the laboratory, and then analyzed with respect to the level of dose bias. In a second part, he discusses the different techniques used for the dosimetric control of new radiotherapy methods (intensity-modulated radiation therapy, tomo-therapy) for which film dosimetry is applied. He also evokes the development of new phantoms and the development of a method for the dosimetric control of proton beams

  11. Dosimetric adaptive IMRT driven by fiducial points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crijns, Wouter; Van Herck, Hans; Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Haustermans, Karin; Slagmolen, Pieter; Maes, Frederik; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    (CTV mean dose, conformity index) and clinical (tumor control probability, and normal tissue complication probability) measures. Results: Based on the current experiments, the intended target dose and tumor control probability could be assured by the proposed method (TCP ≥ TCP intended ). Additionally, the conformity index error was more than halved compared to the current clinical practice (ΔCI 95% from 40% to 16%) resulting in improved organ at risk protection. All the individual correction steps had an added value to the full correction. Conclusions: A limited number of fiducial points (no organ contours required) and an in-room (CB)CT are sufficient to perform a full dosimetric correction for IMRT plans. In the presence of interfraction variation, the corrected plans show superior dose distributions compared to our current clinical practice

  12. Dosimetric adaptive IMRT driven by fiducial points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crijns, Wouter, E-mail: wouter.crijns@uzleuven.be [Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Van Herck, Hans [Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) – PSI, Center for the Processing of Speech and Images, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Haustermans, Karin [Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Slagmolen, Pieter [Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) – PSI, Center for the Processing of Speech and Images, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); iMinds-KU Leuven Medical IT Department, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Maes, Frederik [Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) – PSI, Center for the Processing of Speech and Images, KU Leuven and iMinds, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium and Department of Oncology, MRC-CR-UK Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    (CTV mean dose, conformity index) and clinical (tumor control probability, and normal tissue complication probability) measures. Results: Based on the current experiments, the intended target dose and tumor control probability could be assured by the proposed method (TCP ≥ TCP{sub intended}). Additionally, the conformity index error was more than halved compared to the current clinical practice (ΔCI{sub 95%} from 40% to 16%) resulting in improved organ at risk protection. All the individual correction steps had an added value to the full correction. Conclusions: A limited number of fiducial points (no organ contours required) and an in-room (CB)CT are sufficient to perform a full dosimetric correction for IMRT plans. In the presence of interfraction variation, the corrected plans show superior dose distributions compared to our current clinical practice.

  13. CaSO4: Dy + Teflon dosimetric pellets for X, beta and gamma radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Lima, M.F.

    1987-08-01

    CaSO 4 : Dy + TEFLON dosimetric pellets with high sensitivity and low cost for X, beta and gamma radiation monitoring were studied and developed by the Dosimetric Material Production Laboratory of the Radiological Protection Departament and are disposable for sale. The thickness of the pellets are suitable for X, beta and gamma radiation measurements. The dosimetric properties of these pellets were determined and presented in this work. The results show the usefulness of 0,20mm thick pellets for beta radiation monitoring and 0,80mm thick pellets for x and gamma radiation detection. (Author) [pt

  14. Recommendations of the publication ICRP-84: pregnancy and medical irradiation for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkind, Roberto H.

    2001-01-01

    The malignant diseases in the pregnant women are relatively not much frequent, and some of these cases can be applied radiotherapy for the tumours treatment. The doses involved in the radio therapeutics procedures can produce a significant foetal damage, and the patient or worker has the right to know the magnitude and the potential effects that can be results of the radiotherapy exposure. The publication ICRP-84 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection approaches specific aspect of the individual justification of the medical exposure of the patient pregnant woman, and recommends work procedures for the dose optimization that will receive the fetus. In this communication is commented the content of the radiotherapy section of the mentioned publication

  15. The ICRP 86: prevention of accidental exposure among patients receiving a radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The international commission radiological protection (ICRP) has been created in 1928 at the demand of radiologist physicians. It publishes the recommendations concerning the whole of situations at which man confronts when he is submitted to ionizing radiations from natural or artificial origin. this publication is devoted to give a guidance contribution in the prevention of accidental exposures implying patients suffering a treatment by external radiotherapy or by brachytherapy. It does not treat directly the therapies using unsealed sources. It speaks to professional readership implied in radiotherapy procedures, to hospital managers, public Health Authorities and regulation organisms. The chosen approach is the description of exemplary severe accidents, the examination of causes of these events and contributory factors, the summary of their disastrous consequences and the proposition of recommendations for their prevention. The measures proposed include institutional dispositions, personnel training, quality assurance programmes, follow up adequacy, clear definition of liability and celerity of events report. (N.C.)

  16. The implementation of the 1990 recommendations of the ICRP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Kyu Lim

    1993-01-01

    Over the last three years, the new Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60) brought some controversies in radiation protection field. In the course of preparation for implementation of the new Recommendations in Korea, some main issues were critically reviewed including the reduction of dose limits for occupational exposures, the introduction of the concept of dose constraints for proposed practices, and the description of radiological protection system using the concept of practice and intervention. Not only scientific meaning of dose limits but also socio-political impact in different countries must be considered for implementation to the regulatory system. How-to-communicate with the general public on the radiation risk would be more difficult task for specialists than how-to-meet the lower limits. A considerable amount of costs and resources will be required for implementing the new Recommendations. The most dominant portion of the resources would be needed in the education program including the training of personnel in radiation protection field. Education of the general public on the underlying concept of the new system of radiological protection is also important to prevent any unfavorable disturbance on the public acceptance

  17. Implications of the ICRP draft recommendations for ALIs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.; Kendall, G.M.; Phipps, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    The results of the calculations summarised here suggest that under the new scheme for calculating annual limits on intake proposed by ICRP there may still be a need for an organ dose limit. This would lose one of the main advantages of the new scheme, namely that ALIs could be strictly additive. Adjusting the weighting factors and allocating the 'remainder' to possibly two tissues with the highest doses would result in effectances from different radionuclides which were not strictly additive. If, however, for practical purposes effectance could be taken to be additive, then the resulting ALIs could be apportioned between different radionuclides as desired. (author)

  18. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Vieira, J W [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Robson Brown, K [Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  19. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  20. Implementation of ICRP-60, BBS-115 and the patient directives in radiation safety regulations of TAEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okyar, H.B.; Vural, M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of radiation sources offers a wide range of benefits throughout the world in medicine, research and industry. Precautions are, however, necessary in order to limit the exposure of persons to the radiation that is emitted. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) were published as IAEA Safety Series No 115 in 1996. This publication marks the culmination of efforts that have continued over the past decades towards harmonization of radiation protection and safety standards internationally. The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for the protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards are based primarily on the recommendations of the ICRP which is a non-governmental scientific organization to establish basic principles and recommendations for radiation protection; the most recent recommendations of the ICRP were issued in 1991. In 1997, the Council of the European Union published a new directive laying down the general principles of the radiation protection of individuals undergoing exposures to ionizing radiations related to medical exposures (Directive 97/43 Euratom). Directive 97/43 Euratom is a supplement to Directive 96/29 Euratom on the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations. The European Directives 96/29-97/43 Euratom and BSS-115 constitute a complete and coherent set of regulatory measures on radiation protection. In Turkey, the infrastructure exists to account for ionizing radiation sources by, for example, a system of licensing, legislative requirements on the user to keep appropriate records and perhaps to report to the TAEK on a periodic basis or, in the case of imported items (including re-export procedures) and customs

  1. Radiation protection in education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viragh, Elemer

    1985-01-01

    The education of secondary school students in the fields of nuclear sciences was strictly limited according to the 9th recommendations of the ICRP issued in 1966 saying that people under age 18 are not allowed to deal with ionizing radiations. Due to the changes concerning the concept of radiation protection, new opportunities for teaching nuclear technology even in the secondary schools were opened. The 36th recommendations of the ICRP published in 1983 dealing with the maximum permissible doses and the measures taken for radiation protection should be kept in mind while organizing the education of the pupils between age 16 and 18. (V.N.)

  2. Occupational radiological protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: occupational expossure (the ALARA principle, dose-equivalent limit, ICRP justification); radiological protection planning (general aspects, barrier estimation) and determination of the occupational expossures (individual monitoring). (M.A.) [pt

  3. Consideration of the ICRP 2006 revised tissue weighting factors on age-dependent values of the effective dose for external photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Han, Eun Young; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2007-01-01

    The effective dose recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is the sum of organ equivalent doses weighted by corresponding tissue weighting factors, wT. ICRP is in the process of revising its 1990 recommendations on the effective dose where new values of organs and tissue weighting factors have been proposed and published in draft form for consultation by the radiological protection community. In its 5 June 2006 draft recommendations, new organs and tissues have been introduced in the effective dose which do not exist within the 1987 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) phantom series (e.g., salivary glands). Recently, the investigators at University of Florida have updated the series of ORNL phantoms by implementing new organ models and adopting organ-specific elemental composition and densities. In this study, the effective dose changes caused by the transition from the current recommendation of ICRP Publication 60 to the 2006 draft recommendations were investigated for external photon irradiation across the range of ICRP reference ages (newborn, 1-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year and adult) and for six idealized irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), left-lateral (LLAT), right-lateral (RLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). Organ-absorbed doses were calculated by implementing the revised ORNL phantoms in the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX2.5, after which effective doses were calculated under the 1990 and draft 2006 evaluation schemes of the ICRP. Effective doses calculated under the 2006 draft scheme were slightly higher than estimated under ICRP Publication 60 methods for all irradiation geometries exclusive of the AP geometry where an opposite trend was observed. The effective doses of the adult phantom were more greatly affected by the change in tissue weighting factors than that seen within the paediatric members of the phantom series. Additionally, dose conversion

  4. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection standard and the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection published in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Kelecom, A.; Pereira, J.R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the differences between the CNEN's standard and the publication of ICRP-103, analyzing the philosophy for radiation protection, dose limits and other relevant aspects of radiation protection

  5. Suitability of monitoring methods for the optimisation of Radiological Protection in the case of internal exposure through inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Gibert, B.; Basire, D.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological protection system recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) for justified practices relied pn the limitation and optimisation principles. The monitoring of internal exposure is most often based on the periodic assessment of individual exposure in order to essentially insure the simple compliance with the annual dose limits. Optimisation of protection implies a realistic, sensitive and analytical assessment of individual and collective exposures in order to allow the indentification of the main sources of exposure (main sources of contamination, most exposed operators, work activities contributing the most to the exposure) and the selection of the optimal protection options. Therefore the monitoring methods must allow the realistic assessment of individual dose levels far lower than annual limits together with measurements as frequent as possible. The aim of this presentation is to discuss the ability of various monitoring methods (collective and individual air sampling, in vivo and in vitro bioassays) to fulfil those needs. This discussion is illustrated by the particular case of the internal exposure to natural uranium compounds through inhalation. Firstly, the sensitivity and the degree to which each monitoring method is realistic are quantified and discussed on the basis of the application of the new ICRP dosimetric model, and their analytical capability for the optimisation of radiological protection is then indicated. Secondly, a case study is presented which shows the capability of individual air sampling techniques to analyse the exposure of the workers and the inadequacy of static air sampling to accurately estimate the exposures when contamination varies significantly over time and space in the workstations. As far as exposure to natural uranium compounds through inhalation is concerned, the study for assessing the sensitivity, analytic ability and accuracy of the different measuring systems shows that

  6. ICRP and impairment of mental function following prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    A brief account is given of mental retardation and intelligence testing in unirradiated human populations, without which it is not possible to judge the 1991 ICRP Recommendations relating to mental impairment. The dose-response used by ICRP (1991) for the reduction of IQ by irradiation in utero has no radiobiological basis because IQ values are derived from intelligence test scores by transforming the scale of measurement. It is also defective because it assumed that IQ is distributed normally whereas this is so only in normal school children, not in a population in general including retarded persons. There seems good evidence for a substantial threshold of dose for both reduction in IQ and increase in severe mental retardation (SMR). The four prenatally irradiated bomb survivors with SMR and intrauterine dose in the dose range 1-49 cGy were not intelligence tested, so the relation between SMR and IQ in that practically important dose range cannot be examined directly, SMR is a deterministic phenomenon, so is not expected to occur unless dose exceeds a threshold. The threshold doses for SMR based on linear dose-responses using ungrouped doses were 46 and 55 cGy DS86 intrauterine dose (Otake et al 1987). The threshold 50 cGy derived here for reduction in IQ is closely similar. Mild mental retardation has not been reported as a diagnosis in bombs survivors exposed in utero. (Author)

  7. Philosophy of radiological protection and radiation hazard protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kawano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection and the human safety in radiation facilities are strictly controlled by law. There are rules on the radiation measurement, too. In the present review, philosophy of the radiological protection and the radiation hazard protection law is outlined with reference to ICRP recommendations. (J.P.N.)

  8. Implementation of ICRP-60 recommendations on dose limits to radiation workers in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    The handling of radioactive material and radiation generating plants in India is regulated by the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and rules issued under the Act. The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board enforces the rules. Currently, there are about 40,000 radiation workers in the country. Nearly half of them are employed in nuclear installations. During 1989, the Board considered the impact of restricting the maximum individual exposure to different values of dose limits. Through this analysis, the Board alerted all radiation users including persons responsible for radiation safety in nuclear facilities. When ICRP published ICRP-60, the Board issued directives to all radiation installations reducing the dose limit to occupational workers in a phased manner (40 mSv for 1991, 35 mSv for 1992 and 30 mSv for 1993). To meet the recommendations of ICRP-60, AERB issued a directive for the five year block 1994-1998, restricting the cumulative effective dose constraint to one hundred milliSievert (100 mSv) for individual radiation workers. Also, the annual effective dose to individual workers in any calendar year during the five-year block was restricted to thirty milliSievert (30 mSv). The stipulations of AERB are thus more conservative than those of ICRP. There was near total compliance with the dose limits by radiation installations in the country. For instance, in 1989, the number of radiation workers in nuclear power plants, who exceeded the dose level of 20 mSv/year was 9% of the total. This declined gradually to 2.2% in 1993 and 0.3% in 1997. During 1998, only 9 out of 10,145 exceeded 20 mSv/year. This has been achieved by the concerted efforts of the management, health physics staff and radiation workers. The health physicists regulated the radiation doses to workers by issuing work permits when the workers are assigned any job in high radiation areas. Appropriate training programmes are also in place. The broad guidelines to regulate radiation exposures in nuclear facilities

  9. Basis and rational for standardization in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besar, Idris

    1985-08-01

    The historical background for the standardization in radiation protection with special reference to the dose limits recommended by the ICRP which include tolerance dose, maximum permissible dose, and the present recommendation based on the ICRP 26 are presented. The basis and rational for the establishment of these limits are discussed.

  10. Basis and rational for standardization in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris Besar

    1985-01-01

    The historical background for the standardization in radiation protection with special reference to the dose limits recommended by the ICRP which include tolerance dose, maximum permissible dose, and the present recommendation based on the ICRP 26 are presented. The basis and rational for the establishement of these limits are discussed

  11. Justification and optimization in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1980-01-01

    Two requirements of the system recommended by the ICRP for radiation protection are discussed: 1) justification of practices involving radiation exposures and 2) optimization of the level of protection for such practices. The ICRP recommended the use of cost-benefit analysis in justification and optimization. The application of cost-benefit analysis and the quantification of the radiation detriment are also discussed. (H.K.)

  12. How to understand the radiation effects of small dose - some critical comments on ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, T.

