WorldWideScience

Sample records for protection environment canada

  1. Critical energy infrastructure protection in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendron, Angela [Canadian Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies, Carleton University (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    In Canada government acknowledged the need to protect energy assets against attacks. However, so far no strategy has been developed. The aim of this report is to present the characteristics of the energy sector in Canada, the threats, and how the government is responding to those threats. The energy sector in Canada is concentrated and diverse and is under not only terrorism or cyber attacks threats but also environmental threats. This report shows that the Government of Canada is focusing on the protection and assurance of important energy infrastructures but that they are facing several challenges resulting in long delays in the adoption of a formal strategy.

  2. Environment Canada defends decision to ban PCB waste exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The position of Environment Canada in banning the export of PCB waste to the United States was defended as falling within their jurisdiction under provisions of the the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The United States had previously banned the import of Canadian PCBs, but when it reversed its decision Environment Canada posted an Interim Order, upholding the ban. The decision to do so was based on protection of the large investment that was made to develop the Canadian PCB incineration facility in Swan Lake, Alberta. Canada also had an obligation under the Basel Convention to reduce it cross boundary movement of hazardous waste and provide adequate destruction facilities in Canada. Legal implications of PCB exports and the uncertainty of continuing access to American facilities were also cited as reasons for issuing the Interim Order

  3. Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

  4. Partnership project between Environment Canada and ECRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaime, C.; Daigle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The partnership agreement between Environment Canada and Eastern Canada Response Ltd, (ECRC) which allows for rapid release of information to all levels of management in the event of an oil or chemical spill, was discussed. A geographic information system for emergency management, and an information sharing network is made available to all parties through Internet to assure a continuous exchange of information during an emergency. Mapping, surveying and information-exchange tools are designed for mutual integration and compatibility. The agreement was signed at the beginning of 1996 and the new system will be tested by occasional exercises beginning in September 1996. Modifications will be made as necessary. 5 figs

  5. Environment Canada's Children's UV Index Sun Awareness Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergusson, A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, Canada introduced the UV Index forecast programme to increase public awareness of UV radiation, to support health agencies in educating the public about UV risks, and to assist individuals in making healthy lifestyle decisions. A national sun health survey in 1997 indicated that about half of adults reported taking extra precautions to protect themselves from the sun on days when the UV Index was rated 'high'. In response to this concern in 1998, Environment Canada produced an UN Index poster that was sent to 3000 elementary schools across Canada. The poster targeted children between the ages of 8 and 15 and provided information to minimise the risk to their health from solar UV radiation without spoiling their outdoor fun. Based on this experience Environment Canada produced in 1999, the Daily UV Index and Calendar Poster that was sent to 14,000 elementary schools across Canada. An UV Index website has been created to provide information to students and teachers on the science of UV radiation and the UV Index. (author)

  6. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10 m winds, pressure and solar radiation...

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) RADIOSONDE GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Radiosonde GCPEx dataset provides measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds collected by Vaisala...

  8. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, J.

    1993-01-01

    The lecture first deals with the aims and legal basis in German and European law of environment protection with regard to energy politics. It then goes to deal with European regulations for environment protection and their effects on the energy supply: Air pollution abatement, tax for the protection of the climate, internalisation of external costs. The following European energy-political measures impinge on environment protection: Sponsored projects, least-cost planning, third-party access to the public electricity supply. The discrepancy between European and national policies can be lessened or resolved by the following means: Harmonisation, subsidiarity principle, and scope for entrepreneurial solutions. (orig.) [de

  9. Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    department for the Energy sector, has been pro- active and innovative in enhancing protection for national critical energy infrastructure (NCI). While...prospérité (PSP), mais des relations transfrontalières plus informelles entre les propriétaires/opérateurs et leurs associations industrielles ...create innovative solutions for CIP. 9. International Cooperation: participate in international CIP initiatives and to strengthen information-sharing

  10. Climate change and protected area policy and planning in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D. [Canada Research Chairs, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Lemieux, C. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2005-10-01

    Challenges concerning climate change for agencies involved the management of Canada's protected areas were reviewed. Most protected areas have been designed to represent specific natural features, species and ecological communities, and are the most common and most important strategy for biodiversity conservation. It remains undecided whether adaptation should be a matter of responding to climate change as it manifests, or whether initiatives should be taken in advance to anticipate the potential effects of climate change. There are growing concerns that emergency adaptation will be less effective and more costly than anticipatory or precautionary adaptation over the long-term. Species extinction could result. It was noted that the northward shift of species from the United States will meet Parks Canada's existing definition of alien species in need of management interventions. The conservation objectives of individual protected areas would also be affected by projected biome and species changes, particularly as each of Canada's national parks is responsible for protecting ecosystems representative of the natural region within which it is located. All 6 vegetation change scenarios examined in a recent study projected the eventual loss of boreal forest in the Prince Albert National Park, suggesting that the park's current mandate to protect the ecological integrity of the area would no longer be viable. An overview of the policy and planning implications of climate change for protected areas in Canada was presented using examples from national and provincial park systems. A portfolio of climate change adaptation options in conservation literature was reviewed. Recommended strategies included system planning and policy development; active, adaptive ecosystem management; research and monitoring; and capacity building and awareness. It was concluded that governments will need to make major new investments in protected area establishment, personnel

  11. Retail food environments research in Canada: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Shuh, Alanna; Olstad, Dana L; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Black, Jennifer L; Mah, Catherine L

    2016-06-09

    The field of retail food environments research is relatively new in Canada. The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of retail food environments research conducted before July 2015 in Canada. Specifically, this review describes research foci and key findings, identifies knowledge gaps and suggests future directions for research. A search of published literature concerning Canadian investigations of retail food environment settings (food stores, restaurants) was conducted in July 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PsychInfo and ERIC. Studies published in English that reported qualitative or quantitative data on any aspect of the retail food environment were included, as were conceptual papers and commentaries. Eighty-eight studies were included in this review and suggest that the field of retail food environments research is rapidly expanding in Canada. While only 1 paper was published before 2005, 66 papers were published between 2010 and 2015. Canadian food environments research typically assessed either the socio-economic patterning of food environments (n = 28) or associations between retail food environments and diet, anthropometric or health outcomes (n = 33). Other papers profiled methodological research, qualitative studies, intervention research and critical commentaries (n = 27). Key gaps in the current literature include measurement inconsistency among studies and a lack of longitudinal and intervention studies. Retail food environments are a growing topic of research, policy and program development in Canada. Consistent methods (where appropriate), longitudinal and intervention research, and close partnerships between researchers and key stakeholders would greatly advance the field of retail food environments research in Canada.

  12. A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernice, I.

    1993-01-01

    Three aspects make the issue of energy politics and environment protection in the European Community interesting: Questions of competence, international stipulations, and the concrete measures the Community implements or plans in fulfillment of its duty to integrate these two political spheres. At the international level impulses for an environmentally benign energy policy are given by the World Climate Convention, the Agenda 21 passed at the Rio Conference, and by the European Energy Charter and its consequential documents. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Corporate environment protection as a legal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is discussed what legal instruments companies have for integrating environment protection into their corporate policy: Industrial self-monitoring; the environmental health officer as an instrument of corporate environment protection (environmental health officer, radiation protection officer); obligations to disclose information on corporate organisation pursuant to Article 52 a of the Federal Emmission Control Act; corporate environment protection as a general obligation of the operator. Possible ways of strengthening corporate environment protection are considered de lege ferende, e.g. the additional instruments of corporate self-monitoring laid down in the General Part of the Environmental Code, audits on environment protection, corporate environment protection through quality assurance systems. (orig.) [de

  16. Protection of the Abiotic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Hutmacher, K. E.; Landfermann, H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental protection against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation, radioactive materials, and other harmful substances is more than to avoid acute dangers or risks for humans or for non-human living organisms. To allow for a sustainable development the abiotic part of the environment must not be neglected in concepts of environmental protection. The environmental impact of some selected long-lived anthropogenic radionuclides is used to exemplify adverse effects for which a unified approach is needed. To this end, indicators are needed for the assessment of the human impact on the abiotic environment which allows to compare different human actions with respect to sustainability and to choose appropriate measures in the competition for a sustainable development. Such indicators have to account for the dynamics of the different environmental compartments. Using the long-lived radionuclides 14C, 36Cl, 85Kr, and 129I as examples, the importance to consider dynamical models and ecological lifetimes in quantifications of the human impact on the environment is emphasized. Particular problems arise from the natural occurrences and variability of radionuclides and other harmful substances. Suitable indicators for the assessment of human impact on the abiotic compartments air, water, and soil are discussed. (Author) 18 refs

  17. Integrating environment health and safety management at Petro-Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, G.

    1993-01-01

    Petro-Canada has developed a tool to integrate, measure, and improve its management systems of environment, health, and safety (EH ampersand S). This tool, called the Total Loss Management System, is described in the areas of general management issues, policies and procedures, evaluations, organization, stewardship, issue management, and performance measures. Petro-Canada's policies on occupational health and safety are consistent with its environmental policy, being structured in the same way. An integrated audit system is used to cover health, safety, industrial hygiene, reliability, environment, and risk management. EH ampersand S matters are integrated at the corporate level in a separate department. Regional divisions review EH ampersand S performance every month, incidents are discussed, and preventive measures are taken as necessary. Regional performances are combined every quarter for ultimate presentation to the Petro-Canada board. New or emerging issues that may affect divisions are assigned an issue sponsor, a member of divisional management who makes sure the issue receives the resources necessary to study and define its impact. Examples of issues include soil contamination, process hazard management, and benzene exposure limits. Performance measures flow from the corporate environment and occupational health and safety policies, and come in two types: those that measure activities to improve performance and those that measure the outcome of the activities

  18. Globalization and protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panahandeh, M.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years two trends have come into conflict in the international arena. The first is the globalization of economy and the second is the increased public concern over the environmental impact of economic activities and awareness of the global dimensions of many environmental problems. Nowadays confrontation of the issue of globalization and economic liberalization and protect of the environment is a matter of heated debate and environmentalists see globalization posing a threat to environment standards. The effects of liberalization on environment in the developing world have been analyzed from the perspective of the pollution- have hypothesis. The hypothesis suggests that the liberalization encourages a spatial displacement of the so-called d irty o r pollution- intensive industries from the developed countries with stricter environmental regulations to their preferential location in developing countries which enjoy minimal environmental regulations or capacity for environmental monitoring and enforcement. It also suggests that economic policies which promote foreign investment in the natural resources of developing countries will increase rates of natural-resource extraction in the developing world. according to the theory, the translational firms will employ cheep technologies in developing countries which are not environmental sound and no longer permitted to use in the industrialized world

  19. Ionizing radiation protection regulation in Canada: the role of the Federal Provincial Territorial Radiation Protection Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Christopher H.

    2008-01-01

    Canada has one of the broadest and most mature nuclear industries in the world, and is a world leader in uranium mining, and in the production of medical radioisotopes. The Canadian nuclear industry also includes: uranium milling, refining, and fuel fabrication facilities; nuclear generating stations; research reactors and related facilities; waste management facilities; and the use of radioactive materials in medicine and industry. Regulation of this broad and dynamic industry is a complex and challenging task. Canada has a cooperative system for the regulation of ionizing radiation protection covering federal, provincial, territorial, and military jurisdictions. A Federal/Provincial/Territorial Radiation Protection Committee (FPTRPC) exists to aid in cooperation between the various agencies. Their mandate encompasses regulation and guidance on all aspects of radiation protection: federal and provincial; NORM and anthropogenic; ionizing and non-ionizing. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the federal nuclear regulator whose mandate includes radiation protection regulation of most occupational and public exposures. The CNSC does not regulate medical (patient) exposures, some aspects of NORM, or military applications. Provincial authorities are the primary regulators with respect to doses to patients and occupational doses arising from X-rays. Health Canada plays a role in X-ray device certification, development of national guidance (e.g. on radon) and direct regulation of certain federal facilities. NORM is regulated provincially, with varying regulatory mechanisms across the provinces and territories. Radiation protection regulation for National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces is performed by the Director General Nuclear Safety. This paper gives an overview of the structure of the regulation of ionizing radiation protection in Canada, and shares lessons learned, particularly with respect to the usefulness of the FPTRPC in helping coordinate and

  20. Training the next generation of radiation protection professionals in canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, Edward; Waker, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) is Canada's newest university, specializing in market-driven programs. The first class of students started in Fall of 2003. The University is located in close proximity to Pickering, Darlington and Bruce Nuclear Power Plants, the fuel manufacturer Cameco, and a number of regional health centres. As such, the initial program focus was to serve the needs of the power utilities and the health sectors. The first programs envisioned and adopted at UOIT were programs in Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science/Health Physics. These programs are unique in Canada. The four year Bachelor of Science honours degree programs in Radiation Science curriculum includes medical, industrial, agricultural and material science applications, and emphasizes a strong mathematics and science foundation to the discipline. The four year Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board accredited Bachelor of Nuclear Engineering honours program has a strong emphasis on radiation protection, environmental effects of radioactivity, and risk assessment. Both programs have internship options, and both have 'and Management' options, requiring an additional year of study. One key aspect to the pedagogy at UOIT is web-centric learning. Each student is issued a fully equipped internet-ready laptop for use in classes, tutorials and laboratories. The professors endeavor to integrate technology wherever possible to assist the student learning process, for example with on-line testing and course-work submission. Course materials are provided via learning management system software, and instruction is provided for industry standard computational and simulation tools. For courses in radiation protection and environmental effects, there is great emphasis on 'hands on' experience and realistic field exercises. The first graduating class was in spring 2007, and the indication from industry is that the specially trained radiation protection and

  1. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) MICRO RAIN RADAR (MRR) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environment Canada (EC) collected data from the Micro Rain Radar (MRR) during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) in Ontario, Canada during the...

  2. Smoking environments in transition: the experiences of recent Chinese migrants to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Collins, Damian

    2017-01-01

    International migrants experience first-hand differences between countries in terms of the social meanings, spatial regulation and prevalence of smoking. This research centred on the smoking-related perceptions, experiences and behaviours of recent migrants from China to Canada. Eight focus groups were held in Edmonton, Alberta, in July-October 2013 to explore migrants' understandings of the practices and meanings of smoking in both countries. There were 58 participants (37 non-smokers and 21 smokers), most of whom were international students. Qualitative content analysis of focus group transcripts was undertaken to identify key themes. Participants observed that smoking remains almost ubiquitous in China due to ineffective spatial restrictions and the social importance of smoking among men. By contrast, smoking bans in Canada were perceived as effective due to widespread compliance and expectations of enforcement. They were conscious that male smoking was both less prevalent and less socially valued in Canada; conversely, female smoking was perceived as more accepted in Canada than in China. There was broad agreement that smoking was tolerated in Canada, provided it occurred in appropriate places. Complying with widespread spatial restrictions brought about changes in smokers' behaviours: they smoked less often, and consumed fewer cigarettes. Because smoking was more difficult to perform, participants thought the Canadian context supported quitting. Non-smokers were enthusiastic about smoke-free environments in Canada, and had become acculturated to air that did not smell of smoke. These findings affirm the importance of comprehensive smoking bans, backed by enforcement, in contributing to the denormalisation of smoking and the protection of non-smokers. © 2015 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Healthy indoors : achieving healthy indoor environments in Canada : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    A large proportion of the lives of Canadians is spent indoors, whether in vehicles, restaurants, shopping malls, offices or houses. The health of people working and living in those indoor settings might be damaged a a result, despite best efforts. Indoor pollution has been identified as one of the most serious risks to human health, according to numerous leading authorities, among them the American Lung Association, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). A large number of cancer deaths are attributed to indoor pollution each year in the United States, as well as respiratory health problems. A causal link between certain indoor exposures and the development and provocation of asthma was established recently in a report on asthma and indoor air quality published by the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine. Exposure to indoor pollutants has also resulted in thousands of children experiencing elevated blood lead levels. Not enough attention is paid in Canada to pollution in buildings by government agencies, corporations and other non-governmental organizations and citizens. Not much seems to have changed in the past thirty years. An ambitious strategy by Pollution Probe was described in this document, listing the initial goals and measures required to achieve those goals. The creation of Healthy Indoors Partnership (HIP) was proposed to regroup all the stakeholders under the same umbrella. refs., tabs

  4. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) MANUAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENTS GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Manual Precipitation Measurements GCPEx dataset was collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment...

  5. Planning to Protect the Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China formulates a development plan for energy-saving and environmental protection industries U.S.-headquartered diversified power management company Eaton Corp.announced on August 12 that it would achieve sales revenue of $2 billion in China by the end of 2015,

  6. Radiation protection of the environment - new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P. P.

    2006-01-01

    Recent trends in the radiation protection of the environment focusing on basic changes of the protection philosophy from the egocentric to ecocentric approach are presented and discussed. The globalization of the economy is accompanied by global contamination of the environment that requires changes in the attitude of the protection of the total environment, i.e. protection of humans, fauna and flora, all ecosystems and the Earth in general, as well as the cosmic space. This complex approach is illustrated on the radiation protection of the environment that has always been in the forefront in developing protection philosophy, methodology and standards, which later has also been applied to the protection of the environment caused by non-radioactive contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic compounds. High radiation doses delivered to biota are illustrated on shellfish and fish collected in the Mururoa and Fangataufa lagoons (affected by series of nuclear weapons tests), and on fish in Novaya Zemlya bays (affected by dumping of nuclear reactors and radioactive wastes). On the methodological site an example is discussed focusing on the in situ sea-bed radionuclide mapping and seawater monitoring using submersible gamma-ray spectrometers operating with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors which has proved to be important pre-requisite for estimation of the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the water column and on the sea floor, as well as for optimisation of sediment sampling for studying the radionuclide distribution with depth

  7. Environment Canada's new on-line reporting system for environmental emergency plans under CEPA, Sections 199 and 200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin-Brown, P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the objectives of Canada's Environmental Emergencies program is to reduce the frequency, severity and consequences of spill events by promoting preventative measures and emergency preparedness. The program also offers advice on response methods and advancing science and technology. This paper from a poster session announces that the E2 program is expected to be administered online by late 2003. The compiled database is expected to serve as a useful statistical reference for the public, decision makers, and first responders. Users will be able to access information regarding controlled substances. In particular, sections 199 and 200 of the Environmental Emergency regulations in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) require that any person in Canada who manages a listed substance in large quantities provide Environment Canada with information on the quantity of the substance, the facility location, and prepare a contingency plan

  8. The Environment and the Relative Protection Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The material is presenting, under an adequate structure, an analysis of the environment of Romania. The starting point of the study is given by the natural conditions, influenced by the geographic location of Romania on the globe, evidencing the main characteristics (relief, hydrographic basin, climate, flora and fauna etc.. Afterwards, the material is pointing out the concerns as well as certain outcomes achieved in our country in the field of the environment protection. Particularly, there is the concern regarding the durable development which is emphasized, along with the part that the environment protection should play under the circumstances. Then, the material is evidencing the essence of the policies concerning the environment protection as well as the transitory steps implied in this field by the adhesion of Romania to the European Union.

  9. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thexton, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)

  10. The USCG/environment Canada/ASTM standards development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, H.

    1992-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Division (EED) has been charged, as a result of the Public Review Panel on Tanker Safety and Marine Emergency Response report, with increased R ampersand D in marine oil spills. This activity will, of necessity, include development of standards and guidelines for the testing and/or usage of oil spill cleanup equipment. The United States Coast Guard (USCG) has been charged with implementing the provisions of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), as it pertains to marine transportation vessels and facilities. Among the provisions are requirements for vessel and facility owners and operators to develop comprehensive response plans that specifically match response resources to spill removal requirements. Meeting the response plan provisions of OPA-90 requires common standards for testing, selecting and assigning resources to anticipated response needs and objectively evaluating response plans for adequacy. In August of 1991, the USCG OPA-90 office approached ASTM to determine the feasibility of developing standards through that organizations procedures. Meetings were then held between the OPA-90 staff and members of the ASTM Committee F-20 on Hazardous Substances and Oil Spill Response. An agreement was reached to commence standards development in the areas of: Barriers, Skimmers, Treating Agents, Pumps, Beach Clean-up, Sorbents, Bioremediation, In-situ Burning, Temporary Storage Devices, Communications, Remote Sensing. It was recognized that ASTM and other organizational standards existed in several of these areas, but there were those where none were known to exist. Standards development was, therefore, expected to be a complicated and time-consuming process. Both the USCG OPA-90 and EC/EED offices required standards to be developed quickly, without subverting the ASTM process. Mechanical containment and recovery was considered to be the primary area of concern for both groups

  11. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) SNOW SURVEYS GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada Snow Surveys GCPEx dataset was manually collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx), which...

  12. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) VAISALA CEILOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) VAISALA Ceilometer GCPEx dataset was collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) in...

  13. Suicidal behaviours in adolescents in Nova Scotia, Canada: protective associations with measures of social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Donald B; Asbridge, Mark; Kisely, Steve; Rasic, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Few studies of adolescent suicidality have examined its associations with social capital. We explored associations of measures of individual level social capital with self-reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt in adolescents in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, controlling for other factors known to be associated with adolescent suicidality. We surveyed 1,597 grade 10-12 students at three high schools in 2006 using self-completion questionnaires. Both sexes were combined for analysis. Outcome measures were suicidal ideation and attempt in the previous year. Measures of social capital included perceptions of trustworthiness and helpfulness of others at school, frequency of religious attendance and participation in extracurricular activities. Logistic regressions were carried out to determine associations of social capital with suicidality while controlling for other factors. Perceived trustworthiness and helpfulness were protective for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the previous year. In adjusted analyses, there were interactions of gender and social capital-females reporting more social capital were more protected from suicide attempt relative to males with similar levels of social capital. This study provides initial evidence of protective associations of individual level social capital with adolescent suicidality. Our findings suggest that among adolescents low social capital as measured by perceptions of trust and helpfulness of others at school may be a warning sign for suicidality, particularly for females. It may be helpful to inquire of young people how they perceive the trustworthiness and helpfulness of their school environment as a measure of how supportive that environment might be to them when they are facing challenges to their mental health.

  14. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada

  15. Proceedings. Protection of the natural environment. International symposium on ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Johansson, Gunnar; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Luening, M.

    1996-01-01

    The symposium was organised jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. The programme was organised around six major topics: Biological effects of ionising radiation; Ecological effects of ionising radiation; Behaviour and transport of radionuclides in the natural environment; Criteria for environmental protection; Assessment methodology; and Social and economic aspects. All 86 contributions (excluding the opening addresses) have been separately indexed

  16. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation. The development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. Proceedings of the third international symposium on the protection of the environment from ionising radiation (SPEIR 3). Unedited papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora. It is in this context that the Third International Symposium on Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (SPEIR 3) was held between 22 and 26 July 2002, in Darwin, Australia. The symposium focused on issues related to the development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. The symposium programme included sessions dedicated to: ongoing research on the effects, responses and mechanisms of the interactions of ionizing radiation with biota; policy and ethical dimensions of the development of a framework for environmental radiation protection; and the development and use of methods and models for evaluating radiation as a stressor to the environment. Three workshops were held to allow for detailed discussion of each of these subjects. This symposium was the third in a series. The first International Symposium on Ionising Radiation: Protection of the Natural Environment, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, 20-24 May 1996. This symposium was organized jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, and the proceedings were published by the Akademitryck AB, Edsbruk, Sweden in 1996. The second International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation: Environmental Protection Approaches for Nuclear Facilities, was held in Ottawa, Canada, 10-14 May 1999, and was organized by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Supervising Scientists Group of Environment Australia, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The proceedings were published in April

  17. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation. The development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. Proceedings of the third international symposium on the protection of the environment from ionising radiation (SPEIR 3). Unedited papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora. It is in this context that the Third International Symposium on Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (SPEIR 3) was held between 22 and 26 July 2002, in Darwin, Australia. The symposium focused on issues related to the development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. The symposium programme included sessions dedicated to: ongoing research on the effects, responses and mechanisms of the interactions of ionizing radiation with biota; policy and ethical dimensions of the development of a framework for environmental radiation protection; and the development and use of methods and models for evaluating radiation as a stressor to the environment. Three workshops were held to allow for detailed discussion of each of these subjects. This symposium was the third in a series. The first International Symposium on Ionising Radiation: Protection of the Natural Environment, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, 20-24 May 1996. This symposium was organized jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, and the proceedings were published by the Akademitryck AB, Edsbruk, Sweden in 1996. The second International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation: Environmental Protection Approaches for Nuclear Facilities, was held in Ottawa, Canada, 10-14 May 1999, and was organized by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Supervising Scientists Group of Environment Australia, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The proceedings were published in April

  18. On the Radiation Protection of the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soberhart, L. J.; Clausse, A.; D'Amato, E.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, substantial advances in what is know as legal protection of the environment, -as a different matter from human being protection- have been made. Some national legislations include serious penalties against environmental damage. It is becoming customary to consider a serious offence any excess in the prescribed limits of radioactive materials release to the environment. What these limits mean, however, is not completely clear nowadays. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) the standards of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk, although, occasionally, individual members of non human species might be harmed. However the use of limits of radioactive releases resulting from the direct application of ICRP recommend limits as legal references for the applicable offences in environmental protection is certainly a misconception. In this paper a conceptual framework for the calculation of legal limits for environmental radioprotection are presented. The approach is based on an ecosystem perspective, assessing the impact of radioactive releases on the ecosystem dynamics and equilibrium. The method is based on functional groups models -i.e. groups of species that are selected from a number of criteria such as play similar rules in the chain of nutrients or have the same radiosensitivity- providing the basis for prescribed limits of the radioactive material release to the environment. The methodology is applied to a system of three functional groups in equilibrium, with is affected by radioactive intrusion. Different impacts on the equilibrium can be identified, depending on the amount of radioactive material released to the environment. It is shown how the concept of equilibrium breakdown can be applied in order to assess the radiological impact. (Author) 8 refs

  19. The nuclear energy for the environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair A.M. de.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental question is currently the greater preoccupation all the world, particularly, the atmospheric pollution, generating the acid rains and the heater effect. The transportation, residential, agricultural, industrial and electric sectors contribute for the atmospheric pollution. In this work, the author analyzes important actions in Europe and United States of America in order to reduce this pollution. The paper intends to demystifies that the nuclear energy would be harmful to the environment, demonstrating exactly the contrary - due to the emission cares and controls coming from the nuclear power plants, this source of electric energy generation constitutes is an important factor of environment protection

  20. Protection of the environment against emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wentzel, K F

    1966-05-01

    Gas exposure experiments with plants do not reflect their relative resistance to air pollutants in nature. For example, such experiments showed that vegetables are the plants most sensitive to air pollutants. If the environment is observed closely, however, it will be found that deciduous trees show symptoms of air pollution damage much earlier. This can be explained by the fact that vegetables are frequently protected by buildings or trees. Thus, plant resistance cannot be evaluated correctly without taking the environment into account. With this approach, it can be concluded that coniferous trees are hardest hit by air pollution. If they grow in the vicinity of a deciduous forest, they will disappear first. However, crops and deciduous trees can still be grown in industrial areas. There are three ways to protect coniferous trees in an industrial area: by good stack gas dispersion using high stacks; by cleaning the raw material or by using non-toxic material; and by removing dust and pollutants from the emissions. Despite such measures, a minimum of air pollution will remain. In view of this fact, pollution-resistant plants ought to be selected for cultivation in such areas; their growth conditions (soil, water supply, etc.) must be optimized, and a belt of protective plants must be created. 24 references, 4 figures.

  1. Environment protection: The current challenge in radioecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, F.

    2012-04-01

    Radioecology, a multifaceted scientific discipline which addresses environmental issues relevant to radioprotection, has for a long time been focused on environmental transfers through the environment to feed the needs of human radioprotection. This quite anthropocentric initial scope is now moving to a more ecocentric view capable of assessing ecological risk mediated by ionising radiation. The central issue consists in reaching an ability to understand the effects of radiation on the environment components, from individual organisms up to populations of species and ecosystems, together with their interaction with the abiotic compartments. Dominated by operational goals, the system of radiological protection of the environment which is under development emphasises a concept based upon reference organisms supported by traditional toxicological data on individual organisms. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations which need to be acknowledged and further considered. The most important probably is to rely on effects data gathered almost exclusively for individual organisms to meet protection goals which are usually set at population and ecosystem levels. Overcoming this limitation leads to scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept.

  2. Environment radiation protection - Synthesis and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the principal progresses in the area of risk evaluation to environment in relation with radionuclides during the last five years. It is based on a comparison between the methods that exist for chemical products and this one in progress for radioactive products. The enlightened point concerns the methodologies developed at European scale. The basic concepts of the environmental risk assessment are presented and also its principal components. The knowledge relative to the criteria of environmental protection is presented. The differences between the chemical products and the radioactive products are taken into account. Finally, this document shows the feasibility of methods of risk assessment to ecosystems associated to the presence or release of radioactive substances i environment. (N.C.)

  3. Deconstructing the Environment: The Case of Adult Immigrants to Canada Learning English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea CERVATIUC

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies and deconstructs the ways in which professionally successful adult immigrants to Canada chose to interact with and reshape different environments in order to foster their English learning process. The sample for this study was selected to be representative of the “brain gain” immigration wave to Canada of the last two decades. All 20 participants belong to the same category of highly-educated (17+ years of education, independent immigrants who came to Canada as young adults. The data collection process consisted of a series of three interviews with each participant. The data were analyzed following the principles of the grounded theory method. Several qualitative themes associated with learning English as an adult immigrant in various types of environments in Canada (instructed environments, ‘manipulated’ naturalistic environments, and unaltered naturalistic environments emerged from the interviews with the participants. The themes are critically explored and special emphasis is laid on the ways in which participants overcame difficulties inherent in the environmental factors that were not readily structured to offer immigrants opportunities to learn and practice English.

  4. Challenges in assessing food environments in northern and remote communities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kelly; Burnett, Kristin; Williams, Patricia; Martin, Debbie; Stothart, Christopher; LeBlanc, Joseph; Veeraraghavan, Gigi; Sheedy, Amanda

    2016-06-09

    Effective tools for retail food environments in northern and remote communities are lacking. This paper examines the challenges of conducting food environment assessments in northern and remote communities in Canada encountered during our experience with a food costing project. One of the goals of the Paying for Nutrition in the North project is to develop guidelines to improve current food costing tools for northern Canada. Paying for Nutrition illustrates the complex context of measuring food environments in northern and remote communities. Through the development of a food costing methodology guide to assess northern food environments, several contextual issues emerged, including retail store oligopolies in communities; the importance of assessing food quality; informal social food economies; and the challenge of costing the acquisition and consumption of land- and water-based foods. Food environment measures designed for northern and remote communities need to reflect the geographic context in which they are being employed and must include input from local residents.

  5. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciej, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  6. Government of Canada position paper on a national strategy for critical infrastructure protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    The Government of Canada's position on the development of a comprehensive national approach to critical infrastructure protection (CIP) was presented along with a policy framework for developing a national cyber security strategy and a review of the Emergency Preparedness Act. Canada's national critical infrastructure (NCI) is defined as physical and information technology facilities, networks, services and assets, which if destroyed, would have a serious impact on health, safety, security and economics. The CIP strategy includes an NCI assurance program for various sectors of the economy, including the energy, transportation, finance, health care, food, communications, water, safety and manufacturing sectors. It also includes CIP for the government sector. This report described the key elements of an NCI protection strategy. These include guiding principles, risk management, information sharing, inventory of critical infrastructure assets, threats and warnings, critical infrastructure interdependencies, governance mechanisms, research and development, and international cooperation. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Nuclear terrorism and legal protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad-zada, Z.; Aliev, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: For the last years the terrorism has significantly changed. If 20-30 years ago terrorists would kidnap famous politicians or hijack planes, but at this stage they switched to massive destruction of innocent people. Now the problem of struggle against nuclear terrorism becomes very actual problem. The nuclear terrorism is meant as an opportunity of accomplishment of act of terrorism with use of the nuclear weapon, or accomplishment of explosions on atomic power stations and other objects of an atomic energy. Threats to nuclear objects become more and more often and appreciable. In the world there were some similar cases of threat to nuclear objects from the part of terrorists, and also cases of use by terrorists of nuclear, chemical and bacteriological substances. These cases testify to real threat of use by terrorists of the weapon of mass destruction. It is natural, that accomplishment of acts of terrorism on these objects can lead to ecological catastrophe and can put an irreparable loss to an environment and process of social development. Up to the middle of sixtieth years of twentieth century protection of an environment was not put forward as an independent political problem, and its scientific substantiation has not been developed enough as a diversified, complex, global problem. Only dynamical development in seventieth - eightieth years of scientific bases of global problems has allowed to allocate the rules of law concerning to protection of an environment, into special group. International legal protection of ecology was precisely allocated now in system of the general international law as independent, specific sphere of regulation. The principle of inadmissibility of radioactive pollution of environment covers both military, and peace area of use of nuclear power. Formation and the statement of this special principle of International law of the Environment takes place in two ways - contractual and usual, with observance by the states of

  8. Policy and Legal Protection for Breastfeeding and Incarcerated Women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Martha Jane

    2018-05-01

    Most incarcerated women in Canada are mothers. Because women are the fastest growing population in carceral facilities, protecting the rights of incarcerated women to breastfeed their children is increasingly important. There is considerable evidence that incarcerated women in Canada experience poor physical and mental health, isolation, and barriers to care. Incarcerated women and their children could benefit significantly from breastfeeding. This Insight in Policy explores policy and legal protection for breastfeeding in Canada as it relates to carceral facilities, considers key cases regarding breastfeeding rights among incarcerated women, and presents recommendations for policy development and advocacy. The Canadian Constitution and human rights legislation across Canada prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender and includes pregnancy and the possibility of becoming pregnant as a characteristic of gender. Some provinces note that breastfeeding is a characteristic of gender. Women's Wellness Within, a nonprofit organization providing volunteer perinatal support to criminalized women in Nova Scotia, conducted a scan of all provincial and territorial correctional services acts and the federal Corrections and Conditional Release Act: none mention breastfeeding. Protocols for breastfeeding during arrest and lockup by police were not available in any jurisdiction across Canada. International law, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Nelson Mandela Rules, and the Bangkok Rules, have application to the rights of incarcerated breastfeeding women. The Inglis v. British Columbia (Minister of Public Safety) (2013) and Hidalgo v. New Mexico Department of Corrections (2017) decisions are pivotal examples of successful litigation brought forward by incarcerated mothers to advance breastfeeding rights. Improved application and understanding of existent law could advance breastfeeding rights.

  9. An overview of environment Canada's National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, A.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the many concerns associated with incineration, Environment Canada established the National Incineration Testing and evaluation Program (NITEP) in 1984. It's mission was to assess the incineration process as a means for disposal of MSW in Canada. The program primarily focused on the environment and health impacts of MSW incinerators by determining how design and operating conditions can be modified to reduce emissions of concern. In addition to developing better measuring and monitoring methods, supporting ash residue management research programs, NITEP established four major field projects to develop the data base necessary for national guidelines. This paper presents a brief overview of the most significant field program findings over the past six years and the rationale for the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Operating and Emissions Guidelines for MSW Incinerators published in June of 1989. In addition an overview of the ash work completed to date, and work still underway, will be presented

  10. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-13

    Recruitment drive for nurse gradutates British Columbia (BC), the westernmost Canadian province, urgently needs 1,500 qualified nurses graduates to staff longterm care and assisted-living beds as well as home care clients. The provincial government has launched a $160,000 (£78,600) marketing campaign called BC Cares. Craig Hebert, dean of development and access training at Northern Lights College in BC, said: 'The industry needs to get the message out to students that there has never been a better time to start a career in senior health care. Graduates who study for about one year, sometimes less, will have their pick of jobs in a number of service environments and can advance relatively quickly to the nursing profession.'

  11. Retail food environments in Canada: Maximizing the impact of research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M

    2016-06-09

    Retail food environments are gaining national and international attention as important determinants of population dietary intake. Communities across Canada are beginning to discuss and implement programs and policies to create supportive retail food environments. Three considerations should drive the selection of food environment assessment methods: relevance (What is the problem, and how is it related to dietary outcomes?); resources (What human, time and financial resources are required to undertake an assessment?); and response (How will policy-makers find meaning out of and act on the information gained through the food environment assessment?). Ultimately, food environment assessments should be conducted in the context of stakeholder buy-in and multi-sectoral partnerships, since food environment solutions require multi-sectoral action. Partnerships between public health actors and the food and beverage industry can be challenging, especially when mandates are not aligned. Clarifying the motivations, expectations and roles of all stakeholders takes time but is important if the impact of food environment research, policy and practice is to be maximized. The articles contained in this special supplementary issue describe ongoing food environments research across Canada and fill some of the important gaps in the current body of Canadian food environments literature.

  12. Report on a visit to Canada to discuss tritium instrumentation and radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.A.B.

    1984-10-01

    A report is presented of a visit to Canada on behalf of the CEC DG II/Fusion between the 8th to 13th April 1984. Discussions were arranged by the Canadian Fusion-Fuels Technology Project near Toronto and covered all aspects of tritium technology but especially radiological protection. Visits included the CFFTP Centre, Pickering Nuclear Generating Section, Ontario Hydro's Head Office, Safety Services Department and Research Division, Scintrex Ltd (tritium instrument manufacturers) and the Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) Chalk River Nuclear laboratories (CRNL). There are clearly many areas for the use of Canadian Technology in Europe, particularly with CRNL and Scintrex on the development of 3 H 2 / 3 H 2 O discriminating monitors. There is some doubt whether these development will be in time for applications at the JET laboratory and the JRC at ISPRA but this collaboration will be pursued. (author)

  13. 40 CFR 81.437 - New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Brunswick, Canada. 81.437 Section 81.437 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.437 New Brunswick, Canada. Table 1 Area name Acreage Public law...

  14. Coastal sea radiation environment and biodiversity protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Senming; Shang Zhaorong

    2009-01-01

    This paper characterizes the types, trend and the potential of radiation contamination in the sea against the development of nuclear power stations. Combined with the present status of radioactive contamination and marine biodiversity in China seas, it is pointed out that non-human radiation protection should be considered on the bases of marine biodiversity protection. Besides, the reference species for marine radiation protection and some viewpoints on the work of marine radiation protection in China are pro- posed. (authors)

  15. Integration of the environment into the system of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higley, K.

    2018-01-01

    In 2005 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) embarked on an effort to ensure that the system for environmental radiological protection would be reconcilable with that for radiological protection of man, and with the approaches used for protection of the environment from other potential hazards

  16. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical...

  17. Protection of the natural environment and internationally accepted practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the present approach to protecting the environment against ionizing radiations in international standards and guidance. This approach is based on the assumption that protecting humans will provide adequate protection for the environment. The extent to which the assumption can and has been justified is examined. Possible reasons for wishing to reconsider or elaborate the approach and to develop specific criteria for protecting other species are discussed

  18. Distributed Computations Environment Protection Using Artificial Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Moiseev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors describe possibility of artificial immune systems applying for distributed computations environment protection from definite types of malicious impacts.

  19. Analysing contractual environments: lessons from Indigenous health in Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Josée; Boulton, Amohia; Dwyer, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Contracting in health care is a mechanism used by the governments of Canada, Australia and New Zealand to improve the participation of marginalized populations in primary health care and improve responsiveness to local needs. As a result, complex contractual environments have emerged. The literature on contracting in health has tended to focus on the pros and cons of classical versus relational contracts from the funder's perspective. This article proposes an analytical framework to explore the strengths and weaknesses of contractual environments that depend on a number of classical contracts, a single relational contract or a mix of the two. Examples from indigenous contracting environments are used to inform the elaboration of the framework. Results show that contractual environments that rely on a multiplicity of specific contracts are administratively onerous, while constraining opportunities for local responsiveness. Contractual environments dominated by a single relational contract produce a more flexible and administratively streamlined system.

  20. Reckless lending: how Canada's Export Development Corporation puts people and environment at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the negative impacts of several projects financed by Canada's Export Development Corporation (EDC), how these investments put people and the environment at risk, and highlights the need for ensuring that EDC, an agency of the Canadian Government, is compelled to uphold public policies and international standards protecting human rights, the environment and the social needs of communities. By way of proving its case, authors of this report describe several international projects --the Three Gorges Dam in China; the Urra Hydro Project in Colombia; the Marcopper Mine in the Philippines; the BioBio Dam in Chile; the Ok Tedi Copper Mine in Papua New Guinea; the Yacyreta Dam in Argentina and Paraguay; and CANDU reactors in Argentina, China, Romania, South Korea and Turkey -- as proof of human rights violations and environmental disasters in which EDC has been an accessory. It is emphasized that unlike the World Bank and the U.S. export credit agencies, EDC is not required to undertake environmental assessment, or to take into account the impact on human rights or communities of project which they help to finance. The authors recommend amendments to the Export Development Act that would require the EDC to disclose information about proposed project at least 60 days before approval by the Board, including description of the project, the terms of financing, along with any environmental, social and human rights information collected. EDC should be required to establish an autonomous accountability mechanism, using the mechanisms of the World Bank Group as a model to track and guide EDC's policy implementation, and to receive and address complaints from external parties affected by EDC-supported activities. EDC should require social, environmental and human rights assessments, using World Bank standards and methodology as the base, and ensure implementation of recommendations by separately specifying them in the contract. EDC should not be

  1. Nutrients in the Canadian environment: reporting on the state of Canada's environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ironside, G. R

    2001-01-01

    .... This state of the environment (SOE) report on nutrients looks at how the Canadian environment is being affected by nitrogen and phosphorus compounds that are released as a result of human activities...

  2. Conference on soldiers, civilians and environment protection against contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The military and civil aspects of radiation protection have been discussed. The special emphasize has been done on contamination monitoring of environment, soldier radiological protection during hypothetical warfare, radiological health hazard assessment, post Chernobyl contamination control of environment and food products in Poland, dose equivalent estimation and radiometric control equipment used in military and civil service

  3. Force Protection in Urban and Unconventional Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gold, Theodore; Hartzog, William

    2006-01-01

    ...; the same populace that adaptive enemies attempt to hide within. While its subject is force protection, the task force has little to say about armor, fences, portals, and other defensive measures...

  4. Sample triage : an overview of Environment Canada's program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, P.; Goldthorp, M.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

    2006-07-01

    The Chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI) is a program led by Canada's Department of National Defence in an effort to improve the capability of providing technical and analytical support in the event of a terrorist-related event. This paper summarized the findings from the CRTI Sample Triage Working Group and reviewed information on Environment Canada's triage program and its' mobile sample inspection facility that was designed to help examine samples of hazardous materials in a controlled environment to minimize the risk of exposure. A sample triage program is designed to deal with administrative, health and safety issues by facilitating the safe transfer of samples to an analytical laboratory. It refers to the collation of all results including field screening information, intelligence and observations for the purpose of prioritizing and directing the sample to the appropriate laboratory for analysis. A central component of Environment Canada's Emergency Response Program has been its capacity to respond on site during an oil or chemical spill. As such, the Emergencies Science and Technology Division has acquired a new mobile sample inspection facility in 2004. It is constructed to work with a custom designed decontamination unit and Ford F450 tow vehicle. The criteria and general design of the trailer facility was described. This paper also outlined the steps taken following a spill of hazardous materials into the environment so that potentially dangerous samples could be safety assessed. Several field trials will be carried out in order to develop standard operating procedures for the mobile sample inspection facility. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  5. Protection of environment. Orientation of I.R.S.N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The Institute of I.R.S.N. has the expertise and research missions in the following area: nuclear safety, reliability of radioactive and fissile materials transport, protection of man and environment against ionizing radiations; protection and monitoring of nuclear matters, protection of installations and transports of radioactive and fissile materials against malevolence. (N.C.)

  6. Environment protection and other political spheres of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been known that environment protection is largely a cross-sectional task. The provision of Article 130 r Section 2 Clause 2 of the EEC Treaty that states that environment protection forms an integral part of all the other polticial spheres of the Community is not only a plank in the platform of the Community but also a juridical innovation. Time will tell what concrete legal claims can be derived from this provision, particularly on the part of the European Court of Justice. The lectures relate amongst others to the following topics: Environment protection and competition politics, environment protection and energy poltics, environment protection and development aid politics. Eight of the lectures were abstracted individually. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Do we need radiation protection for the living environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefner, A.; Voelkle, H.

    2003-01-01

    The protection of the living environment, i.e. non human species or non human organisms, is a condition for the long term human survival. This certainly is true also for radioactivity and ionizing radiation. The ICRP statement that fauna und flora are sufficiently protected if man is protected is valid in many cases but not in every one. The article gives some reflections on this subject from the point of view of practical radiation protection and some suggestions on how, if necessary, protection of the living environment could be put into practice. (orig.) [de

  8. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Andrew C R; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility.

  9. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C R Braid

    Full Text Available As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply and top-down (mortality risk from roads factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration have the highest potential utility.

  10. Managament in Tourism and Environment Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Mrnjavac

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourist activities motivate tourists to visit a destination. Tourism evaluates motives and protects them largely from harmful influences. Tourism evaluation aims to establish the value of natural tourist attractions and of those created by humans. Along with tourist attractions, destinations are also evaluated in order to find out about their utility. The evaluation of a destination and its particular attractions is expressed by the realized tourist traffic for the observed period. Protection of tourist attractions is a systematic activity against all kinds of pollution. It also includes the sustainability of traffic flows in tourism destination. Management in tourism industry has an irreplaceable role in that.

  11. Protecting Patient Privacy in Cyber Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.C.M. Aarts (Jos); S.A. Adams (Samantha); B. Kaplan (Bonnie); P.R. DeMuro (Paul); A.E. Solomonides (Anthony)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractConfidentiality in the medical encounter is crucial to providing adequate patient care. Health data is therefore privileged and protected by legal mechanisms. Health systems use electronic records and large-scale databases. Increasingly consumers use also IT to collect, store and share

  12. Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available The present report presents the findings of SIMRAC project GAP 045 entitled ‘Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments’. It is intended as a reference to develop guidelines which, in turn would assist mine management in establishing safe...

  13. Transport Canada : navigable water protection technical paper on boating safety at dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putt, B [Transport Canada, Sarnia, ON (Canada); Di Censo, V M [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Navigable Waters Protection Act (NWPA) was designed to ensure a balance between public rights of navigation and the need to build bridges, dams, and other structures. This paper discussed an owner's guide to navigation safety around water control structures. Developed by Transport Canada, the guide was intended to help owners of water control structures address boating safety matters and assist owners in making applications under the NWPA. The guide was prepared to address amendments made to the NWPA in 2009 as well as to assist owners in identifying potential hazards and interactions by the boating public at water control structures. The guide included information related to signage; navigation aids; barriers and booms; warning alerts and alarms; portage and access around structures; and application requirements. It was concluded that the guide will also provide a summary of legislation that may affect owners of water control structures.

  14. Fracture lines: will Canada's water be protected in the rush to develop shale gas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfitt, Ben [Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    By combining hydraulic fracking with horizontal drilling, the gas industry has been able to unlock significant amounts of natural gas trapped inside deep and densely packed shale rock. The exploitation of shale gas has been a remarkable revolution in the last decade, going from hardly any production in 2000 to 20% of the United States' gas production in 2010. This cheap and abundant resource has been referred to as a game changer by North American industries and governments. However concerns about water usage and groundwater contamination have been raised. Indeed, the shale gas industry is responsible for the contamination of about 1,000 water wells and has been criticized for its important water withdrawals. This report intends to present the effects of shale gas production on the water supplies in Canada. It reviews the state of groundwater mapping in shale rich regions and reviews regulatory frameworks to determine if they are sufficient to protect water resources.

  15. Evaluation of protection measurements for urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive accidents has shown the necessity of a previous evaluation planning of exposure and directives for implementation of protection measurements. The description or measurements in the literature usually is associated to reduction of concentrations in the medium where they are applied. For verification the efficiency in dose reduction, it is necessary to proceed simulations. Through the development of data base on protection measurements, it was established basic sceneries, typically tropical as far the building type is concerned and the construction material. The program SIEM was used for simulation of contamination with 137 Cs. The results indicates that generic solutions persuade not to and the decision make processes should be effectuated according to the real conditions of contamination and the use of affected area. For affected areas, two classification criteria were defined: (1) efficiency in reducing the dose in the first year; and (2) efficiency in dose reducing at long term

  16. Protection and Conservation of the Aquatic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Grigorut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about environmental protection and their legal expression led to the formation andaffirmation of a set of common principles of national, regional and international law. Although they knowvarious formulations and specifications in these three legal systems, their fundamental meaning remains thesame, in different situations. They arise and contribute, at the same time, from / to the assertion of theenvironment in general, as common heritage of humanity.

  17. Evaluation of protection measurements for rural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Silva, Fernanda L.; Conti, Luiz F.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2011-01-01

    Among the planning activities of actuation in nuclear/radiological emergences, it is included the efficiency evaluation of protection and remediation measurements. From the development of a data base on such measurements for the agricultural areas, the program SIEM was used for effectuation the simulations involving the 137 Cs, 131 I and 90 Sr radionuclides, in scenery previously established for simulation those areas of a 50 km surrounding the Admiral Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant. The obtained results indicate that the scenery is determinant of efficiency measurements involving various specific factors of each place, such as: agricultural and cattle breeding products, consumption habits of population and the grade of subsistence by the diet items, making not practical the elaboration of predefined generic sceneries. The great dependence on seasoning related to the moment of accident makes inadequate any previous evaluation what soever for evaluation of efficiency of protection and remediation measurements. Therefore, previous decisions are not recommended about the relevance of protection measurements for rural areas. Two classification criteria were defined: (i) the efficiency in reduction the doses in the firs year; and, (i i) efficiency in reduction the dose at long term

  18. Urgent Protection versus Chronic Need: Clarifying the Dual Mandate of Child Welfare Services across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Trocmé

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed data from the 1998, 2003 and 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of reported child abuse and neglect (CIS and compared the profile of children who were reported for an urgent protection investigation versus any other investigation or assessment. As a proportion of all investigations, urgent protection cases have dropped from 28% of all investigations in 1998, to 19% in 2003, to 15% in 2008. Results from the CIS-2008 analysis revealed that 7% of cases involved neglect of a child under four, 4% of cases involved sexual abuse, 2% of cases involved physical abuse of a child under four and 1% of cases involved children who had sustained severe enough physical harm that medical treatment was required. The other 85% of cases of investigated maltreatment involved situations where concerns appear to focus less on immediate safety and more on the long-term effects of a range of family related problems. These findings underscore the importance of considering the dual mandate of child welfare mandates across Canada: intervening to assure the urgent protection and safety of the child versus intervening to promote the development and well-being of the child.

