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Sample records for protection design criteria

  1. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'', and DOE 6430.1A, ''General Design Criteria''. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ''Glove Box Fire Protection'' and ''Filter Plenum Fire Protection''. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities

  2. Failsafe design criteria for computer based reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The design criteria proposed are an extrapolation of the failsafe mode of operation used in the UK in hardwired reactor protection systems. This is achieved by making the operational condition of the reactor dependent upon an energetic state of the protection system components. An important objective of the proposed design criteria is to eliminate, or at least to minimize, the need for a failure-mode-and-effect-analysis (FMEA) of the computer software. This demands some well defined but simple constraints upon the way in which data are stored in the computers, but the objective is achieved almost entirely by hardware properties of the system. The first of these is the systematic use of hardwired test inputs which cause transient excursions into the tripped state in a uniquely ordered but easily recognizable sequence. The second is the use of hardwired pattern recognition logic which generates a dynamic healthy stimulus for the shutdown actuators only in response to the unique sequence formed by the hardwired input signal pattern. It therefore detects abnormal states of any of the system inputs, software errors, wiring errors and hardware failures. This hardwired logic is conceptually simple, failsafe, and is amenable to simple FMEA. (U.K.)

  3. Seismic design criteria of fire protection systems for DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.; Cushing, R.; Driesen, G.

    1991-01-01

    Fire protection systems are critical to the safety of personnel and to the protection of inventory during any kind of emergency situation that involves a fire. The importance of these fire protection systems is hightened for DOE facilities which often house nuclear, chemical or scientific processes. Current research into the topic of open-quotes fires following earthquakesclose quotes has demonstrated that the risks of a fire starting as a result of a major earthquake can be significant. Thus, fire protection systems need to be designed to withstand the anticipated seismic event for the site in question

  4. Atmospheric electricity. [lightning protection criteria in spacecraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Atmospheric electricity must be considered in the design, transportation, and operation of aerospace vehicles. The effect of the atmosphere as an insulator and conductor of high voltage electricity, at various atmospheric pressures, must also be considered. The vehicle can be protected as follows: (1) By insuring that all metallic sections are connected by electrical bonding so that the current flow from a lightning stroke is conducted over the skin without any gaps where sparking would occur or current would be carried inside; (2) by protecting buildings and other structures on the ground with a system of lightning rods and wires over the outside to carry the lightning stroke into the ground; (3) by providing a zone of protection for launch complexes; (4) by providing protection devices in critical circuits; (5) by using systems which have no single failure mode; and (6) by appropriate shielding of units sensitive to electromagnetic radiation.

  5. Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) Design: Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-20

    following provisions: • Ceiling sprinkler design area must be increased by 10 percent. ESFR sprinklers must increase the required number to be...Control System ESFR Early Suppression Fast-Response Sprinklers ETL Engineering Technical Letters FAAA Fire Administration Authorization Act FM

  6. Radiological design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Andersen, B.V.; Carter, L.A.; Waite, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Many new nuclear facilities are unsatisfactory from a radiation protection point of view, particularly when striving to maintain occupational exposure as low as practicable 'ALAP'. Radiation protection is achieved through physical protective features supplemented by administrative controls. Adequate physical protective feature should be achieved during construction so that supplemental administrative controls may be kept simple and workable. Many nuclear facilities fall short of adequate physical protective features, thus, remedial and sometimes awkward administrative procedures are required to safely conduct work. In reviewing the various handbooks, reports and regulations which deal with radiation protection, it may be noted that there is minimal radiological design guidance for application to nuclear facilities. A set of criteria or codes covering functional areas rather than specific nuclear facility types is badly needed. The following are suggested as functional areas to be considered: characterization of the Facility; siting and access; design exposure limits; layout (people and materials flow); ventilation and effluent control; radiation protection facilities and systems. The application of such radiological design criteria early in the design process would provide some assurance that nuclear facilities will be safe, flexible, and efficient with a minimum of costly retrofitting or administrative restrictions. Criteria which we have found helpful in these functional areas is discussed together with justification for adoption of such criteria and identification of problems which still require solution

  7. Fail-safe design criteria for computer-based reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The increasing quantity and complexity of the instrumentation required in nuclear power plants provides a strong incentive for using on-line computers as the basis of the control and protection systems. On-line computers using multiplexed sampled data are already well established but their application to nuclear reactor protection systems requires special measures to satisfy the very high reliability which is demanded in the interests of safety and availability. Some existing codes of practice relating to segregation of replicated subsysttems continue to be applicable and lead to division of the computer functions into two distinct parts. The first computer, referred to as the Trip Algorithm Computer may also control the multiplexer. Voting on each group of status inputs yielded by the trip algorithm computers is performed by the Vote Algorithm Computer. The conceptual disparities between hardwired reactor-protection systems and those employing computers also rise to a need for some new criteria. An important objective of these criteria, minimising the need for a failure-mode-and-effect-analysis of the computer software, but is achieved almost entirely by 'hardware' properties of the system: the systematic use of hardwired test inputs which cause excursions of the trip algorithms into the tripped state in a uniquely ordered but easily recognisable sequence, and the use of hardwired 'pattern recognition logic' which generates a dynamic 'healthy' stimulus for the shutdown actuators only in response to the unique sequence generated by the hardwired input signal pattern. The adoption of the proposed design criteria ensure not only failure-to-safety in the hardware but the elimination, or at least minimisation, of the dependence on the correct functioning of the computer software for the safety system. (auth)

  8. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950's with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405's Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities' Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins)

  9. Occupational Radiological Protection Principles and Criteria for Designing New Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Global demand for electricity continues to grow and numerous new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being planned or constructed in NEA member countries. Most of these new NPPs will be of the third generation, and will be designed for as long as 80 years of operation. The successful design, construction and operation of these plants will depend broadly on appropriately implementing the lessons from experience accumulated to date. This case study introduces a policy and technical framework that may be used when formulating technical assistance and guidance for senior managers of NPPs, designers, manufacturers, contractors and authorities responsible for regulating occupational radiation exposure. It is aimed in particular at assisting design and license assessments of new NPPs. Although not targeting the needs of countries introducing nuclear power for the first time, this case study can also provide valuable input on occupational radiological protection issues for the implementation of new nuclear energy programmes

  10. Performance/design criteria review advanced worker protection systems. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This document describes an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with a variety of articles of protective clothing and support equipment

  11. Performance/design criteria review advanced worker protection systems. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This document describes an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with a variety of articles of protective clothing and support equipment.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1001 - Minimum performance criteria for rollover protective structures for designated scrapers, loaders...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loaders, and motor graders. The vehicle and ROPS as a system shall have the structural characteristics... direction of the load application, measured at the ROPS top edge. Should the operator's seat be offcenter... Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practices: SAE J320a, Minimum Performance Criteria for Roll...

  13. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  14. Intelligent intefrace design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Y.; Siebert, S.; Thebault, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Optimum adequation between control means and the capacities of the teams of operators is sought for to achieve computerization of control and monitoring interfaces. Observation of the diagnosis activity of populations of operators in incident situations on a simulator enables design criteria well-suited to the characteristics of the detection, interpretation of symptoms and incident location tasks to be defined. A software tool based on a qualitative approach enables the design process to be systematized

  15. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  16. Design criteria for plutonium gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The standard defines criteria for the design of glovebox systems to be used for the handling of plutonium in any form or isotopic composition or when mixed with other elements or compounds. The glovebox system is a series of physical barriers provided with glove ports and gloves, through which process and maintenance operations may be performed, together with an operating ventilation system. The system minimizes the potential for release of radioactive material to the environment, protects operators from contamination, and mitigates the consequences of abnormal condiations. The standard covers confinement, construction, materials, windows, glove ports, gloves, equipment insertion and removal, lighting, ventilation, fire protection, criticality prevention, services and utilities, radiation shielding, waste systems, monitoring and alarm systems, safeguards, quality assurance, and decommissioning

  17. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  18. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  19. Position paper: Seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnworth, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A

  20. Radiological protection criteria for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the progress being made by international organisations towards the development of a consensus on the radiological protection criteria to be applied to waste management, and in particular waste disposal, is reviewed. Against this background, work on the development of criteria for use in the UK is described. It is concluded that an international consensus is emerging and that the criteria being recommended for use in the UK are consistent with current international views. (author)

  1. Radiological protection criteria for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this Paper the progress being made by international organizations towards the development of a consensus on the radiological protection criteria to be applied to waste management, and in particular waste disposal, is reviewed. Against this background, work on the development of criteria for use in the UK is described. It is concluded that an international consensus is emerging and that the criteria being recommended for use in the UK are consistent with current international views. (author)

  2. Design criteria for advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Design criteria for advanced reactors are discussed, including safety aspects, site selection, problems related to maintenance and possibility of repairing or replacing structures or components of a nuclear power plant, the human factor considerations. Bearing in mind that some of these criteria are the subject of consensus at international level, the author suggests to establish a table of different operator requirements, to prepare a dossier on the comparison of input data for probabilistic risk analysis, to take into consideration the means to control a severe accident from the very start of the design

  3. Risk based seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2) What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the safe-shutdown-earthquake (SSE) ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented. (orig.)

  4. New facility shield design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the criteria presented here is to provide standard guidance for the design of nuclear radiation shields thoughout new facilities. These criteria are required to assure a consistent and integrated design that can be operated safely and economically within the DOE standards. The scope of this report is confined to the consideration of radiation shielding for contained sources. The whole body dose limit established by the DOE applies to all doses which are generally distributed throughout the trunk of the body. Therefore, where the whole body is the critical organ for an internally deposited radionuclide, the whole body dose limit applies to the sum of doses received must assure control of the concentration of radionuclides in the building atmosphere and thereby limit the dose from internal sources

  5. Ecological radiation protection criteria for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.

    1993-01-01

    By now a large quantity of radioactive hazards of all sizes and shapes has accumulated in Russia. They include RBMK, VVER, and BN (fast-neutron) nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel processing plants, radioactive waste dumps, ships with nuclear power units, etc. In order to evaluate the radioecological situation correctly, the characteristics of the radioactive contamination must be compiled in these areas with some system of criteria which will provide an acceptable level of ecological safety. Currently health criteria for radiation protection are, which are oriented to man's radiation protection, predominate. Here the concept of a thresholdless linear dose-response dependence, which has been confirmed experimentally only at rather high doses (above 1 Gy), is taken as the theoretical basis for evaluating and normalizing radiation effects. According to one opinion, protecting people against radiation is sufficient to protect other types of organisms, although they are not necessarily of the same species. However, from the viewpoint of ecology, this approach is incorrect, because it does not consider radiation dose differences between man and other living organisms. The article discusses dose-response dependences for various organisms, biological effects of ionizing radiation, and appropriate radiation protection criteria

  6. Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design

  7. Panel 1: Safety design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yllera, Javier

    2013-01-01

    There is general consensus in the nuclear community, and more after the Fukushima accident, that the deployment of nuclear energy has to be done at the highest levels of nuclear safety and that safety cannot be compromised by other factors. It is well understood that reactors that are being licensed and the new generations of reactors that will be constructed in the future will need to reach higher safety levels than the existing ones. Several countries and international organizations or international groups are launching initiatives to harmonise safety goals, safety requirements, safety objectives, regulations, criteria or safety reference levels. There are differences in the meanings of these terms and the working approaches, but the overall purpose is the same: to specify how new plants can be safer. In this context, the IAEA has an statutory function for developing international nuclear safety standards. The IAEA safety standards are per se not mandatory for IAEA Member States. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA’s standards for use in their national regulations in different ways. The IAEA Safety Standards represent international consensus on what must constitute a high level of safety for nuclear installations. In the area of NPP design, IAEA safety standards that are published are intended to apply primarily to new plants. It might not be practicable to apply all the requirements to plants that are already in operation. In addition, the focus is primarily on plants with water cooled reactors

  8. Redefining design criteria for Pu-238 gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    Enclosures for confinement of special nuclear materials (SNM) have evolved into the design of gloveboxes. During the early stages of glovebox technology, established practices and process operation requirements defined design criteria. Proven boxes that performed and met or exceeded process requirements in one group or area, often could not be duplicated in other areas or processes, and till achieve the same success. Changes in materials, fabrication and installation methods often only met immediate design criteria. Standardization of design criteria took a big step during creation of ''Special-Nuclear Materials R and D Laboratory Project, Glovebox standards''. The standards defined design criteria for every type of process equipment in its most general form. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) then and now has had great success with Pu-238 processing. However with ever changing Environment Safety and Health (ES and H) requirements and Ta-55 Facility Configuration Management, current design criteria are forced to explore alternative methods of glovebox design fabrication and installation. Pu-238 fuel processing operations in the Power Source Technologies Group have pushed the limitations of current design criteria. More than half of Pu-238 gloveboxes are being retrofitted or replaced to perform the specific fuel process operations. Pu-238 glovebox design criteria are headed toward process designed single use glovebox and supporting line gloveboxes. Gloveboxes that will house equipment and processes will support TA-55 Pu-238 fuel processing needs into the next century and extend glovebox expected design life

  9. Design criteria monograph for pressurized metal cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Organiation and presentation of data pertaining to design of solid propellant rocket engine cases are discussed. Design criteria are presented in form of monograph based on accumulated experience and knowledge. Improvements in reliability, cost effectiveness, and engine efficiency are stressed.

  10. Monitoring programmes for internal exposure: designing criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.; Gomez Parada, Ines.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer guidance for the decision whether a monitoring programme is required and how it should be designed. It can be also used as a tool for making the standing programmes consistent with the most recent publications on internal dosimetry, such as ISO 20553 'Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material', specific publications of the IAEA and ICRP, and including the conclusions of the OMINEX Project ('Optimisation of Monitoring for Internal Exposures') and IDEAS Project. It is established that the general purpose of the monitoring is verify that each worker is protected adequately against risks from radionuclide intakes and document that the protection complies with legal requirements. The criteria for a particular monitoring programme designing is based on the magnitude of the probable intake and the possibility of detecting a significant event when it occurs. So, the risk assessment for each work process must be evaluated and each worker is classified accordingly. This classification implies the acceptance of reference effective dose values (1 y 6 mSv/y ). (author) [es

  11. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration

  12. Design criteria document, electrical system, K-Basin essential systems recovery, Project W-405

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This Design Criteria Document provides the criteria for design and construction of electrical system modifications for 100K Area that are essential to protect the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel in the K-Basin facilities

  13. Containment penetration design criteria and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    A rational design criteria is presented which serves as a basis for the design and analysis of containment piping penetrations. The criteria includes the effect of temperature as well as mechanical loads for the full range of plant conditions. With this criteria various penetration flued head designs have been compared and optimization achieved. Sleeve wall dimensions and containment loads have been determined without reference to piping configuration. An interaction theory which allows the implementation of the criteria for the determination of design loads and minimum sleeve wall thickness. The interaction theory developed applies to elastic-perfectly plastic cylinders (pipes and sleeves) and accounts for the simultaneous load resultants of transverse shear force, bending moment, torsional moment, and axial force in addition to internal pipe pressure. Application of the theory developed to the determination of sleeve thickness and containment design loads is presented in detail. (Auth.)

  14. SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, R. A.

    1963-10-15

    The nature of nuclear power reactors demands an exceptionally high degree of seismic integrity. Considerations involved in defining earthquake resistance requirements are discussed. Examples of seismic design criteria and applications of the spectrum technique are described. (auth)

  15. 46 CFR 154.466 - Design criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.466 Design criteria. (a) The insulation for a cargo tank without a secondary barrier must be... cargo tank with a secondary barrier must be designed for the secondary barrier at the design temperature...

  16. Design Criteria Based on Aesthetic Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic criteria for designs are often debated in a very subjective manner which makes it difficult to reach consensus. In order to have a more rational and transparent process, in particular in industrial design, we propose a procedure based on Baumgarten's aesthetic considerations and Thommesen......'s dividing of a form into form elements. The procedure has been tested in student projects....

  17. Designing radiation protection signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines

  18. Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the K Basins to a Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks

  19. Design criteria for prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmelpfennig, K.

    1989-01-01

    The work concerned with the PCRVs has been focussed on topics which are not sufficiently covered by the usual codes with respect to the special structure of PCRVs and the special demands on it, and different investigations yielding a basis for such specific design criteria have been carried out. Only a couple of subjects being in the fore under the aspect of defining quality enlarging design criteria for PCRVs are outlined. The materials for the concrete to be used for the PCRVs are carefully selected. (DG)

  20. Assessment of the bases for selecting criteria for protection against tornado-entrained debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, J.B.J.; Bell, L.W.

    1977-05-01

    The probabilities and consequences of the acceleration of solid objects by air motion within a tornado are discussed, in order to assess the risks of damage from tornado missiles. Design criteria for protection against tornado missile risks are suggested

  1. VDTT removal system functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legare, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two Velocity Density Temperature Trees (H-2-815016) are to be removed from risers 14A and 1B of tank 241-SY-101. This document provides functional design criteria for the removal system. The removal system consists of a Liquid Removal Tool, Flexible Receiver (H-2-79216), Burial Container, Transport Trailers, and associated equipment

  2. 46 CFR 154.460 - Design criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... Barrier § 154.460 Design criteria. At static angles of heel up through 30°, a secondary barrier must (a) If a complete secondary barrier is required in § 154.459, hold all of the liquid cargo in the cargo...

  3. DOE natural phenomenal hazards design and evaluation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.; Chander, H.; Hill, J.R.; Kimball, J.K.

    1994-10-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct, and operate DOE facilities so that workers, the general public, and the environment are protected from the impacts of natural phenomena hazards (NPH). Furthermore, DOE has established explicit goals of acceptable risk for NPH performance. As a result, natural phenomena hazard (earthquake, extreme wind, and flood) design and evaluation criteria for DOE facilities have been developed based on target probabilistic performance goals. These criteria include selection of design/evaluation NPH input from probabilistic hazard curves combined with commonly practiced deterministic response evaluation methods and acceptance criteria with controlled levels of conservatism. For earthquake considerations, conservatism is intentionally introduced in specification of material strengths and capacities, in the allowance of limited inelastic behavior, and by a seismic scale factor. Criteria have been developed following a graded approach for several performance goals ranging from that appropriate for normal-use facilities to that appropriate for facilities involving hazardous or critical operations. Performance goals are comprised of qualitative expressions of acceptable behavior and of target quantitative probabilities that acceptable limits of behavior are maintained. The criteria are simple procedures but have a rigorous basis. This paper addresses DOE seismic design and evaluation criteria

  4. Optimal design criteria - prediction vs. parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldl, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    G-optimality is a popular design criterion for optimal prediction, it tries to minimize the kriging variance over the whole design region. A G-optimal design minimizes the maximum variance of all predicted values. If we use kriging methods for prediction it is self-evident to use the kriging variance as a measure of uncertainty for the estimates. Though the computation of the kriging variance and even more the computation of the empirical kriging variance is computationally very costly and finding the maximum kriging variance in high-dimensional regions can be time demanding such that we cannot really find the G-optimal design with nowadays available computer equipment in practice. We cannot always avoid this problem by using space-filling designs because small designs that minimize the empirical kriging variance are often non-space-filling. D-optimality is the design criterion related to parameter estimation. A D-optimal design maximizes the determinant of the information matrix of the estimates. D-optimality in terms of trend parameter estimation and D-optimality in terms of covariance parameter estimation yield basically different designs. The Pareto frontier of these two competing determinant criteria corresponds with designs that perform well under both criteria. Under certain conditions searching the G-optimal design on the above Pareto frontier yields almost as good results as searching the G-optimal design in the whole design region. In doing so the maximum of the empirical kriging variance has to be computed only a few times though. The method is demonstrated by means of a computer simulation experiment based on data provided by the Belgian institute Management Unit of the North Sea Mathematical Models (MUMM) that describe the evolution of inorganic and organic carbon and nutrients, phytoplankton, bacteria and zooplankton in the Southern Bight of the North Sea.

  5. Translating DWPF design criteria into an engineered facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) takes radioactive defense waste sludge and the radioactive nuclides, cesium and strontium, from the salt solution, and incorporates them in borosilicate glass in stainless steel canisters, for subsequent disposal in a deep geologic repository. The facility was designed by Bechtel National, Inc. under a subcontract from E.I. DuPont de Nemurs and Co., the prime contractor for the Department of Energy, for the design, construction and commissioning of the plant. The design criteria were specified by the DuPont Company, based upon their extensive experience as designer, and operator since the early 1950's, of the existing Savannah River Plant facilities. Some of the design criteria imposed unusual or new requirements on the detailed design of the facilities. This paper describes some of these criteria, encompassing several engineering disciplines, and discusses the solutions and designs which were developed for the DWPF

  6. Proposed design criteria for containments in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnellenbach, G.

    1976-01-01

    Till now all containments of German nuclear power plants have been fabricated in steel. However the nuclear power plants Gundremmingen II (KRB II) and Schmehausen II (HTR) will have prestressed concrete containments. The construction of these plants will probably start in 1975. Containments have to fulfill special tasks differing from those of pressure vessels. Because of this, design criteria for pressure vessels are not applicable to containments. On the other hand normal regulations for prestressed concrete structures are insufficient for containments. The containments KRB II and HTR are buildings of different types. KRB II is located in the interior of the reactor building of the SW-72-type. It is surrounded by a thick-walled concrete structure. HTR has the classical shape for concrete containments - vertical cylinder with spherical cap. It surrounds the reactor-building. The containment has to withstand aircraft impact forces. This influences its liner too. Design criteria have been developed for both containments, taking into consideration the special properties of these buildings. Design criteria are discussed for service-load conditions, test conditions, various forms of accident and for the ultimate load conditions. The influence of extreme external loads on the design is described. (author)

  7. Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins (including possibly 700 additional elements from PUREX, N Reactor, and 327 Laboratory). The basin water, particularly in the K East Basin, contains significant quantities of dissolved nuclear isotopes and radioactive fuel corrosion particles. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the 100 K Area to a Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 East area. In order to initiate K Basin cleanup on schedule, the two-year fuel-shipping campaign must begin by December 1997. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks

  8. Packaging Design Criteria for the MCO Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FLANAGAN, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated, nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins (including approximately 700 additional elements from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, N Reactor, and 327 Laboratory). To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the 100 K Area to a Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multi-canister Overpacks. Concurrent with the K Basin cleanup, 72 Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 fuel assemblies will be transported from T Plant to the CSB to provide space at T Plant for K Basin sludge canisters

  9. Design Criteria for Process Wastewater Pretreatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Stripping Column H13 ’Re Purpose: The purpose of this report, is to provide design criteria for pretreatment needs for ’ I. INTRODUCTION ’". discharge of...which a portion of the vessel is filled with packing. Packing materials vary from corrugated steel to bundles of fibers (Langdon et al., 1972) to beds...concentration(s) using Table 20. Wastewater treatability studies should be considered as a process-screening tool for all wastewater streams for

  10. Design criteria for Reedy Creek Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felicione, F.S.; Logan, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    This document defines the basic criteria for the 100-ton/day pilot plant which will use the Andco-Torrax pyrolysis process at Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida, to produce hot water. The waste will simulate transuranic wastes which are stored at INEL. The Andco-Torrax process is designed to convert mixed municipal refuse into energy and is called slagging pyrolysis solid waste conversion

  11. Radiation protection criteria in the long-range view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.; Bergman, C.

    1989-01-01

    The report presents by way of introduction radiation protection criteria applied to radiological activities and to disposal of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. In these cases it is primarily short-range views that are relevant, up to a few thousand years as a maximum. In the case of high-level wastes where the views may extend to more than hundreds of thousands years, there are not for the present any equally well stablished criteria. Based upon preliminary results from a Nordic team for criteria for high-level radioactive wastes, dose estimates in the long-range view and alternative assessment criteria are discussed. Proposals are also presented for 12 criteria that may be applicable. As the work is not yet finshed, the criteria are however merely preliminary

  12. Evaluation criteria for spectral design of camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Fagerström, Jan; Hallberg, Tomas; Kariis, Hans

    2015-10-01

    In development of visual (VIS) and infrared (IR) camouflage for signature management, the aim is the design of surface properties of an object to spectrally match or adapt to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast perceived by a threatening sensor. The so called 'ladder model" relates the requirements for task measure of effectiveness with surface structure properties through the steps signature effectiveness and object signature. It is intended to link materials properties via platform signature to military utility and vice versa. Spectral design of a surface intends to give it a desired wavelength dependent optical response to fit a specific application of interest. Six evaluation criteria were stated, with the aim to aid the process to put requirement on camouflage and for evaluation. The six criteria correspond to properties such as reflectance, gloss, emissivity, and degree of polarization as well as dynamic properties, and broadband or multispectral properties. These criteria have previously been exemplified on different kinds of materials and investigated separately. Anderson and Åkerlind further point out that the six criteria rarely were considered or described all together in one and same publication previously. The specific level of requirement of the different properties must be specified individually for each specific situation and environment to minimize the contrast between target and a background. The criteria or properties are not totally independent of one another. How they are correlated is part of the theme of this paper. However, prioritization has been made due to the limit of space. Therefore all of the interconnections between the six criteria will not be considered in the work of this report. The ladder step previous to digging into the different material composition possibilities and choice of suitable materials and structures (not covered here), includes the object signature and decision of what the spectral response should be

  13. Design criteria for piping and nozzles program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.E.; Bryson, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews the activities and accomplishments of the Design Criteria for Piping and Nozzles program being conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the period July 1, 1975, to September 30, 1976. The objectives of the program are to conduct integrated experimental and analytical stress analysis studies of piping system components and isolated and closely-spaced pressure vessel nozzles in order to confirm and/or improve the adequacy of structural design criteria and analytical methods used to assure the safe design of nuclear power plants. Activities this year included the development of a finite-element program for analyzing two closely spaced nozzles in a cylindrical pressure vessel; a limited-parameter study of vessels with isolated nozzles, finite-element studies of piping elbows, a fatigue test of an out-of-round elbow, summary and evaluation of experimental studies on the elastic-response and fatigue failure of tees, parameter studies on the behavior of flanged joints, publication of fifteen topical reports and papers on various experimental and analytical studies; and the development and acceptance of a number of design rules changes to the ASME Code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  14. Multi-Criteria Approach in Multifunctional Building Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerigk, Mateusz

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents new approach in multifunctional building design process. Publication defines problems related to the design of complex multifunctional buildings. Currently, contemporary urban areas are characterized by very intensive use of space. Today, buildings are being built bigger and contain more diverse functions to meet the needs of a large number of users in one capacity. The trends show the need for recognition of design objects in an organized structure, which must meet current design criteria. The design process in terms of the complex system is a theoretical model, which is the basis for optimization solutions for the entire life cycle of the building. From the concept phase through exploitation phase to disposal phase multipurpose spaces should guarantee aesthetics, functionality, system efficiency, system safety and environmental protection in the best possible way. The result of the analysis of the design process is presented as a theoretical model of the multifunctional structure. Recognition of multi-criteria model in the form of Cartesian product allows to create a holistic representation of the designed building in the form of a graph model. The proposed network is the theoretical base that can be used in the design process of complex engineering systems. The systematic multi-criteria approach makes possible to maintain control over the entire design process and to provide the best possible performance. With respect to current design requirements, there are no established design rules for multifunctional buildings in relation to their operating phase. Enrichment of the basic criteria with functional flexibility criterion makes it possible to extend the exploitation phase which brings advantages on many levels.

  15. Qualification criteria for persons responsible for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, G

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the qualification criteria included in the German atomic law (Atomic Energy Act, Radiological Protection Ordinance and X-ray Protection Ordinance) for persons responsible for radiation protection is given. Especially the various activities for which a health physics officer is required, the range of qualification in each case and the way the qualification has to be proved, are pointed out. Also the different guides that are issued to complete the legal requirements are mentioned. The definitions of the term qualification for health physics given in the different guides are cited and it is shown, that the qualification of a healt physics officer has to be based on the three criteria (I) vocational training. (II) professional experience and (III) the necessary knowledge in radiation protection. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Criteria, objectives and methodology for evaluating marine protected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a first step, 14 objectives are defined that may be met by MPAs. These fall into three categories: biodiversity protection, fisheries management and human utilization. A series of criteria were then proposed which can be used selectively to quantify the degree to which MPAs meet these objectives. Each of the objectives is ...

  17. 47 CFR 101.105 - Interference protection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference protection criteria. 101.105 Section 101.105 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO.... (ii) To accommodate co-primary Direct Broadcast Satellite Service earth stations, an MVDDS...

  18. Radiological protection criteria risk assessments for waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Radiological protection criteria for waste disposal options are currently being developed at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), and, in parallel, methodologies to be used in assessing the radiological impact of these options are being evolved. The criteria and methodologies under development are intended to apply to all solid radioactive wastes, including the high-level waste arising from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (because this waste will be solidified prior to disposal) and gaseous or liquid wastes which have been converted to solid form. It is envisaged that the same criteria will be applied to all solid waste disposal options, including shallow land burial, emplacement on the ocean bed (sea dumping), geological disposal on land and sub-seabed disposal

  19. Upgrading instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants. Design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, M.C.; Alvarez Menendez, A.

    1997-01-01

    The use of programmed digital technology in Protection, Control, Monitoring and Information Systems in new generation nuclear power plants, or the use of this technology to replace or upgrade existing systems based on wired analog instrumentation and electromechanical relays, has led to new international standards which establish new design requirements or adapt existing requirements to this technology. Additionally, both regulatory organisations and the industry are discussing the reliability of this technology, regarding common mode failures that may occur in redundant protection channels, due to the use of equipment and software with the same characteristics. The first part of this paper addresses the most important aspects of new international standards regarding classification criteria for I and C systems, equipment and functions, depending on their importance to safety and the design criteria applicable to each category. Special attention is drawn to requirements concerning software quality assurance and the design of new control rooms. The paper then goes on to discuss the different technical solutions being implemented, using equipment and software diversification, in order to prevent the possibility of common mode failures affecting the protection function. (Author)

  20. Designing physical protection technology for insider protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, A.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1986-01-01

    Since its inception, the nuclear industry has been engaged in providing protection against an insider threat. Although insider protection activities have been fairly successful in the past, present societal conditions require increased protection to further minimize the existence of an insider or the consequences of an insider-perpetrated incident. Integration of insider protection techniques into existing administrative and operational procedures has resulted in economic and operational impacts. Future increases in insider protection may result in even greater impacts, so we must proceed wisely as new approaches are developed. Increased emphasis on background investigations, security clearances, human reliability programs, security awareness activities, and the development of technology to address the insider threat are evidence of continuing concern in this area. Experience ranging from operational test and evaluation of developmental equipment to conceptual designs for new facilities has led to the development of general principles and conclusions for mitigating the insider threat while minimizing adverse impacts on site operations. Important principles include real-time monitoring of personnel and material and requiring that the physical protection and material control and accounting systems to be much more coordinated and integrated than in the past

  1. Seismic design criteria for nuclear powerplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, P.C.; Guzman, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    There are three main aspects of the problem of selection of seismic design criteria for major projects such as nuclear power plants. These are the description of the appropriate level of shaking to be considered, usually given in the form of design spectra; the allowable response of the structure, usually specified in terms of allowable stresses and deflections; and the capability of the structure to dissipate energy, commonly given in the form of fractions of critical damping. In this presentation only the first of these features is examined, with particular application to nuclear power plants. Under these restrictions, the most important parts of the problem become the determination of the amplitude of the design spectra corresponding to the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) and the question of whether the shape of the spectra recommended by Regulatory Guide 1.60 (U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1973) is appropriate for the particular application. In the course of working out the details of the approach, it was found useful to reexamine a number of concepts including the use of response spectra or peak values of ground motion parameters, the shape of the design spectra, problems in attenuation and scaling, and the use of motions on the ground surface or bedrock motions. There is nothing fundamentally new in the suggested approach, although some of the features may not have been applied to the problem of selecting design spectra for nuclear power plants in the way suggested. The approach is applied only to nuclear power plants but it is not limited to this application

  2. Radiation protection/shield design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation protection/shielding design of a nuclear facility requires a coordinated effort of many engineering disciplines to meet the requirements imposed by regulations. In the following discussion, the system approach to Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) radiation protection will be described, and the program developed to implement this approach will be defined. In addition, the principal shielding design problems of LMFBR nuclear reactor systems will be discussed in realtion to LWR nuclear reactor system shielding designs. The methodology used to analyze these problems in the U.S. LMFBR program, the resultant design solutions, and the experimental verification of these designs and/or methods will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute's protection criteria for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    In this document the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute reports the preliminary protection criteria for personnel and public concerned with, or in other ways affected by, the disposal of high level radioactive waste. The document will be submitted for consideration by the parties concerned and also serve as a basis for preparing a Swedish viewpoint which can be asserted in future international discussions

  4. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute`s protection criteria for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In this document the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute reports the preliminary protection criteria for personnel and public concerned with, or in other ways affected by, the disposal of high level radioactive waste. The document will be submitted for consideration by the parties concerned and also serve as a basis for preparing a Swedish viewpoint which can be asserted in future international discussions.

  5. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for radiobioassay. Part 1: General principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    International Standard ISO 12790-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiation protection. ISO 12790 consists of the following parts, under the general title Radiation protection - Performance criteria for radiobioassay: Part 1: General principles; and Part 2: Rationale and specific applications This part of ISO 12790 provides criteria for quality assurance and control, evaluation of performance and the accreditation of radiobioassay service laboratories. Criteria and guidance for direct radiobioassay ( in vivo) and indirect radiobioassay ( in vitro) are given in separate clauses of this part of ISO 12790. This part of ISO 12790 addresses: a) the accuracy of direct ( in vivo) measurements of activity and quantities of selected important radionuclides in test phantoms and indirect ( in vitro) measurements of activity and quantities of selected important radionuclides in test samples; b) methods for determining the minimum detectable amount; c) minimum testing levels and testing ranges; d) requirements for reporting radiobioassay results by service laboratories; e) quality assurance in service laboratories; f) quality control in service laboratories; g) protocol for reporting test evaluations by service laboratories to the testing laboratory; h) default procedures when the service laboratory customer does not specify the performance criteria. The scope of this part of ISO 12790 does not include: a) detailed radiochemical methods for separating radionuclides from biological samples; b) detailed procedures for in vivo and in vitro radioactivity measurements; c) metabolic data and mathematical models for converting radiobioassay results into absorbed dose and dose equivalent; d) procedures for the preparation and distribution of test samples and phantoms by the testing laboratories. Analytical methods for radiobioassay are not currently standardized, but are available in the literature. Guidance for converting

  6. Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.; Thomas, Rayelle E. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria contains descriptions of technical, safety, and crew health medical processes and specifications, and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of the Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  7. Criteria for radiological protection against exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation includes natural radiation which has been part cosmic radiation. Radon in homes, irradiation, gamma, among others, they have also been part of ionizing radiation. The activities that have lead to natural radiation materials are: mining and processing of uranium, radio application and thorium, phosphate industry, mining and smelting of metals, oil and gas extraction, coal mining and power generation, rare earth industry and titanium, zirconium and ceramics, building materials, waste water purification. Therefore, different criteria for radiation protection have had to create against exposure to natural radiation. Distinct rules and regulations to control were created in that sense [es

  8. Protection criteria from the non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo E.

    2004-01-01

    The first objective of the protection philosophy is to determinate the relation reason-effect in order to establish the exposition thresholds to acceptable values. To establish the radioprotection criteria is important to considerate the following: a-) The damage and effects of the non-ionizing radiation; b-) The physical aspects of the fields exposition; and c-) The dosimetry of the involucrate tissues. The non-ionizing radiation includes the optics radiations (ultraviolet, visible, infrared and laser), and the electromagnetic radiations (microwave, radars, magnetic and electrostatics fields)

  9. Design Criteria for Achieving Acceptable Indoor Radon Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Design criteria for achieving an acceptable indoor radon concentration are presented in this paper. The paper suggests three design criteria. These criteria have to be considered at the early stage of the building design phase to meet the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization...... in most countries. The three design criteria are; first, establishing a radon barrier facing the ground; second, lowering the air pressure in the lower zone of the slab on ground facing downwards; third, diluting the indoor air with outdoor air. The first two criteria can prevent radon from infiltrating...... from the ground, and the third criteria can dilute the indoor air. By combining these three criteria, the indoor radon concentration can be lowered achieving an acceptable level. In addition, a cheap and reliable method for measuring the radon concentration in the indoor air is described. The provision...

  10. Research on high level radioactive waste repository seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Review seismic hazard analysis principle and method in site suitable assessment process of Yucca Mountain Project, and seismic design criteria and seismic design basis in primary design process. Demonstrated spatial character of seismic hazard by calculated regional seismic hazard map. Contrasted different level seismic design basis to show their differences and relation. Discussed seismic design criteria for preclosure phrase of high level waste repository and preference goal under beyond design basis ground motion. (author)

  11. SMART core protection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Park, H. Y.; Koo, I. S.; Park, H. S.; Kim, J. S.; Son, C. H.

    2003-01-01

    SMART COre Protection System(SCOPS) is designed with real-tims Digital Signal Processor(DSP) board and Network Interface Card(NIC) board. SCOPS has a Control Rod POSition (CRPOS) software module while Core Protection Calculator System(CPCS) consists of Core Protection Calculators(CPCs) and Control Element Assembly(CEA) Calculators(CEACs) in the commercial nuclear plant. It's not necessary to have a independent cabinets for SCOPS because SCOPS is physically very small. Then SCOPS is designed to share the cabinets with Plant Protection System(PPS) of SMART. Therefor it's very easy to maintain the system because CRPOS module is used instead of the computer with operating system

  12. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  13. Interim licensing criteria for physical protection of certain storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This document presents interim criteria to be used in the physical protection licensing of certain spent fuel storage installations. Installations that will be reviewed under this criteria are those that store power reactor spent fuel at decommissioned power reactor sites; independent spent fuel storage installations located outside of the owner controlled area of operating nuclear power reactors; monitored retrievable storage installations owned by the Department of Energy, designed and constructed specifically for the storage, of spent fuel; the proposed geologic repository operations area; or permanently shutdown power reactors still holding a Part 50 license. This criteria applies to both dry cask and pool storage. However, the criteria in this document does not apply to the storage of spent fuel within the owner-controlled area of operating nuclear power reactors

  14. Seismic design criteria for special isotope separation plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrona, M.W.; Wuthrich, S.J.; Rose, D.L.; Starkey, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the seismic criteria for the design of the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) production plant. These criteria are derived from the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) orders, references and proposed standards. The SIS processing plant consistent of Load Center Building (LCB), Dye Pump Building (DPB), Laser Support Building (LSB) and Plutonium Processing Building (PPB). The facility-use category for each of the SIS building structures is identified and the applicable seismic design criteria and parameters are selected

  15. Criteria design of the CAREM 25 reactor's core: neutronic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecot, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The criteria that guided the design, from the neutronic point of view, of the CAREM reactor's core were presented. The minimum set of objectives and general criteria which permitted the design of the particular systems constituting the CAREM 25 reactor's core is detailed and stated. (Author) [es

  16. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging

  17. Tank SY-101 void fraction instrument functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWethy, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the functional design criteria for design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and installation of a void fraction instrument for Tank SY-101. This instrument will measure the void fraction in the waste in Tank SY-101 at various elevations

  18. Study of Army Design Hover Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION, CHAPTER IX. FOR UNCLASSIFIED, LIMITED DOCUMENTS, DESTROY BY ANY METHOD THAT WILL PREVENT DISCLOSURE OF...margin at 4,000 feet pressure altitude and 95 degree Fahrenheit ambient temperature design point. This recommendation did not account for diurnal...margin capability to account for realistic helicopter operating conditions. However, the design point remained at 4K/95 for development and

  19. Safeguards as Design Criteria - Guidance for Regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leask, Andrew; Leslie, Russell; Carlson, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines some technological barriers which should be taken into account at the conceptual stage of fuel cycle design. First, the strategic value of nuclear material and reactor-associated fissile material acquisition paths is briefly outlined. Then, it discusses three basic approaches to enhance the proliferation resistance of nuclear power reactors, namely: (1) reduction of strategic value of materials involved in nuclear power generation; (2) incorporating reactor design features preventing diversion of material; and (3) facilitating safeguards implementation. (author)

  20. Design Criteria for Achieving Low Radon Concentration Indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Design criteria for achieving low radon concentration indoors are presented in this paper. The paper suggests three design criteria. These criteria have to be considered at the early stage of the building design phase to meet the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization in most...... countries. The three design criteria are; first, establishing a radon barrier facing the ground; second, lowering the air pressure in the lower zone of the slab on ground facing downwards; third, diluting the indoor air with outdoor air. Three criteria when used can prevent radon infiltration and lower...... the radon concentration in the indoor air. In addition, a cheap and reliable method for measuring the radon concentration in the air indoors is described. The provision on radon in the Danish Building Regulations complies with the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause...

  1. NASA balloon design and flight - Philosophy and criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA philosophy and criteria for the design and flight of scientific balloons are set forth and discussed. The thickness of balloon films is standardized at 20.3 microns to isolate potential film problems, and design equations are given for specific balloon parameters. Expressions are given for: flight-stress index, total required thickness, cap length, load-tape rating, and venting-duct area. The balloon design criteria were used in the design of scientific balloons under NASA auspices since 1986, and the resulting designs are shown to be 95 percent effective. These results represent a significant increase in the effectiveness of the balloons and therefore indicate that the design criteria are valuable. The criteria are applicable to four balloon volume classes in combination with seven payload ranges.

  2. Designing Data Protection Safeguards Ethically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Pagallo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 1990s, lawmakers and scholars have worked on the idea of embedding data protection safeguards in information and communication technology (ICT with the aim to access and control personal data in compliance with current regulatory frameworks. This effort has been strengthened by the capacities of computers to draw upon the tools of artificial intelligence (AI and operations research. However, work on AI and the law entails crucial ethical issues concerning both values and modalities of design. On one hand, design choices might result in conflicts of values and, vice versa, values may affect design features. On the other hand, the modalities of design cannot only limit the impact of harm-generating behavior but also prevent such behavior from occurring via self-enforcement technologies. In order to address some of the most relevant issues of data protection today, the paper suggests we adopt a stricter, yet more effective version of “privacy by design.” The goal should be to reinforce people’s pre-existing autonomy, rather than having to build it from scratch.

  3. IMPROVEMENT TOOLBOX DESIGN FOR EFQM CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Deveci Kocakoç

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The EFQM Excellence Model is a framework that helps organizations to achieve competitive advantage by measuring where they are on their path to excellence. However, it does not tell the organization what to do or how it should manage any of these areas. In this study, we suggest a structure to overcome this gap. We present a method, matrix reflections, to find a tool set that can be used for designing improvement approaches in order to reach desired results.