    1997-01-01

    The widespread feeling of 'radiophobia' by the general public has its basis on the ICRP's 'linear no-threshold' hypothesis in dose-response relationship for low dose radiation from the standpoint of radiation protection. Although this common feeling served as a merit for constructing the 'safety culture' of society, it has now become a large obstacle for the development of peaceful uses of nuclear technology as a demerit. Recently many data have been accumulated for the radiation effects of low dose, both epidemiologically and experimentally. Although in general it is very difficult to obtain clear evidence of presence or absence of threshold, it seems to be true that the risk by radiation exposure at low level (the definition of which is below 0.2 Gy) is not so large as that of extrapolation from the high or medium dose range. In fact, many data suggest that some quite different mechanisms are working in low dose from high dose, such as 'adaptive response', and a new concept, 'radiation hormesis', has emerged, that the low level radiation is not only quite harmless but is rather necessary for living cells or beneficial for human health. In this paper, some critical comments on ICRP recommendations are given as a personal view by the author. These include: (1) a question of exact assessment of exposed dose by A-bomb survivors used for the epidemiological data, which are regarded to be the most authentic and important; (2) a brief summary of effects at the natural radiation level, including the high background area data; (3) the importance of dose rate effect, which reflects the living matter's repairability from radiation injury, and (4) the proposal of new paradigm by adopting the reasonable 'de minimis' level (below which there is no harm) both for low dose and at low dose rate. A simple mathematical analysis for representative data of dose rate effect was shown as an appendix

  13. Comparison in the calculation of committed effective dose using the ICRP 30 and ICRP 60 models for a repeated incorporation by inhalation of I-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno P, A.L.; Cortes C, A.; Alonso V, G.; Serrano P, F.

    2005-01-01

    Presently work, a comparison in the calculation of committed effective dose using the models of the ICRP 30 and those of the ICRP 60 for the analysis of internal dose due to repeated incorporation of I-125 is shown. The estimations of incorporated activity are obtained starting from the proportionate data for an exercise of inter comparison, with which it should be determined the internal dose later on. For to estimate the initial activity incorporated by repeated dose was assumed that this it was given through of multiple individual incorporations which happened in the middle points of the monitoring periods. The results using the models of the ICRP 30 and of the ICRP 60 are compared and the causes of the differences are analyzed. (Author)

  14. Sensitivity of a low energy Ge detector system for in vivo monitoring in the framework of ICRP 78 applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M A; Navarro, T

    2003-01-01

    In in vivo detection of internal contamination by actinides the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) correspond to significant doses, so the sensitivity of the detection system is the key to establishing adequate individual monitoring programmes for internal exposure to these radionuclides. The whole body counting (WBC) faculty at CIEMAT uses a low-energy Ge detector system with different available counting geometries to estimate the retention of actinides in the lungs and evaluate 125I in thyroid and 241Am in bone (skull and knee). A study of the factors and uncertainties involved in estimations of MDA is presented for lung and thyroid monitoring. The dependence of detection limits on counting efficiency in the measurement of low-energy emitters in the lungs has been carefully studied, carrying out a comparison among different biometric equations obtained by ultrasound techniques for estimations of chest wall thickness. Dosimetric implications of the estimated MDAs are taken into account in the framework of ICRP 78 application and considering Spanish regulations. The main interest in lung measurements is for the assessment of occupational exposure. This work confirms the low-energy Ge detector system to be an adequate in vivo technique for the routine monitoring of internal exposure to most insoluble uranium compounds (detection of 3% enriched uranium in lungs), and also to be useful in special monitoring programmes or in the case of incidents when the detection of 241Am is required.

  15. Personal dosimetric monitoring in Ukraine: current status and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V. V.; Musijachenkom, A. V.; Boguslavskaya, A. I.

    2003-01-01

    Presently Ukraine has mixed system for dosimetric monitoring. Nuclear power plants and some major nuclear facilities have their own dosimetry services, which are responsible for regular dosimetric monitoring of workers. Rest of occupationally exposed persons is monitored by dosimetry laboratories affiliated to the territorial authorities for sanitary and epidemiology supervision. In 2002-2003 Ukrainian Ministry of Health performed survey of the status of dosimetric monitoring and inventory of critical groups requiring such monitoring. Dosimetry services in Ukraine cover about 38,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 9,100 medical professionals, 16,400 employees of 5 nuclear power plants and ca.12,400 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure (industry, research). Territorial dosimetry services operate in 13 of 24 regions of Ukraine, using DTU-01 manual TLD readers produced with one exception in 1988-1990. The coverage of critical groups by dosimetric monitoring is variable and ranges from 38% to 100% depending on the region. Personnel of nuclear power plants (about 16,400 workers) is monitored by their own dosimetry services achieving absolute coverage of the main staff and temporary workers. Current inadequate status of dosimetric monitoring infrastructure in Ukraine demands an urgent elaboration of the united state system for monitoring and recording of individual doses. The proposed plan would allows to bring dosimetry infrastructure in Ukraine to the modern state which would be compatible with existing and future European and international radiation protection networks. Unitary structure of Ukraine, strong administrative command and good communications between regions of the country are positive factors in favour of efficient implementation of the proposed plan. Deficiencies are associated with limited funding of this effort. (authors)

  16. Incorporation of detailed eye model into polygon-mesh versions of ICRP-110 reference phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thang Tat; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Han Sung; Wang, Zhao Jun; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Zankl, Maria; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Beom Sun

    2015-11-21

    The dose coefficients for the eye lens reported in ICRP 2010 Publication 116 were calculated using both a stylized model and the ICRP-110 reference phantoms, according to the type of radiation, energy, and irradiation geometry. To maintain consistency of lens dose assessment, in the present study we incorporated the ICRP-116 detailed eye model into the converted polygon-mesh (PM) version of the ICRP-110 reference phantoms. After the incorporation, the dose coefficients for the eye lens were calculated and compared with those of the ICRP-116 data. The results showed generally a good agreement between the newly calculated lens dose coefficients and the values of ICRP 2010 Publication 116. Significant differences were found for some irradiation cases due mainly to the use of different types of phantoms. Considering that the PM version of the ICRP-110 reference phantoms preserve the original topology of the ICRP-110 reference phantoms, it is believed that the PM version phantoms, along with the detailed eye model, provide more reliable and consistent dose coefficients for the eye lens.

  17. Impact of ICRP-60 on the operation of underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Hussein, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Reduction of occupational exposure from: 50 mSv to 20 mSv per annum for uranium miners faces difficulties. For miners this affects the gamma radiation dose and ALI's except radon gas and its short lived daughters of Uranium and Thorium whereas the ICRP planned to review radon daughters exposure limits. New dose limits introduce other mines, e.g. phosphate mines, to be considered as occupational areas. Reclassification of radiation workers has to be done; control, licensing, cost, Gamma dose rate is influenced by the grade and type of ore body and the mining method. The primary mode of radionuclide intake in the mine environment is inhalation, however, ventilation is the principal control of airborne dust. The current average radon daughters dose rate in several underground mines among those are phosphate mines in Egypt is well above 20 mSv/a. Recorded values of Egyptian phosphate mines are more than 1 WL of radon daughters (1WL = 62 uSv/h) considering 2000 h/y, therefore, the annual dose = 124 mSv/a. Mining method dictated by location, size and shape of ore body, hydrology. Priority is given for conventional safety of work place, e.g. rock collapse as well as care of economics of the process and mine development. It is well defined that the control of gamma radiation dose is very much dependent upon the geometry of ore body. Shielding of ore trucks could not be justified (fuel consumption and its pollution). Bulk ore handling method may reduce gamma doses but it generates dust which may increase inhalation doses of long lived alpha emitters. Ventilation is the principal method to control inhalation hazards of dust and radon daughters, but high rates of ventilation has reverse effects of generating more dust and drying wet surfaces of ores. Accordingly, reduction in radon daughters exposure will result in high cost of production. In Egypt radon and thoron (risk/problems) are previously monitored in phosphate mines (upper Egypt). Values greater than 1 WL were

  18. Assessment of the long-term risks of inadvertent human intrusion into a disposal vault in deep plutonic rock: reassessment using ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuschke, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    Canada has conducted an extensive research program on the safe disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The program has focussed on the concept of disposal in durable containers in an engineered facility or 'vault' located 500 to 1000 m deep in plutonic rock on the Canadian Shield. As part of this task, a methodology was developed to assess the long-term risk from inadvertent intrusion scenarios, and applied to a reference conceptual design of a facility for disposal of used fuel. The AECB has specified that 'the predicted radiological risk to individuals from a waste disposal facility shall not exceed 10 -6 fatal cancers and serious genetic effects in a year.' Risk is defined as the sum, of the product of the probability of the scenario, the magnitude of the resultant radiation dose, and the probability of a health effect per unit dose. The AECB also specifies that 'calculations of individual risk should be made by using the risk conversion factor of 2 x 10 -2 per sievert.' Our earlier assessment of four human intrusion scenarios showed that the estimated risk using the risk conversion factor recommended by the AECB was at least 3 orders of magnitude below the AECB risk criterion, at all times up to 10 000 a, for each of the four scenarios analysed. The AECB risk criterion and risk conversion factor are based on the recommendations of the Intemafional Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in their Publication ICRP 26. More recently, in its Publication ICRP 60, the ICRP has recommended dose factors for fatal cancers that are larger than those in ICRP 26 and an increase in the risk factor for serious hereditary effects in all future generations. Another ICRP Publication, ICRP 64, states that 'For potential exposure situations, the consideration of the basic dose response used for stochastic effects must be extended into the range of high doses where deterministic effects also occur.' For the new assessments of risk we use the estimated doses and probabilities of

  19. Model-based versus specific dosimetry in diagnostic context: Comparison of three dosimetric approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcatili, S., E-mail: sara.marcatili@inserm.fr; Villoing, D.; Mauxion, T.; Bardiès, M. [Inserm, UMR1037 CRCT, Toulouse F-31000, France and Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR1037 CRCT, Toulouse F-31000 (France); McParland, B. J. [Imaging Technology Group, GE Healthcare, Life Sciences, B22U The Grove Centre, White Lion Road, Amersham, England HP7 9LL (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric assessment of novel radiotracers represents a legal requirement in most countries. While the techniques for the computation of internal absorbed dose in a therapeutic context have made huge progresses in recent years, in a diagnostic scenario the absorbed dose is usually extracted from model-based lookup tables, most often derived from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) or Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee models. The level of approximation introduced by these models may impact the resulting dosimetry. The aim of this work is to establish whether a more refined approach to dosimetry can be implemented in nuclear medicine diagnostics, by analyzing a specific case. Methods: The authors calculated absorbed doses to various organs in six healthy volunteers administered with flutemetamol ({sup 18}F) injection. Each patient underwent from 8 to 10 whole body 3D PET/CT scans. This dataset was analyzed using a Monte Carlo (MC) application developed in-house using the toolkit GATE that is capable to take into account patient-specific anatomy and radiotracer distribution at the voxel level. They compared the absorbed doses obtained with GATE to those calculated with two commercially available software: OLINDA/EXM and STRATOS implementing a dose voxel kernel convolution approach. Results: Absorbed doses calculated with GATE were higher than those calculated with OLINDA. The average ratio between GATE absorbed doses and OLINDA’s was 1.38 ± 0.34 σ (from 0.93 to 2.23). The discrepancy was particularly high for the thyroid, with an average GATE/OLINDA ratio of 1.97 ± 0.83 σ for the six patients. Differences between STRATOS and GATE were found to be higher. The average ratio between GATE and STRATOS absorbed doses was 2.51 ± 1.21 σ (from 1.09 to 6.06). Conclusions: This study demonstrates how the choice of the absorbed dose calculation algorithm may introduce a bias when gamma radiations are of importance, as is

  20. The work of ICRP Committee 1 on radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rëhm, W.

    2018-01-01

    Among the four ICRP Committees, Committee 1 deals with the effects of ionizing radiation. For example, this committee considers the risks and mechanisms of induction of cancer and heritable disease; discusses the risks, severity, and mechanisms of induction of tissue/organ damage and developmental defects; and reviews effects of ionizing radiation on non-human biota on a population level. The present paper gives an overview on the recent activities of the committee including the last meetings in Chennai, India, in 2016, and in Paris, France, in 2017. The paper also discusses briefly the focus of the currently active C1 Task Groups on alpha emitters, low-dose and low-dose-rate effects, and detriment calculation methodology

  1. The work of Committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Following publication of new recommendations by ICRP, a series of publications on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides (OIR) will give both dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and data for the interpretation of bioassay information. Account will be taken of revised tissue weighting factors given in the new recommendations and a number of additional developments. These include new human phantoms based upon medical imaging data for calculating doses to body tissues and the new Human Alimentary Tract Model. In addition, parameter values for the Human Respiratory Tract Model are being reviewed, radionuclide decay data are being updated and systemic models for a number of elements revised to take account of more recent data and to provide models that are appropriate for both dosimetry and for bioassay interpretation. The OIR series of publications will be accompanied by a supporting Guidance Document that will give advice on the interpretation of bioassay data. (author)

  2. International and national radiation protection standards and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and their basis are discussed with particular emphasis on the extensive review of its earlier recommendations undertaken by the ICRP during the 1970s. The new recommendations issued in 1977 after this review are described. The dose limits for various organs and tissues before and after 1977 are compared. The optimization principle contained in the 1977 recommendations is assessed. The implementation of the 1977 recommendations, the subsequent changes to them and the ICRP's 1987 statement on cancer risk assessments are discussed. The National Radiological Protection Board's October 1987 radiation protection recommendations are outlined. 8 refs., 1 fig

  3. Dosimetric quality of postal kit used for evaluation in IRD/CNEN of radiation protection parameters in dental radiology in the State of Rio de Janeiro; Qualidade dosimetrica do kit postal utilizado pelo IRD/CNEN para a avaliacao dos parametros de radioprotecao em radiologia odontologica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, Soray Abbud; Mota, Helvecio C; Dovales, Ana Cristina M [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica

    2001-07-01

    This work shows the results of a comparison between the skin entrance doses determined using an ionization chamber or a postal kit routinely used for the evaluation of radiation protection parameters in dental radiology in the state of Rio de Janeiro. By using the dosimetric kit, entrance skin dose is determined from two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) - previously calibrated in a {sup 137} Cs source - by using calibration factors determined in TLDs irradiated in air, on a water phantom and on an aluminium filter. The correspondence between the doses obtained with different methods was evaluated for three different X-ray spectra as radiation source. Results indicate that calibration factors used are adequate and that the kit has enough sensibility and reproducibility, measuring properly the skin entrance dose in dental X-rays. (author)

  4. Documentation of medical findings in radiation workers in the GDR to meet the requirements of ICRP publication 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, H.R.; Neumeister, K.