  19. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Alexandra Sasa

    2013-01-01

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  20. Nutrients in the Canadian environment: reporting on the state of Canada's environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ironside, G. R

    2001-01-01

    This state of the environment (SOE) report is a companion volume to the federal science assessment entitled "Nutrients and their impact on the Canadian enviornment", which was authored by Patricia Chambers, et al...

  1. Sustainable agriculture and protection of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemianowska, Ewa; Wesołowski, Andrzej; Skibniewska, Krystyna A.; Tyburski, Józef; Gurzyński, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    The economic, environmental and social development should not degrade the environment but it should leave it for the next generations in the state that it is presently or even better. The principle of sustainable agriculture is to cover the human needs for food without damage to the environment. The aim of the article was to research the farmers' awareness of the principle of sustainable agriculture and balanced fertilization and their influence on the environment. Among 100 farmers of the Tczew district (Poland) there was done questionnaire research on the determination rates of nitrogen fertilizers and on the regulation of fertilizers usage in Poland. Most of farmers declared a good knowledge of good agricultural practices and of balanced fertilization and the awareness of threats issuing from their activities. At the same time in Poland since the announcement of the Nitrate Directive of the former European Common Market (1992) up till now (2013) the application of nitrogen fertilizers doubled and the yield of wheat increased only by 15%, which means the increase of environmental burden with this chemical element.

  2. Sustainable agriculture and protection of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siemianowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic, environmental and social development should not degrade the environment but it should leave it for the next generations in the state that it is presently or even better. The principle of sustainable agriculture is to cover the human needs for food without damage to the environment. The aim of the article was to research the farmers’ awareness of the principle of sustainable agriculture and balanced fertilization and their influence on the environment. Among 100 farmers of the Tczew district (Poland there was done questionnaire research on the determination rates of nitrogen fertilizers and on the regulation of fertilizers usage in Poland. Most of farmers declared a good knowledge of good agricultural practices and of balanced fertilization and the awareness of threats issuing from their activities. At the same time in Poland since the announcement of the Nitrate Directive of the former European Common Market (1992 up till now (2013 the application of nitrogen fertilizers doubled and the yield of wheat increased only by 15%, which means the increase of environmental burden with this chemical element.

  3. The expenditure for the protection of the environment in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Illustrated by several graphs, this publication comments the evolution of public expenditure for the protection of the environment, compares the current expenditure and the capital expenditure. It comments the share of waste management and wastewater sanitation with respect to the global expenditure (it represents 62 pc of it) and the evolutions of the expenditures for each domain of the environment (protection of the environment and ecosystems, waste management and struggle against noise pollution, research and development, public actions for regulation and administration). It comments the increase of prices of sanitation services and the decrease of consumed volumes of water, the increase of R and D expenditure, the influence of the legal context on the increase of industry investments for air protection. The expenditures for the protection of the environment in the European countries are indicated and compared

  4. The case against protecting the environment from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the (rarely heard) argument in favour of retention of the present system of radiation protection of the environment. There has been a recent trend in the radioecological and radiation protection community towards greater regulation of the effects of ionising radiations on biota. In particular, the often quoted International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) hypothesis that: If humans are protected from the effects of ionising radiation, then flora and fauna are also adequately protected has been criticised as being too anthropocentric and not adequate for protection of the environment. In this paper I will challenge this view, arguing firstly that this statement is almost always quoted out of its proper context, and secondly that the ICRP hypothesis does adequately protect the environment from the effects of ionising radiations. In view of the relatively insignificant effect of regulated releases of ionising radiation on the environment, the economic cost of further regulation will not result in a significant environmental benefit. Whilst empirical research to test the ICRP hypothesis should continue, until there is clear evidence against it, this simple and cost-effective approach should be retained. This would benefit the environment by directing scarce resources to more urgent environmental problems. (author)

  5. Mental health and hospital chaplaincy: strategies of self-protection (case study: toronto, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianpour, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    This is a study about emotion management among a category of healthcare professional - hospital chaplains - who have hardly been the subject of sociological research about emotions. The aim of the study was to understand how chaplains manage their work-related emotions in order to protect their mental health, whilst also providing spiritual care. Using in-depth, semi structured interviews, the author spoke with 21 chaplains from five faith traditions (Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism and modern paganism) in different Toronto (Canada) Hospitals to see how they manage their emotion, and what resources they rely on in order to protect their mental health. Data analysis was perfumed according to Sandelowski's method of qualitative description. The average age and work experience of the subjects interviewed in this study are 52 and 9.6 respectively. 11 chaplains worked part-time and 10 chaplains worked full-time. 18 respondents were women and the sample incudes 3 male chaplains only. The findings are discussed, among others, according to the following themes: work-life balance, self-reflexivity, methods of self-care, and chaplains' emotional make-up. Emotion management per se is not a problem. However, if chaplains fail to maintain a proper work-life balance, job pressure can be harmful. As a strategy, many chaplains work part-time. As a supportive means, an overwhelming number of chaplains regularly benefit from psychotherapy and/or spiritual guidance. None.

  6. Evaluation of protective measures for tropical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D. N. G.; Rochedo, E. R. R.; Wasserman, M. A. V.; Conti, L. F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear and radiological accidents have demonstrated the need for prior planning for exposure assessment as well as guidelines for the implementation of protection and remediation measures of contaminated areas. Typically, the description of the efficiency of the measures in the literature is associated with the reduction of the concentration of the environmental media where they are applied. In order to verify the efficiency related to the reduction in doses, some basic scenarios were established, taking into account aspects of a typical tropical climate, such as building materials (urban areas) and types of crops and farming practices, considering the seasonality and soil type typical of the southeastern region of Brazil. The Integrated System for Emergency (SIEM) program was used to perform the simulations. The results indicate that decision-making processes must be made in accordance with the actual conditions of contamination and use of the affected area. For rural areas, the effectiveness of measures depends on many factors specific to each site, such as seasonality, produced crops, diet habits and degree of subsistence on the items in the diet, which make it unfeasible to develop generic predefined scenarios. The criteria for classification of measurements were defined as: (i) the efficiency in reducing the doses in the first year, in which largest dose rates are observed; (ii) the efficiency in reducing the long-term dose, considering 50 y for adults and (iii) the effect of delay in implementation of the measures on the reduction of doses. (authors)

  7. Papers of the EECO 2003 Environment and Energy Conference : preserving the environment and promoting U.S. and Canada trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Environment and Energy Conference is a bi-national cross-border forum on trade and environmental issues pertaining to the Great Lakes Economy in both Canada and the United States. Delegates from business, government and non-government organizations attended the conference to gain insight on how to ensure economic and environmental health of the Great Lakes region in order to contribute to sustainable growth. The presentations addressed environmental issues such as energy security; restructuring; urban transit; threats to clean air; cities; water demands in the Great Lakes ecosystems; new cars and new fuels; and, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The conference featured 32 presentations, of which 4 were indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  8. Radiological protection of the environment from an NGO perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.

    2008-01-01

    Non-governmental environmental organisations (environmental NGOs) may consider the issue of radiological protection of the environment differently to other interested parties such as regulators or industry. While environmental NGOs are broadly positive towards the current emphasis and engagement on radiological protection of the environment per se, there remain concerns about the precise meaning of the term and the ultimate objectives of the current initiatives. Various strategies are studied and discussed. The disposal of radioactive waste at sea is discussed and a case study presented. What the environmental NGOs are looking for is focused upon and various environmental protection systems are discussed (tk)

  9. Best in class: hot competition makes Canada an 'incredibly innovative environment' by global industry standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-01

    The highly innovative environment in the field service sector of the oil and natural gas industry and the intense competition generated by it are discussed. Despite the fact that Canada produces only 3.5 per cent of the world's oil and 7.0 per cent of its natural gas, Canada is a world leader in the development of field service systems and equipment. On a return on investment basis the field service sector outperformed the exploration and production sector, and while many of them are small compared to the giants like Haliburton and Schlumberger, small field service companies frequently outperform the giants, if only because below 100 million dollars in revenues, investors expect a 25 to 30 per cent return on equity. Constant cost cutting and an eye on the bottom line, combined with products and services of high quality, and the intense rivalry and competition keeps the industry constantly on its toes to do more with less, to come up with innovative business practices and to stay on the cutting edge of new technology. Progress by several of the field service companies, large and small, are reviewed by way of illustration

  10. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance fo participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors

  11. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance for participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-12-31

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia`s enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada`s reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia`s sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It`s co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the Northwest Passage on a

  13. New Lubricants Protect Machines and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In 1994, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Operations commissioned Sun Coast Chemicals of Daytona Inc to develop a new type of lubricant that would be safe for the environment and help "grease the wheels" of the shuttle-bearing launcher platform. Founded in 1989, Sun Coast Chemicals is known amongst the racing circuit for effective lubricants that help overcome engine and transmission problems related to heat and wear damage. In a matter of weeks, Sun Coast Chemical produced the biodegradable, high-performance X-1R Crawler Track Lube. In 1996, Sun Coast Chemical determined there was a market for this new development, and introduced three derivative products, Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lubricant, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid, and then quickly followed with a gun lubricant/cleaner and a fishing rod and reel lubricant. Just recently, Sun Coast introduced the X-1R Corporation, which folds the high-performance, environmentally safe benefits into a full line of standard automotive and specially formulated racing products. The entire X-1R automotive product line has stood up to rigorous testing by groups such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Oakland University (Rochester, Michigan), and Morgan-McClure Motorsports (Abingdon, Virginia). The X-1R Corporation also markets "handy packs" for simple jobs around the house, consisting of a multi-purpose, multi-use lubricant and grease. In 2003, The X-1R Corporation teamed up with Philadelphia-based Penn Tackle Manufacturing Co., a leading manufacturer of fishing tackle since 1932, to jointly develop and market a line of advanced lubrication products for saltwater and freshwater anglers

  14. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to practical environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of who or what has moral standing; second the appropriate level of protection; and third compatibility with other environmental stressors. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds for efforts to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. (author)

  15. Department of Risk Assessment and Environment Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Group of Nuclear Safety Analysis is concerned with the development and application of numerical methods and programs in reactor physics. The development work was primarily concentrated on the WIMS Library Update Project, co-ordinated by IAEA. Under the project the WIMSD-SB version of WIMS was developed capable of 172 group library treatment The work has been continued on the physical analysis of the MARIA reactor core, notably calculations of poisoning of beryllium matrix of the MARIA reactor. The 2D distribution of He-3 and Li-6 poisoning in all beryllium blocks has been evaluated for the end of year 2000. The group participates in the programme: Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors co-ordinated by the Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Group of Safety Analysis for Industrial Installations is concerned with the assessment and management of major accident risk from industrial installations and industrial areas. The activities of the Group include: development of methods, guidelines, stand alone computer codes and real time computer aided emergency decision support system for complex technical systems (nuclear power plants, chemical process installations, etc.); models for pollutant transport in the atmosphere, water bodies, soil and food chains; fluid dynamics modelling of air and water media and dedicated numerical weather prediction systems with emphasis on application to analyses of nuclear and chemical installations behaviour and to environmental impact assessment problems under major accident conditions. The group cooperates with Polish chemical factories, research institutes in Europe and the US and with the EU and OECD working groups concerned with the protection against chemical accidents. In 2001 within the 5-th Framework Programme of the EU the Group participated in the research project ENSEMBLE and thematic network DSSNET both related to improvement of the EU real time on-line decision support system in case of nuclear emergency

  16. Assessing the validity of commercial and municipal food environment data sets in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daepp, Madeleine Ig; Black, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    The present study assessed systematic bias and the effects of data set error on the validity of food environment measures in two municipal and two commercial secondary data sets. Sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and concordance were calculated by comparing two municipal and two commercial secondary data sets with ground-truthed data collected within 800 m buffers surrounding twenty-six schools. Logistic regression examined associations of sensitivity and PPV with commercial density and neighbourhood socio-economic deprivation. Kendall's τ estimated correlations between density and proximity of food outlets near schools constructed with secondary data sets v. ground-truthed data. Vancouver, Canada. Food retailers located within 800 m of twenty-six schools RESULTS: All data sets scored relatively poorly across validity measures, although, overall, municipal data sets had higher levels of validity than did commercial data sets. Food outlets were more likely to be missing from municipal health inspections lists and commercial data sets in neighbourhoods with higher commercial density. Still, both proximity and density measures constructed from all secondary data sets were highly correlated (Kendall's τ>0·70) with measures constructed from ground-truthed data. Despite relatively low levels of validity in all secondary data sets examined, food environment measures constructed from secondary data sets remained highly correlated with ground-truthed data. Findings suggest that secondary data sets can be used to measure the food environment, although estimates should be treated with caution in areas with high commercial density.

  17. Environment report 1990 of the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The 'Environment Report 1990' describes the environmental situation in the Federal Republic of Germany; draws a balance of environmental policy measures taken and introduced; gives information on future fields of action in environmental policy. The 'Environment Report 1990' also deals with the 'Environment Expert Opinion 1987', produced by the board of experts on environmental questions. It contains surveys of the following sectors: Protection against hazardous materials air pollution abatement, water management, waste management, nature protection and preservation of the countryside, soil conservation, noise abatement, radiation protection, reactor safety. A separate part of the 'Environment Report 1990' deals with the progress made in 'interdisciplinary fields' (general law on the protection of the environment, instruments of environmental policy, environmental information and environmental research, transfrontier environmental policy). (orig./HP) [de

  18. Deep Sea Shell Taphonomy: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, Ocean Networks Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Mairi; Purser, Autun

    2015-04-01

    In order to quantify and track the rates and processes of modification of biogenic carbonate in gas hydrate environments, and their possible environmental/ecological correlates, ongoing observations of experimentally deployed specimens are being made using a remotely controlled crawler with camera and sensors. The crawler is connected to NEPTUNE Canada, an 800km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, northeastern Pacific, part of Ocean Networks Canada. One of 15 study areas is an environment of exposed hydrate mounds along the wall of Barkley Canyon, at ˜865m water depth. This is the home of a benthic crawler developed by Jacobs University of Germany, who is affectionately known as Wally. Wally is equipped with a range of sensors including cameras, methane sensor, current meter, fluorometer, turbidity meter, CTD, and a sediment microprofiler with probes for oxygen, methane, sulphide, pH, temperature, and conductivity. In conjunction with this sensor suite, a series of experiments have been designed to assess the cycling of biogenic carbon and carbonate in this complex environment. The biota range from microbes, to molluscs, to large fish, and therefore the carbon inputs include both a range of organic carbon compounds as well as the complex materials that are "biogenic carbonate". Controlled experimental specimens were deployed of biogenic carbonate (Mytilus edulis fresh shells) and cellulose (pieces of untreated pine lumber) that had been previously well characterized (photographed, weighed, and numbered, matching valves and lumber kept as controls). Deployment at the sediment/water interface was in such a way to maximize natural burial exhumation cycles but to minimize specimen interaction. 10 replicate specimens of each material were deployed in two treatments: 1) adjacent to a natural life and death assemblage of chemosynthetic bivalves and exposed hydrate on a hydrate mound and 2) on the muddy seafloor at a distance

  19. Protection of the disabled in the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disabled enjoy special protection at work (in the work environment. The importance of this protection essentially determines the status of the disabled in the society, because it is connected with the work of the disabled with which get the means of life, but they are also brought into an equal position with other persons that do not have disability and whose working abilities are not reduced. There is a lot of vagueness in terms of terminological and meaning determination of the concept of disability, both in the international and the domestic law. We tried to elaborate the issue of disability in the paper firstly in the terminological and meaning sense and then to present international legal and domestic platform of their protection at work connected with the work, too (the work environment. Special emphasis was put on the concept of the disabled worker and their equal protection, with a critic review on the existing solutions in the effective law.

  20. Objectives of radiological environment protection in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the radiological environment protection is to avoid risks to the health of the population. But the risks from radiation can only be considered in connection with spontaneously occuring malignancies. The comparison shows that according to the maximum permissible doses in the German Ordinance of Radiation Protection the risks of radiation injury are so low that they cannot be detected relative to the spontaneous malignancies. (orig.) [de

  1. THE ORGANIC AGRICULTURE – A WAY TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TABITA CORNELIA ADAMOV

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The future of the agriculture is a problem very frequently discussed by the specialists. During these debates, the organic agriculture has an advantage. The organic agriculture is taking into consideration two aspects: the human being and the environment. It is based on the prohibition of using chemicals like pesticides, herbicides or chemical fertilizers. This will offer healthy and natural products, but also will protect the environment. The usage of chemicals harms the environment and they remain in the soil for a long time. The substances used to protect the crops destroy the biodiversity, killing the insects, not only the harmful ones. The preservation of the biodiversity and the quality of the environment is an important objective for the beginning of this millennium, extended by the concern for the population health, for food safety assurance and for the improvement of life conditions. The existence of the future human society depends on applying in practice the concept of lasting economical development.

  2. Protecting the environment in a liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    The alleged conflicting situation between environmental protection and liberalisation can be resolved if we make both the market and competition serve the interests of environmental and climate protection to a greater extent. The exploitation of the allocation efficiency of markets for protecting the environment is legitimate according to the experience that the well-husbanded and efficient use of sparse resources is not achieved by government planning and control, but allowing market prices to form on functioning markets which reflect the shortage of such resources. This approach would also put into perspective the much debated conflict between economy and ecology. (orig.) [de

  3. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007–08 (N = 513) and 2011–12 (N = 490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income. Results After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time. Conclusion Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools. PMID:24731514

  4. Possibilities for a constitutional embodiment of environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattenberger, D.

    1991-03-01

    The main topic is the question of adequacy and desirability of a constitutional rule for the protection of the environment with regard to the specific Austrian situation and the extensive discussion about this topic in German. As variants are discussed a human right of environment, objective categories of constitutional rules (constitutional aims of state's policy) and procedural or organisational rules. It begins with an explanation of the general responsibility of states in the field of environment protection and a determination of the term 'environment '. In respect of a human right first already guaranteed rights are examined for their relevance in the field of conservation with regard to the change in the understanding of human rights. Then arguments pro and against a specific right to environment are mentioned and appraised. With regard to the counter-arguments a subjective right should not be incorporated. A revision of the present concept of human rights would be necessary. Similar arguments are mentioned against the constitution of an objective norm in respect of some judicial decisions of the Austrian Constitutional Court. The problem of the protection of the environment will not be solved with a constitutional rule. It would raise new problems, which would damage the constitution as a fundamental order of human living together. (author)

  5. The IAA Cosmic Study 'Protecting the Environment of Celestial Bodies'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, Petra; Hofmann, Mahulena; Williamson, Mark

    The study group tasked with producing this International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) `Cosmic Study' on Protecting the Environment of Celestial Bodies was formed under the aus-pices of IAA Commission V (Space Policy, Law Economy). The members of the international, multidisciplinary team assembled to undertake the Study accept, as a premise, the Planetary Protection Policy guidelines developed by COSPAR, which differentiate the degree of protec-tion according to the type of space activity and the celestial body under investigation (such that fly-by missions have less stringent requirements than lander missions, while Mars is `better protected' than the Moon). However, this Study goes deliberately beyond the interpretation of `Planetary Protection' as a set of methods for protecting the planets from biological con-tamination and extends consideration to the geophysical, industrial and cultural realms. The Study concludes that, from the perspective of current and future activities in outer space, present measures aimed at protecting the space environment are insufficient. Deficiencies in-clude a lack of suitable in-situ methods of chemical and biological detection and the absence of a systematic record of radioactive contaminants. Other issues identified by the Study include an insufficient legal framework, a shortage of effective economic tools and a lack of political will to address these concerns. It is expected that new detection methods under development, and the resultant increase in microbiological knowledge of the planetary surfaces, will lead to changes in the COSPAR planetary protection guidelines and bioburden limits. It is important, however, that any new approaches should not hamper future exploration and exploitation of celestial bodies more than absolutely necessary. The Study addresses the need to find a balance between protection and freedom of action. From a legal perspective, the Study concludes that a general consensus on protection of the

  6. Geophysical methods in protected environments. Electrical resistivity tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio Sánchez-Aguililla, F.M.; Ramiro-Camacho, A.; Ibarra Torre, P.

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong interest in protecting the environment with the aim of its long term preservation. Sometimes the heritage value of these natural areas is related to their biodiversity as there are restricted ecosystems that depend directly on them. In other cases there a singular geological record might exist, essential for the understanding of certain processes affecting the planet, such as volcanic events or glacial periods. To achieve the protection and conservation of these areas it is necessary to generate knowledge about the distribution of geological materials and groundwater masses, to study the parameters that dominate the behaviour of these systems and then define those elements that require special protection or attention. In these protected environments, research methods with a minimal environmental impact should be used. Therefore, indirect methods, such as geophysical techniques, are reliable and complementary tools with a minimum environmental impact and are therefore useful for research these unique areas. The IGME has conducted several geophysical surveys in different protected environments in Spain with the aim of achieving a better understanding, and thus facilitate their preservation and exploitation in a sustainable manner. In this paper we present a review of some case studies where geophysical methods have been used. In all the cases electrical resistivity tomography has been the axis of the geophysical research and stands out due to its great effectiveness. The main objective of this communication is to divulgate and increase awareness of the important role that these geophysical methods can play in the sustainable study of these unique places. [es

  7. Chemistry for protection of the environment, Eight international conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, W.J.; Pawlowski, L.; Dlugosz, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents research programs from the International Conference on the Chemistry For Protection of the Environment. Topics covered include environmental transport, waste minimization, pollution control and prevention, waste management, soil remediation, and health concerns associated with environmental contamination. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  8. Protect Heterogeneous Environment Distributed Computing from Malicious Code Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Gorbatov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the practical implementation of the protection system of heterogeneous environment distributed computing from malicious code for the assignment. A choice of technologies, development of data structures, performance evaluation of the implemented system security are conducted.

  9. Environment Protection (Northern Territory Supreme Court) Act 1978, No.30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Act relates to the enforcement by the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory of certain provisions for protecting the environment in the Alligator Rivers Region; it provides that the Supreme Court has jurisdiction to make orders concerning enforcement of provisions relating to the environmental effects in the Region of uranium mining operations. (NEA) [fr

  10. Solution of tasks concerning protection of underground waters and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.T.; Polyakov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Use of environment isotopes and indicators in solving problems concerning protection of underground waters and environment is discussed. The applied methods permit to study dynamics of underground waters and to estimate risk of their contamination; to follow the surface and underground waters interrelations using data on infiltration recharge estimation etc. Complex nuclear-geophysical and isotope studies may be applied to detect hindered water exchange zones where liquid industrial waste disposals could be placed with minimum damage to environment. 48 refs.; 74 figs.; 22 tabs

  11. Canada`s green plan - The second year. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Canada`s Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan`s goal is `to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.` It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan`s short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities.

  12. Environment Protection (Alligator Rivers Region) Act 1978, No.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The main object of this Act is to provide for the appointment of a Supervising Scientist responsible for supervising protection of the environment in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory from the effects of uranium mining operations. His functions include advising the competent Minister on the effects of uranium mining operations on the environment and on standards, practices and procedures for its protection and restoration. The Act also sets up a Co-ordinating Committee responsible for programmes for research into the environmental effects of such mining operations and also keeping under review standards, practices and procedures for environmental protection in relation thereto. Finally the Act provides for the establishment of a Research Institute managed by the Supervising Scientist, to promote and assist in research as well as to collect information on the environmental effects of uranium mining operations. (NEA) [fr

  13. A descriptive study of employment patterns and work environment outcomes of specialist nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Duffield, Christine; Rizk, Paul; Nahm, Sang; Chu, Charlene H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to describe the number, demographic characteristics, work patterns, exit rates, and work perceptions of nurses in Ontario, Canada, in 4 specialty classifications: advanced practice nurse (APN)-clinical nurse specialist (CNS), APN-other, primary healthcare nurse practitioner [RN(extended class [EC])], and registered nurse (RN) with specialty certification. The objectives were to (1) describe how many qualified nurses are available by specialty class; (2) create a demographic profile of specialist nurses; (3) determine the proportions of specialist and nonspecialist nurses who leave (a) direct patient care and (b) nursing practice annually; (4) determine whether specialist and nonspecialist nurses differ in their self-ratings of work environment, job satisfaction, and intention to remain in nursing. Employment patterns refer to nurses' employment status (eg, full-time, part-time, casual), work duration (ie, length of employment in nurses and in current role), and work transitions (ie, movement in and out of the nursing workforce, and movement out of current role). A longitudinal analysis of the Ontario nurses' registration database from 2005 to 2010 and a survey of specialist nurses in Canada was conducted. The setting was Canada. The database sample consisted of 3 specialist groups, consisting of RN(EC), CNS, and APN-other, as well as 1 nonspecialist RN staff nurse group. The survey sample involved 359 nurses who were classified into groups based on self-reported job title and RN specialty-certification status. Data sources included College of Nurses of Ontario registration database and survey data. The study measures were the Nursing Work Index, a 4-item measure of job satisfaction, and 1-item measure of intent to leave current job. Nurses registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario were tracked over the study period to identify changes in their employment status with comparisons made between nurses employed in specialist roles and those

  14. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Municipal Wastewater and the Marine Receiving Environment Near Victoria Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Krogh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP within the environment have been growing with the advent of more precise analytical methods. The discharge of municipal wastewater has been identified as a significant source of these contaminants, particularly where wastewater treatment is minimal. Here we present results from a comprehensive monitoring regime located around Victoria, BC, Canada. Samples were collected between 2009 and 2016 from a variety of sources including marine water, sediment and biota adjacent to two major untreated sewage outfalls, as well as the sewage itself. PPCP concentrations within the untreated sewage were high, and the sediment surrounding the outfalls showed corresponding contamination. However, this contamination dropped quickly with distance from the outfall such that by 800 m distance most PPCPs were below detection limits. Tissue samples of resident Northern Horse mussels (Modiolus modiolus collected adjacent to one of the major sewage outfalls showed high single sample concentrations of the antimicrobial triclosan (317 ng g−1 dry weight, the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (176 ng g−1 dry weight, as well as the antidepressant sertraline (84.1 ng g−1 dry weight. Reference stations from around the region showed very low concentrations of contamination with almost all PPCP concentrations being below detection limits. Within the sewage, concentrations were largely stable overtime, with the exception of triclosan and triclocarban which both showed declines over the study period.

  15. The Oslo consensus conference on protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Strand, P.

    2004-01-01

    A number of international organisations are focussing on a revision of radiation protection policy from the existing system which addresses only effects on man, to one which also addresses effects on the wider environment. These developments are expected to effect a wide range of stakeholders, including industry, regulators, scientists, users and the public. With this in mind a 'Consensus Conference on Protection of the Environment' was arranged as part of an International Seminar on 'Radiation Protection in the 21st Century: Ethical, Philosophical and Environmental Issues' held at the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. The conference attracted 46 international experts representing various disciplines and affiliations including Environmental Science, Health Physics, Radioecology, Ethics and Philosophy and a wide spectrum of perspectives bearing on the question of radiation protection of the environment. The conference was novel in that the participants were professionals rather than laypersons, and the purpose of the consensus procedure was to identify areas of agreement as an input to the ongoing regulatory developments. The success and innovation of the model is reflected in the significant areas of agreement identified in the final consensus statement, and the subsequent interest at an international level. Participants also noted the need for furthering the debate through ongoing work. Notable issues were the harmonisation of standards for radiation with other environmental stressors, guidance for balancing different interests and values within practical management, and the need for assessment criteria

  16. Using the 'protective environment' framework to analyse children's protection needs in Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Boothby, Neil; Bremer, Megan

    2009-10-01

    A major humanitarian concern during the continuing crisis in Darfur, Sudan, has been the protection of children, although there has been little in the way of comprehensive analysis to guide intervention. Founded on a situational analysis conducted between October 2005 and March 2006, this paper documents the significant threats to children's well-being directly linked to the political conflict. It demonstrates the role of non-conflict factors in exacerbating these dangers and in promoting additional protection violations, and it uses the 'protective environment' framework (UNICEF Sudan, 2006a) to identify systematic features of the current environment that put children at risk. This framework is shown to provide a coherent basis for assessment and planning, prompting broad, multidisciplinary analysis, concentrating on preventive and protective action, and fostering a systemic approach (rather than placing an undue focus on the discrete needs of 'vulnerable groups'). Constraints on its present utility in emergency settings are also noted.

  17. Quality assurance in radiological protection in a Hospital environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Castaneda, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the application of Quality Assurance criteria in the protection against radiation in a hospital environment. A description is made of the radiation protection manual and of the General procedures. Details are given of how these were elaborated, revised, approved and distributed under control, and the need is stressed for all affected areas to participate. Finally and analysis is made of the current situation and the intrinsic difficulties involved in the application of these concepts in a hospital. (author)

  18. Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978, No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to make provision for protecting the health and safety of the people of Australia, and the environment from possible harmful effects associated with nuclear activities. The competent Federal Minister, after consultation with the appropriate Minister of each State, may from time to time arrange for the formulation of codes of practice for regulating and controlling nuclear activities. Also, the Governor-General may authorize by order a Minister to take such action as is necessary to control and eliminate hazards to the health and safety of persons, or the environment, resulting from a nuclear activity. (NEA) [fr

  19. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Janis; Jardine, Cynthia G; Guebert, Jenilee; Bubela, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK). Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Review. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.

  20. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Geary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK. Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. Objective. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Design. Review. Results. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Conclusions. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.

  1. Contribution to developing the environment radiation protection methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A. [Institute of Atomic Power Engineering NRNU MEPhI (Russian Federation); Alexakhin, R.; Dubynina, M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The environment sustainable development and biota protection, including the environment radiation protection are issues of nowadays interest in the society. An activity is ongoing on the development of a system of radiation protection for non-human biota. Anthropocentric and eco-centric principles are widely discussed. ICRP Publications 103, 108, 114 and many other reports and articles refer to the topic of environmental protection, reference animals and plants set, corresponding transfer parameters, dose models and derived consideration reference levels. There is still an open field for discussion of methods and approaches to get well-established procedure to assess environmental risks of radiation impacts to different organisms, populations and ecosystems. A huge work has been done by the ICRP and other organizations and research groups to develop and systematize approaches for this difficult subject. This activity, however, is not everywhere well-known and perceived, and more efforts are needed to bring ideas of eco-centric strategy in the environment radiation protection not only to public but to specialists in many countries as well. One of the main points of interest is an assessment of critical doses and doses rates for flora and fauna species. Some aspects of a possible procedure to find their estimates are studied in this work, including criteria for datasets of good quality, models of dose dependence, sensitivity of different umbrella endpoints and methods of original massive datasets treatment. Estimates are done based on information gathered in a database on radiation-induced effects in plants. Data on biological effects in plants (umbrella endpoints of reproductive potential, survival, morbidity, morphological, biochemical, and genetic effects) in dependence on dose and dose rates of ionizing radiation have been collected from reviewed publications and maintained in MS Access format. The database now contains about 7000 datasets and 25000 records

  2. Protection of environment, health and safety using risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, G [Ghafari Associates, Inc. 17101 Michegan Avenue Dearborn, MI 48126-2736 (United States); Kummler, R H [Department of Chemical engineering Wayne Stae University Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); louvar, J [Research Services Basf Corporation Wyandotte, MI 48192 (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Section 304 of the 1990 clean air amendments (CAAA) directed the US occupational safety and health administration (OSFA) to develop a chemical process safety standard to protect workers on-site from accidents involving hazardous substances. OSHA issued 29 CFR 1910.119, process safety management of Highly hazardous chemicals (PSM) in 1992. Section 112 r of the CAAA further mandated that a standard be developed to protect the environment from accidental releases of hazardous substances. The US environmental protection agency (EPA) proposed such a standard in 1993 (58 Fr 54190) and revised their proposal in 1995). The final rule for risk management and accidental release prevention is more comprehensive and extensive than OSHA`s PSM standard. In this paper we will discuss the concepts of both programs, the classes of substances that would trigger a facility`s need for compliance and review the regulations for risk management.

  3. Protection of environment, health and safety using risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, G.; Kummler, R.H.; louvar, J.

    1996-01-01

    Section 304 of the 1990 clean air amendments (CAAA) directed the US occupational safety and health administration (OSFA) to develop a chemical process safety standard to protect workers on-site from accidents involving hazardous substances. OSHA issued 29 CFR 1910.119, process safety management of Highly hazardous chemicals (PSM) in 1992. Section 112 r of the CAAA further mandated that a standard be developed to protect the environment from accidental releases of hazardous substances. The US environmental protection agency (EPA) proposed such a standard in 1993 (58 Fr 54190) and revised their proposal in 1995). The final rule for risk management and accidental release prevention is more comprehensive and extensive than OSHA's PSM standard. In this paper we will discuss the concepts of both programs, the classes of substances that would trigger a facility's need for compliance and review the regulations for risk management

  4. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  5. Protection of the natural environment - philosophy and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Sundell-Bergman, S.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear operations give rise to small releases of radionuclides to the environment either under controlled conditions (immediate releases) or uncontrolled from waste repositories in the near or far future (delayed releases). The radiation doses to man from the discharges can be estimated using radioecological and dispersion modelling methods. The system for limiting exposure of individual members of the public is currently based on the recommendation by the ICRP. Their risk philosophy, which stems from the fact that the probability of cancer resulting from radiation will be linear with dose, has hitherto gained broad acceptances for setting authorised dose-limits for man. A discussion has recently emerged on the protection of the natural environment from harmful radiation effects. In this case there is concern for the viability of the population rather than the individuals. As our understanding of important mechanisms regarding the protection of the environment is limited it seems appropriate to adopt a precautionary approach. In matters where little is known about the risks the precautionary principle has a major role to play. Concomitantly, the best available technology (BAT), as stated in the precautionary principle, could be employed to minimise discharges of radionuclides. The development of a regulatory frame-work requires that an objective is set and that standards and indicators are derived in a multi-tiered approach. By applying the precautionary principle for environmental radiation protection the safety margins have to increase. However improving knowledge may in due time lead to more rational decision-making

  6. [Correlation between legal protection of the environment and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, Guglielmo; Rinaldi, Alessandro; D'Andrea, Elvira; Lucchetti, Pietro; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; d'Alessandro, Eugenia De Luca

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is a priority of our time and planning and the evaluation of health and hygiene should be directed towards strategies to improve the well-being and lifestyles of the community. At the legislative level in Italy, the Ministry of Health, was established in 1958 with the task of providing for the collective health of the whole nation and in 1978, with Law 833, the National Health Service (NHS) was created which secured assistance and healthcare to all Italian citizens. The most important component of the entire health system is the Local Health Unit (USL) which has responsibility for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and highlights the importance of safeguarding the health, hygiene and safely at home and at work and the "hygiene of urban settlements and communities", ie environmental protection. One of the reasons for the delays in the promotion of environmental protection initiatives in Italy is to be found in the referendums of 1993, including the one which removed the tasks regarding environmental controls from the NHS. The temporary skills gap in the environmental field was filled with the 'National Agency for Environmental Protection (ANPA), which later became the Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), and the regional level, the Regional Agencies Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA). Law 61/21 January 1994 joined the ARPA to the National Institute for Environmental Research and Protection (ISPRA). It is now necessary to implement a program that takes account of the damage caused to the environment and consequently the individual, which is totally committed the combination of the environment and human health and not, as in the recent past, as two distinct entities. In this sense, it is of fundamental importance the role of prevention departments to promote the organization networking and of individual companies' and individuals' skills, in fact. The integration of planning processes, environmental monitoring

  7. International news about radiation protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2016-01-01

    The new European Basic Safety Standards in Radiation Protection (2013/59/Euratom) introduce 'environmental criteria' to protect human health in the long term. This innovation results from work in progress and from the recent positioning of international organizations and authorities in charge of radiation protection and its implementation, regarding the protection of wildlife against ionizing radiation. On the basis of the international state of the art, from the current regulatory context to existing approaches, the ERICA method has been identified as fully consistent with the ICRP approach and the most operational at the moment, due to its richness, flexibility and traceability. Most of the radiological risk assessments for wildlife published in the 5 last years used part or all of the ERICA approach, generally screening the radiological risk for wildlife from the first stage of the assessment, except for a few areas among those most impacted by radioactive contamination (Chernobyl area, uranium mining sites in Central Asia, etc.). This update of the knowledge in the field at the international level and the feedback on the analysis of regulatory files presented by nuclear operators led to 10 recommendations from the IRSN on the radiation protection of the environment and its implementation. (authors)

  8. About the training on radiation protection in health environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Armas, J.

    2007-01-01

    Paper education on Radiation Protection in health environments is essential to optimise the use of radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The continuous increment in the number of available radiation emitting equipment in health environments and the generalisation of procedures, which imply important radiation exposures to patients, are expected to increase the overall doses to patients. A consequence of this will be the increment of harmful effects, especially, radiation induced cancer. General concern towards this respect has produced a generalisation of the requirements considered to be needed in a proper Radiation Protection education. Norms have been created for this purpose at both national and European level. here, the European and Spanish norms are reviewed. the applications of these norms are, also reviewed. Furthermore, the objectives of various platforms and European projects, aimed at improving the formation of health personnel on Radiation Protection, are presented. A conclusion of the review is that there exist significant differences in the syllabuses proposed for various professionals at different levels. Moreover, all the legislation collected in the norms has not been implemented in common practice. (Author) 24 refs

  9. Issues around radiological protection of the environment and its integration with protection of humans: promoting debate on the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownless, G P

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores issues to consider around integrating direct, explicit protection of the environment into the current system of radiological protection, which is focused on the protection of humans. Many issues around environmental radiological protection have been discussed, and ready-to-use toolboxes have been constructed for assessing harm to non-human biota, but it is not clear how (or even if) these should be fitted into the current system of protection. Starting from the position that the current approach to protecting the environment (namely that it follows from adequately protecting humans) is generally effective, this paper considers how explicit radiological protection of the environment can be integrated with the current system, through developing a 'worked example' of how this could be done and highlighting issues peculiar to protection of the environment. The aim of the paper is to promote debate on this topic, with the ultimate aim of ensuring that any changes to the system are consensual and robust

  10. Integrated site investigation procedure for environment protection toward sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, R C; Roslan, R; Baharuddin, I N Z

    2013-01-01

    The spatial configuration of cities and their relationship to the urban environment has recently been the subject of empirical, theoretical and policy research. An awareness of environmental issues can assist policy makers, planners, developers and others to recognize the constraints imposed upon development due the physical environment especially in areas, which are susceptible to erosion, flooding and landslide. This paper highlights the key requirements for considering an assessment to protect our urban environment by incorporating three main factor i.e. policy practice, planning process and engineering investigation. Base on this three main factor the framework of the assessment is carried out. The assessment can be divided into three different categories, namely as investigation for planning, investigation for urban development and specialized investigation and mitigation. The minimum requirements for the planning and urban development investigation are listed. These guidelines suggest the level at which the various types of investigation should be carried out as well as the range of application, the scope and methodology to be used for different investigation. It is hoped that this procedure will provide guidance in the establishment and protection of urban ecosystem toward sustainable development.

  11. Competent person for radiation protection. Practical radiation protection for base nuclear installations and installations classified for the environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, A.; Perez, S.; Videcoq, J.; Ammerich, M.

    2008-01-01

    This book corresponds to the practical module devoted to the base nuclear installations and to the installations classified for the environment protection, that is to say the permanent nuclear installations susceptible to present risks for the public, environment or workers. Complied with the legislation that stipulates this module must allow to apply the acquired theoretical training to practical situations of work, it includes seven chapters as follow: generalities on access conditions in regulated areas of nuclear installation,s or installations classified for environment protection and clothing against contamination; use of control devices and management of damaged situations; methodology of working place studies, completed by the application to a real case of a study on an intervention on a containment wall; a part entitled 'take stock of the situation' ends every chapter and proposes to the reader to check its understanding and acquisition of treated knowledge. (N.C.)

  12. Étendre la protection de la loi aux populations à risque au Canada ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 juil. 2016 ... La juge en chef de la Cour suprême du Canada, la très honorable Beverley McLachlin, le procureur général de la Sierra Leone, l'honorable Joseph Kamara, et la correspondante parlementaire pour le réseau CBC, Alison Crawford, se sont joints au CRDI le 16 juin 2016 pour discuter des obstacles qui ...

  13. Strategies for the protection of the environment from other hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffing, K.

    2002-01-01

    Strategies for the protection of the environment from radiological hazards may benefit from a consideration of risk management strategies applied in other areas. This paper attempts to do that with respect to the way the OECD has addressed these issues. The paper briefly describes the approach developed within the OECD on harmonization and common approaches to chemicals risk management, related work by the Organisation on major industrial accidents and natural disasters, and places the relationship of chemical and radiological risk management in the context of the OECD Environmental Strategy for the First Decade of the Twenty-first Century. (author)

  14. Space Ethics and Protection of the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The construction of the International Space Station in low Earth orbit and the formulation of plans to search for life on Mars - one day by means of manned missions - indicate that mankind is intent on making the space environment part of its domain. Publicity surrounding space tourism, in-space `burials' and the sale of lunar `real estate' suggests that, some time in the 21st century, the space environment will become an extraterrestrial extension of our current business and domestic environment. This prompts the question of our collective attitude towards the space environment and the degree to which we should regulate its use and protect it for future generations. What, indeed, are the ethical considerations of space exploration and development? Ethics can be defined as "the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct, and of the rules or principles that ought to govern it". More practically, it represents "an approved code of behaviour" adopted, for example, by a group or profession. If a set of ethics is to be developed for space, it is important that what we refer to as the `space community', or `space profession', is intimately involved. Indeed, if it is not, the profession risks having the job done for it, for example by politicians and members of the general public, who for their own reasons may wish to place restrictions on space development, or ban it altogether. The terrestrial nuclear power industry, for example, has already suffered this fate, while widespread ignorance of the subject has led to a moratorium on the use of RTGs in spacecraft. However, there is a danger in the discussion of ethics that consideration is confined to the philosophical aspects, thus excusing those involved from providing practical solutions to the problems that emerge. The fact that mankind has already affected, and arguably damaged, the space environment transports the discussion beyond the philosophical realm. This paper offers a pragmatic analysis of one

  15. CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS VERSUS THE PROTECTION OF NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Hanna Szafranko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction investments are related to the economic development of each country. Expansion of towns and settlements, construction, industrial, commercial and recreational objects and the communication network is necessary and results from regional development strategies. For their implementation it is necessary to prepare the area designated for their development. In many regions of our country area suitable for construction are increasingly limited, and furthermore investors often looks for an attractive investment location. For this reason, more and more construction projects dangerously close to areas of high natural value and protected and often are entering the these areas. To minimize the negative investment impact on the environment there are developed several variants of investment. Next, assessing the positive and negative effects, we choose the best, from the point of view of the surrounding environment solution. To illustrate the procedure example of analysis using the method proposed by the author, the indicator is shown.

  16. Changing Climate, Challenging Choices: Identifying and Evaluating Climate Change Adaptation Options for Protected Areas Management in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Christopher J.; Scott, Daniel J.

    2011-10-01

    Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected area agency or organization. In this study, a panel of protected area experts applied a Policy Delphi methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation options across the primary management areas of a protected area agency in Canada. The panel identified and evaluated one hundred and sixty five (165) adaptation options for their perceived desirability and feasibility. While the results revealed a high level of agreement with respect to the desirability of adaptation options and a moderate level of capacity pertaining to policy formulation and management direction, a perception of low capacity for implementation in most other program areas was identified. A separate panel of senior park agency decision-makers used a multiple criterion decision-facilitation matrix to further evaluate the institutional feasibility of the 56 most desirable adaptation options identified by the initial expert panel and to prioritize them for consideration in a climate change action plan. Critically, only two of the 56 adaptation options evaluated by senior decision-makers were deemed definitely implementable, due largely to fiscal and internal capacity limitations. These challenges are common to protected area agencies in developed countries and pervade those in developing countries, revealing that limited adaptive capacity represents a substantive barrier to biodiversity conservation and other protected area management objectives in an era of rapid climate change.

  17. Saving energy and protecting environment of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-05-01

    With the concept of low carbon economy, saving energy, and protecting environment spread, the development of the electric promotes the research pace of wireless charging electronic vehicles, which will become the best choice of energy supply in the future. To generalize and exploit the corresponding alternative fuels and the research and development, and promotion of electric vehicles, becomes the effective means to directly reduce the consumption of fuel, effectively relieves the problem of nervous energy and environmental pollution, and really conforms to the requirements of the national strategy of sustainable development in China. This paper introduces the status of electronic cars and wireless charging, expounds the principle of wireless charging, and concludes the full text.

  18. Exploiting coalbed methane and protecting the global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuheng, Gao

    1996-12-31

    The global climate change caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission has received wide attention from all countries in the world. Global environmental protection as a common problem has confronted the human being. As a main component of coalbed methane, methane is an important factor influencing the production safety of coal mine and threatens the lives of miners. The recent research on environment science shows that methane is a very harmful GHG. Although methane gas has very little proportion in the GHGs emission and its stayed period is also very short, it has very obvious impact on the climate change. From the estimation, methane emission in the coal-mining process is only 10% of the total emission from human`s activities. As a clean energy, Methane has mature recovery technique before, during and after the process of mining. Thus, coalbed methane is the sole GHG generated in the human`s activities and being possible to be reclaimed and utilized. Compared with the global greenhouse effect of other GHGs emission abatement, coalbed methane emission abatement can be done in very low cost with many other benefits: (1) to protect global environment; (2) to improve obviously the safety of coal mine; and (3) to obtain a new kind of clean energy. Coal is the main energy in China, and coalbed contains very rich methane. According to the exploration result in recent years, about 30000{approximately}35000 billion m{sup 2} methane is contained in the coalbed below 2000 m in depth. China has formed a good development base in the field of reclamation and utilization of coalbed methane. The author hopes that wider international technical exchange and cooperation in the field will be carried out.

  19. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: IUR's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Brown, J. E.; Iospje, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sufficient information currently exists to introduce an overall framework for the protection of the environment from ionising radiation, drawing upon the large amount of radiobiological and radioecological information that has been gathered over the preceding decades. Nevertheless, there is a requirement to address numerous knowledge gaps and to improve upon existing databases. After the first presentation of a framework for the protection of the environment in 1999/2000 by the IUR, there has been activity to collate information and develop methodologies. This has allowed numerous recommendations to be made concerning future system development.. Although the transfer of radionuclides is quite well known within some food-chains, there are very few data on the behaviour of radionuclides in non-temperate zones and on uptake to species that do not form part of the human food chain. There is a need to develop both transfer models (flux, dynamic, ecosystem, etc.) and genotoxicological bio monitoring techniques that are capable of allowing impact assessments at a variety of species, population and ecosystem levels and that could also deal with other environmental stressors. Knowledge of the doses and effects of background radiation is lacking, as are dose-effect relationships, including information on RBE for a variety of species, doses and dose rates. The importance of various components of an environmental impact assessment can be explored, through the application of sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. An example of this type of analysis, for a marine system, demonstrated the importance of several radioecological parameters in the derivation of dose rates. However, although such examples provide insight, caution should be practiced in their interpretation. It is therefore suggested that further analyses are conducted in order to provide more robust priority lists for resource allocation. The recommendations made in this paper emphasize the need for further focussed

  20. Fracture lines: will Canada's water be protected in the rush to develop shale gas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfitt, Ben [Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    By combining hydraulic fracking with horizontal drilling, the gas industry has been able to unlock significant amounts of natural gas trapped inside deep and densely packed shale rock. The exploitation of shale gas has been a remarkable revolution in the last decade, going from hardly any production in 2000 to 20% of the United States' gas production in 2010. This cheap and abundant resource has been referred to as a game changer by North American industries and governments. However concerns about water usage and groundwater contamination have been raised. Indeed, the shale gas industry is responsible for the contamination of about 1,000 water wells and has been criticized for its important water withdrawals. This report intends to present the effects of shale gas production on the water supplies in Canada. It reviews the state of groundwater mapping in shale rich regions and reviews regulatory frameworks to determine if they are sufficient to protect water resources.