  4. Proposed design criteria for a fusion facility electrical ground system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armellino, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground grid design considerations for a nuclear fusion reactor facility are no different than any other facility in that the basis for design must be safety first and foremost. Unlike a conventional industrial facility the available fault energy comes not only from the utility source and in-house rotating machinery, but also from energy storage capacitor banks, collapsing magnetic fields and D.C. transmission lines. It is not inconceivable for a fault condition occurrence where all available energy can be discharged. The ground grid must adequately shunt this sudden energy discharge in a way that personnel will not be exposed by step and/or touch to hazardous energy levels that are in excess of maximum tolerable levels for humans. Fault energy discharge rate is a function of the ground grid surge impedance characteristic. Closed loop paths must be avoided in the ground grid design so that during energy discharge no stray magnetic fields or large voltage potentials between remote points can be created by circulating currents. Single point connection of equipment to the ground grid will afford protection to personnel and sensitive equipment by reducing the probability of circulating currents. The overall ground grid system design is best illustrated as a wagon wheel concept with the fusion machine at the center. Radial branches or spokes reach out to the perimeter limits designated by step-and-touch high risk areas based on soil resistivity criteria considerations. Conventional methods for the design of a ground grid with all of its radial branches are still pertinent. The center of the grid could include a deep well single ground rod element the length of which is at least equivalent to the radius of an imaginary sphere that enshrouds the immediate machine area. Special facilities such as screen rooms or other shielded areas are part of the ground grid system by way of connection to radial branches

  5. Basic principles and criteria for public health protection in the event of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.

    1992-01-01

    Decision making criteria for population protection in nuclear accidents are discussed, and in particular the three basic principles: 1) excluding the appearance of nonstostochastic effects that occur in the case of high individual doses; 2) weighing the risks of radiation damage if such measures are not taken; 3) optimization based on comparison of benefit and costs, using the same measures for costs of health injury to affected populations and of the protected measures to be taken. The decision making criteria developed in Bulgaria are based on international recommendations with lowered upper limit of the range for evacuation and specified doses for vulnerable groups, children and pregnant women. The organization and the specific problems of the following individual types of protective measures are described: sheltering; protection of respiratory organs; iodine prophylaxis; evacuation of the public. One major condition for ensuring protection is to provide the public with timely information on the actual situation and the necessary countermeasures. Such information should be released in a manner that allows for understanding the expediency and significance of actions to be taken. An important aspect of emergency planning consists in taking into consideration the conditions actually prevailing in the country. This is well illustrated in the principle designated as 'national level of challenge' taking into account a country's capabilities for introducing intervention levels and permissible dose levels. In the case of Bulgaria this still remains to be done in protective planning for accidents. (author)

  6. Safety design guides for fire protection for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide establishes design requirements to ensure the radiological risk to the public due to fire is acceptable and operating personnel are adequately protected from the hazards of fires. This safety design guide also specifies the safety criteria for fire protection to be applied to mitigate fires and recommends the fire protection program to be established to initiate, coordinate and document the design activities associated with fire protection. The requirements for fire protection outlined in this safety design guide shall be satisfied in the design stage and the change status of the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and incorporated into this safety design guide accordingly. 1 fig., (Author) .new

  7. Safety objectives and design criteria for the NHR-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Dazhi; Zheng Wenxiang

    1997-01-01

    The construction of a nuclear district heating reactor (NHR) demonstration plant with a thermal power of 200 MW has been decided for the northeast of China. To facilitate the design and licensability a set of design criteria were developed for the NHR, based on existing general criteria for NPP but amended with regard to the unique features of NHR-200. Some key points are discussed in this paper. (author). 7 refs

  8. Safety principles and design criteria for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, M.

    1982-01-01

    The criteria and safety principles for the design of nuclear power stations are presented from the viewpoint of a nuclear engineer. The design, construction and operation of nuclear power stations should be carried out according to these criteria and safety principles to ensure, to a reasonable degree, that the likelihood of release of radioactivity as a result of component failure or human error should be minimized. (author)

  9. Safety objectives and design criteria for the NHR-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dazhi, Xue; Wenxiang, Zheng [Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsingua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1997-09-01

    The construction of a nuclear district heating reactor (NHR) demonstration plant with a thermal power of 200 MW has been decided for the northeast of China. To facilitate the design and licensability a set of design criteria were developed for the NHR, based on existing general criteria for NPP but amended with regard to the unique features of NHR-200. Some key points are discussed in this paper. (author). 7 refs.

  10. An Investigation Into Design Criteria for Affordable Housing Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdul Lateef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordable housing provision constitutes a very large scheme in any countries due to income distribution and national development. The supply of housing depends on many activities and processes. The purpose of the houses is to meet the requirement of the householders therefore design criteria must address the users’ requirements. The establishment of the design criteria constitutes an important activity at the initial phase of the housing development. The design criteria are prepared by the design team in collaboration with many stakeholders especially the householders. Housinsg design criteria are the requirements that must be considered prior to construction of the housing. Lack of adequate information on the design criteria would lead to poor householders’ satisfactions, increase in maintenance cost, abandonments and completed but not occupy housing. In Malaysia, many of these consequences are prevalent. However, while information on the house owners’ requirements is inconclusive, this current research set out to investigate the design criteria of affordable housing. The increase in the affordable housing gap in Malaysia can be reduced if the designers have a comprehensive understanding of users’ requirements and the design criteria. Through a cross sectional survey questionnaire, comprising 25 criteria, 7 criteria were found to be extremely critical. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy indicated that the strength of the relationships among variables was strong (KMO =0.716. Bartlett’s test of sphericity, which tests the overall significance of all the correlations within the correlation matrix, was significant χ2 (325 = 1825.075, p<0.001, indicating the data were drawn from the same population and that the criteria were related.Sustainability considerations are now being considered by the providers of affordable housing. Deductively, the results lead to the conclusion that a major factor responsible for the poor

  11. Criteria for evaluating protection from single points of failure for partially expanded fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswani, D.; Badreddine, B.; Malone, M.; Gauthier, G.; Proietty, J.

    2008-01-01

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a technique that describes the combinations of events in a system which result in an undesirable outcome. FTA is used as a tool to quantitatively assess a system's probability for an undesirable outcome. Time constraints from concept to production in modern engineering often limit the opportunity for a thorough statistical analysis of a system. Furthermore, when undesirable outcomes are considered such as hazard to human(s), it becomes difficult to identify strict statistical targets for what is acceptable. Consequently, when hazard to human(s) is concerned a common design target is to protect the system from single points of failure (SPOF) which means that no failure mode caused by a single event, concern, or error has a critical consequence on the system. Such a design target is common with 'by-wire' systems. FTA can be used to verify if a system is protected from SPOF. In this paper, sufficient criteria for evaluating protection from SPOF for partially expanded fault trees are proposed along with proof. The proposed criteria consider potential interactions between the lowest drawn events of a partial fault tree expansion which otherwise easily leads to an overly optimistic analysis of protection from SPOF. The analysis is limited to fault trees that are coherent and static

  12. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic criteria for the APT tungsten neutron source design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the thermal-hydraulic design criteria (THDC) developed for the tungsten neutron source (TNS). The THDC are developed for the normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis accidents. The requirements of the safety analyses are incorporated into the design criteria, consistent with the integrated safety management and the safety-by-design philosophy implemented throughout the APT design process. The phenomenology limiting the thermal-hydraulic design and the confidence level requirements for each limit are discussed. The overall philosophy of the uncertainty analyses and the confidence level requirements also are presented. Different sets of criteria are developed for normal operations, operational transients, anticipated accidents, unlikely accidents, extremely unlikely accidents, and accidents during TNS replacement. In general, the philosophy is to use the strictest criteria for the high-frequency events. The criteria is relaxed as the event frequencies become smaller. The THDC must be considered as a guide for the design philosophy and not as a hard limit. When achievable, design margins greater than those required by the THDC must be used. However, if a specific event sequence cannot meet the THDC, expensive design changes are not necessary if the single event sequence results in sufficient margin to safety criteria and does not challenge the plant availability or investment protection considerations

  14. Seismic design and evaluation criteria based on target performance goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy utilizes deterministic seismic design/evaluation criteria developed to achieve probabilistic performance goals. These seismic design and evaluation criteria are intended to apply equally to the design of new facilities and to the evaluation of existing facilities. In addition, the criteria are intended to cover design and evaluation of buildings, equipment, piping, and other structures. Four separate sets of seismic design/evaluation criteria have been presented each with a different performance goal. In all these criteria, earthquake loading is selected from seismic hazard curves on a probabilistic basis but seismic response evaluation methods and acceptable behavior limits are deterministic approaches with which design engineers are familiar. For analytical evaluations, conservatism has been introduced through the use of conservative inelastic demand-capacity ratios combined with ductile detailing requirements, through the use of minimum specified material strengths and conservative code capacity equations, and through the use of a seismic scale factor. For evaluation by testing or by experience data, conservatism has been introduced through the use of an increase scale factor which is applied to the prescribed design/evaluation input motion

  15. Criteria for the design of the control room complex for a nuclear power generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This Standard addresses the central control room of a nuclear power generating station and the overall complex in which this room is housed. It is not intended to cover special or normally unattended control rooms, such as those provided for radioactive waste handling or for emergency shutdown operations. The nuclear power generating station control room complex provides a protective envelope for plant operating personnel and for instrument and control equipment vital to the operation of the plant during normal and abnormal conditions. In this capacity, the control room complex must be designed and constructed to meet the following criteria contained in Appendix A of 10CFR50, General Design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants: (1) Criterion 2: design bases for protection against natural phenomena; (2) Criterion 3: fire protection; (3) Criterion 4: environmental and missile design bases; (4) Criterion 5: sharing of structures, systems and components (multiunit stations only); and (5) Criterion 19: control room

  16. Radiological Protection Criteria for the Safety of LILW Repository in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanat, I.; Lokner, V.; Subasic, D.

    2000-01-01

    Preparations for a LILW repository development in Croatia, conducted by APO Hazardous Waste Management Agency, have reached a point where the first safety assessment of the prospective facility is being attempted. For evaluation of the calculated radiological impact in the assessed option of repository development, a set of radiological protection criteria should be included in the definition of the assessment context. The Croatian regulations do not explicitly require that the repository development be supported by such safety assessment process, and do not provide a specific set of radiological criteria intended for the repository assessment which would be suitable for the constrained optimization of protection. For the initial safety assessment iterations of the prospective repository, which will address long term performance of the facility for various design and other safety options, we propose to use relatively simple radiological protection criteria, consisting only of individual dose and risk constraints for the general population. The numerical values for these constraints are established in accordance with the recognized international recommendations and in compliance with all possibly relevant Croatian safety requirements. (author)

  17. Design criteria and pressure vessel codes - an American view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuppeny, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    To the pressure vessel designer, codes and criteria represent the common ground where the stress analyst and the metallurgist must interact and evolve rules and procedures which will ensure safety and open-ended responsiveness to technological, economic, and environmental change. The paper briefly discusses the evolution and rationale behind the current ASME code sections -emphasizing those portions applicable to designs operating in the creep range. The author then proposes a plan of action so that the analysts and materials people can make optimum use of time and resources, and evolve data and design criteria which will be responsive to changing technology and the economic and safety requirements of the future. (author)

  18. Multi-material topology design of laminates with strength criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a novel approach for multi-material topology optimization of laminated composite structures where strength constraints are taken into account together with other global structural performance measures. The topology design problem considered contains very...... many design variables, and when strength criteria are included in the problem, a very large number of criteria functions must be considered in the optimization problem to be solved. Thus, block aggregation methods are introduced, such that global strength measures are obtained. These formulations...... are illustrated for multi-material laminated design problems where the maximum failure index is minimized while compliance and mass constraints are taken into account....

  19. Compliance to Universal Design Criteria in Nursing Homes of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Nasiri

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the majority of nursing homes evaluated did not follow the universal design criteria. Therefore, providing the proper guidelines and policies to promote the universal design observance in nursing homes is considered as a major necessity.

  20. Canberra Alpha Sentry Installation Functional Design Criteria (FDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the functional design criteria for the installation of the Canberra Alpha Sentry System at selected locations within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The equipment being installed is identified by part number in Section 3 and the locations are given in Section 5. The design, procurement and installation are assigned to Fluor Federal Services

  1. Safety Design Criteria of Indian Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    • Important feedback has been gained through the design and safety review of PFBR. • The safety criteria document prepared by AERB and IGCAR would provide important input to prepare the dedicated document for the Sodium cooled Fast Reactors at the national and international level. • A common approach with regard to safety, among countries pursuing fast reactor program, is desirable. • Sharing knowledge and experimental facilities on collaborative basis. • Evolution of strong safety criteria – fundamental to assure safety

  2. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 38 - Guidance on Compliance With Designation Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the criteria for designation. To the extent that compliance with, or satisfaction of, a criterion for... based on order priority factors other than price and time should include a brief explanation of the... financial integrity of transactions and intermediaries, and the protection of customer funds should include...

  3. 78 FR 38091 - Airworthiness Criteria: Proposed Airship Design Criteria for Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ..., 2012 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics submitted an application for type certification for the model LMZ1M..., views, or arguments as they may desire. Commenters should identify the proposed design criteria on the... Lockheed Martin Aeronautics submitted an application for type certification for the model LMZ1M airship...

  4. Proposed radiological protection criteria for waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Criteria which are based solely on the consequences of releases of radionuclides, that is doses to man, are inappropriate for decisions on the acceptability of many of the disposal options for solid wastes. The risks associated with disposal options in which the intention is to isolate wastes from the biosphere for any length of time have two major components: the probability that a release of radionuclides will occur and the probability that subsequent radiation doses will give rise to deleterious effects. It is therefore necessary to develop criteria which embody the basic radiological principle of keeping risks to acceptable levels and take account of both components of risk. In this paper proposed criteria are described and some of the implications of adopting these criteria are discussed. (author)

  5. Stakeholders analysis on criteria for protected areas management categories in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Z.; Abdullah, S. A.; Nor, S. Md.

    2017-10-01

    The establishment of protected areas has always been associated with a strategy to conserve biodiversity. A well-managed protected areas not only protect the ecosystem and threatened species but also provides benefits to the public. These indeed require sound management practices through the application of protected areas management categories which can be is seen as tools for planning, establishment and administration of protected areas as well as to regulate the activities in the protected areas. However, in Peninsular Malaysia the implementation of the protected areas management categories was carried out based on the ‘ad-hoc’ basis without realising the important of the criteria based on the local values. Thus, an investigation has been sought to establish the criteria used in application to the protected areas management categories in Peninsular Malaysia. The outcomes revealed the significant of social, environment and economic criteria in establishing the protected area management categories in Peninsular Malaysia.

  6. Criteria procedure development for tender in construction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykha Galina Gennad’evna

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of criteria optimization in order to objectively evaluate the experience of an applicant (a project organization and the quality of a design product (project documentation. The methodology to be developed is based on introduction of new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria that in conjunction with the applicable criteria specified by the Law on the Contract System will allow developing the optimal procedure to evaluate competitive bids of the participants in tenders and determining the most appropriate candidate, with whom the contract will be further concluded. The article analyzes the existing criteria and their interaction with each other and describes the specifics of tenders for design in the form of open competition. The list decreases to three criteria, such as "contract price", "quality, functional and environmental characteristics of a procurement facility", "qualification of procurement participants, including availability of financial resources, equipment and other material resources necessary for the execution of the contract material resources, the presence of goodwill, professionals and other employees of a certain experience level". However, in order to upgrade the quality of assurance procedures for the design works to be performed, it was decided to apply new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria components, such as "availability of positive findings of the state out-of-departmental examination that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the certificate on approval of architectural and urban planning decisions that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the permit for the commissioning of facilities that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the contract for designer's supervision with a participant in placement of

  7. 47 CFR 90.545 - TV/DTV interference protection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV/DTV interference protection criteria. 90.545... the 763-775 and 793-805 MHz Bands § 90.545 TV/DTV interference protection criteria. Public safety base... reception of the signals of existing TV and DTV broadcast stations transmitting on TV Channels 62, 63, 64...

  8. CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R.; Kennedy, K.; Howard, R.; Whitmore, M.; Martin, C.; Garate, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In preparation for human exploration to Mars, there is a need to define the development and test program that will validate deep space operations and systems. In that context, a Proving Grounds CisLunar habitat spacecraft is being defined as the next step towards this goal. This spacecraft will operate differently from the ISS or other spacecraft in human history. The performance envelope of this spacecraft (mass, volume, power, specifications, etc.) is being defined by the Future Capabilities Study Team. This team has recognized the need for a human-centered approach for the internal architecture of this spacecraft and has commissioned a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture Study Team to develop a NASA reference configuration, providing the Agency with a "smart buyer" approach for future acquisition. THE CISLUNAR HABITAT INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE STUDY: Overall, the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture study will address the most significant questions and risks in the current CisLunar architecture, habitation, and operations concept development. This effort is achieved through definition of design criteria, evaluation criteria and process, design of the CisLunar Habitat Phase-1 internal architecture, and the development and fabrication of internal architecture concepts combined with rigorous and methodical Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) evaluations and testing of the conceptual innovations in a controlled test environment. The vision of the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Study is to design, build, and test a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture that will be used for habitation (e.g. habitability and human factors) evaluations. The evaluations will mature CisLunar habitat evaluation tools, guidelines, and standards, and will interface with other projects such as the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program integrated Power, Avionics, Software (iPAS), and Logistics for integrated human-in-the-loop testing. The mission of the Cis

  9. Planning, design and technological criteria of conventional and nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoon, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis aims to establish a special criteria for building the shelters in two types. The conventional and nuclear, in respect to planning design and technological aspects, and finally establishing a special reference of planning, design and technology for Iraq which can be used when planning or designing a conventional or nuclear shelter. The thesis included four chapters, the first chapter included definition of shelters, and explanation of the effects of all types of weapons on buildings, and the second chapter included definition of planning and design concepts of shelters in its two types and analytical studies for international examples. The third chapter covered definition for technologies of structural, mechanical, electrical and sanitary systems. The fourth chapter included details of a case study in order to approach the results of research which included the conclusions, recommendations, criteria and prospects of planning design and technological aspects. 51 tabs.; 180 figs.; 32 refs.; 15 apps

  10. 29 CFR 1926.95 - Criteria for personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life... in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of processes or... construction for the work to be performed. (d) Payment for protective equipment. (1) Except as provided by...

  11. Probabilistic Evaluation of Eurocode 5 Fire Design Criteria of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural reliability analysis for a three-hinge timber portal frame subjected to fire was undertaken. Eight modes of failure were identified for the frame and limit state function was formulated for each failure mode. The limit state functions were based on the Eurocode 5 design criteria. Uncertainties in the timber material ...

  12. Design Criteria for Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Packaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the criteria for the design and installation of a Bagless Transfer System (BTS); Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and Supercritical Fluid Extraction System (SFE). The project consists of 3 major modules: (1) Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Module; (2) Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and (3) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) Module

  13. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented

  14. Natural phenomena hazards design and evaluation criteria for Department of Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has issued an Order 420.1 which establishes policy for its facilities in the event of natural phenomena hazards (NPH) along with associated NPH mitigation requirements. This DOE Standard gives design and evaluation criteria for NPH effects as guidance for implementing the NPH mitigation requirements of DOE Order 420.1 and the associated implementation Guides. These are intended to be consistent design and evaluation criteria for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of these criteria is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. These criteria apply to the design of new facilities and the evaluation of existing facilities. They may also be used for modification and upgrading of existing facilities as appropriate. The design and evaluation criteria presented herein control the level of conservatism introduced in the design/evaluation process such that earthquake, wind, and flood hazards are treated on a consistent basis. These criteria also employ a graded approach to ensure that the level of conservatism and rigor in design/evaluation is appropriate for facility characteristics such as importance, hazards to people on and off site, and threat to the environment. For each natural phenomena hazard covered, these criteria consist of the following: Performance Categories and target performance goals as specified in the DOE Order 420.1 NPH Implementation Guide, and DOE-STD-1 021; specified probability levels from which natural phenomena hazard loading on structures, equipment, and systems is developed; and design and evaluation procedures to evaluate response to NPH loads and criteria to assess whether or not computed response is permissible.

  15. Evaluation report(1): on design criteria for KALIMER metal fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, Young Il

    2001-04-01

    Fuel rods, assembly ducts and their components in KALIMER should be designed to maintain the integrities and to assure their reliable in-reactor performances under the steady state and operational transient conditions which are included in design basis category. And the fuel system must be designed with enough engineering margin to minimize and prevent the failures under ab-normal operational condition, like an accident.In this report, some design limits and the criteria for the fuel assembly ducts for KALIMER are driven by evaluating the irradiation data of metallic fuel based on experimental data from ANL in USA, CRIEPI in Japan and RIAR in Russia.

  16. Design criteria of integrated reactors based on transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanocco, P.; Gimenez, M.; Delmastro, D.

    1999-01-01

    A new tendency in integrated reactors conceptual design is to include safety criteria through accident analysis. In this work, the effect of design parameters in a Loss of Heat Sink transient using design maps is analyzed. Particularly, geometry related parameters and reactivity coefficients are studied. Also the effect of primary relief/safety valve during the transient is evaluated. A design map for valve area vs. coolant density reactivity coefficient is obtained. A computer code (HUARPE) is developed in order to simulate these transients. Coolant, steam dome, pressure vessel structures and core models are implemented. This code is checked against TRAC with satisfactory results. (author)

  17. Evaluation report(1): on design criteria for KALIMER metal fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, Young Il

    2001-04-01

    Fuel rods, assembly ducts and their components in KALIMER should be designed to maintain the integrities and to assure their reliable in-reactor performances under the steady state and operational transient conditions which are included in design basis category. And the fuel system must be designed with enough engineering margin to minimize and prevent the failures under ab-normal operational condition, like an accident.In this report, some design limits and the criteria for the fuel assembly ducts for KALIMER are driven by evaluating the irradiation data of metallic fuel based on experimental data from ANL in USA, CRIEPI in Japan and RIAR in Russia

  18. Protection actions and intervention criteria at emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', as expressed in the section 6.3, and its application to the intervention on emergency situations

  19. Maintaining Department of Energy facilities general design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A General Design Criteria (GDC) Planning Board has been established in the Department of Energy to streamline the improvement and maintenance of the GDC Manual. This Planning Board, composed of a membership from field organizations and Headquarters programmatic offices, started work on 15 enhancements to the GDC Manual. One of those enhancements details natural phenomena hazards criteria. In the past year the Planning Board submitted a major recommendation which has been implemented into what is known as the GDC Improvements project. The result of this project pledges to dramatically increase the GDC Manual's utilization and effectiveness

  20. Proceedings of the workshop on structural design criteria for HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitbach, G.; Schubert, F.; Nickel, H.

    1989-04-01

    The papers demonstrate the status of high temperature reactor technology with regard to its realization in the nuclear power industry of various countries (FRG, USA, Japan) as well as to the development of safety rules in Germany. The design criteria for HTR could be presented. The criteria already determine definitely and almost completely the relevant requirements of the component rules. The informations include the technical boundary conditions with regard to safety, the metallic high temperature components, a particular section dealing with the reactor pressure vessel, especially with the prestressed concrete vessel, and the structural graphite components. (DG)

  1. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, design evaluation, and probably a redesign or refinement. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary's capabilities, and range of adversary's tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, open-quotes what to protect against whom.close quotes The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control elements, procedures, communication devices, and protective forces personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. This paper reviews the physical protection system design and methodology mentioned above. Examples of the steps required and a brief introduction to some of the technologies used in modem physical protections system are given

  2. Development of design Criteria for ITER In-vessel Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannazzaro, G.; Barabash, V.; Kang, S.C.; Fernandez, E.; Kalinin, G.; Obushev, A.; Martínez, V.J.; Vázquez, I.; Fernández, F.; Guirao, J.

    2013-01-01

    Absrtract: The components located inside the ITER vacuum chamber (in-vessel components – IC), due to their specific nature and the environments they are exposed to (neutron radiation, high heat fluxes, electromagnetic forces, etc.), have specific design criteria which are, in this paper, referred as Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC). The development of these criteria started in the very early phase of the ITER design and followed closely the criteria of the RCC-MR code. Specific rules to include the effect of neutron irradiation were implemented. In 2008 the need of an update of the SDC-IC was identified to add missing specifications, to implement improvements, to modernise rules including recent evolutions in international codes and regulations (i.e. PED). Collaboration was set up between ITER Organization (IO), European (EUDA) and Russian Federation (RFDA) Domestic Agencies to generate a new version of SDC-IC. A Peer Review Group (PRG) composed by members of the ITER Organization and all ITER Domestic Agencies and code experts was set-up to review the proposed modifications, to provide comments, contributions and recommendations

  3. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding

  4. Radiological design criteria for fusion power test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.S.; Campbell, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    The quest for fusion power and understanding of plasma physics has resulted in planning, design, and construction of several major fusion power test facilities, based largely on magnetic and inertial confinement concepts. We have considered radiological design aspects of the Joint European Torus (JET), Livermore Mirror and Inertial Fusion projects, and Princeton Tokamak. Our analyses on radiological design criteria cover acceptable exposure levels at the site boundary, man-rem doses for plant personnel and population at large, based upon experience gained for the fission reactors, and on considerations of cost-benefit analyses

  5. Protection of unclassified safeguards information; criteria and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasun, D.J.

    1981-10-01

    The document was prepared to assist licensees and other persons who possess unclassified safeguards information in establishing an information protection system that satisfies the requirements of 10 CFR 73.21. Section 73.21 was issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to the provisions of a new Section 147 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, titled Safeguards Information

  6. Multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of building refurbishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaklauskas, A.; Zavadskas, E. K.; Raslanas, S. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2005-07-01

    In order to design and realize an efficient building refurbishment, it is necessary to carry out an exhaustive investigation of all solutions that form it. The efficiency level of the considered building's refurbishment depends on a great many of factors, including: cost of refurbishment, annual fuel economy after refurbishment, tentative pay-back time, harmfulness to health of the materials used, aesthetics, maintenance properties, functionality, comfort, sound insulation and longevity, etc. Solutions of an alternative character allow for a more rational and realistic assessment of economic, ecological, legislative, climatic, social and political conditions, traditions and for better the satisfaction of customer requirements. They also enable one to cut down on refurbishment costs. In carrying out the multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of a building refurbishment much data was processed and evaluated. Feasible alternatives could be as many as 100,000. How to perform a multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of alternate alternatives based on the enormous amount of information became the problem. Method of multivariant design and multiple criteria of a building refurbishment's analysis were developed by the authors to solve the above problems. In order to demonstrate the developed method, a practical example is presented in this paper. (author)

  7. Technical regulations on the general design and safety criteria for design and construction of nuclear reactors of May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    These Technical Regulations published on 5th September 1975 were made in implementation of Section 33 of Decree No 7/9141 on the procedure for the licensing of nuclear installations. They serve as a guide to licensing authorities, project designers and operators in the nuclear field and therefore provide general criteria for safety standards, engineering codes, siting considerations, design bases for overall environmental radiation protection, and also deal with reactor core design, instrumentation, control, alarm systems, including an emergency core cooling system. Finally, the safe design of fuel elements must be ensured and fuel storage and handling techniques complied with. (NEA) [fr

  8. Design criteria and principles for criticality detection and alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Clifton, J.J.

    1984-10-01

    The report gives design principles and criteria for criticality detection and alarm systems based on earlier work and revised in the light of more recent experience. In particular, account is taken of the developments which have taken place in the field of radiation detection and in the understanding of the different types of criticality excursion. General guidance is given on the principles to apply in deciding upon the need for a criticality system. The characteristics of a criticality incident are described in terms of the minimum incident of concern, and the radiation field. Criteria for the threshold of detection of a criticality incident are then derived and the methods of detection considered. The selection and siting of criticality detectors is discussed, and design principles are given for alarm systems. Finally, testing and post-alarm procedures are outlined, followed by a summary of the principal recommendations. The supporting Appendices include a discussion of reliability and a summary of radiation detector characteristics. (author)

  9. Protection of the natural environment - philosophy and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Sundell-Bergman, S.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear operations give rise to small releases of radionuclides to the environment either under controlled conditions (immediate releases) or uncontrolled from waste repositories in the near or far future (delayed releases). The radiation doses to man from the discharges can be estimated using radioecological and dispersion modelling methods. The system for limiting exposure of individual members of the public is currently based on the recommendation by the ICRP. Their risk philosophy, which stems from the fact that the probability of cancer resulting from radiation will be linear with dose, has hitherto gained broad acceptances for setting authorised dose-limits for man. A discussion has recently emerged on the protection of the natural environment from harmful radiation effects. In this case there is concern for the viability of the population rather than the individuals. As our understanding of important mechanisms regarding the protection of the environment is limited it seems appropriate to adopt a precautionary approach. In matters where little is known about the risks the precautionary principle has a major role to play. Concomitantly, the best available technology (BAT), as stated in the precautionary principle, could be employed to minimise discharges of radionuclides. The development of a regulatory frame-work requires that an objective is set and that standards and indicators are derived in a multi-tiered approach. By applying the precautionary principle for environmental radiation protection the safety margins have to increase. However improving knowledge may in due time lead to more rational decision-making

  10. Criteria for the designation of radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titley, J.; Mobbs, S.; Burgess, P.; Hitchins, G.; Sinclair, P.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the criteria for the designation of radioactively contaminated land. It should be read in conjunction with reference to another output from the project i.e. Environment Agency report, Technical Support Material for the Regulation of Radioactively Contaminated Land 1999. This report deals with the intervention on radioactively contaminated sites i.e. where no change of land use is anticipated and where the land has become contaminated as a result of previous land use and not current practices. (author)

  11. Hydraulic Design Criteria for Spacer Grids of Nuclear Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico, Luis; Brasnarof, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a hydraulic model for calculating the pressure drop on the CARA spacer grids is extended.This model is validated and feedback from experimental hydraulic test performed in a low pressure loop.The importance of the spacer grid geometric parameter (that is, its thickness and length, the number and kind of their fix spacer), developing hydraulic design criteria for spacer grid on fuel element

  12. Prestressed concrete reactor vessels: review of design and failure criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.

    1975-03-01

    The design and failure criteria of prestressed concrete reactor vessels (PCRVs) are reviewed along with the analysis methods. The mechanical properties of concrete under multiaxial stresses are not adequately quantified or described to permit an accurate analysis of a PCRV. Structural analysis of PCRVs almost universally utilizes a finite element which encounters difficulties in numerical solution of the governing equations and in treatment of fractured elements. (U.S.)

  13. Design criteria tank farm storage and staging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Tank Farms Operations must store/stage material and equipment until work packages are ready to work. Consumable materials are also required to be stored for routine and emergency work. Safety issues based on poor housekeeping and material deterioration due to weather damage has resulted from inadequate storage space. It has been determined that a storage building in close proximity to the Tank Farm work force would be cost effective. This document provides the design criteria for the design of the storage and staging buildings near 272AW and 272WA buildings

  14. Radiation protection criteria for cases of probabilistic disruptive events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The individual risk limitation for the case of probabilistic disruptive events is studied, when the radiation effects cease to be only stochastic; the proposed criterion is applied for the case of high level waste repositories. The protection's optimization results from the differential cost-benefit. More general procedures of decision theory that use probabilistically defined utility functions are considered for its calculation. These more general procedures can be applied also in cases where radiation exposures are only potential, to optimize the required level of safety features. It is shown that for disruptive events of low probability and large resulting consequences, the concept of 'expectation' of consequence can not be used in decision making, but that the use of probabilistically based utility functions can conceptually assure a consistent approach in deciding the required level of safety. The use of utility functions of logaritmic form to assign weights to consequences involving different loss of life is explored (M.E.L.) [es

  15. Human Factors Design Criteria for Future Systems. FAADS Design Criteria Evolving from the Sgt. York Follow-On Evaluation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    and MIL-., TD -11172C. These are the most widely used documents providing human factors design criteria for the development of military systems through...4) 4bd 4)(.E c4- z - v -. r-f .r40 m 0 S -( OD Q) 0k .1 .o1 u .d 44). o- C.~) V QCf 44)) :0 J0 Al4 L .4Uv.-4 C4)LI.-44(U(E *4)4)( U . S- M 0 a *-P 4

  16. Functional design criteria 241-AP-102 Flexible Receiver System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblyer, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    A mixer pump was installed in the 1.07 m (42-in.) riser of the central pump pit of tank 241-AP-102 to mitigate potential fluid separation particle sedimentation by mixing the tank's contents. The mixer pump performed this function until failure. Its removal is now necessary to meet possible tank content removal commitments or other corrective actions. The proposed removal procedure requires a flexible receiver that will provide a barrier to contamination during removal and transfer of the pump to the mixer pump storage container. This document describes the functional design criteria of the flexible receiver. These criteria include the functional and performance requirements of the flexible receiver as a barrier to contamination during normal conditions and contingencies and the instrumentation requirements

  17. Seismic design criteria for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, A.; Bitner, J.L.; Sigal, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    The general criteria for seismic resistant design for structures, systems and components of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are presented and discussed. Site dependency of the maximum ground accelerations for the Operating Basis Earthquake and the Safe Shutdown Earthquake is described from the viewpoint of historical records and geological and seismological studies for the CRBRP site. The respective ground response spectra are derived by normalization of the latest AEC Regulatory standard shapes to these maximum ground accelerations. Modeling and analytical techniques and requirements are given. In addition, loading conditions and categories, loading combinations, earthquake direction effects and allowable damping values are defined. A discussion of the testing criteria which considers both single and multiple frequency test motions, and basic test procedures for single frequency sine beat testing is presented. (U.S.)

  18. Evaluation of seismic criteria used in design of INEL facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    This report provides the results of an independent evaluation of seismic studies that were made to establish the seismic acceleration levels and the response spectra used in the design of vital facilities at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. A comparison of the procedures used to define the seismic acceleration values and response spectra at INEL with the requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission showed that additional geologic studies would probably be required in order to fulfill NRC regulations. Recommendations are made on justifiable changes in the acceleration values and response spectra used at INEL. The geologic, geophysical, and seismological studies needed to provide a better understanding of the tectonic processes in the Snake River plains and the surrounding region are identified. Both potential and historical acceleration values are evaluated on a probability basis to permit a risk assessment approach to the design of new facilities and facility modifications. Studies conducted to develop seismic criteria for the design of the Loss of Fluid Test reactor and the New Waste Calcining Facility were selected as typical examples of criteria development previously used in the design of INEL facilities

  19. Microseismic Monitoring Design Optimization Based on Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Y.; Tamimi, N.; Ostadhassan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Borehole microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracture treatments of unconventional reservoirs is a widely used method in the oil and gas industry. Sometimes, the quality of the acquired microseismic data is poor. One of the reasons for poor data quality is poor survey design. We attempt to provide a comprehensive and thorough workflow, using multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA), to optimize planning micriseismic monitoring. So far, microseismic monitoring has been used extensively as a powerful tool for determining fracture parameters that affect the influx of formation fluids into the wellbore. The factors that affect the quality of microseismic data and their final results include average distance between microseismic events and receivers, complexity of the recorded wavefield, signal-to-noise ratio, data aperture, etc. These criteria often conflict with each other. In a typical microseismic monitoring, those factors should be considered to choose the best monitoring well(s), optimum number of required geophones, and their depth. We use MDCA to address these design challenges and develop a method that offers an optimized design out of all possible combinations to produce the best data acquisition results. We believe that this will be the first research to include the above-mentioned factors in a 3D model. Such a tool would assist companies and practicing engineers in choosing the best design parameters for future microseismic projects.

  20. Criteria for radiological protection against exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of humans to natural sources of radiation has been a continuous and inevitable feature of life on earth. This exposure exceeds all due to artificial sources combined for most people. Many exposures to natural radiation sources are modified by human action. In particular, natural radionuclides are released into the environment in mineral processing and in activities such as the production of phosphate fertilizers and the use of fossil fuels. An increase of exposures to this natural radiation is caused. The relevance of exposure to natural radiation is confirmed by the fact that, for most people, the exposures to natural background radiation have been much more significant than exposures to artificial sources, with exceptions. Among these exceptions have been noted: medical exposures, accidents with release of radionuclides and some specific workplaces. In all cases, however, the natural background radiation has formed the basis on which all the others exposures are added and is a common level serving as compared to other exposures. Regulations and instructions have begun to establish in some countries to regulate natural radiation, countries like Spain, have already incorporated into its regulations on health protection against ionizing radiation the subject of natural radiation. (author) [es

  1. Selection criteria for wastewater treatment technologies to protect drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water bodies used as sources for drinking water is intimately linked to the adoption of adequate technologies for the treatment of the wastewater generated in the catchment area. The paper presents a general overview of the main technologies used for the treatment of domestic sewage, with a special emphasis on developing countries, and focussing on the main parameters of interest, such as BOD, coliforms and nutrients. A series of tables, figures and charts that can be used for the preliminary selection of treatment technologies is presented. The systems analysed are: stabilisation ponds, activated sludge, trickling filters, anaerobic systems and land disposal. Within each system, the main process variants are covered. Two summary tables are presented, one for quantitative analysis, including easily usable information based on per capita values (US$/cap, Watts/cap, m2 area/cap, m3 sludge/cap), and another for a qualitative comparison among the technologies, based on a one-to-five-star scoring system. The recent trend in tropical countries in the use of UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactors is also discussed.

  2. A MULTI CRITERIA APPROACH TO DESIGNING THE CELLULAR MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Ampuh Hadiguna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular manufacturing system design problems such as design framework, manufacturing cells layout and layout evaluation. The research objective is developing the framework to designing manufacturing cells with considering the organization and management aspects in shopfloor. In this research have compared the existing layout with proposed layout which applied the multi criteria approach. The proposed method is combining Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, Clustering and heuristic approach. The result has show that grouping with Single Linkage Clustering (SLC to be selected as manufacturing cells. The comparison of clustering weight is 0,567, 0,245 and 0,188 for SLC, Complete Linkage Clustering (CLC and Average Linkage Clustering (ALC, respectively. This result shows that generating layout by using grouping result from SLC. The evaluation result shows that types of manufacturing cells better than process layout which used the existing system.

  3. Qualitative criteria and thresholds for low noise asphalt mixture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkus, A.; Andriejauskas, T.; Gražulytė, J.; Šernas, O.; Vorobjovas, V.; Kleizienė, R.

    2018-05-01

    Low noise asphalt pavements are cost efficient and cost effective alternative for road traffic noise mitigation comparing with noise barriers, façade insulation and other known noise mitigation measures. However, design of low noise asphalt mixtures strongly depends on climate and traffic peculiarities of different regions. Severe climate regions face problems related with short durability of low noise asphalt mixtures in terms of considerable negative impact of harsh climate conditions (frost-thaw, large temperature fluctuations, hydrological behaviour, etc.) and traffic (traffic loads, traffic volumes, studded tyres, etc.). Thus there is a need to find balance between mechanical and acoustical durability as well as to ensure adequate pavement skid resistance for road safety purposes. Paper presents analysis of the qualitative criteria and design parameters thresholds of low noise asphalt mixtures. Different asphalt mixture composition materials (grading, aggregate, binder, additives, etc.) and relevant asphalt layer properties (air void content, texture, evenness, degree of compaction, etc.) were investigated and assessed according their suitability for durable and effective low noise pavements. Paper concluded with the overview of requirements, qualitative criteria and thresholds for low noise asphalt mixture design for severe climate regions.

  4. Pipelines cathodic protection design methodologies for impressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several inadequate designs of cathodically polarized offshore and onshore pipelines have been reported in Nigeria owing to design complexity and application of the cathodic protection system. The present study focused on critical and detailed approach in impressed current and sacrificial anode design calculation ...

  5. Equipment design for reliability testing of protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny; Tjahjono, H.; Santosa, A. Z.; Tjahjani, S.DT.; Ismu, P.H; Haryanto, D.; Mulyanto, D.; Kusmono, S

    1999-01-01

    The equipment for reliability testing of cable of protection system has been designed as a a furnace with the electric heater have a 4 kW power, and need time 10 minute to reach the designed maximum temperature 3000C. The dimension of furnace is 800 mm diameter and 2000 mm length is isolated use rockwool isolator and coated by aluminium. For the designed maximum temperature the surface temperature is 78 0c. Assemble of specimens is arranged horizontally in the furnace. The failure criteria will be defined based on the behaviour of the load circuit in each line of cable specimens

  6. Development of nuclear design criteria for neutron spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordo, F.; Abanades, A. [E.T.S. Industriales, Madrid Polytechnic University, UPM, J.Gutierrez Abascal, 2 -28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spallation neutron sources allow obtaining high neutronic flux for many scientific and industrial applications. In recent years, several proposals have been made about its use, notably the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Japanese Spallation Source (JSNS) and the projects of Accelerator-Driven Subcritical reactors (ADS), particularly in the framework of EURATOM programs. Given their interest, it seems necessary to establish adequate design basis for guiding the engineering analysis and construction projects of this kind of installations. In this sense, all works done so far seek to obtain particular solutions to a particular design, but there has not been any general development to set up an engineering methodology in this field. In the integral design of a spallation source, all relevant physical processes that may influence its behaviour must be taken into account. Neutronic aspects (emitted neutrons and their spectrum, generation performance..), thermomechanical (energy deposition, cooling conditions, stress distribution..), radiological (spallation waste activity, activation reactions and residual heat) and material properties alteration due to irradiation (atomic displacements and gas generation) must all be considered. After analysing in a systematic manner the different options available in scientific literature, the main objective of this thesis was established as making a significant contribution to determine the limiting factors of the main aspects of spallation sources, its application range and the criteria for choosing optimal materials. To achieve this goal, a series of general simulations have been completed, covering all the relevant physical processes in the neutronic and thermal-mechanical field. Finally, the obtained criteria have been applied to the particular case of the design of the spallation source of subcritical reactors PDX-ADS and XT-ADS. These two designs, developed under the European R and D Framework Program, represent nowadays

  7. Development of nuclear design criteria for neutron spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordo, F.; Abanades, A.

    2008-01-01

    Spallation neutron sources allow obtaining high neutronic flux for many scientific and industrial applications. In recent years, several proposals have been made about its use, notably the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Japanese Spallation Source (JSNS) and the projects of Accelerator-Driven Subcritical reactors (ADS), particularly in the framework of EURATOM programs. Given their interest, it seems necessary to establish adequate design basis for guiding the engineering analysis and construction projects of this kind of installations. In this sense, all works done so far seek to obtain particular solutions to a particular design, but there has not been any general development to set up an engineering methodology in this field. In the integral design of a spallation source, all relevant physical processes that may influence its behaviour must be taken into account. Neutronic aspects (emitted neutrons and their spectrum, generation performance..), thermomechanical (energy deposition, cooling conditions, stress distribution..), radiological (spallation waste activity, activation reactions and residual heat) and material properties alteration due to irradiation (atomic displacements and gas generation) must all be considered. After analysing in a systematic manner the different options available in scientific literature, the main objective of this thesis was established as making a significant contribution to determine the limiting factors of the main aspects of spallation sources, its application range and the criteria for choosing optimal materials. To achieve this goal, a series of general simulations have been completed, covering all the relevant physical processes in the neutronic and thermal-mechanical field. Finally, the obtained criteria have been applied to the particular case of the design of the spallation source of subcritical reactors PDX-ADS and XT-ADS. These two designs, developed under the European R and D Framework Program, represent nowadays

  8. Mechanical design and protection of superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, Alfred M

    1978-01-01

    The principles of the mechanical design of superconducting magnets of concentric configuration, with iron low-temperature and room- temperature screening, are outlined. Measures for protection of such magnets against quench forces, are considered. (4 refs).