    1979-01-01

    Based on ICRP Publication 26, the future organization of the medical surveillance system for radiation workers in the GDR is considered in this paper. These radiation workers will also in future be medically supervised by means of pre-employment and routine examinations. It is considered necessary to have as extensive a registration as possible of information on medical examinations, working place analyses and incidents. Such data have to be collected and stored to be compared with other national and international projects (e.g. in the field of occupational health). In addition, they should permit epidemiological studies to be internationally co-ordinated. For this purpose, a documentation system has been prepared in the German Democratic Republic which is based on GDR experiences and makes it possible to specify the requirements of ICRP Publication 26. This system forms a new basis for mass examinations of occupationally exposed persons. Uniform examination methods tailored to meet the task of assuring occupational health in the GDR will be introduced. The documentation cards are meant to be used as clear-text cards suited for automatic reading by optical character recognition. The examination form consists of ten parts and comprises all details from working place situation to medical findings to laboratory results. It is felt that this new documentation system permits registration of all relevant data required for the effective radiation protection of man. On the basis of this documentation of findings, participation is scheduled in the respective international IAEA programmes and the studies proposed by the ICRP for problems of radiation-induced carcinogenesis and radiogenetics

  5. A comparison of radiological risk assessment models: Risk assessment models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and EPA (for NESHAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    Radiological risk assessments and resulting risk estimates have been developed by numerous national and international organizations, including the National Research Council's fifth Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR V), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). A fourth organization, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has also performed a risk assessment as a basis for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). This paper compares the EPA's model of risk assessment with the models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, and ICRP. Comparison is made of the values chosen by each organization for several model parameters: populations used in studies and population transfer coefficients, dose-response curves and dose-rate effects, risk projection methods, and risk estimates. This comparison suggests that the EPA has based its risk assessment on outdated information and that the organization should consider adopting the method used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, or ICRP

  6. History and Organizations for Radiological Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keon Wook

    2016-02-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), an independent international organization established in 1925, develops, maintains, and elaborates radiological protection standards, legislation, and guidelines. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides scientific evidence. World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilise the ICRP recommendations to implement radiation protection in practice. Finally, radiation protection agencies in each country adopt the policies, and adapt them to each situation. In Korea, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission is the governmental body for nuclear safety regulation and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is a public organization for technical support and R&D in nuclear safety and radiation protection.

  7. Efficiency factors for Phoswich based lung monitor using ICRP Voxel phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohari, M.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Jose, M.T.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    The actinide contamination in lungs is measured either using array of HPGe detector or Phoswich based lung monitors. This paper discusses the results obtained during numerical calibration of Phoswich based lung counting system using ICRP VOXEL phantoms. The results are also compared with measured efficiency values obtained using LLNL phantom. The efficiency factors of 241 Am present in the lungs for phoswich detector was simulated using ICRP male voxel phantom and compared with experimentally observed values using LLNL Phantom. The observed deviation is 12%. The efficiency of the same for female subjects was estimated using ICRP female voxel phantom for both supine and posterior geometries

  8. Diagnostic Reference Levels in the 1990 and 1996 Recommendations of the ICRP (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, G.

    1998-01-01

    A review of and some comments on the paragraphs in the ICRP Publications 60 and 73 are presented, which are relevant to diagnostic reference doses. The content of the statements is traced back by approximately 50 years when ICRP's preoccupation with the future health and well-being of the population is reflected in guidance for characterisation of 'normal operational conditions'. The early ICRP levels of reference doses are compared with the values currently discussed to demonstrate the importance of diagnostic reference doses in the process of optimisation and to show the importance of a continuous review and update of these levels. (author)

  9. ICRP PUBLICATION 123: Assessment of Radiation Exposure of Astronauts in Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Bartlett, D.T.; Cool, D.A.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Jia, X.; McAulay, I.R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Petrov, V.; Reitz, G.; Sato, T.

    2013-01-01

    During their occupational activities in space, astronauts are exposed to ionising radiation from natural radiation sources present in this environment. They are, however, not usually classified as being occupationally exposed in the sense of the general ICRP system for radiation protection of workers applied on Earth. The exposure assessment and risk-related approach described in this report is clearly restricted to the special situation in space, and should not be applied to any other exposure situation on Earth. The report describes the terms and methods used to assess the radiation exposure of astronauts, and provides data for the assessment of organ doses. Chapter 1 describes the specific situation of astronauts in space, and the differences in the radiation fields compared with those on Earth. In Chapter 2, the radiation fields in space are described in detail, including galactic cosmic radiation, radiation from the Sun and its special solar particle events, and the radiation belts surrounding the Earth. Chapter 3 deals with the quantities used in radiological protection, describing the Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) system of dose quantities, and subsequently presenting the special approach for applications in space; due to the strong contribution of heavy ions in the radiation field, radiation weighting is based on the radiation quality factor, Q, instead of the radiation weighting factor, w R . In Chapter 4, the methods of fluence and dose measurement in space are described, including instrumentation for fluence measurements, radiation spectrometry, and area and individual monitoring. The use of biomarkers for the assessment of mission doses is also described. The methods of determining quantities describing the radiation fields within a spacecraft are given in Chapter 5. Radiation transport calculations are the most important tool. Some physical data used in radiation transport codes are presented, and the various codes used for calculations in high

  10. Radiation protection guidelines for the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of radiation protection standards for the skin with particular reference to past recommendations of the ICRP concerning dose limits to the skin and the work of the ICRP Task Group appointed in 1987. Data are also presented on the effect of radiation on Langerhans cells in the skin, and the effect of interaction of ultraviolet radiation and x-rays and of protraction of radiation on skin cancer induction in mice. (UK)

  11. Optimization of radiation protection in nuclear medicine: from reference dosimetry to personalized dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadid, Lama

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are distributed in the body through biokinetic processes. Thus, each organ can become a source of radiation delivering a fraction of emitted energy in tissues. Therefore, dose calculations must be assessed accurately and realistically to ensure the patient radiation protection. Absorbed doses were until now based on mathematical standard models and electron transport approximations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently adopted voxel phantoms as a more realistic representation of the reference adult. The main goal of this thesis was to study the influence of the use of the new reference models and Monte Carlo methods on the major dosimetric quantities. In addition, the contribution of patients? specific geometry to the absorbed dose was compared to a standard geometry, enabling the evaluation of uncertainties arising from the reference values. Particular attention was paid to the bone marrow which is characterized by a high radiosensitivity and a complex microscopic structure. An accurate alpha dosimetry was assessed for bone marrow using microscopic images of several trabecular bone sites. The results showed variations in the absorbed fractions as a function of the particles? energy, the skeletal site and the amount of fat within marrow cavities, three parameters which are not taken into account in the values published by the ICRP. Finally, the heterogeneous activity distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals was considered within the framework of the treatment of a hepato-cellular carcinoma with selective internal radiotherapy using Yttrium-90 through the analysis of dose-volume histograms. The developments made in this thesis show the importance and the feasibility of performing a personalized dosimetry for nuclear medicine patients. (author)

  12. Survey of the ICRP 103 detriment-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, S.; Buermeyer, J.; Spruck, K.; Breckow, J.

    2016-01-01

    The detriment of ICRP 103 is roughly defined as the product of the (organ specific) risk coefficient and the ''damage'' that may be associated with a (organ specific) cancer or hereditary effect, respectively. This is to indicate a weighted risk according to the radiation sensitivity of the different organs and the severity of damage that may possibly arise. Whereas the risk coefficients refer to radiation exposure parameters, the scale or degree of damage is independent of these parameters. The radiation independent parameters are the lethality, the loss of quality of life and the reduced life expectancy, which are considered as quantities associated with the severity of disease or damage, respectively. These parameters may change gradually, on the one hand possibly due to an increase of cancer becoming a common disease within the population. On the other hand, possibly to a decrease of cancer due to the progress in medical diagnostics and treatments that allow patients to survive or at least maintain a higher life quality standard. The damage and therefore the detriment appears to be mostly affected by the lethality. The lethality is the quotient of mortality to incidence. The investigation of the detriment presented in this paper focuses on the influence of the lethality on the detriment from 1980-2012 in Germany and USA.

  13. Challenges of ICRP 60 for uranium refining and conversion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takala, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cameco Corporation operates high-grade uranium mines in northern Saskatchewan and uranium refining and conversion facilities in Ontario. The dose limits for these and all other nuclear facilities in Canada are 50 mSv per year and 4 WLM per year, which are applied separately. However, the upcoming incorporation of the recommendations in ICRP 60 into the Canadian regulations will result in several important changes. In addition to a more restrictive dose limit, the new regulations will require that all radiation exposures be combined into a single index of exposure. Meeting the new lower dose limits of 50 mSv per year and 100 mSv per 5 years will not be a major problem at Cameco facilities. However, the incorporation of long-lived radioactive dust exposures into the dose calculation will be a major challenge. This will cause the most difficulty at the uranium refining and conversion facilities where much of the process involves handling a variety of uranium compounds in the form of a dry powder. At the uranium conversion facilities the control of exposure to airborne uranium is achieved through a combination of lung counting, urinalysis, and fixed area monitors. To progress from a system of exposure control to dose estimation to individual workers will require some major changes. (author)

  14. The work of committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years Committee 2 of ICRP has been responsible for preparing a series of publications giving dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by members of the public. The last report in this series covers doses to the offspring in mothers' milk and should be issued in 2005. The emphasis of work on internal dosimetry is now concerned with occupational exposure. It is intended to replace Publications 30 and 68 that give biokinetic data and dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and Publications 54 and 78 that give information for bioassay interpretation, with a single series of publications. The first report of the series is expected to cover radionuclides of the elements addressed in the publications on dose coefficients for members of the public. It will also take into account new recommendations from the Commission. Subsequent publications will cover additional elements. A supporting Guidance Document is also being developed that will give more comprehensive advice on the interpretation of bioassay data. The need for this document was identified following recent interlaboratory comparisons that have shown wide variations in the way monitoring data can be interpreted in different laboratories. (authors)

  15. Comparison in the calculation of committed effective dose using the ICRP 30 and ICRP 60 models for a repeated incorporation by inhalation of I-125; Comparacion en el calculo de la dosis efectiva comprometida usando los modelos del ICRP 30 y del ICRP 60 para una incorporacion repetida por inhalacion de I-125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreno P, A.L.; Cortes C, A. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Alonso V, G.; Serrano P, F. [IPN, Edificio de Fisica Avanzada Zacatenco, 07300 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Presently work, a comparison in the calculation of committed effective dose using the models of the ICRP 30 and those of the ICRP 60 for the analysis of internal dose due to repeated incorporation of I-125 is shown. The estimations of incorporated activity are obtained starting from the proportionate data for an exercise of inter comparison, with which it should be determined the internal dose later on. For to estimate the initial activity incorporated by repeated dose was assumed that this it was given through of multiple individual incorporations which happened in the middle points of the monitoring periods. The results using the models of the ICRP 30 and of the ICRP 60 are compared and the causes of the differences are analyzed. (Author)

  16. Safety of irradiated patients: a new publication of the ICRP and Dutch practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The ICRP publication 44 and two publications of the Dutch Health Council are mutually compared and confronted with the Dutch practice. Irradiation risks, precision and aspects of organization are considered. (G.J.P.)

  17. The implications of ICRP publication (60) 1990 for public exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, J.Mc.

    1992-01-01

    The implications of the new ICRP recommendations on the control of public exposure to natural radiation are described. As ICRP differentiates between Practices and Interventions the application of the basic recommendations in the case of natural radiation exposures will be discussed in this context. Particular emphasis will be placed on public exposure to indoor radon with some discussion on situations in which occupational and public exposure to this source occur together. This major source of public exposure i discussed in relation to both ICRP 60 and ICRP 39. Some of the difficulties that the new recommendations may give rise to in the management of natural radiation exposures are discussed. One of the major changes in the new recommendations concerns the area of risk. This will be briefly discussed as regards the ways in which the risk arising from public exposure to natural radiation may be assessed. (author)

  18. Radiation Safety Analysis In The NFEC For Assessing Possible Implementation Of The ICRP-60 Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yowono, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation safety analysis of the 3 facilities in the nuclear fuel element center (NFEC) for assessing possible implementation of the ICRP-60 standard has been done. The analysis has covered the radiation dose received by workers, dose rate in the working area, surface contamination level, air contamination level and the level of radioactive gas release to the environment. The analysis has been based on BATAN regulation and ICRP-60 standard. The result of the analysis has showed that the highest radiation dose received has been found to be only around 15% of the set value in the ICRP-60 standard and only 6% of the set value in the BATAN regulation. Thus the ICRP-60 as radiation safety standard could be implemented without changing the laboratory design

  19. The application of data derived from autoradiographic studies with 241Pu in the formulation of a bone dosimetric model for 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Hunt, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Recently a dosimetric model for 239 Pu in bone has been published which in conjunction with the general ICRP dosimetric model for actinides is used to calculate annual limits of intake for 239 Pu. This model allows for the burial of plutonium in bone, for the recycling of plutonium within the skeleton and for the retention of plutonium in the bone marrow. The model was based upon published descriptions of the distribution and redistribution patterns of plutonium in bone and on evidence obtained from autoradiographic studies of bone from animals injected with 241 Pu. The experiments with 241 Pu demonstrated the initial uptake of plutonium by bone surfaces. As a result of the growth and drift processes much of this plutonium became either buried in the bone or was retained within macrophages in the bone marrow. (author)

  20. Analysis of the new ICRP recommendations from the point of view of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper analyses the implications of the new ICRP recommendations referring optimization and justification as they apply to the nuclear power industry, in particular referring to its environmental impact. It also discusses the possible effects of applying this requirements on regional nuclear power programmes. The possibility of extrapolating the ICRP recommendations for use as a basis for nuclear safety aspects of nuclear power reactors is also analyzed. (author)

  1. Controllable dose: the ICRP discussion paper does not go far enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    The current ICRP recommendations and the associated dosimetry have confused the public, lawyers and politicians and have been the subject of dissension within the Health Physics Community. Currently recommended limits are different for occupational exposure, exposure of the public, exposure to radon in dwellings and exposure to radon in workplaces. Current recommendations do not cover exposure in accident situations. The recommended limits do not apply to natural background radiation exposures. This suggests that the unit of radiation dose is variable depending on the circumstances and that artificially produced radiation is more harmful than natural radiation. The use of collective dose and the LNT model has resulted, in the opinion of some, in waste of money spent in trying to reduce doses that may be already too small to produce detectable harm. The recent discussion papers (Clarke, 1998, Clarke 1999), introducing the concept of controllable dose, are a valuable starting point for changing and improving the basis on which regulations are made. It is the author's opinion that the discussion paper does not go far enough and that the confusion is largely the result of failing to separate the scientific aspects from the regulatory aspects of controlling radiation dose. Only by making such a separation can we provide understandable regulations without compromising scientific research into radiation risks. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  2. CUEX methodology for assessing radiological impacts in the context of ICRP Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwer, P.S.; Kaye, S.V.; Struxness, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Cumulative Exposure Index (CUEX) methodology was developed to estimate and assess, in the context of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Recommendations, the total radiation dose to man due to environmental releases of radioactivity from nuclear applications. Each CUEX, a time-integrated radionuclide concentration (e.g.μCi.h.cm -3 ), reflects the selected annual dose limit for the reference organ and the estimated total dose to that organ via all exposure modes for a specific exposure situation. To assess the radiological significance of an environmental release of radioactivity, calculated or measured radionuclide concentrations in a suitable environmental sampling medium are compared with CUEXs determined for that medium under comparable conditions. The models and computer codes used in the CUEX methodology to predict environmental transport and to estimate radiation dose have been thoroughly tested. These models and codes are identified and described briefly. Calculation of a CUEX is shown step by step. An application of the methodology to a hypothetical atmospheric release involving four radionuclides illustrates use of the CUEX computer code to assess the radiological significance of a release, and to determine the relative importance (i.e. percentage of the estimated total dose contributed) of each radionuclide and each mode of exposure. The data requirements of the system are shown to be extensive, but not excessive in view of the assessments and analyses provided by the CUEX code. (author)

  3. Some aspects of the fetal doses given in ICRP Publication 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, A.W.; Harrison, J.D.; Fell, T.P.; Eckerman, K.F.; Nosske, D.