  1. Environmental radiation protection of non-human vertebrate species: considerations for environmental monitoring and assessment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The risk to non-human species from activities associated with the nuclear fuel waste cycle is coming under increased scrutiny from the public and regulators. In the past, protection of the environment was assumed to be an outcome of the protection of humans living in the same area. Thus it was assumed that if nuclides were maintained at low enough levels in water, air and soil to protect humans, then plants and animals inhabiting the same area would be protected. This approach of relying on humans as a sensitive indicator implicitly protects all species, at least at the population level. To adequately predict exposure and response in wild communities requires a detailed knowledge of the ecosystem under study and a method of predicting both the transfer of nuclides to individual species and the consequence of exposure. Detailed environmental, or ecological, risk estimation requires information on the normal levels of radiation and general physiological stress in the exposed group, an estimate of the additional radiation exposure from all pathways and a prediction of the consequences of the total exposure. The purpose of this paper is to review these requirements in the context of ecological radiation protection in the Canadian environment using examples of birds and mammals from the Canadian shield. Our goal is to develop methods which provide better estimates of potential risk to wild animals

  2. Energy, entropy, environment: Why is protection of the environment objectively difficult?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebane, Karl K [Institute of Physics, Tartu (Estonia)

    1995-05-01

    Evolution and man`s history indicate that the winners are the species and societies that act faster and consume more high-quality energy and materials: in other words, those which cause more pollution and faster growth of entropy. This could be the reason why protection of the environment is objectively difficult and, in particular, why it is almost impossible to considerably reduce man`s consumption of energy and materials in a world of competition. To escape this fatal evolutionary outcome, fundamentally new thinking is needed, thinking which takes the survival of mankind as the primary value. The role of religion in solving this tremendously difficult task should not be neglected

  3. Review of the knowledge available to date on the effects of tritium exposure on health and the environment in Canada - a tool to guide regulatory compliance monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Hamlat, M.S.; Lane, R.; Mihok, S.; Reinhardt, P.; Bundy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of tritium in CANDU (Canadian Deuterium-Uranium) reactors, in industry to produce self-luminescent lights and paints, in oil and gas exploration, in hospitals for diagnostic tests and radio-therapeutics, and in research makes the control of tritium releases generated by these activities particularly important in Canada. Releases are regulated and carefully monitored by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). Some special interest and citizen groups, however, claim that the scientific uncertainty regarding the effects of tritium on health and on the environment is such that regulation of the facilities releasing or using tritium may be inadequate. In response to these concerns, the CNSC asked its staff to initiate the 'Tritium Studies' project. As part of the project, the environmental fate of tritium and its health effects were studied through direct field measurements and the review of the latest scientific literature on the subject. The project made it possible to conclude that the tritium radiation protection measures and regulatory mechanisms are adequate in protecting the health and safety of Canadians. (authors)

  4. Enacted Stigma, Mental Health, and Protective Factors Among Transgender Youth in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F.; Peter, Tracey; Travers, Robb; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: We aimed to assess the Minority Stress Model which proposes that the stress of experiencing stigma leads to adverse mental health outcomes, but social supports (e.g., school and family connectedness) will reduce this negative effect. Methods: We measured stigma-related experiences, social supports, and mental health (self-injury, suicide, depression, and anxiety) among a sample of 923 Canadian transgender 14- to 25-year-old adolescents and young adults using a bilingual online survey. Logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the relationship between these risk and protective factors and dichotomous mental health outcomes among two separate age groups, 14- to 18-year-old and 19- to 25-year-old participants. Results: Experiences of discrimination, harassment, and violence (enacted stigma) were positively related to mental health problems and social support was negatively associated with mental health problems in all models among both age groups. Among 14–18 year olds, we examined school connectedness, family connectedness, and perception of friends caring separately, and family connectedness was always the strongest protective predictor in multivariate models. In all the mental health outcomes we examined, transgender youth reporting low levels of enacted stigma experiences and high levels of protective factors tended to report favorable mental health outcomes. Conversely, the majority of participants reporting high levels of enacted stigma and low levels of protective factors reported adverse mental health outcomes. Conclusion: While these findings are limited by nonprobability sampling procedures and potential additional unmeasured risk and protective factors, the results provide positive evidence for the Minority Stress Model in this population and affirm the need for policies and programs to support schools and families to support transgender youth. PMID:29279875

  5. Mental Health and Hospital Chaplaincy: Strategies of Self-Protection (Case Study: Toronto, Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Kianpour, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This is a study about emotion management among a category of healthcare professional – hospital chaplains – who have hardly been the subject of sociological research about emotions. The aim of the study was to understand how chaplains manage their work-related emotions in order to protect their mental health, whilst also providing spiritual care. Methods: Using in-depth, semi structured interviews, the author spoke with 21 chaplains from five faith traditions (Christianity, Islam, ...

  6. Australia's proactive approach to radiation protection of the environment: how integrated is it with radiation protection of humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, G A; Grzechnik, M; Tinker, R; Larsson, C M

    2018-01-01

    Australia's regulatory framework has evolved over the past decade from the assumption that protection of humans implies protection of the environment to the situation now where radiological impacts on non-human species (wildlife) are considered in their own right. In an Australian context, there was a recognised need for specific national guidance on protection of non-human species, for which the uranium mining industry provides the major backdrop. National guidance supported by publications of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (Radiation Protection Series) provides clear and consistent advice to operators and regulators on protection of non-human species, including advice on specific assessment methods and models, and how these might be applied in an Australian context. These approaches and the supporting assessment tools provide a mechanism for industry to assess and demonstrate compliance with the environmental protection objectives of relevant legislation, and to meet stakeholder expectations that radiological protection of the environment is taken into consideration in accordance with international best practice. Experiences from the past 5-10 years, and examples of where the approach to radiation protection of the environment has been well integrated or presented some challenges will be discussed. Future challenges in addressing protection of the environment in existing exposure situations will also be discussed.

  7. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  8. Authentication Method for Privacy Protection in Smart Grid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Eun Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the interest in green energy is increasing as a means to resolve problems including the exhaustion of the energy source and, effective management of energy through the convergence of various fields. Therefore, the projects of smart grid which is called intelligent electrical grid for the accomplishment of low carbon green growth are being carried out in a rush. However, as the IT is centered upon the electrical grid, the shortage of IT also appears in smart grid and the complexity of convergence is aggravating the problem. Also, various personal information and payment information within the smart grid are gradually becoming big data and target for external invasion and attack; thus, there is increase in concerns for this matter. The purpose of this study is to analyze the security vulnerabilities and security requirement within smart grid and the authentication and access control method for privacy protection within home network. Therefore, we propose a secure access authentication and remote control method for user’s home device within home network environment, and we present their security analysis. The proposed access authentication method blocks the unauthorized external access and enables secure remote access to home network and its devices with a secure message authentication protocol.

  9. An Intervention To Enhance the Food Environment in Public Recreation and Sport Settings: A Natural Experiment in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Olstad, Dana Lee; Therrien, Suzanne

    2015-08-01

    Publicly funded recreation and sports facilities provide children with access to affordable physical activities, although they often have unhealthy food environments that may increase child obesity risk. This study evaluated the impact of a capacity-building intervention (Healthy Food and Beverage Sales; HFBS) on organizational capacity for providing healthy food environments, health of vending machine products, and food policy development in recreation and sport facilities in British Columbia, Canada. Twenty-one HFBS communities received training, resources, and technical support to improve their food environment over 8 months in 2009-2010, whereas 23 comparison communities did not. Communities self-reported organizational capacity, food policies, and audited vending machine products at baseline and follow-up. Repeated-measures analysis of variance evaluated intervention impact. Intervention and comparison communities reported higher organizational capacity at follow-up; however, improvements were greater in HFBS communities (pfood policy, whereas 48% reported one at follow-up. No comparison communities had food policies. This is the first large, controlled study to examine the impact of an intervention to improve recreation and sport facility food environments. HFBS communities increased their self-rated capacity to provide healthy foods, healthy vending product offerings, and food policies to a greater extent than comparison communities. Recreation and sport settings are a priority setting for supporting healthy dietary behaviors among children.

  10. Research on Green Manufacturing Innovation Based on Resource Environment Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Xu

    2017-11-01

    Green manufacturing is a trend of manufacturing industry in the future, and is of great significance to resource protection and environmental protection. This paper first studies the green manufacturing innovation system, and then decomposes the green manufacturing innovation dimensions, and constructs the green manufacturing innovation dimension space. Finally, from the view of resource protection and environmental protection, this paper explores the path of green manufacturing innovation.

  11. Radiation protection for humans and environment. 50 years competence in the professional association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, Benno; Wilhelm, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The conference proceedings of the IRPA (International radiation protection association) annual meeting 2016 contain the contribution of invited referents, other contributions and poster contributions concerning radiation protection in nuclear facilities, radiation protection of the public and environment, radioactive waste management, uranium mining, environmental monitoring, natural radioactivity, and radiation protection laws and regulations.

  12. Response to Environment Canada's framework for discussion on the environment. A summary of issues for input into The Green Plan: A national challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    A framework for discussion was published by the Canadian government in order to initiate discussion and encourage cooperative problem solving with respect to major environmental issues facing the country. A response to this framework for discussion from the Canadian Petroleum Association is provided, incorporating views and concerns expressed by the Association's member companies who collectively account for about 2/3 of all upstream petroleum industry spending in Canada. Key issues that most affect the upstream petroleum industry are discussed in the areas of sustainable development, consultation with all parties involved, balancing of economic and environmental costs, legislation and regulation, compliance and accountability, economic policy instruments, research and communication, strengthening of partnerships in environmental management, waste management and recycling, global warming, water pollution, Arctic environmental protection, environmental emergencies, parks, and wildlife. Detailed responses to issues are then presented. The Association's environmental program and its environmental code of practice are appended

  13. Protecting Human Health in a Changing Environment: 2018 Summer Enrichment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Research Triangle Park, NC is offering a free 1-week Summer Enrichment Program to educate students about how the Agency protects human health and the environment.

  14. Search 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): Protection of the Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Title 40 is the section of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) that deals with EPA's mission of protecting human health and the environment. This web page provides...

  15. Gas geochemistry studies at the gas hydrate occurrence in the permafrost environment of Mallik (NWT, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersberg, T.; Erzinger, J.; Zimmer, M.; Schicks, J.; Dahms, E.; Mallik Working Group

    2003-04-01

    We present real-time mud gas monitoring data as well as results of noble gas and isotope investigations from the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program, an international research project on Gas Hydrates in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The program participants include 8 partners; The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), The Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC), GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), United States Geological Survey (USGS), United States Department of the Energy (USDOE), India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)/Gas Authority of India (GAIL) and the Chevron-BP-Burlington joint venture group. Mud gas monitoring (extraction of gas dissolved in the drill mud followed by real-time analysis) revealed more or less complete gas depth profiles of Mallik 4L-38 and Mallik 5L-38 wells for N_2, O_2, Ar, He, CO_2, H_2, CH_4, C_2H_6, C_3H_8, C_4H10, and 222Rn; both wells are approx. 1150 m deep. Based on the molecular and and isotopic composition, hydrocarbons occurring at shallow depth (down to ˜400 m) are mostly of microbial origin. Below 400 m, the gas wetness parameter (CH_4/(C_2H_6 + C_3H_8)) and isotopes indicate mixing with thermogenic gas. Gas accumulation at the base of permafrost (˜650 m) as well as δ13C and helium isotopic data implies that the permafrost inhibits gas flux from below. Gas hydrate occurrence at Mallik is known in a depth between ˜890 m and 1100 m. The upper section of the hydrate bearing zone (890 m--920 m) consists predominantly of methane bearing gas hydrates. Between 920 m and 1050 m, concentration of C_2H_6, C_3H_8, and C_4H10 increases due to the occurrence of organic rich sediment layers. Below that interval, the gas composition is similar to the upper section of the hydrate zone. At the base of the hydrate bearing zone (˜1100 m), elevated helium and methane concentrations and their isotopic composition leads to the assumption that gas hydrates act as a barrier for gas migration from below. In mud gas

  16. Memories from the frontline : One unforgettable experience of a child protection social worker in northern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Manolis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, a critical incident involving an experienced child protection social worker and a First Nation family is deconstructed utilizing Jan Fook’s Critical Reflection Technique (2002. This deconstruction process investigates the issues of professional boundaries, revictimization, vicarious trauma, power and oppression and the ideas surrounding what a “real” and “good” social worker is. Through the reconstruction process, it is discovered that the assumptions underlying these issues are not helpful, and in fact are harmful to both the social worker’s sense of self as well as to social work practice. A discussion on how to avoid succumbing to the assumptions and expectations is then generated as a means to encourage professional practice without fear. Lastly, a strength-based perspective will be utilized to demonstrate how theory was operationalized with this First Nation family.

  17. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment.

  18. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment

  19. The protection and the preservation of the environment the Brazilian nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Goes Fischer, M.D. de; Rocha, L.M.G. da; NUCLEBRAS, Rio de Janeiro; Associacao Brasileira de Direito Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro)

    1981-01-01

    A set of Brazilian rules governing the protection and the preservation of the environment in relation to nuclear activities is presented. The role of CNEN, as an institution that defends the environment is also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  20. The Impact of Environmental Design on Doffing Personal Protective Equipment in a Healthcare Environment: A Formative Human Factors Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hall, Trevor N T

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of environmental design on doffing personal protective equipment in a simulated healthcare environment. METHODS A mixed-methods approach was used that included human-factors usability testing and qualitative questionnaire responses. A patient room and connecting anteroom were constructed for testing purposes. This experimental doffing area was designed to overcome the environmental failures identified in a previous study and was not constructed based on any generalizable hospital standard. RESULTS In total, 72 healthcare workers from Ontario, Canada, took part in the study and tested the simulated doffing area. The following environmental design changes were tested and were deemed effective: increasing prominence of color-coded zones; securing disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer; outlining disposal bins locations; providing mirrors to detect possible contamination; providing hand rails to assist with doffing; and restricting the space to doff. Further experimentation and iterative design are required with regard to several important features: positioning the disposal bins for safety, decreasing the risk of contamination and user accessibility; optimal positioning of mirrors for safety; communication within the team; and positioning the secondary team member for optimal awareness. Additional design suggestions also emerged during this study, and they require future investigation. CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of the environment on doffing personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting. Iterative testing and modification of the design of the environment (doffing area) are important to enhancing healthcare worker safety. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:712-717.

  1. Communication strengths and weaknesses of radiation protection professionals in the United States and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H.; Petcovic, W.L.; Alexander, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Effective health risk communication may well determine the future of peaceful applications of nuclear technology and the social acceptance of risks from radiation in medicine, research, and industry. However, radiation protection professionals who know how to quantify risks and provide appropriate safeguards have historically encountered great difficulties in communicating their risk perspectives to the concerned public. In the United States, organisations such as the Health Physics Society and the American Nuclear Society have traditionally attributed communication difficulties to the public's lack of technical understanding. This has led to the belief that if the public could be provided sufficient information or education, they would understand radiation issues and their concerns about radiation risks would be resolved. Consequently, these national organisations have established public information programs and speaker bureaus. These programs primarily focus on presentation of technically accurate data and attempt to foster understanding of radiation by analogies with background radiation or other sources of risks commonly accepted by society. This paper shows that such public information programs can at their best reach only about 25% of the general public. These programs could greatly enhance their effectiveness by learning the different ways that radiation professionals and the general public prefer to gather data and make decisions

  2. Stigma associated with sexually transmissible infection testing in an online testing environment: examining the perspectives of youth in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy M; Gilbert, Mark; Shoveller, Jean

    2018-02-01

    Background Online sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing is increasingly available and has shown promising results across different settings. However, evidence on how stigma associated with STI testing may be experienced by youth in the context of these online services is limited. A convenience sample of 71 youth (aged 15-24 years) both male and female was engaged through online and offline recruitment strategies in Vancouver, Canada. Through semistructured and exploratory interviews, participants were asked about their perceptions of stigma associated with STI testing in an online testing environment. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Youth came from a diverse set of sociodemographic backgrounds and most (n=46, 65%) had previously accessed STI testing in clinic-based settings. Participants' perceptions pointed to the benefits of online testing for reducing the external stigma despite the potential persistence of internalised stigma. Notions of hegemonic masculinity and emphasised femininity were also present in the participants' descriptions of the role of gender in accessing online STI testing. Online STI testing could potentially ameliorate the experiences of participants in regards to the stigma associated with STI testing; however, participants' internalised feelings of shame and stigma around testing for STI may continue to persist. Our findings underscore the need to revisit and re-evaluate existing STI testing services to provide less anxiety-inducing testing environments for youth.

  3. A perspective on the ICRP approach to Radiation protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    The ICRP, in response to concerns by the environmental community, has begun the process of addressing radiation protection of non-human species. Concerns have been raised that the current framework for radiation protection fails to adequately protect the environment. Although most everyone agrees that some change to the ICRP radiation protection framework is called for, the extent of the revision is debatable. In May 2000, the ICRP set up a Task Group to provide advice on the development of a policy for the protection of the environment and to suggest a framework for environmental protection based on scientific, ethical, and philosophical principles. Based on Task Group input, ICRP intends to develop a framework for protection of the environment that can be integrated into an overall system of protection. This paper explores four major issues that serve to identify questions that ICRP should consider in its 2005 recommendations regarding radiation protection of the environment: (1) the role of ICRP, (2) defining the environment and criteria for protection, (3) the framework for environmental protection, and (4) risk management. (author)

  4. International Experiences with Economic Incentives for Protecting the Environment (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2001 report finds that over the last 20 years, and particularly during the past decade, economic incentives have been increasingly used to control pollution and improve environmental and health protection.

  5. Individual protection equipments in nuclear environment: irradiation time influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.

    1994-09-01

    This study allowed to show that influence evaluation of diverse protection suits on the intervention times was undissociable of ergonomical characteristics of the tasks to be done. 15 tabs., 3 figs., 9 appendixes

  6. Radiological protection of the environment from the Swedish point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Hubbard, Lynn; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Sundell-Bergman, Synnoeve

    2002-01-01

    The current system of radiological protection is aimed at protecting human health, and largely neglects both the effects of radiation on the environment and the managerial aspects of environmental protection. The Swedish Radiation Protection Act was revised in 1988 and includes environmental protection as one of its aims. In practice, little guidance had been given in the regulations based on the Act until 1998, when the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) formulated environmental aims in its regulations concerning protection of human health and the environment in connection to the final management of spent nuclear fuel and waste. These regulations focus on protection of biodiversity and biological resources, based on ecosystem characterisation. In a broader perspective, the Swedish Parliament established 15 national environmental quality objectives in 1999, covering all aspects of protecting the environment, including the effects of radiation. This paper reviews the background for radiological protection of the environment from both an international and a Swedish perspective, describing the aims and current activities in establishing a system for assessing environmental effects and their consequences that can be used in decision-making. Such activities are largely a result of the European Union research project FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact), carried out under the 5th Framework Programme of the Union. This work is complemented at the Swedish national level by government support to initiate a national environmental monitoring and assessment programme for characterising the radiation environment, which will provide the foundation for decision-making. (review)

  7. PREFACE: Ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments: proceedings from the 2010 IODP-Canada/ECORD summer school

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Solignac, Sandrine

    2011-05-01

    IODP logoECORD logo The European Consortium for Ocean Drilling Program (ECORD), the Canadian Consortium for Ocean Drilling (CCOD), the Network of the Universités du Québec (UQ), the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) and GEOTOP sponsored, in 2010, a summer school entitled 'Ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments'. This summer school took place from 27 June to 12 July in Rimouski, Québec city and Montréal (Quebec, Canada) and was attended by nineteen students and postdoctoral fellows from seven countries: Canada, France, Germany, UK, Serbia, Portugal and the USA. Lectures, hands-on laboratory exercises and laboratory visits were conducted at the Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Centre Eau Terre Environnement (INRS-ETE) and UQAM, in addition to two field trips and a short geological and geophysical cruise on board the R/V Coriolis II in the St Lawrence Estuary and Saguenay Fjord. During the summer school, more than twenty researchers gave lectures on the use of several paleoceanographic and geophysical techniques to reconstruct ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments. Some of these lectures are presented as short review papers in this volume. They are intended to portray a brief, but state-of-the-art overview of an array of techniques applied to Arctic and sub-Arctic environments, as well as the geological background information needed by the summer school participants to put the scientific expedition and fieldwork into context. The volume begins with a view on the great challenges and key issues to be addressed in the Arctic Ocean (Stein) in the forthcoming years and is followed by a review (O'Regan) on Late Cenozoic paleoceanography of the Central Arctic. The two subsequent papers (St-Onge et al and de Vernal et al) deal with the oceanographic, paleoceanographic and geological context of the Saguenay Fjord, and St Lawrence Estuary and Gulf

  8. Protection of the ecological environment and management of natural resources

    OpenAIRE

    YE HELIN; DOU JUAN

    2014-01-01

    Humans live on the earth that features a diverse ecosystem. In this environment of human beings, nature plays the role of a nurturing mother role. Time may be in the continuation of progress from generation to generation, and the nature of other kinds of billions of biological species, would also be like humans, in constant evolution, in order to adapt to the dangerous natural environment. However, those natural resources are sharply disappearing and dying out because of humans’ voracity. In ...

  9. An insight into environmental laws in Canada | Jhansi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concern for the environment has been increasing around the world since the early 1980s. In the year 1987, the Brundtland report heightened awareness of the need for significant legislative and other changes. People in Canada are gradually becoming more aware of the urgent need to protect the environment. Canadians ...

  10. A common approach for radiological protection of humans and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.-E.

    2004-01-01

    Protection of the environment is developing rapidly at the national and international level, but there are still no internationally agreed recommendations as to how radiological protection of the environment should be carried out. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing its existing recommendations for human protection. It has set up a task group with the aim of developing a protection policy for, and suggesting a framework of, the protection of the environment that could feed into its recommendations at the start of the 21st century. The task group will propose a framework for the protection of the environment from harmful effects of radiation, harmonising with the principles for the protection of humans. Although the task group has not yet finalised on the objectives for the environment, these might be to safeguard the environment by preventing or reducing the frequency of effects likely to cause early mortality, reduced reproductive success, or the occurrence of scorable DNA damage in individual fauna and flora to a level where they would have a negligible impact on conservation of species, maintenance of biodiversity, or the health and status of natural habitats or communities. To achieve these objectives, a set of reference dose models, reference dose per unit intake and reference organisms will be required

  11. Ethical considerations in protecting the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is based on providing for the protection of humans. The current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) include the statement that t he standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk... . In the light of the new focus of concern for the environment, this statement is being critically reviewed in several international fora. The IAEA has, over many years, sponsored studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on species other than humans. Most recently it published a discussion report as IAEA-TECDOC-1091 (1999) in which the need for developing a system for protecting the environment against the effects of ionizing radiation was elaborated and in which various related technical and philosophical issues for resolution were discussed. The current report explores the ethical principles that could underlie a system of environmental protection. It is intended as one step in the development of a framework for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, and is being published in order to promote awareness of the current developments in this field as well as to encourage discussion amongst those involved

  12. Uranium speciation in the environment: study of opals from Nopal I (Mexico) and mill tailings from Gunnar (Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othmane, G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the processes of uranium migration and sequestration is an important issue for the prediction of radionuclide retardation in the vicinity of uranium mine tailings sites or for the safety assessment of potential high-level nuclear waste repositories. Uranium speciation, controlled by biotic and abiotic factors, represents a key parameter for the control of uranium transfer in the environment. This study firstly deals with uranium speciation in opals from the Nopal I uranium deposit (Mexico). Microscopic observations of opals at the nano-scale revealed the occurrence of vorlanite, cubic CaUO 4 . This was the first time this rare calcium uranate has been found displaying a cubic morphology, in agreement with its crystal structure. Nopal I opals have been further investigated through time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The opals spectra and their comparison with those of experimentally produced standards indicate occurrence of mono- or polymeric uranyl complexes (associated or not with calcium or phosphate) sorbed onto internal surface of opal around pH 7-8. Finally, the speciation of uranium was studied in mill tailings from Gunnar (Canada). In the first tailings site, uranium primarily occurs as monomeric, inner-sphere uranyl complexes sharing edges with Fe(O,OH) 6 octahedral sites of iron-oxy-hydroxides and chlorite. Our results suggested that U(VI) co-precipitates with iron (oxy-hydr)oxides predominate in the second tailings sites. Therefore uranium mobility in Gunnar is governed by sorption/desorption and dissolution/(co)precipitation processes. (author)

  13. Black spruce growth forms as a record of a changing winter environment at treeline, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, C.; Payette, S.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental conditions prevailing at treeline in subarctic Quebec have been reconstructed over the past 400 yr through a comparative analysis of tree rings and growth forms of black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.). Because black spruce growth forms are closely associated with the winter environment, they are a direct response to conditions of low temperature and windblown snow abrasion affecting living tissues at the snow-air interface. The age structure of supranival shoot populations was closely associated with periods of higher stem survival in winter most likely under snowier and windless conditions. Spruce growth on slopes and in the valley revealed periods of low tree-ring growth between 1601 and 1663 and between 1700 and 1904, respectively. A long-lasting period of low radial growth 1697 and 1939 prevailed in the hilltop site. During the 20th century, spruce height increased from 0.8 to 1.6 m on slopes and in the valley, while the basal level of abrasion from windblown snow increased from 0.1 to 0.5 m, suggesting an increasing trend towards warmer and snowier conditions. Abraded spruces growing during the Little Ice Age (1570-1880) were replaced by symmetrical trees during the 20th century. Supranival skirted and whorled spruces which dominated on the hilltop site during the 16th century reverted to infranival cushion and mat growth forms during the Little Ice Age. These stunted spruces were unable to recover during the recent warming because of their inability to catch enough drifting snow to allow vertical growth

  14. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  15. Scientific trends in radiological protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Howard, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together some of the most outstanding guest contributions at the 2. ECORAD International Conference held in Aix en Provence, France, on 6-10 September 2004. Traditionally dealing with Radioecology, this Conference event has focused on the 'scientific basis for environmental protection against ionising radiation'. The aim is to consider the current challenges faced by this scientific discipline in an emerging general context that places environmental protection issues on a par with human-related concerns. This is not just a trend or the latest conveniently-milked fashion, but the natural and credible consequence of the intensity of human activity, which is now encroaching in many different ways on both human and environmental health. The contributions included herein provide an advanced, updated and focused understanding that will help to ensure that environmental regulations currently at the centre of international debate are pertinent and adequate, and contribute to an increasingly efficient system of environmental intervention and crisis management. (authors)

  16. Helping to protect and manage the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty years have now passed since the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL, formerly the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity (ILMR)) was founded in the premises of the Musee oceanographique de Monaco. In 1961, at the time the IAEA laboratory was founded, there was indeed very little information on what happens when radionuclides enter the sea and whether their concentration (if any) through the marine food chain would represent a risk to man or to the integrity of the marine environment itself. The awakening of international concern for the marine environment was not restricted to radioactive substances. During the 1960s public attention was turned to the threats of oil spills, bioaccumulation of pesticides in marine and terrestrial birds and poisoning by heavy metals in industrial effluents. The growing concern regarding the deleterious environmental impact of some forms of development and the lack of a co-ordinated international response led to the United Nations Conference on the Environment in Stockholm in June 1972. This international activity, which gave the IAEA-MEL new partners, was important because it would have been virtually impossible to disconnect the study of marine radioactivity from that of other contaminants associated with economic development. Moreover, nuclear techniques (such as neutron activation analysis) had already proven to be invaluable for the study of non-radioactive contaminants and natural and man-made radionuclides were yielding quantitative information on oceanic and sea floor processes which could not be obtained by other means

  17. Energy policy seesaw between security and protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1994-01-01

    It is just the price of oil that causes the energy policies of importing countries to vacillate. Changing perceptions of energy supply factors has had as much to do with transfiguring government action modes since 1973 as has the idea of the legitimacy of that action. The present paper thus draws a parallel between the goal of energy security twenty years ago and that of global environmental protection today, which explains the critical reversion to a view of minimum government action in the energy field - a view that marked the eighties. (author). 20 refs

  18. Role of physics in the role in the development and protection of environment. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 2 of the proceedings of the 1992 National Physics Conference held in Cairo Egypt. It contains papers on the role that the physics currently plays in the development and protection of the environment. Some of the topics covered include (1) nuclear power production and the environment, (2) solar power and the environment, (3) crystallography and the environment and (4) hazardous effects of nonionising radiations from household equipment

  19. Privacy Protection Standards for the Information Sharing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    enable ISE participants to share information and data (see ISE Implementation Plan, p. 51, ISE Enterprise Architecture Framework, pp. 67, 73–74 and...of frontiers. This article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises. 2. The exercise...5 U.S.C. § 552a, as amended. Program Manager-Information Sharing Environment. (2008). Information Sharing Enterprise Architecture Framework

  20. UK Nirex approach to the protection of the natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M J [AEA Technology plc, Risley (United Kingdom); Thorne, M C [Electrowatt Engineering Services Ltd, Horsham (United Kingdom); Broderick, M A [UK Nirex Ltd, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The Nirex strategy for radioactive waste disposal is based on a multiple system of engineered and natural barriers, providing long-term containment and isolation of the waste in a deep repository. It is nevertheless recognized that, on a timescale of thousands to tens of thousands of years, small quantities of poorly sorbed, long-lived radionuclides may be released from the engineered disposal system, ultimately to emerge into the biosphere. Whereas the primary criterion for assessing the radiological significance of future discharges is radiological risk to humans, other safety indicators have been addressed by Nirex in evaluating the long-term performance of the disposal system. These include: (i) consideration of radiological impact on species other than man, and (ii) comparisons between concentrations of repository-derived radionuclides and those naturally occurring in the environment. At shorter timescales, calculations of risk to humans remain of primary interest. In the very long term, given the uncertainties inherent in any representation of the future environment, comparisons with naturally occurring radionuclides become more relevant. Indeed, the repository radionuclides of principal concern in the long term are members of the 238U decay chain, which are naturally present throughout the environment. 11 refs.

  1. UK Nirex approach to the protection of the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Thorne, M.C.; Broderick, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Nirex strategy for radioactive waste disposal is based on a multiple system of engineered and natural barriers, providing long-term containment and isolation of the waste in a deep repository. It is nevertheless recognized that, on a timescale of thousands to tens of thousands of years, small quantities of poorly sorbed, long-lived radionuclides may be released from the engineered disposal system, ultimately to emerge into the biosphere. Whereas the primary criterion for assessing the radiological significance of future discharges is radiological risk to humans, other safety indicators have been addressed by Nirex in evaluating the long-term performance of the disposal system. These include: (i) consideration of radiological impact on species other than man, and (ii) comparisons between concentrations of repository-derived radionuclides and those naturally occurring in the environment. At shorter timescales, calculations of risk to humans remain of primary interest. In the very long term, given the uncertainties inherent in any representation of the future environment, comparisons with naturally occurring radionuclides become more relevant. Indeed, the repository radionuclides of principal concern in the long term are members of the 238U decay chain, which are naturally present throughout the environment

  2. Does protecting humans protect the environment? A crude examination for UK nuclear power plants and the marine environment using information in the public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownless, G P

    2008-01-01

    Current activity around radiological protection of the environment implies concerns over the effectiveness of the current approach to this-namely if humans are adequately protected, then so are non-human species. This study uses models and data currently available in the public domain to carry out a 'quick and dirty' examination of whether protecting humans does indeed imply that other species are well protected. Using marine discharges and human habits data for operational coastal UK nuclear power stations, this study compares doses to humans and a set of reference non-human species. The study concludes that the availability of data and models, and consequent ease of studying potential effects on non-humans (as well as humans), vindicates recent efforts in this area, and that these imply a high level of protection, in general, for non-human biota from UK nuclear power station marine discharges. In general terms, the study finds that protection of non-human biota relies on taking ingestion and external exposure doses to humans into account; where only one of these pathways is considered, the level of protection of non-human biota through protection of humans would depend on the radionuclide(s) in question.

  3. Radiation Protection of Environment under the Light of the New Concept of Radiation Protection of Non-Human Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansruedi Voelkle

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the question of whether radiation protection should be extended to plants and animals. Until now the recommendations of ICRP have been focused exclusively on the protection of man from ionizing radiation. It was assumed that, if man is protected, the quality of the living environment is not impaired. In recent years adequate principles, recommendations and laws have become necessary in order to protect the environment from man made toxins. These recommendations aimed to conserve plants and animals, to maintain the diversity of species, the health and status of natural habitats and the natural resources of our planet, to warrant natural evolution and selection processes in order to transmit a healthy world to future generations. Reflections have been made as to whether particular protection of fauna and flora from ionizing radiation should be included. This article presents some considerations from the point of view of operational radiation protection and some comments to the work already done by ICRP committee 5. The final purpose is to invite the audience to make its own reflections and to communicate any criticisms, comments or suggestions to committee 5 of ICRP. (author)

  4. Radiation Protection of Environment under the Light of the New Concept of Radiation Protection of Non-Human Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansruedi Voelkle [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Environmental Radioactivity Section, c/o Physics Department, University of Fribourg Chemin du Musee 3, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the question of whether radiation protection should be extended to plants and animals. Until now the recommendations of ICRP have been focused exclusively on the protection of man from ionizing radiation. It was assumed that, if man is protected, the quality of the living environment is not impaired. In recent years adequate principles, recommendations and laws have become necessary in order to protect the environment from man made toxins. These recommendations aimed to conserve plants and animals, to maintain the diversity of species, the health and status of natural habitats and the natural resources of our planet, to warrant natural evolution and selection processes in order to transmit a healthy world to future generations. Reflections have been made as to whether particular protection of fauna and flora from ionizing radiation should be included. This article presents some considerations from the point of view of operational radiation protection and some comments to the work already done by ICRP committee 5. The final purpose is to invite the audience to make its own reflections and to communicate any criticisms, comments or suggestions to committee 5 of ICRP. (author)

  5. Seismic activity and environment protection in rock burst areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnicek, L.; Holecko, J.; Knotek, S.

    1993-01-01

    The significance is pointed out of seismic activity caused by mining activities in rock burst areas of the Ostrava-Karvinna district. The need is emphasized of the monitoring of the seismic activity at the Czech-Poland border as needed by the Two-party international committee for exploitation of coal supplies on the common border. The adverse effect of rock burst on the surface is documented by examples provided by the Polish party. The technique is described of investigating the DPB seismic polygon, allowing to evaluate the adverse impact of rock burst on the environment. (author) 1 fig., 8 refs

  6. Helping to protect and manage the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL), formerly known as the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity (ILMR) was founded thirty years ago. This article provides a brief historical review of the activities of the IAEA-MEL, focussing on the monitoring of pollution in the Mediterranean Sea. The contamination arising from the Chernobyl accident is discussed, and data on the distribution of pesticide residues in mussels along the northern Mediterranean cost are presented. A collaborative project with the National Autonomous University of Mexico to study pesticides in the Altata lagoon is described. 25 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  7. Environment: renewable energy, environmental protection and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The second in the series of IPPSO policy papers for discussion deals with the place of renewable energy sources and environmental protection in relation to the soon-to-be deregulated electricity industry in Ontario. The paper provides a broad statement of principles, defines the issues, identifies the problems, and discusses the various options under consideration. Some of the more important design questions regarding a renewable portfolio standard were discussed, among them the technologies to be included, the treatment of existing generators and expansions, establishment of minimum amounts and targets, responsibility for and means of compliance, compensation for the intermittent nature of some of the renewable resources, mandatory disclosure and labelling, development by the IMO of environmental dispatch protocols, research and development funding for renewable energy technologies, emission caps with tradeable targets, and concerns about the operation of a system benefits fund for energy efficiency. 5 refs

  8. 2. National scientific conference on process engineering in environment protection. Conference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The national conference on 'Process engineering in environment protection' Jachranka 1994 has been divided into three sessions. Section 1 has been devoted to flue gas purification and collects 13 papers. Section 2 on liquid purification gathered 8 presentation. Section 3 - the poster session with 12 posters on related topics. During the conference 2 lectures and 3 posters have been devoted to the application of nuclear techniques to the solution different problems connected with environment protection

  9. Radiological protection of the environment: the path forward to a new policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The international system of radiological protection is currently being revised with the aim of making it more coherent and concise. During the revision process, particular attention is being given to the development of an explicit system for the radiological protection of the environment in addition to that of human beings. In order to support the ongoing discussions of the international community of radiological protection experts, these proceedings try to answer the questions: Is there an international rationale behind the wish to protect the environment from radiation? Do we have enough scientific information to develop and define a broadly accepted policy? What are the socio-political dynamics, beyond science, that will influence policy on radiological protection of the environment? What are the characteristics of the process for developing a system of radiological protection of the environment? These proceedings comprise the views of a broad range of invited speakers, including policy makers, regulators, radiological protection and environmental protection professionals, industry, social scientists and representatives of both non-governmental and intergovernmental organisations. (author)

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITY OF LABOUR PROTECTION SPECIALISTS IN WORK ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Brizga, Dace

    2016-01-01

    Human health and wellness are significantly affected by the observance of labour and civil protection rules both in the work environment and in social life. They are also affected by adequate training which is organised according to the age group and situation in order to reduce the formal attitude to the observance of all types of safety rules. Labour protection specialists themselves will be those who will respect and ensure the observance of the labour and civil protection rules. The aim o...

  11. Radiation protection instrumentation. Monitoring equipment. Radioactive aerosols in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This international standard applies to portable or installed equipment for continuous monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the environment in normal and emergency conditions. Monitoring involves continuous sampling and, where desirable, automatic start of sampling. The document applies particularly to the following assignments: (i) determination of the volume activity of radionuclides in the form of aerosols, either per time unit, along with its time changes, or in the integral form over a longer time period such as 24 h, and measurement of the volume sampled; (ii) triggering a warning alarm signal if the preset volume activity or time integral of the volume activity of aerosols has been exceeded. The document deals with radioactive aerosol monitor design, testing procedures, and documentation. Appended tables refer to the reference and normal testing conditions, tests in normal testing conditions, tests during changes of the affecting quantities, and tests of the air circuit. (P.A.)

  12. New economic initiatives are designed to protect the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleet, B.; Fleet, N.S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of economic initiatives or economic instruments as an alternative to or as support for existing environmental legislation is reviewed. The most controversial area of economic incentives is the concept of creating a market in pollution rights. While emissions trading can enable economic growth in areas of high pollution, this approach is only marginally different than the traditional regulatory approach. Environmental economics is complex, with mixtures of private and public costs. Social costs include subsidies, waste treatment, landfill disposal costs, etc. More intangible social costs include public health costs and damage to the natural environment. Conventional economic approaches ignore most such social costs. Several European countries have started to develop a green gross national product (GNP) which sets out an alternative approach to the traditional measure of economic activity by subtracting a figure for harm to the environment from economic activity. This ambitious approach attempts to measure the costs of all toxic discharges along with the disappearance of plant and animal life and other environmental changes. A powerful new tool for the environmental manager is full cost accounting, which uses a long (10-20 y) window for projects, anticipates the impact of stricter discharge standards, and attempts to quantify a range of less tangible social costs elements, such as liability, improved environmental image, etc. Various strategies can be ranked on the basis of their future risk cost. The application of full cost accounting models, small business, computer models and expert systems, developing country debt-for-nature swaps, and environmental risk assessment are discussed. 12 refs

  13. Protecting clinical data in PACS, teleradiology systems, and research environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Marion C.; Collmann, Jeff R.; Tohme, Walid G.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-05-01

    As clinical data is more widely stored in electronic patient record management systems and transmitted over the Internet and telephone lines, it becomes more accessible and therefore more useful, but also more vulnerable. Computer systems such as PACS, telemedicine applications, and medical research networks must protect against accidental or deliberate modification, disclosure, and violation of patient confidentiality in order to be viable. Conventional wisdom in the medical field and among lawmakers legislating the use of electronic medical records suggests that, although it may improve access to information, an electronic medical record cannot be as secure as a traditional paper record. This is not the case. Information security is a well-developed field in the computer and communications industry. If medical information systems, such as PACS, telemedicine applications, and research networks, properly apply information security techniques, they can ensure the accuracy and confidentiality of their patient information and even improve the security of their data over a traditional paper record. This paper will elaborate on some of these techniques and discuss how they can be applied to medical information systems. The following systems will be used as examples for the analysis: a research laboratory at Georgetown University Medical Center, the Deployable Radiology system installed to support the US Army's peace- keeping operation in Bosnia, a kidney dialysis telemedicine system in Washington, D.C., and various experiences with implementing and integrating PACS.

  14. Protecting biodiversity in coastal environments: Introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatley, T.

    1991-01-01

    Much less attention has been paid in recent years to the threats to coastal and marine biodiversity, compared to biodiversity in more terrestrial habitats. The tremendous biodiversity at risk and the severity and magnitude of the pressures being exerted on coastal habitats suggest the need for much greater attention to be focused here by both the policy and scientific communities. The threats to coastal biodiversity are numerous and include air and water pollution; over exploitation and harvesting; the introduction of exotic species; the dramatic loss of habitat due to urbanization, agricultural expansion, and other land use changes; and the potentially serious effects of global climate change. These threats suggest the need for swift action at a number of jurisdictional and governmental levels. Major components of such an effort are identified and described. These include the need for comprehensive management approaches, the expansion of parks and protected areas, restoration and mitigation, multinational and international initiatives, and efforts to promote sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles. Suggestions for future research are also provided

  15. Canada's green plan - The second year. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan's goal is 'to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.' It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan's short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities

  16. Protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The acceptability of practices which involve the release of radionuclides into the environment, and of situations where residual radionuclides from accidents or improperly controlled practices exist in the environment, are generally assessed on the basis of implied radiation doses to humans. This approach is consistent with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which include the statement that 'the standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk'. The general applicability of this statement has been explored in previous IAEA and other publications. These concluded that the statement is generally valid but that reliance upon human based radiological protection criteria may not be adequate for all possible space or time scales. In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is being challenged in some IAEA Member States and proposals are being made for strategies which provide for explicit protection of the environment. The present publication represents a first step towards establishing an internationally accepted philosophy and associated methodology for protecting the environment against ionizing radiations. The report reviews the various related issues and examines possible approaches to establishing criteria. It is intended for use in stimulating discussion on the subject in Member States. For its part, the IAEA intends to continue a programme of work in this area with the long term objective of providing specific recommendations on primary protection criteria and methods for

  17. Problems in developing a rational approach to radiological protection of the environment from a regulatory viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgrilli, E.; Tarroni, G.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline problems arising when trying to draw an obvious parallel between what is already extant for the radiation protection of man and the environment and what might further be thought feasible for the environment. For this purpose a brief summary will be made of the salient characteristics of the present radiation protection system, as recommended by ICRP and accepted inter alia in the IAEA basic safety standards and european directives, estimates of radiation effects on biota and trends in environmental protection will be briefly reviewed, as well as the main challenges to meet. (N.C.)

  18. [The REACH legislation: the consumer and environment protection perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula

    2008-12-01

    REACH has been initiated with the aim of improving existing legislation. In order to assist in the interpretation of the REACH legislation, guidance documents have been developed, which have only lately become available. According to the REACH annexes and supported by guidance documents, waiving of test requirements will be possible, thus, opening the possibility that under REACH no new (eco)toxicological data will be required. Concerning products, a guidance document was released in April 2008 stating that the substance concentration threshold of 0.1 % (w/w) applies to the article as produced or imported and it does not relate to the homogeneous materials or parts of an article, but relates to the article as such (i.e., as produced or imported). Hence, notification will not be required for many products containing chemicals with properties which place them on the candidate list for authorization. In summary, it is at present not foreseeable whether the expected benefit of the REACH legislation will materialise for the environment and for the health of consumers and at the work place.

  19. Challenging the current strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an ecosystem approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Doi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The system of radiological protection of the environment that is currently under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of ecosystem processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances, ... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the current approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  20. Challenging the current strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an ecosystem approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F., E-mail: francois.brechignac@irsn. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, Blg 229, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Doi, Masahiro [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Center for Radiation Protection, Regulatory Sciences Research Group, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The system of radiological protection of the environment that is currently under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of ecosystem processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances, ... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the current approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  1. Sun Safety at Work Canada: a multiple case-study protocol to develop sun safety and heat protection programs and policies for outdoor workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Desre M; Tenkate, Thomas; Strahlendorf, Peter; Kushner, Rivka; Gardner, Audrey; Holness, D Linn

    2015-07-10

    CAREX Canada has identified solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) as the second most prominent carcinogenic exposure in Canada, and over 75 % of Canadian outdoor workers fall within the highest exposure category. Heat stress also presents an important public health issue, particularly for outdoor workers. The most serious form of heat stress is heat stroke, which can cause irreversible damage to the heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver. Although the need for sun and heat protection has been identified, there is no Canada-wide heat and sun safety program for outdoor workers. Further, no prevention programs have addressed both skin cancer prevention and heat stress in an integrated approach. The aim of this partnered study is to evaluate whether a multi-implementation, multi-evaluation approach can help develop sustainable workplace-specific programs, policies, and procedures to increase the use of UV safety and heat protection. This 2-year study is a theory-driven, multi-site, non-randomized study design with a cross-case analysis of 13 workplaces across four provinces in Canada. The first phase of the study includes the development of workplace-specific programs with the support of the intensive engagement of knowledge brokers. There will be a three-points-in-time evaluation with process and impact components involving the occupational health and safety (OHS) director, management, and workers with the goal of measuring changes in workplace policies, procedures, and practices. It will use mixed methods involving semi-structured key informant interviews, focus groups, surveys, site observations, and UV dosimetry assessment. Using the findings from phase I, in phase 2, a web-based, interactive, intervention planning tool for workplaces will be developed, as will the intensive engagement of intermediaries such as industry decision-makers to link to policymakers about the importance of heat and sun safety for outdoor workers. Solar UV and heat are both health and safety hazards

  2. Protection of the cultural environment by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.

    1982-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation in the preservation of the cultural environment, and in particular art objects, is examined. In each branch, the present status of research on, and its application to, the treatment of art objects is described. Two major applications - disinfection and consolidation - are reviewed: (1) Disinfection: The destruction by gamma irradiation of xylophagous insects and of fungi which contaminate paintings, pictorial documents and mummies, is discussed. The effect of gamma-rays on the constituent materials of the infected objects is examined. (2) Consolidation: this process represents an extrapolation to the preservation of cultural objects of research performed over the last 20 years with the aim of improving the mechanical properties of porous materials (by impregnation of the material in a vacuum by a liquid plastic substance which is polymerized by radiation in situ). This technique is currently being used to treat ''uncoated'' wooden objects and, to a more limited extent, ''coated'' wood (polychromy and gilt wood), depending on the fragility of the covering. With regard to stone materials, the enhancement of the mechanical properties of a limestone impregnated with a styrene-polyester resin is described; this resin has been used to treat several sculptures. The use of acrylics and methacrylics has caused some samples to crack during radiation polymerization; theories put forward to explain this phenomenon are discussed. The consolidation of terracotta and bone has also been studied. The consolidation of waterlogged wood (archaeological wood) requires a different impregnation technique (diffusion in liquid). This preservation method has already been used to treat archaeological artifacts. (author)

  3. Environment Protection (Alligator Rivers Region) Amendment Act 1987 - No 17 of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Act amends the Environment Protection (Alligator Rivers Region) Act 1978. The amendments mainly concern definition of general mining operations and specification of the functions of the Supervisory Scientist and the Research Institute in relation to general mining in an environment conservation zone (parts of the Alligator Rivers Region). The 1978 Act provided for the appointment of a Supervising Scientist responsible for supervising protection of the environment against the effects of uranium mining in the Region, and for the creation of a Research Institute under his management. (NEA) [fr

  4. Task group of international union of radioecology 'ecosystem approach to environment protection'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    An ecosystem approach is a holistic (i.e., top-down) strategy for protection of ecosystem structures and functions from perturbations. A task group of International Union of Radioecology 'Ecosystem Approach to Environment Protection' was launched in April, 2010. This task group is preparing a report on the following topics: (1) goals of environmental protection; (2) legislation about environmental protection; (3) assessment of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAP) concept in the general context of environmental protection; (4) limitations and uncertainties of the RAPs concept; (5) justification and merits of the ecosystem approach; (6) assessing the feasibility of the ecosystem approach; (7) research and development required for the ecosystem approach; and (8) recommendations with respect to radiation protection. The topics 1, 3, 4 and 5 have been almost completely prepared, and demonstrate that the ecosystem approach is required for radiation protection of the environment. On the other hand, methods of the ecosystem approach which should be adopted for radiation protection of the environment are not clear in the current draft report. They should be specified by reviewing the Convention on Biological Diversity, fish stock management and other activities where the ecosystem approach is already adopted. (author)

  5. Ethical considerations in protecting the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is based on providing for the protection of humans. The current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) include the statement that {sup t}he standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk... {sup .} In the light of the new focus of concern for the environment, this statement is being critically reviewed in several international fora. The IAEA has, over many years, sponsored studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on species other than humans. Most recently it published a discussion report as IAEA-TECDOC-1091 (1999) in which the need for developing a system for protecting the environment against the effects of ionizing radiation was elaborated and in which various related technical and philosophical issues for resolution were discussed. The current report explores the ethical principles that could underlie a system of environmental protection. It is intended as one step in the development of a framework for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, and is being published in order to promote awareness of the current developments in this field as well as to encourage discussion amongst those involved.