  9. Working Towards Unified Safety Design Criteria for Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, Frederik; Silady, Fred; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Development Section of the IAEA recently received approval for a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to investigate and make proposals on modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) Safety design criteria. It is expected that these criteria would consider past experience and existing safety standards in the light of modular HTGR material and design characteristics to propose safety design criteria. It will consider the deterministic and risk-informed safety design standards that apply to the wide spectrum of Off- normal events under development worldwide for existing and planned HTGRs. The CRP would also take into account lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, clarifying the safety approach and safety evaluation criteria for design and beyond design basis events, including those events that can affect multiple reactor modules and/or are dependent on the application proximate to the plant site. (e. g., industrial process steam/heat). The logical flow of criteria is from the fundamental inherent safety characteristics of modular HTGRs and associated expected performance characteristics, to the safety functions required to ensure those characteristics during the wide spectrum of Off-normal events, and finally to specific criteria related to those functions. This is detailed in the paper with specific examples included of how it may be applied. The results of the CRP will be made available to the member states and HTGR community. (author)

  10. Standard guide for design criteria for plutonium gloveboxes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide defines criteria for the design of glovebox systems to be used for the handling of plutonium in any chemical or physical form or isotopic composition or when mixed with other elements or compounds. Not included in the criteria are systems auxiliary to the glovebox systems such as utilities, ventilation, alarm, and waste disposal. Also not addressed are hot cells or open-face hoods. The scope of this guide excludes specific license requirements relating to provisions for criticality prevention, hazards control, safeguards, packaging, and material handling. Observance of this guide does not relieve the user of the obligation to conform to all federal, state, and local regulations for design and construction of glovebox systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user...

  11. Functional design criteria for the retained gas sampler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS) is being developed to capture and analyze waste samples from Hanford Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks to determine both the quantity and composition of gases retained in the waste. The RGSS consists of three main components: the Sampler, Extractor, and Extruder. This report describes the functional criteria for the design of the RGSS components. The RGSS Sampler is based on the WHC Universal Sampler design with modifications to eliminate gas leakage. The primary function of the Sampler is to capture a representative waste sample from a tank and transport the sample with minimal loss of gas content from the tank to the laboratory. The function of the Extruder is to transfer the waste sample from the Sampler to the Extractor. The function of the Extractor is to separate the gases from the liquids and solids, measure the relative volume of gas to determine the void fraction, and remove and analyze the gas constituents

  12. On the Legal Protection of Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann-Lock, Stina

    2011-01-01

    be judged. In 1839 the Designs Registration Act in the UK introduced a fundamental modernization of registration for designs. Paradigmatic of the modern way of registration is the use of 'representative registration'. According to the 1839 Act, applicants for a design registration were required either...... to deposit three samples of the design, or to submit a pictorial or written representation thereof. The latter system of 'representative registration' has since become virtually universal in intellectual property law relating to designs around the world. Today, the discursive representation of design is more...... not apply to any aspect which is dictated by its function. Accordingly, if a design is to qualify for legal protection, its description (or illustration) must make a clear distinction between form and function. According to the intellectual property laws of many nations today, designs may also be protected...

  13. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system (PPS) includes the determination of the PPS objectives, the initial design of a PPS, the evaluation of the design, and probably, the redesign or refinement of the system. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary's capabilities, and range of adversary's tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the PPS, that is, ''what to protect against whom.'' The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control devices, communication devices, procedures, and protective force personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a PPS is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the PPS objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. After the system is installed, the threat and system parameters may change with time. If they do, the analysis must be performed periodically to ensure the system objectives are still being met

  14. Design Processes and Criteria for the X-51A Flight Vehicle Airframe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper summarizes the X-51A vehicle mission requirements, system design, design processes used for airframe synthesis, design safety factors, success criteria and issues facing the incorporation...

  15. An Overview of U.S. SFR General Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofu, Tanju

    2013-01-01

    • Safety philosophy guiding the design, construction, and operation of nuclear facilities in the U.S. is based on the principle of defense-in-depth (DiD): – Main DiD objective is to protect the health and safety of the public and plant operating personnel; – Fundamentally implemented by multiple, successive barriers to guard against the escape of radioactivity from nuclear facilities; – Extended and applied to all aspects of design, construction, and operation, so that all safety critical functions are achieved by multiple systems/procedures/processes that are diverse and independent. • In design process, DiD principle has fostered the development of guidelines for identifying the system configurations and functional requirements that are important for safety

  16. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  17. Recommended revisions to nuclear regulatory commission seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Task Action Plan (TAP) A-40 was developed by consolidating specific technical assistance studies initiated to identify and quantify the conservatism inherent in the seismic design sequence of current NRC criteria. Task 10 of TAP A-40 provided a technical review of the results of the other nine engineering and seismological tasks in TAP A-40 and recommended changes to the existing NRC criteria based on this review. We used the team approach to accomplish the objectives of Task 10 in an efficient manner and to provide the best technical product possible within the limited time available. The team consisted of a core group of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel and selected consultants. The recommendations summarized in this paper were not based solely on the results of the tasks in TAP A-40 but went far beyond that data base to encompass all available and appropriate literature. Some recommendations are based on the expertise of core members and consultants that stem from unpublished data, research, and experience. Copies of the pertinent sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) and Regulatory Guides as well as the reports developed under TAP A-40 were provided to the participants. These reports, other available engineering literature, and the experience of the consultants and core group provided technical basis for the recommendations. (orig./HP)

  18. Containment design, performance criteria and research needs for advanced reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdi, G.; Ali, S.; Costello, J

    2004-01-01

    This paper points out some important shifts in the basic expectations in the performance requirements for containment structures and discusses the areas where the containment structure design requirements and acceptance criteria can be integrated with ultimate test based insights. Although there has not been any new reactor construction in the United States for over thirty years, several designs of evolutionary and advanced reactors have already been certified. Performance requirements for containment structures under design basis and severe accident conditions and explicit consideration of seismic margins have been used in the design certification process. In the United States, the containment structure design code is the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NE-Class MC for the steel containment and Section III, Division 2 for reinforced and prestressed concrete reactor vessels and containments. This containment design code was based on the early concept of applying design basis internal pressure and associated load combinations that included the operating basis and safe shutdown earthquake ground motion. These early design criteria served the nuclear industry and the regulatory authorities in maintaining public health and safety. However, these early design criteria do not incorporate the performance criteria related to containment function in an integrated fashion. Research in large scale model testing of containment structures to failure from over pressurization and shake table testing using simulated ground motion, have produced insights related to failure modes and material behavior at failure. The results of this research provide the opportunity to integrate these observations into design and acceptance criteria. This integration process would identify 'gaps' in the present knowledge and future research needs. This knowledge base is important for gleaning risk-informed insights into

  19. Materials for Hydrogen Storage in Nanocavities: Design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reguera, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del IPN, Unidad Legaria, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion (Mexico)

    2009-11-15

    The adsorption potential for a given adsorbate depends of both, material surface and adsorbate properties. In this contribution the possible guest-host interactions for H{sub 2} within a cavity or on a surface are discussed considering the molecule physical properties. Five different interactions contribute to the adsorption forces for this molecule: 1) quadrupole moment interaction with the local electric field gradient; 1) electron cloud polarization by a charge center; 3) dispersive forces (van der Waals); 4) quadrupole moment versus quadrupole moment between neighboring H{sub 2} molecules, and, 5) H{sub 2} coordination to a metal center. The relative importance of these five interactions for the hydrogen storage in nanocavities is discussed from experimental evidences in order to extract materials design criteria for molecular hydrogen storage. (author)

  20. Advancements in flow-induced vibration research and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase flow exists in many nuclear components and, in particular, steam generators. So far relatively little research work has been done on two-phase flow-induced vibration probably because it is difficult to do. Two-phase flows are not homogeneous and are governed by an additional parameter called void fraction. This can lead to different flow patterns or regimes that can change completely the vibration behaviour. Fluidelastic instability, random turbulence excitation and detailed flow characteristics are being investigated in tube bundles subjected to two-phase cross flow. Fluidelastic instability of a tube bundle preferentially flexible in the flow direction was observed probably for the first time. This is particularly relevant to the problem of in-plane vibration of nuclear steam generator U-tubes and has resulted in changes in our design criteria. Unexpected quasi-periodic excitation forces were also measured in the tube bundle. These are attributed to an alternating wake in the lift direction and to fluctuating momentum flux in the drag direction. Vibration damping due to two-phase flow is very dependent on void fraction and appears directly related to the interface surface area between phases. Maximum damping values correspond to the transitions between flow regimes. Fibre optic probes were developed to measure the characteristics of two-phase flows. These probes are used to take detailed measurements in a triangular array of tubes in cross flow. The results show that the flow tends to stream between the tubes. These studies have yielded interesting results but have raised more questions that could lead to improved design criteria. The more puzzling results will be discussed in this presentation. Some of the dynamic phenomena will be illustrated by animation. (author)

  1. Food chain design using multi criteria decision making, an approach to complex design issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Apaiah, R.K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a food supply chain for a completely new product involves many stakeholders and knowledge from disciplines in natural and social sciences. This paper describes how Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) facilitated designing a food supply chain in a case of Novel Protein Foods. It made the

  2. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef C. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3–4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1–2 nm and 3–4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS. All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested.

  3. Design criteria of primary coolant chemistry in SMART-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Seon; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Seong Hoon; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Zee, Sung Qunn

    2005-01-01

    SMART-P differs significantly from commercially designed PWRs. Materials inventories used in SMART-P differ from that at PWRs. All surfaces of the primary circuit with the primary coolant are either made from or plated with stainless steel. The material of steam generator (SG) is also different from that of the standard material of the commercially operating PWRs: titanium alloy for the steam generator tubes. Also, SMART-P primary coolant technology differs from that in PWRs: ammonia is used as a pH raising agent and hydrogen formed due to radiolytic processes is kept in specific range by ammonia dosing. Nevertheless, main objectives of the SMART-P primary coolant are the same as at PWRs: to assure primary system pressure boundary integrity, fuel cladding integrity and to minimize out-of-core radiation buildup. The objective of this work is to introduce the design criteria for the primary water chemistry for SMART-P from the viewpoint of the system characteristics and the chemical design concept

  4. Sustainable and safe design of footwear integrating ecological footprint and risk criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herva, Marta [Sustainable Processes and Products Engineering Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida, 15705 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez, Antonio [Industrias de Diseno Textil, S.A., Edificio Inditex, Av. de la Diputacion s/n, Poligono de Sabon, 15142 Arteixo - A Coruna (Spain); Roca, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.roca@usc.es [Sustainable Processes and Products Engineering Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida, 15705 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The ecological footprint (EF) is a suitable screening indicator to assist the assessment of the sustainability of an ecodesign proposal. {yields} The EF does not consider the risk derived from hazardous substances in its evaluation. {yields} Environmental risk assessment (ERA) successfully complemented the evaluation of the EF providing safety criteria. {yields} Options that exceeded the safety limits for Hazard Quotient and Cancer Risk where discarded, thus guaranteeing the protection of children. {yields} Trade-offs among criteria could be established by the application of fuzzy logic techniques to derive an ecodesign index. - Abstract: The ecodesign of a product implies that different potential environmental impacts of diverse nature must be taken into account considering its whole life cycle, apart from the general design criteria (i.e. technical, functional, ergonomic, aesthetic or economic). In this sense, a sustainability assessment methodology, ecological footprint (EF), and environmental risk assessment (ERA), were combined for the first time to derive complementary criteria for the ecodesign of footwear. Four models of children's shoes were analyzed and compared. The synthetic shoes obtained a smaller EF (6.5 gm{sup 2}) when compared to the leather shoes (11.1 gm{sup 2}). However, high concentrations of hazardous substances were detected in the former, even making the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and the Cancer Risk (CR) exceed the recommended safety limits for one of the synthetic models analyzed. Risk criteria were prioritized in this case and, consequently, the design proposal was discarded. For the other cases, the perspective provided by the indicators of different nature was balanced to accomplish a fairest evaluation. The selection of fibers produced under sustainable criteria and the reduction of the materials consumption was recommended, since the area requirements would be minimized and the absence of hazardous compounds would

  5. Sustainable and safe design of footwear integrating ecological footprint and risk criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herva, Marta; Alvarez, Antonio; Roca, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The ecological footprint (EF) is a suitable screening indicator to assist the assessment of the sustainability of an ecodesign proposal. → The EF does not consider the risk derived from hazardous substances in its evaluation. → Environmental risk assessment (ERA) successfully complemented the evaluation of the EF providing safety criteria. → Options that exceeded the safety limits for Hazard Quotient and Cancer Risk where discarded, thus guaranteeing the protection of children. → Trade-offs among criteria could be established by the application of fuzzy logic techniques to derive an ecodesign index. - Abstract: The ecodesign of a product implies that different potential environmental impacts of diverse nature must be taken into account considering its whole life cycle, apart from the general design criteria (i.e. technical, functional, ergonomic, aesthetic or economic). In this sense, a sustainability assessment methodology, ecological footprint (EF), and environmental risk assessment (ERA), were combined for the first time to derive complementary criteria for the ecodesign of footwear. Four models of children's shoes were analyzed and compared. The synthetic shoes obtained a smaller EF (6.5 gm 2 ) when compared to the leather shoes (11.1 gm 2 ). However, high concentrations of hazardous substances were detected in the former, even making the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and the Cancer Risk (CR) exceed the recommended safety limits for one of the synthetic models analyzed. Risk criteria were prioritized in this case and, consequently, the design proposal was discarded. For the other cases, the perspective provided by the indicators of different nature was balanced to accomplish a fairest evaluation. The selection of fibers produced under sustainable criteria and the reduction of the materials consumption was recommended, since the area requirements would be minimized and the absence of hazardous compounds would ensure safety conditions during the

  6. 78 FR 59725 - Construction Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices, and Training Requirements; Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ...- 1648. Mail, hand delivery, express mail, messenger, or courier service: When using this method, you... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0008] Construction Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices, and Training Requirements; Extension of the Office...

  7. Design criteria for the 200-ZP-1 interim remedial measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, J.F.; Olson, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    The Interim Remedial Measure Proposed Plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit recommended a pump and treat action to contain contaminated groundwater and limit further degradation of groundwater due to elevated concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. This design criteria document defines the Project. The Project encompasses: site preparation; development of groundwater wells for monitoring, extraction, and injection; extraction and injection equipment; construction of a treatment system with support buildings/utilities; management; engineering design, analysis, and reporting; and operation and maintenance. A groundwater pump and treat system, hereafter the System, will be composed of extraction wells, a piping network, treatment equipment, water storage, and injection wells. Based upon engineering judgment, the selected technology in the proposed plan (DOE-RL 1994a) is air stripping of the organic contaminants followed by vapor-phase adsorption onto granulated activated carbon (GAC); liquid-phase GAC may be required as a polishing step. The Treatment Equipment refers to air stripping towers, adsorption vessels, water pumps, air blowers, instrumentation, and control devices which will be procured as a turn-key system

  8. Kinetic and empirical design criteria for constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, P.G.; Gulley, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of wetlands as long-term, self-sustaining natural systems for the treatment of large quantities of waste water released from tailings ponds after mine abandonment. Constructed wetlands were built and planted with aquatic plants. The experimental design included three replicate trenches for each of two treatment systems. The objective of the research was to assess the optimum contaminant loading rates which would result in an acceptable quality of the effluent water. Using empirical data (i.e., hydrocarbon loading rates versus effluent quality), the optimal range of hydrocarbon loading was 5 to 25 gTEH/m 2/ month. Using more conservative kinetic data (i.e. microbial mineralization rates), the range of optimal treatment effectiveness was 9.6 to 13.2 gTEH/m 2/ month. The two design criteria methodologies were calculated using two independent analytical methods. The similarity in results was judged to be a confirmation of their accuracy. 20 refs., 5 figs

  9. Acceptance criteria for the physical protection upgrade rule requirements for fixed sites. Information guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.

    1980-09-01

    This document has been developed as a tool to assist in providing consistent evaluation of upgraded physical security plans submitted in response to the Physical Protection Upgrade Rule, effective March 25, 1980. It presents a means for assuring licensee compliance with every regulatory requirement of particular significance to the protection of the public health and safety. Acceptance criteria are included to determine the extent to which each licensee meets the regulatory requirements. The format parallels Regulatory Guide 5.52, Standard Format and Content of a Licensee Physical Protection Plan for Strategic Special Nuclear Material at Fixed Sites

  10. An assessment of the present criteria for cathodic protection of buried steel pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlo, T.J.; Berry, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental laboratory study has been conducted to assess the criteria for cathodic protection of a buried pipeline. The specific cathodicprotection potential requirements to prevent pitting and general corrosion of steel were determined in six natural soils with various amounts of moisture and oxygen (aerated or deaerated), and were compared to the criteria values of -0.85 V (Cu/CuSO 4 ), 100 mV polarization, 300 mV voltage shift, and Tafel potential. The effects of temperature 60 0 C (140 0 F) anaerobic bacteria, and steel surface condition (bare or mill scaled) on the specific requirements in selected soils were assessed also. Overall, the research concluded the present criteria were generally valid in concept; however, the critical values for the present criteria could vary with the environment, but with one noted exception. This experimental study concluded that the 100 mV polarization criterion was the most generally valid and applicable criterion

  11. Review of public comments on proposed seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Shaukat, S.K.; Chokshi, N.C.; Bagchi, G.; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC

    1989-01-01

    During the first quarter of 1988, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) prepared a proposed Revision 2 to the NUREG-0800 Standard Review Plan (SRP) Sections 2.5.2 (Vibratory Ground Motion), 3.7.1 (Seismic Design Parameters), 3.7.2 (Seismic Systems Analysis) and 3.7.3 (Seismic Subsystem Analysis). The proposed Revision 2 to the SRP was a result of many years' work carried out by the NRC and the nuclear industry on the Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-40: ''Seismic Design Criteria.'' The background material related to NRC's efforts for resolving the A-40 issue is described in NUREG-1233. In June 1988, the proposed Revision 2 of the SRP was issued by NRC for public review and comments. Comments were received from Sargent and Lundy Engineers, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Stevenson and Associates, Duke Power Company, General Electric Company and Electric Power Research Institute. In September 1988, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and its consultants (C.J. Costantino, R.P. Kennedy, J. Stevenson, M. Shinozuka and A.S. Veletsos) were requested to carry out a review of the comments received from the above six organizations. The objective of this review was to assist the NRC staff with the evaluation and resolution of the public comments. This review was initiated during October 1988 and it was completed on January 1989. As a result of this review, a set of modifications to the above mentioned sections of the SRP were recommended by BNL and its consultants. This paper summarizes the recommended modifications. 4 refs

  12. Application of radiological protection measures to meet different environmental protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recognises that there is no simple or single universal definition of ‘environmental protection’, and that the concept differs from country to country and from one circumstance to another. However, there is an increasing need to be able to demonstrate that the environment is protected from radioactive substances released under authorisation for various reasons, such as for wildlife conservation requirements, or wildlife management for commercial reasons, or simply as part of pollution control. The Commission is developing the concept of Representative Organisms, which may be identified from any specific legal requirements or from more general requirements to protect local habitats or ecosystems. Such organisms may be the actual objects of protection or they may be hypothetical, depending on the objectives of the assessment. They may be similar to, or even congruent with, one or more of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). Where this is not the case, attempts can be made to consider the extent to which the Representative Organisms differ from the nearest RAP in terms of known radiation effects upon it, basic biology, radiation dosimetry, and pathways of exposure. This paper discusses the practical implications of such an approach.

  13. Fostering and Assessing Infographic Design for Learning: The Development of Infographic Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhoglu Kibar, Pinar; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2017-01-01

    In this ever more digital and visual world, it has become more vital that students are encouraged to create content during the learning process through effective visualization of their knowledge. Infographics are an effective method for such visualization. The current study therefore proposes an infographic design rubric (IDR) as a criteria-based…

  14. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGevna, V.; Peterson, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established

  15. Criteria for designing an interim waste storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The long-lived radioactive wastes with activity above clearance levels generated by radioisotope users in Brazil are collected into centralized waste storage facilities under overview of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy (CNEN). One of these centers is the Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), in Sao Paulo, which since 1978 also manages the wastes generated by IPEN itself. Present inventory of stored wastes includes about 160 tons of treated wastes, distributed in 1290 steel, 200-liters drums, and 52 steel, 1.6 m 3 -boxes, with an estimated total activity of 0.8 TBq. Radionuclides present in these wastes are fission and activation products, transuranium elements, and isotopes from the uranium and thorium decay series. The capacity and quality of the storage rooms at GRR evolved along the last decades to meet the requirements set forth by the Brazilian regulatory authorities.From a mere outdoor concrete platform over which drums were simply stacked and covered with canvas to the present day building, a great progress was made in the storage method. In this paper we present the results of a study in the criteria that were meant to guide the design of the storage building, many of which were eventually adopted in the final concept, and are now built-in features of the facility. We also present some landmarks in the GRR's activities related to waste management in general and waste storage in particular, until the treated wastes of IPEN found their way into the recently licensed new storage facility. (author)

  16. Criteria of the efficiency for radiation protection of tokamak reactor superconducting magnet coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimin, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Factors determining serviceability of the main elements (superconductor, stabilizing conductor, insulation) of superconducting magnet coils for tokamak reactors are discussed. It is suggested that the limiting values of total and specific energy release in the material of superconducting coils, increase in electric resistance of the stabilizing conductor, decrease in the superconductor critical current and damage of the superconducting magnet insulation should be used as criteria of the reactor internal radiation protection efficiency. The conclusion is made that neutron fluence in the magnet coil components considered can be used as a generalized criterion of the first approximation for the evaluation of the protection efficiency

  17. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Automotive Structural Composite; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides recommended durability-based design criteria for a chopped-glass-fiber reinforced polymeric composite for automotive structural applications. The criteria closely follow the framework of an earlier criteria document for a continuous-strand-mat (CSM) glass-fiber reference composite. Together these design criteria demonstrate a framework that can be adapted for future random-glass-fiber composites for automotive structural applications

  18. Camelot 3: Habitability criteria space research and design studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, F.; Budet, O.; Garcia, A.; Lee, J.; Lopez, R.; Lugo, R.; Mateo, A.; Mellado, R.; Mendez, H.; Ortiz, N.

    1989-01-01

    Acknowledging the importance of human beings on a mission to Mars, the University of Puerto Rico studied both psychological and physiological aspects. Different conditions necessary for human health and well-being were considered. As a result, habitability criteria were developed. The criteria are as follows: personal identification; social interaction; unpredictable conditions; contact with nature; mental landscapes; privacy; equalitarian conditions; variety; functionality; sensory stimulation; music and environmental sound; stability and security; comfort; and sense of orientation.

  19. The importance of verifiable fire protection design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medonos, Sava [Petrellus Ltd. (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: smm@petrellus.co.uk; Geddes, Paul [Global Solutions UK Ltd. (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: paul@globalsolutionsuk.com

    2004-07-01

    Simplistic methods based on the Hp/A ratio between the heated surface area and volume or a 2-dimensional analysis may be sufficient for the determination of fire protection coatings for simple components. For the optimization of fire protection of pressure systems and load bearing structures, however, they have proved to be inadequate, as they do not represent the response taking place. This often leads to over-protection or inadequate fire resistance. In the past 10 years there have been claims in petrochemical industry of 'methods' for fire protection 'optimization' based on a walk-down through a topside or plant, or a heat-up calculation of a few cross sections with no regard to stress. These methods are wrong. In the best case these 'methods of optimization' lead to high unnecessary costs and in the worst case in an explosion of a vessel, structural collapse, domino effects and cataclysmic fire throughout the plant. The operator or design contractor should always require a Method Statement including a proof of verification to obtain the adequate quality of fire protection. (author)

  20. New concept of microprocessor protective devices design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition from electromechanical to digital protective relays is accompanied with serious technical problems. The author offers a new approach in designing the digital relays capable of solving these problems. It is proposed to construct digital relays in the form of standard modules from which it would be possible to assemble the digital relay in the same way as now a personal computer.

  1. Developing biomedical devices design, innovation and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Colombo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades incredible progress has been achieved in the instruments and devices used in the biomedical field. This progress stems from continuous scientific research that has taken advantage of many findings and advances in technology made available by universities and industry. Innovation is the key word, and in this context legal protection and intellectual property rights (IPR) are of crucial importance. This book provides students and practitioners with the fundamentals for designing biomedical devices and explains basic design principles. Furthermore, as an aid to the dev

  2. Design principles for radiological protection instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1981-02-01

    This Code of Practice takes the form of recommendations intended for designers and installers of Radiological Protection Instrumentation, and should also be of value to the newcomer to the R.P.I. field. Topics are discussed under the following headings: outline of R.P.I. requirements, specifying the requirement, satisfying the requirements, (overall design, availability and reliability, information display, human factors, power supplies, manufacture, quality assurance, testing, and cost analysis), supply, location and operation of the equipment, importance of documentation. (U.K.)

  3. Model assessment of protective barrier designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Conbere, W.; Heller, P.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1985-11-01

    A protective barrier is being considered for use at the Hanford site to enhance the isolation of previously disposed radioactive wastes from infiltrating water, and plant and animal intrusion. This study is part of a research and development effort to design barriers and evaluate their performance in preventing drainage. A fine-textured soil (the Composite) was located on the Hanford site in sufficient quantity for use as the top layer of the protective barrier. A number of simulations were performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to analyze different designs of the barrier using the Composite soil as well as the finer-textured Ritzville silt loam and a slightly coarser soil (Coarse). Design variations included two rainfall rates (16.0 and 30.1 cm/y), the presence of plants, gravel mixed into the surface of the topsoil, an impermeable boundary under the topsoil, and moving the waste form from 10 to 20 m from the barrier edge. The final decision to use barriers for enhanced isolation of previously disposed wastes will be subject to decisions resulting from the completion of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement, which addresses disposal of Hanford defense high-level and transuranic wastes. The one-dimensional simulation results indicate that each of the three soils, when used as the top layer of the protective barrier, can prevent drainage provided plants are present. Gravel amendments to the upper 30 cm of soil (without plants) reduced evaporation and allowed more water to drain

  4. Criteria and application methodology of physical protection of nuclear materials within the national and regional boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.E.; Cesario, R.H.; Giustina, D.H.; Canibano, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The physical protection against robbery, diversion of nuclear materials and sabotage of nuclear installations by individuals or groups, has been for long time the reason of national and international concern. Even though, the obligation to create and implement an effective physical protection system for nuclear materials and installations in the territory of a given State, fall entirely on the State's Government, whether this obligation is fulfilled or not, and if it does, in what measure or up to what extent, it also concerns the rest of the States. Therefore, physical protection has become the reason for a regional co-operation. It is evident the need of co-operation in those cases where the physical protection efficiency within the territory of a given State depends also on the appropriate measures other States are taken, specially when dealing with materials been transported through national borders. The above mentioned constitute an important framework for the regional co-operation for the physical protection of nuclear materials. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority established criteria and conditions aimed at mitigate diversions, robberies and sabotage to nuclear installations. As a working philosophy, it was established a simplify physical protection model of application in Argentina who, through the ARCAL No. 23 project, will be extrapolated to the whole Latin-American region, concluding that the application of the appropriated physical protection systems at regional level will lead to the strengthening of it at national level. (author) [es

  5. JSFR design progress related to development of safety design criteria for Generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors. (1) Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Hideki; Ando, Masato; Ito, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    JAEA, JAPC and MFBR have been conducting design study for the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), which is a design concept aiming at future commercial use as sustainable electric power source. As the result of the design study and R and D activity related the innovative technologies incorporated in the design in the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project up to 2010, basic design concept of JSFR was established and its development process to the commercialization including construction and operation of a demonstration version of JSFR was outlined. JSFR is a looptype next generation sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), which is aiming at achieving development targets of Generation IV reactors concerning sustainability, safety and reliability, economics and proliferation resistance and physical protection by introducing the innovative technologies such as shortened high-chromium steel piping. The output power is assumed for the design study as 1,500 MWe for the commercial version and 750 MWe for the demonstration version. In FaCT phase I up to 2010, in order to evaluate feasibility to achieve the development targets, the design study has been conducted on the main components and systems. Since 2011, in order to contribute to the development of safety design criteria (SDC) and safety design guideline (SDG), which include the lessons learned from the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants accident, in the frame work of Generation IV International Forum (GIF), the design study is focusing on the design measures against severe external events such as earthquake and tsunami. At the same time, the design study is going into detail and paying much attention to the maintenance and repair to make surer its feasibility. This paper summarizes the design concept of the demonstration version of JSFR in which progress of design work was incorporated for the safety issues on SDC and SDG of a SFR. (author)

  6. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.55 Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General criteria for designation of...

  7. 40 CFR 64.3 - Monitoring design criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... duct). (iv) Established as interdependent between more than one indicator. (b) Performance criteria... collection procedures that will be used (e.g., computerized data acquisition and handling, alarm sensor, or..., noninstrumental measurement of waste feed rate or visible emissions, use of a portable analyzer or an alarm sensor...

  8. 2D Decision-Making for Multi-Criteria Design Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engau, A; Wiecek, M. M

    2006-01-01

    The high dimensionality encountered in engineering design optimization due to large numbers of performance criteria and specifications leads to cumbersome and sometimes unachievable tradeoff analyses...

  9. Development of a design basis tornado and structural design criteria for Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.R.; Minor, J.E.; Mehta, K.C.

    1975-11-01

    Criteria are prescribed and guidance is provided for professional personnel who are involved with the evaluation of existing buildings and facilities at Site 300 near Livermore, California to resist the possible effects of extreme winds and tornadoes. The development of parameters for the effects of tornadoes and extreme winds and guidelines for evaluation and design of structures are presented. The investigations conducted are summarized and the techniques used for arriving at the combined tornado and extreme wind risk model are discussed. The guidelines for structural design methods for calculating pressure distributions on walls and roofs of structures and methods for accommodating impact loads from missiles are also presented

  10. Argentine criteria on nuclear safety and emergencies: their impact on the Argos PHWR 380 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes first the safety criteria of the Argentine regulatory authority with emphasis on the probabilistic safety criteria based on a limitation of individual risks. Then, it is presented a discussion on emergency criteria in relation to evacuation and relocation measures. Finally, the paper briefly describes the design of an Argentine offer for a safer heavy water reactor where these criteria are applied. 9 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs. (author)

  11. Seismic design criteria for the system 80+ advanced light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, M.A.; Dermitzakis, S.N.; Gerdes, L.D.; Kennedy, R.P.; Idriss, I.M.; Cassidy, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the development of seismic design criteria in support of design certification by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of the ABB-Combustion Engineering's System 80+ Standard Design. The design certification effort is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The development of the design criteria included: (a) development of the seismic control motion, (b) development of generic soil profiles for anticipated sites, (c) generation of in-structure response spectra and design loads for structures and equipment through soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses, and (d) acceptance criteria for future construction sites

  12. Noise producing toys and the efficacy of product standard criteria to protect health and education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Stuart J; Page, Wyatt H; Parker, Lou; Rushton, Martin

    2013-12-19

    An evaluation of 28 commercially available toys imported into New Zealand revealed that 21% of these toys do not meet the acoustic criteria in the ISO standard, ISO 8124-1:2009 Safety of Toys, adopted by Australia and New Zealand as AS/NZS ISO 8124.1:2010. While overall the 2010 standard provided a greater level of protection than the earlier 2002 standard, there was one high risk toy category where the 2002 standard provided greater protection. A secondary set of toys from the personal collections of children known to display atypical methods of play with toys, such as those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), was part of the evaluation. Only one of these toys cleanly passed the 2010 standard, with the remainder failing or showing a marginal-pass. As there is no tolerance level stated in the standards to account for interpretation of data and experimental error, a value of +2 dB was used. The findings of the study indicate that the current standard is inadequate in providing protection against excessive noise exposure. Amendments to the criteria have been recommended that apply to the recently adopted 2013 standard. These include the integration of the new approaches published in the recently amended European standard (EN 71) on safety of toys.

  13. Noise Producing Toys and the Efficacy of Product Standard Criteria to Protect Health and Education Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. McLaren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of 28 commercially available toys imported into New Zealand revealed that 21% of these toys do not meet the acoustic criteria in the ISO standard, ISO 8124-1:2009 Safety of Toys, adopted by Australia and New Zealand as AS/NZS ISO 8124.1:2010. While overall the 2010 standard provided a greater level of protection than the earlier 2002 standard, there was one high risk toy category where the 2002 standard provided greater protection. A secondary set of toys from the personal collections of children known to display atypical methods of play with toys, such as those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, was part of the evaluation. Only one of these toys cleanly passed the 2010 standard, with the remainder failing or showing a marginal-pass. As there is no tolerance level stated in the standards to account for interpretation of data and experimental error, a value of +2 dB was used. The findings of the study indicate that the current standard is inadequate in providing protection against excessive noise exposure. Amendments to the criteria have been recommended that apply to the recently adopted 2013 standard. These include the integration of the new approaches published in the recently amended European standard (EN 71 on safety of toys.

  14. Optimization Criteria In Design Of Seismic Isolated Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Paolo; Buffarini, Giacomo

    2008-01-01

    Use of new anti-seismic techniques is certainly suitable for buildings of strategic importance and, in general, in the case of very high risk. For ordinary buildings, instead, the cost of base isolation system should be balanced by an equivalent saving in the structure. The comparison criteria have been first defined, then a large numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the effectiveness and the economic suitability of seismic isolation in concrete buildings

  15. Protective containment behaviour under exceeded design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, I.; Stepan, J.; Maly, J.; Schererova, K.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution describes the calculation results of the behaviour of containment structure if loaded in excess of its design load. The Temelin NPP comprises two WWER 1000 blocks and containment consists of a pre-stressed reinforced concrete structure with a system of unbonded cables. The objective of the calculations was to determine the level of load caused by the internal pressure and temperature at which the containment protective function would fail. In the first step, the maximum overpressure was determined, which may be transferred by the containment structure. In further steps analyses were made of various combinations of simultaneous pressure and temperature loads. The contribution presents relevant calculation results, including the evaluation of containment structure behaviour including liner under loads that exceed its design parameters. (author)

  16. Safety approach to the selection of design criteria for the CRBRP reactor refueling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisl, C.J.; Berg, G.E.; Sharkey, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    The selection of safety design criteria for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) refueling systems required the extrapolation of regulations and guidelines intended for Light Water Reactor refueling systems and was encumbered by the lack of benefit from a commercially licensed predecessor other than Fermi. The overall approach and underlying logic are described for developing safety design criteria for the reactor refueling system (RRS) of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The complete selection process used to establish the criteria is presented, from the definition of safety functions to the finalization of safety design criteria in the appropriate documents. The process steps are illustrated by examples

  17. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  18. Design criteria for mobile phones: a teenagers perspective.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Batchelor, J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available on mobile phones without blindly following criteria as observed - because there was no anchor they had to set the benchmarks for themselves. A student went even further, reflecting on long-term prospects of the project, remarking: “It is a project...-suited to mobile phones, due to obvious limitations of screen size and resolution, audio and memory restrictions. Low cost and affordable mobile phones in Africa are developing a new conduit for learning, and are gradually influencing the way we view...

  19. Conceptual framework for potential implementations of multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods for design quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harputlugil, T.; Prins, M.; Tanju Gültekin, A.; Ilker Topçu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Architectural design can be considered as a process influenced by many stakeholders, each of which has different decision power. Each stakeholder might have his/her own criteria and weightings depending on his/her own perspective and role. Hence design can be seen as a multi-criteria decision making

  20. 77 FR 45282 - NRC Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification Operability AGENCY... relationship between the general design criteria (GDC) for nuclear power plants and technical specification... Communications Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Mail Stop: OWFN-12-D...

  1. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met

  2. Designing cathodic protection systems for marine structures and vehicles. ASTM special technical publication 1370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, H.P. [ed.

    1999-07-01

    Cathodic protection is an important method of protecting structures and ships from the corrosive effects of seawater. Poor designs can be far more costly to implement than optimal designs, Improper design can cause overprotection, with resulting paint blistering and accelerated corrosion of some alloys, underprotection, with resultant structure corrosion, or stray current corrosion of nearby structures. The first ASTM symposium specifically aimed at cathodic protection in seawater was intended to compile all the criteria and philosophy for designing both sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems for structures and vehicles in seawater. The papers which are included in this STP are significant in that they summarize the major seawater cathodic protection system design philosophies. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  3. Research on performance-based seismic design criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢礼立; 马玉宏

    2002-01-01

    The seismic design criterion adopted in the existing seismic design codes is reviewed. It is pointed out that the presently used seismic design criterion is not satisfied with the requirements of nowadays social and economic development. A new performance-based seismic design criterion that is composed of three components is presented in this paper. It can not only effectively control the economic losses and casualty, but also ensure the building(s function in proper operation during earthquakes. The three components are: classification of seismic design for buildings, determination of seismic design intensity and/or seismic design ground motion for controlling seismic economic losses and casualties, and determination of the importance factors in terms of service periods of buildings. For controlling the seismic human losses, the idea of socially acceptable casualty level is presented and the (Optimal Economic Decision Model( and (Optimal Safe Decision Model( are established. Finally, a new method is recommended for calculating the importance factors of structures by adjusting structures service period on the base of more important structure with longer service period than the conventional ones. Therefore, the more important structure with longer service periods will be designed for higher seismic loads, in case the exceedance probability of seismic hazard in different service period is same.

  4. Design methods and criteria recommended by the RAMSES committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowicz, H.; Moulin, D.; Petrequin, P.; Tortel, J.; Schaller, K.

    1980-09-01

    The design of structures of LMFBR in France must comply with the national regulations and takes into account the rules adopted by other countries but these rules need complements. The French Atomic Energy Commission has founded a committee named RAMSES (which states for 'Regles d'Analyse Mecanique des Structures') in order to write recommendations to give out the needed informations on design rules based on all the available background experience. The elastic follow up problem has received great attention and a recommendation was already printed. Of great concern in elevated temperature is a creep fatigue investigation. A creep fatigue design method adapted to materials used is being set up

  5. Design an online course of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, R.; Del Sol F, S.; Rivera M, T.; Sanchez G, D.

    2015-10-01

    Currently there is a vast research about the harmful effects of the use of ionizing radiation in medical procedures and in recent years struck by the rapid innovation in imaging equipment, considerably increasing the radiation dose received both patients and professionals in the radiodiagnosis area, service having the greatest demand in our country. The main strategy that has so far is education, that is, to inform all those involved in managing ionizing radiation about the applications and risks associated with them. Generally it requires that all personnel occupationally exposed attesting a course of radiation protection. However, the high demand for this type of medical services and poorly trained staff, makes taking a classroom course for personnel occupationally exposed is complicated. So that in the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) we are designing a course in radiation protection to be implemented online, through the virtual platform Moodle in a first stage, and a massive open online course as the second stage so that can be carried by anyone interested in the subject, without having to appear in person. This will allows to reach the largest possible number of personnel occupationally exposed to just have a computer with internet access. (Author)

  6. Design Constraints for Liquid-Protected Divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Yoda, M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work on liquid-surface-protected plasma facing components has resulted in the establishment of operating windows for candidate liquids, as well as limits on the maximum allowable liquid surface temperature in order to limit plasma impurities from liquid evaporation. In this study, an additional constraint on the maximum allowable surface temperature gradient (i.e., heat flux gradient) has been quantified. Spatial variations in the wall and liquid surface temperatures are expected due to variations in the incident radiation and particle fluxes. Thermocapillary forces created by such temperature gradients can lead to film rupture and dry spot formation in regions of elevated local temperatures. Here, attention has been focused on ''non-flowing'' thin liquid films similar to those formed on the surface of porous wettedwall components. Future analyses will include the effects of macroscopic fluid motion, and MHD forces.A numerical model using the level contour reconstruction method was used to follow the evolution of the liquid free surface above a non-isothermal solid surface. The model was used to develop generalized charts for the maximum allowable spatial temperature gradients (i.e., the critical Marangoni number) as a function of the governing non-dimensional variables, viz. the Weber, Froude, and Prandtl numbers, and aspect ratio. Attention was focused on the asymptotic limit for thin liquid films (i.e., low aspect ratio) which provides a lower bound for the maximum allowable temperature gradients. Specific examples for lithium, Flibe, lithium-lead, tin, and gallium are presented. The generalized charts developed in this investigation will allow reactor designers to identify design windows for successful operation of liquid-protected plasma facing components for various coolants, film thicknesses, and operating conditions

  7. Interior design criteria for successful hospital patient rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Bilir, Seda

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references leaves 94-99 In this study, the design requirements of hospital acute-care patient rooms, which support the recovery and well-being of the patients, are examined. Patients' psycho-spatial needs which may be complementary to the healing effects of the medical treatme...

  8. The criteria and the design of MINT's latex irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razali Hamzah; Muhd Khairi Muhd Said; Muhd Ariff Hamzah; Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Wan Abd Hadi Wan Abu Bakar; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    1996-01-01

    The demand for RVNRL is continually on the upsurge and the present irradiation technique at the present SINAGAMA plant is not sufficient and practical to meet the demand. A number of conceptual designs were evolved to design according to the requirements of cost-effective and highly efficient plant. The number of options are described. In 1994 MINT work with NUKEM to build an automatic continuous latex irradiation plant

  9. Elevated temperature weldment behavior as related to nuclear design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.T.; Canonico, D.A.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Factors affecting the physical and mechanical properties of weldments are reviewed. Data are presented that show wide variability in the properties of weld metal and heat-affected zones both within a given weldment and from weldment to weldment. The weld metal or heat-affected zone may be stronger or weaker, and more or less ductile than the base metal joined. This implies that current design rules, which are presumed to have well-known safety factors based on the properties of base metals, may have other actual safety factors in welded construction, due to the differences between weld metal and base metal properties. Suggestions for obtaining further data that can subsequently be used to improve confidence in design rules or to change design rules for nuclear application are presented

  10. Design criteria of launching rockets for burst aerial shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, T.; Takishita, Y.; Onda, T.; Shibamoto, H.; Hosaya, F. [Hosaya Kako Co. Ltd (Japan); Kubota, N. [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Rocket motors attached to large-sized aerial shells are proposed to compensate for the increase in the lifting charge in the mortar and the thickness of the shell wall. The proposal is the result of an evaluation of the performance of solid propellants to provide information useful in designing launch rockets for large-size shells. The propellants composed of ammonium perchlorate and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene were used to evaluate the ballistic characteristics such as the relationship between propellant mass and trajectories of shells and launch rockets. In order to obtain an optimum rocket design, the evaluation also included a study of the velocity and height of the rocket motor and shell separation. A launch rocket with a large-sized shell (84.5 cm in diameter) was designed to verify the effectiveness of this class of launch system. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Design criteria for a self-actuated shutdown system to ensure limitation of core damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deane, N.A.; Atcheson, D.B.

    1981-09-01

    Safety-based functional requirements and design criteria for a self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) are derived in accordance with LOA-2 success criteria and reliability goals. The design basis transients have been defined and evaluated for the CDS Phase II design, which is a 2550 MWt mixed oxide heterogeneous core reactor. A partial set of reactor responses for selected transients is provided as a function of SASS characteristics such as reactivity worth, trip points, and insertion times

  12. Protecting count queries in study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinterbo, Staal A; Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems.