    2003-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently published dose coefficients (dose per unit intake, Sv Bq -1 ) for the offspring of women exposed to radionuclides during or before pregnancy. These dose estimates include in utero doses to the embryo and fetus and doses delivered postnatally to the newborn child from radionuclides retained at birth. This paper considers the effect on doses of the time of radionuclide intake and examines the proportion of dose delivered in utero and postnatally for different radionuclides. Methods used to calculate doses to the fetal skeleton are compared. For many radionuclides, doses are greatest for intakes early in pregnancy but important exceptions for which doses are greatest for intakes later in pregnancy, are iodine isotopes and isotopes of the alkaline earth elements, including strontium. While radionuclides such as 131 I deliver dose largely in utero even for intakes late in pregnancy, others such as 239 Pu deliver dose largely postnatally, even for intakes early during pregnancy. For alpha emitters deposited in the skeleton, the assumption made is of uniform distribution of the radionuclide and of target cells for leukaemia and bone cancer in utero; that is, the developing bone structure is not considered. However, for beta emitters, the bone structure was considered. Both approaches can be regarded as reasonably conservative, given uncertainties in particular in the location of the target cells and the rapid growth and remodelling of the skeleton at this stage of development. (author)

  4. International movement on radiation safety related to the ICRP and the IAEA-RADWASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    1994-01-01

    Nowadays discussion on Radiation Safety has a spread of world wide range. The main framework on radiation safety was constructed by ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), which was established in 1928. This term of the committee was from June 1993 to May 1997 and the first plenary meeting was held at the Queen's hotel in Bournemouth of the United Kingdom on September 1993. The outline of this meeting, especially related items to the Committee 4, were summarized in this paper. The second point of our workshop considerations is radioactive waste problems, which are now under discussion in RADWASS (Radioactive Waste Safety Standards) project of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). This IAEA-RADWASS will last nearly 10 years to cover whole subjects. These discussed items are arranged into various international standards; the safety fundamental, the safety standards, the safety guides and the safety practices. These systematic approach, if we could summarize, would be effective not only to the specialists but also to a general public to get an acceptance of radioactive waste problem. Here, this IAEA-RADWASS project is reviewed. (author)

  5. Calculated organ doses for Mayak production association central hall using ICRP and MCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Ok; Shelkey, Brenda N; Wilde, Justin L; Walk, Heidi A; Slaughter, David M

    2003-03-01

    As part of an ongoing dose reconstruction project, equivalent organ dose rates from photons and neutrons were estimated using the energy spectra measured in the central hall above the graphite reactor core located in the Russian Mayak Production Association facility. Reconstruction of the work environment was necessary due to the lack of personal dosimeter data for neutrons in the time period prior to 1987. A typical worker scenario for the central hall was developed for the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon-4B (MCNP) code. The resultant equivalent dose rates for neutrons and photons were compared with the equivalent dose rates derived from calculations using the conversion coefficients in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publications 51 and 74 in order to validate the model scenario for this Russian facility. The MCNP results were in good agreement with the results of the ICRP publications indicating the modeling scenario was consistent with actual work conditions given the spectra provided. The MCNP code will allow for additional orientations to accurately reflect source locations.

  6. Occupational radiation exposure in the french nuclear industry: impact of 1990'S ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Hubert, P.

    1994-01-01

    The study addresses the issue of the impact the forthcoming regulations derived from ICRP 60 recommendations will have on radiological protection practices. A questionnaire has been sent to companies carrying out tasks involving exposures to ionizing radiation. 55 companies reported the exposures of their personnel (annual collective effective dose equivalent and distribution of individual doses). The reference year is 1991. Results were obtained for a total of 43789 workers, with a corresponding collective dose equivalent of 96 man.Sv and 1100 persons with individual dose in excess of 20 mSv (1800 in excess of 15 mSv). The major part of collective, as well as the higher individual exposures are found in subcontract companies involved in maintenance, cleaning and specialized tasks during reactor shutdown. Based on this inquiry, results have been extrapolated to the whole nuclear fuel cycle. 68000 workers are estimated to be exposed, with a total collective dose of 160 man.Sv. Among them 2200 workers would be exposed to dose equivalent in excess of 20 mSv, 3400 in excess of 15 mSv. Even if higher doses concern few people, they are associated with important tasks at particular steps of the fuel cycle. In the questionnaire, companies were asked for ways and means envisaged or already in use to keep these doses within present or tighter regulatory limits. Some account of the efforts to achieve this goal will be given

  7. International Commission On Radiological Protection: recommendations relevant to the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an independent, international organization that advances for the public benefit the science of radiological protection, in particular by providing recommendations and guidance on all aspects of protection against ionizing radiation. This presentation touches on aspects of The 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP, a fundamental document that lays out the system of radiological protection for all exposure situations and types, and focuses on other recent publications relevant to the uranium industry. Of particular relevance are the 2009 ICRP Statement on Radon and the accompanying report on lung cancer risk from radon. (author)

  8. The future policy for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The international system of radiological protection is currently being revised with the aim of making it more coherent and concise. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published its draft reflections on the system's evolution, and has opened discussions with the radiological protection community in order to seek a broad range of stakeholder input. This open dialogue will help bring about a common level of understanding of the issues at stake and contribute to the evolution of new ICRP recommendations. These proceedings present a significant block of stakeholder input, comprising the views of policy makers, regulators, radiological protection professionals, industry and representatives of both non-governmental and intergovernmental organisations. (author)

  9. Guidelines on radiation protection for work with open radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Danish National Institute of Radiation Protection (SIS) has published this, fourth edition of guidelines on radiation protection for work with open radiation sources. There are few changes compared to the previous edition, film doses are updated and preparation of the Danish legislation with respect to the 1991 ICRP recommendations (ICRP publication 60) is discussed. In this future recommendation the new dose limits will be proposed and new risk factors enlightened. (EG)

  10. Modification of male adult simulator posture of ICRP 110 reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeano, Diego C.; Souza, Divanizia N.; Santos, Willian S.; Carvalho Junior, Alberico B.

    2014-01-01

    Voxel simulators are usually constructed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance, so the supine position (lying) is the most used. This may result in a overestimated or underestimated the radiation dose, depending on the exposure scenario adopted. Thus, the objective was to change the attitude of the male adult simulator reference ICRP 110, AM (Adult Male), to a sitting posture. For change of posture were possible, it was necessary increasing the number of slices that comprise AM simulator by reducing the height of the voxel of 8.0 mm to 2.0 mm, thus making each voxel approximately cubic. A subroutine was created in Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the simulator and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. The ScionImage software was used to rebuild and soften the contours of the knee and hip of the simulator in a sitting posture, and 3D visualization of the simulator was used VolView software. The AM simulator in the seated position has the same anatomical features of the simulator in the standing posture. Using the MCNPX code [ref] was carried out the conversion coefficients for calculating the AP irradiation geometry (anteroposterior) comparing the AM simulator standing and sitting in order to evaluate the difference scattering and absorption of radiation by the two simulators. The result shows a difference up to 100% in the fluency conversion coefficients in nearby organs located in the pelvic region and in organs with distribution in the whole body (such as skin, muscle, lymph nodes and skeletal)

  11. The ICRP message;Le message de la CIPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Lopez, P. [Groupe de travail de la CIPR sur la prevention des expositions accidentelles liees a l' utilisation des nouvelles technologies de Radiotherapie par Faisceau Externe, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The ICRP gives its recommendations in the case of use of new technologies in radiotherapy: lessons learned from conventional technologies and also applicable to the new ones. Training, and specialization of the personnel as well as the need in personnel must be evaluated again. Managers of a radiotherapy service should bear in mind that the work environment must focus on concentration and avoid the risk of inattention. Manufacturers, for their part must provide reliable equipment with correct calibration files and documentation. the acquisition and implementation programs must focus not only on devices for treatment but also on treatment planning systems, computer systems and imaging devices used in radiation therapy, software, procedures and whole clinical process. The devices and procedures need to be re-classified after any changes to hardware, including upgrades and updates of software. The dosimetry protocols must be developed specially for the low doses irradiations and non standard irradiations. To increase the dose without increasing a probability of complication in sane tissues it is necessary to use a conformal therapy with a positioning of the patient. Communication is essential, especially concerning the activities of maintenance and repair that must ne notified to the physicists. In the same way, procedures of failures management in the computer systems must be implemented in order to avoid a loss of data susceptible to lead to serious accidental irradiations. The return of experience can be an help and then must be integrated in personnel training that is encouraged to share the experience in matter of incidents by providing information in a data base such the R.O.S.I.S. data base (radiation oncology safety information system). Before introducing new technologies it is recommended to realize probabilistic safety evaluations in order to develop quality assurance programmes integrating risk factors as, by example the analysis of failure modes and

  12. Comparative evaluation of different approaches to environmental protection against ionising radiation in view of practicability and consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Hornung, L.; Mundigl, S.; Kirchner, G.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations, including ICRP, IAEA and UNSCEAR, and the international scientific community are currently engaged in work on the protection of non-human species against ionising radiation as a complement to the existing framework centred on humans. The basic ideas and conceptual approaches developed during the last decade substantially agree with each other. The EC funded FASSET project (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) summarizes and reviews the current knowledge of radiation effects on biota, provides basic dosimetric models for fauna and flora and suggests an assessment framework. Protection of the environment against ionising radiation, on the one hand, aims to close a conceptual gap in radiation protection. Therefore, current frameworks for environmental protection conceptually follow radiation protection of man. On the other hand, preservation of natural resources, habitats and the biological diversity are common objectives of environmental protection against radioactive as well as chemical pollutants, suggesting an integrated approach based on the fundamental ideas of conventional environmental protection. In essence, a conceptual framework encompassing protection of man as well as of fauna and flora against chemical and radioactive pollutants would be highly desirable in view of coherence, consistency and transparency. Such an umbrella concept communicates the positive message that similar issues are treated in a conceptually similar manner, thus facilitating scientific justification and public communication and increasing acceptance. This paper discusses different concepts and approaches to radiation protection of man, radiation protection of non-human biota and environmental protection against chemical pollutants, identifies common principles and differences, addresses conflicting requirements and evaluates the feasibility and limitations of such an encompassing framework. (authors)

  13. Dosimetric system for measurement of radioactive contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litynski, Z.; Pienkos, J.P.; Witkowski, J.; Zadrozny, S.

    1985-01-01

    A dosimetric system for personnel dosimetry and monitoring measuring a contamination without time delay and dead time is described. The system ensures many-point measurement and minimalization of background radiation influence. 1 fig. (A.S.)

  14. Biokinetic of plutonium in human beings. Analysis and modification of ICRP 67 model; Biocinetica del plutonio nell'organismo umano. Analisi e modifica del modello ICRP 67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, A.; Castellani, C.M. [ENEA, Divisione Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A preliminary research of the available data and empirical functions for the plutonium excretion after injection was carried out. The ICRP model presented in the Publication no. 67 was then analyzed comparing its predictions for the activity in urine and, at a lesser extent, in feces and blood, with the collected data and empirical curves. The model was modified and an optimized age-related compartmental model was developed. A new skeletal model recently developed was also introduced and age depending bone remodelling rates were assumed on the basis of the ICRP Publication 70. This model provides a better agreement with measured urinary excretion data than the current ICRP 67 model, avoiding unphysiological assumptions such as the transfer of activity from soft tissue to urinary bladder, that were part of the ICRP model. The new optimized model predictions of the activity in faeces and in blood after an injection are also closer to the available data than the ICRP 67 estimations. A good agreement with the partitioning factor of plutonium between skeleton and liver obtained from different autopsy studies was also observed. [Italian] E' stata effettuata preliminarmente una ricerca bibliografica dei dati e delle funzioni di escrezione del plutonio attualmente disponibili in letteratura. Sulla base dei risultati di tale ricerca e' stato verificato il modello proposto dall'ICRP nella Pubblicazione n. 67. Tale modello e' stato quindi modificato al fine non solo di avere una piu' realistica descrizione dei valori predetti per l'escrezione urinaria, ma anche di modellare la cinetica del plutonio evitando quelle assunzioni introdotte appositamente nel modello dell'ICRP per correggere le previsini del modello ma che mancano di una chiara spiegazione di carattere fisiologico. Esso fornisce valutazioni piu' realistiche anche per l'attivita' nelle feci e nel sangue. Il modello sviluppato comprende un modello scheletrico

  15. Practical implications of new recommendations of the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1982-01-01

    The organization and the work of the International Commission of Radiological Protection is described. It concerns the definition of objects to be protected, the fundamental principles of protection, the concepts and the terminology, the limits of individual exposition, and the operational procedures. (HSI)

  16. A method, using ICRP 26 weighting factors, to determine effective dose equivalent due to nonuniform external exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has recently implemented a methodology and supporting procedures to calculate effective dose equivalent for external exposures. The calculations are based on ICRP 26 methodology and are used to evaluate exposures when multibadging is used. The methodology is based upon the concept of open-quotes whole bodyclose quotes compartmentalization (i.e., the whole body is separated into seven specific regions of radiological concern and weighted accordingly). The highest dose measured in each compartment is used to determine the weighted dose to that compartment. Benefits of determining effective dose equivalent are compliance with DOE Orders, more accurate dose assessments, and the opportunity for improved worker protection through new ALARA opportunities

  17. Operational Radiological Protection and Aspects of Optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, E.; Lindvall, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1992, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), along with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has sponsored the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE). ISOE collects and analyses occupational exposure data and experience from over 400 nuclear power plants around the world and is a forum for radiological protection experts from both nuclear power plants and regulatory authorities to share lessons learned and best practices in the management of worker radiation exposures. In connection to the ongoing work of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to develop new recommendations, the ISOE programme has been interested in how the new recommendations would affect operational radiological protection application at nuclear power plants. Bearing in mind that the ICRP is developing, in addition to new general recommendations, a new recommendation specifically on optimisation, the ISOE programme created a working group to study the operational aspects of optimisation, and to identify the key factors in optimisation that could usefully be reflected in ICRP recommendations. In addition, the Group identified areas where further ICRP clarification and guidance would be of assistance to practitioners, both at the plant and the regulatory authority. The specific objective of this ISOE work was to provide operational radiological protection input, based on practical experience, to the development of new ICRP recommendations, particularly in the area of optimisation. This will help assure that new recommendations will best serve the needs of those implementing radiation protection standards, for the public and for workers, at both national and international levels. (author)

  18. The ICRP Proposed Maximum Public Dose Constraints of o.3 mSv/y: a Major Issue for the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; Coates, R.

    2004-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently developing a new set of Recommendations on Radiological Protection. A value of 0.3mSv/y for the maximum public dose constraint has been discussed by ICRP. This value represents a major concern for the nuclear industry at large. The primary issue arises from the lack of any new scientific evidence on public health effects from ionising radiation to support, in practice, the proposed reduction by about a factor of 3 (from 1 to 0.3 mSv/y) of the upper bound value for public dose impact from a nuclear activity or site. Such a change would create a de facto limit on public exposure from specific sources at a dose level of about one tenth of average natural background and an even smaller fraction of the typical range of background exposures and exposures from medical sources. This cannot be justified on public health grounds. The WNA supports ICRP's renewed intention, as expressed at the NEA-ICRP Stakeholder Forum in Lanzarote (April 2003), to retain the concept of a public dose limit at 1 mSv/y. We strongly believe that the current system comprising of the dose limit and the ALARA Principle provides the necessary flexibility and tools for regulators to address all situations in all countries. The WNA consider that the question of setting an upper bound dose constraint (below 1 mSv/y) at the country/site specific level is best left for discussion and agreement between the local stakeholders rather than at an international level. When considering the potential practical implications of a maximum dose constraint, it is important to look beyond the very low off-site dose impacts (on the public) resulting from annual routine radioactive discharges of nuclear industrial sites. There are many off-site and on-site practical situations, related to public exposures (both workers and the public) and worker classification as well as activities such transportation, decommissioning and site remediation, for

  19. The ICRP Proposed Maximum Public Dose Constraints of o.3 mSv/y: a Major Issue for the Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; Coates, R.