  6. International legal protection of environment in the system of fundamental generally recognized principles of international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meherremov, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of international legal protection of environment in the system of fundamental, generally recognized principles of international law is analyzed in the article taking into consideration the different opinions in legal scientific researches and international practice. It is concluded that the protection of environment for the present and next generations - is a basic principle of international legal protection of environment. The meaning of this principleis that the countries will take all necessary measures for preservation and promotion of the quality of environment for the present and next generations, as well as rational management of natural resources. Adoption and national legal implementation of specific norms, in conformity with that basic principle, is a main factor in resolution of environmental problemsand ensuring environmental security

  7. Exposure to public natural space as a protective factor for emotional well-being among young people in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Quynh; Craig, Wendy; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-04-29

    Positive emotional well-being is fundamentally important to general health status, and is linked to many favorable health outcomes. There is societal interest in understanding determinants of emotional well-being in adolescence, and the natural environment represents one potential determinant. Psychological and experimental research have each shown links between exposure to nature and both stress reduction and attention restoration. Some population studies have suggested positive effects of green space on various indicators of health. However, there are limited large-scale epidemiological studies assessing this relationship, specifically for populations of young people and in the Canadian context. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to public natural space and positive emotional well-being among young adolescent Canadians. This cross-sectional study was based upon the Canadian 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey with linked geographic information system (GIS) data. Following exclusions, the sample included 17 249 (grades 6 to 10, mostly ages 11 to 16) students from 317 schools. Features of the natural environment were extracted using GIS within a 5 km radius circular buffer surrounding each school. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the presence of public natural space (features include green and blue spaces such as parks, wooded areas, and water bodies) and students' reports of positive emotional well-being, while controlling for salient covariates and the clustered nature of the data. Over half of Canadian youth reported positive emotional well-being (58.5% among boys and 51.6% among girls). Relationships between measures of natural space and positive emotional well-being were weak and lacked consistency overall, but modest protective effects were observed in small cities. Positive emotional well-being was more strongly associated with other factors including

  8. Outcomes of the IAEA programme on the radiological protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.

    2002-01-01

    Since the late 1990's the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), relating to the effects of radiation on species other than man, has been focused on defining and clarifying issues related to the development of an international framework to address the protection of the environment, or living elements within it, from the effects of ionising radiation. In 1999, IAEA-TECDOC-1091, entitled Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionising Radiation: A Report for Discussion, was published. This report explored the various issues and approaches that would need to be resolved in order to establish an environmental protection framework and associated criteria. Relevant principles, policies and regulatory approaches were reviewed and the factors that may affect future developments of a protection system were identified. The report concluded that, although improved information was required in several areas, there was sufficient knowledge of the effects of ionising radiation on organisms to move forward. Following publication of this report, IAEA activities have continued on: a) the elaboration of the ethics and principles underlying environmental protection, paying particular attention to their implications for the development of an approach for radiological protection of the environment; and, h) fostering information exchange by holding a series of Specialists Meetings on environmental radiation protection, the most recent of which took place in November 2001. The long-term aim of this work is to establish consensual IAEA Safety Standards on environmental radiation protection, in collaboration with other relevant international organisations. This paper will provide a summary of IAEA work to date on the development of a framework for protection of the environment from ionising radiation, paying particular attention to the recently published IAEA-TECDOC-1270 on Ethical Considerations in protecting the Environment front the Effects of Ionising

  9. The development of the IAEA policy on the radiological protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    2002-01-01

    Since its creation in 1957, and in accordance with its statute, the IAEA has established standards of safety for protection of health in the fields of nuclear installations safety, radiation protection, the transport of radioactive materials and radioactive waste management, including the control of radioactive releases to the environment. In this context, the IAEA has a long history of involvement in matters related not only to the protection of humans but also to the protection of other species from the effects of radioactivity in the environment. Concern about the environment has arisen for different reasons over the years, starting with questions about the potential effects on non-human species of fall-out from nuclear weapons testing and of radioactive discharges to atmosphere and the oceans. Later, the concern was focussed on the possible harm to non-human species caused by the dumping of solid waste at sea. The IAEA has responded to requests from other UN bodies and from international conventions to evaluate these potential hazards and to establish protection criteria. Social and political attitudes have gradually changed towards the environment mainly due to a growing realisation that the environment is vulnerable to the effects of human activities. This change has been reflected in the outcomes of major UN conferences on the environment in 1972 and 1992 and, accordingly, the emphasis of international and national policies towards the environment has increasingly shifted towards protective measures and strategies that include other species. Thus, the protection of the environment from the effects of ionising radiation has taken on a new importance. The IAEA, together with other relevant international organisations, is working to develop an agreed environmental protection strategy to counter the possible effects of ionising radiation, building on the work done over the last 30 years but taking due account of the new attitudes to the subject. The IAEA

  10. Integrated protection of humans and the environment: a view from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K

    2018-01-01

    Six and a half years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, an area of existing exposure situation remains. One of the main concerns of people is the higher level of ionising radiation than before the accident, although this is not expected to have any discernible health effect. Since the accident, several 'abnormalities' in environmental organisms have been reported. It is still not clear if these abnormalities were induced by radiation. It appears that the impact of the released radioactivity has not been sufficient to threaten the maintenance of biological diversity, the conservation of species, or the health and status of natural habitats, which are the focus in environmental protection. This highlights a difference between the protection of humans and protection of the environment (individuals for humans and populations/species for the environment). The system for protection of the environment has been developed with a similar approach as the system for protection of humans. Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) were introduced to connect exposure and doses in a way similar to that for Reference Male and Reference Female. RAPs can also be used as a tool to associate the level of radiation (dose rate) with the biological effects on an organism. A difference between the protection of humans and that of the environment was identified: an effect on humans is measured in terms of dose, and an effect on the environment is measured in terms of dose rate. In other words, protection criteria for humans are expressed in term of dose (as dose limits, dose constraints, and reference levels), whereas those for the environment are expressed in terms of dose rate (as derived consideration reference levels).

  11. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: Concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Kate A.; Yunker, Mark B.; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment-associated hydrocarbons can pose a risk to wildlife that rely on benthic marine food webs. We measured hydrocarbons in sediments from the habitat of protected sea otters in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Alkane concentrations were dominated by higher odd-chain n-alkanes at all sites, indicating terrestrial plant inputs. While remote sites were dominated by petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), small harbour sites within sea otter habitat and sites from an urban reference area reflected weathered petroleum and biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The partitioning of hydrocarbons between sediments and adjacent food webs provides an important exposure route for sea otters, as they consume ∼25% of their body weight per day in benthic invertebrates. Thus, exceedences of PAH sediment quality guidelines designed to protect aquatic biota at 20% of the sites in sea otter habitat suggest that sea otters are vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination even in the absence of catastrophic oil spills. - Highlights: → Sediment hydrocarbon signatures differed between remote and impacted coastal sites. → A natural background comprised terrestrial plant alkanes and petrogenic PAHs. → Impacted sites reflected a history of petrogenic and pyrogenic hydrocarbon inputs. → Hydrocarbons at some sites exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. → Protected sea otters may thus be at risk as they rely primarily on benthic prey. - Anthropogenically-derived hydrocarbons in coastal sediments in British Columbia may pose a risk to protected sea otters.

  12. Radiation protection of the environment: anthropocentric and eco-centric principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexakhin, R.M.; Fesenko, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    The second half of the 20. century was dominated in the field of radiation protection by the anthropocentric concept stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). According to this concept 'if radiation standards protect man then biota are also adequately protected from ionizing radiation'. At the end of the 20. beginning of the 21. centuries in the area of radiation protection of nature an eco-centric strategy is beginning to develop where emphasis has swung to the protection of biota in their environment. Inadequacy of ICRP's anthropocentric concept is reported. Issues are discussed such as ecological dosimetry, non-equi-dose irradiation of man and biota, criteria for estimating radiation induced changes in biota and man, as well as the need to harmonize permissible exposure doses to man and biota. An urgent need is stressed to develop a single (synthetic) concept of radiation protection which simultaneously ensures protection of human health and biota well-being in their environment. This concept is to be based on the recognition of the integrity of socio-natural ecosystems where man and biota are considered as a unity. (author)

  13. Action of the Ministry of Environment with regard to protection of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lys, M.

    The activity of the Ministry of Environment is reviewed in the following contexts: general cleaning up of the coastline; installation of nuclear power plants; open-sea burning of chlorinated industrial wastes; fight against pollution caused by ships at sea [fr

  14. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  15. Jurisprudence by the European Court of Justice in the field of environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, C.O.

    1993-01-01

    The lecture gives a detailed overview of the jurisprudence by the European Court of Justice, especially of the legal and contractual basis of environment protection. It deals with the distribution of responsibilities, jurisprudence on water protection, clean air presevation, and disposal law. From a global viewpoint, the European Court of Justice can only give impulses, the implementation of concrete measures being the task of the politicians. (HSCH) [de

  16. EDF: contribution to local development and the protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parot, F.; Veyret, G.

    1995-01-01

    As a consequence of the 1982-1983 French Decentralization laws, local elected officials were entrusted with new responsibilities concerning environmental protection and local development. EDF, the French public electricity utility therefore had to respond to new demands. New forms of cooperation with the various local actors were imagined: assistance in diagnostics, working out local strategies, subcontracting and working for the establishment of new industrial plants, multi-purpose water management (dams for example), environment protection (discreet lines...), urban waste treatment, transportation, etc

  17. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND ENVIRONMENT MONITORING ISSUES IN THE PROJECTS OF SUBGLACIAL LAKES STUDIES IN ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Alekhina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic subglacial lakes can represent extreme natural habitats for microorganisms from the position of their evolution and adaptation, as well as they can contain the information on Antarctic ice sheet history and climatic changes in their sediments. Now only direct measurements and sampling from these habitats can answer on many fundamental questions. Special precaution should be complied at penetration into these unique relic environments without unfavorable impacts and contamination. A number of recommendations were developed on levels of cleanliness and sterility during direct exploration and research of subglacial environments. Documents considered in the article are the first and necessary steps for appropriate and long-term ecological management of subglacial Antarctic environments. Today there are three projects of subglacial aquatic environment research which are in preparation and realization – the Russian project of Lake Vostok, the similar British project of Lake Ellsworth and the American project on Whillans Ice Stream. The programs of ecological stewardship for direct exploration of these lakes are discussed. All these subglacial aquatic objects of further exploration and research are so various on their structure, age and regime, that only results of all programs as a whole can help to draw us a uniform picture of a subglacial ecological system. Ecological stewardship of these should provide the minimal ecological impact with maximal scientific results. On the basis of existing documents and recommendations the general approaches and the program of ecological stewardship for Lake Vostok research are discussed. Study of drilling fluid, drilling chips, Vostok ice core and the fresh frozen water will allow to make an assessment of biological and chemical contamination as a result of the first penetration and to modify the further stewardship program for the second penetration and direct exploration of lake water.

  18. CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA : PART II

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shinichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2006-01-01

    This part study aims to research on the whole aspect of child protection in Canada. And so, this paper consists of five chapters as follows: (1)Canadian history of child protection, (2)definition of child abuse, (3)current situation of child protection in Canada, (4)outline of child protection and treatment, (5)triangular comparison of child protection and prevention in Canada, Australia and England. The first efforts at identifying and combating child abuse occurred in the latter part of the...

  19. Protection of the environment address book. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, B.

    1991-01-01

    This manual contains an extensive collection of non-commercial addresses relating to the protection of the environment: The collection includes the government-controlled, communal, scientific associations and groups, regional initiative groups, educational and advisory instances and foundations. When referring to scientific institutes, their main points of activity are given; referring to ecological educational instances, information on their programs is given. For the first time we are also given a list of environment protection authorities, divisions, coordination bureaus which have been set up in communities and big cities and the communal information and advisory programs. (orig.) [de

  20. Materials of All-Polish Symposium Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The All-Polish Symposium Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection is cyclic (in 3 year period) conference being a broad review of state of art and development of all nuclear branches cooperated with industry and other branches of national economy and public life in Poland. The conference has been divided in one plenary session and 6 problem sessions as follow: Environmental protection, earth sciences, protection of cultural objects; Industrial applications; applications in medicine, medical apparatus; measurement methods, simulations, experiment planning; radiation techniques; laboratories, metrology

  1. Radiological Protection of the Environment and its Implementation into IAEA Safety Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Telleria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiological protection of the environment has been intensively discussed in recent years. Much progress has been made recently with regard to the development of models: (i to estimate the uptake of radionuclides by flora and fauna in different habitats and ecosystems; (ii to calculate internal and external exposures for a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic organisms; and (iii in investigating and analyzing the effects of radiation exposures to biota. This paper gives an overview of the current status of this work. Furthermore, the current status of the integration of environmental protection into the radiation protection system is also summarized.

  2. The protection of the environment: Protection of health and food safety - EU and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sič Magdolna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From the last century the process of harmonization and unification of the law on food safety for the protection of consumers in the European Union (EU is ongoing. According to these rules, participants in the production and distribution of food have to respect the rules in all phases of production: 'From Farm to Fork'. Honoring of the rules is based on self-control and the responsibility of producers and distributors, and is subject to public control with appropriate sanctions by competent authorities of a Member State as well as the EU. In the Republic of Serbia, after singing the Stabilization and Association Agreement, the statutory law has been approximated with the laws of the EU. That however, is not sufficient. It is necessary to develop the self-control of producers as well as to organize an efficient public control, not only because this is a necessary condition for export of food products to the single market of the EU, or for the membership in the EU, but also for ensuring safe food in the internal market of Serbia.

  3. Risk and protective factors associated with intentional self-harm among older community-residing home care clients in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Eva; Hirdes, John P; Perlman, Christopher M; Rabinowitz, Terry

    2015-10-01

    We aim to concurrently examine risk and protective factors associated with intentional self-harm among community-residing older adults receiving home care services in Ontario, Canada. Administrative health data from the home care sector were linked to hospital administrative data to carry out the analyses. Home care data are collected in Ontario using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC), an assessment tool that identifies strengths, preferences and needs of long-stay home care clients. The sample included Ontario home care clients aged 60 years or older assessed with the RAI-HC between 2007 and 2010 (N = 222,149). Multivariable analyses were performed using SAS. Hospital records of intentional self-harm (ISH) were present in 9.3 cases per 1000 home care clients. Risks of ISH included younger age (60-74 years; OR = 3.14, CI: 2.75-3.59), psychiatric diagnosis (OR = 2.29, CI: 2.06-2.54), alcohol use and dependence (OR = 1.69, CI: 1.34-2.14), psychotropic medication (OR = 1.94, CI: 1.75-2.15) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.58, CI: 1.40-1.78). Protective effects were found for marital status and positive social relationships, yet these effects were more pronounced for men. Cognitive performance measures showed the odds of ISH 1.86 times higher for older adults with moderate to severe cognitive impairment. This study based on provincial data points to tangible areas for preventative assessment by frontline home care professionals. Of interest were the risk and protective factors that differed by sex. As demand for home care in Canada is expected to increase, these findings may inform home care professionals' appraisal and approach to suicide prevention among community-residing older adults. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Reforming the Regulation of Therapeutic Products in Canada: The Protecting of Canadians from Unsafe Drugs Act (Vanessa’s Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Fierlbeck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Enacted November 2014, Vanessa’s Law amends the Food and Drugs Act to give Health Canada greater powers to compel the disclosure of information, recall drugs and devices, impose fines and injunctions, and collect post-market safety information. The Act amends seriously outdated legislation that had been in place since 1954. While the explicit goals of the Act are to improve patient safety and provide transparency, it also establishes a regulatory framework that facilitates investment in the burgeoning field of biotechnology. While regulatory reform was already on the public agenda, public awareness of litigation against large pharmaceutical firms combined with the championing of the legislation by Conservative MP Terence Young, whose daughter Vanessa died from an adverse drug reaction, pushed the legislation through to implementation. Many key aspects of the Act depend upon the precise nature of supporting regulations that are still to be implemented. Despite the new powers conferred by the legislation on the Minister of Health, there is some concern that these discretionary powers may not be exercised, and that Health Canada may not have sufficient resources to take advantage of these new powers. Given experience to date since enactment, the new legislation, designed to provide greater transparency vis-à-vis therapeutic products, may actually have a chilling effect on independent scrutiny.

  5. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Performance Standards § 250.107 What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing all operations in a...

  6. Protective associations of importance of religion and frequency of service attendance with depression risk, suicidal behaviours and substance use in adolescents in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic, Daniel; Kisely, Steve; Langille, Donald B

    2011-08-01

    We examined relationships of measures of personal importance of religion and frequency of attendance at religious services with risk of depression and risk behaviours in high school students in Cape Breton, Canada. We examined the impact of confounding and explanatory factors on these relationships. Data were drawn from self-report surveys of adolescents aged 15-19 (N=1615) at three high schools in May, 2006. We used logistic regression to assess associations of religious importance and religious service attendance with risk of depression, suicidal behaviour, binge drinking and frequent marijuana use, controlling in multivariate models for sociodemographic factors, family structure and social capital. Among females, higher personal importance of religion was associated with decreased odds of depression, suicidal ideation, drinking and marijuana use, while more religious attendance was protective for substance use behaviours and suicidal ideation. In males, both measures of religiosity were associated with decreased substance use. In multivariate models, religious importance had weak protective effects for depression and suicidal thinking in females, which were respectively modified by social trust and substance use. Attendance was protective for suicidal thinking in females, and was modified by depression. These associations were not seen in males. Attendance was consistently associated with less substance use in females, while importance was not. Importance was consistently protective for marijuana use and attendance was protective for binge drinking in males. This was a cross-sectional self-report survey and causality cannot be inferred. Protective associations of measures of religiosity are seen in Canadian adolescents, as they are elsewhere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  8. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  9. Topical radiation protection questions of use of agricultural land in the environs of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carach, J.; Csupka, S.; Petrasova, M.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is presented of the problems of the use of agricultural land in the environs of nuclear power plants. The analysis of emission activity in nuclear power plants presently under construction shows that for normal operation no precautions are necessary. For accidents, specific health protection measures are planned. (author)

  10. Polish economic clusters and their efforts to protect the environment – selected examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyrda-Muskus Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the benefits they can obtain business which aim to protect the environment. The environment protection has found its place and affects the process of systemic change of the Polish economy. This article assumes that building a competitive economy and enterprise development based on the principle of sustainable development requires the development of mechanisms for mutual benefits. These will be the economic mechanisms, technical and technological, and social. All these mechanisms are concentrated in clusters. Pursue sustainable development policies, an emphasis on environmental protection will be the general element for them a competitive advantage. Sustainable development will in this case be both the agent and the goal of economic and entrepreneurship development. Basing on the assumption that economic development is possible through the achievement of competitive advantage, sustainable development should be treated as its source.

  11. The expense for the protection of the environment reaches 46 billions Euros in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    Illustrated by graphs showing the expense evolution since 2000, evolutions of expense with respect to the domain (R and D, administration, air, waters, wastes, soil and underground waters, noise, biodiversity and landscape, radioactive wastes), the relative importance of sources of financing (households, enterprises, administrations) and the evolution of household expenses for the protection of the environment, this article outlines the global expense increase, that wastes and water are the main expense domains, that expenses are boosted by the private sector's R and D and by public policies, that some areas are supported, that the administrations finance three quarters of expenses for the protection biodiversity, and that the household share in the expense for the protection of the environment is increasing

  12. Sustainable Agriculture for Environment Protection: Results of Six Years of Cooperation between China and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Clini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of a shift toward agricultural systems, which are more complex in terms of biodiversity in emerging countries such as China, where most of the population (about 60% lives in rural areas, in poor conditions and still relies on agriculture as the main source of income, is discussed. In China the problems caused by shifting to more intensive and polluting agricultural production patterns to address the demand for food of the growing population and by the need of higher incomes of rural communities are serious. The experience gained in the framework of the Sino-Italian Cooperation Program for Environment Protection jointly launched by the Italian Ministry for the Environment and Territory (IMET and the State Environment Protection Administration of China (SEPA in the year 2000, through the implementation of several cooperation projects in different rural areas of China is critically discussed.

  13. A natural experimental study of the protective effect of home ownership on household food insecurity in Canada before and after a recession (2008-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Wu, Xiuyun; Kwok, Cynthia; Emery, J C Herbert

    2017-06-16

    Home ownership as opposed to renting is associated with lower rates of food insecurity, the latter being a marker of household economic deprivation associated with adverse health outcomes. It is unclear whether this relationship persists during a major economic decline, or whether different subgroups of home owners are equally protected. The 2008-2009 recession in Canada was tied to events in the United States related to inappropriate mortgage financing; the impact of the recession on food insecurity among home owners may identify policies to mitigate recessionary outcomes. We used a before-and-after natural experimental design using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycles 2007/2008 (pre-recession) and 2009/2010 (post-recession) with information on household food insecurity, home ownership versus renting, and socio-demographics. Applying multivariable logistic regression, we examined changes in household food insecurity by housing tenure and sex over the period. Pre-recession, food insecurity affected 3.3% of home owners and 17.1% of renter households. Among home owners, the risk of food insecurity increased post-recession by 10%, which was not statistically significant. Post-recession, and with adjustment, although renters' higher absolute risk of food insecurity persisted, male-respondent home owners experienced the highest rate of increase in food insecurity prevalence by subgroup (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.06-1.50) versus renters (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.29). Housing policies in Canada protected most home owners from precarity during the 2008-2009 economic recession; however, male-respondent home owners exhibited a unique economic vulnerability during this time. Implications of Canadian home ownership policies are discussed in light of differential vulnerability of home owner groups.

  14. The slow elimination of legal protection in connection with the law on the protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geulen, R.

    1980-01-01

    The main cause of the reduction of legal protection against decisions under planning law and faits accomplis created during planning seems to stem from the practice adopted by those initiating and having an interest in projects, namely to prepare and somewhat anticipate the essential decisions long before government-controlle planning sets in. In fact, the licensing authorities which, according to their legal function, would have to check applications of operators with regard to licensing requirements, see themselves confined to follow a slow process of amalgamation with given, and, sometimes, factually executed planning decisions. In addition, the situation of the authorities regarding personnel and time does not allow them to carry out factual checking in its proper sense of, for example, licensing requirements for nuclear power plant construction. This process of amalgamation discussed by the author has an impact on the functions to be fulfilled by the courts, and on legal protection in general. The prognosis given by the author says that, due to this lack of efficient control by governmental authorities and courts especially in connection with the planning of large-scale projects likely to have an unfavourable effect on the environment, those persons or groups of persons feeling themselves insufficiently protected by the legal system, will more and more have recourse to political action rather than legal action. (orig.) [de

  15. The environment protection at the 21. century: radiological protection of the biosphere including man. Declaration of International union of radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Polikarpov, G.; Oughton, D.H.; Hunter, G.; Alexakhin, R.; Zhu, Y.G.; Hilton, J.; Strand, P.

    2003-01-01

    The International union of radioecology has been created in 1970 as an international scientific organisation to develop, inform and advise on every aspect in relation with radioactivity in environment. It advises to fill the gaps of knowledge in order to develop strong scientific bases on which found the environmental protection. Seven points of knowledge are to improve: the understanding of transfer, bio accumulating and metabolism of radionuclides in ecosystems (specially the non human food chains), understanding of low dose radiation effects on fauna, flora in chronic exposure on several generations, identification of criteria and targets of effects to allow comparisons in term of impact, effects coming from several pollutions, radioactive or non radioactive ones, extrapolation between the biological organisation levels, analysis of simultaneous effects for man and other living organisms, harmonization of a radiation protection system and a protection system against chemical toxicity, development of quantities and units allowing to qualify the noxious effects of radiations and chemical pollutants on living beings. (N.C.)

  16. Contraceptive Choice and Use of Dual Protection Among Women Living with HIV in Canada: Priorities for Integrated Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Angela; Patterson, Sophie; Carter, Allison; Loutfy, Mona; Ding, Erin; Sereda, Paul; Webster, Kath; Pick, Neora; Kestler, Mary; de Pokomandy, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Preventing unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission is important for women with HIV, but little is known about their contraceptive use, particularly under current antiretroviral therapy (ART) recommendations for treatment and prevention. The prevalence of contraceptive use and of dual protection was examined among 453 sexually active women with HIV aged 16-49 and enrolled in the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study in 2013-2015; multivariable logistic regression was used to identify correlates of use. Two definitions of dual protection were assessed: the World Health Organization (WHO) definition (consistent condom use alongside another effective method) and an expanded definition (consistent condom use or a suppressed HIV viral load alongside an effective method). Overall, 73% of women used effective contraceptives, primarily male condoms (45%) or tubal ligation (19%). Eighteen percent practiced WHO-defined dual protection, and 40% practiced dual protection according to the expanded definition. Characteristics positively associated with contraceptive use were younger age, having been pregnant, being heterosexual, being unaware of ART's HIV prevention benefits and having had partners of unknown HIV status (odds ratios, 1.1-6.7). Younger age and perceived inability to become pregnant were positively associated with both definitions of dual protection (1.04-3.3); additionally, WHO-defined dual protection was associated with perceiving HIV care to be women-centered and having had partners of unknown HIV status (2.0-4.1), and dual protection under the expanded definition was related to having been pregnant (2.7). Future research should explore how sustained ART and broader contraceptive options can support women's sexual and reproductive health care needs. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  17. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on environment laboratories: Protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    According to the Millennium Development Goals, managing the environment is considered an integral part of the global development process. The main purpose of the IAEA's environment laboratories is to provide Member States with reliable information on environmental issues and facilitate decision making on protection of the environment. An increasingly important feature of this work is to assess the impact of climate change on environmental sustainability and natural resources. The IAEA's environment laboratories use nuclear techniques, radionuclides, isotopic tracers and stable isotopes to gain a better understanding of the various marine processes, including locating the sources of pollutants and their fate, their transport pathways and their ultimate accumulation in sediments. Radioisotopes are also used to study bioaccumulation in organisms and the food chain, as well as to track signals of climate change throughout history. Natural and artificial radionuclides are used to track ocean currents in key regions. They are also used to validate models designed to predict the future impact of climate change and ocean acidification. The laboratories study the fate and impact of contamination on a variety of ecosystems in order to provide effective preventative diagnostic and remediation strategies. They enhance the capability of Member States to use nuclear techniques to understand and assess changes in their own terrestrial and atmospheric environments, and adopt suitable and sustainable remediation measures when needed. Since 1995, the IAEA environment laboratories have coordinated the international network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity, providing accurate analysis in the event of an accident or an intentional release of radioactivity. In addition, the laboratories work alongside other organizations, such as UNESCO, the IOC, UNEP and the EC. The laboratories collaborate with Member States through direct involvement with

  18. INFLUENCE OF WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE HEALTH PROTECTION OF THE ENTERPRISE STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V. Karpovich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the processes of health protection at modern industrial enterprises. Occupational health of workers is considered in the article as an important component of the sustainable development of the enterprise. The process of health protection is described in the study not only as a social component, but also as a process relating to all areas of sustainable development. The article attempts to show the place of ‘health-protection subsystem’ as part of an integrated system of industrial enterprises’ sustainable development. Four independent spheres of health protection programs implementation were pointed out at the level of enterprise – professional environment, the quality of workplace, involvement of employees in the process of health protection, involvement of the enterprise in the processes of health protection. The article emphasizes the interrelationship of biological and economic characteristics of human life and society in the formation of health protection processes. Programs for sustainable development taking into account the management of health protection should include two sets of activities: corrective and special ones. Tools used in health management programs aimed at expanding the choices of healthier behavior and altering the character of individual preferences in behavior within the framework of the formation of health tastes and preferences are defined. The authors present the results of the analysis of occupational diseases on the example of the three companies of the Perm region (Saranovskaya shakhta ‘Rudnaya’ OJSC, Motovilikhinskie zavody PJSC and Proton-PM PJSC. The results allowed to offer a list of universal and special arrangements for the implementation of health protection control programs within the mentioned industrial enterprises.

  19. School Connectedness and Protection from Symptoms of Depression in Sexual Minority Adolescents Attending School in Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N.; Asbridge, Mark; Langille, Donald B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In examining associations of sexual orientation, school connectedness (SC), and depression, no studies have used a continuum of sexual orientation. Additionally, no study has examined whether individuals with higher SC within subgroups of the continuum of sexual orientation are protected from symptoms of depression when compared to…

  20. Estimated protective effectiveness of intramuscular immune serum globulin post-exposure prophylaxis during a measles outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Mark; Murti, Michelle; Fung, Christina; Hemming, Felicity; Loadman, Susan; Stam, Robert; Van Buynder, Paul; Lem, Marcus

    2017-05-09

    Intramuscular Immune Serum Globulin (IM ISG) is recommended as post-measles exposure prophylaxis (PEP) when administered within 6days of initial exposure, with variable effectiveness in preventing measles disease. Effectiveness of IM ISG PEP in preventing clinical measles was assessed during a 2014 measles outbreak among a religious-affiliated community in British Columbia, Canada. Fifty-five self-reporting measles susceptible contacts were offered exclusively IM ISG PEP within an eligibility period best surmised to be within 6days of initial measles case exposure. Clinical outcome of IM ISG PEP recipients was determined by selective active surveillance and case self-reporting. IM ISG PEP failure was defined as onset of a measles-like rash 8-21days post-IM ISG PEP. Post-IM ISG PEP measles IgG antibody level was tested in 8 recipients. Factors associated with measles disease were analyzed. Seventeen of 55 IM ISG PEP recipients developed clinically consistent measles in the following 8-21days, corresponding to an estimated crude protective effectiveness of 69%. In school aged children 5-18years, among whom potential exposure intensity and immune status confounders were considered less likely, estimated IM ISG PEP protective effectiveness was 50%. Age effectiveness against measles disease within 8-21days post-ISG administration was 69%. Accuracy of this estimated protective effectiveness is vulnerable to assumptions and uncertainties in ascertaining exposure details and pre-exposure immune status. Increasing the Canadian recommended measles IM ISG PEP dose from 0.25 to 0.5ml/kg (up to 15ml maximum volume) may increase protective effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development, reliability and use of a food environment assessment tool in supermarkets of four neighbourhoods in Montréal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert-Arsenault, Élise; Robitaille, Éric; Paquette, Marie-Claude

    2017-09-01

    The food environment is a promising arena in which to influence people's dietary habits. This study aimed to develop a comprehensive food environment assessment tool for businesses and characterize the food environment of a low-tomedium income area of Montréal, Canada. We developed a tool, Mesure de l'environnement alimentaire du consommateur dans les supermarchés (MEAC-S), and tested it for reliability. We used the MEAC-S to assess the consumer food environment of 17 supermarkets in four neighbourhoods of Montréal. We measured the shelf length, variety, price, display counts and in-store positions of fruits and vegetables (FV) and ultra-processed food products (UPFPs). We also assessed fresh FV for quality. Store size was estimated using the total measured shelf length for all food categories. We conducted Spearman correlations between these indicators of the food environment. Reliability analyses revealed satisfactory results for most indicators. Characterization of the food environment revealed high variability in shelf length, variety and price of FV between supermarkets and suggested a disproportionate promotion of UPFPs. Display counts of UPFPs outside their normal display location ranged from 7 to 26, and they occupied 8 to 33 strategic in-store positions, whereas the number of display counts of fresh FV outside their normal display location exceeded 1 in only 2 of the 17 stores surveyed, and they occupied a maximum of 2 strategic in-store positions per supermarket. Price of UPFPs was inversely associated with their prominence (p environment between supermarkets and underscores the importance of measuring in-store characteristics to adequately picture the consumer food environment.

  2. Risky health environments: women sex workers' struggles to find safe, secure and non-exploitative housing in Canada's poorest postal code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, L; Chettiar, J; Deering, K; Nabess, R; Shannon, K

    2011-12-01

    This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-only single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels. Drawing on the risk environment framework and theoretical constructs of gender, agency and power, analyses demonstrate that women continue to be vulnerable to violence and sexual and economic exploitation and have reduced ability to negotiate risk reduction resulting from the physical, structural and social environments of current dominant male-centred housing models. Within the physical environment, women described inhabitable housing conditions in SROs with infestations of bedbugs and rats, leading women to even more transitional housing options such as shelters and couch-surfing. In many cases, this resulted in their economic exploitation and increased sexual risk. Within the structural environment, enforcement of curfews and guest policies forced women to accept risky clients to meet curfew, or work outdoors where their ability to negotiate safety and condom use were limited. Certain policies promoted women's agency and mitigated their ability to reduce risks when selling sex. These included flexible curfews and being able to bring clients home. The social environments of co-ed single-room occupancy hotels resulted in repeated violence by male residents and discrimination by male building staff. Women-only shelters and SROs facilitated 'enabling environments' where women developed support systems with other working women that resulted in safer work practices. The narratives expressed in this study reveal the critical need for public

  3. Application of the ICRP approach for radiological protection of the marine environment in generic impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliaus, Viktoryia [Republican Scientific-Practical Centre of Hygiene, Laboratory of Radiation Safety, Akademicheskaya str. 8, 220012, Minsk (Belarus); Telleria, Diego M. [IAEA-Assessment and Management of Environmental Releases Unit, Wagramer Strasse 5 - PO Box 100, A-1400, Vienna (Austria); Cabianca, Tiberio [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, PHE, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a way to use the ICRP approach for protection of the environment in generic assessments of the radiological impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. Generic assessments of radiological impact to the environment are needed in certain circumstances, for example, when input data are limited or when the likely radiological consequences are expected to be not significant. Under these circumstances the effort in performing the assessment must be commensurate with the potential radiological consequences. The generic assessment described in this paper is a simple tool which provides reasonable and cautious results and is applicable to multiple exposure scenarios associated with the assessment of the radiological impact of releases to the marine the environment. This generic assessment can be also used to provide preliminary results which, when compared to radiological criteria, may determine the need of further specific assessments. The ICRP based its approach to protect the environment in the definition of a set of reference animals and plants and the use of related radiological criteria, in the form of derived consideration reference levels. The paper discusses selection and exposure conditions of the reference animals and plants, methods to estimate their doses and the use of the radiological criteria, for the purpose of a generic assessment. The IAEA is elaborating applications of these generic impact assessments presented in the paper to be included in international guidance under development. (authors)

  4. 11th International Space Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The proceedings published in this book document and foster the goals of the 11th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-11 to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials. Contributions cover aspects of interaction with space environment of LEO, GEO, Deep Space, Planetary environments, ground-based qualification and in-flight experiments, as well as lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences.

  5. Marine environment protection for the North and Baltic Seas. Special Report - February 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The marine environment of the North Sea and Baltic Sea is still heavily polluted. The marine ecosystems are under severe stress from overfishing, water pollution, raw materials production and tourism. Environmental protection in this region necessitates decisive political initiatives and strict corrections especially in fishery policy, agricultural policy and chemical substances control. This is the balance of the special expert opinion of the Council of Environmental Experts. The publication specifies the main problem areas, the current pollution situation, the fields where action is most urgently required - especially in fishery, chemical substances, agricultural and sea travel policies - and presents suggestions for an integrated European and national marine protection policy including a regional development concept for the marine environment. (orig.)

  6. 10th meeting of the International Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Protection of Materials and Structures From the Space Environment

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the 10th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-10J, since its inception in 1992, have been to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials, including aspects of LEO, GEO and Deep Space environments, ground-based qualification, and in-flight experiments and lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of the atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences. The knowledge of environmental conditions on and around the Moon, Mars, Venus and the low Earth orbit as well as other possible candidates for landing such as asteroids have become an important issue, and protecting both hardware and human life from the effects of space environments has taken on a new meaning in light of the increased interest in space travel and colonization of other planets.  And while many materia...

  7. Role of the engineer in protecting personnel and the environment in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The engineer plays a key role in protecting both people and the environment from the adverse effects of radioactive materials. The nature of the hazards and some of the problems associated with plutonium and tritium operations are discussed and the solutions provided by sound engineering facility design are shown. Facility designs have been required for operations involving 239 Pu, 238 Pu and 3 H, and the different properties of these isotopes require differing solutions to design problems

  8. Protecting people and the environment - nuclear applications outside the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, P.P. de

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear technologies, isotope technologies, and applications of ionizing radiation are widespread, making important contributions to a continued worldwide improvement of the present standard of living and the protection of people and of the environment. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) develops and supports these technologies under the statute of the United Nations. Within this framework the Agency, among other items, promotes the exchange of information, the training of qualified personnel, the provision of the required equipment, and the drafting of international safety standards. Because of their special importance to people and the environment, mainly these areas are of interest: - nuclear medicine and health care, - veterinary medicine and livestock breeding, - soil cultivation and fertilization, - environmental protection and water supply, - plant cultivation, - pest control, - land mine clearing, protection of cultural assets. The IAEA, with its many decades of activity and experience, can boast of a large number of highly successful ventures. In many countries, the development and application of nuclear technologies have made important contributions, e.g., to improving the food situation, health care, and environmental protection. IAEA's continuing these activities is in the general interest of a promising international development and cooperation. (orig.) [de

  9. International conference on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    An International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), will be held in Stockholm, Sweden, from 6-10 October 2003. This Conference will be hosted by the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). This publication contains contributed papers submitted on issues within the scope of the conference, which were accepted following a review by the Conference Programme Committee. The primary objective of this Conference is to foster information exchange, with the aim of promoting the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from effects attributable to ionizing radiation. This Conference is one in a series of meetings organized by, or held in co-operation with, the IAEA on this subject. It will include a review of recent developments in this area, and consideration of their implications for future work at national and international levels. The topics on which contributed papers were requested are as follows: Existing environmental protection approaches; Development of an international assessment framework; The scientific basis for environmental radiation assessment; Development of management approaches.

  10. Ways to implement a health protective educational environment in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytyuk O.M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of organization and creation of health protective educational environment are exposed in higher institute. They foresee creation of the special terms for realization structurally of functional model of organization of students' healthy way of life. A model plugs in itself pedagogical, organizational, material and technical, sanitary-hygenic, informatively-methodical, skilled and financial economic terms. A questionnaire is conducted 95 students of 1-3 courses. It is set that the level of factors of risk for the health of students is high enough: prevalence of smoking is 47%, swizzles use more than 20%. It is discovered that the number of students with active physical activity makes not more than 45%. Most students consider that for the health they are responsible, ready and want to get information on forming of healthy way of life. Principles of organization of health protective behave to the features of organization of health protective of educational environment, nature protective, valeological, sequence, integration, pedagogical support, flexibility.

  11. National symposium: nuclear technique in industry, medicine, agriculture and environment protection. Abstracts of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The National Symposium 'Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection' has been held in Rynia near Warsaw from 24 to 27 April 1995. Totally 94 lectures have been presented. The actual state of art in Polish investigations have been shown in all branches of applied nuclear sciences. The plenary session devoted to general topics has began the symposium. Further conference has been divided into 18 subject sessions. There were: 1) radiation technologies in environment protection; 2) radiation technologies in materials engineering; 3) radiation preservation in food; 4) radiation techniques for medical use; 5) radiotracers in industrial investigations; 6) radiotracers in water and sewage management and leak control; 7) tracers in hydrology; 8) radiotracers in materials testing; 9) instruments for environment protection, 10) radiometric industrial gages; 11) diagnostic and testing instruments; 12) application of nuclear techniques in materials testing; 13) applications of nuclear techniques in geology and hydrogeology; 14) radioanalytical methods; 15) radiation detectors; 16) radiation measurements; 17) data processing from radiometric experiments; 18) accelerators, isotopes manufacturing, INIS

  12. Environment protection in the electric power supply of China. Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Naihu; Chen Heng

    1994-01-01

    In the course of its reformatory opening policy during the last years, the economy of China has developed very rapidly. However, this strong economic growth led to serious deficits in the electric power supply. The growth rate of the gross national product was generally higher than that of electric power production during this period. Great efforts were made in China to solve this problem. Numerous new thermal power plants were constructed. These were exclusively fueled by coal, as gas and oil production is limited in China and these raw materials are exported or used by the industry. In the past the spheres of energy politics and ecopolitics in China were largely separate. Increasing pressure from within, as a consequence of growing pollution, and demands from outside to comply with international pollutant emission standards are leading to an integration of environment protection in China's energy policies. The present article describes how China copes with the contradicting demands of its economic plight and environment protection and how it is responding to international demands. Besides this it relates the situation of and future prospects for environment protection in China's electric power supply. (orig.) [de

  13. Measures for protection of the environment and the breach of a foreign investor's rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the relationship between state measures aimed at protecting the environment and the so-called regulative expropriation of investment. Protection of the environment has established itself as a legitimate regulative purpose in legal doctrine and in a number of sources of international foreign investment law. In the analytical framework of police powers doctrine it would suggest that state measures taken for environmental reasons, even if they are harmful for the economic interests of foreign investor, cannot be considered regulative expropriation. However, arbitral practice shows more restrictive approach towards regulative freedom of states in this area. The right of state to regulate without imposition of a duty to compensate a foreign investor for his loss is not unconditionally accepted. The regulative measure must be taken in good faith, i.e. with the true purpose of protecting the environment and nondiscriminatory in its character. Furthermore, there is a tendency in arbitral practice that the legitimate regulative purpose of state measure is weighed against other factors such as legitimate expectations of a foreign investor and the level of his economic loss in order to determine whether the expropriation has occurred.

  14. Using ecosystem science to improve protection of the environment from radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, C. [Stockholm University (Sweden); Brechignac, F. [IUR / IRSN (France); Barnthouse, L. [LWB Environmental Services Inc. (United States); Brown, J. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Forbes, V. [University of Lincoln (United Kingdom); Kapustka, L. [LC LK Consultancy (Canada); Kautsky, U. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB - SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem approach (EA) involves considering the impacts of an anthropogenic stressor at the ecosystem level because this is usually the ultimate goal of environmental protection. As such, EA includes population, community and ecosystem effects, structural and functional effects, indirect effects due to ecological interactions between species, dynamic interactions, positive or negative feedback loops, and potential synergistic or antagonistic effects of multiple stressors (both anthropogenic and natural). All such effects better reflect the reality of the impact of a contamination scenario than if assessments are restricted to considering effects to individual organisms or species. Such effects may be greater or lesser than expected from studies of individual organisms or species, so not considering them may result in under- or overestimation of risk, respectively. EA is a term that is widely used in environmental assessment, management and legislation in a number of regulatory fields (e.g., radiation protection, chemicals legislation, fisheries policy, international biodiversity conventions). However, although its justification is now well established in a wide range of environment protection contexts, its practical use is still unclear due to poorly defined protection goals and assessment endpoints, making its implementation difficult. This paper presents the initial findings of a newly formed follow-up task group of the International Union of Radioecology whose aims are to identify ways to put the EA into practice when considering protection of the environment from radiation. Drawing on knowledge and experience from a range of fields, we summarise the types of ecosystem processes, goods and services that might be included when using this approach, the science that supports the use of the EA, and the methodological challenges that need to be addressed when implementing the EA in the field of radiation protection. Document available in abstract form only

  15. Canada's green plan: Summary. Le plan vert du Canada: Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of Canada's Green Plan, a comprehensive action plan to ensure a healthy environment for the future. The plan defines targets and schedules which will drive federal environmental initiatives, and incorporates concepts of sustainable development. Elements of the plan include initiatives to combat and prevent water pollution; control ocean dumping; control smog-causing emissions; provide tighter air pollution standards; provide for sound waste management according to the principles of reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover; assess and control chemical wastes; sustain Canadian forests and maintain their diversity while shifting forest management from sustained yield to sustainable development; maintain and enhance environmental sustainability in the agro-food sector and the fishery sector; preserve and protect national parks and wildlife; and preserve and enhance the integrity, health, biodiversity and productivity of Arctic ecosystems. With respect to global-scale problems, measures will be taken to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, limit acid rain-related emissions, and phase out the use of ozone-depleting substances. The plan also intends to improve Canada's capability to respond to environmental emergencies, improve environmental decision-making by strengthening and building of partnerships, promote environmental science research and development, and make effective and balanced use of enviromental laws, with market-based approaches for environmental protection.

  16. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, R. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and

  17. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and efficiency

  18. Prevalence of sun protection behaviors in Hispanic youth residing in a high ultraviolet light environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Lisa; Miller, Kimberly A; Huh, Jimi; Peng, David H; Unger, Jennifer B; Richardson, Jean L; Allen, Martin W; Cockburn, Myles

    2018-01-01

    Although rates of late-stage melanoma are rising in Hispanics, particularly those living in high ultraviolet light environments, little is known about the prevalence of sun protective behaviors in Hispanic children. We analyzed baseline data including frequency of sunburn, sun protective behaviors, level of U.S. acculturation, and skin phototype from a cross-sectional survey of 2003 Hispanic elementary school children in Los Angeles, California, who participated in a skin cancer prevention intervention. Although the Hispanic children reported frequently engaging in some sun protective behaviors, they also had a high rate of sunburn (59%) that exceeded previous national estimates for non-Hispanic white children (43%). Fewer U.S.-acculturated children reported more frequent shade-seeking at home (P = .02), along with less shade-seeking at school (P = .001) and more sunscreen use at school (P = .02). The surprisingly high rate of sunburn in Hispanic children suggests that the way in which they are practicing sun protection is not preventing sunburns. Sun safety interventions should be targeted toward Hispanic youth to provide them with practical methods of effective sun protection, in addition to education on the risks of high sun exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the many fundamental issues relating to the strategy being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. It discusses the need for a method for disposal of nuclear fuel waste that would permanently protect human health and the natural environment and that would not unfairly burden future generations. It also describes the background and mandate of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in Canada.

  20. Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the many fundamental issues relating to the strategy being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. It discusses the need for a method for disposal of nuclear fuel waste that would permanently protect human health and the natural environment and that would not unfairly burden future generations. It also describes the background and mandate of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in Canada.

  1. Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the many fundamental issues relating to the strategy being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. It discusses the need for a method for disposal of nuclear fuel waste that would permanently protect human health and the natural environment and that would not unfairly burden future generations. It also describes the background and mandate of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in Canada.

  2. Radiation protection as part of occupational health and safety in the regulation of uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The author establishes that radiation exposure is one of the health hazards of uranium mining and therefore has to be controlled. The jurisdictional framework for this is outlined and the role and functions of the Atomic Energy Control Board are detailed. The author then sets down seven objectives for radiation protection followed by an outline of the Canadian regulatory philosophy including an examination of two possible approaches to regulation of uranium mining and milling, and a sketch of pending new regulations. After setting down what he considers the main concerns of the AECB in mine regulation, the author details the Board's licensing process, compliance activities and relationship with workers. The conclusion includes a call for a more rational approach in considering and therefore dealing with radiation as a workplace hazard

  3. Application of Advanced Materials Protecting from Influence of Free Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Oleg; Shovkoplyas, Yuriy

    2016-07-01

    High cost and low availability of the components certified for use in the space environment forces satellite designers to using industrial and even commercial items. Risks associated with insufficient knowledge about behavior of these components in radiation environment are parried, mainly, by careful radiating designing of a satellite where application of special protective materials with improved space radiation shielding characteristics is one of the most widely used practices. Another advantage of protective materials application appears when a satellite designer needs using equipment in more severe space environment conditions then it has been provided at the equipment development. In such cases only expensive repeated qualification of the equipment hardness can be alternative to protective materials application. But mostly this way is unacceptable for satellite developers, being within strong financial and temporal restrictions. To apply protective materials effectively, the developer should have possibility to answer the question: "Where inside a satellite shall I place these materials and what shall be their shape to meet the requirements on space radiation hardness with minimal mass and volume expenses?" At that, the minimum set of requirements on space radiation hardness include: ionizing dose, nonionizing dose, single events, and internal charging. The standard calculative models and experimental techniques, now in use for space radiation hardness assurance of a satellite are unsuitable for the problem solving in such formulation. The sector analysis methodology, widely used in satellite radiating designing, is applicable only for aluminium shielding and doesn't allow taking into account advantages of protective materials. The programs simulating transport of space radiations through a substance with the use of Monte-Carlo technique, such as GEANT4, FLUKA, HZETRN and others, are fully applicable in view of their capabilities; but time required for

  4. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  5. Material and cultural assets. Part of radiation protection of the environment?; Sach- und Kulturgueter. Teil eines Strahlenschutzes der Umwelt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, R.G. [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Loebner, W.

    2015-07-01

    Since several years the protection of the environment has been discussed at various international levels as part of radiation protection. ICRP has published a number of recommendations which relate primarily to the evaluation of radiation exposures to non-human species. Nevertheless, not least because of the declaratory mention of the environment in national legislative documents, the question arises how the environment can be integrated into the radiation protection or whether the radiation protection must be even expanded to new fields. A less discussed aspect here covers material and cultural assets that are classified in environmental law as objects worthy of protection. The paper describes some issues that arise in this context and outlines a framework for the consideration of material assets in radiation protection.

  6. Protection of the environment. How to position radioprotection in an ecological risk assessment perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, Francois

    2003-01-01

    The development of a system capable of ensuring adequate protection of the environment from the harmful effects of ionising radiation is at present particularly debated. This need comes both from a restrictive consideration of the environment in the so far existing system for human radioprotection, and the planetary-wide growing concerns about man's technogenic influence on his environment which have yielded 'sustainability' and 'precaution' as guiding principles for environmental protection. Whilst evolving from the field of human radioprotection, the radioprotection of the environment needs to be discussed in a wider perspective, with particular emphasis on the most advanced concepts which emerge from the efforts to deriving improved approaches to Ecological Risk Assessment. For the sake of protection, the environment is traditionally addressed through its biota since these are the sensitive components of ecosystems. Similarities between man and biotas reflect the ubiquitous mechanistic effects of radiation on life which disrupt molecules. However, important differences also arise in a number of perspectives, from the large spectrum of different species of biotas to their hierarchical self-organisation as interacting populations within ecosystems. Altogether, these aspects are prone to promote complex arrays of different responses to stress which lie beyond the scope of human radioprotection due to its focus on individuals of a single species. By means of selected illustrations, this paper reviews and discusses the current challenges faced in proper identification of measurable effect endpoints (stochastic/deterministic, individual/population- or ecosystem-relevant), dose limits in chronic exposure (or levels of concern), and their consideration according to radiation type (RBE) and interactions with other contaminants (synergies/antagonisms) which represent critical gaps in knowledge. The system of human radioprotection has conceptually been targeted at limiting

  7. Global environment protection from the universe. Uchuu yori no chikyu kankyo hogo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, N. (National Space Development Agency of Japan NASDA, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-15

    Two articles of 'Care of coppice in Wood Totoro' and 'Global environment protection from the universe' are included in this report. The former explains the necessity of coppice conservation through an example of Sayama Hill in Tokyo. Until the time 30 years ago, coppices are deeply related to people as the places which supply fuel and fertilizer to villagers, but they have been left or cut down by energy source conversion and development of home lots. Now we must learn the traditional methods of caring coppices again and find a new sense of values regarding the nature. The latter introduces satellite-used remote sensing which allows to continuously scan all the areas of the earth within a short period for global environment protection. This sensor uses a wide range of wavelengths from light to radiowave. In the U.S., it is operated in the name of LANDSAT since 1972, and Japan is also operating various kinds of satellites for environment research concerning, e.g., CO2 concentration and resource exploration. 10 figs.

  8. Radiation protection of the environment. State of the art and recommendations by the IRSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Gilbin, R.; Simon-Cornu, M.; Baudry, M.; Deschamps, P.; Gariel, J.C.; Lecomte, J.F.; Paquet, F.; Renaud, P.; Schuler, M.