  13. Reactor protection system design using application specific integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Bryan, W.L.; Kisner, R.A.; Wilson, T.L. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Implementing reactor protection systems (RPS) or other engineering safeguard systems with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) offers significant advantages over conventional analog or software based RPSs. Conventional analog RPSs suffer from setpoints drifts and large numbers of discrete analog electronics, hardware logic, and relays which reduce reliability because of the large number of potential failures of components or interconnections. To resolve problems associated with conventional discrete RPSs and proposed software based RPS systems, a hybrid analog and digital RPS system implemented with custom ASICs is proposed. The actual design of the ASIC RPS resembles a software based RPS but the programmable software portion of each channel is implemented in a fixed digital logic design including any input variable computations. Set point drifts are zero as in proposed software systems, but the verification and validation of the computations is made easier since the computational logic an be exhaustively tested. The functionality is assured fixed because there can be no future changes to the ASIC without redesign and fabrication. Subtle error conditions caused by out of order evaluation or time dependent evaluation of system variables against protection criteria are eliminated by implementing all evaluation computations in parallel for simultaneous results. On- chip redundancy within each RPS channel and continuous self-testing of all channels provided enhanced assurance that a particular channel is available and faults are identified as soon as possible for corrective actions. The use of highly integrated ASICs to implement channel electronics rather than the use of discrete electronics greatly reduces the total number of components and interconnections in the RPS to further increase system reliability. A prototype ASIC RPS channel design and the design environment used for ASIC RPS systems design is discussed

  14. Nuclear renaissance, public perception and design criteria: An exploratory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, Martin J.; Williams, Hugo R.; Azapagic, Adisa

    2011-01-01

    There is currently an international drive to build new nuclear power plants, bringing about what is being termed a 'nuclear renaissance'. However, the public perception of nuclear energy has historically been, and continues to be, a key issue, particularly in light of the Fukushima nuclear incident. This paper discusses the disparity between perceived and calculated risks based on the last four decades of research into risk perception. The leading psychological and sociological theories, Psychometric Paradigm and Cultural Theory, respectively, are critically reviewed. The authors then argue that a new nuclear-build policy that promotes a broader approach to design incorporating a wider range of stakeholder inputs, including that of the lay public, may provide a means for reducing the perceived risk of a nuclear plant. Further research towards such a new approach to design is proposed, based on integrating expert and lay stakeholder inputs and taking into account broader socio-cultural factors whilst maintaining the necessary emphasis on safety, technological development, economics and environmental sustainability. - Highlights: → Globally, a number of countries are investing in or considering building new nuclear plants. → Public acceptance of nuclear safety is important to continuing new nuclear build efforts. → Theories are discussed attempting to explain the public perception of nuclear safety. → A socially informed design process is proposed which could assist in ensuring public support. → Further research to understand how this design process might be performed is proposed.

  15. Input design for linear dynamic systems using maxmin criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Hansen, Lars H.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of input design for maximizing the smallest eigenvalue of the information matrix for linear dynamic systems. The optimization of the smallest eigenvalue is of interest in parameter estimation and parameter change detection problems. We describe a simple cutting...

  16. Safety criteria for design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In Finland the general safety requirements for nuclear power plants are presented in the Council of State Decision (395/91). In this guide, safety principles which supplement the Council of State Decision and which are to be used in the design of nuclear power plants are defined

  17. 50 CFR 424.12 - Criteria for designating critical habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... into consideration the probable economic and other impacts of making such a designation in accordance... population growth, and for normal behavior; (2) Food, water, air, light, minerals, or other nutritional or... elements within the defined area that are essential to the conservation of the species. Known primary...

  18. Design criteria for an uninterruptable power source (UPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, S.S.N. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ. Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Science Technology; Okeke, C.A. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ. Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Science Technology; Mortune, B.U. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ. Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Science Technology; Okeke, C.C. [Univ. of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria). Dept. of Computer Science

    1997-05-01

    This paper on uninterruptible power source (UPS) is a result of an R and D project; it describes the components of a UPS system and reviews the design requirements necessary for its construction with low cost and ease of maintenance. (orig.)

  19. CARA design criteria for HWR fuel burnup extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, P.C.; Cirimello, R.O.; Bergallo, J.E.; Marino, A.C.; Delmastro, D.F.; Brasnarof, D.O.; Gonzalez, J.H.; Juanico, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    A new concept for HWR fuel bundles, namely CARA, is presented. The CARA design allows to improve all the major performances in the PHWR fuel technology. Among others, it reaches higher burnup and thermohydraulic safety margins, together with lower fuel pellet temperatures and Zry/HM mass ratio. Moreover, it keeps the fuel mass content per unit length and the channel pressure drop by using a single diameter of fuel rods. (author)

  20. Operating experience and design criteria of sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markford, D.

    1974-01-01

    The information presented refers to sodium valve development for KNK and SNR-300 as well as for sodium test facilities on the INTERATOM site at Bensberg. Well in advance of KNK-I a number of sodium test facilities have been operated containing small and medium size valves of different design and manufacturer. The more stringent requirements for long range safe and reliable operation in KNK-I put forth a development program for the main primary and secondary circuit sodium valves. Operational experience gave rise to modification of the stem seal arrangement mainly, so KNK-II (which is the fast core for KNK reactor) will be run with modified sodium valves. Main pipe diameters in SNR-300 are in the range of 600 mm. Valve designs with rising shafts would require excessive space in the primary circuit cavities, therefore efforts have been directed towards introduction of different type valves. Due to the requirements of after-heat-removal a valve type with control capability had to be chosen. A special design of butterfly valves was selected for the primary and secondary circuits of SNR-300. The development and tests performed with this type of valve are described. In the field of small sodium valves, tests with a 50 mm diameter freeze-seal valve are reported, and the current status of bellows-seal-valves to be inserted into SNR-300 is discussed. (U.S.)

  1. Packaging design criteria for the Type B Drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.; Smith, R.J.; Wells, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Type B Drum package is a transportation cask capable of shipping a single 55-gal (208 L) drum of transuranic (TRU) waste. The Type B Drum is smaller than existing certified packages, such as the TRUPACT-II cask, but will allow payloads with higher thermal and gas generation rates, thus providing greater operational flexibility. The Type B Drum package has double containment so that plutonium contents and other radioactive material may be transported in Type B quantities. Conceptual designs of unshielded and shielded versions of the Type B Drum were completed in Report on the Conceptual Design of the Unshielded Type B Drum Packaging and Report on the Conceptual Design of the Shielded type B Drum Packaging (WEC 1994a, WEC 1994b), which demonstrated the Type B Drum to be a viable packaging system. A Type B package containment system must withstand the normal conditions of transport and the hypothetical accident conditions, which include a 9-m (30-ft) drop onto an unyielding surface and a 1-m (3-ft) drop onto a 15-cm (6-in.) diameter pin, and a fire and immersion scenarios

  2. Design criteria tank farm storage and staging facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    Tank Farms Operations must store/stage material and equipment until work packages are ready to work. Consumable materials are also required to be stored for routine and emergency work. Connex boxes and open storage is currently used for much of the storage because of the limited space at 272AW and 272WA. Safety issues based on poor housekeeping and material deteriorating due to weather damage has resulted from this inadequate storage space. It has been determined that a storage building in close proximity to the Tank Farm work force would be cost effective. Project W-402 and W-413 will provide a storage/staging area in 200 East and West Areas by the construction of two new storage facilities. The new facilities will be used by Operations, Maintenance and Materials groups to adequately store material and equipment. These projects will also furnish electrical services to the facilities for lighting and HVAC. Fire Protection shall be extended to the 200 East facility from 272AW if necessary

  3. 77 FR 38857 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water- Cooled Nuclear Power... Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water-Cooled... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1280, ``Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and...

  4. Design Criteria for Suspended Pipelines Based on Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Simão

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models have become the target of numerous attempts to obtain results that can be extrapolated to the study of hydraulic pressure infrastructures associated with different engineering requests. Simulation analysis based on finite element method (FEM models are used to determine the vulnerability of hydraulic systems under different types of actions (e.g., natural events and pressure variation. As part of the numerical simulation of a suspended pipeline, the adequacy of existing supports to sustain the pressure loads is verified. With a certain value of load application, the pipeline is forced to sway sideways, possibly lifting up off its deadweight supports. Thus, identifying the frequency, consequences and predictability of accidental events is of extreme importance. This study focuses on the stability of vertical supports associated with extreme transient loads and how a pipeline design can be improved using FEM simulations, in the design stage, to avoid accidents. Distribution of bending moments, axial forces, displacements and deformations along the pipeline and supports are studied for a set of important parametric variations. A good representation of the pipeline displacements is obtained using FEM.

  5. Explaining the Criteria of Designing Urban Furniture and Landscape, with a Cultural-social Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Allahdadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention to the deep relationship between human personality and the place in which he lives causes the place to play a crucial role in cultural transformations and prevalence of human life style and formation of values, connections and human activities. Cities are not just a place of transit, but they are also environments that must have mutual communications with the inhabitants in order to realize the meaning of citizen, as there is a distinction between the status of citizenship and urbanization. Urban furniture is one of the elements of urban space that its quantity, beauty and durability play a major role in achieving a healthy and favorable city and satisfies the needs of citizens in terms of performance and beauty. Accordingly, the present study, using descriptive-analytical method and with data collection tools including library and documentary studies, examines the concept of product ecology and answers to the questions whether urban furniture can start or support social interaction or positively affect the roles of citizens? In this paper, the relationship between social-cultural design in urban furniture and the disturbances regarding uneven distribution of elements are identified, and finally the criteria of designing urban furniture and landscape are expressed with a social-design approach.

  6. Methodology for Designing Fault-Protection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin; Levison, Jeffrey; Kan, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    A document describes a methodology for designing fault-protection (FP) software for autonomous spacecraft. The methodology embodies and extends established engineering practices in the technical discipline of Fault Detection, Diagnosis, Mitigation, and Recovery; and has been successfully implemented in the Deep Impact Spacecraft, a NASA Discovery mission. Based on established concepts of Fault Monitors and Responses, this FP methodology extends the notion of Opinion, Symptom, Alarm (aka Fault), and Response with numerous new notions, sub-notions, software constructs, and logic and timing gates. For example, Monitor generates a RawOpinion, which graduates into Opinion, categorized into no-opinion, acceptable, or unacceptable opinion. RaiseSymptom, ForceSymptom, and ClearSymptom govern the establishment and then mapping to an Alarm (aka Fault). Local Response is distinguished from FP System Response. A 1-to-n and n-to- 1 mapping is established among Monitors, Symptoms, and Responses. Responses are categorized by device versus by function. Responses operate in tiers, where the early tiers attempt to resolve the Fault in a localized step-by-step fashion, relegating more system-level response to later tier(s). Recovery actions are gated by epoch recovery timing, enabling strategy, urgency, MaxRetry gate, hardware availability, hazardous versus ordinary fault, and many other priority gates. This methodology is systematic, logical, and uses multiple linked tables, parameter files, and recovery command sequences. The credibility of the FP design is proven via a fault-tree analysis "top-down" approach, and a functional fault-mode-effects-and-analysis via "bottoms-up" approach. Via this process, the mitigation and recovery strategy(s) per Fault Containment Region scope (width versus depth) the FP architecture.

  7. Design criteria for a hemispherical detector for LET measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, M.C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Attix, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    A detector for the direct measurement of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) in cylindrical geometry was developed by Brandan and DeLuca. The detector successfully measured the LET of protons and a fraction of the heavy charged particles generated in cylindrical A150 plastic and graphite walls by 14.8 MeV neutrons. In this report, we present design tests for the hemispherical LET detector which will measure the LET of charged particles in spherical geometry and allow comparison with calculated LET spectra. The hemispherical LET detector will also provide a data base for radiobiological predictions with the Track Structure Model by Katz. A comparison of predictions of radiobiological effects by the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and the Track Structure Model by Edwards and the authors indicate that the Track Structure Model predicts cell survival as a function of dose more accurately and hence an additional motivation for the present construction of the hemispherical LET detector

  8. 2D Decision-Making for Multi-Criteria Design Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engau, A; Wiecek, M. M

    2006-01-01

    .... To facilitate those analyses and enhance decision-making and design selection, we propose to decompose the original problem by considering only pairs of criteria at a time, thereby making tradeoff...

  9. Design Of Photovoltaic Powered Cathodic Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golina Samir Adly

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion caused by chemical reaction between metallic structures and surrounding mediums such as soil or water .the CP cathodic protection system is used to protect metallic structure against corrosion. Cathodic protection CP used to minimize corrosion by utilizing an external source of electrical current which forces the entire structure to become a cathode. There are two Types of cathodic protection system Galvanic current Impressed current.the Galvanic current is called a sacrificial anode is connected to the protected structure cathode through a DC power supply. In Galvanic current system a current passes from the sacrificing anode to the protected structure .the sacrificial anode is corroded rather than causing the protected structure corrosion .protected structure requires a constant current to stop the corrosion which determined by area structure metal and the surrounding medium. The rains humidity are decrease soil resistivity and increase the DC current .The corrosion and over protection resulting from increase in the DC current is harmful for the metallic structure. This problem can be solved by conventional cathodic protection system by manual adjustment of DC voltage periodically to obtain a constant current .the manual adjustment of DC voltage depends on experience of the technician and using the accuracy of the measuring equipment. The errors of measuring current depend on error from the technician or error from the measuring equipment. the corrosion of structure may occur when the interval between two successive adjustment is long .An automatically regulated cathodic protection system is used to overcome problems from conventional cathodic protection system .the regulated cathodic protection system adjust the DC voltage of the system automatically when it senses the variations of surrounding medium resistivity so the DC current is constant at the required level.

  10. Design criteria development for the structural stability of nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, C H [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, T S [Daewoo Engineering Company, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Ko, H M [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-11-15

    The objective of the present project is to develop design criteria for the structural stability of rock cavity for the underground repository are defined, according to which detailed descriptions for design methodologies, design stages and stability analysis of the cavity are made. The proposed criteria can be used as a guide for the preparation of design codes which are to be established as the site condition and technical emplacement procedure are fixed. The present report first reviews basic safety requirements and criteria of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes for the establishment of design concepts and stability analysis of the rock cavity. Important factors for the design are also described by considering characteristics of the wastes and underground facilities. The present project has investigated technical aspects on the design of underground structures based on the currently established underground construction technologies, and presented a proposal for design criteria for the structural stability of the nuclear waste repository. The proposed criteria consist of general provisions, geological exploration, rock classification, design process and methods, supporting system, analyses and instrumentation.

  11. Algorithms and Array Design Criteria for Robust Imaging in Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Binoy George

    Optical interferometry is a technique for obtaining high-resolution imagery of a distant target by interfering light from multiple telescopes. Image restoration from interferometric measurements poses a unique set of challenges. The first challenge is that the measurement set provides only a sparse-sampling of the object's Fourier Transform and hence image formation from these measurements is an inherently ill-posed inverse problem. Secondly, atmospheric turbulence causes severe distortion of the phase of the Fourier samples. We develop array design conditions for unique Fourier phase recovery, as well as a comprehensive algorithmic framework based on the notion of redundant-spaced-calibration (RSC), which together achieve reliable image reconstruction in spite of these challenges. Within this framework, we see that classical interferometric observables such as the bispectrum and closure phase can limit sensitivity, and that generalized notions of these observables can improve both theoretical and empirical performance. Our framework leverages techniques from lattice theory to resolve integer phase ambiguities in the interferometric phase measurements, and from graph theory, to select a reliable set of generalized observables. We analyze the expected shot-noise-limited performance of our algorithm for both pairwise and Fizeau interferometric architectures and corroborate this analysis with simulation results. We apply techniques from the field of compressed sensing to perform image reconstruction from the estimates of the object's Fourier coefficients. The end result is a comprehensive strategy to achieve well-posed and easily-predictable reconstruction performance in optical interferometry.

  12. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-09-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System are presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented

  13. Design criteria for the structural analysis of shipping cask containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    10 CFR Part 71, Sections 71.35 and 71.36, require that packages used to transport radioactive materials meet specified normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Acceptable design criteria are presented for use in the structural analysis of the containment vessels of Type B packages used to transport irradiated nuclear fuel. Alternative design criteria meeting the structural requirements of 10 CFR Part 71, Section 71.35 and 71.36, may also be used

  14. Replanning Criteria and Timing Definition for Parotid Protection-Based Adaptive Radiation Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Rong Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate real-time volumetric and dosimetric changes of the parotid gland so as to determine replanning criteria and timing for parotid protection-based adaptive radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Fifty NPC patients were treated with helical tomotherapy; volumetric and dosimetric (Dmean, V1, and D50 changes of the parotid gland at the 1st, 6th, 11th, 16th, 21st, 26th, 31st, and 33rd fractions were evaluated. The clinical parameters affecting these changes were studied by analyses of variance methods for repeated measures. Factors influencing the actual parotid dose were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model. The cut-off values predicting parotid overdose were developed from receiver operating characteristic curves and judged by combining them with a diagnostic test consistency check. The median absolute value and percentage of parotid volume reduction were 19.51 cm3 and 35%, respectively. The interweekly parotid volume varied significantly (p<0.05. The parotid Dmean, V1, and D50 increased by 22.13%, 39.42%, and 48.45%, respectively. The actual parotid dose increased by an average of 11.38% at the end of radiation therapy. Initial parotid volume, initial parotid Dmean, and weight loss rate are valuable indicators for parotid protection-based replanning.

  15. Functional Design Criteria - plutonium stabilization and handling (PUSH) project W-460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) contains information to guide the design of the Stabilization and Packaging Equipment necessary to oxidize and package the remaining plutonium-bearing Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) currently in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) inventory. The FDC also guides the design of vault modifications to allow storage of 3013 packages of stabilized SNM for up to 50 years

  16. Functional Design Criteria plutonium stabilization and handling (PUSH) project W-460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, D.W.

    1999-09-02

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) contains information to guide the design of the Stabilization and Packaging Equipment necessary to oxidize and package the remaining plutonium-bearing Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) currently in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) inventory. The FDC also guides the design of vault modifications to allow storage of 3013 packages of stabilized SNM for up to 50 years.

  17. Considerations for developing seismic design criteria for nuclear waste storage repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, G.N.; Yanev, P.I.; Scholl, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    The function of seismic design criteria is to reduce the potential for hazards that may arise during various stages of the repository life. During the operational phase, the major concern is with the possible effects of earthquakes on surface facilities, underground facilities, and equipment. During the decommissioned phase, the major concern is with the potential effects of earthquakes on the geologic formation, which may result in a reduction in isolation capacity. Existing standards and guides or criteria used for the static and seismic design of licensed nuclear facilities were reviewed and evaluated for their applicability to repository design. This report is directed mainly toward the development of seismic design criteria for the underground structures of repositories. An initial step in the development of seismic design criteria for the underground structures of repositories is the development of performance criteria, or minimum standards of acceptable behavior. A number of possible damage modes are identified for the operating phase of the repository; however, no damage modes are foreseen that would perturb the long-term function of the repository, except for the possibility of increased permeability within the rock mass. Subsequent steps in formulating acceptable seismic design criteria for the underground structures involve the quantification of the design process. The report discusses the necessity of specifying the form of ground motion that would be needed for seismic analysis and the procedures that may be used for making ground motion predictions. Further discussions outline what is needed for analysis, including rock properties, failure criteria, modeling techniques, seismic hardening criteria for the host rock mass, and probabilistic considerations

  18. Design Criteria in Revitalizing Old Warehouse District on the Kalimas Riverbank Area of Surabaya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Titi Sunarti Darjosanjoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neglected warehouse buildings along the Kalimas River have created a poor urban façade in terms of visual quality. However the city government is planning to encourage tourism activities that take advantage of Kalimas River and its surrounding environment. If there is no good plan in accordance with the concept of local identity for old city of Surabaya, it will reduce it as a tourist attraction. In reference to the issue above, design criteria needs to be compiled for revitalizing the old warehouse district, which is expected to revive the identity of this district and be able to support the city’s tourism. This study was conducted by recording field observations, and the data was analyzed using the character appraisal method. The character appraisal analysis method is presented in the form of street picture data, which is divided into determined segments. The results show that there are five components including place attachment, sustainable urban design, green open space design, ecological riverfront design, and activity support that should be considered in the revitalization of the warehouse district. Those components are divided into two parts: building and open space at the riverbank. There are 13 design criteria for building at the riverbank, while there are 14 design criteria for open space at the riverbank. These design criteria can enrich the warehouse district’s revitalization by improving the visual quality of the urban environment.Keywords: design criteria; warehouse district; riverbank; Surabaya; revitalization.

  19. Soil characteristics as criteria for cathodic protection of a nuclear fuel production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.F.; Corbett, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fact that buried metallic structures corrode is well documented. It has been postulated that the extent and rate of attack is controlled predominantly by the characteristics of the surrounding soil. Therefore, prior to constructing a new facility designed to process accumulated nuclear waste, consideration was given to protecting its underground pipelines against corrosion. Leak frequency curves from other nearby plantsites, extensive soil resistivity surveys, and geochemical analyses, were used to evaluate the onsite soil characteristics for corrosion susceptibility. Analysis of the data collected over a three-year period indicated that although the soil is not overly aggressive, substantial heterogeneity existed so as to establish galvanic cells along pipe lengths passing through the soil. To limit the extent of corrosion on underground piping, the application of an impressed current cathodic protection system was recommended to supplement a high integrity, corrosion resistant coating and wrap system

  20. Seismic design and evaluation criteria for DOE facilities (DOE-STD-1020-XX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Seismic design and evaluation criteria for DOE facilities are provided in DOE-STD-1020-XX. The criteria include selection of design/evaluation seismic input from probabilistic seismic hazard curves combined with commonly practiced deterministic response evaluation methods and acceptance criteria with controlled levels of conservatism. Conservatism is intentionally introduced in specification of material strengths and capacities, in the allowance of limited inelastic behavior and by a seismic load factor. These criteria are based on the performance or risk goals specified in DOE 5480.28. Criteria have been developed following a graded approach for several performance goals ranging from that appropriate for normal-use facilities to that appropriate for facilities involving hazardous or critical operations. Performance goals are comprised of desired behavior and of the probability of not achieving that behavior. Following the seismic design/evaluation criteria of DOE-STD-1020-XX is sufficient to demonstrate that the probabilistic performance or risk goals are achieved. The criteria are simple procedures but with a sound, rigorous basis for the achievement of goals

  1. JSFR design progress related to development of safety design criteria for generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors. (3) Progress of component design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enuma, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Orita, Junichi; Eto, Masao; Miyagawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    In the frame work of generation IV international forum (GIF), safety design criteria (SDC) and safety design guideline (SDG) for the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors have been developing in the circumstance of worldwide deployment of SFRs. JAEA, JAPC, MFBR have been investigating design study for JSFR to satisfy SDC in the feasibility study of SDG for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). In addition to the safety measures, maintainability, reparability and manufacturability are taken into account in the JSFR design study. This paper describes the design of main components. Enlargement of the access route for the inspection devices and addition of the access routes were carried out for the reactor structure. The pump-integrated IHX (pump/IHX) was modified for the primary heat exchanger (PHX), which was installed for the decay heat removal in the IHX at the upper plenum, to be removable for improved repair and maintenance. For the steam generator (SG), protective wall tube type design is under investigation as an option with less R and D risks. (author)

  2. Development of a software tool and criteria evaluation for efficient design of small interfering RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Aparna; Srivastava, Sonam; Garg, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The developed tool predicted siRNA constructs with better thermodynamic stability and total score based on positional and other criteria. → Off-target silencing below score 30 were observed for the best siRNA constructs for different genes. → Immunostimulation and cytotoxicity motifs considered and penalized in the developed tool. → Both positional and compositional criteria were observed to be important. -- Abstract: RNA interference can be used as a tool for gene silencing mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNA). The critical step in effective and specific RNAi processing is the selection of suitable constructs. Major design criteria, i.e., Reynolds's design rules, thermodynamic stability, internal repeats, immunostimulatory motifs were emphasized and implemented in the siRNA design tool. The tool provides thermodynamic stability score, GC content and a total score based on other design criteria in the output. The viability of the tool was established with different datasets. In general, the siRNA constructs produced by the tool had better thermodynamic score and positional properties. Comparable thermodynamic scores and better total scores were observed with the existing tools. Moreover, the results generated had comparable off-target silencing effect. Criteria evaluations with additional criteria were achieved in WEKA.

  3. Functional design criteria for an exploratory shaft facility in salt: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of the Functional Criteria for Design is to provide technical direction for the development of detailed design criteria for the exploratory shaft facility. This will assure that the exploratory shaft facility will be designed in accordance with the current Mission Plan as well as the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and 10 CFR Part 60, which will facilitate the licensing process. The functional criteria for design are not intended to limit or constrain the designer's flexibility. The following philosophies will be incorporated in the designs: (1) The exploratory shaft will be designed to fulfill its intended purpose which is to characterize the salt site by subsurface testing; (2) the design will minimize any adverse impact which the facility may cause to the environment and any damage to the site if it should be found suitable for a repository; (3) the health and safety of the public and of the workers will be an essential factor in the design; (4) sound engineering principles and practices will be consistently employed in the design process; (5) the exploratory shaft and related surface and subsurface facilities will be designed to be economical and reliable in construction, operation, and maintenance; and (6) the exploratory shaft facility will be designed in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations, as well as all applicable national consensus codes and standards

  4. Human physiology as the determining factor in protective clothing design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing is designed to protect humans against risks like fire, chemicals or blunt impact. Although protect¡ve clothing diminishes the effects of external risks, it may hinder people in functioning and it may also introduce new (internal) risks. Manufacturers are often not aware of the

  5. Licensing topical report: interpretation of general design criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, D.D.; Raabe, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    This Licensing Topical Report presents a set of General Design Criteria (GDC) which is proposed for applicability to licensing of graphite-moderated, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Modifications as necessary to reflect HTGR characteristics and design practices have been made to the GDC derived for applicability to light-water-cooled reactors and presented in Appendix A of Part 50, Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, including the Introduction, Definitions, and Criteria. It is concluded that the proposed set of GDC affords a better basis for design and licensing of HTGRs

  6. Decontamination and decommissioning criteria for use in design of new plutonium facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) criteria were assembled for use in designing new plutonium facilities. These criteria were gathered from literature searches and visits to many plutonium facilities around the country. The recommendations of reports and experienced personnel were used. Since total D and D costs can be millions of dollars, improved designs to facilitate D and D will result in considerable savings in cost and time and will help to leave the site for unrestricted future use after D and D. Finally, better design will reduce hazards and improve safety during the D and D effort

  7. Guidelines for the development of natural phenomena hazards design criteria for surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.A.; Hossain, Q.A.; Murray, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the rationale behind the guidelines, criteria, and methodologies that are currently used for natural phenomena hazard design and evaluation of DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. The bases for the performance goals and usage categories specified in UCRL-15910 are examined, and the sources of intentional conservatism in the analyses, design, and evaluation methods and criteria are identified. Outlines of recent developments/changes in DOE Orders related to Natural Phenomena hazard mitigation are also presented. Finally, the authors recommend the use of DOE methodologies as embodied in UCRL-15910 for design and evaluation of surface facilities of the high level nuclear waste repository site

  8. Functional design criteria for the self-installing liquid observation well. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the functional design criteria for installing liquid observation wells (LOWs) into single-shell tanks containing ferrocyanide or organic wastes. The LOWs will be designed to accommodate the deployment of gamma, neutron, and electromagnetic induction probes and to interface with the existing tank structure and environment

  9. Integrating Green Building Criteria Into Housing Design Processes Case Study: Tropical Apartment At Kebon Melati, Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, V. L.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2018-05-01

    The implementation of Green Building criteria is relatively new in architectural practice, especially in Indonesia. Consequently, the integration of these criteria into design process has the potential to change the design process itself. The implementation of the green building criteria into the conventional design process will be discussed in this paper. The concept of this project is to design a residential unit with a natural air-conditioning system. To achieve this purpose, the Green Building criteria has been implemented since the beginning of the design process until the detailing process on the end of the project. Several studies was performed throughout the design process, such as: (1) Conceptual review, where several professionally proved theories related to Tropical Architecture and passive design are used for a reference, and (2) Computer simulations, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel simulation, used to represent the dynamic response of the surrounding environment towards the building. Hopefully this paper may become a reference for designing a green residential building.

  10. Functional design criteria for the self-installing liquid observation well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents the functional Design Criteria for installing liquid observation wells (LOWs) into single-shell tanks containing ferrocyanide and organic wastes. The LOWs will be designed to accommodate the deployment of gamma, neutron, and electromagnetic induction probes and to interface with the existing tank structure and environment

  11. Criteria for Corrosion Protection of Aluminum-Clad Spent Nuclear Fuel in Interim Wet Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Storage of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other locations in the U. S. and around the world has been a concern over the past decade because of the long time interim storage requirements in water. Pitting corrosion of production aluminum-clad fuel in the early 1990''s at SRS was attributed to less than optimum quality water and corrective action taken has resulted in no new pitting since 1994. The knowledge gained from the corrosion surveillance testing and other investigations at SRS over the past 8 years has provided an insight into factors affecting the corrosion of aluminum in relatively high purity water. This paper reviews some of the early corrosion issues related to aluminum-clad spent fuel at SRS, including fundamentals for corrosion of aluminum alloys. It updates and summarizes the corrosion surveillance activities supporting the future storage of over 15,000 research reactor fuel assemblies from countries over the world during the next 15-20 years. Criteria are presented for providing corrosion protection for aluminum-clad spent fuel in interim storage during the next few decades while plans are developed for a more permanent disposition

  12. Seismic design criteria used for electrical raceway systems in commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, P.B.; Manrique, M.A.; Nelson, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the seismic design approaches, relevant technical issues and criteria used over the years for design of electrical raceway systems at commercial nuclear power plant facilities. The approaches used for design and endorsed by the NRC can be seen to be quite varied. In recent years, considerably more rigor has been required for raceway design, as well as for the level of design basis documentation produced. However, there has also been a willingness by the NRC to accept rational approaches based on testing, analytical results or experience data, provided proper justification is given. Such rational approaches can simplify the significant task of analysis, design and construction of miles of raceways and thousands of raceway supports. Summarizing past practice and identifying relevant technical issues are an important first step in formalizing up-to-date criteria for new raceway designs

  13. Guidelines and criteria for nuclear piping and support evaluation and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, D.L.; Stout, D.H. Jr.; Minichiello, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    The EPRI Research Project 2967-2 has set its fundamental goal to be the development of realistic guidelines and criteria for piping and pipe support design and evaluation. The focus is on items that are most critical to utilities and consists of a variety of tasks relating to piping and pipe support design. One objective of this report is to summarize the recommendations from the seven task reports of the first phase of the project and to provide examples of how to use those recommendations. Criteria and methods for evaluating both short and long term system operation are addressed. Benefits gained from applying the recommendations to actual systems are discussed. The report also reviews other work currently being done within the nuclear industry and assesses the impact of that work on the recommended criteria/methods of this project. The second objective of the report is to discuss possible changes needed in the governing codes or licensing commitments in order to implement the recommendations. Finally, the report describes further research which can be done to advance the criteria presented and answer questions concerning applicability of the proposed criteria to designs not tested/investigated. The basic conclusion reached in the project is that many of the criteria/methods used today in piping analysis/design are overly conservative. The report's conclusion is supported by extensive literature searches, tests, and analyses. The report presents a robust source of reference to utilities which wish to implement changes in criteria and methods. Most of the criteria and methodologies described in the seven task reports and summarized in the following sections will require some effort in licensing or Code changes

  14. Preliminary proposed seismic design and evaluation criteria for new and existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The document provides a recommended set of deterministic seismic design and evaluation criteria for either new or existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks placed in either the high hazard or moderate hazard usage catagories of UCRL-15910. The criteria given herein are consistent with and follow the same philosophy as those given in UCRL-15910 for the US Department of Energy facilities. This document is intended to supplement and amplify upon Reference 1 for underground hazardous materials storage tanks

  15. Design criteria and design basis for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 pump-and-treat projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, W.S.; Winters, J.N.

    1996-06-01

    The 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Operable Units are located in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The document describes the project objectives and design criteria to be used for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater pump-and-treat design activities

  16. Integrating radiation protection criteria for radioactive waste management into remediation procedures in existing exposure situations after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kimura, Hideo; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kawata, Yosuke; Ogino, Haruyuki; Okoshi, Minoru

    2018-03-01

    Experience after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station has shown that there is a need to establish radiation protection criteria for radioactive waste management consistent with the criteria adopted for the remediation of existing exposure situations. A stepwise approach to setting such criteria is proposed. Initially, a reference level for the annual effective dose from waste management activities in the range 1-10 mSv should be set, with the reference level being less than the reference level for the ambient dose. Subsequently, the reference level for the annual effective dose from waste management activities should be reduced in one or more steps to achieve a final target value of 1 mSv. The dose criteria at each stage should be determined with relevant stakeholder involvement. Illustrative case studies show how this stepwise approach might be applied in practice.

  17. Packaging design criteria, transfer and disposal of 102-AP mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    A mixer pump installed in storage tank 241-AP-102 (102-AP) has failed. This pump is referred to as the 102-AP mixer pump (APMP). The APMP will be removed from 102-AP 1 and a new pump will be installed. The main purpose of the Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to establish criteria necessary to design and fabricate a shipping container for the transfer and storage of the APMP from 102-AP. The PDC will be used as a guide to develop a Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP)

  18. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System is presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented. (author)

  19. Seismic design criteria and their application to major hazard plant within the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.

    1982-12-01

    The nature of seismic motions and the implications are briefly described and the development of seismic design criteria for nuclear power plants in various countries is described including possible future developments. The seismicity of the United Kingdom is briefly reviewed leading to the present position on seismic design criteria for nuclear power plants within the United Kingdom. Damage from past destructive earthquakes is reviewed and the existing codes of practice and standards are described. Finally the effect of earthquakes on major hazard plant is discussed in general terms including the seismic analysis of a typical plant item. (author)

  20. The application of the multi-criteria analysis in evaluating of the road designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzović Ljubiša T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the suitability of applying multi-criteria ranking of road design variants places the emphasis on the danger of fixing the ranking results, by the impact of subjective factors, in the process of determining relevant criteria and their relative weights. This danger is illustrated using two real examples. In the first example, subjective factors did not have a decisive influence since all of the most significant technical exploitation economic and ecological indicators, determined in the appropriate study and project documentation, were taken into account while determining relevant criteria and their relative weights. In the second example, subjective factors had a more decisive influence since all of the most significant technical exploitation economic and ecological indicators, determined in the appropriate study and project documentation, were not taken into account while determining relevant criteria and their relative weights.

  1. Deriving freshwater quality criteria of sulphocyanic sodium for the protection of aquatic life in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The freshwater quality criteria of sulphocyanic sodium(NaSCN) were studied on the basis of the features of the aquaticbiota in China, and with Reference to U.S.EPA's guidelines. Acutetests were performed on twelve different domestic species todetermine 48h-EC50/96h-EC50 (or 96h-LC50) values for NaSCN. 21dsurvival-reproduction test with Daphnia magna, 60d fry-juvenilepart life stage test with Carassius auratus gibelio and 96h growthinhibition test with Lemna minor were also conducted to estimatelower chronic limit/upper chronic limit values. In the acute tests,D.magna was the most sensitive species to NaSCN followed by Tilapiamossambia, Cyprinus carpio and C.auratus gibelio in turn. The finalacute value of NaSCN was 2.699 mg/L. In the chronic tests,reproduction of daphnids were significantly reduced by NaSCN at 1.0mg/L. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 5.96 to 19.1. A finalchronic value of 0.2530 mg/L was obtained and a final plant valuewas 1346 mg/L. A criterion maximum concentration (1.349 mg/L) anda criterion continuous concentration (0.2530 mg/L) were derivedrespectively. The results of this study may provide useful data toderive national WQC for NaSCN as well as the procedures of derivingWQC of other chemicals for the protection of aquatic biota in China.

  2. Safety Design Criteria (SDC) for Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Ryodai

    2013-01-01

    SDC Development Background & Objectives: • Safety Design Criteria (SDC) Development for Gen-IV SFR: – Proposed at the GIF Policy Group (PG) meeting in October 2010 –SDC “harmonization” is increasingly important for: • Realization of enhanced safety designs meeting to Gen-IV safety goals and safety approach common to SFR systems; • Preparation for the forthcoming licensing in the near future; • Because Gen-IV SFR are progressing into conceptual design stage. • The SDC is the Reference criteria: – Of the designs of safety-related Structures, Systems & Components that are specific to the SFR system; – For clarifying the requisites systematically & comprehensively; – When the technology developers apply the basic safety approach and use the codes & standards for conceptual design of the Gen-IV SFR system

  3. Design, construction and commissioning of SGPR, the fast protection system of RFX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collarin, P.; Trevisan, F.; Guarnieri, M.

    1994-01-01

    RFX, the largest machine for magnetic confinement of plasmas in the RFP line, is provided with a system named SGPR specifically designed for the machine global protection against fast faults which can develop in the plasma, in the windings, in the power supply circuits and in the control system. SGPR is a cabled logic HLL machine, able to organise in few tens of microseconds coordinated machine protection, dealing with more than forty fault signals and activating almost thirty protection commands. SGPR design, manufacture and test program conform the quality control criteria necessary to assure the required high reliability. After a careful and cumbersome commissioning work the system has assumed its protection role. Up to now it has been called to a number of interventions which, even if never due to major faults, have shown its capability of proper operation

  4. Design, construction and commissioning of SGPR, the fast protection system of RFX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarin, P.; Trevisan, F. [Instituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Padova (Italy); Guarnieri, M. [Universita di Padova (Italy)

    1994-11-01

    RFX, the largest machine for magnetic confinement of plasmas in the RFP line, is provided with a system named SGPR specifically designed for the machine global protection against fast faults which can develop in the plasma, in the windings, in the power supply circuits and in the control system. SGPR is a cabled logic HLL machine, able to organise in few tens of microseconds coordinated machine protection, dealing with more than forty fault signals and activating almost thirty protection commands. SGPR design, manufacture and test program conform the quality control criteria necessary to assure the required high reliability. After a careful and cumbersome commissioning work the system has assumed its protection role. Up to now it has been called to a number of interventions which, even if never due to major faults, have shown its capability of proper operation.

  5. Development of a novel set of criteria to select methodology for designing product service systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuananh Tran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes eight groups of twenty nine scoring criteria that can help designers and practitioners to compare and select an appropriate methodology for a certain problem in designing product service system (PSS. PSS has been researched for more than a decade and is now becoming more and more popular in academia as well as industry. Despite that fact, the adoption of PSS is still limited for its potential. One of the main reasons is that designing PSS itself is a challenge. Designers and developers face difficulties in choosing appropriate PSS design methodologies for their projects so that they can design effective PSS offerings. By proposing eight groups of twenty nine scoring criteria, this paper enables a “step by step” process to identify the most appropriate design methodology for a company’s PSS problem. An example is also introduced to illustrate the use of the proposed scoring criteria and provide a clear picture of how different design methodologies can be utilized at their best in terms of application.

  6. pipelines cathodic protection design methodologies for impressed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    oil and gas pipelines corrosion in the United State of. American alone ... or preventing external corrosion of pipeline steels and other metallic .... 2.1 Materials and Impressed Current Design. Carbon steel ..... Research Analysis, Vol. 2, pp 2277 ...

  7. Safety design guide for pipe rupture protection for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide for pipe rupture protection identifies high-energy systems in which pipe ruptures must be postulated to occur, as well as systems that must be protected from the dynamic effects of such ruptures. Dynamic effects considered in this SDG consist of pipe whip (including missiles generated by pipe ruptures, if any) and jet impingement, Requirements for protection against the dynamic effects of a postulated pipe rupture and method of protection of essential structures, systems and components are specified for these effects. The change status for the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and this safety design guide shall be updated accordingly. 2 tabs., 5 refs. (Author) .new

  8. Safe design of protective structures of tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahat, M.A.Z.

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to explain how to use a tunnel, constructed from reinforced concrete, passes under a river to protect some people. The computer code is used (MCNP) (the transfer photon and neutron) at this model for such tunnel which passes under a river to account attenuation of both neutrons and gamma rays passing through the river water, clay, soil and reinforced concrete wall layers ,the last one (thickness 40 cm)constructed the tunnel construction. And to account the dose inside the tunnel, and to account neutron dose, gamma dose, prompt gamma dose, total gamma dose and total (neutron + gamma) dose estimated by μSv/h. At different depths from the earth surface layer depths 100 cm, 250 cm, 500 cm, 750 cm , 1000 cm, 1300 cm, 1700 cm, 1900 cm, 2020 cm, 2500 cm). And then account these doses for three cases which are a nuclear bomb its intensity 20 kt, another bomb its intensity 100 kt, and the last one its intensity is 1000 kt. This research aims to account the required safe depth to protect some people in this tunnel, passing under a river from the dangerous effects of neutron and gamma rays, emitted from the nuclear bomb.

  9. Physical criteria for the design and assessment of restoration schemes in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, R.N.; McQuire, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    The restoration of colliery wastes and open pit coal sites in the United Kingdom (UK) is undertaken according to a land use strategy plan and detailed specifications that have been agreed upon with the planning authorities. For two of the major land uses in the UK, agriculture and forestry, data on physical criteria (climate, site features and soils) are available to assist in the planning and design of land use strategies and specification of restoration treatments. Similar criteria could also be developed for the restoration of semi natural vegetation and habitats for landscape, wildlife, and amenity uses. Three examples are described illustrating the use of the physical criteria in the design of schemes, the specification of treatments, and the assessment of achievements

  10. Measuring the extent of overlaps in protected area designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguignet, Marine; Arnell, Andy; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Shi, Yichuan; Bingham, Heather; MacSharry, Brian; Kingston, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, a number of national policies and international conventions have been implemented to promote the expansion of the world's protected area network, leading to a diversification of protected area strategies, types and designations. As a result, many areas are protected by more than one convention, legal instrument, or other effective means which may result in a lack of clarity around the governance and management regimes of particular locations. We assess the degree to which different designations overlap at global, regional and national levels to understand the extent of this phenomenon at different scales. We then compare the distribution and coverage of these multi-designated areas in the terrestrial and marine realms at the global level and among different regions, and we present the percentage of each county's protected area extent that is under more than one designation. Our findings show that almost a quarter of the world's protected area network is protected through more than one designation. In fact, we have documented up to eight overlapping designations. These overlaps in protected area designations occur in every region of the world, both in the terrestrial and marine realms, but are more common in the terrestrial realm and in some regions, notably Europe. In the terrestrial realm, the most common overlap is between one national and one international designation. In the marine realm, the most common overlap is between any two national designations. Multi-designations are therefore a widespread phenomenon but its implications are not well understood. This analysis identifies, for the first time, multi-designated areas across all designation types. This is a key step to understand how these areas are managed and governed to then move towards integrated and collaborative approaches that consider the different management and conservation objectives of each designation.