    2004-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently developing a new set of Recommendations on Radiological Protection. A value of 0.3mSv/y for the maximum public dose constraint has been discussed by ICRP. This value represents a major concern for the nuclear industry at large. The primary issue arises from the lack of any new scientific evidence on public health effects from ionising radiation to support, in practice, the proposed reduction by about a factor of 3 (from 1 to 0.3 mSv/y) of the upper bound value for public dose impact from a nuclear activity or site. Such a change would create a de facto limit on public exposure from specific sources at a dose level of about one tenth of average natural background and an even smaller fraction of the typical range of background exposures and exposures from medical sources. This cannot be justified on public health grounds. The WNA supports ICRP's renewed intention, as expressed at the NEA-ICRP Stakeholder Forum in Lanzarote (April 2003), to retain the concept of a public dose limit at 1 mSv/y. We strongly believe that the current system comprising of the dose limit and the ALARA Principle provides the necessary flexibility and tools for regulators to address all situations in all countries. The WNA consider that the question of setting an upper bound dose constraint (below 1 mSv/y) at the country/site specific level is best left for discussion and agreement between the local stakeholders rather than at an international level. When considering the potential practical implications of a maximum dose constraint, it is important to look beyond the very low off-site dose impacts (on the public) resulting from annual routine radioactive discharges of nuclear industrial sites. There are many off-site and on-site practical situations, related to public exposures (both workers and the public) and worker classification as well as activities such transportation, decommissioning and site remediation

  20. Generic Screening Models for Assessing Exposures to the Public and ICRP Reference Animals and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovich, Tamara L.; Proehl, Gerhard; Telleria, Diego [International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Berkovskyy, Volodymyr [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute (RPI), 53, Melnikova Street, 04050, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Exposure', and 'Generic Models for Use in Assessing the Impact of Radioactive Discharges', respectively. Volume 3 is currently being drafted and will provide coefficients that enable screening assessments for the ICRP Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs), based on the models presented in ICRP publications 108 and 114. Through the application of the same models for dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere and in water bodies, standardized input parameters, assumptions and approaches that are being applied to develop screening coefficients, an integrated approach is being established that can be used to estimate exposures to people and the environment and to demonstrate protection, in accordance with SF-1. This integrated approach will allow the establishment of relationships of exposures to people, and to flora and fauna for the same levels of environmental radioactivity. This paper provides an update of the current status of the SRS 19 update. (authors)

  1. Dosimetric studies in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamadain, K. E. M.

    2004-04-01

    A dosimetric study in pediatric radiology and adult patients was currently being carried out at the pediatrics units of two large hospitals in Rio de Janeiro city: IPPMG (Instituto de Pediatric e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira, University hospital of federal University of Rio de Janeiro), IFF (Instituto Fernandes Figueira, FIOCRUZ) and Hospital Geral de Bonsucesso, a large public hospital in Rio de Janeiro city (HGB) Brazil. The dosimetric study was also performed at three pediatrics units in Sudan, namely, Ahmed Gasim, Khartoum and Omdurman hospitals. For chest x-ray examination the entrance skin dose(ESD) for AP, PA and LAT projections of pediatric patients, and the scattered dose at the thyroid, ovary and gonads have been obtained with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and with use of a software package Dosecal in thr Brazilian hospitals, and with the software dosecal in the Sudanese hospitals.The aim of this work was to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD), the effective dose (ED) and the body organ dose (BOD) for chest x-ray exposure in pediatric patients, and different exams for adults patients, and to compare the results obtained in the tow Countries Sudan and Brazil with the reference dose level. For ESD evaluation of the chest x-ray, three different TL dosimeters have been used, namely LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD 100) CaSo 4 : Dy and LiF:Mg, Cu,P (TLD 100 H). The age intervals considered were: 0-1 years, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results obtained with all dosimeters were in good agreement with, those obtained by the dosecal software, especially for AP and PA projection. However, some discrepancies were found for the LAT projection. The results within Brazil were some what consistent while in Sudan, large difference were observed, it was also noted that the doses in Brazil hospitals were less than the reference dose levels while in Sudanese hospitals the doses were higher than the reference dose levels. For adult patients only the software dosecal

  2. Dosimetric properties of MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.; Petr, I.

    1977-01-01

    The structure of MOS transistors is described and their characteristics given. The experiments performed and data in the literature show the following dosimetric properties of MOS transistors: while for low gamma doses the transistor response to exposure is linear, it shows saturation for higher doses (exceeding 10 3 Gy in tissue). The response is independent of the energy of radiation and of the dose rate (within 10 -2 to 10 5 Gy/s). The spontaneous reduction with time of the spatial charge captured by the oxide layer (fading) is small and acceptable from the point of view of dosimetry. Curves are given of isochronous annealing of the transistors following irradiation with 137 Cs and 18 MeV electrons for different voltages during irradiation. The curves show that in MOS transistors irradiated with high-energy electrons the effect of annealing is less than in transistors irradiated with 137 Cs. In view of the requirement of using higher temperatures (approx. 400 degC) for the complete ''erasing'' of the captured charge, unsealed systems must be used for dosimetric purposes. The effect was also studied of neutron radiation, proton radiation and electron radiation on the MOS transistor structure. For MOS transistor irradiation with 14 MeV neutrons from a neutron generator the response was 4% of that for gamma radiation at the same dose equivalent. The effect of proton radiation was studied as related to the changes in MOS transistor structure during space flights. The response curve shapes are similar to those of gamma radiation curves. The effect of electron radiation on the MOS structure was studied by many authors. The experiments show that for each thickness of the SiO 2 layer an electron energy exists at which the size of the charge captured in SiO 2 is the greatest. All data show that MOS transistors are promising for radiation dosimetry. The main advantage of MOS transistors as gamma dosemeters is the ease and speed of evaluation, low sensitivity to neutron

  3. Biokinetic of plutonium in human beings. Analysis and modification of ICRP 67 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, A.; Castellani, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary research of the available data and empirical functions for the plutonium excretion after injection was carried out. The ICRP model presented in the Publication no. 67 was then analyzed comparing its predictions for the activity in urine and, at a lesser extent, in feces and blood, with the collected data and empirical curves. The model was modified and an optimized age-related compartmental model was developed. A new skeletal model recently developed was also introduced and age depending bone remodelling rates were assumed on the basis of the ICRP Publication 70. This model provides a better agreement with measured urinary excretion data than the current ICRP 67 model, avoiding unphysiological assumptions such as the transfer of activity from soft tissue to urinary bladder, that were part of the ICRP model. The new optimized model predictions of the activity in faeces and in blood after an injection are also closer to the available data than the ICRP 67 estimations. A good agreement with the partitioning factor of plutonium between skeleton and liver obtained from different autopsy studies was also observed [it

  4. Aspects of ICRP 60 and ICRU 47 relevant to individual monitoring of external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Menzel, H.G.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure limits recommended by the ICRP and used in regulations are expressed in risk related quantities such as effective dose or effective dose equivalent. Operational quantities such as ambient dose equivalent or personal dose equivalent are defined in phantoms and are designed to give reasonable estimates of exposure limiting quantities. The readings of individual dosemeters are calibrated in terms of operational quantities. The international commissions involved in the definition of risk related quantities (ICRP) and operational quantities (ICRU) have introduced various new definitions and modifications to previous quantities used in their respective publications ICRP 60 and ICRU 39, ICRU 47. The consequences of these alterations for the relationships between quantities within the hierarchy have to be examined and the new quantitative relationships (conversion coefficients) between basic physical radiation quantities such as particle fluence or air kerma and the new quantities have to be evaluated. In 1992, the ICRP and ICRU charged a joint task group with addressing these tasks with a view to revising ICRP Publication 51. This paper presents an outline for the subject of the report to be prepared by the task group. An introduction to the new phantom-based quantities is given and conceptional differences between the newly introduced and the previous quantities are discussed. (author)

  5. Dosimetric verification of IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulski, W.; Cheimicski, K.; Rostkowska, J.

    2012-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a complex procedure requiring proper dosimetric verification. IMRT dose distributions are characterized by steep dose gradients which enable to spare organs at risk and allow for an escalation of the dose to the tumor. They require large number of radiation beams (sometimes over 10). The fluence measurements for individual beams are not sufficient for evaluation of the total dose distribution and to assure patient safety. The methods used at the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw are presented. In order to measure dose distributions in various cross-sections the film dosimeters were used (radiographic Kodak EDR2 films and radiochromic Gafchromic EBT films). The film characteristics were carefully examined. Several types of tissue equivalent phantoms were developed. A methodology of comparing measured dose distributions against the distributions calculated by treatment planning systems (TPS) was developed and tested. The tolerance level for this comparison was set at 3% difference in dose and 3 mm in distance to agreement. The so called gamma formalism was used. The results of these comparisons for a group of over 600 patients are presented. Agreement was found in 87 % of cases. This film dosimetry methodology was used as a benchmark to test and validate the performance of commercially available 2D and 3D matrices of detectors (ionization chambers or diodes). The results of these validations are also presented. (authors)

  6. Integration of the environment into the system of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higley, K.

    2018-01-01

    In 2005 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) embarked on an effort to ensure that the system for environmental radiological protection would be reconcilable with that for radiological protection of man, and with the approaches used for protection of the environment from other potential hazards

  7. National Sessions of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion

    2012-01-01

    The Radioprotection Argentine Society (SAR) was organized the National Sessions on Radiation Protection 2012 in order to continue the exchange in the radiation protection community in the country, on work areas that present a challenge to the profession. The new recommendations of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Standards (2011), among others, includes several topics that are necessary to develop. The SAR wants to encourage different organizations from Argentina, to submit projects that are developing in order to strengthen radiation protection.

  8. External contamination and skin dose. From ICRP and regulations to skin dose evaluation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coulteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.; Fenolland, J.; Frey, R.; Gonin, M.; Landry, B.; Laporte, E.; Le Guen, B.; Leval, D.

    2006-01-01

    Dose limitation to the skin is an objective of radiation protection. Our aim is to propose in case of skin contamination in EDF NPPs a simply, quickly and reproducible procedure for evaluating skin dose. French regulation admit an annual limit for skin dose over one square centimeter equal to 500 mSv. ICRP Publication 26 and 60 recommend that dose assessment be performed only if skin dose might be equal to or more than 50 mSv at basal cells. To respect this recommendation, an alert value (A) must be determined. This value is the lowest value of measurement from which dose assessment has to be made, based on the hypothesis that uninterrupted work time in controlled area is no more than four hours. This alert value (A) has been established for three external detection equipments, and for the ten radionuclides commonly detected. In case of external contamination, a first measurement is performed. If the value exceeds value (A), other measurements are instituted because skin dose evaluation needs to know other parameters as: - the radioactivity of the most contaminated square centimeter of the skin, - the identity of the radionuclides and their relative proportion. At the same time, we have to evaluate the length of the exposure. At last, we use different compiled results in a program developed from excel software which allow to calculate automatically the skin dose. This work has allowed us to publish an occupational health guideline about the assessment of skin dose in case of external contamination in EDF NPPs and to create an information booklet for workers. The authors propose to examine used methodology and to demonstrate the software. (authors)

  9. Methodology for the application of the I.C.R.P. optimization principle. The case of radioactive effluent control systems in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Maccia, Carlo; Pages, Pierre.

    1980-10-01

    This report aims at giving a detailed methodology to help improving decision making process in the radiation protection field, according to the optimization principle of the ICRP. A model was elaborated in such a general way as to be applicable for public as well as occupational radiation protection. The main steps of the model are: 1) the assessment of collective doses and residual health effects associated with a given radiation protection level, 2) the determination of protection costs, 3) the decision analysis: cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis. The model is implemented by means of a conversational computer program. This methodology is exemplified with the problem of the choice of waste treatment systems for the PWRs in France. The public impact of radioactive releases is evaluated for the population within 100 km around the site. The main results are presented for two existing sites of the French nuclear program [fr

  10. Radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article first reviews the general radiation protection law at international and national level, with particular reference to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which, although not mandatory, are nevertheless taken into consideration by international organisations establishing basic radiation protection standards such as the UN, IAEA, NEA and Euratom, at Community level, and by national legislation. These standards are therefore remarkably harmonized. Radiation protection rule applied in France for the different activities and uses of radioactive substances are then described, and finally, a description is given of the regulations governing artificial radioisotopes and radioactive effluents. (NEA) [fr

  11. The work of Committee 2 of ICRP in developing dose coefficients for the embryo and fetus following intakes of radionuclides by the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.; Phipps, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has the responsibility for calculating radiation doses from intakes of radionuclides for all age groups in the population. This includes the development of models for calculating doses to the embryo and fetus following intakes of radionuclides by the mother. The development of both biokinetic and dosimetric models are reviewed and the results of preliminary dose calculations presented. (orig.) [de

  12. Compilation of nuclear decay data used for dose calculation. Revised data for radionuclides listed in ICRP Publication 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2001-03-01

    New nuclear decay data used for dose calculation have been compiled for 817 radionuclides that are listed in ICRP Publication 38 (Publ. 38) and for 6 additional isomers. The decay data were prepared using decay data sets from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), the latest version in August 1997. Basic nuclear properties in the decay data sets that are particularly important for calculating energies and intensities of emissions were examined and updated by referring to NUBASE, the database for nuclear and decay properties of nuclides. The reviewed and updated data were half-life, decay mode and its branching ratio, spin and parity of the ground and isomeric states, excitation energy of isomers, and Q value. In addition, possible revisions of partial and incomplete decay data sets were done for their format and syntax errors, level schemes, normalization records, and so on. After that, the decay data sets were processed by EDISTR in order to compute the energies and intensities of α particles, β particles, γ rays, internal conversion electrons, X rays, and Auger electrons emitted in nuclear transformation. For spontaneously fissioning nuclides, the average energies and intensities of neutrons, fission fragments, prompt γ rays, delayed γ rays, and β particles were also calculated. The compiled data were prepared in two different types of format: Publ. 38 and NUCDECAY formats. Comparison of the compiled decay data with those in Publ. 38 was also presented. The decay data will be widely used for internal and external dose calculations in radiation protection and will be beneficial to a future revision of ICRP Publ. 38. (author)

  13. Compilation of nuclear decay data used for dose calculation. Revised data for radionuclides listed in ICRP Publication 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    New nuclear decay data used for dose calculation have been compiled for 817 radionuclides that are listed in ICRP Publication 38 (Publ. 38) and for 6 additional isomers. The decay data were prepared using decay data sets from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), the latest version in August 1997. Basic nuclear properties in the decay data sets that are particularly important for calculating energies and intensities of emissions were examined and updated by referring to NUBASE, the database for nuclear and decay properties of nuclides. The reviewed and updated data were half-life, decay mode and its branching ratio, spin and parity of the ground and isomeric states, excitation energy of isomers, and Q value. In addition, possible revisions of partial and incomplete decay data sets were done for their format and syntax errors, level schemes, normalization records, and so on. After that, the decay data sets were processed by EDISTR in order to compute the energies and intensities of {alpha} particles, {beta} particles, {gamma} rays, internal conversion electrons, X rays, and Auger electrons emitted in nuclear transformation. For spontaneously fissioning nuclides, the average energies and intensities of neutrons, fission fragments, prompt {gamma} rays, delayed {gamma} rays, and {beta} particles were also calculated. The compiled data were prepared in two different types of format: Publ. 38 and NUCDECAY formats. Comparison of the compiled decay data with those in Publ. 38 was also presented. The decay data will be widely used for internal and external dose calculations in radiation protection and will be beneficial to a future revision of ICRP Publ. 38. (author)

  14. Procedure and methodology of Radiation Protection optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hengde

    1995-01-01

    Optimization of Radiation Protection is one of the most important principles in the system of radiation protection. The paper introduces the basic principles of radiation protection optimization in general, and the procedure of implementing radiation protection optimization and methods of selecting the optimized radiation protection option in details, in accordance with ICRP 55. Finally, some economic concepts relating to estimation of costs are discussed briefly

  15. ALI and DAC for transuranic elements based on the metabolic data presented in ICRP publication 48

    OpenAIRE

    外川 織彦; 山口 勇吉; 本間 俊充

    1987-01-01

    最近刊行されたICRPの報告書、ICRP Publication 48にはICRP Publication 30の年摂取限度(ALI)と誘導空気中濃度(DAC)の計算に採用されたデータと比較して、いくつかの超ウラン元素について新しい代謝データが示されている。

  16. Resolutions of ICRP models with BIOKMOD: Application for the bioassays evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Biokmod is a tool box developed using Mathematic for solving compartmental modes. It gives analytic and numeric solutions. Biokmod solves the current ICRP models including Acute, constant, continuous variable, multi-inputs and random intakes. All parameters (deposition factors, rate transfer coefficients, fractional rate of absorption, etc.) can be modified by users. It can be also applied for evaluating unknown intakes fitting bioassay experimental data and for evacuating uncertainties in the ICRP models. There is a web version (BiokmodWeb) at http://www3.enusa.es//webMathematica/public/biokmode.html. In this article we describe the application of Biokmod for evaluating Bioassays. (Author) 8 refs

  17. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.