    2016-01-01

    This report notably aims at helping the GPRADE (Groupe permanent d'experts en radioprotection, pour les applications industrielles et de recherche des rayonnements ionisants, et en environnement - Permanent group of experts in radiation protection for industrial and research applications of ionizing radiations, and in environment) to build up its opinion on the French management of methods and technical regulations for the assessment of the radiological risk for the environment, or for the national transposition of the 2013/59/Euratom European directive. After a brief overview of the international, European and French legal context, the report proposes an overview of the state of the art: history, definitions, principles, regulation of radiation protection of the environment in different countries. It presents the main approaches and compares them: the CIPR approach, the Erica approach (the most used in Europe). It also discusses the compatibility of main approaches to the assessment of the radiological risk for ecosystems. It reports applications and returns on experience at the international level and within the frame of the IRSN commitment in planned, existing or emergency situations. Recommendations are formulated

  9. Protection of the Environment: Current ICRP Work and EC-Funded Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.M.; Holm, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    The requirement for assessments of the environmental effects of radiation, i.e. effects on non-human biota, is increasing due to growing public concern for environmental protection issues and integration of environmental impact assessments into the regulatory process. Thus, there is a strong need to establish a framework for the assessment of environmental impact of ionising radiation, as well as a system for protection of the environment from ionising radiation. These ambitions are reflected in a number of international efforts and various 'systems' have been proposed or are under development. This paper considers the current discussions on environmental protection within the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), as part of the Commission's ongoing revision of its recommendations as laid out in Publication 60. Furthermore, the paper reviews work within the EC-funded FASSET (Framework for ASSessment of Environmental impacT) project. The concepts developed both by ICRP and FASSET are similar, and the FASSET approach and results may illustrate how forthcoming ICRP recommendations could be turned into practical application. (orig.)

  10. Protective measures and human antibody response during an avian influenza H7N3 outbreak in poultry in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, Danuta M; Li, Yan; Tweed, S Aleina; Tam, Theresa W S; Petric, Martin; David, Samara T; Marra, Fawziah; Bastien, Nathalie; Lee, Sandra W; Krajden, Mel; Brunham, Robert C

    2007-01-02

    In 2004 an outbreak of avian influenza of the H7N3 subtype occurred among poultry in British Columbia, Canada. We report compliance with recommended protective measures and associated human infections during this outbreak. We sought voluntary participation by anyone (cullers, farmers and their families) involved in efforts to control the poultry outbreak. Recruitment was by advertisements at the worker deployment site, in local media and through newsletters sent directly to farmers. Sera were tested for antibody to H7N3 by microneutralization assay. A subset of 16 sera (including convalescent sera from 2 unprotected workers with conjunctivitis from whom virus had been isolated) was further tested by Western blot and routine and modified hemagglutination inhibition assays. A total of 167 people (20% to 25% of all workers) participated between May 7 and July 26, 2004. Of these, 19 had experienced influenza-like illness and 21 had experienced red or watery eyes. There was no significant association between illness reports and exposure to infected birds. Among 65 people who entered barns with infected birds, 55 (85%) had received influenza vaccine, 48 (74%) had received oseltamivir, and 55 (85%), 54 (83%) and 36 (55%) reported always wearing gloves, mask or goggles, respectively. Antibody to the H7 subtype was not detected in any sera. During the BC outbreak, compliance with recommended protective measures, especially goggles, was incomplete. Multiple back-up precautions, including oseltamivir prophylaxis, may prevent human infections and should be readily accessible and consistently used by those involved in the control of future outbreaks of avian influenza in poultry. Localized human avian influenza infections may not result in serologic response despite confirmed viral detection and culture.

  11. Protection of Microkernel Environment L4Re from Stack-smashed Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily Andreevich Sartakov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microkernel-based operating systems provide high level of protection due to the strong isolation of components, small size of Trusted Computing Base and execution of drivers in user space. At the same time, such systems are vulnerable to a stack overflow attacks, because these attacks exploit the hardware features of the platform, such as shared memory space for data and code. Modern architectures, such as AMD64 and ARM, provide opportunities to counteract attacks at the hardware level by disallowing memory allocation for storing executable stack and heap, but this protection mechanism requires additional support from the operating system. This paper presents memory management, program execution model and IPC mechanism of microkernel Fiasco.OC and environment L4Re from nonexecution memory support point of view.

  12. Development, reliability and use of a food environment assessment tool in supermarkets of four neighbourhoods in Montréal, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Jalbert-Arsenault

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The food environment is a promising arena in which to influence people’s dietary habits. This study aimed to develop a comprehensive food environment assessment tool for businesses and characterize the food environment of a low-tomedium income area of Montréal, Canada. Methods: We developed a tool, Mesure de l’environnement alimentaire du consommateur dans les supermarchés (MEAC-S, and tested it for reliability. We used the MEAC-S to assess the consumer food environment of 17 supermarkets in four neighbourhoods of Montréal. We measured the shelf length, variety, price, display counts and in-store positions of fruits and vegetables (FV and ultra-processed food products (UPFPs. We also assessed fresh FV for quality. Store size was estimated using the total measured shelf length for all food categories. We conducted Spearman correlations between these indicators of the food environment. Results: Reliability analyses revealed satisfactory results for most indicators. Characterization of the food environment revealed high variability in shelf length, variety and price of FV between supermarkets and suggested a disproportionate promotion of UPFPs. Display counts of UPFPs outside their normal display location ranged from 7 to 26, and they occupied 8 to 33 strategic in-store positions, whereas the number of display counts of fresh FV outside their normal display location exceeded 1 in only 2 of the 17 stores surveyed, and they occupied a maximum of 2 strategic in-store positions per supermarket. Price of UPFPs was inversely associated with their prominence (p $lt .005 and promotion (p $lt .003. Store size was associated with display counts and strategic in-store positioning of UPFPs (p $lt .001, but not FV, and was inversely associated with the price of soft drinks (p $lt .003. Conclusion: This study illustrates the variability of the food environment between supermarkets and underscores the importance of measuring in

  13. The agreement between Austria and the German Democratic Republic concerning environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, B.

    1989-01-01

    The agreement between Austria and the German Democratic Republic concerning the cooperation in the field of environment protection is in force since 1988 07 01. The mutual pollutant-immission should be reduced by exchange of knowledge and experience, cooperation of experts and development of working plans. The problems of brown-coal combustion should be reduced by extended use of nuclear energy. The article examines the content of the agreement and its coordination with the international agreement about long range transfrontier air-pollution

  14. Potential relocation of climatic environments suggests high rates of climate displacement within the North American protection network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batllori, Enric; Parisien, Marc-André; Parks, Sean A; Moritz, Max A; Miller, Carol

    2017-08-01

    Ongoing climate change may undermine the effectiveness of protected area networks in preserving the set of biotic components and ecological processes they harbor, thereby jeopardizing their conservation capacity into the future. Metrics of climate change, particularly rates and spatial patterns of climatic alteration, can help assess potential threats. Here, we perform a continent-wide climate change vulnerability assessment whereby we compare the baseline climate of the protected area network in North America (Canada, United States, México-NAM) to the projected end-of-century climate (2071-2100). We estimated the projected pace at which climatic conditions may redistribute across NAM (i.e., climate velocity), and identified future nearest climate analogs to quantify patterns of climate relocation within, among, and outside protected areas. Also, we interpret climatic relocation patterns in terms of associated land-cover types. Our analysis suggests that the conservation capacity of the NAM protection network is likely to be severely compromised by a changing climate. The majority of protected areas (~80%) might be exposed to high rates of climate displacement that could promote important shifts in species abundance or distribution. A small fraction of protected areas (climates that represent analogs of conditions currently characterizing almost a fifth of the protected areas across NAM. However, the majority of nearest climatic analogs for protected areas are in nonprotected locations. Therefore, unprotected landscapes could pose additional threats, beyond climate forcing itself, as sensitive biota may have to migrate farther than what is prescribed by the climate velocity to reach a protected area destination. To mitigate future threats to the conservation capacity of the NAM protected area network, conservation plans will need to capitalize on opportunities provided by the existing availability of natural land-cover types outside the current network of NAM

  15. The hydrogeologic environment for a proposed deep geologic repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste - 59285

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Jonathan F.; Normani, Stefano D.; Yin, Yong; Jensen, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the Bruce nuclear site in Ontario, Canada. As proposed the DGR would be constructed at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation. This paper describes the hydrogeology of the DGR site developed through both site characterization studies and regional-scale numerical modelling analysis. The analysis provides a framework for the assembly and integration of the site-specific geo-scientific data and examines the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier. Flow system evolution was accomplished using both the density-dependent FRAC3DVS-OPG flow and transport model and the two-phase gas and water flow computational model TOUGH2-MP. In the geologic framework of the Province of Ontario, the DGR is located on the eastern flank of the Michigan Basin. Borehole logs covering Southern Ontario combined with site-specific data from 6 deep boreholes have been used to define the structural contours and hydrogeologic properties at the regional-scale of the modelled 31 sedimentary strata that may be partially present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock. The regional-scale domain encompasses an approximately 18500 km 2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The groundwater zone below the Devonian includes units containing stagnant water having high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/L. The Ordovician sediments are significantly under-pressured. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Cobourg limestone is estimated to be 2x10 -14 m/s based on straddle-packer hydraulic tests. The low advective velocities in the Cobourg and other Ordovician units result in solute transport that is diffusion dominant with Peclet numbers less than 0:003 for a characteristic length of unity. Long

  16. Chemistry for the protection of the environment. Environmental science research. Volume 42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlowski, L. [ed.; Lacy, W.J.; Dlugosz, J.J.

    1992-12-31

    This book contains the Proceedings from an International Conference on Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment held in Lublin, Poland, September 4-7, 1989. It opens with a tribute to Andre Van Haute who was a member of the Committee on the title subject and who died in 1989. This is followed by a preface by the editors and 70 chapters, which are grouped under the following headings: General Problems; Monitoring Methods for Surface and Ground water and Analysis of Pollutants; Pathways of Chemicals in the Environment; Physicochemical Treatment: Ion Exchange; Physicochemical Treatment: Coagulation, Flocculation and Sorption; Physicochemical Treatment: Oxidation-Reduction Processes; Physicochemical Treatment; Membrane Processes; and Miscellaneous Methods for Removal of Pollutants. There is a brief subject index.

  17. Conference ECORAD 2004 - the scientific basis for environment protection against radioactivity. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Under strong social pressure driven by current environmental concerns, all environmentalists are called to construct scientific knowledge, concepts and principles suitable to ensure acceptable mastering of ecological risk. Environment Protection against radioactivity is certainly the new challenge for radioecology. Originally, radioecology has evolved with the primary goal of assessing the impact of radioactivity on man, and as such, was focused on transfer to man through the environment. Now, following a trend that is already underway for other toxicants, the environment itself is also considered as a target requiring protection. As compared to the past, this new focus of radioecology is even more 'science demanding' particularly for basic understanding in biology and ecology. In addition to the knowledge on acute effects of high doses of radioactivity on small human critical groups, it is needed to know what happens to large ecosystems when loaded with small, but long-lasting, amounts of radio-toxicants. In addition to simple direct transfer, it is needed to take into account complex interaction processes and cycling that may lead to the redistribution of radionuclides, and eventually to their bioconcentration. In addition to classical situations like external irradiation, inhalation and wounding, it is necessary to study more thoroughly the effects of internal contamination following trophic chains. In addition to the most studied physical transfer and dispersion phenomena, it is mandatory to clarify how the many differentiating processes at work in the biosphere are acting on bioavailability, a feature that is overlooked in the current homogeneous approach of simplistic models. For all these reasons, today radioecology has to deepen its roots in the main stream of environment protection and the most advanced, or actively evolving, associated set of sciences. Practical implications of radioecology are huge. International organisations are already thinking of

  18. Conference ECORAD 2004 - the scientific basis for environment protection against radioactivity. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Under strong social pressure driven by current environmental concerns, all environmentalists are called to construct scientific knowledge, concepts and principles suitable to ensure acceptable mastering of ecological risk. Environment Protection against radioactivity is certainly the new challenge for radioecology. Originally, radioecology has evolved with the primary goal of assessing the impact of radioactivity on man, and as such, was focused on transfer to man through the environment. Now, following a trend that is already underway for other toxicants, the environment itself is also considered as a target requiring protection. As compared to the past, this new focus of radioecology is even more 'science demanding' particularly for basic understanding in biology and ecology. In addition to the knowledge on acute effects of high doses of radioactivity on small human critical groups, it is needed to know what happens to large ecosystems when loaded with small, but long-lasting, amounts of radio-toxicants. In addition to simple direct transfer, it is needed to take into account complex interaction processes and cycling that may lead to the redistribution of radionuclides, and eventually to their bioconcentration. In addition to classical situations like external irradiation, inhalation and wounding, it is necessary to study more thoroughly the effects of internal contamination following trophic chains. In addition to the most studied physical transfer and dispersion phenomena, it is mandatory to clarify how the many differentiating processes at work in the biosphere are acting on bioavailability, a feature that is overlooked in the current homogeneous approach of simplistic models. For all these reasons, today radioecology has to deepen its roots in the main stream of environment protection and the most advanced, or actively evolving, associated set of sciences. Practical implications of radioecology are huge. International organisations are already thinking of

  19. Conference ECORAD 2004 - the scientific basis for environment protection against radioactivity. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Under strong social pressure driven by current environmental concerns, all environmentalists are called to construct scientific knowledge, concepts and principles suitable to ensure acceptable mastering of ecological risk. Environment Protection against radioactivity is certainly the new challenge for radioecology. Originally, radioecology has evolved with the primary goal of assessing the impact of radioactivity on man, and as such, was focused on transfer to man through the environment. Now, following a trend that is already underway for other toxicants, the environment itself is also considered as a target requiring protection. As compared to the past, this new focus of radioecology is even more 'science demanding' particularly for basic understanding in biology and ecology. In addition to the knowledge on acute effects of high doses of radioactivity on small human critical groups, it is needed to know what happens to large ecosystems when loaded with small, but long-lasting, amounts of radio-toxicants. In addition to simple direct transfer, it is needed to take into account complex interaction processes and cycling that may lead to the redistribution of radionuclides, and eventually to their bioconcentration. In addition to classical situations like external irradiation, inhalation and wounding, it is necessary to study more thoroughly the effects of internal contamination following trophic chains. In addition to the most studied physical transfer and dispersion phenomena, it is mandatory to clarify how the many differentiating processes at work in the biosphere are acting on bioavailability, a feature that is overlooked in the current homogeneous approach of simplistic models. For all these reasons, today radioecology has to deepen its roots in the main stream of environment protection and the most advanced, or actively evolving, associated set of sciences. Practical implications of radioecology are huge. International organisations are already

  20. The Science of Science Communication and Protecting the Science Communication Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Promoting public comprehension of science is only one aim of the science of science communication and is likely not the most important one for the well-being of a democratic society. Ordinary citizens form quadrillions of correct beliefs on matters that turn on complicated scientific principles they cannot even identify much less understand. The reason they fail to converge on beliefs consistent with scientific evidence on certain other consequential matters—from climate change to genetically modified foods to compusory adolescent HPV vaccination—is not the failure of scientists or science communicators to speak clearly or the inability of ordinary citizens to understand what they are saying. Rather, the source of such conflict is the proliferation of antagonistic cultural meanings. When they become attached to particular facts that admit of scientific investigation, these meanings are a kind of pollution of the science communication environment that disables the faculties ordinary citizens use to reliably absorb collective knowledge from their everyday interactions. The quality of the science communication environment is thus just as critical for enlightened self-government as the quality of the natural environment is for the physical health and well-being of a society's members. Understanding how this science communication environment works, fashioning procedures to prevent it from becoming contaminated with antagonistic meanings, and formulating effective interventions to detoxify it when protective strategies fail—those are the most critical functions science communication can perform in a democratic society.

  1. An atmospheric vulnerability assessment framework for environment management and protection based on CAMx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Li, Yu

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an atmospheric vulnerability assessment framework based on CAMx that should be helpful to assess potential impacts of changes in human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements of atmospheric vulnerability. It is also a useful and effective tool that can provide policy-guidance for environmental protection and management to reduce the atmospheric vulnerability. The developed framework was applied to evaluate the atmospheric environment vulnerability of 13 cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region for verification. The results indicated that regional disparity of the atmospheric vulnerability existed in the study site. More specifically, the central and southern regions show more atmospheric environment vulnerability than the northern regions. The impact factors of atmospheric environment vulnerability in the BTH region mainly derived from increasing population press, frequently unfavorable meteorological conditions, extensive economic growth of secondary industry, increased environmental pollution, and accelerating population aging. The framework shown in this paper is an interpretative and heuristic tool for a better understanding of atmospheric vulnerability. This framework can also be replicated at different spatial and temporal scales using context-specific datasets to straightly support environmental managers with decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR PROTECTION AGAINST DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: THE INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS DECISION IN LENAHAN (GONZALES AND ITS APPLICATION IN CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Koshan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In August, 2011, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights released its decision in Jessica Lenahan (Gonzales v United States, a case concerning states’ obligations to use due diligence in responding to domestic violence. The IACHR found that the United States had breached several articles of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man for failing to protect Lenahan and her children from domestic violence, and made wide-reaching recommendations at both the individual and systemic level. This comment will discuss the IACHR decision in Lenahan and analyze its implications for Canada’s compliance with its international obligations towards domestic violence in the judicial, legislative and policy spheres. Focusing on the concept of access to justice as articulated by the IACHR, the analysis will show that Canada may be in violation of its obligations for failing to provide access to justice in the context of domestic violence, and otherwise in violation of its due diligence obligations under international law. En août 2011, la Commission interaméricaine des droits de l’homme [CIDH] rendait sa décision dans l’affaire Jessica Lenahan (Gonzales c. les États-Unis, cas ayant trait à l’obligation des États de faire preuve d’une diligence raisonnable dans ses interventions en matière de violence familiale. La CIDH a conclu que les États-Unis avaient contrevenu à plusieurs articles de la Déclaration américaine des droits et devoirs de l’homme, étant donné qu’ils n’avaient pas protégé Mme Lenahan et ses enfants contre des actes de violence familiale. Elle a formulé des recommandations d’une grande portée tant au plan individuel que systémique. Le présent commentaire porte sur la décision de la CIDH dans l’affaire Lenahan et présente une analyse des répercussions de cette décision en ce qui concerne le respect par le Canada de ses obligations internationales à l’égard de la violence familiale

  3. Estimatation of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of melon cultivated in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia S. Lozano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to determine the water consumption and the crop coefficient of melon in a protected environment. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Technical Center of Irrigation of the State University of Maringá, in Maringá, PR. The melon hybrid used was Sunrise and the irrigations were performed daily by drip irrigation. Crop water requirement was quantified based on its evapotranspiration directly measured through constant water table lysimeters. Weather information was collected in an automatic weather station, installed inside the protected environment, which allowed to calculate the reference evapotranspiration by the Penman-Monteith method. The total water consumption of the melon crop was 295 mm, reaching maximum crop evapotranspiration of 5.16 mm d-1. The phenological stages were shorter in the initial, growth and intermediate phases, compared with the data from FAO. The determined crop coefficients were 0.87, 1.15 and 0.64 for the initial, intermediate and final stages, respectively

  4. Pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Gabriel Abrahão Bomfim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral biology and pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties, and to determine the best varieties to cultivate under protected environment. Three seedless (HA-5106, HA-5158, and HA-5161 and two seeded (Minipol and Polimore genotypes were tested. Flowers were monitored from the pre-anthesis stage to senescence, and fruit quality was also evaluated. The evaluated treatments were hand-geitonogamous pollination (MG, cross-pollination with pollen from the Polimore variety (MCP, cross-pollination with pollen from the Minipol variety (MCM, and restricted pollination. All varieties had monoecious plants with diclinous flowers, and the stigmas remained receptive throughout anthesis. Fruit set rates of 84.62% (MG, 61.54% (MCP, 48% (MCM, and 0% (restricted were obtained for seeded varieties, but of 0% (MG, 76.36% (MCP, 82.69% (MCM, and 0% (restricted for seedless varieties. Fruits did not differ in quality among treatments within each genotype. Therefore, all the studied varieties require a pollination agent and diploid pollen for fruit set to occur, regardless of the donor variety; and Minipol or Polimore with HA-5106 or HA-5158 are the varieties recommended for cultivation in protected environment.

  5. Variability, plot size and border effect in lettuce trials in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The variability within rows of cultivation may reduce the accuracy of experiments conducted in a complete randomized block design if the rows are considered as blocks, however, little is known about this variability in protected environments. Thus, our aim was to study the variability of the fresh mass in lettuce shoot, growing in protected environment, and to verify the border effect and size of the experimental unit in minimizing the productive variability. Data from two uniformity trials carried out in a greenhouse in autumn and spring growing seasons were used. In the statistical analyses, it was considered the existence of parallel cultivation rows the lateral openings of the greenhouse and of columns perpendicular to these openings. Different scenarios were simulated by excluding rows and columns to generate several borders arrangements and also to use different sizes of the experimental unit. For each scenario, homogeneity test of variances between remaining rows and columns was performed, and it was calculated the variance and coefficient of variation. There is variability among rows in trials with lettuce in plastic greenhouses and the border use does not bring benefits in terms of reduction of the coefficient of variation or minimizing the cases of heterogeneous variances among rows. In experiments with lettuce in a plastic greenhouse, the use of an experimental unit size greater than or equal to two plants provides homogeneity of variances among rows and columns and, therefore, allows the use of a completely randomized design.

  6. Technical knowledge assessment in radiology in patients protection in collective environments and more radiosensitive organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of X-rays in medical fields has increased significantly in recent years, since various therapeutic procedures can be performed without the need for surgery, which presents the greatest risk to the patient. An example of this increase is the practice of cardiac catheterization, this procedure fluoroscopy is used for placement of central venous catheters and temporary pacemakers, and long-term use increases the risk of exposure to X-rays to the patient, doctor and his assistants. This has been observed with concern by many researchers, since many companies did not fit the standards of radiation protection. This failure can lead to exposure of professionals, patients and caregivers. It is therefore of fundamental importance, the use of personal protective equipment such as aprons and thyroid plumbíferos protectors, for dose reduction produced by the primary and secondary radiation. This study evaluated the knowledge of radiology professionals in Goiânia, on the use of lead apron in collective environments and use of guards in sensitive parts of patients to radiation. Through an information gathering technique based on a questionnaire with closed questions. From dista and focuses on the knowledge of professionals. The results showed that there is a serious deficiency as regards the most radiosensitive organ protection of patients when they are exposed to X-ray beams. (author)

  7. Ethics, genetics and dynamics: an emerging systematic approach to radiation protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    There is now a general consensus of opinion that an explicit approach is necessary to demonstrate radiation protection of the environment, and that this approach needs to be developed in a systematic way. The framework that is emerging links ethical and moral issues (anthropocentric, biocentric, and ecocentric) to broad-based principles and objectives of environmental protection (sustainable development, maintaining biological diversity, and habitat protection) and then links these, in turn, to the needs of current environmental management practices, such as environmental exploitation, pollution control, and nature conservation. The relevance of this to radiation is that its effects (such as causing early mortality, morbidity, reduced reproductive success, as well as resulting in observable (scorable) cytogenetic damage) are those that may have a bearing on these same environmental management practices. The devise that would appear to be most useful to bridge the gap between our disparate data on radiation effects and the needs of environmental management, is that of adding to the concept of Reference Man in the shape of a small set of Reference Animals and Plants. This approach has now been adopted by the ICRP, adding new dynamics--the motive forces, both moral and physical--to the subject. The way is now clear for rapid progress to be made on a number of fronts

  8. Capability and limits of EC policy and instruments for protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarass, H.D.; Neumann, L.F.; Pastowski, A.; Ruhr, H.J. von der; Schreiber, F.

    1994-01-01

    The authors who contributed to this compilation of studies start from different points of view in their approaches towards describing the existing (or desirable) balance between centralised and decentralised frameworks and instruments of the EC policy for protection of the environment: A total harmonisation of environmental protection standards would be inconsistent with the principles of competition and, in terms of environmental protection, would rather foster a climate tending to be hostile to innovation. The impetus given by the EC in support of free mobility in the transport sector of the internal market on the other hand ought to be flanked by mandatory ecological standards. Adhering to the economic theory of federalism would mean to decide for a high degree of decentralisation, which in turn does not seem to be altogether appropriate in view of the large scope of impact of environmental damage and the mutual ecological dependence of EC member states. A more centralised regulatory competence has to be accompanied by correspondingly strong, democratic institutions in order to fulfill the principles of constitutional law. The priority given to the principle of subsidiarity in the compromise laid down in the Treaty of Maastricht needs to be given concrete shape [de

  9. Evolution of tripartite entangled states in a decohering environment and their experimental protection using dynamical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Arvind, Dorai, Kavita

    2018-02-01

    We embarked upon the task of experimental protection of different classes of tripartite entangled states, namely, the maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W states and the tripartite entangled state called the W W ¯ state, using dynamical decoupling. The states were created on a three-qubit NMR quantum information processor and allowed to evolve in the naturally noisy NMR environment. Tripartite entanglement was monitored at each time instant during state evolution, using negativity as an entanglement measure. It was found that the W state is most robust while the GHZ-type states are most fragile against the natural decoherence present in the NMR system. The W W ¯ state, which is in the GHZ class yet stores entanglement in a manner akin to the W state, surprisingly turned out to be more robust than the GHZ state. The experimental data were best modeled by considering the main noise channel to be an uncorrelated phase damping channel acting independently on each qubit, along with a generalized amplitude damping channel. Using dynamical decoupling, we were able to achieve a significant protection of entanglement for GHZ states. There was a marginal improvement in the state fidelity for the W state (which is already robust against natural system decoherence), while the W W ¯ state showed a significant improvement in fidelity and protection against decoherence.

  10. Achieving sustainable ese of environment: a framework for payment for protected forest ecosystem service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widicahyono, A.; Awang, S. A.; Maryudi, A.; Setiawan, M. A.; Rusdimi, A. U.; Handoko, D.; Muhammad, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    Over the last decade, deforestation in Indonesia has reduced the forest area down to more than 6 million hectares. There is conflict that the protected forest ecosystem service is still often perceived as public goods. Many of them went unrecognized in planning process and continue to be undervalued. The challenge lies in maintaining socioeconomic development and ecosystem services sustainability without overlooking the people’s opportunities and improving their livelihoods over the long term. An integrated approach is required to understand the comprehensive concept of protected forest ecosystem service. This research aims to formulate a scheme of payment for ecosystem service (PES) in a protected forest. It is a first step towards the attempt for the value of ecosystem services to be reflected in decision-making. Literatures, previous researches and secondary data are reviewed thoroughly to analyze the interrelated components by looking at the environment as a whole and recognize their linkages that have consequences to one another both positive and negative. The framework of implementation of PES schemes outlines the complexity of human-environment interconnecting relationships. It evaluates the contributing actors of different interest i.e. long term use and short term use. The concept of PES accommodates the fulfillment of both conservation and exploitation with an incentive scheme to the contributing parties who are willing to implement conservation and issuance of compensation expense for any exploitation means. The most crucial part in this concept is to have a good and effective communication between every policy makers concerning the forest ecosystem and local communities.

  11. Associations between socioeconomic, parental and home environment factors and fruit and vegetable consumption of children in grades five and six in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attorp, Adrienne; Scott, Jenny E; Yew, Ann C; Rhodes, Ryan E; Barr, Susan I; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-02-11

    Regular fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption has been associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Evidence from adults shows a social gradient in FV consumption. Evidence from pre-adolescent children varies and there is little Canadian data. This study assessed the FV intake of school children in British Columbia (BC), Canada to determine whether socio-economic status (SES), parental and the home environment factors were related to FV consumption. As part of the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutrition Program, 773 British Columbia fifth-and sixth-grade school children (Mean age 11.3 years; range 10.3-12.5) and their parents were surveyed to determine FV consumption and overall dietary intake. Students completed a web-based 24-hour dietary food recall, and a student measure of socio-economic status (The Family Affluence Scale). Parents completed a self-administered survey about their education, income, home environment and perceptions of their neighbourhood and children's eating habits. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association between SES, parental and home environment factors and FV consumption. Approximately 85.8% of children in this study failed to meet minimum Canadian guidelines for FV intake (6 servings). Parent income and education were not significantly associated with child FV consumption but were associated with each other, child-reported family affluence, neighbourhood environment, access to FV, and eating at the table or in front of the television. Significant positive associations were found between FV consumption and child-reported family affluence, meal-time habits, neighbourhood environment and parent perceptions of the healthiness of their child's diet; however, these correlations were weak (ranging from .089-.115). Multiple regression analysis showed that only child-reported family affluence significantly predicted FV consumption (std-β = 0.096 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.27). The majority of children in

  12. Magnetic susceptibility evolution and sedimentary environments on carbonate platform sediments and atolls, comparison of the Frasnian from Belgium and Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Anne-Christine; Potma, Ken; Weissenberger, John A. W.; Whalen, Michael T.; Humblet, Marc; Mabille, Cédric; Boulvain, Frédéric

    2009-02-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements on carbonate rocks are considered as a proxy for impurities delivered to the carbonate environments. In the absence of strong climatic or tectonic variations, bulk MS values have been linked to sea level variations, because sea-level fall increases clastic supply and therefore increases in magnetic mineral deposition. In this paper we explore the relationship between the average magnitude of bulk MS, with shallowing-up sequences and facies evolution in different Devonian carbonate complexes. Similarities and differences between these parameters have been scrutinized in carbonate attached platform and detached platforms (mounds and/or atolls) from Belgium and Canada. In the carbonate attached platforms from Belgium and Canada, the MS patterns are directly related to depositional environment. Mean MS values increase from the most distal towards the most proximal facies and towards the top of the majority of fourth-order shallowing-up sequences. These trends are in agreement with theoretical background (MS increases with regression). In the Belgian detached platform, the average MS pattern generally shows an opposite behaviour to that observed in the attached carbonate platforms. Average MS decreases towards the most proximal facies and towards the top of a majority of the fourth-order shallowing-up sequences. This behaviour can be explained by the influence of sedimentary rate and water agitation during deposition. A high sedimentary rate will dilute the magnetic minerals in the atoll facies and the high water agitation during deposition may be expected to have prevented the deposition of the magnetic grains. So, the combination of these two effects will result in the observed low values in the atoll crown and lagoonal facies. In the Canadian detached platform, MS is mainly negative. This means that the limestones are very pure. The technique does not appear to be appropriate in these rocks. The variations of average MS

  13. WATERPROTECT: Innovative tools enabling drinking water protection in rural and urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuntjens, Piet; Campling, Paul; Joris, Ingeborg; Wauters, Erwin; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Kuczynska, Anna; Lajer Hojberg, Anker; Capri, Ettore; Brabyn, Cristina; Boeckaert, Charlotte; Mellander, Per Erik; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Pop, Edit

    2017-04-01

    High-quality, safe, and sufficient drinking water is essential for life: we use it for drinking, food preparation and cleaning. Agriculture is the biggest source of pesticides and nitrate pollution in European fresh waters. The overarching objective of the recently approved H2020 project WATERPROTECT is to contribute to effective uptake and realisation of management practices and mitigation measures to protect drinking water resources. Therefore WATERPROTECT will create an integrative multi-actor participatory framework including innovative instruments that enable actors to monitor, to finance and to effectively implement management practices and measures for the protection of water sources. We propose seven case studies involving multiple actors in implementing good practices (land management, farming, product stewardship, point source pollution prevention) to ensure safe drinking water supply. The seven case studies cover different pedo-climatic conditions, different types of farming systems, different legal frameworks, larger and smaller water collection areas across the EU. In close cooperation with actors in the field in the case studies (farmers associations, local authorities, water producing companies, private water companies, consumer organisations) and other stakeholders (fertilizer and plant protection industry, environment agencies, nature conservation agencies, agricultural administrations) at local and EU level, WATERPROTECT will develop innovative water governance models investigating alternative pathways from focusing on the 'costs of water treatment' to 'rewarding water quality delivering farming systems'. Water governance structures will be built upon cost-efficiency analysis related to mitigation and cost-benefit analysis for society, and will be supported by spatially explicit GIS analyses and predictive models that account for temporal and spatial scaling issues. The outcome will be improved participatory methods and public policy instruments

  14. Energy-efficient privacy protection for smart home environments using behavioral semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Homin; Basaran, Can; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2014-09-02

    Research on smart environments saturated with ubiquitous computing devices is rapidly advancing while raising serious privacy issues. According to recent studies, privacy concerns significantly hinder widespread adoption of smart home technologies. Previous work has shown that it is possible to infer the activities of daily living within environments equipped with wireless sensors by monitoring radio fingerprints and traffic patterns. Since data encryption cannot prevent privacy invasions exploiting transmission pattern analysis and statistical inference, various methods based on fake data generation for concealing traffic patterns have been studied. In this paper, we describe an energy-efficient, light-weight, low-latency algorithm for creating dummy activities that are semantically similar to the observed phenomena. By using these cloaking activities, the amount of  fake data transmissions can be flexibly controlled to support a trade-off between energy efficiency and privacy protection. According to the experiments using real data collected from a smart home environment, our proposed method can extend the lifetime of the network by more than 2× compared to the previous methods in the literature. Furthermore, the activity cloaking method supports low latency transmission of real data while also significantly reducing the accuracy of the wireless snooping attacks.

  15. Natural radiation, protection against its effects and maintaining safe natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassan, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring radioactivity and its consequences is an issue that needs the global concern, as practices bringing such radioactive materials closer to human environment through mining, building, industrial applications and food production and preservation is continuously increasing, in addition to the daily consumption in foods such as banana, carrot, potato and drinking water. Although it has direct and indirect impacts affecting human health that in some cases lead to the loss of lives and polluting natural environment, it is an inevitable task that necessitates devising some means of its minimization and protection against its hazardous effects. This could be achieved by the use of expertise ideas and by the creation of awareness and sharing related information with the people concerned and the general public. This paper gives an overview on the radiation present in natural environment, its sources, mechanism of its effects. The paper compares the radiation dose limits with the average doses from these sources in order to raise the challenges facing researchers, governments and the general individuals with regard to this issue. The paper also proposed applicable solutions to reduce the risks due to the exposure to natural radiation to ground level. (author)

  16. Energy-Efficient Privacy Protection for Smart Home Environments Using Behavioral Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homin Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on smart environments saturated with ubiquitous computing devices is rapidly advancing while raising serious privacy issues. According to recent studies, privacy concerns significantly hinder widespread adoption of smart home technologies. Previous work has shown that it is possible to infer the activities of daily living within environments equipped with wireless sensors by monitoring radio fingerprints and traffic patterns. Since data encryption cannot prevent privacy invasions exploiting transmission pattern analysis and statistical inference, various methods based on fake data generation for concealing traffic patterns have been studied. In this paper, we describe an energy-efficient, light-weight, low-latency algorithm for creating dummy activities that are semantically similar to the observed phenomena. By using these cloaking activities, the amount of  fake data transmissions can be flexibly controlled to support a trade-off between energy efficiency and privacy protection. According to the experiments using real data collected from a smart home environment, our proposed method can extend the lifetime of the network by more than 2× compared to the previous methods in the literature. Furthermore, the activity cloaking method supports low latency transmission of real data while also significantly reducing the accuracy of the wireless snooping attacks.

  17. Applying an Ecohealth Perspective in a State of the Environment Report: Experiences of a Local Public Health Unit in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We applied an Ecohealth perspective into a State of the Environment report for Grey Bruce Health Unit and summarized environmental and health data relevant for public health practice. We aimed for comprehensiveness in our data compilation, including: standard media categories (e.g., air, water, land; and ecological indicators (e.g., vectors, forests, wetlands. Data sources included both primary (collected by an organization and secondary (assembled by others. We organized indicators with the Driving forces-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA framework created by the World Health Organization. Indicators of air, water and land quality generally appeared to point towards a healthy state. Vector-borne diseases remained low. Forests and wetlands appeared to be in good condition, however more monitoring data was needed to determine trends in their ecological indicators. Data were not available on biodiversity and fish conditions. The results of our application of the DPSEEA framework suggest that routinely collected environmental and health data can be structured into the framework, though challenges arose due to gaps in data availability, particularly for social and gender analyses. Ecohealth approaches had legitimacy with broader healthy community partners but applying such approaches was a complex undertaking.

  18. Manual work in cold environments and its impact on selection of materials for protective gloves based on workplace observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzmańska, Emilia; Wójcik, Paulina; Adamus-Włodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2018-04-01

    This article presents a workplace observations on manual work in cold environments and its impact on the selection of materials for protective gloves. The workplace observations was conducted on 107 workers in 7 companies and involved measurements of the temperature of air and objects in the workplaces; in addition the type of surface and shape of the objects was determined. Laboratory tests were also carried out on 11 materials for protective gloves to be used in cold environments. Protective characteristics, including mechanical properties (wear, cut, tear, and puncture resistance), insulation properties (thermal resistance), functional parameters, and hygienic properties (resistance to surface wetting, material stiffness) were evaluated. Appropriate levels of performance and quality, corresponding to the protective and functional properties of the materials, were determined. Based on the results of manual work and laboratory tests, directions for the selection of materials for the construction of protective gloves were formulated with a view to improving work ergonomics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protection from Induced Space Environments Effects on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Stegall, Courtney; Schmidl, Danny; Huang, Alvin; Olsen, Randy; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is one of the largest, most complex multinational scientific projects in history and protection from induced space environments effects is critical to its long duration mission as well as to the health of the vehicle and safety of on-orbit operations. This paper discusses some of the unique challenges that were encountered during the design, assembly and operation of the ISS and how they were resolved. Examples are provided to illustrate the issues and the risk mitigation strategies that were developed to resolve these issues. Of particular importance are issues related with the interaction of multiple spacecraft as in the case of ISS and Visiting Vehicles transporting crew, hardware elements, cargo and scientific payloads. These strategies are applicable to the development of future long duration space systems, not only during design, but also during assembly and operation of these systems.

  20. Waste disposal in underground mines -- A technology partnership to protect the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Environmentally compatible disposal sites must be found despite all efforts to avoid and reduce the generation of dangerous waste. Deep geologic disposal provides the logical solution as ever more categories of waste are barred from long-term disposal in near-surface sites through regulation and litigation. Past mining in the US has left in its wake large volumes of suitable underground space. EPA studies and foreign practice have demonstrated deep geologic disposal in mines to be rational and viable. In the US, where much of the mined underground space is located on public lands, disposal in mines would also serve the goal of multiple use. It is only logical to return the residues of materials mined from the underground to their origin. Therefore, disposal of dangerous wastes in mined underground openings constitutes a perfect match between mining and the protection and enhancement of the environment

  1. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION THROUGH DETECTION OF HOT SPOTS USING THERMOGRAPHY IN COAL DEPOSITS BEFORE SELF IGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina DINCĂ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a way to contribute to the environmental protection when it comes to coal which waits in big deposits to be burned for energy production. Because of certain parameters, in some places, the deposited coal could overheat and self ignite, thus loosing its caloric properties and even lead to fire. In this case the losses could be even higher, and the effect on the environment even worse. In order to prevent this self ignition to happen, an infrared camera can be mounted on a system, and the camera together with software which interprets the thermographic images, can alarm the personnel who is in charge with coal surveillance that the coal will ignite unless they take immediate measures. Also, there will be presented the limits we have found by now in the way of finalizing the application.

  2. Protecting the environment for future generations. Principles and actors in international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Environmental and Technology Law

    2017-08-01

    This book compiles the written versions of presentations held at the occasion of an international symposium entitled ''Protecting the Environment for Future Generations - Principles and Actors in International Environmental Law''. The symposium was organized by the Institute of Environmental and Technology Law of Trier University (IUTR) on the basis of a cooperation scheme with the Environmental Law Institute of the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria, and took place in Trier on 29-30 October 2015. It brought together a distinguished group of experts from Europe and abroad to address current issues of international and European environmental law. The main objective of the symposium was to take stock of the actors and principles of international and European environmental law, and to analyze how and to what extent these principles have been implemented on the supranational and domestic legal levels.

  3. Sustainable Development and Protection of the Environment: Two Management Strategies Not Always Compatible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassakis, Artemios M.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of Sustainable Development has received intense criticism and contestations with the result, that International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources (I.U.C.N.), and the World Wide Fund for Nature (W.W.F.) clarified that sustainable development means the improvement of life quality, inside the limits of clarified capacity of ecosystems. According to its critics, is considered as a general concept, indefinite and contradictory. Those disputes put the accent on the close relation between the Sustainable Development and the values of the today's global market. This relationship transforms the Sustainable Development to an one dimensional economical growth with the "ecological ornaments" of sustainability and protection of environment. Therefore this paper looks for, whether the sustainable development consists one more device, focuses on the world financial system, or establishes one optimistic developmental perspective, which might harmonize the economical activities with the natural function of our planetic ecosystems.

  4. Materials of All-Polish Symposium Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The All-Polish Symposium Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection is cyclic (in 3 year period) conference being a broad review of state of art and development of all nuclear branches cooperated with industry and other branches of national economy and public life in Poland. The conference has been divided in one plenary session and 8 problem sessions as follow: Radiation technologies of flue gas purification; radiation technologies in food and cosmetic industry; application of nuclear techniques in environmental studies and earth science; radiometric methods in material engineering; isotope tracers in biological studies and medical diagnostics; radiometric industrial measuring systems; radiation detectors and device; nuclear methods in cultural objects examination. The poster section as well as small exhibition have been also organised

  5. Protection of the vehicle cab environment against bacteria, fungi and endotoxins in composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, O; Huyard, A; Rybacki, D; Do Quang, Z

    2012-06-01

    Microbial quality of air inside vehicle cabs is a major occupational health risk management issue in composting facilities. Large differences and discrepancies in protection factors between vehicles and between biological agents have been reported. This study aimed at estimating the mean protection efficiency of the vehicle cab environment against bioaerosols with higher precision. In-cab measurement results were also analysed to ascertain whether or not these protection systems reduce workers' exposure to tolerable levels. Five front-end loaders, one mobile mixer and two agricultural tractors pulling windrow turners were investigated. Four vehicles were fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system. The four others were only equipped with pleated paper filter without pressurisation. Bacteria, fungi and endotoxins were measured in 72 pairs of air samples, simultaneously collected inside the cab and on the outside of the cab with a CIP 10-M sampler. A front-end loader, purchased a few weeks previously, fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system, and with a clean cab, exhibited a mean protection efficiency of between 99.47% CI 95% [98.58-99.97%] and 99.91% [99.78-99.98%] depending on the biological agent. It is likely that the lower protection efficiency demonstrated in other vehicles was caused by penetration through the only moderately efficient filters, by the absence of pressurisation, by leakage in the filter-sealing system, and by re-suspension of particles which accumulated in dirty cabs. Mean protection efficiency in regards to bacteria and endotoxins ranged between 92.64% [81.87-97.89%] and 98.61% [97.41-99.38%], and between 92.68% [88.11-96.08%] and 98.43% [97.44-99.22%], respectively. The mean protection efficiency was the lowest when confronted with fungal spores, from 59.76% [4.19-90.75%] to 94.71% [91.07-97.37%]. The probability that in-cab exposure to fungi

  6. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  7. Regulation requirements for the protection of workers against electromagnetic fields occurring in the work environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Zmyslony, M.

    2006-01-01

    In Poland, electromagnetic fields (EMF), one of potentially hazardous physical factors occurring in the work environment, are subjected to compulsory surveillance. In 2001, the Directive issued by the Minister of Labor and Social Policy substantially changed the approach towards the protection of workers against EMF. The Directive regulates the whole range of EMF frequencies and electromagnetic radiation, namely from 0 Hz to 300 GHz, which means the possibility of assessing workers EMF exposure, determined by exposure index, along with the hygiene assessment of EMF sources, defined by protection zones. In 2003 - 2005, a number of amended executive and supplementary regulations were issued. However, it should be emphasized that in the process of their elaboration, striving after perfection, numerous incoherent and ambiguous provisions were adopted, which finally created difficulties in the interpretation of individual regulations. This is also linked with doubts and discussions on their practical application by services responsible for control, measurements and monitoring of working conditions under the exposure to EMF. In this work an attempt was made to clarify all issues and arrange them according to the faced problems. The authors also present proposals how to solve all these problems. (author)

  8. Plugging into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Exports of electricity from Canada to the U.S.A. are increasing in importance and have reached a new phase with proposals to build generating stations initially dedicated to export, notably a second nuclear station in New Brunswick. The author considers that the National Energy Board does a good job of protecting Canadian interests. Opposition in the United States comes from within the government or congress rather than from the power industry or public

  9. A shared vision for energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    Energy plays an important role in Canadian society. With vast and diverse energy resources, Canada is a major participant in international energy markets. This report discussed the challenges and opportunities of Canada's energy sector, such as meeting the demand for energy; conserving and using existing energy more efficiently; developing new and innovative energy technologies; moving to renewable, greener and cleaner energy sources; improving transmission and transportation capacity; improving regulatory approval processes; and meeting demand for a skilled and available workforce. The report also discussed formalization of the role of provinces and territories in international energy discussions. A seven point action plan was also presented in order to provide concrete solutions and actions if the full potential of Canada's energy sector was to be achieved. These steps included promoting energy efficiency and conservation; accelerating the development and deployment of energy research and technologies that advance more efficient production, transmission and use of clean and conventional energy sources; facilitating the development of renewable, green and/or cleaner energy sources to meet future demand while contributing to environmental goals; and, developing and enhancing a modern, reliable, environmentally safe, and efficient series of transmission and transportation networks for domestic and export/import sources of energy. Other actions were also presented, such as improving the timeliness and certainty of regulatory approval decision-making processes while maintaining rigorous protection of the environment and public interest; developing and implementing strategies to meet energy-sector human resource needs now and into the future; and, pursuing formalized participation of provinces and territories in international discussions and negotiations on energy. It was concluded that immediate action and sustained effort by all is needed in order to ensure that all

  10. Framework for the Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P.; Brown, J.E.; Larsson, M

    2000-07-01

    A framework is proposed for the protection of the environment from ionising radiation. Key components include the assessment of the environmental transfer of radionuclides and uptake of radionuclides by organisms, the adaptation of existing dosimetric models to calculate absorbed doses and studies concerning dose-effects relationships for selected organisms. The proposed framework will also make use of 'reference' organisms, selection of which will be based on a number of criteria, e.g. radiosensitivity, ubiquity, and will involve the development of standardised biota exposure units which might integrate the Relative Biological Effect (RBE) of the radiation under consideration. In the second part of the study, initial efforts have been made to develop a computerised system in order to provide a simple example of how components of this framework may be formulated. An equilibrium absorbed dose constant model has been used for high LET (Linear Energy Transfer) radionuclides combined with the application of an absorbed fraction for {gamma}-emitting radionuclides. Generalised specific activity information for selected radionuclides from Norwegian marine environments have been used as model input data. For the radionuclides considered, total doses for marine organisms (lobster, mussels, seaweed) ranged between 1.35-2.5 mGy.y{sup -1}, mainly attributable to {sup 40}K and {sup 210}Po. Such levels are well below those where observable effects might be expected. (author)

  11. Characterizing fluvial heavy metal pollutions under different rainfall conditions: Implication for aquatic environment protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixun; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Gang; Guan, Yuntao

    2018-09-01

    Globally, fluvial heavy metal (HM) pollution has recently become an increasingly severe problem. However, few studies have investigated the variational characteristics of fluvial HMs after rain over long periods (≥1 year). The Dakan River in Xili Reservoir watershed (China) was selected as a case study to investigate pollution levels, influencing factors, and sources of HMs under different rainfall conditions during 2015 and 2016. Fluvial HMs showed evident spatiotemporal variations attributable to the coupled effects of pollution generation and rainfall diffusion. Fluvial HM concentrations were significantly associated with rainfall characteristics (e.g., rainfall intensity, rainfall amount, and antecedent dry period) and river flow, which influenced the generation and the transmission of fluvial HMs in various ways. Moreover, this interrelationship depended considerably on the HM type and particle size distribution. Mn, Pb, Cr, and Ni were major contributors to high values of the comprehensive pollution index; therefore, they should be afforded special attention. Additionally, quantitative source apportionment of fluvial HMs was conducted by combining principal component analysis with multiple linear regression and chemical mass balance models to obtain comprehensive source profiles. Finally, an environment-friendly control strategy coupling "source elimination" and "transport barriers" was proposed for aquatic environment protection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement on the corrosion protection of conductive polymers in PEMFC environments by adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Lucio-Garcia, M.A.; Nicho, M.E.; Cruz-Silva, R. [UAEM-CIICAP, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209-Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Casales, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencicas Fisicas, Av. Universidad s/n, Col. Chamilpa, 62210-Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Valenzuela, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad Eduardo J. Selvas S/N, Col. Magisterial, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-05-25

    The corrosion protection of polypyrrol (PPY) and polyaniline (PANI) coatings electrochemically deposited with and without polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as adhesive onto 304 type stainless steel has been evaluated using electrochemical techniques. Environment included 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 60 C whereas employed techniques included potentiodynamic polarization curves (PC), linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Results showed that the free corrosion potential, of the substrate, E{sub corr}, was made more noble up to 500 mV with the polymeric coatings. The corrosion rate was lowered by using the polymers, but with the addition of PVA, it was decreased further, one order of magnitude for PPY and up to three orders of magnitude for PANI. Impedance spectra showed that the corrosion mechanism is under a Warburgh-type diffusional process of the electrolyte throughout the coating, and that the uptake of the environment causes the eventual failure of the coating corroding the substrate. (author)

  13. Thermal-Acoustic Fatigue of a Multilayer Thermal Protection System in Combined Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure integrity of thermal protection system (TPS structure for hypersonic vehicles exposed to severe operating environments, a study is undertaken to investigate the response and thermal-acoustic fatigue damage of a representative multilayer TPS structure under combined thermal and acoustic loads. An unsteady-state flight of a hypersonic vehicle is composed of a series of steady-state snapshots, and for each snapshot an acoustic load is imposed to a static steady-state TPS structure. A multistep thermal-acoustic fatigue damage intensity analysis procedure is given and consists of a heat transfer analysis, a nonlinear thermoelastic analysis, and a random response analysis under a combined loading environment and the fatigue damage intensity has been evaluated with two fatigue analysis techniques. The effects of thermally induced deterministic stress and nondeterministic dynamic stress due to the acoustic loading have been considered in the damage intensity estimation with a maximum stress fatigue model. The results show that the given thermal-acoustic fatigue intensity estimation procedure is a viable approach for life prediction of TPS structures under a typical mission cycle with combined loadings characterized by largely different time-scales. A discussion of the effects of the thermal load, the acoustic load, and fatigue analysis methodology on the fatigue damage intensity has been provided.