  11. Typical design/qualification acceptance criteria for newly installed pipelines and equipment components of VVER-type NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes in general the typical design/qualification acceptance criteria and seismic acceptance criteria in particular that are applicable for important to safety newly installed pipelines and equipment components of VVER-type already existing NPPs, specifically during the design verification phase of this newly installed equipment. These criteria are currently used for VVER 440-213 and VVER 1000 NPPs in Czech Republic and in Slovakia. The similar criteria are also used in Hungary. (author)

  12. Criteria for design of the Yucca Mountain structures, systems and components for fault displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, C.; Hossain, Q.; Nesbit, S.; Pezzopane, S.; Hardy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE intends to design the Yucca Mountain high-level waste facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) for fault displacements to provide reasonable assurance that they will meet the preclosure safety performance objectives established by 10 CFR Part 60. To the extent achievable, fault displacement design of the facility will follow guidance provided in the NRC Staff Technical Position. Fault avoidance will be the primary design criterion, especially for spatially compact or clustered SSCs. When fault avoidance is not reasonably achievable, expected to be the case for most spatially extended SSCs, engineering design procedures and criteria or repair and rehabilitation actions, depending on the SSC's importance to safety, are provided. SSCs that have radiological safety importance will be designed for fault displacements that correspond to the hazard exceedance frequency equal to their established seismic safety performance goals. Fault displacement loads are generally localized and may cause local inelastic response of SSCs. For this reason, the DOE intends to use strain-based design acceptance criteria similar to the strain-based criteria used to design nuclear plant SSCs for impact and impulsive loads

  13. The decision making criteria on radiation protection of population in the cases of an accidental plutonium dispersion into environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkin, M.N.; Titov, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Intervention criteria for radiation protection of general public in the case of accidental plutonium release have been elaborated on the basis of experimental radiobiological studies of affects of incorporated plutonium and of long duration medical observation for nuclear workers in Russia and the requirements of the national Radiation Safety Standards. Generic and operational levels for decision-making are given for early and late phases following the accident. Criteria for decision making are established in terms of upper and lower generic and operational levels (UL/LL). Criteria for urgent evacuation in the early stage directed on preventing of serious deterministic effects are defined as projected absorbed dose rate for lung 2x10 -2 Gy/day (UL) and 3x10 -3 Gy/day (LL). The UL corresponds to intake of 300 kBq of 239 Pu and mortal consequences during the first year after the accident as a result of acute interstitial pneumonite. The LL corresponds to intake of 40 kBq of 239 Pu and the threshold of serious radiological effects (disablement as a result of pneumosclerosis) and high level of stochastic effects - cancer of lung. Other basic countermeasures are intended on to be directed mitigation of long term radiological consequences. That is why criteria for them are defined in terms of protected equivalent dose for lungs or avertable effective dose. Criteria for sheltering and individual protection of respiratory tract correspond to committed equivalent dose due to intake during two days 200 mSv (UL) and 20 mSv (LL). Temporary relocation (1-2 years) is recommended if averted monthly effective dose is 30 mSv (UL) and 10 mSv (LL). Permanent relocation is justified if averted life-time effective dose is 1000 mSv (UL) and 200 mSv (LL). Operational levels in terms of density of soil contamination by plutonium are calculated for practical application of the dose criteria. (author)

  14. Design and evaluation of physical protection systems of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jin Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Hwang, In Koo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Yung Myung

    2001-06-01

    Nuclear material and safety equipment of nuclear facilities are required to be protected against any kind of theft or sabotage. Physical protection is one of the measures to prevent such illegally potential threats for public security. It should cover all the cases of use, storage, and transportation of nuclear material. A physical protection system of a facility consists of exterior intrusion sensors, interior intrusion sensors, an alarm assessment and communication system, entry control systems, access delay equipment, etc. The design of an effective physical protection system requires a comprehensive approach in which the designers define the objective of the system, establish an initial design, and evaluate the proposed design. The evaluation results are used to determine whether or not the initial design should be modified and improved. Some modelling techniques are commonly used to analyse and evaluate the performance of a physical protection system. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed a prototype of software as a part of a full computer model for effectiveness evaluation for physical protection systems. The input data elements for the prototype, contain the type of adversary, tactics, protection equipment, and the attributes of each protection component. This report contains the functional and structural requirements defined in the development of the evaluation computer model.

  15. A New Physical Protection System Design and Evaluation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Kim, Myungsu; Bae, Yeongkyoung; Na, Janghwan [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) had established security-related department and has been strengthening security measures against possible sabotage. IAEA enforces the recommendations for the physical protection of NPPs in the INFCIRC/ 225/Rev.5 to the member states and U.S. NRC also enforces the similar requirements in 10 CFR 73.55. Thus, in order to let Korean NPPs meet the new requirements in INFCIRC/225/Rev.5 or U.S. NRC requirements, Korea nuclear licensee should develop or establish appropriate physical protection system (PPS) design methods for the physical protection of the operating NPPs and new NPPs. KHNP is doing the project of 'Development of APR1400 Physical Protection System Design (2012- 2015, KHNP/KAERI /KEPCO E-C)'. This paper describes overview of a physical protection system (PPS) design and evaluation for an advanced nuclear power plant. It found that a new physical protection system (PPS)design and evaluation. KHNP is doing the project of Physical Protection System design according to U.S. NRC requirements and IAEA requirements in INFCIRC /225 /Rev.5 and will complete by 7.31, 2015 for development of APR1400 Physical Protection System. After completing this project, the results of project are expected to apply new NPPs.

  16. Geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste: Ethical and technical bases for standards and criteria to protect public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed geologic repositories being designed in the US and in other countries that have nuclear power plants need well-defined goals and criteria to protect public health. The criteria must be stringent enough to build confidence in the adequacy of public health protection in the face of legal and political challenges. Yet, there are emerging pressures for relaxation of traditional approaches to protect public health when applied to buried radioactive waste. To build acceptance by the scientific community and the public, both the benefits and consequences of proposed relaxed standards must be dealt with openly and understandably. Arguments over safety standards center on six key issues. (1) For how long must public health protection be assured? Should protection be based on calculated radiation doses to people living for many tens of thousands of years in the future, until peak values of calculated radiation have appeared, or should the protection period be limited to a few thousand years? (2) Whom to protect? Should protection be based on protecting the critical group of future people who unknowingly eat food and drink water contaminated by released radioactivity or should it be based on limiting the average exposure, averaged over all persons projected to live within 'the vicinity' of the repository site? (3) How much radiation exposure should be allowed? Should future people be protected to the same level of radiation exposure as now required for licensed nuclear facilities, or should greater exposures be allowed because future people might be better protected by medical breakthroughs or by their taking remedial action to detect and clean up radioactivity that reaches the environment? (4) Can future people be excluded from using contaminated water drawn from near the site? Should protection of future people be based on doses calculated for ground water extracted from present farming wells, where distance and dilution resulted in lower calculated contaminant

  17. The 1994 Forum on Appropriate Criteria and Methods for Seismic Design of Nuclear Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagis, G.C.

    1995-01-01

    A record of the 1994 Forum on Appropriate Criteria and Methods for Seismic Design of Nuclear Piping is provided. The focus of the forum was the design-by-rule method for seismic design of piping. Issues such as acceptance criteria, ductility considerations, demonstration of margin, training, verification and costs were discussed. The use of earthquake experience data, including the recent Northridge earthquake, to justify a design-by-rule method was explored. The majority of the participants felt there are not significant advantages to developing a design-by-rule approach for new plant design. One major disadvantage was considered by many to be training. Extensive training will be required to properly implement a design-by-rule approach. Verification of designs was considered by the majority to be equally important for design-by-rule as for design-by-analysis. If a design-by-rule method is going to be effective, the method will have to be based on ductility considerations (UBC approach). A significant issue will be justification of seismic margins with liberal rules. The UBC approach is being questioned by some because of the recent structural cracking problems in the Northridge earthquake

  18. Radiation protection and shielding design - Strengthening the link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, J.; Cooper, A.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement in quality and flexibility of shielding methods and data has been progressive and beneficial in opening up new opportunities for optimising radiation protection in design. The paper describes how these opportunities can best be seized by taking a holistic view of radiation protection, with shielding design being an important component part. This view is best achieved by enhancing the role of 'shielding assessors' so that they truly become 'radiation protection designers'. The increase in speed and efficiency of shielding calculations has been enormous over the past decades. This has raised the issue of how the assessor's time now can be best utilised; pursuing ever greater precision and accuracy in shielding/dose assessments, or improving the contribution that shielding assessment makes to radiological protection and cost-effective design. It is argued in this paper that the latter option is of great importance and will give considerable benefits. Shielding design needs to form part of a larger radiation protection perspective based on a deep understanding/appreciation of the opportunities and constraints of operators and designers, enabling minimal design iterations, cost optimisation of alternative designs (with a 'lifetime' perspective) and improved realisation of design intent in operations. The future of shielding design development is argued to be not in improving the 'tool-kit', but in enhanced understanding of the 'product' and the 'process' for achieving it. The holistic processes being developed in BNFL to realise these benefits are described in the paper and will be illustrated by case studies. (authors)

  19. Design and Management Criteria for Fish, Amphibian, and Reptile Communities Within Created Agricultural Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design and management criteria for created agricultural wetlands in the midwestern United States typically focus on maximizing the ability to process agricultural runoff. Ecological benefits for fish, amphibian, and reptiles are often secondary considerations. One example of this water quality focu...

  20. Toward User Interfaces and Data Visualization Criteria for Learning Design of Digital Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railean, Elena

    2014-01-01

    User interface and data visualisation criteria are central issues in digital textbooks design. However, when applying mathematical modelling of learning process to the analysis of the possible solutions, it could be observed that results differ. Mathematical learning views cognition in on the base on statistics and probability theory, graph…

  1. Functional design criteria radioactive liquid waste line replacement, Project W-087. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the functional design criteria for the 222-S Laboratory radioactive waste drain piping and transfer pipeline replacement. The project will replace the radioactive waste drain piping from the hot cells in 222-S to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility and provide a new waste transfer route from 219-S to the 244-S Catch Station in Tank Farms

  2. Development and implementation of the TPX structural and cryogenic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatz, I.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Schultz, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is a superconducting tokamak utilizing both Nb 3 Sn and NbTi superconducting magnets and will feature a low-activation titanium alloy vacuum vessel and carbon-carbon composite divertors. Due to the unique nature of the component designs, materials, and environment, the TPX project felt it necessary to develop a design criteria (code) which will specifically address the structural and cryogenic design aspects of such a device. The developed code is intended to serve all components of the device; namely, the TF and PF magnets, vacuum vessel, first wall and divertor, cryostat, diagnostics, heating devices, shielding, and all associated structural elements. The structural portion is based largely on that developed for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), which was modeled after the CIT Vacuum Vessel Structural Design Criteria and ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B ampersand PV) Code. The cryogenic criteria is largely modeled after that proposed in the ITER CDA. This paper summarizes the TPX Criteria document

  3. Canister storage building compliance assessment DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACK, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the Project's position on compliance with DOE Order 6430.1A ''General Design Criteria.'' No non-compliances are shown. The compliance statements have been reviewed and approved by DOE. Open items are scheduled to be closed prior to project completion

  4. Vision-based methodology for collaborative management of qualitative criteria in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian

    2006-01-01

    establishes a field of tension that summarises the abstract criteria and pinpoints the desired uniqueness of the product. The Interaction Vision allows the team members to design the behaviour of the product without deciding on physical features, thus focusing on the cognitive aspects of the product...

  5. The computer-aided design of a servo system as a multiple-criteria decision problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udink ten Cate, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper treats the selection of controller gains of a servo system as a multiple-criteria decision problem. In contrast to the usual optimization-based approaches to computer-aided design, inequality constraints are included in the problem as unconstrained objectives. This considerably simplifies

  6. 22 CFR 96.6 - Performance criteria for designation as an accrediting entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other similar functions; (f) Except in the case of a public entity, that it operates independently of... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance criteria for designation as an accrediting entity. 96.6 Section 96.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES...

  7. Design requirements, criteria and methods for seismic qualification of CANDU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Duff, C.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes the requirements and criteria for the seismic design and qualification of systems and equipment in CANDU nuclear power plants. Acceptable methods and techniques for seismic qualification of CANDU nuclear power plants to mitigate the effects or the consequences of earthquakes are also described. (auth)

  8. Design criteria and fabrication in-pile test section of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1997-10-01

    Safety state fuel test loop will be equipped in HANARO to obtain the development and betterments of advanced fuel and materials through the irradiation tests. The objective of this study is to determine the design criteria and technical specification of in-pile test section and to specify the manufacturing requirements of in-pile test section. HANARO fuel test loop was designed to meet the CANDU and PWR fuel testing and in-pile section will be manufactured and installed in HANARO. The design criteria and technical specification of in-pile test section could be used the fuel and materials design with for irradiation testing IPS of HANARO fuel test loop. This results will become guidances for the planning and programming of irradiation testing. (author). 12 refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Mayn, B.G.

    1979-08-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria

  10. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Mayn, B.G.

    1979-08-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria

  11. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Salem nuclear power plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Salem nuclear power plant, Unit 1. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system include operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria

  12. General design criteria for diesel-generator sets for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarao, G.

    1975-01-01

    The design criteria for diesel-generators for nuclear power plants are examined. Applicable standards, loading, design performance, and characteristics to be considered in the selection of diesel-generator set and its auxiliary system are discussed. Also, engineered safety features loads together with loss of power safe shutdown loads and their starting sequence, analysis of voltage and frequency response and the diesel-generator ability to start various load blocks successfully to meet the reactor emergency core cooling requirements are discussed

  13. Advanced concepts, analysis approaches and criteria for nuclear piping system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Tang, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Recent research in piping system design and analysis has resulted in advancements on damping values, independent support motion (ISM), static coefficient method, simplified inelastic method and ASME code criteria changes. In the support area, passive type of supports such as energy-absorbing device and gap stopper have been developed. These advancements provide bases for improved and cost-effective design of future nuclear piping systems. (author)

  14. Development of biological criteria for the design of advanced hydropower turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coutant, Charles C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitney, Richard R. [Leavenworth, WA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A review of the literature related to turbine-passage injury mechanisms suggests the following biological criteria should be considered in the design of new turbines: (1) pressure; (2) cavitation; (3) shear and turbulence; and (4) mechanical injury. Based on the study’s review of fish behavior in relation to hydropower facilities, it provides a number of recommendations to guide both turbine design and additional research.

  15. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  16. Development of a design basis tornado and structural design criteria for the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.R.; Minor, J.E.; Mehta, K.C.

    1975-06-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of critical facilities at the Nevada Test Site to withstand the possible damaging effects of extreme winds and tornadoes, parameters for the effects of tornadoes and extreme winds and structural design criteria for the design and evaluation of structures were developed. The meteorological investigations conducted are summarized, and techniques used for developing the combined tornado and extreme wind risk model are discussed. The guidelines for structural design include methods for calculating pressure distributions on walls and roofs of structures and methods for accommodating impact loads from wind-driven missiles. Calculations for determining the design loads for an example structure are included

  17. Aircraft-crash-protected roof design for the European SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posta, B.A.; Kadar, I.; Rao, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The European utility requirement document (EURD) places significant emphasis on aircraft crash protection of the reactor building - Alternative concepts were evaluated for protecting the dry-well head and the fuel pool from the effect of the spalling concrete for the General Electric Company's European simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR) designs

  18. Model assessment of protective barrier designs: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.

    1987-11-01

    Protective barriers are being considered for use at the Hanford Site to enhance the isolation of radioactive wastes from water, plant, and animal intrusion. This study assesses the effectiveness of protective barriers for isolation of wastes from water. In this report, barrier designs are reviewed and several barrier modeling assumptions are tested. 20 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Basing of a complex design measures for protection against fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuger, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fire impact on NPP radiation safety is analyzed. The general industry requirements to the protection system against fire are shown to be insufficient for NPPs. A complex of protection measures against fire is suggested that should be taken into account in the NPP designs [ru

  20. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The LDUA System consists of a deployment vehicle, a vertical positioning mast, a light duty multi-axis robotic arm, a tank riser interface and confinement, a tool interface plate, a control system, and an operations control trailer. The criteria specified in this document will apply to all end effector systems being developed for use on or with the LDUA system at the Hanford site. The requirement stipulated in this document are mandatory

  1. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual: Public protective actions: Predetermined criteria and initial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A. Jr.; McKenna, T.J.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.

    1987-02-01

    This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. Public Protective Actions - Predetermined Criteria and Initial Actions is the fourth in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume reviews public protective action criteria and objectives, their bases and implementation, and the expected public response. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text

  2. Design loads, loading combinations and structural acceptance criteria for BWR containments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, N.W.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of loads, loading combinations, and structural acceptance criteria used for the design and evaluation of BWR containments in the Unites States has become much more comprehensive over the past decade. The Mark I pressure suppression containment vessels were designed for a static design pressure, a design temperature, dead load and static equivalent earthquake. The current Mark III containments are being designed to accommodate many more loads such as safety relief valve discharge loads, and suppression pool hydrodynamic loadings associated with the steam condensation phenomena as well as pressure and temperature transients for a range of pipe break sizes. Consistent with the more comprehensive definition of loads and loading combinations, the ASME Code presently establishes structural acceptance criteria with different margins of safety by the definition of Service Level Assignments A, B, C and D. Acting in a responsible manner, United States utilities are currently evaluating and modifying existing containment vessels to account for the more detailed load definition and structural acceptance criteria. (orig.)

  3. Small Business Conformity with Quality Website Design Criteria in a Marketing Communication Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Robinson Beachboard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Professional companies selling persuasive-communication services via the World Wide Web need to be exemplars of effective informing practices. Their credibility is at risk if their websites do not excel in marketing message and use of medium. Their unique brands need to be expressed through website technology and content, or they cannot compete successfully. Background: Compares marketing communication consultants’ websites with expert criteria. Methodology: Content analysis of 40 advertising agency websites. Contribution: Links an evaluation of advertising agency compliance with expert website criteria to established branding constructs. Findings: Most small advertising agencies could improve their brand reputations through better compliance with experts’ recommended website design and content criteria. Recommendations for Practitioners: A hierarchy of recommendations for practitioners is offered, addressing ease and importance. Impact on Society: Clarity and credibility of message and medium improve our ability to practice effective informing. Future Research: Explore online communications of specialized populations such as digital marketing experts.

  4. Reactor protection system design using micro-computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbrother, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Reactor protection systems for nuclear power plants have traditionally been built using analog hardware. This hardware works quite well for single parameter trip functions; however, optimum protection against DNBR and KW/ft limits requires more complex trip functions than can easily be handled with analog hardware. For this reason, Babcock and Wilcox has introduced a Reactor Protection System, called the RPS-II, that utilizes a micro-computer to handle the more complex trip functions. The paper describes the design of the RPS-II and the operation of the micro-computer within the Reactor Protection System

  5. Reactor protection system design using micro-computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbrother, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    Reactor Protection Systems for Nuclear Power Plants have traditionally been built using analog hardware. This hardware works quite well for single parameter trip functions; however, optimum protection against DNBR and KW/ft limits requires more complex trip functions than can easily be handled with analog hardware. For this reason, Babcock and Wilcox has introduced a Reactor Protection System, called the RPS-II, that utilizes a micro-computer to handle the more complex trip functions. This paper describes the design of the RPS-II and the operation of the micro-computer within the Reactor Protection System

  6. The radiation protection design of CSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Youwu; Zheng Huazhi; Zhu Xiaolong; Li Shuwei [Institute of modern physics, the Chinese academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China)

    2000-05-01

    The construction of CSR (Cooling Storage Ring) which include a main ring (CSRm) and an experimental ring (CSRe) will be started in this year. Heavy ions of carbon to uranium will be accelerated up to 900MeV/u and 400MeV/u at intensity of 10{sup 8} pps. For the shielding design of CSR, the secondary neutron yields due to ion beam loss and their spectra, angular distributions were estimated based on the experimental results for 400 MeV/u {sup 12}C+Cu reaction by K. Nakamura et.al.. The equivalent dose at the shield surface and in the surrounding environment, skyshine neutron dose equivalent and air-induced radioactivity were also estimated in this study. It is found that the most important environmental radiation impact component of CSR is the skyshine neutrons, and the environmental impact due to air and cooling water induced radioactivity were lesser. (author)

  7. The radiation protection design of CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Youwu; Zheng Huazhi; Zhu Xiaolong; Li Shuwei

    2000-01-01

    The construction of CSR (Cooling Storage Ring) which include a main ring (CSRm) and an experimental ring (CSRe) will be started in this year. Heavy ions of carbon to uranium will be accelerated up to 900MeV/u and 400MeV/u at intensity of 10 8 pps. For the shielding design of CSR, the secondary neutron yields due to ion beam loss and their spectra, angular distributions were estimated based on the experimental results for 400 MeV/u 12 C+Cu reaction by K. Nakamura et.al.. The equivalent dose at the shield surface and in the surrounding environment, skyshine neutron dose equivalent and air-induced radioactivity were also estimated in this study. It is found that the most important environmental radiation impact component of CSR is the skyshine neutrons, and the environmental impact due to air and cooling water induced radioactivity were lesser. (author)

  8. California-Oregon 500-kV transmission line development of design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    The California-Oregon Transmission Project (COTP) encompassed the design and construction of a third 500-kV ac intertie between California and the Pacific Northwest Transmission system. Sargent ampersand Lundy's (S ampersand L) scope of work in the COTP includes the design of approximately 150 miles of new single-circuit, 500-kV transmission line from southern Oregon to the vicinity of Redding, California. This paper presents the development of the design criteria for this segment of the project, which crosses diverse topographic and climatic regions. This project is an example of the increasing utilization of computers in transmission line engineering. Almost all aspects of design involved the use of the computer. Also, the development of the design criteria for this project coincided with an early release of the TLWorkstation software package by EPRI. TLWorkstation is an engineering workstation containing a family of programs for various aspects of transmission line design. This engineering software allows for increasing refinement in the design and economic optimization of transmission lines and is becoming an important design tool for transmission engineers

  9. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1: Volume 7, Project design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This Project Design Criteria document for the WRAP facility at the Hanford Site is presented within a systems format. The WRAP Module 1 facility has been categorized into eight (8) engineering systems for design purposes. These systems include: receiving, shipping and storage, nondestructive assay/nondestructive examination (NDA/NDE), waste process, internal transportation, building, heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), process control, and utilities. Within each system section of this document, the system-specific requirements are identified. The scope of the system is defined, the design goals are identified and the functional requirements are detailed

  10. The 1995 forum on appropriate criteria and methods for seismic design of nuclear piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagis, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    A record of the 1995 Forum on Appropriate Criteria and Methods for Seismic Design of Nuclear Piping is provided. The focus of the forum was the earthquake experience data base and whether the data base demonstrates that seismic inertia loads will not cause failure in ductile piping systems. This was a follow-up to the 1994 Forum when the use of earthquake experience data, including the recent Northridge earthquake, to justify a design-by-rule method was explored. Two possible topics for the next forum were identified--inspection after an earthquake and design for safe-shutdown earthquake only

  11. Empirical Design of Scour Protections around Monopile Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, L.; De Rouck, J.; Troch, P.

    2012-01-01

    combined wave and current loading. In part 1 (De Vos et al., 2011), preceding this paper, a static design guideline for a scour protection around a monopile is suggested, based on a combined wave and current flow field. By allowing some movement of the top layer stones of the scour protection, a more...... economical design is obtained. This paper describes the derivation of a dynamic design formula to calculate the required stone size for a scour protection around a monopile foundation in a combined wave and current climate. The formula is based on the results of an experimental model study, described...... in this paper. The formula gives an expected damage level to the scour protection, based on the wave orbital velocity, wave period, steady current velocity, water depth, relative stone density and stone size. When applying the formula for a typical situation in the North Sea, a reduction of 20% to 80...

  12. The use of information technology security assessment criteria to protect specialized computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykov, V.A.; Shein, A.V.; Piskarev, A.S.; Devaney, D.M.; Melton, R.B.; Hunteman, W.J.; Prommel, J.M.; Rothfuss, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the information security assessment criteria used in Russia and compare it with that used in the United States. The computer system security assessment criteria utilized by the State Technical Commission of Russia and similar criteria utilized by the US Department of Defense (TCSEC) are intended for the development and implementation of proven methods for achieving a required level of information security. These criteria are utilized, first and foremost, when conducting certification assessments of general purpose systems. The Russian Federation is creating specialized systems for nuclear material control and accountancy (MC and A) within the framework of the international laboratory-to-laboratory collaboration. Depending on the conditions in which the MC and A system is intended to operate, some of the criteria and the attendant certification requirements may exceed those established or may overlap the requirements established for attestation of such systems. In this regard it is possible to modify the certification and attestation requirements depending on the conditions in which a system will operate in order to achieve the ultimate goal--implementation of the systems in the industry

  13. Sustainable and safe design of footwear integrating ecological footprint and risk criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herva, Marta; Álvarez, Antonio; Roca, Enrique

    2011-09-15

    The ecodesign of a product implies that different potential environmental impacts of diverse nature must be taken into account considering its whole life cycle, apart from the general design criteria (i.e. technical, functional, ergonomic, aesthetic or economic). In this sense, a sustainability assessment methodology, ecological footprint (EF), and environmental risk assessment (ERA), were combined for the first time to derive complementary criteria for the ecodesign of footwear. Four models of children's shoes were analyzed and compared. The synthetic shoes obtained a smaller EF (6.5 gm(2)) when compared to the leather shoes (11.1 gm(2)). However, high concentrations of hazardous substances were detected in the former, even making the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and the Cancer Risk (CR) exceed the recommended safety limits for one of the synthetic models analyzed. Risk criteria were prioritized in this case and, consequently, the design proposal was discarded. For the other cases, the perspective provided by the indicators of different nature was balanced to accomplish a fairest evaluation. The selection of fibers produced under sustainable criteria and the reduction of the materials consumption was recommended, since the area requirements would be minimized and the absence of hazardous compounds would ensure safety conditions during the use stage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design criteria for prestressed concrete pressure vessels for high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmelpfennig, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work on design criteria for concrete structures of Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessels (PCRVs), which has been carried out since 1984 by a couple of competent institutions. After some basic considerations on the safety demands on PCRVs, especially their Prestressed Concrete Structure (PCS), and the consequences for an elevated level of quality to be ensured by the design criteria, an impression is given, first, by what means a higher quality standard is gained with respect to selection of materials and specification of material data in comparison to the usual building industry and what kind of criteria on this behalf should be fixed in a PCRV code. As a further quality increasing feature, the specific demands on design analysis as practised according to the present state of science and as to be treated within a code are discussed. This concerns analyses for steady state and transient temperatures as well as stress and strain analyses for service and ultimate load conditions. It is outlined to what degree calculation models should be detailed, which includes statements about admissible idealizations. As a central topic the question is discussed in what way the ultimate load capacity has to be evaluated, thereby presenting results of some investigations pointing out the conditions under which the design is determined by the different kinds of ultimate load conditions. Finally, some reflections on the demands on monitoring the PCS behaviour during its lifetime and on several questions still to be answered in this field are expressed. (orig.)

  15. Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Advanced (Non-Light Water) Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In July 2013, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a joint initiative to address a key portion of the licensing framework essential to advanced (non-light water) reactor technologies. The initiative addressed the “General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,” Appendix A to10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 50, which were developed primarily for light water reactors (LWRs), specific to the needs of advanced reactor design and licensing. The need for General Design Criteria (GDC) clarifications in non-LWR applications has been consistently identified as a concern by the industry and varied stakeholders and was acknowledged by the NRC staff in their 2012 Report to Congress1 as an area for enhancement. The initiative to adapt GDC requirements for non-light water advanced reactor applications is being accomplished in two phases. Phase 1, managed by DOE, consisted of reviews, analyses and evaluations resulting in recommendations and deliverables to NRC as input for NRC staff development of regulatory guidance. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed this technical report using technical and reactor technology stakeholder inputs coupled with analysis and evaluations provided by a team of knowledgeable DOE national laboratory personnel with input from individual industry licensing consultants. The DOE national laboratory team reviewed six different classes of emerging commercial reactor technologies against 10 CFR 50 Appendix A GDC requirements and proposed guidance for their adapted use in non-LWR applications. The results of the Phase 1 analysis are contained in this report. A set of draft Advanced Reactor Design Criteria (ARDC) has been proposed for consideration by the NRC in the establishment of guidance for use by non-LWR designers and NRC staff. The proposed criteria were developed to preserve the underlying safety bases expressed by the original GDC, and recognizing that advanced reactors may take

  16. Implementation of decommissioning criteria in the conceptual design of the MRS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.L.; Wilcox, A.D.; Huang, S.

    1986-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Ralph M. Parsons Company (RMP) to prepare the conceptual design of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility. The purpose of this facility is to consolidate and temporarily store spent fuel from civilian nuclear power plants. In addition, it will overpack, handle, and store high-level radioactive waste from non-defense related sources. The Functional Design Criteria (FDC) prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratories, as well as 10 CFR 72, requires the facility to be designed for decommissioning, with provisions to facilitate decontamination of structures and equipment to minimize the volume of radioactive wastes and contaminated equipment at the time of decommissioning. Many problems associated with decommissioning a nuclear facility have been identified in recent years and the design for the MRS Facility presents a unique opportunity for RMP to implement decommissioning criteria into the conceptual design of a major nuclear facility. The provisions made in the design to facilitate decommissioning include good housekeeping during operations, controlled personnel access, access for equipment removal, equipment design, installed radiation monitors, adequate work space, installed decontamination systems and areas, control of all effluents, and operational documentation. These topics will be the major points of discussion for this paper

  17. Design aspects of radiation protection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Safety Guide deals with the provisions to be made in the design of thermal neutron reactor power plants to protect site personnel and the public from undue exposure to ionizing radiation during operational states and accident conditions. The effective radiation protection is a combination of good design, high quality construction and proper operation. The document gives guidance on how to satisfy the objectives contained in Subsection 2.2 and Section 9 of the Code of Practice on Design for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants

  18. Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment tool - Sustainable Effective Design criteria in the Portuguese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maria de Fátima; Mateus, Ricardo; Bragança, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Tools and methods to improve current practices and quality in the healthcare building sector are necessary to support decision-making at different building life cycle phases. Furthermore, Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment (HBSA) Methods are based on criteria organised into different levels, such as categories and indicators. These criteria highlight aspects of significant importance when designing and operating a sustainable healthcare building. To bring more objectivity to the sustainability assessments, the standardisation bodies (CEN and ISO) proposed core indicators that should be used in the evaluation of the environmental, societal and economic performances of buildings. Nevertheless, relying on state of the art analysis, it is possible to conclude that there are aspects of major importance for the operation of healthcare buildings that are not considered in the HBSA methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to discuss the context of sustainability assessment methods in the field of healthcare buildings and to present a proposal for the incorporation of Sustainable-Effective Design (SED) criteria in a new HBSA method. The used research method is innovative since in the development of the list of sustainability criteria it considers the opinion of main healthcare buildings' stakeholders, the existing healthcare assessment methods and the ISO and CEN standardisation works in the field of the methods to assess the sustainability of construction works. As a result, the proposed method is composed of fifty-two sustainability indicators that cover the different dimensions of the sustainability concept to support decision making during the design of a new or retrofitted healthcare building in urban areas. - Highlights: •A new system to assess the sustainability of healthcare buildings is presented. •We propose a method to develop the list of sustainability indicators for hospitals. •We propose a new concept – Sustainable-Effective Design (SED

  19. ERG review of containment failure probability and repository functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, S.

    1986-06-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The June 1984 meeting of the ERG considered two topics: (1) statistical probability for containment of nuclides within the waste package and (2) repository design criteria. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these two subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by ERG

  20. Definition of design criteria of mechanical transfer: an interaction between engineering and health areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Taciana Ramos; Echternacht, Eliza Helena de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the factors that justify the low use of a mechanical transfer in the context of a long-term institution. It is a device intended for internal transportation of individuals who have mobility problems. The analysis involves researchers from the fields of health and engineering in order to generate design criteria that consider the needs of caregivers and patients of this institution. To understand the reality of this site and their specificities, was used Ergonomic Work Analysis.

  1. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  2. The role of advanced nuclear power technologies in developing countries: Criteria and design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The document includes the papers presented at the following two technical committee meetings organized by the IAEA: Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop on Criteria for the Introduction of Advanced Nuclear Power Technologies for Specific Applications in Developing Countries, Vienna, 27-30 June 1988 (14 papers) and Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop on Design Requirements for the Application of Advanced Concepts in Developing Countries, Vienna, 6-9 December 1988 (16 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  3. Cathodic Protection Design Algorithms for Refineries Aboveground Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosay Abdul sattar Majbor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Storage tanks condition and integrity is maintained by joint application of coating and cathodic protection. Iraq southern region rich in oil and petroleum product refineries need and use plenty of aboveground storage tanks. Iraq went through conflicts over the past thirty five years resulting in holding the oil industry infrastructure behind regarding maintenance and modernization. The primary concern in this work is the design and implementation of cathodic protection systems for the aboveground storage tanks farm in the oil industry. Storage tank external base area and tank internal surface area are to be protected against corrosion using impressed current and sacrificial anode cathodic protection systems. Interactive versatile computer programs are developed to provide the necessary system parameters data including the anode requirements, composition, rating, configuration, etc. Microsoft-Excel datasheet and Visual Basic.Net developed software were used throughout the study in the design of both cathodic protection systems. The case study considered in this work is the eleven aboveground storage tanks farm situated in al-Shauiba refinery in southern IRAQ. The designed cathodic protection systems are to be installed and monitored realistically in the near future. Both systems were designed for a life span of (15-30 years, and all their parameters were within the internationally accepted standards.

  4. 47 CFR 27.60 - TV/DTV interference protection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... criteria. Base, fixed, control, and mobile transmitters in the 698-763 MHz, 775-793 MHz, and 805-806 MHz frequency bands must be operated only in accordance with the rules in this section to reduce the potential... below 1 kilowatt in accordance with the values shown in the power reduction graph in Figure B in § 90...

  5. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Daqiang; Jin Hongjun; Yu Lingwei; Hu Shuangqing

    2003-01-01

    Criteria were established for an organic pollutant in freshwaters of China. - Freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in China, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to China to determine 48-h LC 50 and 96-h LC 50 values for 2,4-DCP. In addition, 21 day survival-reproduction tests with Daphnia magna, 30-day embryo-larval tests with Carassius auratus, 60 day fry-juvenile test with Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d early life stage tests with Bufo bufo gargarizans and 96 h growth inhibition tests with Scenedesms obliqaus were conducted, to estimate lower chronic limit (LCL) and upper chronic limit (UCL) values. The final acute value (FAV) was 2.49 mg/l 2,4-DCP. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) ranged from 3.74 to 22.5. The final chronic value (FCV) and the final plant value (FPV) of 2.4-DCP were 0.212 mg/l and 7.07 mg/l respectively. Based on FAV, FCV, and FPV, a criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of 1.25 mg/l and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) of 0.212 mg/l were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for 2,4-DCP based on aquatic biota in China

  6. An approach to development of structural design criteria for highly irradiated core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    The advent of the fast breeder reactor presents novel challenges in structural design and materials engineering. For instance, the core components of these reactors experience high energy neutron irradiation at elevated temperature, which causes significant time-dependent changes in material behaviour, such as a progressive loss of ductility. New structural design criteria are needed to extend elevated temperature design-by-analysis to account for these changes. Alloys best able to cope with the demands of the core operating environment are being explored and their structural behaviour characterized. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an approach used in the development of core component structural design criteria. To do this, several design rules, plus brief rationale, from draft RDT Standards F9-7, -8 and -9 will be presented. These recently completed standards ('Structural Design Guidelines for Breeder Reactor Core Components') were prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy and represent a consensus among most organizations participating in the U.S. breeder program. (author)

  7. ITER structural design criteria and their extension to advanced reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Kalinin, G.

    2000-01-01

    Applications of the recent ITER structural design criteria (ISDC) are illustrated by two components. First, the low-temperature-design rules are applied to copper alloys that are particularly prone to irradiation embrittlement at relatively low fluences at certain temperatures. Allowable stresses are derived and the impact of the embrittlement on allowable surface heat flux of a simple first-wall/limiter design is demonstrated. Next, the high-temperature-design rules of ISDC are applied to evaporation of lithium and vapor extraction (EVOLVE), a blanket design concept currently being investigated under the US Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) program. A single tungsten first-wall tube is considered for thermal and stress analyses by finite-element method

  8. Protective actions in the late phase - intervention criteria and decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    2004-01-01

    a broad acceptance internationally of the principles for their introduction, but it has not been possible to reach an agreement for the purpose of defining a net benefit based upon the exact weighting to be attached to each of the attributes influencing the decision on intervention, e.g. socio......-psychological attributes. Optimisation of protection, i.e. maximising the net benefit, is not a question of developing radiation protection philosophy to fully include socio-psychological factors but rather to include these factors-in parallel with the radiological protection factors-in cooperation between radiation...... protection experts and e.g. experts in social and psychological sciences under the responsibility of the decision-maker, who will take the final decision on the introduction of long-term countermeasures....

  9. Design and testing of integrated circuits for reactor protection channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Vandermolen, R.I.; Jagadish, U.; Swail, B.K.; Naser, J.

    1995-01-01

    Custom and semicustom application-specific integrated circuit design and testing methods are investigated for use in research and commercial nuclear reactor safety systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working together through a cooperative research and development agreement to apply modern technology to a nuclear reactor protection system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate to the nuclear industry an alternative approach for new or upgrade reactor protection and safety system signal processing and voting logic. Motivation for this project stems from (1) the difficulty of proving that software-based protection systems are adequately reliable, (2) the obsolescence of the original equipment, and (3) the improved performance of digital processing. A demonstration model for protection system of PWR reactor has been designed and built

  10. Probabilistic risk criteria and their application to nuclear chemical plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, T.; Barnes, D.S.; Brown, M.L.; Taig, A.R.; Johnston, B.D.; Hayns, M.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear chemical plant safety strategy is presented. The use of risk criteria in design is demonstrated by reference to a particular area of the plant. This involves the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques. Computer programs developed by the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at its Safety and Reliability Directorate (SRD) are used toe valuate and analyze the resultant fault trees. the magnitude of releases are estimated and individual and societal risks determined. The paper concludes that the application of PRA to a nuclear chemical plant can be structured in such a way as to allow a designer to work to quantitative risk targets

  11. Design criteria and candidate electrical power systems for a reusable Space Shuttle booster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, D. V.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study to establish electrical power requirements, investigate candidate power sources, and select a representative power generation concept for the NASA Space Shuttle booster stage. Design guidelines and system performance requirements are established. Candidate power sources and combinations thereof are defined and weight estimates made. The selected power source concept utilizes secondary silver-zinc batteries, engine-driven alternators with constant speed drive, and an airbreathing gas turbine. The need for cost optimization, within safety, reliability, and performance constraints, is emphasized as being the most important criteria in design of the final system.

  12. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.; Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. Actual component design, fabrication, testing, and inspection will be performed by various DOE laboratories, industry, and academia. This document augments WHC-SD-TD-FRD-003, 'Functions and Requirements for the Light Duty Utility Arm Integrated System' (F). All requirements dictated in the F shall also be applicable in this document. Whenever conflicts arise between this document and the F, this document shall take precedence

  13. The development of criteria for the design of insulation for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furber, B.N.; Hopkins, I.H.G.; Stuart, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    In 1960 when the early design studies for the Oldbury Power Station were being carried out the use of insulation in a reactor environment was quite novel. No manufacturer had previous experience of this particular application of insulation. The paper describes the work carried out to establish the design criteria for Magnox and subsequent Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGR) and indicates some of the new problems of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR). Unless otherwise stated the work was carried out by The Nuclear Power Group Ltd. (TNPG) and the conclusions express the present thinking of that Company. (author)

  14. LMFBR safety criteria and guidelines for consideration in the design of future plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    For many years the Commission of the European Communities has been conducting activities aimed at the progressive harmonization of safety requirements and criteria applied to nuclear installations in the Community. These activities cover thermal and fast reactors. This publication represents a major achievement in reaching this goal. The document, which has been prepared in the framework of activities of the CEC fast-reactor safety working group (SWG), consists of safety criteria and guidelines for fast reactors. It represents the common view of all EC Member States which have a fast-reactor programme or are interested in fast-reactor development. The criteria and guidelines are structured according to different types of possible faults, such as core reactivity faults, general cooling faults, subassembly faults, faults outside the core and causes external to the station. Only those events are considered which are in the design basis of current fast-reactor projects. Proposed measures or guidelines to satisfy the criteria are based on the present knowledge and proven technology

  15. Some considerations for establishing seismic design criteria for nuclear plant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.P.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) is providing assistance to the U.S. NRC in developing regulatory positions on the seismic analysis of piping. As part of this effort, ETEC previously performed reviews of the ASME Code, Section III piping seismic design criteria as revised by the 1994 Addenda. These revised criteria were based on evaluations by the ASME Special Task Group on Integrated Piping Criteria (STGIPC) and the Technical Core Group (TCG) of the Advanced Reactor Corporation (ARC) of the earlier joint Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/NRC Piping ampersand Fitting Dynamic Reliability (PFDR) program. Previous ETEC evaluations reported at the 23rd WRSM of seismic margins associated with the revised criteria are reviewed. These evaluations had concluded, in part, that although margins for the timed PFDR tests appeared acceptable (>2), margins in detuned tests could be unacceptable (<1). This conclusion was based primarily on margin reduction factors (MRFs) developed by the ASME STGIPC and ARC/TCG from realistic analyses of PFDR test 36. This paper reports more recent results including: (1) an approach developed for establishing appropriate seismic margins based on PRA considerations, (2) independent assessments of frequency effects on margins, (3) the development of margins based on failure mode considerations, and (4) the implications of Code Section III rules for Section XI

  16. PLAY HANDS PROTECTIVE GLOVES: TECHNICAL NOTE ON DESIGN AND CONCEPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Hicks, Michele; Lura, Derek J; Highsmith, M Jason

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood motor disability, with a global incidence of 1.6 to 2.5/1,000 live births. Approximately 23% of children with CP are dependent upon assistive technologies. Some children with developmental disabilities have self-injurious behaviors such as finger biting but also have therapeutic needs. The purpose of this technical note is to describe design considerations for a protective glove and finger covering that maintains finger dexterity for children who exhibit finger and hand chewing (dermatophagia) and require therapeutic range of motion and may benefit from sensory stimulation resulting from constant contact between glove and skin. Protecting Little and Adolescent Youth (PLAY) Hands are protective gloves for children with developmental disorders such as CP who injure themselves by biting their hands due to pain or sensory issues. PLAY Hands will be cosmetically appealing gloves that provide therapeutic warmth, tactile sensory feedback, range of motion for donning/ doffing, and protection to maximize function and quality of life for families of children with developmental disorders. The technology is either a per-finger protective orthosis or an entire glove solution designed from durable 3D-printed biodegradable/bioabsorbable materials such as thermoplastics. PLAY Hands represent a series of protective hand wear interventions in the areas of self-mutilating behavior, kinematics, and sensation. They will be made available in a range of protective iterations from single- or multi-digit finger orthoses to a basic glove design to a more structurally robust and protective iteration. To improve the quality of life for patients and caregivers, they are conceptualized to be cosmetically appealing, protective, and therapeutic.