    1978-05-01

    The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  18. A new perspective on the ICRP's new draft recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.

    1990-01-01

    The final text of the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection is due to be published in the first quarter of 1991. The recommendations consist of a main text supported by the three major appendices: quantities and units; biological effects of ionising radiation; and criteria for judging the significance of the effects of radiation. Aspects of the report considered here are: risk estimates; radiation detriment including fatal and non-fatal cancers and hereditary defects; the system of protection; dose and risks limits; the concept of a dose constraint; quantities and units. (author)

  19. The postnatal growth of ICRP target organs in reference humans: Spleen and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to improve radiation dose estimates to infants and children are hampered because of the lack of mathematical models that describe the age variation in anatomical and physiological parameters. Specifically, for one anatomical parameter, organ size, there are no growth models available to the health physics community. In this paper, an empirical mathematical model is introduced for estimating age-specific masses of two ICRP target organs: the spleen and liver. That model, the Power Logistic Additive (PLA) growth model, is fitted to ICRP 23 organ growth data to determine five growth parameters. This model assumes that organs grow under the influence of two main processes: a primary (power function) and a sexual maturation (logistic function) process, which are additive from birth to adulthood. The results show that the model describes the ICRP growth data quite well. Growth parameters and tables listing the predicted masses and mass velocities as a function of age for each organ are provided for application in the ICRP modeling system

  20. Significance of the new ICRP dose limits in the Indian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The ICRP estimates the risk quantities using the primary risk coefficients from the results of Japanese survivor studies (with DDREF of 2) along with the all-causes mortality and survival probabilities of the Swedish population. In the present work, risk quantities have been computed using the ICRP estimates of the attributable conditional cancer death probability rates for different exposure levels along with the survival probabilities of the Indian population from the official Indian life tables. For this purpose the parameters of the latest Indian life tables are extrapolated beyond the highest tabulated age of 70 years by 'logit transformation' using the parameters of the complete Indian life table to age 100 years for the period 1951-60 as standard. The results of the present work show that the Indian and the Swedish-ICRP risk quantity estimates are consistent as a function of the life expectancies of the populations and that the Swedish-ICRP risk quantity estimates contain safety factors of about 2 in the Indian context. (author)

  1. The programme of work on committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Committee 2 of ICRP has the responsibility for establishing secondary standards based on the Commission's recommended dose limits. The Committee has an extensive programme of work related to internally incorporated radionuclides which was reviewed at its September, 1997 meeting in Oxford, England. It is summarized below. (author)

  2. Committee 2 of the ICRP: overview of the current and future work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of the current and future work of ICRP Committee 2 was briefly discussed, the discussion was limited to internal dosimetry. The main topics were as follows: (1) Internal dose to members of the public; (2) Internal dose to the workers; (3) Internal dose to patients using radiopharmaceuticals

  3. Radiologic protection: technical and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Radiologic units are described with the aim to decodify the technical dosimetric language. The legal aspect of radiologic protection in Brazil is reported. Information about help in case of radiation accident is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. New radiobiological findings bearing on the 1977 ICRP recommendations. [Sensitivity of mouse and monkey prenatal oocytes to chronic, low-dose, tritium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1979-02-14

    Recent experiments on low-level irradiation during development raise questions relevant to ICRP Publication 26. Mice and monkeys were studied; the measured endpoint was the radiation-induced loss of female germ cells. Three issues are examined. The first is the numerical value of Q (quality factor) appropriate for low-energy beta rays. Comparisons of tritium with gamma radiation were made under conditions of chronic, low-level exposure, and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was found to approach 3. Its bearing on ICRP's recommendations concerning Q applicable to tritium is discussed. Second, female germ cells in squirrel monkeys before birth were discovered to be extraordinarily radiosensitive, more easily destroyed than those of mice. If this holds for other primates too, it has radiation-protection implications hitherto overlooked. Third, the contrast between massive germ-cell loss from chronic exposure in prenatal squirrel monkeys and reported radioresistance of oocytes to acute exposure in rhesus monkeys, unless due to species difference, suggests that during development protracted irradiation may be especially injurious. This also could have important radiation-protection implications and is under investigation. (ERB)

  5. Mission and activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, C.H.

    2018-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), formed in 1928, develops the System of Radiological Protection for the public benefit. The objective of the recommendations is to contribute to an appropriate level of protection for people and the environment against the harmful effects of radiation exposure without unduly limiting the individual or societal benefits of activities involving radiation. In developing its recommendations, ICRP considers advances in scientific knowledge, evolving social values, and practical experience. These recommendations are the basis of radiological protection standards and practice worldwide

  6. On ethical issues in radiation protection. Radiation protection recommendations and standards seen from an ethical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.; Persson, L.

    2004-01-01

    International radiation protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, the European Union and the ILO are surveyed from an ethical perspective. The authors come to the conclusion that the insights of ethical theories provide a number of ways in which current recommendations and standards for radiation protection could improve. (orig.) [de

  7. Internal dosimetric evaluation due to uranium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Aguilar Juan; Delgado Avila Gustavo

    1991-01-01

    The present work has like object to carry out the internal dosimetric evaluation to the occupationally exposed personnel, due to the inhalation of aerosols of natural uranium and enriched in the pilot plant of nuclear fuel production of the National Institute of Nuclear Research

  8. ESR dosimetric properties of some biomineral materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Gamal M.; Sharaf, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Dosimetric properties of g-irradiated modern coral and bioactive glass (Bio-G) samples analyzed with electron spin resonance (ESR) have been separately reported (Hassan et al., 2004; Sharaf and Hassan, 2004) and compared with alanine. These are combined here to allow a three-way comparison between these materials

  9. ESR dosimetric properties of some biomineral materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Gamal M. [Department of Ionizing Radiation Metrology, National Institute for Standards (NIS), Tersa Street, El-Haram, El-Giza, P.O. Box 136 Giza, El-Giza (Egypt)]. E-mail: gamalhassan65@hotmail.com; Sharaf, M.A. [Department of Ionizing Radiation Metrology, National Institute for Standards (NIS), Tersa Street, El-Haram, El-Giza, P.O. Box 136 Giza, El-Giza (Egypt)

    2005-02-01

    Dosimetric properties of g-irradiated modern coral and bioactive glass (Bio-G) samples analyzed with electron spin resonance (ESR) have been separately reported (Hassan et al., 2004; Sharaf and Hassan, 2004) and compared with alanine. These are combined here to allow a three-way comparison between these materials.

  10. Evaluation of physiological parameters and their influence on doses calculated from two alternative dosimetric models for the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Skrable, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    Two dosimetric models, the catenary compartmental model (Be70) and the slug flow model (Sk75), are examined using three sets of physiological parameters: those proposed by Eve, those proposed by ICRP, and those obtained from the Textbook of Physiology and Biochemistry by Bell et al. The impact of physiological parameters on the dosimetry of the tract is illustrated by comparing calculated maximum permissible daily activity ingestion rates for single, unabsorbed, particle emitting radionuclides with an effective energy term of unity. The conclusions drawn from this intercomparison of six different cases are: Current dosimetric models which use physiological parameters described in this article do not significantly disagree, and for the determination of average dose equivalent rates to segments of the tract due to chronic, long term ingestion of any radionuclide, the catenary compartmental model is a mathematically simpler approach. The catenary model in addition has certain advantages for the calculation of the photon dose contribution to one segment from cumulated activity (disintegrations) in another segment

  11. Introduction of radiological protection; Pengenalan kepada perlindungan radiologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: basic principles of radiological protection , dose limit which was suggested, stochastic and nonstochastic effects, equivalent dose and alternative of it`s calculation, limit for the publics, ICRP (International Commission for Radiological Protection) recommendations, and the principles of radiological protection. Dangerous radiation sources also briefly summarized i.e. x-ray generators, reactor nucleus.

  12. Radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations; Strahlenschutz in Schweizer Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Brunell, M. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Well developed measures on operational radiation protection within Swiss nuclear installations will be presented. The focus lays on competent authority actions. Results of the last ten years, including events on radiation issues, will be discussed. Finally a view on challenges for radiation protection personnel with respect to a renewed Swiss radiation protection legislation based on recent ICRP recommendations will be given.

  13. The new remcounter LB6411: Measurement of neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) according to ICRP60 with high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, A.; Burgkhardt, B.

    1996-01-01

    Since the International Commission on Radiological Protection has issued in publication ICRP60 new recommendations on radiation protection quantities, in neutron monitoring there is now increasing Interest in commercially available instruments optimized and calibrated for the measurement of ambient dose equivalent H*(10). Therefore within a joint cooperation between the Research Center Karlsruhe and EG ampersand G Berthold the neutron-dose-rate meter LB6411 was newly developed. The detector system with integrated electronics has a 3 He proportional counter tube centered in a moderating sphere. The response between thermal energies and 20 MeV was optimized with the help of extensive MCNP Monte-Carlo calculations. The instrument has extremely high sensitivity of approximately 3 counts per nSv and can be used both as a portable or as a stationary neutron monitor. Fluence responses and angular dependencies had been measured in monoenergetic neutron beams provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Germany. The ambient dose equivalent response of the LB6411 is reported over the whole energy range

  14. Defending the ICRP principles of radiation protection. An answer to Zbigniew Jaworowski

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.; Shrader-Frechette, K.

    2000-01-01

    In an article ''Radiation Risk and Ethics'' in the September 1999 issue of Physics Today, Professor Zbigniew Jaworowski (a Polish member of UNSCEAR) makes 12 highly controversial and unsubstantiated assertions. In this reply, Lars Persson and Kristin Shrader-Frechette show why they think that the 12 assertions are both ethically and scientifically doubtful, if not false. (orig./CB) [de

  15. A practical application of the ICRP publication n. 88 for controlling the embryo and foetus exposure from intakes of radionuclides by the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Frittelli, L.

    2002-01-01

    The International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising radiation require that the employer of a female worker which has notified pregnancy shall adopt the working conditions in respect of occupational exposure so as to ensure that the embryo or foetus is afforded the same broad level of protection as required for members of the public. In this paper the metabolic and the dosimetric models recommended in the Publication 88 are used for evaluating, for some selected radionuclides, the reference levels for retention or excretion by the mother related to the embryo and foetus exposure

  16. Involving stakeholders in radiological protection decision making: recovery history and lessons from the people of Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, T

    2016-12-01

    Between September 2011 and August 2015, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) organised a series of 12 stakeholder dialogue workshops with residents of Fukushima Prefecture. Discussions focused on recovery, addressing topics such as protection of children, management of contaminated food, monitoring, and self-help measures. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) supported, and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) Secretariat attended, all 12 meetings to listen directly to the concerns of affected individuals and draw lessons for CRPPH. To summarise the dialogue results, ICRP organised a final meeting in Date, Japan with the support of NEA and other organisations. The lessons from and utility of the dialogue meetings were praised by dialogue participants and sponsors, and ICRP agreed that some form of dialogue would continue, although with ICRP participation and support rather than leadership. This paper summarises the internationally relevant lessons learned by CRPPH from this important process.

  17. Evolution of the system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    One of the main challenges facing radiological protection experts is how to integrate radiological protection within modern concepts of and approaches to risk governance. It is within this context that the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) decided to develop new general recommendations to replace its Publication 60 recommendations of 1990. In the process of developing these new recommendations, the views of the ICRP have evolved significantly, largely due to stakeholder involvement that has been actively solicited by the ICRP. In this regard, it was upheld during the First Asian Regional Conference organised by the NEA in October 2002 that the implementation of the new system must allow for regional, societal and cultural differences. In order to ensure appropriate consideration of these differences, the NEA organised the Second Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection. Held in Tokyo on 28-29 July 2004, the conference included presentations by the ICRP Chair as well as by radiological experts from Australia, China, Japan and Korea. Within their specific cultural and socio-political milieu, Asia-Pacific and western ways of thought on how to improve the current system of radiological protection were presented and discussed. These ways of thinking, along with a summary of the conference results, are described in these proceedings. (author)

  18. Review of ICRP-60: Implications for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation exposure has generally been managed based on exposure or dose limits. These limits have undergone revisions every decade or so as further information on the biological effects of various types of radiation become available. For example, in the early 1950's for workers, a whole body dose limit of 3 mSv (0.3 rem) per week was being used in the United States until 1957 when the National council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, (NCRP) recommended a limit of 50 mSv (5 rem) per year. Currently, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) specifies a whole body limit of 1.25 rem per calendar quarter (5 rem/y)(10CFR 20)

  19. MCID: A Software Tool to Provide Monte Carlo Driven Dosimetric Calculations Using Multimodality NM Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara Gil, Alex; Torres Aroche, Leonel A; Coca Péreza, Marco A; Pacilio, Massimiliano; Botta, Francesca; Cremonesi, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In this work, a new software tool (named MCID) to calculate patient specific absorbed dose in molecular radiotherapy, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is presented. Materials & Methods: The inputs for MCID are two co-registered medical images containing anatomical (CT) and functional (PET or SPECT) information of the patient. The anatomical image is converted to a density map, and tissues segmentation is provided considering compositions and densities from ICRU 44 and ICRP; the functional image provides the cumulative activity map at voxel level (figure 1). MCID creates an input file for Monte Carlo (MC) codes such as MCNP5 and GATE, and converts the MC outputs into an absorbed dose image. Results: The developed tool allows estimating dose distributions for non-uniform activities distributions and non-homogeneous tissues. It includes tools for delineation of volumes of interest, and dosimetric data analysis. Procedures to decrease the calculation time are implemented in order to allow its use in clinical settings. Dose–volume histograms are computed and presented from the obtained dosimetric maps as well as dose statistics such as mean, minimum and maximum dose values; the results can be saved in common medical image formats (Interfile, DICOM, Analyze, MetaImage). The MCID was validated by comparing estimated dose values versus reference data, such as gold standards phantoms (OLINDA´s spheres) and other MC simulations of non-homogeneous phantoms. A good agreement was obtained in spheres ranged 1g to 1kg of mass and in non-homogeneous phantoms. Clinical studies were also examined. Dosimetric evaluations in patients undergoing 153Sm-EDTMP therapy for osseous metastases showed non-significant differences with calculations performed by traditional methods. The possibility of creating input files to perform the simulations using the Gate Code has increased the MCID applications and improved its functionality, Different clinical situations including PET and SPECT

  20. Population specific absorption studies for some diet incorporated trace elements : comparison with ICRP data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameswaran, M.; Dang, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Daily intake and excretion can provide an important information regarding the absorption through the gastro-intestinal tract (f1 factor) of trace elements incorporated in diet. The absorption may depend upon the kind of diet consumed, the content of the fibre, protein etc and it could be quite different for two populations groups with entirely different food habits. ICRP has provided data on the intake and excretion of 63 trace elements by Caucasian population representing North American and European adults. This paper reports intake and excretion of twelve elements Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Rb, Fe, Zn, Sr, Li and Cr for an urban adult Indian population group and compares with corresponding data on ICRP reference man. (author)

  1. Practical application of the new ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, M.R.; Guilmette, R.A.; Jarvis, N.S.; Roy, M

    1998-07-01

    The ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) has been applied to calculate general-purpose dose coefficients using default values of parameters relating to the material and the subjects. The ICRP Task Group on Internal Dosimetry is developing a 'Technical Document' giving guidance on application of the HRTM in situations where using specific information can improve dose assessment. It will include an analysis of the sensitivity of doses and bioassay quantities, lung retention and excretion rates, to relevant parameter values. Guidance will be given on characterising and sampling radioactive aerosols and on determining absorption rates. Examples will be given illustrating application of the HRTM in a wide range of situations. This paper provides a selective summary of the document at its current stage of development, with emphasis on determining absorption rates. (author)

  2. Alkaline earth metabolism: the ICRP model reformulated as a semi-Markov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.H.; Becker, A.