  14. Initiation of environment protection monitoring system in energetic sector of Sartid Iron and Steel Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjic, Jovan; Ivanovic, Jovan

    2003-01-01

    Energetic sector in SARTID Iron and Steel factory includes complex systems for production, transformation and distribution of all kinds of energy and fluids, supplying all other production divisions. As that, energetic sector has large influence in environment. Incorporating quality system ISO 14001 in SARTID factory, with special care we are working on environment protection monitoring system. Having started with this, as first we are working on implementation of monitoring system for air pollution from our emitters of exhausted gases issued from incineration of blast furnace (BF) gas, natural gas and crude oil. Constant recording of air pollutant emissions from our boilers have became standard procedure now. This monitoring system is based on software package, where input data are permanently measured flow of fuels, fuel composition and quality of combustion. As a result, in each time we know quantity of emitted exhausted components - CO 2 , CO, SO 2 , (NO) x . Another monitoring system that we are implementing right now is some simpler, being used for a lot of smaller BF or natural gas consumers. (Original)

  15. Coupling the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v. 2.0 to Environment and Climate Change Canada's greenhouse gas forecast model (v.107-glb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Badawy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Land Surface Scheme and the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CLASS-CTEM together form the land surface component in the family of Canadian Earth system models (CanESMs. Here, CLASS-CTEM is coupled to Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC's weather and greenhouse gas forecast model (GEM-MACH-GHG to consistently model atmosphere–land exchange of CO2. The coupling between the land and the atmospheric transport model ensures consistency between meteorological forcing of CO2 fluxes and CO2 transport. The procedure used to spin up carbon pools for CLASS-CTEM for multi-decadal simulations needed to be significantly altered to deal with the limited availability of consistent meteorological information from a constantly changing operational environment in the GEM-MACH-GHG model. Despite the limitations in the spin-up procedure, the simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological forcing from GEM-MACH-GHG were comparable to those obtained from CLASS-CTEM when it is driven with standard meteorological forcing from the Climate Research Unit (CRU combined with reanalysis fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP to form CRU-NCEP dataset. This is due to the similarity of the two meteorological datasets in terms of temperature and radiation. However, notable discrepancies in the seasonal variation and spatial patterns of precipitation estimates, especially in the tropics, were reflected in the estimated carbon fluxes, as they significantly affected the magnitude of the vegetation productivity and, to a lesser extent, the seasonal variations in carbon fluxes. Nevertheless, the simulated fluxes based on the meteorological forcing from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are consistent to some extent with other estimates from bottom-up or top-down approaches. Indeed, when simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological data from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are used as

  16. Coupling the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v. 2.0) to Environment and Climate Change Canada's greenhouse gas forecast model (v.107-glb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Bakr; Polavarapu, Saroja; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Deng, Feng; Neish, Michael; Melton, Joe R.; Nassar, Ray; Arora, Vivek K.

    2018-02-01

    The Canadian Land Surface Scheme and the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CLASS-CTEM) together form the land surface component in the family of Canadian Earth system models (CanESMs). Here, CLASS-CTEM is coupled to Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC)'s weather and greenhouse gas forecast model (GEM-MACH-GHG) to consistently model atmosphere-land exchange of CO2. The coupling between the land and the atmospheric transport model ensures consistency between meteorological forcing of CO2 fluxes and CO2 transport. The procedure used to spin up carbon pools for CLASS-CTEM for multi-decadal simulations needed to be significantly altered to deal with the limited availability of consistent meteorological information from a constantly changing operational environment in the GEM-MACH-GHG model. Despite the limitations in the spin-up procedure, the simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological forcing from GEM-MACH-GHG were comparable to those obtained from CLASS-CTEM when it is driven with standard meteorological forcing from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) combined with reanalysis fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to form CRU-NCEP dataset. This is due to the similarity of the two meteorological datasets in terms of temperature and radiation. However, notable discrepancies in the seasonal variation and spatial patterns of precipitation estimates, especially in the tropics, were reflected in the estimated carbon fluxes, as they significantly affected the magnitude of the vegetation productivity and, to a lesser extent, the seasonal variations in carbon fluxes. Nevertheless, the simulated fluxes based on the meteorological forcing from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are consistent to some extent with other estimates from bottom-up or top-down approaches. Indeed, when simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological data from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are used as prior estimates

  17. Radiation protection measurement techniques and the challenges encountered in industrial and medical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays everybody is concerned by the use of ionizing radiations for diagnostic and therapy purposes. Radiation protection regulatory requirements are becoming more and more constraining and have an impact on the performance criteria required for measurement systems. The measurement of some radiation protection data requires the use of complex and costly devices, leading to hardly manageable constraints for the users. Do they have to be systematically implemented? How is it possible to reduce, control and optimize the medical exposures using new methodological approaches? During this conference the participants have shed light on some concrete situations and realisations in the environmental, nuclear industry and medical domains. The document brings together 34 presentations (slides) dealing with: 1 - Environmental monitoring and measurement meaning (P.Y. Emidy (EDF)); human radiation protection and measurement meaning (A. Rannou (IRSN)); Eye lens dosimetry, why and how? (J.M. Bordy (CEA)); critical and reasoned approach of the ISO 11929 standard about decision threshold and detection limit (A. Vivier (CEA)); Samples collection and low activities measurement in the environment (D. Claval (IRSN)); Dosemeters calibration, what is new? (J.M. Bordy (CEA)); Appropriateness of measurement means for radiological controls (P. Tranchant (Techman Industrie)); Pulsed fields dosimetric reference for interventional diagnosis (M. Denoziere (CEA)); Pulsed complex fields dosimetry (F. Trompier (IRSN)); DOSEO: a tool for dose optimization in radiological imaging (C. Adrien (CEA)); Eye lens dosimetry (R. Kramar, A. De Vita (AREVA)); Eye lens dosimetry - workers exposure and proper radiation protection practices (I. Clairand (IRSN)); Individual neutrons dosimetry - status of existing standards (F. Queinnec (IRSN)); Complex field neutron spectroscopy: any new tool? (V. Lacoste (IRSN)); Photon mini-beams dosimetry in radiotherapy: stakes and protocols (C. Huet (IRSN)); Reference and

  18. Population Protection in the 1990s: Managing Risk in the New Security Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donley, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    .... Using the protection interventions in northern Iraq, Bosnia, Rwanda, and Kosovo as case studies, this thesis demonstrates that the interveners prioritized the protection of their self-interests...

  19. Proposed federal petroleum products and allied petroleum products storage tank systems regulations under CEPA 1999 : report of consultation sessions February 2003 to September 2003 : summary of input from participants and response from Environment Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    Between February and September of 2003, Environment Canada held a series of consultation sessions on a set of proposed regulations in order to eliminate the contamination of groundwater and soil caused by petroleum products and allied petroleum products stored by the federal house in storage tank systems. This document presents a summary of comments, issues, ideas and perspectives raised throughout consultation sessions. It also outlines Environment Canada's responses to generated input. Sessions took place in each of Environment Canada's five regions. A full description of the consultation procedures and methodology was provided. The document provides a rationale for cases where Environment Canada has rejected or only partially accepted stakeholder recommendations. A list of general prohibitions and obligations was provided along with details of registration and tagging; provincially-approved installers and installation procedures; monitoring and leak detection; operation and maintenance; upgrading; withdrawal, re-use and removal of storage tank systems; report of releases; and an environmental emergency plan and record keeping. First Nation issues were also discussed. Several changes to proposed regulations have been made during the course of the consultations, including an extension of timelines for compliance with proposed regulations; the definition of a storage tank system is now defined as the delivery point first connection to the discharge of the pump; and records are now required for only 7 years as opposed to the life of the tank. It was also stated that a draft regulation will be published in the Canadian Gazette, followed by a 60 day comment period. The final regulation will be published a few months later

  20. 3. Promotion of environment protection of sea and near-sea region. Swinoujscie 12-14 October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The great number of problems connected with environment protection near shore marine zone, beach protection, effluent transport in ground and surface waters in region of North Port of Poland as well as technical solutions of water purification and legal problems have been discussed during the conference. All observations and experimental works have been carried out in that region. Among reported works two of them have been devoted to application of nuclear methods in interesting merit

  1. Human resources of local governments as motivators of participation of businesses and citizens in protecting of environment

    OpenAIRE

    NIKOLIĆ N.; GAJOVIĆ A.; PAUNOVIĆ V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of human resources of local governments in the motivation of businesses and citizens in protecting the environment. The inability to absorb current problems caused by inadequate and incomplete arrangement of utilization of human resources of the local government of Lučani caused the redefining of strategic priorities of environmental protection. The motivational power of human resources of local governments expressed through interaction with the population ...

  2. Sub regional cooperation and protection of the arctic marine environments: The Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-07-01

    The report deals with questions related to effectiveness of subregional co-operation in the Barents Sea. Efforts have differed from global processes by their clearer programmatic profile. Relatively more resources, in terms of both expertise and financial funds, have been invested in order to enhance the knowledge-base for management decisions in the region as well as the administrative and technical capacity to avoid behaviour liable to threaten the marine environment. Many of the programmatic activities encouraged at other levels have been planned, financed and organised at the subregional level. Comparatively less attention has been given to establishing new regulative norms for environmental protection from either industrial or military activity in the region. The Regional Council ensures that both county level decision makers and representatives of the indigenous population are involved. A point is the general balance between the environmental and the economic component. Moreover, the inclusiveness of the Barents Council provides linkages to potential partners in development found beyond the Barents Sea area. The subregional level has served to relate environmental protection to broader foreign policy issues and has strengthened environmental networks across the Nordic Russian divide which in turn has generated financial resources and expertise. The main reason for the higher fund raising capacity of subregional processes is that geographic proximity ensures denser networks of interdependence partly by the fact that Nordic neighbours have a clear self interest in financing environmental projects in Russia, particularly those addressing industrial pollution from the border areas and those designed to prevent dumping of radioactive waste and partly by ensuring that environmental projects may serve broader purposes associated with national security. The willingness on the part of Norway and other Nordic states to use their financial powers for problem solving

  3. Subregional cooperation and protection of the arctic marine environment: The Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with questions related to effectiveness of subregional co-operation in the Barents Sea. Efforts have differed from global processes by their clearer programmatic profile. Relatively more resources, in terms of both expertise and financial funds, have been invested in order to enhance the knowledge-base for management decisions in the region as well as the administrative and technical capacity to avoid behaviour liable to threaten the marine environment. Many of the programmatic activities encouraged at other levels have been planned, financed and organised at the subregional level. Comparatively less attention has been given to establishing new regulative norms for environmental protection from either industrial or military activity in the region. The Regional Council ensures that both county level decision makers and representatives of the indigenous population are involved. A point is the general balance between the environmental and the economic component. Moreover, the inclusiveness of the Barents Council provides linkages to potential partners in development found beyond the Barents Sea area. The subregional level has served to relate environmental protection to broader foreign policy issues and has strengthened environmental networks across the Nordic Russian divide which in turn has generated financial resources and expertise. The main reason for the higher fund raising capacity of subregional processes is that geographic proximity ensures denser networks of interdependence partly by the fact that Nordic neighbours have a clear self interest in financing environmental projects in Russia, particularly those addressing industrial pollution from the border areas and those designed to prevent dumping of radioactive waste and partly by ensuring that environmental projects may serve broader purposes associated with national security. The willingness on the part of Norway and other Nordic states to use their financial powers for problem solving

  4. Experimental studies of the dilution of vehicle exhaust pollutants by environment-protecting pervious pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Lin, Wei-Shian; Yen, M-T; Chen, Ting-Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study determines whether environment-protecting pervious pavement can dilute pollutants immediately after emissions from vehicle. The turbulence-driven dry-deposition process is too slow to be considered in this aspect. The pavement used is the JW pavement (according to its inventors name), a high-load-bearing water-permeable pavement with patents in over 100 countries, which has already been used for more than 8 years in Taiwan and is well suited to replacing conventional road pavement, making the potential implementation of the study results feasible. The design of this study included two sets of experiments. Variation of the air pollutant concentrations within a fenced area over the JW pavement with one vehicle discharging emissions into was monitored and compared with results over a non-JW pavement. The ambient wind speed was low during the first experiment, and the results obtained were highly credible. It was found that the JW pavement diluted vehicle pollutant emissions near the ground surface by 40%-87% within 5 min of emission; whereas the data at 2 m height suggested that about 58%-97% of pollutants were trapped underneath the pavement 20 min after emission. Those quantitative estimations may be off by +/- 10%, if errors in emissions and measurements were considered. SO2 and CO2 underwent the most significant reduction. Very likely, pollutants were forced to move underneath due to the special design of the pavement. During the second experiment, ambient wind speeds were high and the results obtained had less credibility, but they did not disprove the pollutant dilution capacity of the JW pavement. In order to track the fate of pollutants, parts of the pavement were removed to reveal a micro version of wetland underneath, which could possibly hold the responsibility of absorbing and decomposing pollutants to forms harmless to the environment and human health.

  5. Impact of protected mealtimes on ward mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake in hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, M; Connolly, A; Whelan, K

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in hospitalised inpatients, resulting in a range of negative clinical, patient-centred and economic sequelae. Protected mealtimes (PM) aim to enhance the quality of the mealtime experience and maximise nutrient intake in hospitalised patients. The present study aimed to measure mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake before and after the implementation of PM.   PM were implemented in a large teaching hospital through a range of different approaches. Direct observations were used to assess ward-level mealtime environment (e.g. dining room use, removal of distractions) (40 versus 34 wards) and individual patient experience (e.g. assistance with eating, visitors present) (253 versus 237 patients), and nutrient intake was assessed with a weighed food intake at lunch (39 versus 60 patients) at baseline and after the implementation of PM, respectively. Mealtime experience showed improvements in three objectives: more patients were monitored using food/fluid charts (32% versus 43%, P = 0.02), more were offered the opportunity to wash hands (30% versus 40%, P = 0.03) and more were served meals at uncluttered tables (54% versus 64%, P = 0.04). There was no difference in the number of patients experiencing mealtime interruptions (32% versus 25%, P = 0.14). There was no difference in energy intake (1088 versus 837 kJ, P = 0.25) and a decrease in protein intake (14.0 versus 7.5 g, P = 0.04) after PM. Only minor improvements in mealtime experience were made after the implementation of PM and so it is not unexpected that macronutrient intake did not improve. The implementation of PM needs to be evaluated to ensure improvements in mealtime experience are made such that measurable improvements in nutritional and clinical outcomes ensue. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection in coal-accumulated basin of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武强; 董东林; 石占华; 武雄; 孙卫东; 叶责钧; 李树文; 刘金韬

    2000-01-01

    The conflict among water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection is getting more and more serious due to the irrational drainage and exploitation of ground water resources in coal-accumulated basins of North China. Efficient solutions to the conflict are to maintain long-term dynamic balance between input and output of the ground water basins, and to try to improve resourcification of the mine water. All solutions must guarantee the eco-environment quality. This paper presents a new idea of optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection so as to solve the problem of unstable mine water supply, which is caused by the changeable water drainage for the whole combination system. Both the management of hydraulic techniques and constraints in economy, society, ecology, environment, industrial structural adjustments and sustainable developments have been taken into account. Since the traditional and separate management of different departments of water drainage,

  7. Trends of world energy consumption and possibilities of environment protective power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischengruber, K.

    1991-01-01

    The population of the world will duplicate within the next three to four decades. The primary energy consumption will increase accordingly. Considering the limited reach of our fossil energy resources and their negative impact on the global climate, alternative strategies for the power generation have to be developed. The contribution of the renewable energy sources will be important, but not sufficient, due to their high generation costs. The nuclear power, which already today participates essentially in the energy supply, will remain one of the most important options for environment protecting energy generation. Especially for the developing countries, which -in general- have currently a not covered energy demand, the build up of reasonable energy generation structures means enormous volumes of investments, which can only be financed with the assistance of the industrialized countries. Those, on the other hand, have to economize their energy consumption and have to undertake any effort in continuing with the development of clean, safe and competitive renewable resources. To provide increasing world population with sufficient energy and at the same time to reduce CO 2 emissions is one of the biggest challenges that mankind has ever faced. (Author)

  8. Protecting workers and the environment: An environmental NGO's perspective on nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbus, John M.; Florini, Karen; Denison, Richard A.; Walsh, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the design and manipulation of materials at the atomic scale, may well revolutionize many of the ways our society manufactures products, produces energy, and treats diseases. New materials based on nanotechnology are already reaching the market in a wide variety of consumer products. Some of the observed properties of nanomaterials call into question the adequacy of current methods for determining hazard and exposure and for controlling resulting risks. Given the limitations of existing regulatory tools and policies, we believe two distinct kinds of initiatives are needed: first, a major increase in the federal investment in nanomaterial risk research; second, rapid development and implementation of voluntary standards of care pending development of adequate regulatory safeguards in the longer term. Several voluntary programs are currently at various stages of evolution, though the eventual outputs of each of these are still far from clear. Ultimately, effective regulatory safeguards are necessary to provide a level playing field for industry while adequately protecting human health and the environment. This paper reviews the existing toxicological literature on nanomaterials, outlines and analyzes the current regulatory framework, and provides our recommendations, as an environmental non-profit organization, for safe nanotechnology development

  9. The GLOFOULING Partnerships project and the anti-fouling systems: challenges for Marine Environment Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Ramírez Cabrales

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, the regulation of international maritime transport is a priority to face the challenges on the Protection of the Marine Environment. However, some states present difficulties in complying with international or normative agreements adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO. In particular, we revised the Guidelines for the control and management of ships’ biofouling to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species and their linkage with the Glofouling Associations project, including the adverse effects of the use of antifouling systems and the biocides that may contain. As preliminary results, we identified the challenges that this global project entails for States, shipbuilders, ship maintenance and cleaning companies, universities, port authorities, repair facilities, dry docks and ship recycling, manufacturers and suppliers of anti-fouling paints and other stakeholders. We concluded that the challenges for the international maritime community are linked to the ability of States and stakeholders to enhance scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology to mitigate marine biological contamination of ships.

  10. Application of ERTS-1 data to the protection and management of New Jersey's coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunghans, R. S.; Feinberg, E. B.; Wobber, F. J.; Mairs, R. L. (Principal Investigator); Macomber, R. T.; Stanczuk, D.; Stitt, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Rapid access to ERTS data was provided by NASA GSFC for the February 26, 1974 overpass of the New Jersey test site. Forty-seven hours following the overpass computer-compatible tapes were ready for processing at EarthSat. The finished product was ready just 60 hours following the overpass and delivered to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. This operational demonstration has been successful in convincing NJDEP as to the worth of ERTS as an operational monitoring and enforcement tool of significant value to the State. An erosion/ accretion severity index has been developed for the New Jersey shore case study area. Computerized analysis techniques have been used for monitoring offshore waste disposal dumping locations, drift vectors, and dispersion rates in the New York Bight area. A computer shade print of the area was used to identify intensity levels of acid waste. A Litton intensity slice print was made to provide graphic presentation of dispersion characteristics and the dump extent. Continued monitoring will lead to the recommendation and justification of permanent dumping sites which pose no threat to water quality in nearshore environments.

  11. AN QUALITY BASED ENHANCEMENT OF USER DATA PROTECTION VIA FUZZY RULE BASED SYSTEMS IN CLOUD ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Poorva Devi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available So far, in cloud computing distinct customer is accessed and consumed enormous amount of services through web, offered by cloud service provider (CSP. However cloud is providing one of the services is, security-as-a-service to its clients, still people are terrified to use the service from cloud vendor. Number of solutions, security components and measurements are coming with the new scope for the cloud security issue, but 79.2% security outcome only obtained from the different scientists, researchers and other cloud based academy community. To overcome the problem of cloud security the proposed model that is, “Quality based Enhancing the user data protection via fuzzy rule based systems in cloud environment”, will helps to the cloud clients by the way of accessing the cloud resources through remote monitoring management (RMMM and what are all the services are currently requesting and consuming by the cloud users that can be well analyzed with Managed service provider (MSP rather than a traditional CSP. Normally, people are trying to secure their own private data by applying some key management and cryptographic based computations again it will direct to the security problem. In order to provide good quality of security target result by making use of fuzzy rule based systems (Constraint & Conclusion segments in cloud environment. By using this technique, users may obtain an efficient security outcome through the cloud simulation tool of Apache cloud stack simulator.

  12. Protecting the environment for development: Linking ecosystem structure & function and development outcomes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available edition of National Water Resource Strategy sets out to ensure that South Africa's aquatic ecosystems are protected effectively at different levels in accordance with the classification system, and that decisions concerning levels of protection take...

  13. Biometric template data protection in mobile device environment using XML-database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirumathyam, Rubathas; Derawi, Mohammad; Fischer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    recognition or gait recognition. To gain a real understanding of how it is possible to protect the biometric data, this paper first starts out with introducing a technique for security in a biometric system and emphasizes that template protection is important by going through the vulnerabilities and threats....... Furthermore, it points out requirements for template protection, a recital of various template protection schemes and a brief overview of biometric standards....

  14. Presentations of BIOCAP Canada Foundation's 2006 conference : towards a sustainable bioeconomy : biosphere solutions for energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The science, policy and socioeconomic issues related to Canada's transition to a sustainable bioeconomy were discussed at this conference, whose delegation included 375 people from industry, government, non-governmental organizations, environmental organizations, and academia. The objective was to build awareness and understanding of the opportunities that a bioeconomy offers Canada, and to highlight some of the success stories both within Canada and abroad. BIOCAP promotes the communication of policy concepts and research progress in the areas of biosphere carbon sinks, emission reductions, and biosphere adaptation to climate change. An additional objective was to facilitate collaboration between researchers, policy makers and business communities. The green advantage of Canada's abundance of forests and farmlands is well recognized in terms of the potential to address issues of energy security, environmental health and the rural economy. Discussions regarding the economic and environmental sustainability of using Canada's resources for new market opportunities were also presented along with lessons learned in other jurisdictions. The presentations appeared within 3 main categories of opportunities, challenges and moving forward. The conference featured 77 presentations, of which 6 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Radiation protection for humans and environment. 50 years competence in the professional association; Strahlenschutz fuer Mensch und Umwelt. 50 Jahre Kompetenz im Fachverband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, Benno [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat, Brugg (Switzerland); Wilhelm, Christoph (ed.) [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The conference proceedings of the IRPA (International radiation protection association) annual meeting 2016 contain the contribution of invited referents, other contributions and poster contributions concerning radiation protection in nuclear facilities, radiation protection of the public and environment, radioactive waste management, uranium mining, environmental monitoring, natural radioactivity, and radiation protection laws and regulations.

  16. Developments in radiological protection of the environment and a commentary on its implications for new build of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownless, George; Lazo, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Development of radiological protection of non-human biota continues to be the focus of much interest and differing views amongst the radiological protection community. To nurture discussion of these developments, the Nuclear Energy Agency's Committee on Radiological Protection and Public Health is taking the lead in organising coverage of a spectrum of views on the topic at the International Conference on Radioecology and Radioactivity in the Environment (Bergen, 2008), with the aim of assisting the international community to construct a consensual, fit-for-purpose approach. To support discussion of these views, the session will also include scientific presentations and reports from implementers. This paper will report on these developments, based principally on the session at the Conference but also other activities in which NEA participates, to provide an up-to-date summary in this area including progress in developing understanding of how radiological protection of the environment will be implemented for the three exposure situations - planned, existing and emergency - set out in the new ICRP general recommendations. Furthermore, given the NEA's mandate across the civil nuclear energy field, the paper will give a commentary on how developments in radiological protection of the environment may interplay with new build of nuclear power plants. (author)

  17. The properties of protective oxide scales containing cerium on alloy 800H in oxidizing and oxidizing/sulphidizing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Fransen, T.; Geerdink, Bert; Gellings, P.J.; Stroosnijder, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion protection of oxide scales formed by electrophoretic deposition in a cerium-containing sol on Alloy 800H, a 32Ni-20Cr steel, followed by firing in air at 1123 K was studied in oxidizing and mixed oxidizing/sulphidizing environments at elevated temperatures. In particular, the influence

  18. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security against invasive species requires a strong federal program in systematic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilda Diaz-Soltero; Amy Y. Rossman

    2011-01-01

    Systematics is the science that identifies and groups organisms by understanding their origins, relationships, and distributions. It is fundamental to understanding life on earth, our crops, wildlife, and diseases, and it provides the scientific foundation to recognize and manage invasive species. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security...

  19. Law 19.056. It dictate rules to ensure the protection and radiation safety of people, goods and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this law is to ensure the protection and radiation safety of personnel occupationally exposed, the public in general and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation as well as avoid risks of contamination in radiactive sources, physical facilities and means of transport

  20. The environmental problems in urban communities and the protection of the environment in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I K

    1994-07-01

    Korea's urban environmental problems, specifically air and water pollution, government environmental policies, and the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in protecting the environment are described and discussed. Korea's rapid industrialization and urbanization between 1961 and 1985 led to an increased volume of waste and air pollution. Automobiles increased in number from 29,234 in 1961 to 1,113,430 in 1985. In the same period, the number of factories with at least five employees rose from 15,204 to 44,037. The volume of chemical materials and agricultural chemicals dramatically increased. Household wastes in urban areas increased from 26,831 tons per day in 1978 to 61,072 tons per day in 1985. Industrial waste rose from 13,130 to 33,349 tons per day in 1985. Respiratory diseases are precipitated by exposure to sulphur dioxide, which is produced during cooking and heating with coal briquets; to nitrogen dioxide from automobile exhaust; and to carbon monoxide from coal briquets. Indoor air pollution from particles such as radon, asbestos, cigarette smoke, fungus, and bacteria also impacts on health. Tolerance limits have been reached or surpassed in many cities, particularly in Seoul. Air pollution is worse during the winter. The poor are particularly affected because of the continued use of coal briquets for heating. Industry contributes to water pollution. The volume of industrial waste water quadrupled between 1980 and 1990. In Seoul, however, population size directly contributes to 64.3% of water pollution, and the remaining 35.2% is from factories. Although livestock contributes to only 0.5% of water pollution, livestock drainage contributes to 36.3% of chemical materials in polluted water. Biological oxygen demand has also exceeded tolerance limits. Water reservoirs contain toxic chemicals such as lead, copper, mercury, arsenic, phenol, phosphorus, and nitrogen, which take a longer time to affect health. The Anti-Pollution Law of 1963 and the

  1. Two Component Decomposition of Dual Polarimetric HH/VV SAR Data: Case Study for the Tundra Environment of the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ullmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a two component decomposition technique for HH/VV-polarized PolSAR (Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar data. The approach is a straight forward adaption of the Yamaguchi decomposition and decomposes the data into two scattering contributions: surface and double bounce under the assumption of a negligible vegetation scattering component in Tundra environments. The dependencies between the features of this two and the classical three component Yamaguchi decomposition were investigated for Radarsat-2 (quad and TerraSAR-X (HH/VV data for the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada. In situ data on land cover were used to derive the scattering characteristics and to analyze the correlation among the PolSAR features. The double bounce and surface scattering features of the two and three component scattering model (derived from pseudo-HH/VV- and quad-polarized data showed similar scattering characteristics and positively correlated-R2 values of 0.60 (double bounce and 0.88 (surface scattering were observed. The presence of volume scattering led to differences between the features and these were minimized for land cover classes of low vegetation height that showed little volume scattering contribution. In terms of separability, the quad-polarized Radarsat-2 data offered the best separation of the examined tundra land cover types and will be best suited for the classification. This is anticipated as it represents the largest feature space of all tested ones. However; the classes “wetland” and “bare ground” showed clear positions in the feature spaces of the C- and X-Band HH/VV-polarized data and an accurate classification of these land cover types is promising. Among the possible dual-polarization modes of Radarsat-2 the HH/VV was found to be the favorable mode for the characterization of the aforementioned tundra land cover classes due to the coherent acquisition and the preserved co-pol. phase. Contrary, HH/HV-polarized and VV

  2. Mapping coral and sponge habitats on a shelf-depth environment using multibeam sonar and ROV video observations: Learmonth Bank, northern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Bárbara M.; Du Preez, Cherisse; Edinger, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to locate and map deep-water coral and sponge habitats are essential for the effective management and conservation of these vulnerable marine ecosystems. Here we test the applicability of a simple multibeam sonar classification method developed for fjord environments to map the distribution of shelf-depth substrates and gorgonian coral- and sponge-dominated biotopes. The studied area is a shelf-depth feature Learmonth Bank, northern British Columbia, Canada and the method was applied aiming to map primarily non-reef forming coral and sponge biotopes. Aside from producing high-resolution maps (5 m2 raster grid), biotope-substrate associations were also investigated. A multibeam sonar survey yielded bathymetry, acoustic backscatter strength and slope. From benthic video transects recorded by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) six primary substrate types and twelve biotope categories were identified, defined by the primary sediment and dominant biological structure, respectively. Substrate and biotope maps were produced using a supervised classification mostly based on the inter-quartile range of the acoustic variables for each substrate type and biotope. Twenty-five percent of the video observations were randomly reserved for testing the classification accuracy. The dominant biotope-defining corals were red tree coral Primnoa pacifica and small styasterids, of which Stylaster parageus was common. Demosponges and hexactinellid sponges were frequently observed but no sponge reefs were observed. The substrate classification readily distinguished fine sediment, Sand and Bedrock from the other substrate types, but had greater difficulty distinguishing Bedrock from Boulders and Cobble. The biotope classification accurately identified Gardens (dense aggregations of sponges and corals) and Primnoa-dominated biotopes (67% accuracy), but most other biotopes had lower accuracies. There was a significant correspondence between Learmonth's biotopes and substrate types

  3. Oilfield development and protection of natural resources within the tropical marine environment of the Rowley shelf, northwest Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeProvost, M.I.; Gordon, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years a number of oilfields have been developed in tropical waters of the Rowley Shelf, north-west Australia. Along with Bass Strait and the Timor Sea, this region is the focus for Australia's current oil exploration and production. It supports major coral and mangrove habitats and fishing grounds sensitive to the effects of oil pollution. This paper provides a synthesis of the Rowley Shelf marine environment and reviews procedures protecting the marine resources of the region from the effects of oil spills. Recent government and industry initiatives for improving the protection of the environment are outlined and discussed on the basis of the improved understanding of the marine resources and experience being gained in oil spill contingency planning. The tropical habitats of the Rowley Shelf occur within the Indo-Pacific Zoogeographic Region, therefore experience gained in Western Australia is applicable to similar environments in the South East Asian region

  4. Protection of people and environment from radiation risk through good regulatory practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jais, Azlina Mohammad; Hassan, Najwa

    2017-01-01

    The term "good regulatory practice" has seen growing frequency of usage worldwide, especially since the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident. However, the term appears quite ambiguous as it may mean differently to different people. This leads us to the first important question: what does "good regulatory practice" actually mean? When used in conjunction with the Fukushima incident, do we imply that there is an absence of "good regulatory practice" in the Japanese' Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA)? This is quite troubling. It is clear that the term should be defined formally so that our understanding of "good regulatory practice" can be standardized. There is still another important question beyond agreeing on what "good regulatory practice" is: is "good regulatory practice" specific to a region, or is it global? And is it applicable only to nuclear regulators, or to all types of regulators per se? This paper aims to deliberate on the above mentioned questions. Specifically, we hope to discuss the "good regulatory practice" for atomic energy activities in order to protect the people and the environment from radiation risk of such activities. By understanding what "good regulatory practice" truly means, a newcomer country such as Malaysia can quickly learn and adopt these practices so as to assure a competent national nuclear regulatory authority who will be responsible in ensuring the safety, security and safeguards of peaceful atomic energy activities in the country including nuclear liability. In understanding this concept, a holistic approach will be taken by looking into example of advanced and newcomer countries of various nuclear regulatory authorities all around the world. Then the paper will focus on the challenges that the current nuclear regulatory authority in Malaysia which is Atomic Energy Licensing Board has, its challenges to follow the concept of "good regulatory practice" and its ways to overcome it. This study explore the initiatives could be

  5. Gasification of coal as efficient means of environment protection and hydrogenation of heavy oils residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S. [Fossil Fuel Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia`s more then 50% of coals produced in its European part contain over 2,5% of sulphur, and the coals containing less than 1.5% of sulphurs comprise ca.20%. Thus, utilisation of the sulphide coals is inevitable, and there a problem arises concerning the technology of their sensible use and considering the requirements on the environment protection. Russia`s specialists have developed a design and construction for a steam-gas installation with a closed cycle gasification of the solid fuel. The gasification process will proceed in the fluidized bed under forced pressure of the steam-air blast. Characteristic features of this process are the following: a higher efficiency (the capacity of one gas generator is 3-3,5 times larger than that attained in the present gas generators of the Lurgy`s type): 2-2,5 times decreased fuel losses as compared to the Winkler`s generators; retention of the sensible heat, resulting in an increased total energy efficiency. The main task for petroleum refining industry at the present stage is the increase of depth of oil processing with the aim to intensify motor fuel production. One of the ways to solve the problem is to involve heavy oil residues into the processing. But the high metal and asphaltenes contents in the latter make the application of traditional methods and processes more difficult. Up to now there is no simple and effective technology which could give the opportunity to use oil residues for distillate fractions production. In Fossil fuel institute a process for hydrogenation of high boiling oil products, including with high sulphur, vanadium and nickel contents ones, into distillates and metals concentrates. The main point of the new process is as follows: the water solution of catalytic additive, for which purpose water soluble metal salts of VI-VIII groups are used, is mixed with tar, dispersed and then subjected to additional supercavitation in a special apparatus.

  6. Forest biotechnology in Canada: Analysis of intellectual property rights and protection of higher lifeforms. Working paper No. WP-OI-95.05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Globerman, S.

    1995-12-01

    This study is part of a series assessing the impacts of patenting plants and animals, and focuses on the potential impact and desirability of patenting multicellular organisms for application in forestry. The two major areas where biotechnology involving the creation of new multicellular organisms may have a significant impact on the forest products sector are the production of seeds and the employment of biopesticides. The specific objectives of the study include an evaluation of the economic effects of alternative intellectual property policy regimes on participants in the domestic forestry sector; an assessment of Canada`s strategic interests in the forestry sector in the context of international competition; and an evaluation of the likely rate and direction of technological change and economic growth in the forestry sector. Statistics on the international forest industry conclude the document.

  7. Derivation of Ecological Protective Concentration using the Probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment applicable for Korean Water Environment: (I) Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2012-06-01

    Probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERA) for deriving ecological protective concentration (EPC) was previously suggested in USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Netherland. This study suggested the EPC of cadmium (Cd) based on the PERA to be suitable to Korean aquatic ecosystem. First, we collected reliable ecotoxicity data from reliable data without restriction and reliable data with restrictions. Next, we sorted the ecotoxicity data based on the site-specific locations, exposure duration, and water hardness. To correct toxicity by the water hardness, EU's hardness corrected algorithm was used with slope factor 0.89 and a benchmark of water hardness 100. EPC was calculated according to statistical extrapolation method (SEM), statistical extrapolation methodAcute to chronic ratio (SEMACR), and assessment factor method (AFM). As a result, aquatic toxicity data of Cd were collected from 43 acute toxicity data (4 Actinopterygill, 29 Branchiopoda, 1 Polychaeta, 2 Bryozoa, 6 Chlorophyceae, 1 Chanophyceae) and 40 chronic toxicity data (2 Actinopterygill, 23 Branchiopoda, 9 Chlorophyceae, 6 Macrophytes). Because toxicity data of Cd belongs to 4 classes in taxonomical classification, acute and chronic EPC (11.07 μg/l and 0.034 μg/l, respectively) was calculated according to SEM technique. These values were included in the range of international EPCs. This study would be useful to establish the ecological standard for the protection of aquatic ecosystem in Korea.

  8. Use of a mobile terrestrial laser system to quantify the impact of rigid coastal protective structures on sandy beaches, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Wierts, S.; Bernatchez, P.

    2012-04-01

    Coastal erosion is an important issue within the St-Lawrence estuary and gulf, especially in zones of unconsolidated material. Wide beaches are important coastal environments; they act as a buffer against breaking waves by absorbing and dissipating their energy, thus reducing the rate of coastal erosion. They also offer protection to humans and nearby ecosystems, providing habitat for plants, animals and lifeforms such as algae and microfauna. Conventional methods, such as aerial photograph analysis, fail to adequately quantify the morphosedimentary behavior of beaches at the scale of a hydrosedimentary cells. The lack of reliable and quantitative data leads to considerable errors of overestimation and underestimation of sediment budgets. To address these gaps and to minimize acquisition costs posed by airborne LiDAR survey, a mobile terrestrial LiDAR has been set up to acquire topographic data of the coastal zone. The acquisition system includes a LiDAR sensor, a high precision navigation system (GPS-INS) and a video camera. Comparison of LiDAR data with 1050 DGPS control points shows a vertical mean absolute error of 0.1 m in beach areas. The extracted data is used to calculate sediment volumes, widths, slopes, and a sediment budget index. A high accuracy coastal characterization is achieved through the integration of laser data and video. The main objective of this first project using this system is to quantify the impact of rigid coastal protective structures on sediment budget and beach morphology. Results show that the average sediment volume of beaches located before a rock armour barrier (12 m3/m) were three times narrower than for natural beaches (35,5 m3/m). Natural beaches were also found to have twice the width (25.4 m) of the beaches bordering inhabited areas (12.7 m). The development of sediment budget index for beach areas is an excellent proxy to quickly identify deficit areas and therefore the coastal segments most at risk of erosion. The obtained

  9. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Radiological protection of the environment, including non-human species-views from the global nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; RPWG

    2008-01-01

    This paper updates the WNA key messages on the RP of the environment. This paper shows that the chronology of views (2000-2008) leads to a recognition that the current RP system has provided adequate protection of people and of the environment. In early 2000s, doubts were raised on the adequacy of the RP system. Next (2002-2005), the international community forged the view that the current RP system has in practice provided appropriate standards of environmental protection, but also acknowledged that the system needs further development to fill a 'conceptual gap'. In 2005, the IAEA plan of activities on the RP of the environment formalized international developments and conditioned the future revision (if any) of current standards. During 2006-2008, ICRP issued new guidance on RP of non-human species which offers little on an assessment framework of practical use and on a compelling case for such assessments. This guidance, based on the new ICRP concept of Reference Animals and Plants, falls short in terms of environmental protection approach. A milestone study on the RP of non-human species is the SENES independent overview (2007) which 'confirmed that both people and nature have been adequately protected from radioactive releases from all kinds of nuclear sites, old and new'. This overview covers case studies for nuclear sites including some that had experienced major accidents. It derives that the earlier acknowledgement on the 'conceptual gap' appears no longer valid or at the very least, that the gap (if any) is extremely small. The RP of the environment is part of the on-going revision of the current IAEA Basic Safety Standards (BSS). We emphasize that the recently published BSS draft 1.0 in July 2008 covers (with adequacy) RP of the environment through general provisions (free of provisions to non-human species) on the assessment of environmental impact. (author)

  11. Corrosion protection products as a source of bisphenol A and toxicity to the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Dietschweiler, Conrad; Werner, Inge; Burkhardt, Michael

    2017-10-15

    Steel components are typically treated with anti-corrosion coatings like epoxy or polyurethane resins to protect the integrity and functioning of steel. Such resins may contain substances, such as bisphenol A (BPA), that have caused concern in a human and environmental toxicological context. We investigated the release of toxicity from four anti-corrosion coatings used in hydraulic and civil engineering. Resins were applied onto glass plates and leachate samples produced by horizontally shaking the plates in water for 7 days. Two experiments were conducted, one with a 1 day and one with a 7 day curing period. Using a suite of bioassays, we tested samples for: agonistic and antagonistic effects on various mammalian nuclear receptors; inhibition of photosynthesis and growth in algae; inhibition of bacterial bioluminescence; and inhibition of water flea reproduction. Concentrations of BPA, bisphenol F and various BPA transformation products were determined by chemical analysis (LC-MS/MS). Bioassay results were evaluated using a scheme developed by DIBt (Centre of Competence for Construction, Berlin, Germany). Three products induced responses in one or more of the measured endpoints and toxicity profiles varied markedly in intensity across products. One product released high amounts of BPA which was associated with effects on nuclear receptor transactivation, requiring a more than 700-fold dilution for effect induction to fall below 20%. The same product was also the most toxic to water flea reproduction, requiring ca. 70-fold dilution for effects to fall below 20%. Another product was highly toxic in terms of bacterial bioluminescence, particularly after a shorter curing time, requiring a ca. 1'300-fold dilution for effects to fall below 20%. The third product required a 22-fold dilution for inhibition of water flea reproduction to drop below 20%. Results show that anti-corrosion coatings based on epoxy resins can be a source of toxicity to the aquatic environment

  12. Law 16.466 Environment:state National interest their protection against any kind of depredation,destruction or contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    It is declared of general and national interest the protection of the environment against any depredacion,destruccion type or contamination, as well as the prevention of the negative and noxious environmental impact and the alteration of the environment damaged by human activities. The production factories and transformation of Nuclear Energy, as well as roads,bridges, railway line,airports, pipeline,gas pipeline treatment of toxic or dangerous residuals plants and others should be subjected to the previous realization of a study of environmental impact [es

  13. ANALYSIS RESULTS OF THE JUSTIFICATION OF INVESTMENTS INTO QUALITY, ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND PRODUCTS SAFETY IN SUMADIJA AND POMORAVLJE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Raonić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the project "Improvement of quality and environment protection in Sumadija and Pomoravlje", financed by EU, "The study on vindication investments into quality improvement and environment protection in Sumadija and Pomoravlje" has been made. This paper discusses the results of cost/benefit analysis that includes SME from metal-processing industry, industry for non-metalic materials production and manufacturing, agriculture and food-processing industry, tourism and catering industry. The paper also includes the indicators of total economic benefits and costs that may be the result of QMS, EMS and HACCP initiation, as well as of CE mark for the products obtaining. We illustrated necessary financial investments in relation to predicted percentage of certified SME in the region in five years period, and on this basis financial indicators of justification of investments and the proof of those investments through calculated net present values (NPV.

  14. Poverty, Socio-Political Factors and Degradation of the Environment in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need For a Holistic Approach to the Protection of the Environment and Realisation of the Right to Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The right to environment is a recognised human right in Africa. However, despite the legal and institutional frameworks designed to respect, promote, protect and fulfil the right, its enjoyment is still a mirage to majority of African citizens as a result of environmental degradation. This article aims to proffer a holistic or integrated approach to tackling the problem of environmental degradation in sub-Saharan Africa in order to enhance the protection of the environment and the realisation of this right in the region. It recognises that the problem of environmental degradation in the region is not due to lack of regulatory frameworks, but rather due to other factors that are mainly socio-economic and political in nature. It argues that to enhance the protection of the environment and realisation of this right in sub-Saharan Africa, African governments must adopt a holistic approach towards the protection of the environment, and proposes the promotion of good governance and socio-economic reform in the region as an integral core of such approach.

  15. Provincial-level Land Consolidation and Ecological Environment Protection Based on the Perspective of Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chen; Liu, Xin-feng; Peng, Zhe; Si, Tao; Yang, Lin-li

    2012-01-01

    Based on the understanding of current land ecological environment in Anhui Province, we mainly analyze the relationship between land consolidation planning and ecological environment, and point out the problems concerning ecological environment, such as great soil erosion, serious soil pollution, frequent geological disasters in local areas, and forest vegetation destruction. We divide the key ecological function conservation areas into the following areas: River Source Area, River and Flood ...

  16. Proceedings of the Newfoundland Ocean Industries Association's 20. Annual International Petroleum Conference : East Coast Canada : Success in a challenging environment. On-line ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference organized by the Newfoundland Ocean Industries Association (NOIA) provided a forum for exchange on issues dealing with Canada's east coast offshore hydrocarbon resource development. It also promoted Newfoundland's international reputation for competence in ocean engineering and marine dynamics. The topics of discussion at this conference included updates on the development of Newfoundland's Grand Banks which includes the Terra Nova, Hibernia, White Rose, and the Hebron/Ben Nevis oil and gas fields. Several papers described new initiatives in the Atlantic offshore sector, including deep water challenges and opportunities. A session devoted to competitiveness and technology focused on reducing drilling costs and enhancing productivity. Regulatory and fiscal issues were also discussed along with the socio-economic impact that resource development can bring to Canada's east coast. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 9 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  17. U.S. Department of Defense Application-Level Firewall Protection Profile for Medium Robustness Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolan, Kathy

    2000-01-01

    .... S. Government organizations, specifically the Department of Defense, handling unclassified or sensitive but unclassified information for Mission-Critical Categories in a moderate-risk environment...

  18. The development of an international framework for the radiation protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Jova Sed, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper comprises an overview of the Agency responsibilities, related to environmental radiation protection; its historical involvement in this issue; the context of its current work programme; and a number of issues for further consideration. (authors)

  19. Policy Environments and Institutional Factors that Shape the Role of Technology in Entrepreneurial Culture: An Exploratory Study in Mexico and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Arechavala Vargas, A.; Holbrook, J.A.; Díaz Pérez, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparative study of entrepreneurship in Mexico and Canada, based on the study of the role of technology and innovation in entrepreneurial activity. The aim of the paper is to highlight similarities and differences in the perceptions of entrepreneurs about environmental and policy factors that affect their business opportunities, in order to better understand their role, and to derive policy implications that may be useful in advancing technological innovation in Me...

  20. Initial recommendations for protection of the environment, the conservation of the caverns and of other karstic phenomena, Rio Claro - Antioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szentes, George

    1994-01-01

    In the area of Rio Claro, Antioquia on the freeway Bogota Medellin, is a region of an extreme natural beauty, fauna and flora of great diversity, as well as interesting geologic phenomena, that which has generated an increase of the number of tourists. Therefore, it is required of an urgent of protection plant and control of the environment. For this complex work it is needed of the multidisciplinary cooperation of different experts and scientific. The following discussion tries to present some ideas about the results of the geologic and geomorphologic explorations carried out in order to defining a plan for the protection of the karstic area of Rio Claro as of other areas in Colombia. The author makes a general description of the geology and geomorphology of the area, of the karstic sources and caves and he gives limits about the protection and conservation of the caves

  1. Canada`s green plan and the earth summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    In June 1992 one of the largest international conferences ever held took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was attended by the heads of state of more than 100 countries. The ambitious aim of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) -- the Earth Summit -- was to try to reconcile the need for global environmental protection with the need for continuing economic development. The purpose of this document is to provide a brief account of the results of Rio and the way Canadians participated. In addition, this document outlines the immediate priorities of the Government of Canada and the actions under way. It is not meant to be a comprehensive response to the entire Rio agenda. Rather, it is intended to report to Canadians on the steps the government has taken so far and, where possible, the direction in which it is headed. On the number of important issues, the government`s plans are well advanced. For example, action is well under way on the Convention on Climate Change, as high-lighted in the Green Plan`s National Action Strategy on Global Warming. On a number of other issues, it is clear that there is work to be done. The government is committed to completing the task through continuing action and leadership.