  17. Studies on design principles and criteria of fuels and graphites for experimental multi-purpose very high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Taketoshi; Sato, Sadao; Tani, Yutaro

    1977-12-01

    Design principles and criteria of fuels and graphites have been studied to determine the main design parameters of a reference core MARK-III of the Experimental Multi-purpose Very High Temperature Reactor. The present status of research and development for HTGR fuels and graphites is reviewed from a standpoint of their integrity and safety aspects, and is compared to the specific design requirements for the VHTR fuels and graphites. Consequently, reasonable materials specifications, safety criteria and design analysis methods are presented for coated fuel particle, fuel compact, graphite sleeve, core support graphite and neutron absorber material. These design principles and criteria will be refined by further experimental investigations. (auth.)

  18. Criteria for seismic evaluation and potential design fixes for WWER type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose for this document is to provide a criteria for the seismic evaluation and development of potential design fixes for structures, systems and components for the WWER type Nuclear power plants. The design fixes are divided into two categories, detailed and easy fixes. Detailed fixes are typically applicable to building structures, components for which there is little or no seismic capacity information, large tanks and vital systems and components which make up the reactor cooling system and components which perform support or auxiliary functions. In case of the design of 'easy fixes', the criteria presented may be used for both the seismic design as well as for the evaluation of structures, systems and components to which easy fix design applies. Easy fixes are situations where seismic capacities of structures, systems and components can be significantly increased with relatively minor, inexpensive fixes usually associated with anchorage modification of safety related structures, systems and components or those that could interact with safety related structures, systems and components. Often these fixes can be accomplished while the plant is in operation

  19. Criteria for seismic evaluation and potential design fixes for WWER type nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J D [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose for this document is to provide a criteria for the seismic evaluation and development of potential design fixes for structures, systems and components for the WWER type Nuclear power plants. The design fixes are divided into two categories, detailed and easy fixes. Detailed fixes are typically applicable to building structures, componentsfor which there is little or no seismic capacity information, large tanks and vital systems and components which make up the reactor cooling system and components which perform support or auxiliary functions. In case of the design of 'easy fixes', the criteria presented may be used for both the seismic design as well as for the evaluation of structures, systems and components to which easy fix design applies. Easy fixes are situations where seismic capacities of structures, systems and components can be significantly increased with relatively minor, inexpensive fixes usually associated with anchorage modification of safety related structures, systems and components or those that could interact with safety related structures, systems and components. Often these fixes can be accomplished while the plant is in operation.

  20. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cytogenetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This International Standard provides criteria for quality assurance and quality control, evaluation of the performance and the accreditation of biological dosimetry by cytogenetic service laboratories. This International Standard addresses: a) the confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory, b) the laboratory safety requirements, c) the calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels, d) the scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry, e) the criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose, f) the reporting of results, g) the quality assurance and quality control, h) informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations and a sample report

  1. Application impact of internal monitoring criteria in radiological protection programs of nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernardo M.; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Juliao, Ligia Q.C.; Lourenco, Maria Cristina; Melo, Dunstana R.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the simulation of the internal monitoring criteria application for the most used radionuclides by the area of nuclear medicine, taking into consideration the usual conditions of usual source handling and the activity bands authorized by the CNEN. It is concluded that the handling of Iodine 131 for therapeutical purposes is the practice which presents the most risk of internal exposure for the works, requiring the adoption of a program for internal monitoring by the nuclear medicine services

  2. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Daqiang; Jin Hongjun; Yu Lingwei; Hu Shuangqing

    2003-04-01

    Criteria were established for an organic pollutant in freshwaters of China. - Freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in China, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to China to determine 48-h LC{sub 50} and 96-h LC{sub 50} values for 2,4-DCP. In addition, 21 day survival-reproduction tests with Daphnia magna, 30-day embryo-larval tests with Carassius auratus, 60 day fry-juvenile test with Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d early life stage tests with Bufo bufo gargarizans and 96 h growth inhibition tests with Scenedesms obliqaus were conducted, to estimate lower chronic limit (LCL) and upper chronic limit (UCL) values. The final acute value (FAV) was 2.49 mg/l 2,4-DCP. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) ranged from 3.74 to 22.5. The final chronic value (FCV) and the final plant value (FPV) of 2.4-DCP were 0.212 mg/l and 7.07 mg/l respectively. Based on FAV, FCV, and FPV, a criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of 1.25 mg/l and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) of 0.212 mg/l were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for 2,4-DCP based on aquatic biota in China.

  3. ''Low dose'' and/or ''high dose'' in radiation protection: A need to setting criteria for dose classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The ''low dose'' and/or ''high dose'' of ionizing radiation are common terms widely used in radiation applications, radiation protection and radiobiology, and natural radiation environment. Reading the title, the papers of this interesting and highly important conference and the related literature, one can simply raise the question; ''What are the levels and/or criteria for defining a low dose or a high dose of ionizing radiation?''. This is due to the fact that the criteria for these terms and for dose levels between these two extreme quantities have not yet been set, so that the terms relatively lower doses or higher doses are usually applied. Therefore, setting criteria for classification of radiation doses in the above mentioned areas seems a vital need. The author while realizing the existing problems to achieve this important task, has made efforts in this paper to justify this need and has proposed some criteria, in particular for the classification of natural radiation areas, based on a system of dose limitation. (author)

  4. Empirical Design of Scour Protections around Monopile Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, L.; De Rouck, J.; Troch, P.

    2011-01-01

    in a current alone situation), at present, little design guidelines exist for the specific case of a scour protection around a monopile foundation subjected to a combined wave and current loading. This paper describes the derivation of a static design formula to calculate the required stone size for a scour......Together with new opportunities, offshore wind farms raise new engineering challenges. An important aspect relates to the erosion of bottom material around the foundation of the wind turbines, caused by the local increase of the wave and current induced flow velocities by the pile's presence....... Typically, the expected scour has a considerable impact on the stability and dynamic behavior of the wind turbine and a scour protection is placed to avoid erosion of the soil close to the foundation. Although much experience exists on the design of scour protections around bridge piers (which are placed...

  5. Recommendation of federal protected area designation for Sable Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    A report by the Canada - Nova Scotia Sable Island Task Group (TG) and its partners recommends the appropriate federal protected area designation for Sable Island as being either that of a national wildlife area or of a national park, and includes objectives and a synopsis of the analyses of the designation options. It was found that both protected area designations are feasible and would ensure equivalent and comprehensive conservation of the ecology and wildlife on the Island, including the horses, but the TG's preferred recommendation is the designation of Sable Island as a National Park under the Canada National Parks Act. The next steps include consultations and a review of the issues identified during these consultations to facilitate the designation.

  6. Buckling design criteria for waste package disposal containers in mined salt repositories: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, R.H.

    1986-12-01

    This report documents analytical and experimental results from a survey of the technical literature on buckling of thick-walled cylinders under external pressure. Based upon these results, a load factor is suggested for the design of waste package containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in repositories mined in salt formations. The load factor is defined as a ratio of buckling pressure to allowable pressure. Specifically, a load factor which ranges from 1.5 for plastic buckling to 3.0 for elastic buckling is included in a set of proposed buckling design criteria for waste disposal containers. Formulas are given for buckling design under axisymmetric conditions. Guidelines are given for detailed inelastic buckling analyses which are generally required for design of disposal containers

  7. Protective actions in the late phase intervention criteria and decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the past 15 years, the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents resulted in extensive postemergency phase response. Large amounts of 137 Cs were released to the environment during these accidents, leading to a prolonged or quasi-prolonged exposure of the affected populations. The experiences gained from these accidents and others have revealed a need for an updated and fully complete system of decision-making an implementation of long-term countermeasures. In the post-release phase it is expected that a reasonably complete picture of radiation and contamination levels and affected areas in the environment is available. In this phase the dominant risks originate from radioactive materials deposited on the ground, mainly from external exposure and ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Measured surface contamination density can thus be used to estimate doses from both the external and ingestion exposure pathways and can therefore be used to make decisions about the introduction of countermeasures. The major countermeasures in the late phase of a nuclear or radiological accident where long-lived radionuclides have been dispersed in the environment are relocation/resettlement, foodstuff restrictions, agricultural countermeasures and cleanup of contaminated land. An overview of these late phase countermeasures is given in the paper. In addition, recommendations from the international radiation protection organizations ICRP, IAEA and from the EU on late phase countermeasures are presented together with the background for their derivation. An important aim of late phase countermeasures is to reduce the likely numbers of cancers as much and as effectively as reasonably possible. However, the total health consequences from long-term exposure situations, and of any countermeasures subsequently implemented, include more than the injuries and increased risks directly attributable to radiation exposure. Stressors, such as the perception of the hazard posed by radiation in

  8. Architecture, design and protection of power distribution networks; Architecture, conception et protection des reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrel, J.P. [Schneider Electric SA, 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    2000-10-01

    The design of all-electric ships calls for high power levels in the propulsion systems. Merchant ships and especially naval vessels demand rugged, reliable propulsion systems with high availability, low maintenance and ease of operation. These constraints imply the choice of an optimized single winding system. The design of the network topology and protection system, and the choice of operating voltage and HT neutral configuration are the main steps in the design. (author)

  9. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed

  10. Evaluation of a School Building in Turkey According to the Basic Sustainable Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, H. D.

    2017-08-01

    In Turkey, as well as many other developing countries, the significance of sustainable education buildings has only recently become recognized and the issue of sustainability issue has not been sufficiently involved in laws and regulations. In this study, first of all architectural sustainability with basic design criteria has been explained. After that selected type primary school project in Turkey has been evaluated according to the sustainable design criteria. Type project of school buildings significantly limits the sustainability performance expected from buildings. It is clear that type projects shorten the planning time as they include a designing process that is independent of settlement and they are repeated in various places with different characteristics, indeed. On the other hand; abundance of disadvantages such as the overlook of the natural physical and structural properties of the location mostly restricts the sustainable design of the building. For sustainable buildings, several factors such as the environment, land, climate, insolation, direction etc. shall be taken into consideration at the beginning stage. Therefore; implementation of type projects can be deemed to be inappropriate for sustainability.

  11. Reliability based code calibration of fatigue design criteria of nuclear Class-1 piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, J.; Balasubramaniyan, V.; Chellapandi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue design of Class-l piping of NPP is carried out using Section-III of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel code. The fatigue design criteria of ASME are based on the concept of safety factor, which does not provide means for the management of uncertainties for consistently reliable and economical designs. In this regards, a work is taken up to estimate the implicit reliability level associated with fatigue design criteria of Class-l piping specified by ASME Section III, NB-3650. As ASME fatigue curve is not in the form of analytical expression, the reliability level of pipeline fittings and joints is evaluated using the mean fatigue curve developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The methodology employed for reliability evaluation is FORM, HORSM and MCS. The limit state function for fatigue damage is found to be sensitive to eight parameters, which are systematically modelled as stochastic variables during reliability estimation. In conclusion a number of important aspects related to reliability of various piping product and joints are discussed. A computational example illustrates the developed procedure for a typical pipeline. (author)

  12. Probability-Based Design Criteria of the ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Provisions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chock, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mitigation of tsunami risk requires a combination of emergency preparedness for evacuation in addition to providing structural resilience of critical facilities, infrastructure, and key resources necessary for immediate response and economic and social recovery. Critical facilities would include emergency response, medical, tsunami refuges and shelters, ports and harbors, lifelines, transportation, telecommunications, power, financial institutions, and major industrial/commercial facilities. The Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE/SEI 7 Standards Committee is developing a proposed new Chapter 6 - Tsunami Loads and Effects for the 2016 edition of the ASCE 7 Standard. ASCE 7 provides the minimum design loads and requirements for structures subject to building codes such as the International Building Code utilized in the USA. In this paper we will provide a review emphasizing the intent of these new code provisions and explain the design methodology. The ASCE 7 provisions for Tsunami Loads and Effects enables a set of analysis and design methodologies that are consistent with performance-based engineering based on probabilistic criteria. . The ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects chapter will be initially applicable only to the states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii. Ground shaking effects and subsidence from a preceding local offshore Maximum Considered Earthquake will also be considered prior to tsunami arrival for Alaska and states in the Pacific Northwest regions governed by nearby offshore subduction earthquakes. For national tsunami design provisions to achieve a consistent reliability standard of structural performance for community resilience, a new generation of tsunami inundation hazard maps for design is required. The lesson of recent tsunami is that historical records alone do not provide a sufficient measure of the potential heights of future tsunamis. Engineering design must consider the occurrence of events greater than

  13. On the construction of experimental designs for a given task by jointly optimizing several quality criteria: Pareto-optimal experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M S; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C

    2012-11-19

    Experimental designs for a given task should be selected on the base of the problem being solved and of some criteria that measure their quality. There are several such criteria because there are several aspects to be taken into account when making a choice. The most used criteria are probably the so-called alphabetical optimality criteria (for example, the A-, E-, and D-criteria related to the joint estimation of the coefficients, or the I- and G-criteria related to the prediction variance). Selecting a proper design to solve a problem implies finding a balance among these several criteria that measure the performance of the design in different aspects. Technically this is a problem of multi-criteria optimization, which can be tackled from different views. The approach presented here addresses the problem in its real vector nature, so that ad hoc experimental designs are generated with an algorithm based on evolutionary algorithms to find the Pareto-optimal front. There is not theoretical limit to the number of criteria that can be studied and, contrary to other approaches, no just one experimental design is computed but a set of experimental designs all of them with the property of being Pareto-optimal in the criteria needed by the user. Besides, the use of an evolutionary algorithm makes it possible to search in both continuous and discrete domains and avoid the need of having a set of candidate points, usual in exchange algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Packaging design criteria (onsite) project W-520 immobilized low-activity waste transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A plan is currently in place to process the high-level radioactive wastes that resulted from uranium and plutonium recovery operations from Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Currently, millions of gallons of high-level radioactive waste in the form of liquids, sludges, and saltcake are stored in many large underground tanks onsite. This waste will be processed and separated into high-level and low-activity fractions. Both fractions will then be vitrified (i.e., blended with molten borosilicate glass) in order to encapsulate the toxic radionuclides. The immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass will be poured into LAW canisters, allowed to cool and harden to solid form, sealed by welding, and then transported to a double-lined trench in the 200 East Area for permanent disposal. This document presents the packaging design criteria (PDC) for an onsite LAW transportation system, which includes the ILAW canister, ILAW package, and transport vehicle and defines normal and accident conditions. This PDC provides the basis for the ILAW onsite transportation system design and fabrication and establishes the transportation safety criteria that the design will be evaluated against in the Package Specific Safety Document (PSSD). It provides the criteria for the ILAW canister, cask and transport vehicles and defines normal and accident conditions. The LAW transportation system is designed to transport stabilized waste from the vitrification facility to the ILAW disposal facility developed by Project W-520. All ILAW transport will take place within the 200 East Area (all within the Hanford Site)

  15. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João C M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-01-01

    Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of "building material not allowed". The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Westinghouse designed distributed mircroprocessor based protection and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Reid, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    For approximately five years, Westinghouse has been involved in the design and licensing of a distributed microprocessor based system for the protection and control of a pressurized water reactor nuclear steam supply system. A 'top-down' design methodology was used, in which the system global performance objectives were specified, followed by increasingly more detailed design specifications which ultimately decomposed the system into its basic hardware and software elements. The design process and design decisions were influenced by the recognition that the final product would have to be verified to ensure its capability to perform the safety-related functions of a class 1E protection system. The verification process mirrored the design process except that it was 'bottom-up' and thus started with the basic elements and worked upwards through the system in increasingly complex blocks. A number of areas which are of interest in a distributed system are disucssed, with emphasis on two systems. The first, the Integrated Protection System is primarily responsible for processing signals from field mounted sensors to provide for reactor trips and the initiation of the Engineered Safety Features. The Integrated Control System, which is organized in a parallel manner, processes other sensor signals and generates the necessary analog and on-off signals to maintain the plant parameters within specified limits. Points covered include system structure, systems partitioning strategies, communications techniques, software design concepts, reliability and maintainability, commercial component availability, interference susceptibility, licensing issues, and applicability. (LL)

  17. Protective actions in the late phase - Intervention criteria and decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Major countermeasures in the late phase of a nuclear or radiological accident where long-lived radionuclides have been dispersed in the environment are relocation/resettlement, foodstuff restrictions, agricultural countermeasures and clean-up of contaminated areas. There has essentially been a broad acceptance internationally of the principles for their introduction, but it has not been possible to reach an agreement for the purpose of defining a net benefit based upon the exact weighting to be attached to each of the attributes influencing the decision on intervention, e.g. socio-psychological attributes. Optimisation of protection, i.e. maximising the net benefit, is not a question of developing radiation protection philosophy to fully include socio-psychological factors but rather to include these factors - in parallel with the radiological protection factors - in cooperation between radiation protection experts and e.g. experts in social and psychological sciences under the responsibility of the decision-maker, who will take the final decision on the introduction of long-term countermeasures. (authors)

  18. Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative Environmental Protection Agency effort is underway to elucidate the technical aspects of coral reef biocriteria implementation. A stony coral rapid bioassessment protocol has been introduced and applied in the Florida Keys and U.S. Virgin Islands, where several in...

  19. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN WATER ACT TO PROTECT A NATIONAL TREASURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inh...

  20. Assessment criteria for assessing energy-absorbing front underrun protection on trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, R.; Leneman, F.J.W.; Zweep, C. van der; Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the possibilities to assess (energy-absorbing) front underrun protection (FUP) devices with respect to injuries of the car occupant without using a car and dummy in the test procedure. A large number of different crash configurations are simulated to

  1. Protective design of critical infrastructure with high performance concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, W.; Nöldgen, M.; Stolz, A.; Roller, C.

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: High performance concrete constructions will allow innovative design solutions for critical infrastructures. Validation of engineering methods can reside on large and model scale experiments conducted on conventional concrete structures. New consistent impact experiments show extreme protection potential for UHPC. Modern FEM with concrete models and explicit rebar can model HPC and UHPC penetration resistance. SDOF and TDOF approaches are valuable design tools on local and global level. Combination of at least 2 out of 3 design methods FEM – XDOF- EXP allow reliable prediction and efficient innovative designs

  2. Design guide for fire protection of grouped electrical cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungan, K.W.

    1991-05-01

    This paper develops design guidance for fire protection of grouped electrical cables using previous research and the concept of design objectives based on damage limits. A quantitative approach is taken to establishing performance-oriented design objectives and addressing fires exposing cables as well as cable fires. A one-page Design Calculation Checklist is developed and examples are shown. In addition, testing was done for placement of linear thermal detection on cable trays and recommendations are given. 32 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Review of design criteria and safety analysis of safety class electric building for fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    Steady state fuel test loop will be equipped in HANARO to obtain the development and betterment of advanced fuel and materials through the irradiation tests. HANARO fuel test loop was designed for CANDU and PWR fuel testing. Safety related system of Fuel Test Loop such as emergency cooling water system, component cooling water system, safety ventilation system, high energy line break mitigation system and remote control room was required 1E class electric supply to meet the safety operation in accordance with related code. Therefore, FTL electric building was designed to construction and install the related equipment based on seismic category I. The objective of this study is to review the design criteria and analysis the safety function of safety class electric building for fuel test loop, and this results will become guidance for the irradiation testing in future. (author). 10 refs., 6 tabs., 30 figs.

  4. GRA prospectus: optimizing design and management of protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard; Halsing, David

    2001-01-01

    Protected areas comprise one major type of global conservation effort that has been in the form of parks, easements, or conservation concessions. Though protected areas are increasing in number and size throughout tropical ecosystems, there is no systematic method for optimally targeting specific local areas for protection, designing the protected area, and monitoring it, or for guiding follow-up actions to manage it or its surroundings over the long run. Without such a system, conservation projects often cost more than necessary and/or risk protecting ecosystems and biodiversity less efficiently than desired. Correcting these failures requires tools and strategies for improving the placement, design, and long-term management of protected areas. The objective of this project is to develop a set of spatially based analytical tools to improve the selection, design, and management of protected areas. In this project, several conservation concessions will be compared using an economic optimization technique. The forest land use portfolio model is an integrated assessment that measures investment in different land uses in a forest. The case studies of individual tropical ecosystems are developed as forest (land) use and preservation portfolios in a geographic information system (GIS). Conservation concessions involve a private organization purchasing development and resource access rights in a certain area and retiring them. Forests are put into conservation, and those people who would otherwise have benefited from extracting resources or selling the right to do so are compensated. Concessions are legal agreements wherein the exact amount and nature of the compensation result from a negotiated agreement between an agent of the conservation community and the local community. Funds are placed in a trust fund, and annual payments are made to local communities and regional/national governments. The payments are made pending third-party verification that the forest expanse

  5. LMFBR plant design features for sodium spill and fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Design features have been developed for an LMFBR plant to protect the concrete structures from potential liquid spills and fires and prevent sodium-concrete reactions. The inclusion of these features in the plant design reduces the severity of design basis accident conditions imposed on containment and other critical plant structures. Steel liners are provided in cells containing radioactive sodium systems, and catch pans are located in non-radioactive sodium system cells. The design requirements and descriptions of each of these protective features are presented. The loading conditions, analytical approach and numerical results are also included. Design of concrete cell structures that are subject to high temperature effects from sodium spills is discussed. The structural design considers the influence of high temperature on design properties of concrete and carbon steel materials based on results of a comprehensive test program. The development of these design features and high temperature design considerations for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are presented in this paper

  6. Application of nuclear power station design criteria to non-nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, J.D.; Hughes, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear industry is multi faceted, in that it includes large and complex chemical plants, a large number of different types of nuclear power stations, and on shore ship maintenance facilities, each with its own unique problems. Since the early days the industry has been aware of the additional problem which is superimposed on what may be classed as traditional fire risks, that is, the risk of an uncontrolled release of radioactivity. This has led to the development of sophisticated fire prevention and control techniques which are applied to new plants, and to the backfitting of older plants. The techniques of analysis, design and operation can be applied to both nuclear and non-nuclear installations. Passive protection is preferred backed up by active techniques. Segregation of essential plant to increase the probability of sufficient surviving to ensure safety systems operate and the provision of smoke free, protected escape routes are important aspects of layout and design. Reliability assessments, venting of smoke and hot gases, fire severity analysis, application of mathematical models contribute to the final design to protect against fires. Experiences built up in the fire fighting profession is integrated into the numerical approach by frequent involvement of the local Fire Officers at each stage of the design and layout of installations. (author)

  7. Designing concept on lightning protection of overhead power distribution line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shigeru [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)], E-mail: yokoyama@criepi.denken.or.jp

    2007-07-01

    The principle is shown for lightning protection of power distribution lines taking the effects of surge arresters, overhead ground wires and their combined use into consideration. Moreover an outline of a rational design method targeting direct lightning hits, induced over voltages and back flow currents from high structures. (author)

  8. An approach to criteria, design limits and monitoring in nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, G R; Baumgartner, P; Bird, G A; Davison, C C; Johnson, L H; Tamm, J A

    1994-12-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has been established to develop and demonstrate the technology for safe geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. One objective of the program is to show that a disposal system (i.e., a disposal centre and associated transportation system) can be designed and that it would be safe. Therefore the disposal system must be shown to comply with safety requirements specified in guidelines, standards, codes and regulations. The components of the disposal system must also be shown to operate within the limits specified in their design. Compliance and performance of the disposal system would be assessed on a site-specific basis by comparing estimates of the anticipated performance of the system and its components with compliance or performance criteria. A monitoring program would be developed to consider the effects of the disposal system on the environment and would include three types of monitoring: baseline monitoring, compliance monitoring, and performance monitoring. This report presents an approach to establishing compliance and performance criteria, limits for use in disposal system component design, and the main elements of a monitoring program for a nuclear fuel waste disposal system. (author). 70 refs., 9 tabs., 13 figs.

  9. An approach to criteria, design limits and monitoring in nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.; Baumgartner, P.; Bird, G.A.; Davison, C.C.; Johnson, L.H.; Tamm, J.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has been established to develop and demonstrate the technology for safe geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. One objective of the program is to show that a disposal system (i.e., a disposal centre and associated transportation system) can be designed and that it would be safe. Therefore the disposal system must be shown to comply with safety requirements specified in guidelines, standards, codes and regulations. The components of the disposal system must also be shown to operate within the limits specified in their design. Compliance and performance of the disposal system would be assessed on a site-specific basis by comparing estimates of the anticipated performance of the system and its components with compliance or performance criteria. A monitoring program would be developed to consider the effects of the disposal system on the environment and would include three types of monitoring: baseline monitoring, compliance monitoring, and performance monitoring. This report presents an approach to establishing compliance and performance criteria, limits for use in disposal system component design, and the main elements of a monitoring program for a nuclear fuel waste disposal system. (author). 70 refs., 9 tabs., 13 figs

  10. A Holistic Approach Including Biological and Geological Criteria for Integrative Management in Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Lorena; Monge-Ganuzas, Manu; Onaindia, Miren; De Manuel, Beatriz Fernández; Mendia, Miren

    2017-02-01

    Biodiversity hotspots and geosites are indivisible parts of natural heritage. Therefore, an adequate spatial delimitation and understanding of both and their linkages are necessary in order to be able to establish conservation policies. Normally, biodiversity hotspots are a typical target for those policies but, generally, geosites are not taken into account. Thus, this paper aims to fill this gap by providing an easily replicable method for the identification and integration of the geosites and the biodiversity hotspots in a Network for Integrative Nature Conservation that highlights their linkages. The method here presented has been applied to Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve situated in southeastern of the Bay of Biscay. The obtained results indicate that some geosites that are not directly related with biodiversity hotspots remain unprotected. Thus, from the study carried out, it can be stated that we conserving just the biodiversity hotspots is not enough to conserve the whole natural heritage of a protected area, as some plots interesting due to their relevant geoheritage remain unprotected. Therefore, it is necessary to fully integrate geosites into the planning documents of protected areas as a part of an ecosystem approach. The ecosystem approach recognizes the integrity of abiotic and biotic elements in nature conservation policies. Moreover, the proposed framework and the innovative methodology can be used as an easy input to identify priority areas for conservation, to improve the protected areas conservation planning, and to demonstrate the linkages between biodiversity hotspots and geosites.

  11. A Holistic Approach Including Biological and Geological Criteria for Integrative Management in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Lorena; Monge-Ganuzas, Manu; Onaindia, Miren; De Manuel, Beatriz Fernández; Mendia, Miren

    2017-02-01

    Biodiversity hotspots and geosites are indivisible parts of natural heritage. Therefore, an adequate spatial delimitation and understanding of both and their linkages are necessary in order to be able to establish conservation policies. Normally, biodiversity hotspots are a typical target for those policies but, generally, geosites are not taken into account. Thus, this paper aims to fill this gap by providing an easily replicable method for the identification and integration of the geosites and the biodiversity hotspots in a Network for Integrative Nature Conservation that highlights their linkages. The method here presented has been applied to Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve situated in southeastern of the Bay of Biscay. The obtained results indicate that some geosites that are not directly related with biodiversity hotspots remain unprotected. Thus, from the study carried out, it can be stated that we conserving just the biodiversity hotspots is not enough to conserve the whole natural heritage of a protected area, as some plots interesting due to their relevant geoheritage remain unprotected. Therefore, it is necessary to fully integrate geosites into the planning documents of protected areas as a part of an ecosystem approach. The ecosystem approach recognizes the integrity of abiotic and biotic elements in nature conservation policies. Moreover, the proposed framework and the innovative methodology can be used as an easy input to identify priority areas for conservation, to improve the protected areas conservation planning, and to demonstrate the linkages between biodiversity hotspots and geosites.

  12. Recommended revisions to Nuclear Regulatory Commission seismic design criteria. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    This report recommends changes in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) criteria now used in the seismic design of nuclear power plants. Areas covered include ground motion, soil-structure interaction, structures, and equipment and components. Members of the Engineering Mechanics Section of the Nuclear Test Engineering Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) generally agreed upon the recommendations, which are based on (1) reports developed under the NRC's Task Action Plan A-40, (2) other available engineering literature, and (3) recommendations of nationally recognized experts retained by LLL specifically for this task

  13. Development of Design Criteria for Fluid Induced Structural Vibrations in Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvan Catton; Dhir, Vijay K.; Deepanjan Mitra; Omar Alquaddoomi; Pierangelo Adinolfi

    2004-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration in heat exchangers has been a major cause of concern in the nuclear industry for several decades. Many incidents of failure of heat exchangers due to apparent flow-induced vibration have been reported through the USNRC incident reporting system. Almost all heat exchangers have to deal with this problem during their operation. The phenomenon has been studied since the 1970s and the database of experimental studies on flow-induced vibration is constantly updated with new findings and improved design criteria for heat exchangers

  14. Meteorological and engineering approach to the regionalization of tornado wind criteria for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Data on general meteorological factors governing tornado frequency and intensity in various locations throughout the USA are revised. A climatological model of multiple outbreak and long track tornadoes and the relation between the speed of a hurricane and the frequency of tornado occurrence over land and sea are discussed. Data from a structural engineering assessment of tornado damage are summarized and applications of the data for the development of design criteria for buildings and nuclear power plants to minimize tornado damage are suggested. It was concluded that it is very difficult to predict tornado risk and alternate methods and areas of study are presented for consideration

  15. An intelligent, knowledge-based multiple criteria decision making advisor for systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchang

    In systems engineering, design and operation of systems are two main problems which always attract researcher's attentions. The accomplishment of activities in these problems often requires proper decisions to be made so that the desired goal can be achieved, thus, decision making needs to be carefully fulfilled in the design and operation of systems. Design is a decision making process which permeates through out the design process, and is at the core of all design activities. In modern aircraft design, more and more attention is paid to the conceptual and preliminary design phases so as to increase the odds of choosing a design that will ultimately be successful at the completion of the design process, therefore, decisions made during these early design stages play a critical role in determining the success of a design. Since aerospace systems are complex systems with interacting disciplines and technologies, the Decision Makers (DMs) dealing with such design problems are involved in balancing the multiple, potentially conflicting attributes/criteria, transforming a large amount of customer supplied guidelines into a solidly defined set of requirement definitions. Thus, one could state with confidence that modern aerospace system design is a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) process. A variety of existing decision making methods are available to deal with this type of decision problems. The selection of the most appropriate decision making method is of particular importance since inappropriate decision methods are likely causes of misleading engineering design decisions. With no sufficient knowledge about each of the methods, it is usually difficult for the DMs to find an appropriate analytical model capable of solving their problems. In addition, with the complexity of the decision problem and the demand for more capable methods increasing, new decision making methods are emerging with time. These various methods exacerbate the difficulty of the selection

  16. Design considerations for the protection from the effects of pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    The methods which are employed by Ebasco Services, Inc. to satisfy the requirement of 10 CFR 50, Appendix A, General Design Criterion (GDC) 4 are discussed. This criterion provides the design basis for protection against the dynamic effects of postulated piping failures (ruptures and cracks) in Nuclear Power Plants. The criteria for postulating pipe failure locations, determining the dynamic effects associated with the postulated failure and designing the plant to satisfactorily withstand postulated pipe failures have been the subject of a great deal of recent work by the nuclear power industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This topical report is largely based upon that work as well as upon Ebasco's independent development of analytical tools to aid in the plant design process

  17. Design concepts to enhance nuclear power plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Varnado, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Using a modern design for a nuclear power plant as a point of departure, this study examines the enhancement of protection which may be achieved by changes to the design. These changes include concepts such as complete physical separation of redundant trains of safety equipment, hardened enclosures for water storage tanks, and hardened shutdown heat removal systems. The degree of enhancement (value) is examined in terms such as the potential reduction in the number of vital areas and the increase in probability of adversary sequence interruption. The impacts considered include constraints imposed upon operations and maintenance personnel and increased capital and operating costs. The study concludes that structural design changes alone do not provide significant increases in protection

  18. A system of dose-effects relationships for the Northern wildlife: radiation protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazykina, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    The key issue in the assessment system for radiation protection of wildlife is the establishment of a set of dose-effects relationships for reference representatives of natural biota, based on scientific data from a range of doses and a range of radiation effects. Risks to natural populations in particular habitats can be evaluated from a comparison of estimated doses to biota with the scale of dose-effects relationships for different types of biota. Within the frame of the EC Project EPIC 'Environmental Protection from Ionizing Contaminants' 2000-2003), a database has been created, which include the published and unpublished data relating to dose effects relationships for flora and fauna in the Northern and Arctic areas. The EPIC database contains information based exclusively on Russian/FSU experimental and field studies; chronic/lifetime exposures were the focus of the work, owing to the fact that such exposures are the most typical in radiological assessments for biota. In total, the EPIC database radiation effects on biota contains about 1600 records from 440 publications, including datasets on terrestrial and aquatic animals, plants, soil fauna and microorganisms. The EPIC database information cover a very wide range of radiation dose rates to wild flora and fauna: from below 10 -5 Gy d -1 up to more than 1 Gy d -1 . A great variety of radiation effects are registered in the EPIC database, from stimulation at low doses up to death from acute radiation syndrome at high doses. From data, compiled in the EPIC database, the dose-effects relationships were derived for different types of northern organisms. The system of dose-effects relationships forms the scale of severity of radiation effects at increasing levels of chronic radiation exposure. With its focus on the effects of low-to-moderate chronic exposure, the system of dose effects relationships provides a useful tool for scientists and decision-makers to establish safety standards for protecting the

  19. Impact of radioactivity on problematic environment, knowledge situation, and approaches toward radiation protection criteria identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.

    2001-01-01

    The scraps of knowledge existing todays about the environmental radiation protection are based on the dose limits (10 and 1 mGy.h -1 ) that have been determined from literature relative to effects of acute exposure by external irradiation on individuals. But these standards come from a context far from environmental reality. Some research directions are coming out: to complete the radioecological knowledge of transfers, the biological accumulation in living organisms, to study the effects of this bioaccumulation in a multi pollution context with chronic low dose exposure; to identify the characteristics of these effects( low doses in chronic multi pollutions) at the ecosystem level. (N.C.)

  20. Internal fire protection analysis for the United Kingdom EPR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laid, Abdallah [Nuclear New Build Generation Company Ltd. (NNB GenCo), Barnwood (United Kingdom). EDF Energy Plc.; Cesbron, Mickael [Service Etudes et Project Thermiques et Nucleaires (SEPTEN), Lyon (France). EDF-SA

    2015-12-15

    In the deterministic design basis analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) EPR based nuclear power plants all postulated initiating events are grouped into two different types, internal faults and internal/external hazards. ''Internal Fires'' is one of the internal hazards analysed at the design stage of the UK EPR. In effect, the main safety objective for fire protection is to ensure that all the required safety functions are performed in the event of an internal fire. To achieve this safety objective, provisions for protection against fire risks are taken to: (i) limit the spread of a fire, protect the safety functions of the facility; (ii) limit the propagation of smoke and dispersion of toxic, radioactive, inflammable, corrosive or explosive materials, and (iii) ensure the achievement of a safe shutdown state, personnel evacuation and all other necessary emergency actions. This paper presents the UK EPR approach on how the above provisions are applied. Such provisions involve implementing means of fire prevention, surveillance, firefighting and limiting fire consequences, appropriate to the risks inherent to the facility. Overall, the design of the UK EPR fire protection systems is based on three types of measures: prevention, containment and control.

  1. Communication Assessment of the Most Frequented Breast Cancer Websites: Evaluation of Design and Theoretical Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Pamela; Smith, Sandi; Munday, Samantha; LaPlante, Carolyn

    2008-07-01

    The internet is a prominent source of health information for the public. This research evaluated both basic use and design tenets and the presence of theoretical components to motivate healthy breast cancer behavior for users of the most frequented breast cancer websites. Each website was evaluated with 2 sets of questions. The first attends to the basic use and design tenets of the website. The second coding form assessed the websites use of 3 behavior change theories. The majority of the websites fared well with regards to their use of basic tenet and design principles. Theoretical components were used sparingly on the majority of websites. The most frequented breast cancer websites are currently well equipped with basic use and design tenets. However, their lack of behavioral change components is likely to impede users' motivations to protect themselves against breast cancer.

  2. Architectural design criteria for f-block metal ion sequestering agents. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Hay, B.P.; Paine, R.T.; Raymond, K.N.; Rogers, R.D.; Roundhill, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to provide a means to optimize ligand architecture for f-block metal recognition. The authors strategy builds on an innovative and successful molecular modeling approach in developing polyether ligand design criteria for the alkali and alkaline earth cations. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that differences in metal ion binding with multidentate ligands bearing the same number and type of donor groups are primarily attributable to intramolecular steric factors. They propose quantifying these steric factors through the application of molecular mechanics models. The research involves close integration of theoretical and experimental chemistry. The experimental work entails synthesizing novel ligands and experimentally determining structures and binding constants for metal ion complexation by series of ligands in which architecture is systematically varied. The theoretical work entails using electronic structure calculations to parameterize a molecular mechanics force field for a range of metal ions and ligand types. The resulting molecular mechanics force field will be used to predict low energy structures for unidentate, bidentate, and multidentate ligands and their metal complexes through conformational searches. Results will be analyzed to assess the relative importance of several steric factors including optimal M-L length, optimal geometry at the metal center, optimal geometry at the donor atoms (complementarity), and conformation prior to binding (preorganization). An accurate set of criteria for the design of ligand architecture will be obtained from these results. These criteria will enable researchers to target ligand structures for synthesis and thereby dramatically reduce the time and cost associated with metal-specific ligand development.'

  3. Architectural design criteria for f-block metal sequestering agents. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, B.P.; Paine, R.T.; Roundhill, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to provide the means to optimize ligand architecture for f-block metal recognition. The authors strategy builds on an innovative and successful molecular modeling approach in developing polyether ligand design criteria for the alkali and alkaline earth cations. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that differences in metal ion binding with multidentate ligands bearing the same number and type of donor groups are primarily attributable to intramolecular steric factors. The authors propose quantifying these steric factors through the application of molecular mechanics models. The proposed research involves close integration of theoretical and experimental chemistry. The experimental work entails synthesizing novel ligands and experimentally determining structures and binding constants for metal ion complexation by series of ligands in which architecture is systematically varied. The theoretical work entails using electronic structure calculations to parameterize a molecular mechanics force field for a range of metal ions and ligand types. The resulting molecular mechanics force field will be used to predict low-energy structures for unidentate, bidentate, and multidentate ligands and their metal complexes through conformational searches. Results will be analyzed to assess the relative importance of several steric factors including optimal M-L length, optimal geometry at the metal center, optimal geometry at the donor atoms (complementarity), and conformation prior to binding (preorganization). An accurate set of criteria for the design of ligand architecture will be obtained from these results. These criteria will enable researchers to target ligand structures for synthesis and thereby dramatically reduce the time and cost associated with metal-specific ligand development.'

  4. Design guides for cell atmosphere controls, utilities and fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, A.J. Jr.; Peishel, F.L.; Slattery, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    Facilities for handling radioactive and toxic materials must be designed not only for efficient operation, but also for protection of the operating personnel and the public. The ventilation system is of primary importance in maintaining containment of any airborne radioactivity. The type, number, and location of in-cell services must be adequate for planned operations, but also must allow flexibility to accommodate expansion in the scope of operations or changes in programs. Fire protection systems and operational controls are mandatory to maintain containment of radioactivity in the event of an operating error or process accident that may result in a fire

  5. Nitinol Embolic Protection Filters: Design Investigation by Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Michele; de Beule, Matthieu; Mortier, Peter; van Loo, Denis; Verdonck, Pascal; Vermassen, Frank; Segers, Patrick; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Verhegghe, Benedict

    2009-08-01

    The widespread acceptance of carotid artery stenting (CAS) to treat carotid artery stenosis and its effectiveness compared with surgical counterpart, carotid endarterectomy (CEA), is still a matter of debate. Transient or permanent neurological deficits may develop in patients undergoing CAS due to distal embolization or hemodynamic changes. Design, development, and usage of embolic protection devices (EPDs), such as embolic protection filters, appear to have a significant impact on the success of CAS. Unfortunately, some drawbacks, such as filtering failure, inability to cross tortuous high-grade stenoses, malpositioning and vessel injury, still remain and require design improvement. Currently, many different designs of such devices are available on the rapidly growing dedicated market. In spite of such a growing commercial interest, there is a significant need for design tools as well as for careful engineering investigations and design analyses of such nitinol devices. The present study aims to investigate the embolic protection filter design by finite element analysis. We first developed a parametrical computer-aided design model of an embolic filter based on micro-CT scans of the Angioguard™ XP (Cordis Endovascular, FL) EPD by means of the open source pyFormex software. Subsequently, we used the finite element method to simulate the deployment of the nitinol filter as it exits the delivery sheath. Comparison of the simulations with micro-CT images of the real device exiting the catheter showed excellent correspondence with our simulations. Finally, we evaluated circumferential basket-vessel wall apposition of a 4 mm size filter in a straight vessel of different sizes and shape. We conclude that the proposed methodology offers a useful tool to evaluate and to compare current or new designs of EPDs. Further simulations will investigate vessel wall apposition in a realistic tortuous anatomy.

  6. Design criteria of out-pile system of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of HANARO aims at the development and localization of nuclear technologies through the engineering tests. Thus it is very important the design and installation of the irradiation test facilities to be installed at the irradiation hole for verification test of the fuel performance are in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. The principle subjects of this study are to presend and informed the detail design criteria and technical specification of out-pile system of HANARO fuel test loop for the developing of the fuel and reactor material. This results will become guidance for the planning of the irradiation testing using the HANARO fuel test loop. (author). 16 refs., 31 tabs., 9 figs.

  7. Multiobjective optimal design of runner blade using efficiency and draft tube pulsation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilev, I M; Sotnikov, A A; Rigin, V E; Semenova, A V; Cherny, S G; Chirkov, D V; Bannikov, D V; Skorospelov, V A

    2012-01-01

    In the present work new criteria of optimal design method for turbine runner [1] are proposed. Firstly, based on the efficient method which couples direct simulation of 3D turbulent flow and engineering semi empirical formulas, the combined method is built for hydraulic energy losses estimation in the whole turbine water passage and the efficiency criterion is formulated. Secondly, the criterion of dynamic loads minimization is developed for those caused by vortex rope precession downstream of the runner. This criterion is based on the finding that the monotonic increase of meridional velocity component in the direction to runner hub, downstream of its blades, provides for decreasing the intensity of vortex rope and thereafter, minimization of pressure pulsation amplitude. The developed algorithm was applied to optimal design of 640 MW Francis turbine runner. It can ensure high efficiency at best efficiency operating point as well as diminished pressure pulsations at full load regime.

  8. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Raposo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city’s urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE’s characteristics other useful features, such as decision memory over time, versatility and adaptability. The case study, used here to present the dynamic-PROMETHEE, served as inspiration and base to create this new methodology. It can be used to model different problems and scenarios that may present similar requirement characteristics.