    1980-01-01

    Compartmental models are reformulated so as to allow power function or mixed exponential-power function residence time distributions in bone compartments. Numerical results reported for retention functions of calcium, strontium, barium and radium are in reasonable agreement with the ICRP models except at shorter time scales. The number of visits to bone is also sensitive to short-term elimination parameters, so that recycling corrections may require much more detailed analyses at both long and short time-scales. (author)

  3. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  4. Tritium: An analysis of key environmental and dosimetric questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, H.R.; Etnier, E.L.; Bomar, E.S.; Gentry, R.D.; Killough, G.G.; Rohwer, P.S.; Tennery, V.J.; Travis, C.C.

    1980-05-01

    This document summarizes new theoretical and experimental data that may affect the assessment of environmental releases of tritium and analyzes the significance of this information in terms of the dose to man. Calculated doses resulting from tritium releases to the environment are linearly dependent upon the quality factor chosen for tritium beta radiation. A reevaluation of the tritium quality factor by the ICRP is needed; a value of 1.7 would seem to be more justifiable than the old 1.0 value. A new exposure model is proposed, based primarily upon the approach recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Employing a /open quotes/typical/close quotes/ LMFBR reprocessing facility source term, a /open quotes/base case/close quotes/ dose commitment to total body (for a maximally exposed individual) was calculated to be 4.0 /times/ 10/sup /minus/2/ mSv, with 3.2 /times/ 10/sup /minus// mSv of the dose due to intake of tritium. The study analyzes models which exist for evaluating the buildup of global releases of tritium from man-made sources. Scenarios for the release of man-made tritium to the environment and prediction of collective dose commitment to future generations suggest that the dose from nuclear weapons testing will be less than that from nuclear energy even though the weapons source term is greater than that for any of our energy scenarios

  5. Radiation protection glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The glossary is intended to be used as a terminology standard for IAEA documentation on radiation protection. An effort has been made to use definitions contained in internationally accepted publications such as recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), with only slight modifications in order to tailor them more closely to IAEA needs. The glossary is restricted to ionizing radiation

  6. Nuclear decay data for dosimetry calculation. Revised data of ICRP Publication 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2005-02-01

    New nuclear decay data used for dose calculation have been compiled for 1034 radionuclides, which are significant in medical, environmental and occupational exposures. The decay data were assembled from decay data sets of the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), the latest version as of 2003. Basic nuclear properties in the ENSDF that are particularly important for calculating energies and intensities of radiations were examined and updated by referring to UNBASE2003/AME2003, the database for nuclear and decay properties of nuclides. In addition, modification of incomplete ENSDF was done for their format errors, level schemes, normalization records, and so on. The energies and intensities of emitted radiations by the nuclear decay and the subsequent atomic process were computed from the ENSDF using the computer code EDISTR04. EDISTR04 is an enhanced version of EDISTR used for assembling ICRP Publication 38 (ICRP38), and incorporates updates of atomic data and computation methods for calculating atomic radiations and spontaneous fission radiations. Quality assurance of the compiled data has been made by comparisons with various experimental data and decay databases prepared from different computer codes and data libraries. A package of the data files, called DECDC2 (Nuclear DECay Data for Dosimetry Calculation, Version 2), will succeed ICRP38 that has been used extensively in dose calculation and will be utilized in various fields. (author)

  7. Radiation protection: Philosophy, recommendations and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The philosophy developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the control of human radiation exposure will be described. The application of the ICRP recommendations to the authorization and control of the disposal of radioactive wastes to the sea will be discussed in the context of the practice in the United Kingdom. (author)

  8. Compilation of nuclear decay data used for dose calculations. Data for radionuclides not listed in ICRP publication 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tamura, Tsutomu

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear decay data used for dose calculations were compiled for 162 nuclides with half-lives greater than or equal to 10 min that are not listed in ICRP Publication 38 (Publ. 38) and their 28 daughter nuclides. Additional 14 nuclides that are considered to be important in fusion reactor facilities were also included. The data were compiled using decay data sets of the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), the latest version in August 1997. Investigations of the data sets were performed to check their consistency by referring to recent literature and NUBASE, the database for nuclear and decay properties of nuclides, and by using the utility programs of ENSDF. Possible revisions of the data sets were made for their format and syntax errors, level schemes, normalization records, and so on. The revised data sets were processed by EDISTR in order to calculate the energies and intensities of {alpha} particles, {beta} particles, {gamma} rays including annihilation photons, internal conversion electrons, X rays, and Auger electrons emitted in nuclear transformations of the radionuclides. For spontaneously fissioning nuclides, the average energies and intensities of neutrons, fission fragments, prompt {gamma} rays, delayed {gamma} rays, and {beta} particles were also calculated. The compiled data were presented in two types of format; Publ. 38 and NUCDECAY formats. This report provides the decay data in the Publ. 38 format along with decay scheme drawings. The data will be widely used for internal and external dose calculations in radiation protection. (author)

  9. Neutron spectrometry for protection dosimetry at very low levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardell, A.G.; Thomas, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Dose limits for exposure of members of the public are significantly lower than those for designated radiation workers. The new ICRP 60 recommendation for critical groups of the general public is an effective dose limit of 1 mSv per year which requires a measurement capability at levels down to about 100 nSv h - 1. Radiation protection dosimetry for neutrons at these levels is problematical, nevertheless, operators of nuclear sites are still required to demonstrate acceptably low radiation levels in areas accessible to the public. In addition to the known poor dose equivalent response of available dosemeters, there is an added problem at low levels of inadequate sensitivity. Personal dosemeters are certainly not sufficiently sensitive, and the sensitivity of area survey instruments is such that they can only be used in integral mode Even then, the statistical uncertainties are likely to be large. One further problem concerns the quantity measured. Survey instruments are designed to measure the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), which always tends to be an overestimate of the present limiting quantity effective dose equivalent. If in any situation exposure is near the limit, an estimate of H*(10) may not be sufficient to prove conclusively that levels are less than the statutory limit, and a direct estimate of effective dose equivalent may need to be made. The only way of estimating effective dose equivalent is via an absolute spectral measurement. From such a spectrum any relevant dosimetric quantity can be estimated via tabulated fluence to dose equivalent conversion factors. (Certain quantities also require information about the angular dependence of the field - see later text). Spectrometry at such low neutron fluence levels is difficult, however, there is one instrument available which can perform the required measurements, and this is a well characterised Bonner sphere (BS) set. (author)

  10. Management and processing of dosimetric data of workers exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasoarimalala, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Madagascar - INSTN Radiation protection and Dosimetry Department use the reader HARSHAW TLD 6600 for workers doses reading. Although the performance of this device, manual works is required to store and to maintain the dosimetric data after reading and to note the TLDs sent to the establishments. To avoid these manual works, this present work proposes computer programs written in Python and using SQLite software. One of the programs in python retrieves dose values after reading and transfers directly these doses in the workers database. The use of SQLite software provides a way for the dosimetric data management and the TLDs movement monitoring. The other program assesses estimation of the dose received by worker through a trend curve for workers dosimetric monitoring. The calculated differences of this curve over the curve connecting all points are less than 20%, acceptable limit in radiation protection for TLDs. This present work presents then significances for the personnel occupying individual monitoring of ionizing radiation workers and for these workers too. [fr

  11. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine: fundamentals and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.; Roedler, H.D.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1976-01-01

    Consequences for the protection of patients, protection of persons, and protection of the public are derived from the recommendations of the ICRP and the legal requirements for the handling of unsealed radioactive substances in diagnostics and therapy according to the First Radiation Protection Ordinance and its amended version, as well as from the 'guidelines for radiation protection when using radioactive substances in medicine'. (orig./LN) [de

  12. Some aspects of radiological protection in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Napolitano, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic principles of radiation protection recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection - ICRP are presented and the main radiological risks for the uranium mining workers are discussed. Finally some criteria for planning the radioactive waste management in uranium mines are given [pt

  13. Is radiation protection for the unborn child guaranteed by radiation protection for female workers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosske, C.; Karcher, K.

    2003-01-01

    ICRP Publication 88 recommends doses to embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother for various intake scenarios. Mainly by answering the question 'Is radiation protection for the unborn child guaranteed by radiation protection for female workers?' it has been assessed if the intake scenarios given in ICRP Publication 88 are adequate for radiation protection purposes. This is generally the case, but the consideration of an additional chronic intake scenario for early pregnancy would be helpful. It is demonstrated that following chronic intake by inhalation, for most radionuclides radiation protection for (female) workers is also adequate for protection of the unborn child, considered as a member of the public. However, there are a number of radionuclides for which possible intakes in routine operations should be more restricted (up to 1% of the annual limits on intake for workers in the case of nickel isotopes) to ensure radiation protection for the unborn child. (author)

  14. Hot pixel generation in active pixel sensors: dosimetric and micro-dosimetric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Leif; Novak, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The dosimetric response of an active pixel sensor is analyzed. heavy ions are seen to damage the pixel in much the same way as gamma radiation. The probability of a hot pixel is seen to exhibit behavior that is not typical with other microdose effects.

  15. Internal Dosimetric Calculations for Occupationally Exposed Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.T.; Farag, H.I.

    2005-01-01

    The Internal radiation dosimetry calculations are very important to estimate the benefit and the risk of radiation in nuclear medicine field for both patient and worker. MIRD scheme and ICRP model have valid methods in this type of calculations. In this work, a new program called WIRDST the Workers Internal Radiation Dosimetry Simulation for Thyroid gland has been built up by using the Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate the internal exposure of sodium iodide by inhalation for workers. The working conditions have been taken as the same as found in the hot laboratory of nuclear medicine unit in the National Cancer Institute in Cairo University. The point source equivalent model as a parameterization equation has developed newly by using the fitting model of MC method for uniform distribution of radioactive sodium iodide in the thyroid gland. This model is used for the first time in this type of calculation, and then applied on 3 D coordinates of mathematical geometry for the adult phantom of the reference man. The latest parameters (anatomical data and inhalation metabolic data) of ICRP pamphlets and recommendations have been used in this purpose. Moreover, the latest scheme for iodine decay mode and the latest geometry model for thyroid gland are used also. The results showed that the specific effective energy and the effective dose decrease from the thyroid gland to the nearest organs then decrease gradually until terminated in the organs that have large distance from the thyroid. The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) has been calculated for a wide range of thyroid uptake (5%, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45%, and 55%) in addition to change of the working time order per week in one year. The results showed that the critical point of intake limits are decreased when the thyroid uptake is increased and/or the number of working time in the hot laboratory per week is increased

  16. Feasibility of an individual surveillance program on contamination with direct measurement methods based on the criteria established in the ICRP publication 54

    CERN Document Server

    Melandri, C

    1990-01-01

    If different methods of adequate sensitivity are available ICRP Publication 54, 'Individual Monitoring for Intakes-of Radionuclides by Workers: Design and Interpretations', recommends the use of direct measurements in individual monitoring for intakes of radionuclides. This report analyses the possibility to perform the different controls on the basis of the proposed Derived Reference Levels, respecting the accuracy requirement in evaluation of individual intake and dose. Therefore, general operative criteria are defined by analysing the potentialities and limitations of the different Whole Body Counters utilizable for the measurement with regard to the chemical, physical and metabolic characteristics of some radionuclides of particular interest in Radiation Protection. These criteria are useful for monitoring planning wherever a radiocontamination risk is possible.

  17. Optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Optimisation of radiation protection is one of the key elements in the current radiation protection philosophy. The present system of dose limitation was issued in 1977 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and includes, in addition to the requirements of justification of practices and limitation of individual doses, the requirement that all exposures be kept as low as is reasonably achievable, taking social and economic factors into account. This last principle is usually referred to as optimisation of radiation protection, or the ALARA principle. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) organised an ad hoc meeting, in liaison with the NEA committees on the safety of nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

  18. Some remarks on the Austrian radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, H.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the provisions of the Austrian Radiation Protection Law and Radiation Protection Ordinance differ from those recommended by ICRP and IAEO. This is particularly true for the definition of working conditions, the categorization of radiation areas and the classification of radiation workers. It is suggested that the responsible authorities when considering a revision of the legislation in the light of ICRP 26 and the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards, also study the desirability of adapting the currently applicable provisions to the universally accepted international norms. (Auth.)

  19. Postoperative telegammatherapy of breast cancer (Dosimetric studies)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, J; Mitrov, G [Nauchno-Izsledovatelski Onkologichen Inst., Sofia (Bulgaria); Konstantinov, B; Dobrev, D [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya

    1977-01-01

    The method employed for postoperative radiation therapy of breast cancer at the Radiologic Clinic of the Medical Academy in Sofia is described. Results are reported and discussed of dosimetric studies carried out with the T-100 on heterogeneous tissue-equivalent Rando phantom for dose distributions in the regional lymph basin and the underlying tissues and organs. The results show coincidence between calculated and measured doses in the regional lymph basin and the thoracic wall. It was demonstrated that maximal radiation loading (3600 to 5500 rad) occurs in the apical and the hilar lung area.