  2. Implications of new policies on protection of the environment for the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, some of the safety standards that will be affected by the advent of a new environmental protection framework are examined and the implications for the control strategies contained in the Standards are explored. By this means it is possible to comment on the form that the protection framework might take so that it can be most effectively applied to real environmental control issues. (author)

  3. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  4. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  5. The development of international standards for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Carol

    2004-01-01

    There has been an increasing awareness over recent years of the need to develop an approach that specifically addresses the protection of non-human species from the effects of ionizing radiation, largely in response to national and international environmental legal instruments. The IAEA has a long history of involvement in assessing the impact of ionizing radiation on non-human species and has, in recent years, established a programme of work to address the development of safety standards on this issue, in co-operation with other relevant international organizations. This paper provides an overview of the status of international work in this regard, paying particular attention to the work of the IAEA, and the relevant task groups of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It includes a discussion of the ethics and principles of environmental protection, and issues related to the development of a practical framework for environmental assessment and decision-making. The future development of international safety standards for the control of releases of radionuclides to the environment will depend upon the findings and recommendations of the International Conference on Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation, held in Stockholm, Sweden, 6-10 October 2003. The main issues arising at that conference are summarised. (author)

  6. Government of Canada Initiatives in Support of the Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.A.; Metcalfe, D.E.; Lojk, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Government of Canada strongly supported international efforts to bring into force the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention), and was the second country to ratify it. The Joint Convention places a number of obligations on Contracting Parties aimed at achieving and maintaining a high level of safety worldwide in spent fuel and radioactive waste management, ensuring that effective defenses against potential hazards are in place during all management stages, preventing accidents with radiological consequences and mitigating their consequences should they occur. In addition to establishing and maintaining a modem regulatory framework and an independent regulatory body through the 2000 Nuclear Safety and Control Act, the Government of Canada has implemented a number of initiatives that address its responsibilities and serve to further enhance Canada's compliance with the Joint Convention. For nuclear fuel waste, the Government of Canada brought into force the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act in 2002 to require waste owners to develop, fund, organize and implement a long-term solution for Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The Act clearly reserves for Government the decision on the solution to be implemented in the best interests of Canadians, as well as oversight to ensure that waste owners are fulfilling their responsibilities. In the case of low-level radioactive waste, long-term solutions are being developed to ensure the protection of health, safety, and the environment, both now and in the future. Regarding uranium mine and mill tailings, current operators have state-of-the-art waste management facilities in place. The Government of Canada works with provincial governments to ensure that any potential abandoned or legacy mines sites where no owner can be held responsible are safely decommissioned and managed over the long term. (authors)

  7. An approach to the new ICRP recommendations on protection of the environment for the control of radioactive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telleria, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Full text: For many years it has been agreed at the international level that the regulations for the control of discharges during normal operation from nuclear installation shall be based in the principles of individual dose limitation and optimization of the radiation protection focused on man. These regulations using a process of constrained optimization of protection, when properly applied to limit the discharges of radionuclides, were assumed to protect also other species than man and, within the available level of scientific knowledge, this assumption is still likely to be certain. After the International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Stockholm, 2003, many national, international, regional and non-governmental organizations have been working to develop a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from effects attributable to exposures to ionizing radiation. One of the key issues to solve is how to include in the analysis and judgment process explicitly non-human species. Most of the organizations, particularly at the international level, have expressed their expectative in connection with the results of the work of the ICRP. In December 2007 the ICRP published its new recommendations and during 2008 key documents for the international community like the UNSCEAR document on effects of radiation on non-human biota and the ICRP publication on the approach to a framework for non-human protection using the concept of reference plants and animals could close, at least, the first chapter in this complex evolutionary process in the field of radiation protection. While some of the relevant topics for the protection of the environment from all the pollutants, like the global distribution patterns, the long term bioaccumulation effects, the relation of the individual effects regarding the communities and populations, Etc are still not fully discerned and noting that ICRP in its

  8. Toward an energy security strategy for Canada : a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Energy security strategies for Canada were presented in this paper. Article 6.05 of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) prohibits Canada from reducing the proportion of energy exported to the United States or Mexico. Between 1982 and 2002, natural gas consumption in Canada rose by 96 per cent while exports increased by 396 per cent. Crude oil consumption increased by 29 per cent, while exports rose by 595 per cent. Government practices have tended towards extracting and exporting resources as quickly as possible with no consideration to resource availability for future generations. In addition, much of the value of Canadian resources has been given to private corporations. The environment has been damaged in order to enable faster extraction, and First Nations, employees, and communities have been placed at the mercy of corporations and international markets. Canada's unique cultural and societal arrangements have not been protected. Four principles to address these concerns were presented: (1) managing non-renewable resources as responsible stewards and conserving their economic availability for future generations; (2) ensuring that the benefits from fossil fuels are invested in other forms of capital that will ensure the future prosperity and energy security of Canada; (3) ensuring that the extraction and use of resources has minimal impacts on the planet and (4) a re-direction of the proceeds from resource exploitation towards education, social and health services, land claims and land use settlements, and the elimination of poverty among First Nations people. It was suggested that energy-related jobs and workers should be protected through the development of an industrial strategy which includes investment in renewable energy development and re-training programs for workers. Consistent depoliticized policies are needed to reduce the impact on low-income Canadians of free-market price swings and the unavoidable costs of environmental protection. It was

  9. Between liberalization and protection: Four long-term scenarios for trade, poverty and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eickhout, B.; Meijl, van H.; Tabeau, A.A.; Zeijts, van H.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of globalization on poverty and the environment was a central issue during the Doha development round table and the mass demonstrations on the streets of Cancun. This paper deals with the complex interaction between agricultural trade regimes, poverty and the environment given two key

  10. Subsidiarity and proportionality in the shaping of EU law on the protection of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila I.

    2015-01-01

    with subsidiarity, if the Commission grounds the exercise of competence on this principle. It is yet to be seen whether the new rules on the application of subsidiarity will enhance the cooperation between the institution of EU and member states and bring closer their, usually differing, opinions in concrete cases on the possibility of the Commission to use its competence based on subsidiarity. This issue gains special relevance in the area of the protection of the environment, since environmental challenges could hardly be handled adequately solely by the actions of member states, hence Community action is usually required. Sometimes, however, determining the right of the EU institutions to use competence under subsidiarity demonstrates some degree of arbitrariness. The new rules of the Treaty on the European Union and the Protocol on subsidiarity cannot remove dilemmas of this kind, but it can be reasonably expected that they will create a more efficient mechanism for the approximation of opinions of the institutions of the EU and that of the member states.

  11. The role of food-security solutions in the protection of natural resources and environment of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashgarara, Farhad; Mirdamadi, Seyyed Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyyed Jamal Farajollah; Chizari, Mohammad

    2008-10-01

    The majority of the countries of the world, especially developing countries, face environmental problems. Limitations of basic resources (water and soil) and population growth have been the cause of these environmental problems that countries are confronted with. Developing countries have numerous problems, including destruction of forests, vegetable and animal species, and pollution of the environment. Damage to natural resources and the environment can influence the food-security situation. One of the main millennium development goals (MDGs) is protection of the environment and people's health. This cannot obtained unless there is ensured food security. Food security has been defined as a situation when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food needed to maintain a healthy and active life. At the same time, with ensured food security, we can hope to protect the natural resources and environment. The methodology used is descriptive-analytical, and its main purpose is determining the importance and role of food-security solutions in the reduction of environmental hazards and improvement of natural resources and the environmental situation in developing countries. Therefore, some of the most important food-security solutions that can play an important role in this relation were discussed, including conventional research-based technology, biotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICTs), alternative energy sources, and food irradiation.

  12. A case for the protection of saline and hypersaline environments: a microbiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Varun G; Mormile, Melanie R

    2017-08-01

    Saline and hypersaline environments are known for their unique geochemical properties, microbial populations and aesthetic appeal. Microbial activities and a spectrum of diversity seen in hypersaline environments are distinct with many novel species being identified and reported on a regular basis. Many distinguishing characteristics about the adaptation, morphology, evolutionary history, and potential environmental and biotechnological applications of these organisms are continually investigated. An abundance of interdisciplinary activities and opportunities exist to explore and understand the importance of these environments that potentially hold promising solutions for current and future global issues. Therefore, it is critical to conserve these unique environments and limit the damage inflicted by anthropogenic influences. Increased salinization due to water diversions, undesired freshening, extensive mineral extraction, sewage effluents, pollution due to agricultural runoff and industrial processes, urbanization, and global climate change are factors negatively affecting hypersaline lakes and their surrounding environments. If these harmful effects continue to proceed at the current or even accelerated rates, irrevocable consequences for these environments will occur, resulting in the loss of potential opportunities to gain new knowledge of the biogeochemistry as well as beneficial microbial populations closely associated with these unique and interesting environments. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Impact of general data protection regulation on children's rights in digital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivokapić Đorđe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising the age of consent to data processing to 16 and allowing member states to set it at a lower age, was one of the major points of argument in the wake of passing the new EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR, otherwise hailed for introducing the Article 8 that recognizes children as a vulnerable group. This paper analyzes legal grounds for concerns raised over the provisions related to personal data protection of minors, possible ramifications and remedies within the given framework. It also highlights innovations and positive solutions set in the GDPR, with respect to privacy risks and opportunities for children in the information society.

  14. Philosophy and methodology for protection of mankind and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaratnam, A.

    1990-01-01

    In the nuclear energy field, the consciousness of safety, the planning of facilities and operations to ensure safety, the methods for monitoring to ensure compliance with safety standards, as well as the record of safety have been of a very high standard, in contrast to the situation with respect to control of hazards from chemical pollutants. The philosophy, methodologies and the data bases that the radiation protection community has evolved are of great relevance and applicability in the wider context of environmental protection, public health and industrial safety. (author). 5 refs

  15. Between liberalization and protection: Four long-term scenarios for trade, poverty and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Eickhout, B.; Meijl, van, H.; Tabeau, A.A.; Zeijts, van, H.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of globalization on poverty and the environment was a central issue during the Doha development round table and the mass demonstrations on the streets of Cancun. This paper deals with the complex interaction between agricultural trade regimes, poverty and the environment given two key uncertainties. First, a world where Doha succeeds and globalization proceeds versus a world that moves to regionalism with a stronger orientation toward bilateral and regional trade agreements. Second...

  16. Ready to regulate small reactors in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstead, S.; Cook, S.; De Vos, M.; Howden, B.D. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The success of any new build project is reliant upon all stakeholders - applicants, vendors, contractors and regulatory agencies - being ready to do their part. Over the past several years, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has been working to ensure that it has the appropriate regulatory framework and internal processes in place for the timely and efficient licensing of all types of reactor, regardless of size. The CNSC's general nuclear safety objective requires that nuclear facilities be designed and operated in a manner that will protect the health, safety and security of persons and the environment from unreasonable risk, and to implement Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. For smaller facilities, this has traditionally allowed for the use of a graded approach to achieving safety.

  17. Transport of nuclear substances in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faille, S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    CNSC Regulates all Nuclear-related facilities and activities including Uranium mines and mill;, uranium fuel fabrication and processing; nuclear power plants; nuclear substance processing; industrial and medical applications; nuclear research and education; transport; export/import control; security and safeguards and waste management facilities. Our mandate is to protect the health, safety and security of Canadians and the environment, and implement Canada's International commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and disseminate objective scientific, technical and regulatory information to the public. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1996 Edition, Revised and currently being revised to reflect the 2012 edition of the IAEA Regulations.

  18. Transport of nuclear substances in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faille, S.

    2015-01-01

    CNSC Regulates all Nuclear-related facilities and activities including Uranium mines and mill;, uranium fuel fabrication and processing; nuclear power plants; nuclear substance processing; industrial and medical applications; nuclear research and education; transport; export/import control; security and safeguards and waste management facilities. Our mandate is to protect the health, safety and security of Canadians and the environment, and implement Canada's International commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and disseminate objective scientific, technical and regulatory information to the public. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1996 Edition, Revised and currently being revised to reflect the 2012 edition of the IAEA Regulations.

  19. Edge scour at scour protections around piles in the marine environment - Laboratory and field investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    they go from buried to the transition piece on the foundation. Although much information is available on the design of scour protection systems around monopiles, little is known on the mechanisms causing edge scour and the equilibrium stages of the edge scour process in steady current, waves and combined...

  20. Managing asset protection in the re-engineered environment of the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses innovative management of equipment assets during this climate of increased competitiveness in order to reduce the costs of equipment failures, and avoid business interruptions and consequential loss of market share. The topics of the paper include proper design and specification, monitoring, maintenance, timely repair, and protecting buildings

  1. Textiles for protection at the workplace : Developments in textiles for a safer working environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Luiken, A. (Anton)

    2011-01-01

    This report was produced within the framework of the RAAK PRP project ‘Veiligheid op de werkvloer’. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is used on a daily basis by millions of people all over the EU, voluntarily or as a result of EU legislation. In this report we deal specifically with

  2. Past, Present & Future of the US EPA: Protecting Human Health & the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time line of events that lead to the creation of the US EPA are marked by grassroots efforts by average citizens voicing concerns to politicians in Washington. Visionary leadership by Congress and the President led to the birth of a Federal Agency dedicated to protecting huma...

  3. Raising Teenagers in Hostile Environments: How Race, Class, and Gender Matter for Mothers' Protective Carework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sinikka; Aseltine, Elyshia

    2013-01-01

    In contemporary discourse, children are imagined with "surplus risk," and parents often feel pressure to protect their children from danger. Drawing on interviews with 40 Latina, White, and Black mothers of teenagers, the authors examine the factors that shape these mothers' concerns for their teens' safety, how they articulate these…

  4. APPROACHING THE DISCRIMINATORY WORK ENVIRONMENT AS STRESSOR: THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF JOB SATISFACTION ON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Di Marco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organisational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organisational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyse the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male= 826, female= 764, employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R²= .17. This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognise and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g. through training, diversity policies, etc.. On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g. providing mechanisms of voice might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.Keywords: Discriminatory work environment, Job satisfaction, Employees’ health, Human Resource Management, Italian workers, Workplace, Work-related stress

  5. The change in body stressed to relaxed body through breathing, visualization and a protective environment together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn I. Rodríguez Morrill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows several ways to meet and relax the body through personal knowledge and techniques encounter with nature. Modern life and fast, the constant pressure from childhood to adulthood, in the modes of interaction between individuals and groups, they lead to construction of bodies that reflect emotional anatomy visible loss of balance, contractures, inflammation, multiple imbalances by lack of knowledge and awareness especially being in the world fully, the person has moved away from its ecological relationship with itself and the environment. Methods are shown to positively change a condition of constant stress and chronic discomfort, a learned condition of physical and psychological wellbeing, with a series of movements, recovering the body through exercise, to tend to personal balance, obtaining a positive relationship with the environment and the people attended. The proposal starts promoting new habits that can be saved in consciousness. Partly, mainly of breath, alignment with the music and the environment and personal and group work

  6. Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Overcoming Environmental Monitoring Inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, T.G.; Desmond, J.A.; Stevens, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    The first nuclear reactors at Sellafield went critical in 1951 and fuel reprocessing commenced shortly afterwards. As the nuclear programme expanded, reprocessing increased and there was an associated increase in discharges to the environment. An initial environmental monitoring programme was formulated on the basis of research and assessment of the likely behaviour of radionuclides. In addition to the routine process sources there were also incidents that gave rise to acute releases of radioactivity to the environment. Of key significance were: the Windscale fire, 1957; short-cooled fuel reprocessing, 1981; and discharge of contaminated solvent, 1983. All of these incidents added to the requirements for environments for environmental monitoring. The monitoring programme has evolved over a period of more than 50 years. (N.C.)

  7. Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Overcoming Environmental Monitoring Inertia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, T.G.; Desmond, J.A. [British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd. (United Kingdom); Stevens, A.K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The first nuclear reactors at Sellafield went critical in 1951 and fuel reprocessing commenced shortly afterwards. As the nuclear programme expanded, reprocessing increased and there was an associated increase in discharges to the environment. An initial environmental monitoring programme was formulated on the basis of research and assessment of the likely behaviour of radionuclides. In addition to the routine process sources there were also incidents that gave rise to acute releases of radioactivity to the environment. Of key significance were: the Windscale fire, 1957; short-cooled fuel reprocessing, 1981; and discharge of contaminated solvent, 1983. All of these incidents added to the requirements for environments for environmental monitoring. The monitoring programme has evolved over a period of more than 50 years. (N.C.)

  8. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees' health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees' health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R (2) = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers' health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.

  9. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R2 = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625

  10. Protecting the Environment – a Vital Issue in the Contemporary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Rica MAN

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s worldwide concern regarding environment issues is by no means a passing fancy of no substance but a vital problem of epic proportions. Although tons of research performed since the last decades of the 20th Century have sufficiently proved the causes and effects of our environment problems, the perfect solution to undo them all will probably never be found. Contemporary legislation everywhere is sparing no efforts in trying to best meet the new realties imposed by this situation and to constantly adapt to emerging factors.

  11. Evaluation of protection measurements for urban environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Nascimento, Udilma; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail: dneves@ird.gov.b, E-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.b, E-mail: udilma@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Radioactive accidents has shown the necessity of a previous evaluation planning of exposure and directives for implementation of protection measurements. The description or measurements in the literature usually is associated to reduction of concentrations in the medium where they are applied. For verification the efficiency in dose reduction, it is necessary to proceed simulations. Through the development of data base on protection measurements, it was established basic sceneries, typically tropical as far the building type is concerned and the construction material. The program SIEM was used for simulation of contamination with {sup 137}Cs. The results indicates that generic solutions persuade not to and the decision make processes should be effectuated according to the real conditions of contamination and the use of affected area. For affected areas, two classification criteria were defined: (1) efficiency in reducing the dose in the first year; and (2) efficiency in dose reducing at long term

  12. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  13. Oligofructose protects against arsenic-induced liver injury in a model of environment/obesity interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, Veronica L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Stocke, Kendall S. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Schmidt, Robin H.; Tan, Min [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Ajami, Nadim [Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Neal, Rachel E. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Petrosino, Joseph F. [Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Barve, Shirish [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Arteel, Gavin E., E-mail: gavin.arteel@louisville.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic (As) tops the ATSDR list of hazardous environmental chemicals and is known to cause liver injury. Although the concentrations of As found in the US water supply are generally too low to directly damage the liver, subhepatotoxic doses of As sensitize the liver to experimental NAFLD. It is now suspected that GI microbiome dysbiosis plays an important role in development of NALFD. Importantly, arsenic has also been shown to alter the microbiome. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the prebiotic oligofructose (OFC) protects against enhanced liver injury caused by As in experimental NAFLD. Male C57Bl6/J mice were fed low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD), or HFD containing oligofructose (OFC) during concomitant exposure to either tap water or As-containing water (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for 10 weeks. HFD significantly increased body mass and caused fatty liver injury, as characterized by an increased liver weight-to-body weight ratio, histologic changes and transaminases. As observed previously, As enhanced HFD-induced liver damage, which was characterized by enhanced inflammation. OFC supplementation protected against the enhanced liver damage caused by As in the presence of HFD. Interestingly, arsenic, HFD and OFC all caused unique changes to the gut flora. These data support previous findings that low concentrations of As enhance liver damage caused by high fat diet. Furthermore, these results indicate that these effects of arsenic may be mediated, at least in part, by GI tract dysbiosis and that prebiotic supplementation may confer significant protective effects. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) enhances liver damage caused by a high-fat (HFD) diet in mice. • Oligofructose protects against As-enhanced liver damage caused by HFD. • As causes dysbiosis in the GI tract and exacerbates the dysbiosis caused by HFD. • OFC prevents the dysbiosis caused by HFD and As, increasing commensal bacteria.

  14. Environmental protection expenditure in 2010 - Report from the environment public accounts and economics commission - 2012 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmand, Samuel; Bouagal, Farid; Gicquiaux, Cyril; Margontier, Sophie; Randriambololona, Celine; Boitard, Corinne; Dron, Dominique

    2012-07-01

    The expenditure related to the activities of environmental protection reached nearly 46 billion euros in 2010, up 3.1%, despite a fall in investment (1.5%). The expenditure, which had slowed down in 2009, resumed its rate of progression in 2010 this latter was still lower than between the years 2000 and 2008, when annual increase exceeded 5.3%. The dynamics of environmental protection expenditure is connected with the one of the gross domestic product at current prices, whose growth was interrupted in 2009 and resumed in 2010 (2.7%). The trend reversal observed previously for investments in the environmental protection domains continued and the downturn begun in 2009 went on (down 1.5% in 2010). Except for wastewater management and noise abatement, expenditures in the various fields of environmental protection increase, in particular those for waste management. The share of the financial effort between agents did not change much, the private enterprises still were bearing the largest relative share of total expenditure (36.4%). There was a significant increase (10.9%) for those of followed expenditures in natural resource use and management area (recovery/recycling, intake and distribution of water), very sensitive to price changes in the recovery sector. In 2010, the production of eco-activities reached almost 70 billion euros, up 8.5%. The environmental employment rose significantly (4.5%), and amounted to 452 600 full-time equivalent jobs in 2010. The environmental job market was less dynamic in 2011 than it had been in the past years, the number of applications increased slightly (0.7%) and the one of situations vacant rose a little more (2.1 %), while the increases for all types jobs were more marked. (authors)

  15. The management of radiological protection in a multi-employer environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, Alex

    2000-01-01

    For more than 40 years the UKAEA has been a world leader in the field of nuclear power R and D, pioneering the world's first civil nuclear programme and developing new nuclear power reactor technologies. Now that the initial programme has been successfully completed, UKAEA is again leading the world by pioneering new approaches to managing nuclear liabilities. In this new role, UKAEA is making a significant use of other companies in carrying out its decommissioning tasks and in providing support services. Whilst bringing with it new ideas and useful outside experience, this approach has given new challenges to UKAEA in ensuring that the work is carried out safety and that UKAEA is able to continue to exercise it's responsibilities as site operator and nuclear site licensee. This paper draws upon the experience within UKAEA to explore the management of radiological protection in a multi-employer situation emphasising the importance of co-operation between radiological protection experts, the need to clarify roles and responsibilities and the importance of worker participation. It is concluded that properly managed such an arrangement can not only work but can strengthen radiation protection building on various parties' strengths and experiences. One particular area where considerable use of service contractors has been undertaken is in radiological protection support services. UKAEA has now some unique experience in UK and have demonstrated that again, with adequate and appropriate management arrangements a potential challenge can be turned into an advantage. It is vital however that UKAEA is able to demonstrate sufficient in-house knowledge and expertise to remain in control as the site Licensee. (author)

  16. Protection of Microkernel Environment L4Re from Stack-smashed Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Andreevich Sartakov; Alexander Sergeevich Tarasikov

    2014-01-01

    Microkernel-based operating systems provide high level of protection due to the strong isolation of components, small size of Trusted Computing Base and execution of drivers in user space. At the same time, such systems are vulnerable to a stack overflow attacks, because these attacks exploit the hardware features of the platform, such as shared memory space for data and code. Modern architectures, such as AMD64 and ARM, provide opportunities to counteract attacks at the hardware level by dis...

  17. Oligofructose protects against arsenic-induced liver injury in a model of environment/obesity interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, Veronica L.; Stocke, Kendall S.; Schmidt, Robin H.; Tan, Min; Ajami, Nadim; Neal, Rachel E.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Barve, Shirish; Arteel, Gavin E.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) tops the ATSDR list of hazardous environmental chemicals and is known to cause liver injury. Although the concentrations of As found in the US water supply are generally too low to directly damage the liver, subhepatotoxic doses of As sensitize the liver to experimental NAFLD. It is now suspected that GI microbiome dysbiosis plays an important role in development of NALFD. Importantly, arsenic has also been shown to alter the microbiome. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the prebiotic oligofructose (OFC) protects against enhanced liver injury caused by As in experimental NAFLD. Male C57Bl6/J mice were fed low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD), or HFD containing oligofructose (OFC) during concomitant exposure to either tap water or As-containing water (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for 10 weeks. HFD significantly increased body mass and caused fatty liver injury, as characterized by an increased liver weight-to-body weight ratio, histologic changes and transaminases. As observed previously, As enhanced HFD-induced liver damage, which was characterized by enhanced inflammation. OFC supplementation protected against the enhanced liver damage caused by As in the presence of HFD. Interestingly, arsenic, HFD and OFC all caused unique changes to the gut flora. These data support previous findings that low concentrations of As enhance liver damage caused by high fat diet. Furthermore, these results indicate that these effects of arsenic may be mediated, at least in part, by GI tract dysbiosis and that prebiotic supplementation may confer significant protective effects. - Highlights: • Arsenic (As) enhances liver damage caused by a high-fat (HFD) diet in mice. • Oligofructose protects against As-enhanced liver damage caused by HFD. • As causes dysbiosis in the GI tract and exacerbates the dysbiosis caused by HFD. • OFC prevents the dysbiosis caused by HFD and As, increasing commensal bacteria

  18. Discharges to the environment and environmental protection at CEGB power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (scope of paper will cover the principles, methods and results obtained in environmental protection in relation to atmospheric discharges made routinely during power generation); air pollution control; nuclear power stations (type of discharge, annual discharges, environmental monitoring); fossil fuelled power stations; health effects; trace elements; long range transport and acid rain; future coal fired plant; carbon dioxide. (U.K.)

  19. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1994. Part 2, Annex 1, Control of the working environment, dosimetry and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Kalinic, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data and analysis of the of measured sample results collected during radiation protection control in the working environment of the RA reactor. First part contains basic exposure values and statistical review of the the total number of radiation measurements. It includes contents of radioactive gasses and effluents in the air, as well as the level of surface contamination of clothes and uncovered parts of the personnel bodies. Second part deals with the analysis of personnel doses. Third part of this annex contains basic data about the quantity of collected radioactive waste, total quantity of contaminated and decontaminated surfaces. It is stated that there have been no accidents that could cause significant contamination of working surfaces and components nor radiation exposure of the personnel [sr

  20. Evaluation of protection measurements for rural environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Silva, Fernanda L.; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail: dneves@ird.gov.b, E-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.b, E-mail: fleite@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares

    2011-10-26

    Among the planning activities of actuation in nuclear/radiological emergences, it is included the efficiency evaluation of protection and remediation measurements. From the development of a data base on such measurements for the agricultural areas, the program SIEM was used for effectuation the simulations involving the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr radionuclides, in scenery previously established for simulation those areas of a 50 km surrounding the Admiral Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant. The obtained results indicate that the scenery is determinant of efficiency measurements involving various specific factors of each place, such as: agricultural and cattle breeding products, consumption habits of population and the grade of subsistence by the diet items, making not practical the elaboration of predefined generic sceneries. The great dependence on seasoning related to the moment of accident makes inadequate any previous evaluation what soever for evaluation of efficiency of protection and remediation measurements. Therefore, previous decisions are not recommended about the relevance of protection measurements for rural areas. Two classification criteria were defined: (i) the efficiency in reduction the doses in the firs year; and, (i i) efficiency in reduction the dose at long term

  1. Application of ERTS-1 data to the protection and management of New Jersey's coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunghans, R. S.; Feinberg, E. B.; Wobber, F. J.; Mairs, R. L. (Principal Investigator); Macomber, R. T.; Stanczuk, D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Rates of erosion and accretion of the shoreline are being calculated for two test areas along the New Jersey coast. Measurements are made on aerial photographs taken over the last 20 years and processed by computer. The rates are presented in graphic form on an ERTS-1 base map at a scale of 1:125,000. These rates are being used to determine the effectiveness of various shore protection structures at preventing sand removal and encouraging sand accumulation. Information on maintenance and construction expenditures is being used to obtain a cost effectiveness ratio for various shore protection devices. The relationship of erosion rates, property value, and project cost are all criteria for selection of site type and extent of a shore protection structure. Compilation and evaluation of historical data will identify past decision making patterns. The effectiveness of these decisions with respect to erosion rates, property value, and project cost, can be used as an added criteria for future allocation of money and the selection of site and type of structure to be built.

  2. River Protection Project: Interface Management in the Multi Contract Project Environment at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHIKASHIO, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) is implementing the River Protection Project (RPP) using two prime contractors. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is responsible for operating the existing tank system, delivering the waste feed to the waste treatment plant, and managing the resulting low- and high-level glass waste ''product'' through a performance-based fee type contract. A separate prime contractor will be responsible for designing, constructing and commissioning of a new Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), and preparing the waste for ultimate disposal. In addition to the prime contractors and their interfaces, the River Protection Project is being conducted on the Hanford Site, which is under the management of another DOE organization, DOE Richland Field Office (DOE-RL). The infrastructure and utilities are provided by DOE-RL, for example. In addition, there are multiple other technical interfaces with federal, state and other regulatory agencies that influence the management of the activities. This paper provides an overview of the approach employed by ORP to identify, coordinate, and manage the technical interfaces of RPP. In addition, this paper describes the approach and methodologies used to: Establish an overall framework for interface management. Establish the requirements for defining and managing interfaces for the prime contractors and DOE. Contractually requiring the prime contractors to control and manage the interfaces

  3. Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers' parenting practices in the postdeployment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S

    2015-08-01

    Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of postdeployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 postdeployed fathers who served in the National Guard/Reserves. Preintervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model assessing risk and protective factors for an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study using direct parent-child observations of fathers' parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Protective or damage promoting effect of calcium carbonate layers on the surface of cement based materials in aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwotzer, M.; Scherer, T.; Gerdes, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cement based materials permanently exposed to aggressive aqueous environments are subject to chemical changes affecting their durability. However, this holds also for tap water that is considered to be not aggressive to cementitious materials, although in that case a formation of covering layers of CaCO 3 on the alkaline surfaces is commonly supposed to provide protection against reactive transport processes. Thus, investigations of the structural and chemical properties of the material/water interface were carried out in laboratory experiments and case studies to elucidate the consequences of surface reactions for the durability of cement based materials exposed to tap water. Focused Ion Beam investigations revealed that a protective effect of a CaCO 3 covering layer depends on its structural properties, which are in turn affected by the hydro-chemical conditions during crystallization. Surface precipitation of CaCO 3 can trigger further chemical degradation, if the required calcium is supplied by the pore solution of the material.

  5. Protecting the Environment for the Sake of Our Common Future. Special Report 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Sigrid, Ed.

    In June 1992, representatives of more than 170 countries met in Rio de Janeiro, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, to consider international cooperation aimed at preserving the sources of human life. This report presents Germany's involvement in that cooperative effort. The report is presented in six sections: (1) an…

  6. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 23 figs., 95 tabs

  7. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1991 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  8. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Information is appended on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  9. International migration from non-endemic settings as a protective factor for HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Liu, Vivian; Nguyen, Paul; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-02-01

    Given heterogeneous evidence regarding the impacts of migration on HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs), we explored factors associated with international migration among FSWs in Vancouver, Canada. We draw on baseline questionnaire and HIV/STI testing data from a community-based cohort, AESHA, from 2010-2012. Logistic regression identified correlates of international migration. Of 650 FSWs, 163 (25.1%) were international migrants, who primarily worked in formal indoor establishments. HIV/STI prevalence was lower among migrants than Canadian-born women (5.5 vs. 25.9%). In multivariate analysis, international migration was positively associated with completing high school, supporting dependents, and paying a third party, and negatively associated with HIV, injecting drugs and inconsistent condom use with clients. Although migrants experience lower workplace harms and HIV risk than Canadian-born women, they face concerning levels of violence, police harassment, and HIV/STIs. Research exploring structural and socio-cultural factors shaping risk mitigation and migrants' access to support remains needed.

  10. Energy efficiency. Care with power. Protecting the environment actively; E wie Energieeffizienz. Mit Strom bewusst umgehen. Die Umwelt aktiv schuetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    This manual gives practical advice and informs about legal regulations, financial incentives and low-cost energy conservation techniques, assembled by power suppliers. Everybody is able to save energy in his own household and utilize it meaningfully without emissions: One buys energy saving appliances, heats carefully his rooms, houses and flats are insulated according to EnEV (German energy saving ordinance). Furtheron advices are given for ovens, refrigerators etc. not only to utilize power carefully as also to save money and to protect simultaneously the environment. (GL)

  11. The Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program: Protection of materials in the space environment subprogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lorne R.; Francoeur, J.; Aguero, Alina; Wertheimer, Michael R.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.; Martinu, L.; Blezius, J. W.; Oliver, M.; Singh, A.

    1995-01-01

    Three projects are currently underway for the development of new coatings for the protection of materials in the space environment. These coatings are based on vacuum deposition technologies. The projects will go as far as the proof-of-concept stage when the commercial potential for the technology will be demonstrated on pilot-scale fabrication facilities in 1996. These projects are part of a subprogram to develop supporting technologies for automation and robotics technologies being developed under the Canadian Space Agency's STEAR Program, part of the Canadian Space Station Program.

  12. Theoretical and experimental contributions regarding the impact on work environment of welding processes in MIG / MAG protective gas medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Amza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main factors that cause environmental pollution in the case of the welding procedure in a protective gas environment. In the research the MIG and MAG welding processes were taken into account. The materials used in the experiments were 8TiCr170 stainless steel as the base material and as filler materials 4 types of welding wires were used, characterized by different chemical compositions. To assess the impact on the work environment of such welding processes the pollution coefficient Cp was defined based on the material balance equation as the ratio of the mass of all materials used in the welding process Mt and the effective mass of the welded performed Mu.

  13. Advances in environmental radiation protection: re-thinking animal-environment interaction modelling for wildlife dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Beresford, Nicholas A. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Centre for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hinton, Thomas G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Centre de Cadarache, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-07-01

    Current wildlife dose assessment models adopt simplistic approaches to the representation of animal-environment interaction. The simplest approaches are to assume either that environmental media (e.g. soil, sediment or water) are uniformly contaminated or relating organism exposure to activity concentrations in media collected at the point of sampling of the animal. The external exposure of a reference organism is then estimated by defining the geometric relationship between the organism and the medium. For example, a reference organism within the soil would have a 4p exposure geometry and a reference organism on the soil would have a 2p exposure geometry. At best, the current modelling approaches recognise differences in media activity concentrations by calculating exposure for different areas of contamination and then estimating the fraction of time that an organism spends in each area. In other fields of pollution ecology, for example wildlife risk assessment for chemical pollution, more advanced approaches are being implemented to model animal-environment interaction and estimate exposure. These approaches include individual-based movement modelling and random walk modelling and a variety of software tools have been developed to facilitate the implementation of these models. Although there are more advanced animal-environment interaction modelling approaches that are available, it is questionable whether these should be adopted for use in environmental radiation protection. Would their adoption significantly reduce uncertainty within the assessment process and, if so, by how much? These questions are being addressed within the new TREE (TRansfer - Exposure - Effects) research programme funded by the United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and within Working Group (WG) 8 of the International Atomic Energy Agency's MODARIA programme. MODARIA WG8 is reviewing some of the alternative approaches that have been developed for animal-environment

  14. Impact of radioactivity on problematic environment, knowledge situation, and approaches toward radiation protection criteria identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.

    2001-01-01

    The scraps of knowledge existing todays about the environmental radiation protection are based on the dose limits (10 and 1 mGy.h -1 ) that have been determined from literature relative to effects of acute exposure by external irradiation on individuals. But these standards come from a context far from environmental reality. Some research directions are coming out: to complete the radioecological knowledge of transfers, the biological accumulation in living organisms, to study the effects of this bioaccumulation in a multi pollution context with chronic low dose exposure; to identify the characteristics of these effects( low doses in chronic multi pollutions) at the ecosystem level. (N.C.)

  15. Comments about MERCOSUL and their relationship with the nuclear energy and environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaldivar, M. Enrique; Favini, Jorge Martinez

    1995-01-01

    The MERCOSUL is a project for economic and market integration that embraces the geographic space confined within limits of Argentine, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The paper sets forth the previous studies about the instruments and mechanisms, in the most important aspects, that were responsible for MERCOSUL's foundation. All the stages, in the course of the integration process are mentioned, as well as the regional treaties and agreements (Montevideo Treaty, Cartagena Agreement, Centro-American Common Market, Caribbean Community (CARICON, Andean Pact, Assuncion Treaty). In the context, the author also makes careful considerations concerning nuclear energy environment, considering this matter not included in the MERCOSUL Agenda. Conclusions are drawn expecting that in the near future, the nuclear energy and nuclear energy environment should be assert emphatically and added in the MERCOSUL calendar, having the regional technical support, qualified human resources and the existing natural bilateral collaboration and cooperation. 10 refs

  16. Making time for family meals: Parental influences, home eating environments, barriers and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L

    2018-04-06

    Frequent family mealtimes have been associated with numerous positive dietary, health, and behavioral outcomes for children and families. This review article summarizes some of the beneficial outcomes associated with having frequent family dinners. Current trends in family dinner frequency are discussed in the context of barriers that influence how often families eat dinner together, including time issues, work issues, and distractions in the home environment. Next, several parental influences and home environment factors that promote healthy and consistent family dinners are outlined. Finally, limitations are discussed and a few practical suggestions are mentioned to help encourage families, employers, and policy-makers to make family mealtimes a regular practice for as many families as possible. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Market opportunities for advanced sensor technologies arising from the need to protect the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogue, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on awareness that the processes that sustain the wealth of the world's industrialized nations that are themselves responsible for the greatest environmental damage, has led to an urgent reappraisal of many aspects of late twentieth-century life. It is clear that vital functions such as transport, power generation, agriculture and energy consumption must be adapted and developed so as to continue to meet the users' needs, yet comply with ever more stringent legislation and public demands for a healthy environment. This will involve all manner of practices that reduce the use and release of environmentally hazardous materials, but it is inconceivable that all such emissions and discharges will ever be eliminated totally. Thus, there is a growing need for technologies that can control environmentally hazardous materials at source and monitor their presence in the external environment. It is in this capacity that new and improved sensor technologies will play a critical role

  18. Yearly scientific meeting: chemistry in human health and environment protection. Bialystok'92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The conference has been divided into 12 sections devoted to following topics: analytical chemistry; environmental chemistry; chemistry of natural compounds; chemistry of pharmaceutics and toxic compounds; chemistry in medicine; electrochemistry; young scientists forum; didactics and history of chemistry; chemistry and industry - technologies environment friendly; new trends in polymer science; crystallochemistry; pro-ecological actions in leather industry. Different analytical methods for determination of heavy methods and rare earths have been presented. Some of them have been successfully applied for the examination of environmental and biological materials. The basic chemical and physico-chemical studies including thermodynamic, crystal structure, coordination chemistry, sorption properties etc. have been extensively resented. The existence of radioactive elements in environment has been also investigated, especially in respect to municipal and industrial wastes and products of their processing. The radiation effects for different materials have been reported and discussed as well

  19. Realising the potential for the protection of the environment by developing small hydro power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, R.; Heal, A.

    2000-07-01

    The RAPPIDS project was set up to tackle the conflicts arising from the development of Small Hydro Power (SHP) in sensitive and fragile environments. The project was focused on Snowdonia National Park, which was identified as a conflict area in the UK. The aim was to develop a strategy to overcome these conflicts locally through: improving the understanding of market actors, of the effects of SHP on the environment; improving dialogue between market actors; initiating collaboration to analyse the environmental impacts and test innovative technological measures for sensitive SHP development; Identifying successful environmental measures and assessing their suitability for transfer to other regions; raising the awareness of market actors, of the environmental benefits of SHP. The project in the UK was mirrored in 2 regions of Europe, under the EU Altener programme, and lessons learnt were shared between regions. (author)

  20. Study on User Authority Management for Safe Data Protection in Cloud Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In cloud computing environments, user data are encrypted using numerous distributed servers before storing such data. Global Internet service companies, such as Google and Yahoo, recognized the importance of Internet service platforms and conducted self-research and development to create and utilize large cluster-based cloud computing platform technology based on low-priced commercial nodes. As diverse data services become possible in distributed computing environments, high-capacity distributed management is emerging as a major issue. Meanwhile, because of the diverse forms of using high-capacity data, security vulnerability and privacy invasion by malicious attackers or internal users can occur. As such, when various sensitive data are stored in cloud servers and used from there, the problem of data spill might occur because of external attackers or the poor management of internal users. Data can be managed through encryption to prevent such problems. However, existing simple encryption methods involve problems associated with the management of access to data stored in cloud environments. Therefore, in the present paper, a technique for data access management by user authority, based on Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE and secret distribution techniques, is proposed.

  1. Fatigue proofing: The role of protective behaviours in mediating fatigue-related risk in a defence aviation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Drew; Cleggett, Courtney; Thompson, Kirrilly; Thomas, Matthew J W

    2017-02-01

    In the military or emergency services, operational requirements and/or community expectations often preclude formal prescriptive working time arrangements as a practical means of reducing fatigue-related risk. In these environments, workers sometimes employ adaptive or protective behaviours informally to reduce the risk (i.e. likelihood or consequence) associated with a fatigue-related error. These informal behaviours enable employees to reduce risk while continuing to work while fatigued. In this study, we documented the use of informal protective behaviours in a group of defence aviation personnel including flight crews. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to determine whether and which protective behaviours were used to mitigate fatigue-related error. The 18 participants were from aviation-specific trades and included aircrew (pilots and air-crewman) and aviation maintenance personnel (aeronautical engineers and maintenance personnel). Participants identified 147 ways in which they and/or others act to reduce the likelihood or consequence of a fatigue-related error. These formed seven categories of fatigue-reduction strategies. The two most novel categories are discussed in this paper: task-related and behaviour-based strategies. Broadly speaking, these results indicate that fatigued military flight and maintenance crews use protective 'fatigue-proofing' behaviours to reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of fatigue-related error and were aware of the potential benefits. It is also important to note that these behaviours are not typically part of the formal safety management system. Rather, they have evolved spontaneously as part of the culture around protecting team performance under adverse operating conditions. When compared with previous similar studies, aviation personnel were more readily able to understand the idea of fatigue proofing than those from a fire-fighting background. These differences were thought to reflect different cultural

  2. An Adaptive Privacy Protection Method for Smart Home Environments Using Supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, smart home technologies have started to be widely used, bringing a great deal of convenience to people’s daily lives. At the same time, privacy issues have become particularly prominent. Traditional encryption methods can no longer meet the needs of privacy protection in smart home applications, since attacks can be launched even without the need for access to the cipher. Rather, attacks can be successfully realized through analyzing the frequency of radio signals, as well as the timestamp series, so that the daily activities of the residents in the smart home can be learnt. Such types of attacks can achieve a very high success rate, making them a great threat to users’ privacy. In this paper, we propose an adaptive method based on sample data analysis and supervised learning (SDASL, to hide the patterns of daily routines of residents that would adapt to dynamically changing network loads. Compared to some existing solutions, our proposed method exhibits advantages such as low energy consumption, low latency, strong adaptability, and effective privacy protection.

  3. Use of plastic microcylinders (plamilon) for protection of the environment and the depths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharipov, A U; Bochkarev, G P; Kagarmanov, N F; Minkhayrov, K L

    1979-01-01

    The Bashkir Scientific Research and Planning Institute of the Oil Industry conducted comprehensive studies to develop technology to obtain and to use plastic microcylinders (plamilon) in order to use them to protect fresh ground and surface water from oil and chemical contamination during drilling of wells, extraction and transporting oil. Plamilon is composed of hollow microspherical particles made of plastic filled with nitrogen. It is obtained by spray drying of a composite consisting of synthetic resin, reagent-gas-former and hardener. The tests indicated that by introducing plamilon into the drilling fluid one can under certain geological conditions successfully eliminate or prevent absorption, and thus not allow contamination of the bed water. Field tests of plamilon for collection of spilled oil from the surface of water revealed significant advantages of this sorbent over others. In order to purify large reservoirs of spilled oil, plamilon can be sprayed with the help of airplanes, helicopters and floating vessels. Regeneration of plamilon can be done by washing with solvents and surfactants, low temperature steaming, centrifuging, etc. The use of plamilon makes it possible not only to solve questions of protecting fresh ground and surface waters from oil contamination, but also guarantees return of the spilled oil to the national economy.

  4. Tools and methods for integrated resource planning. Improving energy efficiency and protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, J.N.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de; Redlinger, R.Y.

    1997-01-01

    This book resulted from our recognition of the need to have systematic teaching and training materials on energy efficiency, end-use analysis, demand-side management (DSM) and integrated resource planning (IRP). This book addresses energy efficiency programs and IRP, exploring their application in the electricity sector. We believe that these methods will provide powerful and practical tools for designing efficient and environmentally-sustainable energy supply and demand-side programs to minimize the economic, environmental and other social costs of electricity conversion and use. Moreover, the principles of IRP can be and already are being applied in other areas such as natural gas, water supply, and even transportation and health services. Public authorities can use IRP principles to design programs to encourage end-use efficiency and environmental protection through environmental charges and incentives, non-utility programs, and utility programs applied to the functions remaining in monopoly concessions such as the distribution wires. Competitive supply firms can use IRP principles to satisfy customer needs for efficiency and low prices, to comply with present and future environmental restrictions, and to optimize supply and demand-side investments and returns, particularly at the distribution level, where local-area IRP is now being actively practiced. Finally, in those countries where a strong planning function remains in place, IRP provides a way to integrate end-use efficiency and environmental protection into energy development. (EG) 181 refs

  5. Tools and methods for integrated resource planning. Improving energy efficiency and protecting the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisher, J N; Martino Jannuzzi, G de; Redlinger, R Y

    1997-11-01

    This book resulted from our recognition of the need to have systematic teaching and training materials on energy efficiency, end-use analysis, demand-side management (DSM) and integrated resource planning (IRP). This book addresses energy efficiency programs and IRP, exploring their application in the electricity sector. We believe that these methods will provide powerful and practical tools for designing efficient and environmentally-sustainable energy supply and demand-side programs to minimize the economic, environmental and other social costs of electricity conversion and use. Moreover, the principles of IRP can be and already are being applied in other areas such as natural gas, water supply, and even transportation and health services. Public authorities can use IRP principles to design programs to encourage end-use efficiency and environmental protection through environmental charges and incentives, non-utility programs, and utility programs applied to the functions remaining in monopoly concessions such as the distribution wires. Competitive supply firms can use IRP principles to satisfy customer needs for efficiency and low prices, to comply with present and future environmental restrictions, and to optimize supply and demand-side investments and returns, particularly at the distribution level, where local-area IRP is now being actively practiced. Finally, in those countries where a strong planning function remains in place, IRP provides a way to integrate end-use efficiency and environmental protection into energy development. (EG) 181 refs.

  6. Environment protection in the legal system of Albania: The current situation in Albania on combating environmental crimes and the new reform directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkëlzen Selimi

    2016-07-01

    The conclusions reached at the end shows the evolution of the concept of environment and its protection, welcomes the new reform by noting the need of the judicial authorities to be trained in order to be fully implemented.

  7. Progressive technologies, modernization of hydro power projects aimed at rationalization in a use of hydroenergetic potential and environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabela, P. et al.

    1997-01-01

    A process of modernization of nodes of equipment of hydroelectric power plants (HPPs) and pumped storage plants (PSPs) has been extended lately to cover all pieces of equipment of HPP aimed at an increase in effectiveness of HPP as a unit. Turbine wheels of selected HPPs were replaced in the past , replacement of impellers of pumps of machines in PSP Cierny Vah started started at present and a complex modernization of our oldest HPP Ladce (1936) is planned aimed at an increase in absorption capacity of water turbines with an increase in their efficiency. The process of increasing the efficiency of the existing units without substantial construction changes in blocks of turbines gives also economic acceptability to the mentioned approaches from the point of view of both the gained installed capacity and electrical energy production compared to an option of building a modern HPP and it is also more acceptable from the point of view of environment protection than newly built HPPs. All of the technical changes, a process of increases of increasing the use of a hydroenergetic potential and also environment protection are being realized and will be realized only by high quality workers. Thus a program of transition to a more effective provision of activities with simultaneous increase in qualification and multipurpose use of labor force is a part of the equipment development program

  8. Progressive technologies, modernization of hydro power projects aimed at rationalization in a use of hydroenergetic potential and environment protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabela, P

    1997-12-01

    A process of modernization of nodes of equipment of hydroelectric power plants (HPPs) and pumped storage plants (PSPs) has been extended lately to cover all pieces of equipment of HPP aimed at an increase in effectiveness of HPP as a unit. Turbine wheels of selected HPPs were replaced in the past , replacement of impellers of pumps of machines in PSP Cierny Vah started started at present and a complex modernization of our oldest HPP Ladce (1936) is planned aimed at an increase in absorption capacity of water turbines with an increase in their efficiency. The process of increasing the efficiency of the existing units without substantial construction changes in blocks of turbines gives also economic acceptability to the mentioned approaches from the point of view of both the gained installed capacity and electrical energy production compared to an option of building a modern HPP and it is also more acceptable from the point of view of environment protection than newly built HPPs. All of the technical changes, a process of increases of increasing the use of a hydroenergetic potential and also environment protection are being realized and will be realized only by high quality workers. Thus a program of transition to a more effective provision of activities with simultaneous increase in qualification and multipurpose use of labor force is a part of the equipment development program.

  9. THE PROBLEM OF PROTECTING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING IN RURAL AREAS IN SOUTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Baran-Zgłobicka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Local planning in Poland encompasses spatial development conditions and directions study for a district (“study” and a local spatial development plan (“local plan”. The study is the only planning document that is required for the entire area of a district. It outlines directions of spatial policy and spatial development. Detailed investigations encompassed nine functionally diverse rural districts in SE Poland. The objective was to assess the description of environmental determinants and the problems of natural resources protection presented in the studies. The adequacy of the adopted approach to the subject matter and its correlation with spatial development directions were analysed. The analysed studies usually provide an exhaustive description of (a natural resources and the nature conservation system along with restrictions in environment use, and (b the problem of raw materials. Not all studies, however, highlight the local, very often unique characteristics of the natural environment. Natural hazards are marginalized in some studies. There is also a lack of concrete solutions for the protection of space and improvement of spatial order.

  10. Radiation protection instrumentation. Monitoring equipment. Atmospheric radioactive iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This international standard applies to portable or installed equipment for the monitoring of radioactive iodine (such as I-131 or I-125) in air in the environment of nuclear installations during normal operation, during design basis events, and in emergency situations. The monitoring involves continuous sample trapping and, where adequate, automatic start of sampling. The document deals with radioactive iodine monitor design, testing procedures, and documentation. Appended tables refer to the reference and normal testing conditions, tests in normal testing conditions, tests during changes of the affecting quantities, and tests of changes in the air circuit. (P.A.)

  11. Research in radiation biology, in the environment, and in radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.; Myers, D.K.; Ophel, I.L.; Cowper, G.; Newcombe, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Research in radiation biology at CRNL is concerned with: evaluation of the effects of low doses of radiation upon humans and other living organisms; the development of new methods for detecting the effects of radiation exposure in large populations; the continued development of improved methods by which radiation levels can be measured accurately and reliably; and evaluation of the effects of nuclear power use upon the environment. The present report summarizes our background knowledge of radiation hazards and describes current research activities in Biology and Health Physics Division at CRNL. (author)

  12. Radon measurements by etched track detectors applications in radiation protection, earth sciences and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, Saeed A

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to radon gas, which is present in the environment naturally, constitutes over half the radiation dose received by the general public annually. At present, the most widely used method of measuring radon concentration levels throughout the world, both in dwellings and in the field, is by etched track detectors - also known as Solid State Nuclear Detectors (SSNTDs). Although this is not only the most widely used method but is also the simplest and the cheapest, yet there is at present no book available on the market globally, devoted exclusively or largely to the methodology of, and deal

  13. Protecting entanglement by adjusting the velocities of moving qubits inside non-Markovian environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortezapour, Ali; Ahmadi Borji, Mahdi; Lo Franco, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    Efficient entanglement preservation in open quantum systems is a crucial scope towards a reliable exploitation of quantum resources. We address this issue by studying how two-qubit entanglement dynamically behaves when two atom qubits move inside two separated identical cavities. The moving qubits independently interact with their respective cavity. As a main general result, we find that under resonant qubit-cavity interaction the initial entanglement between two moving qubits remains closer to its initial value as time passes compared to the case of stationary qubits. In particular, we show that the initial entanglement can be strongly protected from decay by suitably adjusting the velocities of the qubits according to the non-Markovian features of the cavities. Our results supply a further way of preserving quantum correlations against noise with a natural implementation in cavity-QED scenarios and are straightforwardly extendable to many qubits for scalability.