  9. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, João; Rodrigues, Ana; Silva, Carlos; Dentinho, Tomaz

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city's urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE's characteristics other useful features, such as decision memory over time, versatility and adaptability. The case study, used here to present the dynamic-PROMETHEE, served as inspiration and base to create this new methodology. It can be used to model different problems and scenarios that may present similar requirement characteristics.

  10. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational area...

  11. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Veterinary Professional(s) G Appendix G to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. G Appendix G to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) Part I—Geographic Areas A. Criteria for Food Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area will...

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection consideration in the design of research and development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear safety is a critically important aspect that must be considered in the design of a nuclear facility in order to ensure the protection of the workers, public and environment. This paper looks at the methodology, approach and incorporation of this aspect, specifically into the design of a research and development facility. The Health, Safety and Environmental Basis of Design is an initial analysis of nuclear safety and radiation protection considerations that is performed during the conceptual design phase and sets the baseline for what the design of the facility must conform to. It consists of general nuclear safety design principles, such as defence in depth and optimisation considerations, and a hazard management strategy. Following the Health, Safety and Environmental Basis of Design, a Preliminary Safety Assessment Report is generated during the basic design phase in conjunction with various analyses in order to assess the impact of hazards on the workers and members of the public. This assessment follows a hazard graded approach where the depth of the analysis will be determined by the impact of the worst case accident scenario in the facility. The assessment also includes a waste management strategy which is an essential aspect to be considered in the design in order to minimize the generation of waste. The safety assessment also demonstrates compliance to dose limits and risk criteria for the workers and members of the public set by the regulatory body and supported by a legal framework. Measures are taken to keep risk as low as reasonably achievable and prevent transgression of the risk and dose limits. However, a balance needs to be maintained between 5 reducing these doses further and the cost of such a reduction, which is known as optimization. It is therefore imperative to have nuclear safety specialists analyse the design in order to protect the worker and member of the public from unwarranted exposure to nuclear radiation. (author)

  13. Comparison of Epicyclic Gearing Design Methods by Means of Quality Criteria Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Leonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of modern economy depends on the usage of different machines. Execution of the many tasks a society entrusts to the machinery requires a huge amount of the mechanical energy imparted to the mechanical system due to different engines. Combining the motors and actuators in turn occurs through various transmissions.Among the numerous types of transmission the planetary gears occupy an important place. With a number of advantages and differences from other types of transmission of rotational motion, planetary gear can be used as a gear or a differential gear. The planetary gear firmly holds a leading position for its frequent use in transmissions of various technological and transport vehicles, as it has a convenient layout and high load capacity.Despite the fact that people have been using planetary gears over two thousand years, there is no simple method of their design, allowing both a minimizing design time and an optimization of their performance characteristics and technological qualities.The proposed design method is derived from the classical method of factors. It limits the number of options by isolating a promising region of a set of reduced criteria values of the overall dimensions, one of the main design criteria. A minimizing size criterion optimization is provided through rapprochement of gear sizes in two rows of gearings and proximity to the minimum possible number of teeth from the undercut condition, environment for numerous satellites, and gear assembly as well as through specifying the numbers of teeth of one of the rows to be equal to the arithmetic average of the teeth numbers of the other row.

  14. Design and validation of standardized clinical and functional remission criteria in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosolov, Sergey N; Potapov, Andrey V; Ushakov, Uriy V; Shafarenko, Aleksey A; Kostyukova, Anastasiya B

    2014-01-01

    Background International Remission Criteria (IRC) for schizophrenia were developed recently by a group of internationally known experts. The IRC detect only 10%–30% of cases and do not cover the diversity of forms and social functioning. Our aim was to design a more applicable tool and validate its use – the Standardized Clinical and Functional Remission Criteria (SCFRC). Methods We used a 6-month follow-up study of 203 outpatients from two Moscow centers and another further sample of stable patients from a 1-year controlled trial of atypical versus typical medication. Diagnosis was confirmed by International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD10) criteria and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Patients were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, including intensity threshold, and further classified using the Russian domestic remission criteria and the level of social and personal functioning, according to the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). The SCFRC were formulated and were validated by a data reanalysis on the first population sample and on a second independent sample (104 patients) and in an open-label prospective randomized 12-month comparative study of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) versus olanzapine. Results Only 64 of the 203 outpatients (31.5%) initially met the IRC, and 53 patients (26.1%) met the IRC after 6 months, without a change in treatment. Patients who were in remission had episodic and progressive deficit (39.6%), or remittent (15%) paranoid schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder (17%). In addition, 105 patients of 139 (51.7%), who did not meet symptomatic IRC, remained stable within the period. Reanalysis of data revealed that 65.5% of the patients met the SCFRC. In the controlled trial, 70% of patients in the RLAI group met the SCFRC and only 19% the IRC. In the routine treatment group, 55.9% met the SCFRC and only 5.7% the IRC. Results of the further independent

  15. Two non-tracking solar collectors: Design criteria and performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratismith, Wattana; Inthongkhum, Anusorn; Briggs, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A collector module designed to capture solar radiation efficiently is proposed. • Two different compound parabolic trough designs are examined and tested. • A novel design with a flat base trough and vertical absorber operates efficiently in direct and diffuse sunlight. - Abstract: We propose fixed (non-tracking) configurations of solar light collector modules which are designed to operate efficiently throughout the day, i.e. for varying incident angles of direct sunlight, and in conditions of diffuse solar irradiation. We present two trough designs of compound parabolic collector (CPC) type. One, a more conventional double-parabolic trough, has the absorber plate perpendicular to the vertical axis of the trough cross-section. The other, of a new flat-base shape, has the absorber plate parallel. The collectors have two novel features appropriate to non-tracking. The first is a smoothing of the power output over the day by the simple expedient of arranging three troughs tilted at different angles. The second is the original design of the flat-base trough allowing optimal interception of the caustic surfaces of this non-focussing device. By ray-tracing analysis of the different trough shapes and absorber plate orientation, we emphasise the design criteria for achievement of a high intercept factor throughout the day without tracking and demonstrate the superiority of the flat-base collector over the double-parabolic design. In test experiments we show that the high temperatures (≈180 °C) necessary for some industrial process heat applications can be achieved. Also test results of the efficiency of the proposed systems are presented which indicate that the flat-base trough with vertical absorber plate is superior to the double-parabolic trough with horizontal absorber plate

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE RELEVANCE OF DISPLACEMENT BASED DESIGN METHODS/CRITERIA TO NUCLEAR PLANT STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOFMAYER, C.; MILLER, C.; WANG, Y.; COSTELLO, J.

    2001-01-01

    Revisions to the USNRC Regulatory Guides and Standard Review Plan Sections devoted to earthquake engineering practice are currently in process. The intent is to reflect changes in engineering practice that have evolved in the twenty years that have passed since those criteria were originally published. Additionally, field observations of the effects of the Northridge (1994) and Kobe (1995) earthquakes have inspired some reassessment in the technical community about certain aspects of design practice. In particular, questions have arisen about the effectiveness of basing earthquake resistant designs on resistance to seismic forces and, then evaluating tolerability of the expected displacements. Therefore, a research effort was undertaken to examine the implications for NRC's seismic practice of the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The results of the NRC sponsored research on this subject are reported in this paper. A slow trend toward the utilization of displacement based methods for design was noted. However, there is a more rapid trend toward the use of displacement based methods for seismic evaluation of existing facilities. A document known as FEMA 273, has been developed and is being used as the basis for the design of modifications to enhance the seismic capability of existing non-nuclear facilities. The research concluded that displacement based methods, such as given in FEMA 273, may be useful for seismic margin studies of existing nuclear power stations. They are unlikely to be useful for the basic design of new stations since nuclear power stations are designed to remain elastic during a seismic event. They could, however, be useful for estimating the margins associated with that design

  17. Design and testing of integrated circuits for reactor protection channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Vandermolen, R.I.; Jagadish, U.; Swail, B.K.; Naser, J.; Rana, I.

    1995-01-01

    Custom and semicustom application-specific integrated circuit design and testing methods are investigated for use in research and commercial nuclear reactor safety systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working together through a cooperative research and development agreement to apply modern technology to a nuclear reactor protection system. Purpose of this project is to demonstrate to the nuclear industry an alternative approach for new or upgrade reactor protection and safety system signal processing and voting logic. Motivation for this project stems from (1) the difficulty of proving that software-based protection systems are adequately reliable, (2) the obsolescence of the original equipment, and (3) the improved performance of digital processing

  18. Marine protected area design for Bahia Portete - La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Moreno, Carolina; Alonso C, David; Segura Quintero, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Using an ecorregional planning process for the selection of conservation priority sites in the Colombian Caribbean region and the qualification of ecological criteria, Bahia Portete was identified as a potential site for the establishment of a new Marine Protected Area (MPA). This bay encompass a great variety of marine and coastal ecosystems, including fish, planktonic, and benthic communities as well as species that in conjunction with the environmental features form an area of high heterogeneity and unique biodiversity in the province of La Guajira. The purpose of this research was to design the first MPA in the north of the Province through the evaluation of ecologic criteria, as well as proposed conservation and management objectives; setting up a management category within the existing National Protected Areas System (SINAP in Spanish). Therefore, based on secondary information and following the The five S framework, methodology design by The Nature Conservancy for site planning, five conservation objectives (OdC) of coarse-filter or habitats were identified: corals, sea grasses, sandy beaches, rocky coasts and mangroves ecosystems, and three OdC of fine filter: areas with presence of Crocodylus acutus, sea turtles feeding areas, and areas of birds congregation. A viability analysis was developed for each healthy object found within the area, thus reflecting the biodiversity health of the area. The analysis of criteria, viability and the definition of the management objectives for the area, allowed the election of National Natural Park as the most appropriate management category for the area. Based on a systematic process and with the use of the MARXAN (University of Queensland) Decision Support System (DSS), three no-take zones were identified, with which the protection of a minimum of 30% of the coverage area for each of the objects is guaranteed as the initial contribution to the internal zoning of the new MPA

  19. Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making in the Design of Innovative Lock Walls for Barge Impact; Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, James

    2001-01-01

    .... This research project consists of two phases: Phase 1, which culminates with this report, investigated the use of multiple-criteria decision-making in the design process of lock approach walls to consider barge impact and earthquake loads...

  20. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joao C.M.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. → BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. → Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. → At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. → The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but

  1. The Examination of The Main Transportation Arteries of Konya In Terms of Landscape Architecture Design Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertaç Güngör

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring comfort of use and security of pedestrians, which are the main users of urban green spaces, and the determination of their needs are important since local authorities are guiding for new pedestrian zone studies in the Konya city. Because of the problems caused by the upper structure, the necessary care is not given in terms of transportation comfort, pedestrian safety, vehicle security, plant design and ergonomic / antropemetric standards. The pedestrian way and refuge landscape designs have an important position and amount among open green areas on the scale of Konya. However, it was identified that the applications conducted were inadequate in terms of aesthetic and functional characteristics and were not suitable for the urban landscape design principles, in general, and the standards of urban afforestation of the streets. In this study, the current situation of 3 main streets of Konya used most intensely was examined in terms of landscape design criteria and some suggestions were made by attempting to identify the improvement works that should be performed by the public authorities.

  2. Assessing the influence of reactor system design criteria on the performance of model colon fermentation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Arun S; Eberl, Hermann J

    2014-04-01

    Fermentation reactor systems are a key platform in studying intestinal microflora, specifically with respect to questions surrounding the effects of diet. In this study, we develop computational representations of colon fermentation reactor systems as a way to assess the influence of three design elements (number of reactors, emptying mechanism, and inclusion of microbial immobilization) on three performance measures (total biomass density, biomass composition, and fibre digestion efficiency) using a fractional-factorial experimental design. It was determined that the choice of emptying mechanism showed no effect on any of the performance measures. Additionally, it was determined that none of the design criteria had any measurable effect on reactor performance with respect to biomass composition. It is recommended that model fermentation systems used in the experimenting of dietary effects on intestinal biomass composition be streamlined to only include necessary system design complexities, as the measured performance is not benefited by the addition of microbial immobilization mechanisms or semi-continuous emptying scheme. Additionally, the added complexities significantly increase computational time during simulation experiments. It was also noted that the same factorial experiment could be directly adapted using in vitro colon fermentation systems. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Methods and criteria for evaluation of nuclear reactor fire protection alternatives and modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for the evaluation of a fire protection system in a nuclear power plant and demonstrate the feasibility of encoding this method in a computer program. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed; it is divided into the four phases of a fire scenario: ignition, detection, suppression and propagation. The ignition model consists of probabilistically determining at what location within the zone a fire will occur. The detection model is divided into two components. THe first is the automatic detection model, which calculates the fire's physical symptoms and compares them against the threshold values of the detectors specified for the zone to determine a time-to-detection. The second part is the human detection model; this evaluates the time required for a human to observe and report a fire. If detection is successful, the suppression mode determines if the fire is effectively extinguished, and if so, the time required to do so. This model is also divided into an automatic and human component. The propagation model is embedded in a deterministic, control-volume computer code which calculates the fire scenario history. A computer program, FIRES, is described which supports the developed models. FIRES is an interactive graphics package providing a simple means of establishing the many input parameters. In addition to allowing parameter values to be easily set or modified, the graphics provides a convenient display mode for the results of a simulation

  4. A suggested approach for deriving risk criteria in radiation protection and land use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.F.; Corran, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    In radiation protection, tolerability has been determined by setting a limit on the dose received recognizing that there is an unavoidable background level of radiation to which we are all exposed. This dose is sometimes associated with a cancer fatality coefficient to convert the dose to a probability of fatality, but it is recognised that fatality is not immediate but arises (if at all) many years after the exposure. In other hazardous industry, tolerability is based on satisfying annual fatality risk limits for the number of immediate fatalities. These limits vary with the type of land use proposed. This raises the questions of how such risks should be compared and, in particular, whether there is a basis for common risk measures to be derived. Unless this can be done, inappropriate comparisons will continue to be made. In this paper, a method is suggested for deriving measures of risk to individuals and to communities, both for activities involving radiation exposure and for accidents with other hazardous materials. The method is based on taking account of the difference between continuing releases and accidental transient releases. It is argued that the continuous releases, the lifetime risk is the most appropriate parameter both for radiation and hazardous material exposure. For accident situations both individual and societal risk curves can be drawn which take account of the difference between acute and latent fatalities. Some problems associated with societal risk curves are discussed and suggestions for their use given. 11 refs., 3 figs

  5. STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR TARGET/BLANKET SYSTEM COMPONENT MATERIALS FOR THE ACCELERATOR PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. JOHNSON; R. RYDER; P. RITTENHOUSE

    2001-01-01

    The design of target/blanket system components for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) plant is dependent on the development of materials properties data specified by the designer. These data are needed to verify that component designs are adequate. The adequacy of the data will be related to safety, performance, and economic considerations, and to other requirements that may be deemed necessary by customers and regulatory bodies. The data required may already be in existence, as in the open technical literature, or may need to be generated, as is often the case for the design of new systems operating under relatively unique conditions. The designers' starting point for design data needs is generally some form of design criteria used in conjunction with a specified set of loading conditions and associated performance requirements. Most criteria are aimed at verifying the structural adequacy of the component, and often take the form of national or international standards such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME B and PV Code) or the French Nuclear Structural Requirements (RCC-MR). Whether or not there are specific design data needs associated with the use of these design criteria will largely depend on the uniqueness of the conditions of operation of the component. A component designed in accordance with the ASME B and PV Code, where no unusual environmental conditions exist, will utilize well-documented, statistically-evaluated developed in conjunction with the Code, and will not be likely to have any design data needs. On the other hand, a component to be designed to operate under unique APT conditions, is likely to have significant design data needs. Such a component is also likely to require special design criteria for verification of its structural adequacy, specifically accounting for changes in materials properties which may occur during exposure in the service environment. In such a situation it is common for the design criteria

  6. Crumple zone design for pedestrian protection using impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyung Il; Jeon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Young; Kim, Heon Young [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Product Development Team, Gyeongsan si (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    This paper describes the design process for an automobile crumple zone for pedestrian protection. The impact load and bending moments predicted by impact analysis were used to design a plastic structure that may help reduce pedestrian injuries to the thigh area. The fracture effect was incorporated into the model by calculating the damage to the plastic material during impact, and the analysis was conducted under the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) test conditions, using the upper legform developed by ESI Corporation. In addition, the values predicted by the analysis were validated by comparison with results of actual impact tests.

  7. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  8. Crumple zone design for pedestrian protection using impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Il; Jeon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Young; Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Yong Soo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design process for an automobile crumple zone for pedestrian protection. The impact load and bending moments predicted by impact analysis were used to design a plastic structure that may help reduce pedestrian injuries to the thigh area. The fracture effect was incorporated into the model by calculating the damage to the plastic material during impact, and the analysis was conducted under the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) test conditions, using the upper legform developed by ESI Corporation. In addition, the values predicted by the analysis were validated by comparison with results of actual impact tests

  9. Study-design selection criteria in systematic reviews of effectiveness of health systems interventions and reforms: A meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Feigl, Andrea B; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; de Ferranti, David; Lavis, John N; Melberg, Hans Olav; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-03-01

    At present, there exists no widely agreed upon set of study-design selection criteria for systematic reviews of health systems research, except for those proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration's Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) review group (which comprises randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series). We conducted a meta-review of the study-design selection criteria used in systematic reviews available in the McMaster University's Health Systems Evidence or the EPOC database. Of 414 systematic reviews, 13% did not indicate any study-design selection criteria. Of the 359 studies that described such criteria, 50% limited their synthesis to controlled trials and 68% to some or all of the designs defined by the EPOC criteria. Seven out of eight reviews identified at least one controlled trial that was relevant for the review topic. Seven percent of the reviews included either no or only one relevant primary study. Our meta-review reveals reviewers' preferences for restricting synthesis to controlled experiments or study designs that comply with the EPOC criteria. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the current practices regarding study-design selection in systematic reviews of health systems research as well as alternative approaches. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. A multi-criteria approach to camera motion design for volume data animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Hsien; Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2013-12-01

    We present an integrated camera motion design and path generation system for building volume data animations. Creating animations is an essential task in presenting complex scientific visualizations. Existing visualization systems use an established animation function based on keyframes selected by the user. This approach is limited in providing the optimal in-between views of the data. Alternatively, computer graphics and virtual reality camera motion planning is frequently focused on collision free movement in a virtual walkthrough. For semi-transparent, fuzzy, or blobby volume data the collision free objective becomes insufficient. Here, we provide a set of essential criteria focused on computing camera paths to establish effective animations of volume data. Our dynamic multi-criteria solver coupled with a force-directed routing algorithm enables rapid generation of camera paths. Once users review the resulting animation and evaluate the camera motion, they are able to determine how each criterion impacts path generation. In this paper, we demonstrate how incorporating this animation approach with an interactive volume visualization system reduces the effort in creating context-aware and coherent animations. This frees the user to focus on visualization tasks with the objective of gaining additional insight from the volume data.

  11. Design criteria for a data base management system for a PACS at Georgetown University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahey, F.H.; Wang, P.C.; Mun, S.K.; Choyke, P.L.; Benson, H.R.; Duerinckx, A.; Elliott, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    A major goal of a radiologic picture archival and communication system (PACS) is to increase the availability of the data to the users who require access to them. This is done by providing the data in a digital form which can be readily communicated and archived. In this manner, the PACS can be seen as a specific example of a data base managements system (DBMS). The PACS/DBMS should organize the data base in such a way as to provide its users with the data they require in a timely and efficient manner. The ability to integrate the variety of data into common data base should lead to a more complete and relevant representation of the available information. A PACS/DBMS is not only unique in the types of data contained in the data base and its different users but also in the volume of data that are entered into the system and transferred within the system each day. Consideration of these characteristics leads to the definition of functional criteria for the PACS/DBMS. This report discusses the criteria that will be used in the design of a DBMS for a PACS at Georgetown University Hospital. (Auth.)

  12. FAULT-TOLERANT DESIGN FOR ADVANCED DIVERSE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG GYUN OH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For the improvement of APR1400 Diverse Protection System (DPS design, the Advanced DPS (ADPS has recently been developed to enhance the fault tolerance capability of the system. Major fault masking features of the ADPS compared with the APR1400 DPS are the changes to the channel configuration and reactor trip actuation equipment. To minimize the fault occurrences within the ADPS, and to mitigate the consequences of common-cause failures (CCF within the safety I&C systems, several fault avoidance design features have been applied in the ADPS. The fault avoidance design features include the changes to the system software classification, communication methods, equipment platform, MMI equipment, etc. In addition, the fault detection, location, containment, and recovery processes have been incorporated in the ADPS design. Therefore, it is expected that the ADPS can provide an enhanced fault tolerance capability against the possible faults within the system and its input/output equipment, and the CCF of safety systems.

  13. Applying multi-criteria analysis to radiation protection optimisation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Schneider, T.; Lombard, J.

    1991-01-01

    Introduction of ALARA principles in the field of radioactive waste management implies a definition of the main characteristics of the decisional framework. Specific aspects should be taken into account: long term effects, large uncertainties and/or probabilistic events, with particular attention to the public and the political authorities. Traditional cost-benefit analysis is not qualified to deal with these different dimensions of the risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the principles of multi-criteria analysis applied to low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. Three categories of barriers can be distinguished acting at different protection levels: site characteristics, waste package and disposal system. A set of possible solutions can be identified, but the selection of the 'optimum' is not easy because of the diversity of the factors to be allowed for. For example, the following problem needs to be addressed: is it preferable to limit public radiation exposure several hundred years ahead or to reduce occupational exposure during the monitoring period of the disposal facility? An optimisation study is currently being performed on the various components of the structure, assuming given site and waste package characteristics. Four steps are distinguished: identification and analysis of options for the structure; selection and estimation of the qualitative and quantitative criteria; determination of the 'most interesting' solutions using multi-criteria analysis; sensitivity analysis and discussion on uncertainties related to the various assumptions. Based on the preliminary findings, the paper focuses on practical solutions to address the methodological issues raised in applying the optimisation procedures to radioactive waste management. (au)

  14. MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH FOR DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE DRAINAGE IN MALANG RESIDENTIAL AREA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAPSARI Ratih Indri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally sound approach for sustainable urban drainage could promote infiltration and lower the risk of flooding. This study presents the framework to evaluate the drainage alternatives considering multiple aspects including water quantity, life cycle cost and amenity. This approach is verified through application at a residential area in Malang city Indonesia. Different combinations of drainage components comprising of drainage channels, infiltration wells and biopore absorption holes are assessed regarding runoff reduction, present value of life cycle cost, and willingness to pay for the convenience. The first part describes the effective designs of sustainable drainage components in the houses as well as in the public spaces of the housing. The second part of this study describes the use of analytic hierarchy process for weight assignment of sustainability criteria and multiple benefit calculation. The study recommends infiltration wells and biopore absorption holes together with drainage channels as the best management practice of sustainable drainage system based on its overall sustainability index.

  15. Mechanical modelling of SiC/SiC composites and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernachy, F.; Gélébart, L.; Crépin, J.; Bornert, M.

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes and perspectives: • Definition of damage criteria, easy to measure and reproducible: → Useful for design purposes. • Results about the biaxial mechanical behavior of the tubes: → Construction and identification of a damage model. • Measurement of elastic properties in good agreement with multiscale simulations: → Non-linear behavior has still to be adressed using a multiscale approach. Possible strategies: - Building of a 3D homogeneous damage model of the tow; - Simulation of the initiation and propagation of cracks through the composite. • More experimental results coming to address several issues: → Non proportional tests (complex loading paths): - Investigation of crack opening/closure mechanism. → Tension-internal pressure tests: - Mechanical properties along the orthoradial direction; → Tests on other microstructures (braiding and winding angles); → Bending tests: - Test of the mechanical model and close to industrial issues

  16. Functional design criteria for FY 1993-2000 groundwater monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this revision is to update the Line Item Project, 93-L-GFW-152 Functional Design Criteria (FDC) to reflect changes approved in change control M-24-91-6, Engineering Change Notices (ECNs), and expand the scope to include subsurface investigations along with the borehole drilling. This revision improves the ability and effectiveness of maintaining RCRA and Operational groundwater compliance by combining borehole and well drilling with subsurface data gathering objectives. The total projected number of wells to be installed under this project has decreased from 200 and the scope has been broadened to include additional subsurface investigation activities that usually occur simultaneously with most traditional borehole drilling and monitoring well installations. This includes borehole hydrogeologic characterization activities, and vadose monitoring. These activities are required under RCRA 40 CFR 264 and 265 and WAC 173-303 for site characterization, groundwater and vadose assessment and well placement

  17. Criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters during and after design basis accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L.; Gilbert, H.; Jacox, J.W.

    1994-12-01

    We have reviewed the literature on the performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be structurally damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. Despite the many studies on HEPA filter performance under adverse conditions, there are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen when there was insufficient data

  18. Design and validation of standardized clinical and functional remission criteria in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosolov SN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sergey N Mosolov,1 Andrey V Potapov,1 Uriy V Ushakov,2 Aleksey A Shafarenko,1 Anastasiya B Kostyukova11Department of Mental Disorders Therapy, Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Moscow, Russia; 2Moscow Psychiatric Outpatient Services #21, Moscow, RussiaBackground: International Remission Criteria (IRC for schizophrenia were developed recently by a group of internationally known experts. The IRC detect only 10%–30% of cases and do not cover the diversity of forms and social functioning. Our aim was to design a more applicable tool and validate its use – the Standardized Clinical and Functional Remission Criteria (SCFRC.Methods: We used a 6-month follow-up study of 203 outpatients from two Moscow centers and another further sample of stable patients from a 1-year controlled trial of atypical versus typical medication. Diagnosis was confirmed by International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD10 criteria and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Patients were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, including intensity threshold, and further classified using the Russian domestic remission criteria and the level of social and personal functioning, according to the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP. The SCFRC were formulated and were validated by a data reanalysis on the first population sample and on a second independent sample (104 patients and in an open-label prospective randomized 12-month comparative study of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI versus olanzapine.Results: Only 64 of the 203 outpatients (31.5% initially met the IRC, and 53 patients (26.1% met the IRC after 6 months, without a change in treatment. Patients who were in remission had episodic and progressive deficit (39.6%, or remittent (15% paranoid schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder (17%. In addition, 105 patients of 139 (51.7%, who did not meet symptomatic IRC, remained stable within the period. Reanalysis of

  19. Safety Design Criteria and Approaches to Safety Substantiation of the BN-1200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurko, I.

    2013-01-01

    Russian experience in SFR area: Activities on development of safety design criteria for SFRs of the 4th generation is carried out within the GIF framework. Although this reactor technology is considered as innovative that is relevant to the 4th generation, however, it has already a certain history. In this relation, it seems to be useful to analyze the corresponding experience that is available in various countries. 4 SFRs have been successfully operated in the USSR and in the Russian Federation: • Experimental reactor BR-5/10; • Research reactor BOR-60; • Prototype BN-350 power reactor; • Commercial BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Thus, Russia gained a considerable experience of design, construction and operation of SFRs. In particular, a certain experience has been acquired on safety substantiation of reactors of this type and their licensing. Now BOR-60 and BN-600 continue their operation, BN-800 power unit is under construction, development of the commercial BN-1200 power unit, that is considered as the 4th generation reactor, has been started. Due to limited number of operating SFRs in the world, successful Russian experience in this area should be taken into account for further development and improvement of SFR SDC developed by the GIF Task Force. In particular, participation of SFR designers in this activities would be fruitful and useful

  20. Review of design criteria for Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) used in Fuel Reprocessing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, S.; Basu, Pew; Sivasubramaniyan, K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Though fuel cycle facilities handling fissile materials are designed with careful criticality safety analysis, the criticality accident cannot be ruled out completely. Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) is being installed as part of criticality safety management in fuel cycle facilities. CAAS system being used in India, is ECIL make, ionization chamber based gamma detector, which houses three identical detectors and works on 2/3 logic. As per ISO 7753 and ANSI/ANS-8.3, the CAAS must be designed to be capable of detecting any minimum accident occurs which could be of concern. Based on this, alarm limit used in CAAS is: 4 R/h (fast transient excursion) and 3 mR in 0.5 sec (slow excursion). In case of reprocessing facilities wherein process tanks located in heavy shielding, identification of CAAS installation locations require detailed radiation transport calculations. A study has been taken to estimate the gamma dose rate from thick concrete hot cells in order to determine the locations of CAAS to meet the present design criteria of alarm limit

  1. Dependable Design Flow for Protection Systems using Programmable Logic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M

    2011-01-01

    Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) are becoming more prevalent in protection and safety-related electronic systems. When employing such programmable logic devices, extra care and attention needs to be taken. The final synthesis result, used to generate the bit-stream to program the device, must be shown to meet the design’s requirements. This paper describes how to maximize confidence using techniques such as Formal Methods, exhaustive Hardware Description Language (HDL) code simulation and hardware testing. An example is given for one of the critical functions of the Safe Machine Parameters (SMP) system, used in the protection of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. CERN is also working towards an adaptation of the IEC- 61508 lifecycle designed for Machine Protection Systems (MPS), and the High Energy Physics environment, implementation of a protection function in FPGA code is only one small step of this lifecycle. The ultimate aim of this project is to cre...

  2. Differences in safety margins between nuclear and conventional design standards with regards to seismic hazard definition and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Saudy, A.; Orbovic, N.; Dejan, D.

    2006-01-01

    With the surging interest in new build nuclear all over the world and a permanent interest in earthquake resistance of nuclear plants, there is a need to quantify the safety margins in nuclear buildings design in comparison to conventional buildings in order to increase the public confidence in the safety of nuclear power plants. Nuclear (CAN3-N289 series) and conventional (NBCC 2005) seismic standards have different approaches regarding the design of civil structures. The origin of the differences lays in the safety philosophy behind the seismic nuclear and conventional standards. Conventional seismic codes contain the minimal requirement destined primarily to safeguard against major structural failure and loss of life. It doesn't limit damage to a certain acceptable degree or maintain function. Nuclear seismic code requires that structures, systems and components important to safety, withstand the effects of earthquakes. The requirement states that for equipment important to safety, both integrity and functionality should be ascertained. The seismic hazard is generally defined on the basis of the annual probability of exceedence (return period). There is a major difference on the return period and the confidence level for design earthquakes between the conventional and the nuclear seismic standards. The seismic design criteria of conventional structures are based on the use of Force Modification Factors to take into account the energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain and the reserve of strength. The use of such factors to lower intentionally the seismic input is consistent with the safety philosophy of the conventional seismic standard which is the 'non collapse' rather than the integrity and/or the operability of the structures or components. Nuclear seismic standard requires that the structure remain in the elastic domain; energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain is not allowed for design basis earthquake conditions. This is

  3. Improved Design of Unequal Error Protection LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandberg Sara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an improved method for designing unequal error protection (UEP low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. The method is based on density evolution. The degree distribution with the best UEP properties is found, under the constraint that the threshold should not exceed the threshold of a non-UEP code plus some threshold offset. For different codeword lengths and different construction algorithms, we search for good threshold offsets for the UEP code design. The choice of the threshold offset is based on the average a posteriori variable node mutual information. Simulations reveal the counter intuitive result that the short-to-medium length codes designed with a suitable threshold offset all outperform the corresponding non-UEP codes in terms of average bit-error rate. The proposed codes are also compared to other UEP-LDPC codes found in the literature.

  4. Game theoretic analysis of physical protection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canion, B.; Schneider, E.; Bickel, E.; Hadlock, C.; Morton, D.

    2013-01-01

    The physical protection system (PPS) of a fictional small modular reactor (SMR) facility have been modeled as a platform for a game theoretic approach to security decision analysis. To demonstrate the game theoretic approach, a rational adversary with complete knowledge of the facility has been modeled attempting a sabotage attack. The adversary adjusts his decisions in response to investments made by the defender to enhance the security measures. This can lead to a conservative physical protection system design. Since defender upgrades were limited by a budget, cost benefit analysis may be conducted upon security upgrades. One approach to cost benefit analysis is the efficient frontier, which depicts the reduction in expected consequence per incremental increase in the security budget

  5. Barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well-based solar-cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, Jihad M.; Shum, Kai; Wang, W. B.; Alfano, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-based solar-cell structures is reported for the purpose of achieving maximum efficiency. The time-dependent short-circuit current density at the collector side of various MQW solar-cell structures under resonant condition was numerically calculated using the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The energy efficiency of solar cells based on the InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW structues were compared when carriers are excited at a particular solar-energy band. Using InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As MQW structures it is found that a maximum energy efficiency can be achieved if the structure is designed with barrier potential of about 450 meV. The efficiency is found to decline linearly as the barrier potential increases for GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW-structure-based solar cells.

  6. Design Criteria, Operating Conditions, and Nickel-Iron Hydroxide Catalyst Materials for Selective Seawater Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Fabio; Reier, Tobias; Pawolek, Zarina; Gliech, Manuel; Strasser, Peter

    2016-05-10

    Seawater is an abundant water resource on our planet and its direct electrolysis has the advantage that it would not compete with activities demanding fresh water. Oxygen selectivity is challenging when performing seawater electrolysis owing to competing chloride oxidation reactions. In this work we propose a design criterion based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations that identifies alkaline conditions as preferable to obtain high selectivity for the oxygen evolution reaction. The criterion states that catalysts sustaining the desired operating current with an overpotential seawater-mimicking electrolyte. The catalyst was synthesized by a solvothermal method and the activity, surface redox chemistry, and stability were tested electrochemically in alkaline and near-neutral conditions (borate buffer at pH 9.2) and under both fresh seawater conditions. The Tafel slope at low current densities is not influenced by pH or presence of chloride. On the other hand, the addition of chloride ions has an influence in the temporal evolution of the nickel reduction peak and on both the activity and stability at high current densities at pH 9.2. Faradaic efficiency close to 100 % under the operating conditions predicted by our design criteria was proven using in situ electrochemical mass spectrometry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. System 80+{trademark} standard design incorporates radiation protection lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crom, T.D.; Naugle, C.L. [Duke Engineering & Services, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Turk, R.S. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Many lessons have been learned from the current generation of nuclear plants in the area of radiation protection. The following paper will outline how the lessons learned have been incorporated into the design and operational philosophy of the System 80+{trademark} Standard Design currently under development by ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) with support from Duke Engineering and Services, Inc. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation in the Balance-of-Plant design. The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design is a complete nuclear power plant for national and international markets, designed in direct response to utility needs for the 1990`s, and scheduled for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Design Certification under the new standardization rule (10 CFR Part 52). System 80+{trademark} is a natural extension of System 80{sup R} technology, an evolutionary change based on proven Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde in Arizona and under construction at Yonggwang in the Republic of Korea. The System 80+{trademark} Containment and much of the Balance of Plant design is based upon Duke Power Company`s Cherokee Plant, which was partially constructed in the late 1970`s, but, was later canceled (due to rapid declined in electrical load growth). The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design meets the requirements given in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Requirements Document. One of these requirements is to limit the occupational exposure to 100 person-rem/yr. This paper illustrates how this goal can be achieved through the incorporation of lessons learned, innovative design, and the implementation of a common sense approach to operation and maintenances practices.

  8. Value/impact of design criteria for cast ductile iron shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The ductile failure criteria proposed in the Base report appear appropriate except that stress intensity values, S/sub m/ should be based on lower safety factors and ductility should be added as a criterion. A safety factor for stress intensity, s/sub m/ of 4 is recommended rather than 3 on minimum ultimate tensile strength, S/sub u/ in accordance with ASME code philosophy of assigning higher safety factors to cast ductile iron than to steel. This more conservative approach has no impact on costs since the selection of wall thickness is controlled by shielding rather than by stress considerations. The addition of a ductility criterion is recommended because of the problems associated with the selection of appropriate brittle failure criteria and the potential for cast ductile iron to have extremely low elongation at failure. Neither a materials nor a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) approach appear to be viable for demonstrating the prevention of brittle failure in cast ductile iron shipping casks. It is possible that the analytic methods predict brittle failure because of extremely conservative assumptions whereas real casks may not fail. Model drop tests could be used to demonstrate containment integrity. It is estimated that a risk committment of at least $1,000,000 would be required for engineering, design, model fabrication and testing. Before taking such risks, a mechanism should be found to obtain concurrence from NRC that the results of the test would be acceptable. Probabilistic approaches or model testing could be used to demonstrate the acceptability of cast ductile iron casks from a brittle failure point of view. Before probabilistic methods can be used, the NRC would have to be persuaded to accept the approach of the Competent Authority in West Germany or more formalized methods for probabilistic risk assessments

  9. Process, background and design criteria of the gas cleaning at Puertollano IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisa, J. [Elcogas, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-11-01

    The Puertollano IGCC plant selected cooling by a water-tube boiler with upstream quenching at high velocities that requires a dust-free cooling gas at not less than 250{degree}C in order not to penalise the heat recovery efficiency. A filtration system for gas dedusting in the 250{degree}C temperature range has been installed and will be commissioned at the end of 1997. The gas cleaning concept is completed with a Venturi Scrubber, a COS hydrolysis reactor and a MDEA column to strip the sulphuric acid to yield clean gas. The gasification island is based upon the PRENFLO system which is an entrained-flow system with dry feeding. The selection of the filter system arrangement considered the limited operational experience in comparable operating conditions and acknowledged the flexibility of the filter system versus the cyclone-scrubber as far as easier load variation operation, the reduction of residues needing deposition and increased slag flow, as well as easier maintenance. Additionally to the ceramic test filters in Furstenhausen (PRENFLO) and Deer Park near Houston (SHELL), ceramic candle-type filter were selected in Buggenum and at Wabash River, and for the KoBra plant. The main criteria for the selection of the filter system and the type of candle were: separation efficiency to match clean gas limits; uniform distribution of the dust-laden gas to the filters; wear-resistant routing of the dust-laden gas flow; need for a supporting structure which must cope with sudden pressure fluctuations; optimised pulse gas system; and maintenance and repair. Based upon the above criteria, the PRENFLO concept requirements and the gas turbine specification, an arrangement with two pressure filter vessels with LLB design and filter elements manufactured by Schumacher has been installed in Puertollano. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Use of the EC quality criteria as a common method of inspecting CT laboratories - A pilot project by the Nordic radiation protection authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torp, C.G.; Olerud, H.M.; Einarsson, G.; Groen, P.; Leitz, W.; Servomaa, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of Nordic radiation protection co-operation, quality criteria for computed tomography (CT) as published by the European Commission were used for the evaluation of selected CT laboratories in each of the Nordic countries. The mean values for all five countries of the weighted CT dose index (CTDI w ) and dose length product (DLP) were 60 mGy and 740 mGy · cm for CT of the brain, 11 mGy and 420 mGy · cm for CT of the chest, and 40 mGy and 420 mGy · cm for CT of the lumbar spine, respectively. A comparison with the reference levels set in the above mentioned publication gives a diversified result: compliance for the DLP-values is generally achieved with good margins whereas the CTDI w -values were frequently larger for brain and lumbar spine examinations. The radiographic technique was generally also within the recommendations from the EC. Generally most of the image quality criteria were fulfilled, but it must be borne in mind that the study was biased in the way that two local radiologists in consensus evaluated their own images. Image material from only three patients was selected for each of the clinical indications, that means the project was not designed for ranking laboratories, but it is a way of making the departments aware of the need for optimisation regarding image quality and patient dose, and also of the problems associated with this task. During the study suggestions were brought forward concerning amendments of the quality criteria: some need a better definition, some are not relevant for the diagnostic task in question, some could be added. Instead of 'yes' and 'no', a range of maybe 5 levels of visualisation should be introduced in order to better characterize the level of diagnostic performance. (author)

  11. Rethinking exergy efficiency in favor of exergy sustainability as a criteria for design. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seager, T.P.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' Engineering design in power generation or conversion has typically focused on minimizing exergy losses (entropy gains), or maximizing economic returns. Both entropy minimization and profit maximization are readily obtainable and acceptable objective criteria for design of thermodynamic processes. However, alternative criteria are imaginable. This research presents a framework for considering minimal environmental impact or maximum renewability as alternative design criteria. In the environmental case, fuel source is based upon an exergetic environmental metric called pollution potential. In the case of renewability, a life-cycle metric describing the replacement time frame of the fuel source is employed. When coupled, the two metrics together partially assess the overall sustainability of the design. (author)

  12. Development of Design Criteria for Fluid Induced Structural Vibrations in Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan; Dhir, Vijay K.; Alquaddoomi, O.S.; Mitra, Deepanjan; Adinolfi, Pierangelo

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 Flow-induced vibration in heat exchangers has been a major cause of concern in the nuclear industry for several decades. Many incidents of failure of heat exchangers due to apparent flow-induced vibration have been reported through the USNRC incident reporting system. Almost all heat exchangers have to deal with this problem during their operation. The phenomenon has been studied since the 1970s and the database of experimental studies on flow-induced vibration is constantly updated with new findings and improved design criteria for heat exchangers. In the nuclear industry, steam generators are often affected by this problem. However, flow-induced vibration is not limited to nuclear power plants, but to any type of heat exchanger used in many industrial applications such as chemical processing, refrigeration and air conditioning. Specifically, shell and tube type heat exchangers experience flow-induced vibration due to the high velocity flow over the tube banks. Flow-induced vibration in these heat exchangers leads to equipment breakdown and hence expensive repair and process shutdown. The goal of this research is to provide accurate measurements that can help modelers to validate their models using the measured experimental parameters and thereby develop better design criteria for avoiding fluid-elastic instability in heat exchangers. The research is divided between two primary experimental efforts, the first conducted using water alone (single phase) and the second using a mixture of air or steam and water as the working fluid (two phase). The outline of this report is as follows: After the introduction to fluid-elastic instability, the experimental apparatus constructed to conduct the experiments is described in Chapter 2 along with the measurement procedures. Chapter 3 presents results obtained on the tube array and the flow loop, as well as techniques used in data processing. The project performance is described and evaluated in Chapter 4 followed by

  13. Examples of radiation protection optimization in design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Palacios, E.; Curti, A.; Agatiello, O.; Majchrzak, J.

    1982-01-01

    The practical use of the requirement of optimization of radiological protection is presented. Application examples for designing ventilation systems and for maintenance operations of nuclear plants are given. A method is developed for the application of the optimization requirement to the design of ventilation systems in contaminated environments. Representative values of the main parameters are presented and their relevant features are discussed. A practical example shows actual results for a radioisotope production plant. Causes influencing collective doses incurred by the workers during maintenance operations are analyzed. A method is presented for the optimization of both the level of training of personnel and the apportionment of individual doses. As an example, this methodology is applied to the maintenance operations in a nuclear power plant. (author)

  14. Preliminary design of the thermal protection system for solar probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirling, R. B., Jr.; Loomis, W. C.; Heightland, C. N.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary design of the thermal protection system for the NASA Solar Probe spacecraft is presented. As presently conceived, the spacecraft will be launched by the Space Shuttle on a Jovian swing-by trajectory and at perihelion approach to three solar radii of the surface of the Earth's sun. The system design satisfies maximum envelope, structural integrity, equipotential, and mass loss/contamination requirements by employing lightweight carbon-carbon emissive shields. The primary shield is a thin shell, 15.5-deg half-angle cone which absorbs direct solar flux at up to 10-deg off-nadir spacecraft pointing angles. Secondary shields of sandwich construction and low thickness-direction thermal conductivity are used to reduce the primary shield infrared radiation to the spacecraft payload.