  20. Revised dose limits and new respiratory tract model and their implications for annual limits of intake of radioactive materials - A review of recent ICRP publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Silverman, I.; Shapira, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause immediate and/or delayed biological damages to the body of the exposed person and/or his/her progeny. The exposure may be caused by an external source or may arise due to internal contamination by a radioactive material. In order to prevent such exposure, or to reduce the probability that it will occur, national authorities and international organizations that are engaged in radiation safety and protection have set limits for the exposure to ionizing radiation from either source. The sensitivity of the body to ionizing radiation usually decreases with age. For this reason and due to the limited possibilities to control the exposure of the general public, different limits have been set for for occupational exposure and for the exposure of members of the public of different age groups. The general principles of these limits and guidelines for their calculations are set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and published in the Annals of the ICRP. The basic philosophy of the Commission, which includes the principles of justification, optimization and dose limits, the basic radiobiological models, and the distinction between stochastic and non-stochastic effects has been presented in its publication no. 26 . Based on this philosophy, the Commission issued between 1979 and 1988 a series of publications followed by annexes and addenda known as publication no. 30 . This series presented models describing the metabolism of radioactive materials which enter the body by inhalation and ingestion, the transfer of such materials from the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract to the blood, and from there to the body organs and the excretion of the material from the body. This series presented also values for biokinetic parameters of these systems and transfer paths, and methods for calculating limits on intake which ensure that the exposure from internal contamination will not exceed the dose limits set by the

  1. Revised dose limits and new respiratory tract model and their implications for annual limits of intake of radioactive materials - A review of recent ICRP publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T; Silverman, I; Shapira, M [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1996-12-01

    Ionizing radiation may cause immediate and/or delayed biological damages to the body of the exposed person and/or his/her progeny. The exposure may be caused by an external source or may arise due to internal contamination by a radioactive material. To prevent such exposure, or to reduce the probability that it will occur, national authorities and international organizations engaged in radiation safety and protection have set limits for the exposure to ionizing radiation from either source. The sensitivity of the body to ionizing radiation usually decreases with age. For this reason and due to the limited possibilities to control the exposure of the general public, different limits have been set for for occupational exposure and for the exposure of members of the public of different age groups. The general principles of these limits and guidelines for their calculations are set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and published in the Annals of the ICRP. The basic philosophy of the Commission, which includes the principles of justification, optimization and dose limits, the basic radiobiological models, and the distinction between stochastic and non-stochastic effects has been presented in its publication no. 26. Based on this philosophy, the Commission issued between 1979 and 1988 a series of publications followed by annexes and addenda known as publication no. 30. This series presented models describing the metabolism of radioactive materials which enter the body by inhalation and ingestion, the transfer of such materials from the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract to the blood, and from there to the body organs and the excretion of the material from the body. This series presented also values for biokinetic parameters of these systems and transfer paths, and methods for calculating limits on intake which ensure that the exposure from internal contamination will not exceed the dose limits set.

  2. Control of radiocaesium discharges to the Irish Sea: ICRP-26 in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handyside, I.; Hunt, G.J.; Partington, C.

    1982-01-01

    Experience of application of the ICRP dose limitation system is described in the context of control of radioactive waste discharges to the north-east Irish Sea from the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield Works. The radiological significance of these discharges is mainly due to radiocaesium from the magnox fuel storage ponds. The discharges increased in 1974 owing to corrosion of magnox fuel; radiation exposure of the public mainly through the fish and shellfish consumption pathway also increased. BNFL, in consultation with Government Departments, decided to install an ion-exchange treatment plant to remove radioactivity from pond effluents. This plant is presently being built and will provide a long-term reduction in radiocaesium discharges. Optimization will play a major part in determining its operating regime. Meanwhile, measures to reduce discharges have been taken by circulating pond water through skips of zeolite installed in the ponds. Differential cost-benefit analysis has been used to indicate the optimum replacement rate of skips; experience of this is described. A range of skip costs was used to allow for some factors which were not uniquely definable. Detrimental costs were estimated from collective dose commitments and a range of values of the man-Sv from Pound 2000 to Pound 50,000. Other, non-quantifiable, factors were relevant. Following these considerations, the current skip replacement frequency is about 30 year -1 . Skips are presently reducing collective effective dose equivalent commitments to the UK and European populations by about half, or some 150 man-Sv.year -1 . Finally, to demonstrate conformity with the overall ICRP dose limitation system, compliance with dose limits is described. Effective dose equivalents to the relevant critical groups for the years 1977 to 1980 are presented. The use of zeolite skips has, here too, given significant reductions over this time, from 33% to (provisionally) 15% of the ICRP-recommended dose

  3. Radiation protection in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.

    1990-01-01

    Switzerland's present radiation protection regulations are based on only two paragraphs of the atomic law but have been very successful in practice. A new radiation protection law, separated from nuclear legislation and valid for all application of ionizing radiation and radioctive materials, was proposed and drafted by the Federal Commission on Radiation Protection and has now been accepted by parliament with only minor modifications. The draft of the revised regulations which also will cover all applications, should be ready for consultations next year. Both the law (which contains principles but no figures such as limits) and the regulations incorporate the latest state of ICRP recommendations and are formulated in such a way as to allow application of or quick adaptation to the new basic ICRP recommendation expected for 1991. The legislation is flexible, with a relatively low regulation density and leaves sufficient room for professional judgement on a case by case basis both for authorities and for the specialists responsible for radiation protection in practice. (orig./HSCH)

  4. Implementation of current NCRP and ICRP guidance and revised 10 CFR Part 20: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, D.B.; Seagondollar, L.W.; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The 24th Annual Midyear Topical Meeting of the Health Physics Society, ''Implementation of Current NCRP and ICRP Guidance and Revised 10 CFR Part 20'' was held in North Carolina on January 22--January 24, 1991. The meeting featured symposia on the Basis for Change and Regulatory Implementation, Benefits and Problems in Implementation at Various Types of Facilities, Health Physics Monitoring Requirements and Record Keeping, Exposure Management, ALARA, and Dose Limit for Embryo/Fetus -- Impact on Employer and Employee. Individual papers are referenced separately

  5. The work of the task group of committee 2 of ICRP on age-dependent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.; Kaul, A.; Metivier, H.

    1996-01-01

    With the accident at Chernobyl and developing concern in regard to the consequences of discharging radionuclides into the environment has come increasing awareness of the need to assess radiation doses to all age groups in the population. In 1987, ICRP set up a Task Group of Committee 2 on Age-dependent Dosimetry with the responsibility for calculating internationally agreed dose coefficients for members of the public. This covered the calculation and ingestion, as well as doses to the embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. This paper reviews the programme of work.(authors). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  7. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

  8. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  9. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

  10. ESR dosimetric properties of modern coral reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharaf, M.A. E-mail: mokhtar_sharaf@yahoo.com; Hassan, Gamal M

    2004-06-01

    Modern coral reef samples from Egypt were irradiated with {sup 60}Co{gamma}-rays to study radicals for dosimetric materials with electron spin resonance (ESR). The ESR spectrum for the radical species in unirradiated coral is characterized by four signals with spectroscopic splitting factors of g=2.0056, 2.0030, 2.0006 and 1.997. The signal at g=2.0006{+-}0.0005 is ascribed to free rotation CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals and used as a dosimetric one. The response to {gamma}-ray doses ranging from 5 to 10{sup 3} Gy and the thermal stability has been studied. The number of free radicals per 100 eV (G-value) was found to be 0.45 {+-} 0.1 and 0.9 {+-} 0.18 for coral and alanine, respectively. The lifetime of radicals and the activation energy were estimated from Arrhenius plots to be approximately 8 x 10{sup 5} {+-} 1.6 x 10{sup 5} years, and 1.12 eV, respectively.

  11. Current Trends in Radiation Protection Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The third generation of the ICRP recommendations was adopted in April 2007. The recommendations rely on situations (planned, emergency and existing), individual (occupational, public and patient) and radiation protection system (justification, optimization and dose limits). In the present work attention is paid to discuss the new recommendations and role of IAEA in updating its Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources and its impact for the national regulations

  12. Development of Australia's radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.; Lokan, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Australia is revising its existing recommendations concerning radiation protection in the light of guidance from the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Publication 60 and the International Atomic Energy Agency's revision of its Basic Safety Standards. The paper discusses the major refinements of the ICRP's recommendations and the additional guidance on its practical implementation offered by the IAEA's new Basic Safety Standards. Following public comment, the revised Australian recommendations are expected to be adopted by the end of 1994. 15 refs

  13. Evolution of the system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has actively participated in discussions with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) regarding the development of new recommendations that will replace those in ICRP Publication 60, which has long served as the international standard in this field. Part of this development process has involved the organisation of seven international workshops, including the First and Second Asian Regional Conferences on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection which took place in Tokyo, Japan in October 2002 and July 2004. The Third Asian Regional Conference was held on 5-6 July 2006, also in Tokyo. The main objective of these conferences was to ensure that the views and concerns of relevant Asian stakeholders, such as regulatory authorities, industry, professional societies and NGO, could be expressed and discussed with the ICRP. The three conferences provided the ICRP with specific views on how new recommendations could best be developed to address regulatory and implementation needs in the Asian context. These proceedings summarize the results and key discussions of the Third Asian Regional Conference. (author)

  14. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.

    1978-04-01

    A brief review is presented of the early and late effects of ionising radiation on man, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance in radiological protection. The terminology and dose response curves, are explained. Early effects on cells, tissues and whole organs are discussed. Late somatic effects considered include cancer and life-span shortening. Genetic effects are examined. The review is the third of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria, such as those of the ICRP. (u.K.)

  15. Dosimetric commissioning and system for stereotactic radiation treatments based on linear accelerators with dynamic micromultilaminas collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascension, Yudy; Alfonso, Rodolfo; Silvestre, Ileana

    2009-01-01

    Once installed and accepted, a system for stereotactic radiosurgery / stereotactic radiotherapy (CERs / RTE) requires, before starting to be used clinically in patients undergoing a process of commissioning dosimetry, which evaluates all geometric parameters, physical, Dosimetric and technical impact on the precision and accuracy of treatment to administer, and therefore its effectiveness. This process includes training and familiarization of the multidisciplinary team (medical physicists, radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons, dosimetrists, biomedical engineers) with the equipment and techniques used, the quality assurance program and special radiation protection standards for this technology. The aim of this work is to prepare the pre-clinical dosimetric conditions to ensure the quality and radiation safety of treatment with CER RTE. Treatment with CER RTE INOR has a linear accelerator equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator dynamic tertiary (dMLC 3Dline). The system aceleradordMLC geometric and dosimetric was calibrated, using ionization chambers miniature, diode and film dosimetry. The immobilization of the patient and location of the lesion is made by both invasive stereotactic frames and relocatable. The computerized planning of the CER / TEN is done with the ERGO system, for which commissioning is designed test cases of increasing complexity, using planes and anthropomorphic dummies, which help assess the accuracy of the dosimetric calculations and accuracy of the system as a whole. We compared the results of the planning system with measurements, showing that the discrepancies are within tolerances, so it is concluded that from the standpoint of physical dosimetry, the system-under-ERGO accelerator MLC is eligible for clinical use. (author)

  16. Practical implications of ICRP26 for recording and regulation of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, F.A.; Woodhouse, J.A.; Kennedy, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The paper compares the system of dose limitation recommended in ICRP Publication 26 with that based upon previous ICRP Publications upon which the current United Kingdom Legislation is based. Particular attention is given to the implication of the place given to the concept of committed dose in the system of dose limitation. The present dosimetry procedures in use within British Nuclear Fuels Ltd are outlined together with their practical limitations, and attention is drawn to the particular technical problems associated with plutonium uptake assessments. A number of other practical issues are identified such as dose records and the supplementary dose information which would require recording and the need for the re-education of employees in the new control concepts. A proposal is presented for internal dose recording based initially upon environmental measurements but subject to subsequent modification by preferred assessments based upon in-vivo and urinalysis techniques. Finally an assessment and, where appropriate, suspension procedure is proposed to control long-term exposure arising from plutonium intakes based upon an averaging period of 15 years. (author)

  17. Monte Carlo based water/medium stopping-power ratios for various ICRP and ICRU tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Varea, Jose M; Carrasco, Pablo; Panettieri, Vanessa; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Water/medium stopping-power ratios, s w,m , have been calculated for several ICRP and ICRU tissues, namely adipose tissue, brain, cortical bone, liver, lung (deflated and inflated) and spongiosa. The considered clinical beams were 6 and 18 MV x-rays and the field size was 10 x 10 cm 2 . Fluence distributions were scored at a depth of 10 cm using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. The collision stopping powers for the studied tissues were evaluated employing the formalism of ICRU Report 37 (1984 Stopping Powers for Electrons and Positrons (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)). The Bragg-Gray values of s w,m calculated with these ingredients range from about 0.98 (adipose tissue) to nearly 1.14 (cortical bone), displaying a rather small variation with beam quality. Excellent agreement, to within 0.1%, is found with stopping-power ratios reported by Siebers et al (2000a Phys. Med. Biol. 45 983-95) for cortical bone, inflated lung and spongiosa. In the case of cortical bone, s w,m changes approximately 2% when either ICRP or ICRU compositions are adopted, whereas the stopping-power ratios of lung, brain and adipose tissue are less sensitive to the selected composition. The mass density of lung also influences the calculated values of s w,m , reducing them by around 1% (6 MV) and 2% (18 MV) when going from deflated to inflated lung

  18. Application of the ICRP recommendations in medical radiation practice and in medical monitoring of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafontaine, A.

    1979-01-01

    Medical exposure in connection with an existing or suspected illness may be made subject to the ICRP principles, but it must be realized that the dose limitation system cannot necessarily be applied when the individual at risk is the one benefiting from examination or treatment. Justification is the responsibility of the doctor prescribing the examination or treatment and/or of the person carrying it out. Optimization will be achieved by virtue of the rules imposed on doctors and by the requirements applicable to equipment and techniques. The same rules and requirements apply mutatis mutandis to check-ups, routine medical examinations, examinations for professional purposes, medico-legal examinations and medical research. In the last case ethical rules and criteria for the validity of the proposed research also need to be applied. Medical monitoring of workers must take the ICRP principles into account, but a qualified doctor should nevertheless be able to form his own judgement on the basis of his knowledge of different types of exposure (both to radiation and to other agents), to intervene in cases of accidental or planned exposure, and to gather data in order to evaluate the long-term effects and the consequences of occupational exposure in terms of doses to the public. Moreover, the doctor should inform the worker of his conclusions and recommendations. (author)

  19. Evolution of the system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The development of new radiological protection recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to be a strategically important undertaking, both nationally and internationally. With the growing recognition of the importance of stakeholder aspects in radiological protection decision making, regional and cultural aspects have also emerged as having potentially significant influence on how protection of the public, workers and the environment are viewed. Differing cultural aspects should therefore be considered by the ICRP in its development of new recommendations. Based on this assumption, the NEA organised the Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection to express and explore views from the Far East. Held in Tokyo on 24-25 October 2002, the conference included presentations by the ICRP Chair as well as by radiological protection experts from Japan, the Republic of Korea, China and Australia. The distinct views and needs of these countries were discussed in the context of their regional and cultural heritages. These views, along with a summary of the conference results, are presented in these proceedings. (author)

  20. Accumulation of plutonium in mammalian wildlife tissues: comparison of recent data with the ICRP distribution models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, M.; Child, D.; Davis, E.; Hotchkis, M.; Payne, T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Org. (Australia); Ikeda-Ohno, A. [University of New South Wales (Australia); Twining, J. [Austral Radioecology (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    We examined the distribution of plutonium (Pu) in the tissues of mammalian wildlife to address the paucity of such data under environmental exposure conditions. Pu activity concentrations were measured in Macropus rufus (red kangaroo), Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), and Pseudomys hermannsburgensis (sandy inland mouse)inhabiting the relatively undisturbed, semi-arid conditions at the former Taranaki weapons test site at Maralinga, Australia. Of the absorbed Pu (distributed via circulatory and lymph systems) accumulation was foremost in bone (83% ±10% SD), followed by muscle (9% ±10%), liver (7% ±7%), kidneys (0.5% ±0.3%), and heart (0.4% ±0.4%). The bone values are higher than those reported in ICRP 19 and 48 (45-50% bone), while the liver values are lower than ICRP values (30-45% liver). The