  14. Radiation protection and environment day the low doses in everyday life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of low doses exposures are difficult to explore and the studies give often place to controversies. According to the are, differences exist in the methodological approaches. It results from it a confusion on the acceptable levels of exposure, even on the definition of low dose. This day organised by the sections 'non ionizing and research and health of the French society of radiation protection (S.F.R.P.), will be a meeting between professionals of different disciplines, to compare the approaches used for the ionizing and non ionizing radiations as well as the chemical and microbiological agents. It will allow to share the knowledge and the abilities and to progress on methodologies adapted to the evaluation and the management of risks in relation with low doses. (N.C.)

  15. Protection of environmental contamination by radioactive materials and remediation of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report consisted of the environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials. 38 important accident examples of environmental contamination of radioactive materials in the world from 1944 to 2001 are stated. Heavily polluted areas by accidents are explained, for example, Chernobyl, atomic reactor accidents, development of nuclear weapon in USA and USSR, radioactive waste in the sea. The environmental contamination ability caused by using radioactive materials, medical use, operating reactor, disposal, transferring, crashing of airplane and artificial satellite, release are reported. It contains measurements and monitor technologies, remediation technologies of environmental contamination and separation and transmutation of radioactive materials. On the environmental contamination by non-radioactive materials, transformation of the soil contamination in Japan and its control technologies are explained. Protection and countermeasure of environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials in Japan and the international organs are presented. There are summary and proposal in the seventh chapter. (S.Y.)

  16. Changing environments or shifting paradigms? Strategic decision making toward water protection in Helsinki, 1850-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Simo; Laurila, Sari

    2007-04-01

    The study examines the history of strategic decision-making concerning water protection in Helsinki, 1850-2000. We identified five major strategic decisions that occurred during the study period. The results indicate that strategic decision-making evolves in long-term policy cycles that last on average 20-30 years. New policy cycles are caused by paradigm shifts. Paradigms are shared and predominant ways of understanding reality that help when groups must act to solve common and complex environmental problems. However the internal structure and external dynamics of paradigms are contradictory. Although paradigms serve initially as means to redefine problems and find creative solutions, as time goes by each paradigm seems to become also a barrier that restricts the introduction of new ways of thinking and acting. The power of paradigms lies in the fact that they can be defined as scientific but also social, political, or cultural agreements depending on the context.

  17. 2. National scientific conference on process engineering in environment protection. Conference materials; 2. Ogolnopolska konferencja naukowa ``inzynieria procesowa w ochronie srodowiska``. Materialy konferencyjne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The national conference on `Process engineering in environment protection` Jachranka 1994 has been divided into three sessions. Section 1 has been devoted to flue gas purification and collects 13 papers. Section 2 on liquid purification gathered 8 presentation. Section 3 - the poster session with 12 posters on related topics. During the conference 2 lectures and 3 posters have been devoted to the application of nuclear techniques to the solution different problems connected with environment protection.

  18. How nitric oxide donors can protect plants in a changing environment: what we know so far and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedea B. Seabra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The free radical nitric oxide (NO plays important roles in plant growth and defense. Owing to its small size and lipophilicity, NO acts as a crucial signaling molecule in plants, crossing cell membranes and enhancing cell communication. Indeed, NO donors have been shown to modulate a variety of physiological processes, such as plant greening, seed germination, iron homeostasis and mitochondrial respiration. Recently, several papers have reported the protective actions upon application of low molecular weight NO donors in plants under abiotic stress. Exogenous NO is able to improve plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, metal toxicity, and extreme temperatures. This protection is assigned to the NO-mediated redox signaling in plants, which involves interplay with reactive oxygen species and modulation of gene expression and protein function. This review reports and discusses the recent advantages, pitfalls, challenges, and perspectives in the applications of low molecular weight NO donors in plants under abiotic stress. The combination of nanotechnology and NO donors as an efficient approach to protect plants under challenging environments is also discussed.

  19. Anhydrobiotic insect Polypedilum vanderplanki: molecular mechanisms of DNA and protein protection against extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Kikawada, Takahiro; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi

    Some organisms showing no sign of living due to complete desiccation are nevertheless able to resume active life after rehydration. This peculiar biological state is referred to as "anhydrobiosis". Larvae of the sleeping chironomid, P. vanderplanki living in temporary pools in semi-arid areas on the African continent become completely desiccated upon drought, but can revive after water becomes available upon the next rain. The dried larvae can stand other extreme conditions, such as exposure to 100˚C, -270˚C, 100We have adopted several methods to evaluated DNA damage in cells of P. vanderplanki and cloned and analyzed expression of the main agent of genetic stress response showing that the larvae possess highly developed anti-stress genetic system, involving anti-oxidative stress genes, hsp and DNA reparation enzymes acting together to provide stability of proteins and DNA in the absence of water. From 2005, dried larvae were included in a number of research programs, including exposition to space environments onboard ISS and long-term exposure to outer space environment outside of ISS ("Expose-R" and"Biorisk" projects) and now are being considered for including into the Phobos-Grunt mission as a testing organism to analyze capability of resting stages of multicellular organism to interplanetary flights.

  20. Non-radiological factors and decision making on the radiological protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcock, A.

    2002-01-01

    'Non-radiological factors' can cover both physical and non-physical issues. As far as physical issues are concerned, the appropriate course is not to forget that radioactive substances have to be considered in the same way as other substances in respect of their non-radioactive properties. 'Damage to amenities' and 'interference with legitimate uses of the sea' are long-standing descriptions of the non-physical aspects of marine pollution and degradation. A framework for a taxonomy of the interests involved in such aspects is suggested, using the three dimensions of the degree of linkage to the marine environment, the nature of the interaction with the marine environment, and the economic nature of the interest concerned. Questions of remoteness also arise. A multi-dimensional analysis of the risks to the interests concerned is suggested. The dimension of 'public response' is particularly significant for the non-physical aspects of marine pollution and degradation. This dimension is complex, being influenced by 'fright factors' and subject to media amplification. These influences can include special local economic circumstances and past experiences. Finally, the process for integrating physical and non-physical factors is examined. Early consideration is recommended of how to achieve a transparent presentation of the issues and the way in which decisions are to be taken. (author)

  1. SRB thermal protection systems materials test results in an arc-heated nitrogen environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The external surface of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) will experience imposed thermal and shear environments due to aerodynamic heating and radiation heating during launch, staging and reentry. This report is concerned with the performance of the various TPS materials during the staging maneuver. During staging, the wash from the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) exhust plumes impose severe, short duration, thermal environments on the SRB. Five different SRB TPS materials were tested in the 1 MW Arc Plasma Generator (APG) facility. The maximum simulated heating rate obtained in the APG facility was 248 Btu/sq ft./sec, however, the test duration was such that the total heat was more than simulated. Similarly, some local high shear stress levels of 0.04 psia were not simulated. Most of the SSME plume impingement area on the SRB experiences shear stress levels of 0.02 psia and lower. The shear stress levels on the test specimens were between 0.021 and 0.008 psia. The SSME plume stagnation conditions were also simulated.

  2. Can natural variability trigger effects on fish and fish habitat as defined in environment Canada's metal mining environmental effects monitoring program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Robin; Rees, Cassandra; Wells, Kelly; Pham, Samantha; England, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) took effect in 2002 and require most metal mining operations in Canada to complete environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs. An "effect" under the MMER EEM program is considered any positive or negative statistically significant difference in fish population, fish usability, or benthic invertebrate community EEM-defined endpoints. Two consecutive studies with the same statistically significant differences trigger more intensive monitoring, including the characterization of extent and magnitude and investigation of cause. Standard EEM study designs do not require multiple reference areas or preexposure sampling, thus results and conclusions about mine effects are highly contingent on the selection of a near perfect reference area and are at risk of falsely labeling natural variation as mine related "effects." A case study was completed to characterize the natural variability in EEM-defined endpoints during preexposure or baseline conditions. This involved completing a typical EEM study in future reference and exposure lakes surrounding a proposed uranium (U) mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Moon Lake was sampled as the future exposure area as it is currently proposed to receive effluent from the U mine. Two reference areas were used: Slush Lake for both the fish population and benthic invertebrate community surveys and Lake C as a second reference area for the benthic invertebrate community survey. Moon Lake, Slush Lake, and Lake C are located in the same drainage basin in close proximity to one another. All 3 lakes contained similar water quality, fish communities, aquatic habitat, and a sediment composition largely comprised of fine-textured particles. The fish population survey consisted of a nonlethal northern pike (Esox lucius) and a lethal yellow perch (Perca flavescens) survey. A comparison of the 5 benthic invertebrate community effect endpoints, 4 nonlethal northern pike population effect endpoints

  3. The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Handå, Aleksander; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Øie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of low molecular weight silicon AMC to protect UV optics in photo-lithography environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobert, Jürgen M.; Miller, Charles M.; Grayfer, Anatoly; Tivin, Anne M.

    2009-03-01

    A new analytical method for semiconductor-specific applications is presented for the accurate measurement of low molecular weight, silicon-containing, organic compounds TMS, HMDSO and D3. Low molecular weight / low boiling point silicon-containing compounds are not captured for extended periods of time by traditional chemical filters but have the same potential to degrade exposure tool optical surfaces as their high molecular weight counterparts. Likewise, we show that capturing these compounds on sample traps that are commonly used for organic AMC analysis does not work for various reasons. Using the analytical method described here, TMS, HMDSO and D3 can be measured artifact-free, with at least a 50:1 peak-to-noise ratio at the method detection limit, determined through the Hubaux-Vos method and satisfying a conservative 99% statistical confidence. Method detection limits for the compounds are 1-6 ppt in air. We present calibration curve, capacity, capture efficiency, break-through and repeatability data to demonstrate robustness of method. Seventy-one real-world samples from 26 projects taken in several fab environments show that TMS is found in concentrations 100 times higher than those of HMDSO and D3. All compounds are found in all environments in concentrations ranging from zero to 12 ppm, but most concentrations were below 50 ppb. All compounds are noticeably higher in litho-bays than in sub-fabs and we found all three compounds inside of two exposure tools, suggesting cleanroom and/or tool-internal contamination sources.

  5. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  6. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-01

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  7. Is family sense of coherence a protective factor against the obesogenic environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Katherine E; Hayes, Jenna T; Musaad, Salma; VanBrackle, Angela; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2016-04-01

    Despite greater risk for poor nutrition, inactivity, and overweight, some low-income children are able to maintain a healthy weight. We explore if a strong family sense of coherence (FSOC) acts as a protective factor against childhood obesity for low-income preschool children. Families with a strong FSOC view challenges as predictable, understandable, worthy of engaging, and surmountable. Data were collected from 321 low-income mothers and their preschool children in five states between March 2011 and May 2013. FSOC was assessed using the Family Sense of Coherence Scale. A 16-item checklist was used to assess practicing healthy child behaviors (fruit and vegetable consumption and availability, physical activity, and family meals) and limiting unhealthy child behaviors (sweetened beverage and fast food consumption, energy dense snack availability, and screen time). Child body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from measured height and weight. FSOC was significantly associated with practicing healthy child behaviors (β = 0.32, p importance of family functioning in predicting health behaviors around food consumption and availability, physical activity, and family meals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. SmartContent—Self-Protected Context-Aware Active Documents for Mobile Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Luca De Angelis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices make it possible to create, store, access, share or publish personal content on the Internet, anywhere and at anytime. This leads to situations of potential intentional or unintentional misuse of content as well as privacy issues. Recent techniques involving the use of contextual information focus on access of documents stored in clouds, or authentication for secured Web sites. These techniques or more traditional solutions, such as steganography or Digital Rights Management, do not empower the user itself, or data controller in professional settings, with a fine-grained control of the access to or manipulations actions on documents stored on mobile devices, e.g., copying, sharing, etc. In this paper, we propose SmartContent, a novel approach for content protection and privacy. Documents are active and context-aware documents that sense and analyse their current context, e.g., location, noise, neighbouring devices, social network, expiration time, etc. Based on user provided policies, they grant, deny or limit access and manipulation actions, or destroy themselves if necessary. We present the generic model of SmartContent, a concrete architecture and an implementation of a proof-of-concept specifically designed for mobile devices. We deployed it on tablets and showed that a picture dynamically reveals or conceals itself based on sensed context or on changing policies. The implementation leverages the SAPERE middleware specifically developed for context-aware systems.

  9. Protecting healthcare workers in an acute care environment during epidemics: lessons learned from the SARS outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Casken

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2002-2003 the SARS outbreak resulted in 8,450 illnesses and 812 deaths. Out of these documented cases 1706 were among healthcare workers (HCWsThe purpose of this paper is to focus on and examine the details of infection control (IC measures and which of these measures appear to be the most effective in stopping disease spread. Historically, HCWs have had poor compliance with the use of IC measures prior to the SARS outbreak. A number of lessons were learned from the SARS epidemic that should be incorporated into healthcare institutions policies and procedures. They include the following: an emphasis on the correct and immediate use of IC measures; an increased focus on HCWs recognizing early perceived threats; healthcare institutions should mandate routine in-house education with periodic updates on IC measures; administrators need to acknowledge and encourage role models among staff; engineeringcontrols should be put in place to protect staff from pathogens; and finally, there should be clear and constant communication between administration and staff.

  10. Phyllochron estimation in intercropped strawberry and monocrop systems in a protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Ferro Constâncio Mendonça

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The phyllochron is defined as the time required for the appearance of successive leaves on a plant; this characterises plant growth, development and adaptation to the environment. To check the growth and adaptation in cultivars of strawberry grown intercropped with fig trees, it was estimated the phyllochron in these production systems and in the monocrop. The experiment was conducted in greenhouses at the University of Passo Fundo (28º15'41'' S, 52º24'45'' W and 709 m from June 8th to September 4th, 2009; this comprised the period of transplant until the 2nd flowering. The cultivars Aromas, Camino Real, Albion, Camarosa and Ventana, which seedlings were originated from the Agrícola LLahuen Nursery in Chile, as well as Festival, Camino Real and Earlibrite, originated from the Viansa S.A. Nursery in Argentina, were grown in white polyethylene bags filled with commercial substrate (Tecnomax® and evaluated. The treatments were arranged in a randomised block design and four replicates were performed. A linear regression was realized between the leaf number (LN in the main crown and the accumulated thermal time (ATT. The phyllochron (degree-day leaf-1 was estimated as the inverse of the angular coefficient of the linear regression. The data were submitted to ANOVA, and when significance was observed, the means were compared using the Tukey test (p < 0.05. The mean and standard deviation of phyllochrons of strawberry cultivars intercropped with fig trees varied from 149.35ºC day leaf-1 ± 31.29 in the Albion cultivar to 86.34ºC day leaf-1 ± 34.74 in the Ventana cultivar. Significant differences were observed among cultivars produced in a soilless environment with higher values recorded for Albion (199.96ºC day leaf-1 ± 29.7, which required more degree-days to produce a leaf, while cv. Ventana (85.76ºC day leaf-1 ± 11.51 exhibited a lower phyllochron mean value. Based on these results, Albion requires more degree-days to issue a leaf as

  11. The nature of water within bacterial spores: protecting life in extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Friedline, Anthony; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm M.; Thomas, Kieth J., III

    2011-10-01

    The bacterial spore is a formidable container of life, protecting the vital contents from chemical attack, antimicrobial agents, heat damage, UV light degradation, and water dehydration. The exact role of the spore components remains in dispute. Nevertheless, water molecules are important in each of these processes. The physical state of water within the bacterial spore has been investigated since the early 1930's. The water is found two states, free or bound, in two different areas, core and non-core. It is established that free water is accessible to diffuse and exchange with deuterated water and that the diffusible water can access all areas of the spore. The presence of bound water has come under recent scrutiny and has been suggested the water within the core is mobile, rather than bound, based on the analysis of deuterium relaxation rates. Using an alternate method, deuterium quadrupole-echo spectroscopy, we are able to distinguish between mobile and immobile water molecules. In the absence of rapid motion, the deuterium spectrum of D2O is dominated by a broad line, whose line shape is used as a characteristic descriptor of molecular motion. The deuterium spectrum of bacterial spores reveals three distinct features: the broad peak of immobilized water, a narrow line of water in rapid motion, and a signal of intermediate width. This third signal is assigned this peak from partially deuterated proteins with the spore in which N-H groups have undergone exchange with water deuterons to form N-D species. As a result of these observations, the nature of water within the spore requires additional explanation to understand how the spore and its water preserve life.

  12. Insurance and critical infrastructure protection : is there a connection in an environment of terrorism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, D.; Devlin, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigated the potential role of the insurance industry in enhancing the protection of critical energy infrastructure (CEI). This analysis was conducted in the context of increased concerns about deliberate acts of sabotage related to terrorist activities. A theoretical insurance market analysis was applied to a CEI scenario in order to examine the effects that insurance might have on the vulnerability of the system and subsequent remediation activities. Classical insurance market structures were examined, and problems associated with adverse selection, moral hazards and the role of government were identified. Issues concerning incentive effects induced by insurance were reviewed, as well as issues concerning the interdependence between different operators of the CEI system. An updated literature review was also provided. Results of the study suggested that corporate losses to CEI owners may be far less than the social cost of energy disruption, which in turn provides a reasonable rationale for government as opposed to private intervention. In terms of remediation, the immediate impact of a crippled CEI would overwhelm any private organization, and response would need to be coordinated through public structures. Terrorism insurance, while available, provides relatively large deductibles, as insurance companies are unwilling to accept the risks of moderate damage that may arise. There does not appear to be any evidence that private insurers will be able to provide significant relief from terrorist attacks, and it is unlikely that a private insurance market for terrorism will emerge. An absence of information regarding terrorist activities constrains both insurance purchasers from choosing the best mix of risk management tools, as well as insurance companies seeking to establish the appropriate pricing and conditions for different contracts. It was concluded that governments should support CEI firms in their own efforts to understand the threats; aid in

  13. Properties of protective oxide scales containing cerium on Incoloy 800H in oxidizing and sulfidizing environments. I. Constant-extension-rate study of mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Fransen, T.; Geerdink, Bert; Gellings, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical properties of ceramic coatings containing cerium oxide, prepared by the sol-gel method and used to protect Incoloy 800H against aggressive environments, are reported. Deformation and cracking behavior in oxidizing and sulfidizing environments has been investigated by

  14. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  15. The underwater acoustic environment at SGaan Kinghlas-Bowie Seamount Marine Protected Area: Characterizing vessel traffic and associated noise using satellite AIS and acoustic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ainsley S; Yurk, Harald; Vagle, Svein; Pilkington, James; Canessa, Rosaline

    2018-03-01

    Vessel traffic is one of the most wide-spread anthropogenic contributors to ocean noise worldwide and has the potential to alter ecosystems upon which cetaceans and other acoustically sensitive marine organisms rely. Canada's SGaan Kinghlas-Bowie Seamount Marine Protected Area (SK-B MPA) is one such area whose productive ecosystem could benefit from greater monitoring of human induced threats in order to inform management. Despite earning official designation as a Marine Protected Area under the Oceans Act in 2008, little remains known about vessel traffic in the region and the associated potential impacts on vulnerable marine species. Therefore, to increase our understanding of vessel traffic and accompanying noise at SK-B MPA, satellite AIS and acoustic data were investigated. The results of this study suggest that variations in ambient sound levels in the region are driven by near and distant shipping events, thus having implications for future management of the MPA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Renewable Energy: Environment Protection and Energy Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The International Symposium and Exhibition on Renewable Energy 2003 organized by the Malaysian Institute of Energy (INTEM), the Malaysia Energy centre (PTM), Islamic Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), World Renewable Energy Network (WREN), Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia, and the Ministry of Education, Malaysia has the following objectives (a) highlighting the role of renewable in meeting the energy demand particularly of developing countries (b) encouraging the effective transfer and efficient application of economic renewable energy technologies (c) assisting in the promotion of the environmental benefits of renewable energy (d) promoting business opportunities for renewable energy projects and their successful implementation (e) enhancing improved information, knowledge and education on renewable energy (f) providing a technical exhibition where manufacturers, suppliers and others can display their products and services and finally (h) providing a focal points for international networking. The topics covered are Solar Materials, Solar Thermal Applications, Photovoltaic technology, Biomass Conversion, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Wind Energy, Hydro Energy, Climate and the Environment, Low Energy Architecture, related Topics (Energy Management; Economics, Policy and Financing; Sustainable Energy Business Practices, Carbon tax and trading, Gender and Poverty Reduction). A total of 97 papers have been received from countries such as Malaysia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Armenia, Romania, Denmark, Bahrain, Iraq, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Australia, Brunei, Belgium, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Iran, Russia, and Turkey

  17. Counterclaim in investment arbitration as an instrument for protection of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the possibility for respondent states in investment arbitration to use the counterclaim as an instrument for establishing responsibility of the investor for infringement of the environment. The analysis is directed towards the two most significant obstacles in this regard. The first is the issue of whether the investor has, by commencing arbitration against the host state, consented to the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal for issues raised in the counterclaim. The practice of those tribunals shows that the problem is particularly complex with regard to the interpretation of the close connection requirement for admissibility of the counterclaim, i. e. the requirement that there is a connection between the dispute in question and claims raised by the respondent state. Furthermore, apart from the problem of jurisdiction and admissibility of the counterclaim, the respondent state is faced with the potential lack of its normative basis. This is the issue of whether the legal rules applied by the tribunal to the merits of the dispute contain an obligation owed by the investor and whether the infringement of that obligation would constitute a basis for submission of a counterclaim.

  18. Integrating environment protection, a new challenge: strategy of the International Union of Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Alexakhin, R.; Godoy, J.M.; Oughton, D.; Sheppard, S.; Strand, P.

    2008-01-01

    Born in the fifties together with the emergence of the nuclear technologies, radioecology is a scientific discipline that primarily addresses environmental issues relevant to radioprotection. With a current membership of nearly 600 worldwide, the International Union of Radioecology was founded in the seventies as a non-governmental knowing society dedicated to the development and the promotion of this discipline. The scientific directions taken in Radioecology have been drastically influenced in the past by the Chernobyl accident, which forced a focus on environmental transfers through the environment to feed human radioprotection needs. Currently, a profound evolution is underway towards more ecological effects research and studies, under the driving pressure of the raise of society concern on environmental issues and the concomitant re-boost of nuclear industry to face global warming and the future energetic demands. The I.U.R. plays a central role within this evolution which is described here in more details along a description of its four major tools of action: dedicated task groups; workshops, seminars and conferences; training courses; web site tool for information and communication. Finally, together with the recent election of a new Board of Council to manage the Union, the main lines of the new strategic plan for the coming years are given. (author)

  19. Protecting the Environment for Self-interested Reasons: Altruism Is Not the Only Pathway to Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Schultz, P Wesley; Bonaiuto, Marino

    2017-01-01

    Concerns for environmental issues are important drivers of sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, and can be differentiated between those with a self-enhancing (egoistic) vs. self-transcendent (biospheric) psychological foundation. Yet to date, the dominant approach for promoting pro-environmental behavior has focused on highlighting the benefits to others or nature, rather than appealing to self-interest. Building on the Inclusion Model for Environmental Concern, we argue that egoistic and biospheric environmental concerns, respectively, conceptualized as self-interest and altruism, are hierarchically structured, such that altruism is inclusive of self-interest. Three studies show that self-interested individuals will behave more pro-environmentally when the behavior results in a personal benefit (but not when there is exclusively an environmental benefit), while altruistic individuals will engage in pro-environmental behaviors when there are environmental benefits, and critically, also when there are personal benefits. The reported findings have implications for programs and policies designed to promote pro-environmental behavior, and for social science research aimed at understanding human responses to a changing environment.

  20. Protecting the Environment for Self-interested Reasons: Altruism Is Not the Only Pathway to Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Schultz, P. Wesley; Bonaiuto, Marino

    2017-01-01

    Concerns for environmental issues are important drivers of sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, and can be differentiated between those with a self-enhancing (egoistic) vs. self-transcendent (biospheric) psychological foundation. Yet to date, the dominant approach for promoting pro-environmental behavior has focused on highlighting the benefits to others or nature, rather than appealing to self-interest. Building on the Inclusion Model for Environmental Concern, we argue that egoistic and biospheric environmental concerns, respectively, conceptualized as self-interest and altruism, are hierarchically structured, such that altruism is inclusive of self-interest. Three studies show that self-interested individuals will behave more pro-environmentally when the behavior results in a personal benefit (but not when there is exclusively an environmental benefit), while altruistic individuals will engage in pro-environmental behaviors when there are environmental benefits, and critically, also when there are personal benefits. The reported findings have implications for programs and policies designed to promote pro-environmental behavior, and for social science research aimed at understanding human responses to a changing environment. PMID:28701979

  1. Viewpoint held by the -Robin des bois- environment protection association regarding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemains, J.

    2011-01-01

    For twenty years, the 'Robin des Bois' association has held the belief that every country must manage the hazardous waste, including radioactive waste, that it produces. The vehemence of German anti-nuclear activists in rejecting the return of waste produced by recycling irradiated fuel from German nuclear power plants runs counter to the principles of responsibility and proximity to which ecologists claim to adhere. There are more reasonable means available than refusing to manage end-of-cycle nuclear waste, such as blockading power plants or the uranium enrichment plant in Gronau which supplies the nuclear power industry worldwide. In Lower Saxony, the La Hague plant located on this West European headland is therefore thought of as the ideal hideaway for this waste. It is true that the list of radioactive scrap, hospital waste, asbestos from the steamer, the Norway, and WEEE exported by Germany is long. Robin des Bois is against recycling irradiated fuel as it facilitates the proliferation and dispersion of plutonium and other radionuclides into the environment. The association has revealed many scandals and lies related to recycling in areas other than the nuclear industry, which have been concealed behind the false good ecological and systematically positive image of recycling. (author)

  2. Protecting the Environment for Self-interested Reasons: Altruism Is Not the Only Pathway to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Dominicis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns for environmental issues are important drivers of sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, and can be differentiated between those with a self-enhancing (egoistic vs. self-transcendent (biospheric psychological foundation. Yet to date, the dominant approach for promoting pro-environmental behavior has focused on highlighting the benefits to others or nature, rather than appealing to self-interest. Building on the Inclusion Model for Environmental Concern, we argue that egoistic and biospheric environmental concerns, respectively, conceptualized as self-interest and altruism, are hierarchically structured, such that altruism is inclusive of self-interest. Three studies show that self-interested individuals will behave more pro-environmentally when the behavior results in a personal benefit (but not when there is exclusively an environmental benefit, while altruistic individuals will engage in pro-environmental behaviors when there are environmental benefits, and critically, also when there are personal benefits. The reported findings have implications for programs and policies designed to promote pro-environmental behavior, and for social science research aimed at understanding human responses to a changing environment.

  3. Comparison of sensor systems designed using multizone, zonal, and CFD data for protection of indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. Lisa; Wen, Jin [Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Sensors that detect chemical and biological warfare agents can offer early warning of dangerous contaminants. However, current sensor system design is mostly by intuition and experience rather than by systematic design. To develop a sensor system design methodology, the proper selection of an indoor airflow model is needed. Various indoor airflow models exist in the literature, from complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simpler approaches such as multizone and zonal models. Airflow models provide the contaminant concentration data, to which an optimization method can be applied to design sensor systems. The authors utilized a subzonal modeling approach when using a multizone model and were the first to utilize a zonal model for systematic sensor system design. The objective of the study was to examine whether or not data from a simpler airflow model could be used to design sensor systems capable of performing just as well as those designed using data from more complex CFD models. Three test environments, a small office, a large hall, and an office suite were examined. Results showed that when a unique sensor system design was not needed, sensor systems designed using data from simpler airflow models could perform just as well as those designed using CFD data. Further, only for the small office did the common engineering sensor system design practice of placing a sensor at the exhaust result in sensor system performance that was equivalent to one designed using CFD data. (author)

  4. Plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the Cree of northern Quebec, Canada: results from the multi-community environment-and-health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Cote, Suzanne; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nieboer, Evert

    2014-02-01

    Historically, resource development has had negative impacts on the traditional lifestyle of First Nation Cree Communities in the Province of Quebec, Canada. In response to the perceived need for fisheries restoration and for managing health concerns associated with environmental pollutants, the Mercury Program in the James Bay Region of Quebec was reconstituted in 2001 and broadened to include a wider range of chemicals of concern. Based on comprehensive surveys of the nine Cree Territory (Eeyou Istchee) communities in this region during the period 2002-2009, blood plasma concentrations are presented of Aroclor 1260, PCB congeners 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 163, 170, 180, 183, and 187, Aldrin, ß-HCH, α-Chlordane, γ-Chlordane, oxy-Chlordane, trans-Nonachlor, cis-Nonachlor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Hexachloro benzene (HCB), Mirex, PBB 153, PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 100, PBDE 153, Toxaphene 26, and Toxaphene 50. The organohalogenated compounds were extracted using solid-phase extraction and cleaned on florisil columns before high resolution HRGC-MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the large number of contaminant variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables. ANOVA identified significant differences between age groups, with the older participants having higher body burdens of legacy lipophilic contaminants, but not for the PBDEs. In certain female age groups, plasma concentrations of PBDEs were observed to be lower than for males; conversely, DDT was higher. Among communities, concentrations were different (p<0.001) for all contaminants. This work provides a baseline for the James Bay Eeyou Istchee communities who, to varying degrees, rely on food and other resources from the land and therefore are at higher risk of increased body burdens of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs). © 2013.

  5. Lichensphere: a protected natural microhabitat of the non-lichenised fungal communities living in extreme environments of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Iara F; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-11-01

    We surveyed the diversity, distribution and ecology of non-lichenised fungal communities associated with the Antarctic lichens Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra across Antarctica. The phylogenetic study of the 438 fungi isolates identified 74 taxa from 21 genera of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. The most abundant taxa were Pseudogymnoascus sp., Thelebolus sp., Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus and Cryptococcus victoriae, which are considered endemic and/or highly adapted to Antarctica. Thirty-five fungi may represent new and/or endemic species. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, the similarity among the communities was variable. After discovering rich and diverse fungal communities composed of symbionts, decomposers, parasites and endemic and cold-adapted cosmopolitan taxa, we introduced the term "lichensphere". We hypothesised that the lichensphere may represent a protected natural microhabitat with favourable conditions able to help non-lichenised fungi and other Antarctic life forms survive and disperse in the extreme environments of Antarctica.

  6. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  7. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  8. Veillonella Catalase Protects the Growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum in Microaerophilic and Streptococcus gordonii-Resident Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Xiaoli; Huang, I-Hsiu; Qi, Fengxia

    2017-10-01

    activity of Veillonella can rescue the growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum not only under microaerophilic conditions, but also in an environment in which Streptococcus gordonii is present. Thus, this study will provide a new insight for future studies on the mechanisms of human oral biofilm formation and the control of periodontal diseases. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Corrosion protection of the reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment through epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Dehghanian, Changiz; Kosari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating well protects steel rebar. • Coating performance is evaluated by impedance measurements up to 1 year. • Ultimate bond strength between the coated rebars and concrete is measured. • Self-compacting concrete shows better anticorrosive property compared to normal one. - Abstract: In this study, an epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite (epoxy/PANI–CSA) is employed to protect reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Bare, epoxy-coated and epoxy/PANI–CSA nanocomposite-coated steel rebars were embedded in normal and self-compacting concretes. To evaluate their corrosion behaviors, open circuit potential and impedance measurements were performed for the duration of 1 year. Ultimate bond strength of concrete with the reinforcement bars were measured in corroded and uncorroded conditions. It was found that epoxy/PANI–CSA coating provides good corrosion resistance and durable bond strength with concrete for steel rebars

  10. Bystander effects and biota: implications of radiation-induced bystander effects for protection of the environment from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, C.E.; Seymour, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Bystander effects are now known to be induced by both high and low LET in a variety of cells in culture. They have been proven to occur in vivo in mice following 0.5Gy total body irradiation and in blood from humans being treated for cancer by radiotherapy. Effects have also been detected in fish, crustacea and molluscs. The important questions now are not whether bystander effects occur but why and what implications they have, if any, for radiation protection. Different species and different genetic backgrounds within a species produce different types of bystander effect, different organs also produce different effects. This paper will review the data in this field and will discuss likely implications for protection of man and non-human biota. In particular it will look at the potential long-term outcomes for different organisational levels, from cell to ecosystem, of bystander mechanisms. In view of new concerns about the effects of low level radiation on non-human biota, emphasis will be placed on considering how bystander effects might operate at chronic low doses versus acute accidental low doses. Problems of radiation interaction with chemicals, whether chemicals can also induce 'bystander effects' , and how regulators might handle these situations which occur all the time in real environments, will be presented for discussion. Finally the paper will discuss likely implications of these mechanisms for evolutionary biology

  11. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and

  12. Activity as a Mediator Between Users and Their Auditory Environment in an Urban Pocket Park: A Case Study of Parc du Portugal (Montreal, Canada)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bild, E.; Steele, D.; Pfeffer, K.; Bertolini, L.; Guastavino, C.; Aletta, F.; Xao, J.

    2018-01-01

    Sound is receiving increasing attention in urban planning and design due to its effects on human health and quality of life. Soundscape researchers have sought ecologically valid measures to describe and explain the complex relationship between people and their auditory environments, largely

  13. The Effect of Plants with Novel Traits (PNT) Regulation on Mutation Breeding in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, G.G.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1988) has within it a definition for biotechnology. This definition would have allowed the government department, Environment Canada, to regulate all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Canada. In response to this, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), which reports to the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, developed the concept of a Plant with Novel Trait (PNT). Not only does this definition capture GMOs, it also includes induced mutations, natural mutations and exotic germplasm that have not previously been grown in Canada. It is a system that is product, not process based. However, apart from questions regarding the novelty of traits in new plant varieties, breeders are asked by CFIA to identify the process used to develop the trait or traits in question. Field trials involving breeding lines with a PNT may be subject to confined testing. This conference celebrated 80 years of unconfined development and testing of induced plant mutations. This regulation is time consuming, expensive and an innovation barrier for Canadian plant breeding. It can only be hoped that other nations, and particularly those that have successfully used induced mutations, will not emulate Canada's approach. (author)

  14. The health protection of riparian populations in case of a major oil spill:. The St. Lawrence Vision 2000 Shores project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrier, P.; Tardif, G.

    1995-01-01

    Objectives of a research project to protect the health of riparian populations in the event of a major oil spill in the St. Lawrence river were summarized. The project is a part of the health component of the St. Lawrence Vision 2000 (SLV-2000) action plan, which is a product of co-operation among Environment Canada, Health Canada, le ministere de la Sante et des Services sociaux du Quebec, and other government departments, designed to protect and conserve the St. Lawrence river and its environment

  15. Modeling the impact of the difference in cross-protection data between a human papillomavirus (HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and a human papillomavirus (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohli Michele

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV types −16 and −18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. Methods A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection among women, cervical cancer (CC and GW was used to estimate the impact of vaccinating a cohort of 100,000 12-year-old females on lifetime outcomes and healthcare system costs (no indirect benefit in males included. A budget impact model was used to estimate the impact of each vaccine by province. Results In the base case, vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 48 additional CC cases, and 16 additional CC deaths, while vaccination with the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 6,933 additional GW cases. Vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was estimated to save 1 additional discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY at an overall lower lifetime cost to the healthcare system compared to the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (assuming vaccine price parity. In sensitivity analyses, the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was associated with greater QALYs saved when the cross-protection efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was reduced, or the burden of GW due to HPV-6/11 was increased. In most scenarios with price parity, the lifetime healthcare cost of the strategy with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to be lower than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the HPV-16/18 vaccine provided more QALY benefit than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in 49.2% of scenarios, with lower relative lifetime costs in 83.5% of scenarios. Conclusions Overall, the predicted lifetime healthcare costs and QALYs saved by

  16. Risk and Protective Self-esteem: A Mediational Role Between Family Environment and Substance Use in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa I. Jiménez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyse the direct and indirect relationships among quality of family environment, multidimensional self-esteem (family, academic, social and physical self-esteem and substance use (cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana. The study participants were 414 Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old, drawn from state secondary schools. Statistical analyses were carried out using structural equation modeling and the procedure of mediation effects analysis (Holmbeck, 1997. Results showed a significant mediational effect of self-esteem on the relation between family functioning and adolescent substance use. Moreover, results showed, on the one hand, a protection effect of family and academic self-esteem and, on the other hand, a risk effect of social and physical self-esteem on substance use. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research. As a conclusion, this investigation confirms that family environment is a relevant precedent of adolescent self-evaluation and that it is necessary to adopt a multidimensional perspective when analyse the self-esteem of substance use adolescents.

  17. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    IGT's efforts in environmental protection are primarily concerned with reducing the level of undesirable emissions from combustion, treating solid and liquid waste materials, and producing cleaner fuels. Projects being funded include: an ultra-low-emission gas-fired cyclonic burner for firetube boiler retrofit; a combination of IGT's de-NOX technology for municipal solid waste combustors with the injection of sorbents to reduce pollutants; second-generation NOx reduction techniques for regenerative glass melting furnaces; investigation of the applicability of electric DC field flame stabilization; development of a slagging cyclonic combustor for a class of industrial solid wastes; remediation research of various biological, chemical, and thermal technologies for cleaning and/or immobilizing contaminants in soils and sludges; and fuel cell research on molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells

  18. CRITERIA OF THE AVIATION NOISE ASSESSMENT FOR AERODROME ENVIRONS ZONING OF THE AIRPORTS AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES JUSTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Kartyshev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in the sphere of an adverse ecological effect assessment of aerodrome environs aviation noise are analyzed. It is noted, that there is no modern standard and methodical base for such assessment. It is shown that when planning the build- ing, and also when developing noise-protective actions for residential areas in the zones of aviation noise increased level im- pact it’s most effectively to carry out acoustic zoning of areas near airports borders and flight routes. The system of transport sources noise rationing in Russia doesn't consider the established practice of its application. The aircraft of noisy types were actively taken out of service and aviation noise impact near the airports decreased, but the problem of noise protection, de- mands control when planning land use. Noise measurements in residential areas, near houses and inside, showed the excess of maximum allowed level values to 25-35 dBA (on equivalent value and to 25-40 dBA (on the maximum value.As a consequence of the European states policy in the sphere of aviation noise management and of aerodrome en- virons zoning noise levels at the airports of Europe and their surroundings were stabilized and the sizes of noise contours were reduced. For different countries there was made the analysis of legislative bases of the implementation of the re-striction requirement for residential areas and the possibility of using the territory under noise impact. For rationing theaerodrome environs noise of the airports it’s offered to take a sound equivalent level in which admissible values are ranged on three zones for the main standard criterion. The authors present acoustic measurements results in houses near the airport Vnukovo on condition of using standard two-chamber trimmable and folding windows with the ventilating valve. It is shown that the popular window designs can't provide inside noise reduction at night to the standard L Amax level = 45 dBA from the aviation source

  19. Protective environment for hematopoietic cell transplant (HSCT) recipients: The Infectious Diseases Working Party EBMT analysis of global recommendations on health-care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styczynski, Jan; Tridello, Gloria; Donnelly, J Peter; Iacobelli, Simona; Hoek, Jennifer; Mikulska, Malgorzata; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Gil, Lidia; Cesaro, Simone

    2018-03-13

    International guidelines on protective environment for HSCT recipients proposed a set of 10 global recommendations in 2009 on protective environment (GRPE) concerning hospital room design and ventilation. The EBMT Infectious Diseases Working Party undertook a survey on the status on protective environment for HSCT recipients with the aim of surveying current practices and their agreement with GRPE recommendations. The questionnaire consisted of 37 questions divided into 5 sections about filtration, air changes, maintenance, and the protective environment in rooms and the surrounding unit. Overall, 177 centres (response rate 33%) from 36 countries responded, indicating that 99.4% of patient rooms were equipped with HEPA filters, but only 48.6% of the centre's staff were aware of, and could confirm, regular replacement of filters based on manufacturers' recommendations. Well-sealed rooms were used in terms of windows (70.6%), ceilings (35%), and plumbing pipes (51.4%). The sensor monitors in the patient room used to determine when the HEPA filters require changing were installed only in 18.1% of centres. Only 1 centre fulfilled all 10 GRPE recommendations, while 62 centres fulfilled the 3 level "A" recommendations. In conclusion, HEPA-filtered rooms are available in almost all centres, while fewer centres fulfilled other requirements. Knowledge on the details and maintenance of protective environments in the HSCT setting was inadequate, reflecting a lack of communication between the health personnel involved, hospital infection control and the hospital maintenance services.

  20. Principles of arc flash protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschmann, R. B.

    2003-04-01

    Recent developments in NFPA 70E, the electrical safety standards in the United States and Canada, designed to provide for a safe industrial work environment, are discussed. The emphasis in this instance is on arc explosions. Development of an arc flash protective program is discussed under various major components of an electrical safety program. These are: appropriate qualifications and training for workers, safe work practices, appropriate hazard assessment practices for any task exceeding 50V where there is the potential of an arc flash accident, flash protection equipment commensurate with the hazard associated with the task to be performed, layering in protective clothing over all body surfaces, and strict adherence to rules regarding use of safety garments and equipment.

  1. Research into radiation protection. 1994 Programme report. Report on radiation departmental research programme on radiation protection, sponsored by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, and placed under the administrative and subject competence of the Federal Radiation Protection Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedde, R.; Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Thieme, M.

    1994-10-01

    On behalf of the Ministery for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection is placing research and study contracts in the field of radiation protection. The results of these projects are used for developing radiation protection rules and to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, required by law. Planning, expert and administrative management, placing, assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these research projects lies within the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU Department Research Programme of the year 1994. (orig.) [de

  2. Research into radiation protection. 1995 Programme report. Report on radiation departmental research programme on radiation protection, sponsored by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, and placed under the administrative and subject competence of the Federal Radiation Protection Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, M.; Goedde, R.; Schmitt-Hannig, A.

    1996-01-01

    On behalf of the Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection is placing research and study contracts in the field of radiation protection. The results of these projects are used for developing radiation protection rules and to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, required by law. Planning, expert and administrative management, placing, assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these research projects lies within the responsibility of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU Department Research Programme of the year 1995. (orig.) [de

  3. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  4. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  5. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  6. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    .... Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., United Refining Company v. Enbridge Energy..., Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., and... assistance with any FERC Online service, please email [email protected] , or call (866) 208-3676...

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  8. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracey, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1981 on bottled mineral waters and in conjunction with unusual occurences at nuclear reactor sites and a uranium refinery. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Meyerhof, D.P.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  11. Marine protected area restricts demographic connectivity: Dissimilarity in a marine environment can function as a biological barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaaki; Honda, Kentaro; Uy, Wilfredo H; Baslot, Darwin I; Genovia, Tom G; Nakamura, Yohei; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C; Kurokochi, Hiroyuki; Pantallano, Allyn Duvin S; Lian, Chunlan; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) can often lead to environmental differences between MPAs and fishing zones. To determine the effects on marine dispersal of environmental dissimilarity between an MPA and fishing zone, we examined the abundance and recruitment patterns of two anemonefishes ( Amphiprion frenatus and A. perideraion ) that inhabit sea anemones in different management zones (i.e., an MPA and two fishing zones) by performing a field survey and a genetic parentage analysis. We found lower levels of abundance per anemone in the MPA compared to the fishing zones for both species ( n  = 1,525 anemones, p  = .032). The parentage analysis also showed that lower numbers of fishes were recruited from the fishing zones and outside of the study area into each anemone in the MPA than into each anemone in the fishing zones ( n  = 1,525 anemones, p  fishing zones ( n  = 384 females, p  = .516). Because the ocean currents around the study site were unlikely to cause a lower settlement intensity of larvae in the MPA, the ocean circulation was not considered crucial to the observed abundance and recruitment patterns. Instead, stronger top-down control and/or a lower density of host anemones in the MPA were potential factors for such patterns. Our results highlight the importance of dissimilarity in a marine environment as a factor that affects connectivity.

  12. Protection of intestinal anastomoses in septic environment with peritoneal graft and polyglycolic acid mesh: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, O N; Bakir, B; Dilek, F H; Demirel, H; Yiğit, M F

    1996-01-01

    We carried out an experimental study in dogs to evaluate the outcome of large bowel anastomosis with 6 stitches (Group C, n : 6) in a septic environment with protection by a polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh (Group M, n : 12) or peritoneal graft (Group P, n : 12). Thirty dogs were used to compare the techniques. Two dogs in each group were re-operated after 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 90 days. They were evaluated for adhesion formation, lumen diameter (anastomotic index), clinical features, histologic appearance and quality of healing at the anastomotic sites. All dogs in group P and group M survived, whereas 2 dogs in the control group died of anastomotic leakage and 3 dogs were re-operated for anastomotic leakage and peritonitis. In group M, one dog was reoperated because of the anastomotic leakage and two dogs were reoperated because of the anastomotic stenosis. Also, 4 anastomoses showed evidence of moderate stenosis. In group P, three anastomoses were graded as minimal stenosis. Histopathologic evaluation showed more complete epithelization, less inflammation, and less adhesion in group P than group M. We could not find any study in the literature that described and compared both techniques. We report here the results of such a study.

  13. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1985, Part -2, Annex 1, Radioactivity control of working environment, dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Bjelanovic, J.; Minincic, Z.; Komatina, R.; Raicevic, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains data and analysis of the of measured sample results collected during radiation protection control in the working environment of the RA reactor. First part contains basic exposure values and statistical review of the the total number of radiation measurements. It includes contents of radioactive gasses and effluents in the air, as well as the level of surface contamination of clothes and uncovered parts of the personnel bodies. Second part deals with the analysis of personnel doses. It was found that the maximum individual dose from external irradiation amounted to 8.2 mSV during past 10 months. Individual exposures for 7/10 of the personnel were less than 1/10 of the annual permissible exposure. Data are compared to radiation doses for last year and previous five years. Third part of this annex contains basic data about the quantity of collected radioactive waste, total quantity of contaminated and decontaminated surfaces. The last part analyzes accidents occurred at the reactor during 1985. It was found that there have been no accidents that could cause significant contamination of working surfaces and components nor radiation exposure of the personnel [sr

  14. Depositional environments of the Hart coal zone (Paleocene), Willow Bunch Coalfield, southern Saskatchewan, Canada from petrographic, palynological, paleobotanical, mineral and trace element studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; Beaton, A.P.; McDougall, W.J.; Nambudiri, E.M.V.; Vigrass, L.W. (University of Regina, SK (Canada). Energy Research Unit)

    1991-12-01

    Coal petrology, palynology, paleobotany and mineralogy of the Hart coal indicate deposition under wet, warm-temperate to subtropical climatic conditions in low-lying backswamps with fluvial channels and locally ponded areas. The coal is dominated by mixed xylitic/attrital lithotypes and by huminite macerals with secondary inertinite macerals and minor liptinite macerals. Good correlation exists between lithotypes and maceral composition. Local and vertical variations in proportions of huminites and inertinites reflect frequent fluctuations in water levels, periodic flooding, desiccation and burning of the peat. Swamps were dominated by {ital Glyptostrobus-Taxodium} forest with {ital Betula-Myrica-Alnus} communities and, locally {ital Laevigatosporites}, which are the dominant contributors to the xylite-rich lithotypes. Attrital lithotypes with abundant {ital Pandanus}, {ital Typha} and {ital Azolla} are consistent with wetter areas of a fluvial environment, including ponds and channels. Trace elements Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Si, Ti, U, Se, V, W, K and Th, typically associated with syngenetic minerals kaolinite, calcite and quartz, may have a volcanic source. High concentrations of Na, Ba and Ca found in organic complexes are of secondary origin and probably originate in deep source brines rather than marine surface waters. 55 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. 1996 report on occupational radiation exposures in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistics are provided on occupational radiation exposures of monitored workers in Canada. The information is based on the data in the National Dose Registry maintained by the Radiation Protection Bureau of Health Canada. The Registry is a centralized record-keeping system containing dose information on all monitored workers in Canada. It includes records from the National Dosimetry Services (NDS), as well as data submitted by nuclear power generating stations, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., uranium mines, and private dosimeter processing companies. About 80 percent of the records are from the NDS. 9 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Atomic energy: agreement between Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This agreement provides for the exchange of nuclear materials and equipment between Canada and Australia and specifies the safeguards and other protective measures that shall be employed to ensure the peaceful use of the nuclear technology shared between the two countries

  17. Fisheries and Oceans Canada - habitat management program in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    On May 5, 2011, the Ontario Waterpower Association hosted the emergent hydro workshop in Peterborough. In the course of the workshop, Fisheries and Oceans Canada presented the habitat management program in Ontario. Fisheries and Oceans Canada explained that their role is to protect water resources. The Fisheries Act was passed to manage fisheries and fish habitats in Canada and to protect them from harmful alteration, disruption or destruction. The policy for the management of fish was written to interpret the Fisheries Act and enhance the productive capacity of fish habitats. In addition, two other Acts were passed, the Species at Risk Act and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, designed to protect species from extinction and improve coordination of, and public access to EA information. This presentation highlighted the different existing policies aimed at protecting fisheries and fish habitats in Canada.

  18. Collegiate Licensing in Canada and the Statutory Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burshtein, Sheldon

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a specific provision in a Canadian statute enabling universities and other educational institutions to obtain protection and financial gain in a collegiate licensing program, an advantage not held in other countries or by other trademark licensers in Canada. (MSE)

  19. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  20. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.