  15. Safety Requirements / Design Criteria for SFR. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yllera, Javier

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima event (March 2011) the IAEA has started an action to review and revise, if necessary, all Safety Standards to take into consideration the lessons learned from the accident. The Safety Standards that need to be revised have been identified. A Prioritization Approach has been established: The first priority is to review safety guides applicable for NPPs and spent fuel storage with focus on the measures for the prevention and mitigation of severe accident due to external hazards - ● Regulatory framework, Safety assessment, Management system, Radiation protection and Emergency Preparedness and response; ● Sitting, Design, Operation of NPPs ● Decommissioning and Waste Management. Original sources for lessons learned: IAE fact Finding Mission, Japan´s report to the Ministerial Conference, INSAG Report, etc. Later, other lesson sources considered

  16. 340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Detection Project W-302 Functional Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1995-03-01

    This functional design criteria for the upgrade to the 340 radioactive liquid waste storage facility (Project W-302) specifically addresses the secondary containment issues at the current vault facility of the 340 Complex. This vault serves as the terminus for the Radioactive Liquid Waste System (RLWS). Project W-302 is necessary in order to bring this portion of the Complex into full regulatory compliance. The project title, ``340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Detection``, illustrates preliminary thoughts of taking corrective action directly upon the existing vault (such as removing the tanks, lining the vault, and replacing tanks). However, based on the conclusion of the engineering study, ``Engineering Study of the 300 Area Process Wastewater Handling System``, WHC-SD-WM-ER-277 (as well as numerous follow-up meetings with cognizant staff), this FDC prescribes a complete replacement of the current tank/vault system. This offers a greater array of tanks, and provides greater operating flexibility and ease of maintenance. This approach also minimizes disruption to RLWS services during ``tie-in``, as compared to the alternative of trying to renovate the old vault. The proposed site is within the current Complex area, and maintains the receipt of RLWS solutions through gravity flow.

  17. Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) criteria as functions of vehicle design and consumer expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichel, Daniel R.

    2005-09-01

    The criteria for NVH design are to a large degree determined by the types of vehicles and the perceived desires of the purchasers of vehicles, as well as the cost of incorporating NVH measures. Vehicles may be classified into specific types, e.g., economy car, midsize passenger, near-luxury and luxury passenger cars, sports cars, vans, minivans, and sports utility vehicles of varying sizes. The owner of a luxury sedan would expect a quiet ride with minimal vibration and harshness-however, if that sedan is to display sporting characteristics, some aspects of NVH may actually have to be increased in order to enhance a feeling of driver exhilaration. A discussion of the requirements for specific types of vehicles is provided, with due regard for effects on the usability of installed sound/video systems, driver and passenger fatigue, feel of steering mechanisms and other mechanical components, consumer market research, etc. A number of examples of vehicles on the market are cited.

  18. Design criteria for a high energy Compton Camera and possible application to targeted cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conka Nurdan, T.; Nurdan, K.; Brill, A. B.; Walenta, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    The proposed research focuses on the design criteria for a Compton Camera with high spatial resolution and sensitivity, operating at high gamma energies and its possible application for molecular imaging. This application is mainly on the detection and visualization of the pharmacokinetics of tumor targeting substances specific for particular cancer sites. Expected high resolution (animals with a human tumor xenograft which is one of the first steps in evaluating the potential utility of a candidate gene. The additional benefit of high sensitivity detection will be improved cancer treatment strategies in patients based on the use of specific molecules binding to cancer sites for early detection of tumors and identifying metastasis, monitoring drug delivery and radionuclide therapy for optimum cell killing at the tumor site. This new technology can provide high resolution, high sensitivity imaging of a wide range of gamma energies and will significantly extend the range of radiotracers that can be investigated and used clinically. The small and compact construction of the proposed camera system allows flexible application which will be particularly useful for monitoring residual tumor around the resection site during surgery. It is also envisaged as able to test the performance of new drug/gene-based therapies in vitro and in vivo for tumor targeting efficacy using automatic large scale screening methods.

  19. A Review of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods Applied to the Sustainable Bridge Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Penadés-Plà

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of bridges has been necessary for societies since ancient times, when the communication between and within towns, cities or communities was established. Until recently, the economic factor has been the only one considered in the decision-making of any type of construction process for bridges. However, nowadays, the objective should not be just the construction of bridges, but of sustainable bridges. Economic, social and environmental factors, which form the three pillars of sustainability, have been recently added. These three factors usually have conflicting perspectives. The decision-making process allows the conversion of a judgment into a rational procedure to reach a compromise solution. The aim of this paper is to review different methods and sustainable criteria used for decision-making at each life-cycle phase of a bridge, from design to recycling or demolition. This paper examines 77 journal articles for which different methods have been used. The most used methods are briefly described. In addition, a statistical study was carried out on the Multiple Attribute Decision-making papers reviewed.

  20. Designing a solar powered Stirling heat engine based on multiple criteria: Maximized thermal efficiency and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Dehghani, Saeed; Hosseinzade, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic model of a solar-dish Stirling engine was presented. • Thermal efficiency and output power of the engine were simultaneously maximized. • A final optimal solution was selected using several decision-making methods. • An optimal solution with least deviation from the ideal design was obtained. • Optimal solutions showed high sensitivity against variation of system parameters. - Abstract: A solar-powered high temperature differential Stirling engine was considered for optimization using multiple criteria. A thermal model was developed so that the output power and thermal efficiency of the solar Stirling system with finite rate of heat transfer, regenerative heat loss, conductive thermal bridging loss, finite regeneration process time and imperfect performance of the dish collector could be obtained. The output power and overall thermal efficiency were considered for simultaneous maximization. Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) based on the NSGA-II algorithm were employed while the solar absorber temperature and the highest and lowest temperatures of the working fluid were considered the decision variables. The Pareto optimal frontier was obtained and a final optimal solution was also selected using various decision-making methods including the fuzzy Bellman–Zadeh, LINMAP and TOPSIS. It was found that multi-objective optimization could yield results with a relatively low deviation from the ideal solution in comparison to the conventional single objective approach. Furthermore, it was shown that, if the weight of thermal efficiency as one of the objective functions is considered to be greater than weight of the power objective, lower absorber temperature and low temperature ratio should be considered in the design of the Stirling engine

  1. Impact of the application of criteria of internal monitoring in radiological protection programmes in nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Juliao, L.Q.C.; Lourenco, M.C.; Melo, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The manipulation of open sources in Nuclear Medicine services involves risks of external exposure and internal contamination. The radiological protection plan of facilities licensed by CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - must include the evaluation of such risks and propose a programme of individual monitoring to control exposure and ensure the maintenance of conditions of radiation safety. The IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency - recommendations presented in the Safety Guide RS-G-1.2 suggest that an internal worker monitoring program be implemented where there is a possibility of internal contamination lead to effective dose committed annual values equal to or greater than 1 mSv. This paper presents the application of such criteria to the radionuclides most frequently used in the field of Nuclear Medicine, taking into account the normal conditions of handling and the ranges of activity authorized by CNEN. It is concluded that iodine 131 manipulation for therapeutic purposes is the practice that presented the greatest risk of internal exposure of workers, requiring the adoption of a programme of internal monitoring of Nuclear Medicine services

  2. Soil criteria to protect terrestrial wildlife and open-range livestock from metal toxicity at mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Karl L; Beyer, W Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Thousands of hard rock mines exist in the western USA and in other parts of the world as a result of historic and current gold, silver, lead, and mercury mining. Many of these sites in the USA are on public lands. Typical mine waste associated with these sites are tailings and waste rock dumps that may be used by wildlife and open-range livestock. This report provides wildlife screening criteria levels for metals in soil and mine waste to evaluate risk and to determine the need for site-specific risk assessment, remediation, or a change in management practices. The screening levels are calculated from toxicity reference values based on maximum tolerable levels of metals in feed, on soil and plant ingestion rates, and on soil to plant uptake factors for a variety of receptors. The metals chosen for this report are common toxic metals found at mining sites: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The resulting soil screening values are well above those developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The difference in values was mainly a result of using toxicity reference values that were more specific to the receptors addressed rather than the most sensitive receptor.

  3. The Insulation for Machines Having a High Lifespan Expectancy, Design, Tests and Acceptance Criteria Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Barré

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The windings insulation of electrical machines will remain a topic that is updated frequently. The criteria severity requested by the electrical machine applications increases continuously. Manufacturers and designers are always confronted with new requirements or new criteria with enhanced performances. The most problematic requirements that will be investigated here are the extremely long lifespan coupled to critical operating conditions (overload, supply grid instabilities, and critical operating environments. Increasing lifespan does not have a considerable benefit because the purchasing price of usual machines has to be compared to the purchasing price and maintenance price of long lifespan machines. A machine having a 40-year lifespan will cost more than twice the usual price of a 20-year lifetime machine. Systems which need a long lifetime are systems which are crucial for a country, and those for which outage costs are exorbitant. Nuclear power stations are such systems. It is certain that the used technologies have evolved since the first nuclear power plant, but they cannot evolve as quickly as in other sectors of activities. No-one wants to use an immature technology in such power plants. Even if the electrical machines have exceeded 100 years of age, their improvements are linked to a patient and continuous work. Nowadays, the windings insulation systems have a well-established structure, especially high voltage windings. Unfortunately, a high life span is not only linked to this result. Several manufacturers’ improvements induced by many years of experiment have led to the writing of standards that help the customers and the manufacturers to regularly enhance the insulation specifications or qualifications. Hence, in this publication, the authors will give a step by step exhaustive review of one insulation layout and will take time to give a detailed report on the standards that are linked to insulation systems. No standard can

  4. Licensing experiences, risk assessment, demonstration test on nuclear fuel packages and design criteria for sea going vessel carrying spent fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ikeda, K.

    1978-01-01

    In Japan spent fuels from nuclear power plants shall be shipped to reprocessing plants by sea-going vessels. Atomic Energy Committee has initiated a board of experts to implement the assessment of environmental safety for sea transport. As a part of the assessment a study has been conducted by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry under sponsorship of Nuclear Safety Bureau, which is intended to guarantee the safety of sea transport. Nuclear Safety Bureau also has a program to carry out a long term demonstration test on spent fuel package using full scale package models. The test consists of drop, heat transfer, fire, collapse under high external pressure, immersion, shielding and subcritical test. The purpose of this test is to obtain the public acceptance and also to verify the adequacy of the safety analysis for nuclear fuel packages. In order to secure the safety of sea transport, the Ministry of Transportation has provided for the design criteria for sea-going vessel in the case of full load shipping, which aims to make minimum the probability of sinking at collision, grounding and other unforeseen accidents on the sea and also to retain the radiation exposure to crews as low as possible. The design criteria consists of the following items: (1) structural strength of vessel, (2) collision protective structure, (3) arrangement of holds, (4) stability after damage, (5) grounding protective structure, (6) cooling system, (7) tie-down equipment, (8) radiation inspection apparatus, (9) decontamination facilities, (10) emergency water flooding equipment for ship fire, (11) emergency electric sources, etc. Based on the design criteria a sea-going vessel names HINOURA-MARU has been reconstructed to transport spent fuel packages from nuclear power stations to the reprocessing plant

  5. Design options for improving protective gloves for industrial assembly work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Haslegrave, Christine M; Stedmon, Alex W

    2014-07-01

    The study investigated the effects of wearing two new designs of cotton glove on several hand performance capabilities and compared them against the effects of barehanded, single-layered and double cotton glove conditions when working with hand tools (screwdriver and pliers). The new glove designs were based on the findings of subjective hand discomfort assessments for this type of work and aimed to match the glove thickness to the localised pressure and sensitivity in different areas of the hand as well as to provide adequate dexterity for fine manipulative tasks. The results showed that the first prototype glove and the barehanded condition were comparable and provided better dexterity and higher handgrip strength than double thickness gloves. The results support the hypothesis that selective thickness in different areas of the hand could be applied by glove manufacturers to improve the glove design, so that it can protect the hands from the environment and at the same time allow optimal hand performance capabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Designing trails for subaquatic tourism in Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Piñeiro-Corbeira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the range of touristic activities that take place in the sea has greatly expanded in recent years, the marine realm continues to be one of the least known to the public. Scuba diving and snorkeling are popular activities in the marine environment. Among its benefits, snorkeling is simple, cheap, and accessible to a wide range of population. In this regard, it has considerable potential as a tool for environmental education as it allows a firsthand observation of the subaquatic seascape as well as a direct interaction with marine wildlife. These attributes, together with its low ecological impact, make snorkeling an activity particularly suitable for marine protected areas. Yet, its implementation in marine protected areas requires new tools for an appropriate use. Here, we show an innovative procedure for assessing the underwater seascape that should help in the designation of touristic subaquatic trails analogous to those commonly used in terrestrial landscapes. We elaborated a system of 18 “Perceptible Seascape Elements”, grouped into 9 Concepts, that leads to a “Potential Observation Index” summarizing the seabed landscape qualities that can be observed while snorkeling. Tests of this approach in a National Park (Parque Nacional Marítimo-Terrestre de las Islas Atlánticas de Galicia led to the design and ranking of 6 underwater trails. On the other hand, we used standardized questionnaires to determine the attributes of park’s visitors, their expectative, their perception of the marine environment, and previous skills in snorkeling. Many visitors were mostly unaware of the qualities of the marine environment of the National Park but we found considerable interest in new alternatives to enjoy the marine environment such as snorkeling. Our procedure and results could help to add snorkeling to the set of environmental education strategies already used in the Park.

  7. Radiation protection aspects gained from the operation of FBTR. Basis for approach and criteria for future LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshisundaram, V.; Jose, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    detector for gas activity monitors (unique for FBRs) should be compensated type ion chambers and not the NaI(T1) based ones, the energy threshold criteria for the installed radiation monitors meant for detection of primary sodium, further possibility of reduction in man-rem expenditure etc., are presented. The experiences gained would serve as a guide for a safe approach and in determining the criteria from the point of view of radiation protection for future LMFBRs. (author)

  8. A microeconomic perspective on the role of efficiency and equity criteria in designing natural resource policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kaine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberating on policy design to manage natural resources with clarity and precision is a difficult task, even for professional and highly experienced policy practitioners. These difficulties are exacerbated by confounding the crafting of policy instruments to change resource use (a behavioral matter related to resource management with the consequential issue of who bears the cost of changing resource use (an equity matter. The confounding of behavioral and equity issues is not surprising because equity is commonly suggested as a criterion in the literature on policy instrument choice, and inequity in access to resources may also be one of the initial drivers of policy intervention. Here, we restate the microeconomic analysis of "open access" resources and highlight the fundamental difference between efficiency (including allocative inefficiency and equity that emerges from that analysis. We then discuss the implications of this difference for the choice of policy instruments to resolve problems in natural resource management, at least for instruments that entail changing the behavior of primary producers. This discussion is centered on three key decisions for formulating policy: (1 choosing the preferred portfolio of uses for a natural resource, (2 choosing a policy instrument to change that portfolio, and (3 choosing a mechanism to distribute the costs of change fairly. To illustrate how these decisions may play out in a real-world example, we apply the decisions to a freshwater policy process in New Zealand. By articulating the distinction, microeconomics draws distinctions between efficiency and equity as policy objectives. Linking that distinction with the Tinbergen's principle regarding the matching of instruments to objectives, we aim to reduce the conflation of the decision-making criteria employed in policy formulation decisions. In doing so, we hope to assist policy makers to avoid policy failure by reducing the potential for the

  9. From Avezzano (1915) to L’Aquila (2009) earthquake: evolution of design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Paolo; Bongiovanni, Giovanni; Buffarini, Giacomo; Saitta Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the evolution of the anti-seismic design criteria presenting and discussing the changes in the seismic code in Italy. A brief presentation of the main earthquakes that hit the peninsula in the 20. century is given, and the subsequent evolution of the code. The first law, which gave rules for buildings, was issued by Ferdinand IV de Bourbon, king of the Two Scillies, in the 1784, after the seismic event in the Calabria and Sicily regions in 1783, Macro-seismic Intensity XI. Already other significant earthquakes were remembered at that date, especially the one of 1693 in Val di Noto, Sicily, with a 7,4 estimated magnitude. According to the above mentioned law, rules for minimal dimensions of structural elements, masonry walls and foundations, were given, as well as specific prescriptions on the connection between walls and roof. Interesting regulations for reconstruction were also given by pope Pio IX after the earthquake of 1859 in Norcia. The first severe earthquakes after the creation of the Italian Kingdom were the Messina and Reggio Calabria earthquake with magnitude 7.1 (1908), and the Marsica earthquake (1915) with magnitude 7.0. In the 'Regio Decreto' n. 193 of April 18. 1909, a list of municipality classified as seismic ones was proposed. This list was progressively updated but only after earthquakes. Seismic forces in structural design were introduced by the D.L. n. 1526 of November 5. 1916, after the Marsica earthquake, with an almost constant distribution of the acceleration along the building height, not accounting for the actual dynamic behavior of the structures. Only after the n. 64/1974 law and the subsequent seismic code (DM of March 3rd 1975), modal and spectrum analyses appeared. Seismic check could be carried out by means of the static analysis, with horizontal acceleration linearly increasing along the height simulating the first mode of a cantilever beam, or by the dynamic analysis, with modal contributions combined

  10. The Legal Design of Sustainability Criteria on Biofuels Used by the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the legal power of the European Union - and the use of this power - to promote the sustainable use of biofuels by formally binding criteria in the Renewable Energy Directive. The use of the criteria has the twofold goal of making it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions...... caused by the use of fuels and to prevent the conversion of land characterized by high carbon stock and high biodiversity for biofuel production....

  11. Regulatory principles, criteria and guidelines for site selection, design, construction and operation of uranium tailings retention systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coady, J.R.; Henry, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    Principles, criteria and guidelines developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board for the management of uranium mill tailings are discussed. The application of these concepts is considered in relation to site selection, design and construction, operation and decommissioning of tailings retention facilities

  12. Functional design criteria for the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Within the United States, there are few hands-on training centers capable of providing integrated technical training within a practical application environment. Currently, there are no training facilities that offer both radioactive and chemical hazardous response training. There are no hands-on training centers that provide training for both hazardous material operations and emergency response that also operate as a partnership between organized labor, state agencies, tribes, and local emergency responders within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Available facilities appear grossly inadequate for training the thousands of people at Hanford, and throughout the Pacific Northwest, who are required to qualify under nationally-mandated requirements. It is estimated that 4,000 workers at the Hanford Site alone need hands-on training. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, the potential target audience would be over 30,000 public sector emergency response personnel, as well as another 10,000 clean-up workers represented by organized labor. The HAMMER Training Center will be an interagency-sponsored training center. It will be designed, built, and operated to ensure that clean-up workers, fire fighters, and public sector management and emergency response personnel are trained to handle accidental spills of hazardous materials. Training will cover wastes at clean-up sites, and in jurisdictions along the transportation corridors, to effectively protect human life, property, and the environment

  13. Who should donate blood? Policy decisions on donor deferral criteria should protect recipients and be fair to donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailsford, S R; Kelly, D; Kohli, H; Slowther, A; Watkins, N A

    2015-08-01

    An important element in the development of voluntary blood donation schemes throughout the world has been the attention given to minimising the risk to recipients of donated blood, primarily the risk of transfusion transmitted infections. In response to the appearance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the 1980s a range of national policies emerged that excluded populations at high risk of contracting HIV from donating blood, with a particular focus on men who have sex with men (MSM), the primary reason being the protection of recipients of donated blood. Recently some countries, including the UK, have revised their policies, informed by advances in screening tests, epidemiological evidence of transmission rates and an increasing concern about unfair discrimination of specific groups in society. Policy makers face a difficult task of balancing safety of recipients; an adequate blood supply for those who require transfusion; and societal/legal obligations to treat everyone fairly. Given that no transfusion is risk free, the question is what degree of risk is acceptable in order to meet the needs of recipients and society. Decisions about acceptance of risk are complex and policy makers who set acceptable risk levels must provide ethically justifiable reasons for their decisions. We suggest it is possible to provide a set of reasons that stakeholders could agree are relevant based on careful evaluation of the evidence of all relevant risks and explicit acknowledgement of other morally relevant values. We describe using such a process in the Safety of Blood Tissue and Organs (SaBTO) review of donor deferral criteria related to sexual behaviour. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  14. Criteria for selection of target materials and design of high-efficiency-release targets for radioactive ion beam generation

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, G D; Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we define criteria for choosing target materials and for designing, mechanically stable, short-diffusion-length, highly permeable targets for generation of high-intensity radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for use at nuclear physics and astrophysics research facilities based on the ISOL principle. In addition, lists of refractory target materials are provided and examples are given of a number of successful targets, based on these criteria, that have been fabricated and tested for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF).

  15. Great Lakes water quality initiative criteria documents for the protection of aquatic life in ambient water. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The document discusses the Tier 1 aquatic life criteria for 16 criteria documents. The compounds and metals discussed are Arsenic (III), Cadmium, Chromium (III), Chromium (VI), Copper, Cyanide (free), Dieldrin, Endrin, Lindane, Mercury (II), Nickel, Parathion, Pentachlorophenol, Phenol, Selenium, and Zinc

  16. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially Protected...

  17. Developmental framework to validate future designs of ballistic neck protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, J; Midwinter, M J; Pope, D; Porter, K; Hepper, A E; Clasper, J

    2013-01-01

    The number of neck injuries has increased during the war in Afghanistan, and they have become an appreciable source of mortality and long-term morbidity for UK servicemen. A three-dimensional numerical model of the neck is necessary to allow simulation of penetrating injury from explosive fragments so that the design of body armour can be optimal, and a framework is required to validate and describe the individual components of this program. An interdisciplinary consensus group consisting of military maxillofacial surgeons, and biomedical, physical, and material scientists was convened to generate the components of the framework, and as a result it incorporates the following components: analysis of deaths and long-term morbidity, assessment of critical cervical structures for incorporation into the model, characterisation of explosive fragments, evaluation of the material of which the body armour is made, and mapping of the entry sites of fragments. The resulting numerical model will simulate the wound tract produced by fragments of differing masses and velocities, and illustrate the effects of temporary cavities on cervical neurovascular structures. Using this framework, a new shirt to be worn under body armour that incorporates ballistic cervical protection has been developed for use in Afghanistan. New designs of the collar validated by human factors and assessment of coverage are currently being incorporated into early versions of the numerical model. The aim of this paper is to describe this developmental framework and provide an update on the current progress of its individual components. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design criteria burial containers for non-transuranic solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The criteria, replace HW-83959 and apply to containers constructed specifically for the containment of beta-gamma radioactively contaminated waste removed from an area controlled by radiation work procedures, transported across an uncontrolled area where there is risk of a radiation release to the environs, and buried in an approved radioactive waste burial ground

  19. Design Optimization of Laminated Composite Structures with Many Local Strength Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents different strategies for handling very many local strength criteria in structural optimization of laminated composites. Global strength measures using Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser or p-norm functions are introduced for patch-wise parameterizations, and the efficiency of the metho...

  20. Probability and risk criteria for channel depth design and channel operation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moes, H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the various levels of probability of bottom touching and risk criteria which are being used. This leads to a relationship between the statistically expected number of vertical ship motions in the channel during a single shipping...

  1. Will the alphabet soup of design criteria affect discrete choice experiment results?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Every discrete choice experiment needs one, but the impacts of a statistical design on the results are still not well understood. Comparative studies have found that efficient designs outperform especially orthogonal designs. What has been little studied is whether efficient designs come at a cos...

  2. Analysis of Handling Qualities Design Criteria for Active Inceptor Force-Feel Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos A.; Lusardi, Jeff A.

    2013-01-01

    ratio. While these two studies produced boundaries for acceptable/unacceptable stick dynamics for rotorcraft, they were not able to provide guidance on how variations of the stick dynamics in the acceptable region impact handling qualities. More recently, a ground based simulation study [5] suggested little benefit was to be obtained from variations of the damping ratio for a side-stick controller exhibiting high natural frequencies (greater than 17 rad/s) and damping ratios (greater than 2.0). A flight test campaign was conducted concurrently on the RASCAL JUH-60A in-flight simulator and the ACT/FHS EC-135 in flight simulator [6]. Upon detailed analysis of the pilot evaluations the study identified a clear preference for a high damping ratio and natural frequency of the center stick inceptors. Side stick controllers were found to be less sensitive to the damping. While these studies have compiled a substantial amount of data, in the form of qualitative and quantitative pilot opinion, a fundamental analysis of the effect of the inceptor force-feel system on flight control is found to be lacking. The study of Ref. [6] specifically concluded that a systematic analysis was necessary, since discrepancies with the assigned handling qualities showed that proposed analytical design metrics, or criteria, were not suitable. The overall goal of the present study is to develop a clearer fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms associated with the inceptor dynamics that govern the handling qualities using a manageable analytical methodology.

  3. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    incentives to clear natural forests through CDM crediting for afforestation and reforestation, we recommend for the first commitment period that policymakers establish an early base year, such as 1990, such that lands cleared after that year would be ineligible for crediting. We further recommend an exception to this rule for CDM projects that are explicitly designed to promote natural forest restoration and that pass rigorous environmental impact review. Restoration efforts are typically most effective on lands that are adjacent to standing forests and hence likely to have been recently cleared. Thus, we recommend for these projects establishing a more recent base year, such as 2000. For the second and subsequent commitment periods, we recommend that climate policymakers act to restrain inter-annex leakage and its impacts by ensuring that crediting for forest management in industrialized countries is informed by modelling efforts to anticipate the scale of leakage associated with different Annex I 'Land use, land-use change and forestry' policy options, and coupled with effective measures to protect natural forests in developing countries. The latter should include expanding the options permitted under the CDM to carbon crediting for projects that protect threatened forests from deforestation and forest degradation. Ultimately, carbon market incentives for forest clearing can be reduced and incentives for forest conservation most effectively strengthened by fully capturing carbon emissions associated with deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries under a future emissions cap. Finally, we note that these recommendations have broader relevance to any forest-based measures to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions developed outside of the specific context of the Kyoto Protocol.

  4. Design criteria for small coded aperture masks in gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembay, S.; Gehrels, N.

    1990-01-01

    Most theoretical work on coded aperture masks in X-ray and low-energy γ-ray astronomy has concentrated on masks with large numbers of elements. For γ-ray spectrometers in the MeV range, the detector plane usually has only a few discrete elements, so that masks with small numbers of elements are called for. For this case it is feasible to analyse by computer all the possible mask patterns of given dimension to find the ones that best satisfy the desired performance criteria. In this paper we develop a particular set of performance criteria for comparing the flux sensitivities, source positioning accuracies and transparencies of different mask patterns. We then present the results of such a computer analysis for masks up to dimension 5x5 unit cell and conclude that there is a great deal of flexibility in one's choice of mask pattern for each dimension. (orig.)

  5. Preliminary scoping safety analyses of the limiting design basis protected accidents for the Fast Flux Test Facility tritium production core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-l computer code is used to perform a series of analyses for the limiting protected design basis transient events given a representative tritium and medical isotope production core design proposed for the Fast Flux Test Facility. The FFTF tritium and isotope production mission will require a different core loading which features higher enrichment fuel, tritium targets, and medical isotope production assemblies. Changes in several key core parameters, such as the Doppler coefficient and delayed neutron fraction will affect the transient response of the reactor. Both reactivity insertion and reduction of heat removal events were analyzed. The analysis methods and modeling assumptions are described. Results of the analyses and comparison against fuel pin performance criteria are presented to provide quantification that the plant protection system is adequate to maintain the necessary safety margins and assure cladding integrity

  6. Design Criteria for Vacuum Wastewater Transfer Systems in Advanced Base Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    costs, and (d) operational man- powe reqiremnts._51 Library Card I Civil Engineering labo~rator% L ~ DISIGN CRITERIA FOR VACUU’tM WASTEWATER ITRANSFER...generated from multiple sources (such as toil-ts, kitchens , laundries, and showers) and transported in a single, common transport main. Although special...system)(Ref 1) 2. A single-pipe system in parallel with the other where gray water sources (shower, laundry, and kitchen types of wastewaters) are

  7. The role of neutron activation analysis and radioanalytical methods in dose-effect relationship studies for the setting of trace metal protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Pietra, R.; Edel, J.; Goetz, L.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prepare a scientifically accurate health protection criteria documents for trace metals integrated multidisciplinary research is necessary. In particular, the rational for structuring the documents should be based primarily on the two major questions of exposure and response. Unfortunately, in a majority of cases there is a paucity of relevant data to the establishment of dose-effect relationships. This work intends to show the role that neutron activation analysis and radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity have in solving problems relevant for establishment dose-effect relationships for trace metals. Typical applications in the different research areas involved in the preparation of the protection criteria, from source and exposure to levels and forms of trace metals in humans, are presented. (author)

  8. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD)

  9. Time-Dependent Deformation Modelling for a Chopped-Glass Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, W

    2001-01-01

    Time-dependent deformation behavior of a polymeric composite with chopped-glass-fiber reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications, The material under stress was exposed to representative automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on time-dependent deformation behavior of the material. The data were analyzed and experimentally-based models developed for the time-dependent deformation behavior as a basis for automotive structural durability design criteria

  10. Time-Dependent Deformation Modelling for a Chopped-Glass Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, W

    2001-08-24

    Time-dependent deformation behavior of a polymeric composite with chopped-glass-fiber reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications, The material under stress was exposed to representative automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on time-dependent deformation behavior of the material. The data were analyzed and experimentally-based models developed for the time-dependent deformation behavior as a basis for automotive structural durability design criteria.

  11. Investigation on Stress-Rupture Behavior of a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, W

    2001-08-24

    Practical and inexpensive testing methods were developed to investigate stress-rupture properties of a polymeric composite with chopped glass fiber reinforcement for automotive applications. The material was tested in representative automotive environments to generate experimental data. The results indicate that environments have substantial effects on the stress-rupture behavior. The data were analyzed and developed into stress-rupture design criteria to address one of the durability aspects of the material for automotive structural applications.

  12. Functional design criteria for the 242-A evaporator and PUREX [Plutonium-Uranium Extraction] Plant condensate interim retention basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cejka, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This document contains the functional design criteria for a 26- million-gallon retention basin and 10 million gallons of temporary storage tanks. The basin and tanks will be used to store 242-A Evaporator process condensate, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process distillate discharge stream, and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate stream. Completion of the project will allow both the 242-A Evaporator and the PUREX Plant to restart. 4 refs

  13. Investigation on Stress-Rupture Behavior of a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, W

    2001-01-01

    Practical and inexpensive testing methods were developed to investigate stress-rupture properties of a polymeric composite with chopped glass fiber reinforcement for automotive applications. The material was tested in representative automotive environments to generate experimental data. The results indicate that environments have substantial effects on the stress-rupture behavior. The data were analyzed and developed into stress-rupture design criteria to address one of the durability aspects of the material for automotive structural applications

  14. Tornado Protection: Selecting and Designing Safe Areas in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, James J.

    Tornadoes and extreme winds cause heavy loss of life and property damage throughout the United States. Most buildings offer significant protection from this danger, and building administrators should know the areas where this protection is available. This booklet presents a review of three schools, all of which were struck by tornadoes on April 3,…

  15. Design of an adaptive overcurrent protection scheme for microgrids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microgrid is a new phenomenon regarded to Distributed Generation (DG) penetration in the existing distribution systems. In this paper adaptive over current (OC) protection technique for a distribution system with DG penetration is proposed. This scheme takes into account general protection requirements, impacts of DG on ...

  16. Fundamental criteria for the design of high-performance Josephson nondestructive readout random access memory cells and experimental confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkels, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fundamental design criteria for Josephson nondestructive readout random access memory (NDRO RAM) cells are presented, within the context of an LSI array environment. Emphasis is placed upon principles which are relevant to high performance. The criteria are elucidated via a specific design which is simulated and then experimentally evaluated in a technology with a smallest critical dimension of 5 μm. The specific cell differs from previously tested Josephson NDRO cells in several respects; namely, the cell stores only approx.8Phi 0 , employs interferometer gates and an external damping resistor, allows switching into device resonances, and eliminates the need for a special initialization cycle. The cell-selection scheme, employing triple coincidence, results in larger operating margins and smaller operating currents than have previously been achieved. The large operating margins and all basic cell design criteria were experimentally verified. The experimental interferometer gate characteristics were analyzed in detail and found to be describable by simple models. In addition, it was discovered that single flux quantum transitions in the interferometer gates could be exploited beneficially in order to enhance the insensitivity of operating margins to fabrication tolerances

  17. Fatigue Resistant Design Criteria for MD SHA Cantilevered Mast Arm Signal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The fatigue design of the mast arm structures and connections vary significantly based on the Category of Importance factor adopted and the load cases for fatigue design loads. Consideration should include the cost and size of the structures for both...

  18. Mechanical engineering and design criteria for the Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staller, G.E.; Hamilton, I.D.; Aker, M.F.; Fifer, H.G.

    1978-02-01

    A single-unit electron beam accelerator was designed, fabricated, and assembled in Sandia's Technical Area V to conduct magnetically insulated transmission experiments. Results of these experiments will be utilized in the future design of larger, more complex accelerators. This design makes optimum use of existing facilities and equipment. When designing new components, possible future applications were considered as well as compatibility with existing facilities and hardware

  19. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  20. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  1. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  2. CRITERIA OF THE AVIATION NOISE ASSESSMENT FOR AERODROME ENVIRONS ZONING OF THE AIRPORTS AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES JUSTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Kartyshev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in the sphere of an adverse ecological effect assessment of aerodrome environs aviation noise are analyzed. It is noted, that there is no modern standard and methodical base for such assessment. It is shown that when planning the build- ing, and also when developing noise-protective actions for residential areas in the zones of aviation noise increased level im- pact it’s most effectively to carry out acoustic zoning of areas near airports borders and flight routes. The system of transport sources noise rationing in Russia doesn't consider the established practice of its application. The aircraft of noisy types were actively taken out of service and aviation noise impact near the airports decreased, but the problem of noise protection, de- mands control when planning land use. Noise measurements in residential areas, near houses and inside, showed the excess of maximum allowed level values to 25-35 dBA (on equivalent value and to 25-40 dBA (on the maximum value.As a consequence of the European states policy in the sphere of aviation noise management and of aerodrome en- virons zoning noise levels at the airports of Europe and their surroundings were stabilized and the sizes of noise contours were reduced. For different countries there was made the analysis of legislative bases of the implementation of the re-striction requirement for residential areas and the possibility of using the territory under noise impact. For rationing theaerodrome environs noise of the airports it’s offered to take a sound equivalent level in which admissible values are ranged on three zones for the main standard criterion. The authors present acoustic measurements results in houses near the airport Vnukovo on condition of using standard two-chamber trimmable and folding windows with the ventilating valve. It is shown that the popular window designs can't provide inside noise reduction at night to the standard L Amax level = 45 dBA from the aviation source

  3. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Tennessee Natural Areas Registry under Tennessee Code Annotated (TCA) section 11-14-112, Natural Areas designated by the Tennessee General Assembly under TCA 11-14-108, areas adjoining Tennessee Scenic Rivers designated under TCA 11-13-101, and Scenic Trails designated under TCA 11-11-101. ...

  4. 46 CFR 56.07-10 - Design conditions and criteria (modifies 101-104.7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this subchapter for definitions.) Relief valves are required at pump discharges except for centrifugal pumps so designed and applied that a pressure in excess of the maximum allowable working pressure for...) Boiler blowoff piping must be designed in accordance with § 56.50-40 of this part. (e) Pressure design...

  5. 10 CFR 60.131 - General design criteria for the geologic repository operations area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... aid in recovery from emergencies. (f) Utility services. (1) Each utility service system that is... events. (c) Protection against dynamic effects of equipment failure and similar events. The structures... impacts, that could result from equipment failure, and similar events and conditions that could lead to...

  6. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Quasi-Isotropic Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Automotive Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL; Corum, James [ORNL; Klett, Lynn B [ORNL; Davenport, Mike [ORNL; Battiste, Rick [ORNL; Simpson, Jr., William A [ORNL

    2006-04-01

    This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quais-isotropic carbon-fiber thermoplastic composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite consisted of a PolyPhenylene Sulfide (PPS) thermoplastic matrix (Fortron's PPS - Ticona 0214B1 powder) reinforced with 16 plies of carbon-fiber unidirectional tape, [0?/90?/+45?/-45?]2S. The carbon fiber was Hexcel AS-4C and was present in a fiber volume of 53% (60%, by weight). The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies and is closely coordinated with the Advanced Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for automotive structural applications. This document is in two parts. Part 1 provides design data and correlations, while Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects of short-time, cyclic, and sustained loadings; temperature; fluid environments; and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. Guidance for design analysis, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage-tolerance design guidance are provided.

  7. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  8. NSTX-U Digital Coil Protection System Software Detailed Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) currently uses a collection of analog signal processing solutions for coil protection. Part of the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) entails replacing these analog systems with a software solution running on a conventional computing platform. The new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) will replace the old systems entirely, while also providing an extensible framework that allows adding new functionality as desired.

  9. Occupational radiation protection organisation, facility and design safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    There is no absolute standard or excellence in radiation protection. The concept of excellence implies a continuous search for improvement in performance and full utilization of available resources. Radiation protection requires the commitment of all plant staff, including higher levels of executive management. The improvements in performance must therefore be based primarily on management rather than technical factors and must be aimed at more effective use of investments already made in plant facilities

  10. Universally Designed Text on the Web: Towards Readability Criteria Based on Anti-Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eika, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    The readability of web texts affects accessibility. The Web Content Accessibility guidelines (WCAG) state that the recommended reading level should match that of someone who has completed basic schooling. However, WCAG does not give advice on what constitutes an appropriate reading level. Web authors need tools to help composing WCAG compliant texts, and specific criteria are needed. Classic readability metrics are generally based on lengths of words and sentences and have been criticized for being over-simplistic. Automatic measures and classifications of texts' reading levels employing more advanced constructs remain an unresolved problem. If such measures were feasible, what should these be? This work examines three language constructs not captured by current readability indices but believed to significantly affect actual readability, namely, relative clauses, garden path sentences, and left-branching structures. The goal is to see whether quantifications of these stylistic features reflect readability and how they correspond to common readability measures. Manual assessments of a set of authentic web texts for such uses were conducted. The results reveal that texts related to narratives such as children's stories, which are given the highest readability value, do not contain these constructs. The structures in question occur more frequently in expository texts that aim at educating or disseminating information such as strategy and journal articles. The results suggest that language anti-patterns hold potential for establishing a set of deeper readability criteria.

  11. Economic evaluation of flying-qualities design criteria for a transport configured with relaxed static stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Direct constrained parameter optimization was used to optimally size a medium range transport for minimum direct operating cost. Several stability and control constraints were varied to study the sensitivity of the configuration to specifying the unaugmented flying qualities of transports designed to take maximum advantage of relaxed static stability augmentation systems. Additionally, a number of handling qualities related design constants were studied with respect to their impact on the design.

  12. JSFR design progress related to development of safety design criteria for generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors. (4) Balance of plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Katoh, Atsushi; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ohtaka, Masahiko; Uzawa, Masayuki; Ikari, Risako; Iwasaki, Mikinori

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, design study and evaluation related with safety design criteria (SDC) and safety design guideline (SDG) on the balance of plant (BOP) of the demonstration JSFR including fuel handling system, power supply system, component cooling water system, building arrangement are reported. For the fuel handling system, enhancement of storage cooling system has been investigated adding diversified cooling systems. For the power supply, existing emergency power supply system has been reinforced and alternative emergency power supply system is added. For the component cooling system, requirements and relation with safety grade components such investigated. Additionally for the component cooling system, design impact when adding decay heat removal system by sea water has been investigated. For reactor building, over view of evaluation on the external events and design policy for distributed arrangement is reported. Those design study and evaluation provides background information of SDC and SDG. (author)

  13. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  14. 76 FR 8917 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Automatic Speed Protection for Design Dive Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... high speed protection system. These proposed special conditions contain the additional safety standards... Design Features The GVI is equipped with a high speed protection system that limits nose down pilot... incorporation of a high speed protection system in the GVI flight control laws. The GVI is equipped with a high...

  15. Multi Criteria Decision Support for Conceptual Integral Design of Flex(eble)(en)ergy Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Savanovic, P.; Houten, van M.A.; Boxem, G.; Ehrgott, M; Naujoks, B; Stewart, T.J.; Wallenius, J

    2009-01-01

    The use of sustainable energy will soon be the major guiding principle for building and spatial planning practice. This asks for new sustainable energy infrastructures which need new design approaches. Design tools for the energy infrastructure of the built environment in the conceptual phase of

  16. Applications of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model formating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a model for estimating the impact of manned EVA costs on future payloads is discussed. Basic information on the EV crewman requirements, equipment, physical and operational characteristics, and vehicle interfaces is provided. The cost model is being designed to allow system designers to quantify the impact of EVA on vehicle and payload systems.

  17. Design of protective inductors for HVDC transmission line within DC grid offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    in the HVDC link between the offshore station and the onshore station. The transient characteristics of the transmission system are analyzed in detail. The criteria of selecting protective inductors are proposed to effectively limit the short-circuit current and avoid the damage to the converters. A dc grid...

  18. Full‐factorial design space exploration approach for multi‐criteria decision making of the design of industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B. (Bruno); Pourmousavian, N. (Navid); Hensen, J.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Industrial halls pose high energy saving potential that is not yet explored under current design practice. Common design approaches such as parametric study or optimization are largely constrained by the assumptions and do not promote flexibility in the decision making process. Based on the unique

  19. Analysis of the criteria used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection to justify the setting of numerical protection level values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report compiles the various numerical protection level values published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) since its 1990 Recommendations (Publication 60). Several terms are used to denominate the protection levels: individual dose limit, 'maximum' individual dose, dose constraint, exemption level, exclusion level, action level, or intervention level. The reasons provided by the Commission for selecting the associated numerical values is quoted as far as available. In some cases the rationale is not totally explicit in the original ICRP report concerned; in such cases the Task Group that prepared the present report have proposed their own interpretation. Originally, this report was prepared by a Task Group at CEPN, a French research and development center, in behalf of IRSN, a French public expert body engaged in radiological protection and nuclear safety. It is published here with kind permission by CEPN and IRSN.

  20. The design and testing of sodium pumps in the UK to meet the CDFR cavitation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, G.E.; Macleod, I.D.; Wilkinson, D.

    2002-01-01

    A primary objective in the design of the sodium pumps for the UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor has been to avoid cavitation during normal operation. This requirement arises from the need to avoid blade erosion and also, in the case of the Primary Sodium Pumps (PSP), the generation of cavitation noise which might otherwise interfere with instrumentation installed to detect noise of boiling in the core. This paper outlines the approach adopted to achieve a pump design with good cavitation performance and the programme of model testing carried out in a water loop to establish the cavitation boundaries for incipient cavitation of selected designs using both visual and acoustic techniques