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Sample records for protected weight bearing

  1. Similar failure rate in immediate post-operative weight bearing versus protected weight bearing following meniscal repair on peripheral, vertical meniscal tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Bryan; Gronbeck, Kyle R; Yue, Ruixian Alexander; Tompkins, Marc A

    2017-08-16

    Post-operative weight bearing after meniscal repair is a point of debate among physicians. This study sought to evaluate whether patients adhering to an immediate WBAT rehabilitation programme have a higher failure rate compared to those adhering to a more traditional, protected, NWB status following meniscal repair. The null hypothesis was that there would be no difference in failure between the two groups. A retrospective review of meniscal repair patients greater than 5 years from surgery was performed for patients receiving meniscal repair treatment. Patients were categorized by post-surgical weight-bearing status, either NWB or WBAT, and then analysed for failure of repair. Failure was defined as re-operation on the torn meniscus. The study controlled for variables including age at surgery, sex, height, weight, and BMI, classification of tear type, acuity of the tear, repair location (medial or lateral), repair location within the meniscus, repair technique, and concomitant procedures. Re-operations were performed in 61 of 157 patients [38.9%]. There was no difference between weight-bearing groups for failure of meniscus repair (n.s.). The tears were acute vertical tears located in the posterior horn and body. For the 61 patients with re-operation, the average time to re-operation was 2.2 years with 10 [16%] > 5 years from surgery, 17 [28%] 2-5 years from surgery, and 34 [56%] bearing groups for rate of re-operation (n.s.). Weight bearing as tolerated after meniscal repair for peripheral, vertical tears does not result in a higher failure rate than traditional, non-weight bearing over a five-year follow-up period. The clinical relevance is that, based on these data, it may be appropriate to allow weight bearing as tolerated following meniscal repair of peripheral, vertical tears. Retrospective cohort study, Level III.

  2. Effect of modified constraint induced movement therapy on weight bearing and protective extension in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Gharib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constraint induced movement therapy is one of the new therapeutic interventions that limits the performance of intact upper limb with increased use of the affected limb. Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modified constraint induced movement therapy on weight bearing & protective extension in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.Methods: 21 hemiplegic children were selected and randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Common Practices of Occupational Therapy applied for 6 weeks in both groups equally and test group received constrain induced movement therapy for three hours every day. Weight-bearing and protective extension was measured based on quality of test skills of upper limbs (QUEST. Data analyzed using appropriated statistical methods. Results: 11 children in the experimental group (7 girls, 4 boys with mean age 47.2 ± 55.5 months and 10 children in the control group (5 girls, 5 boys with mean age 19.2 ± 10.5 months were studied. No significant difference observed before and after six weeks intervention between two groups (P>0.05. There was a significant change before and after six weeks intervention in both subscales (P<0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that modified constraint induced movement therapy may affect weight bearing, but has no effect on the protective extension.

  3. Weight bearing or non-weight bearing after surgically fixed ankle fractures, the WOW! Study : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briet, Jan Paul; Houwert, Roderick M; Smeeing, Diederik P J; Pawiroredjo, Janity S; Kelder, Johannes C; Lansink, Koen W; Leenen, Luke P H; van der Zwaal, Peer; van Zutphen, Stephan W A M; Hoogendoorn, Jochem M; van Heijl, Mark; Verleisdonk, Egbert J M M; van Lammeren, Guus W; Segers, Michiel J; Hietbrink, Falco

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal post-operative care regimen after surgically fixed Lauge Hansen supination exorotation injuries remains to be established. This study compares whether unprotected weight bearing as tolerated is superior to protected weight bearing and unprotected non-weight bearing in terms

  4. Weight bearing or non-weight bearing after surgically fixed ankle fractures, the WOW! Study : Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briet, Jan Paul; Houwert, Roderick M.; Smeeing, Diederik P. J.; Pawiroredjo, Janity S.; Kelder, Johannes C.; Lansink, Koen W.; Leenen, Luke P. H.; van der Zwaal, Peer; van Zutphen, Stephan W. A. M.; Hoogendoorn, Jochem M.; van Heijl, Mark; Verleisdonk, Egbert J. M. M.; van Lammeren, Guus W.; Segers, Michiel J.; Hietbrink, Falco

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal post-operative care regimen after surgically fixed Lauge Hansen supination exorotation injuries remains to be established. This study compares whether unprotected weight bearing as tolerated is superior to protected weight bearing and unprotected non-weight bearing in terms of

  5. LIGHT-WEIGHT LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure (1) with optimized compression zone (2), where along one or more compression zones (2) in the structure (1) to be cast a core (3) of strong concrete is provided, which core (3) is surrounded by concrete of less strength (4) compared...... to the core (3) of strong concrete. The invention also relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures (1) with optimized compression zone (2) where one or more channels, grooves, ducts, pipes and/or hoses (5) formed in the load-bearing structure (1) serves as moulds for moulding one...... or more cores (3) of strong concrete in the light-weight load-bearing structure (1)....

  6. Neuromuscular fatigue and tibiofemoral joint biomechanics when transitioning from non-weight bearing to weight bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Randy J; Kim, Hyunsoo; Shultz, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is suggested to be a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Fatiguing exercise can affect neuromuscular control and laxity of the knee joint, which may render the knee less able to resist externally applied loads. Few authors have examined the effects of fatiguing exercise on knee biomechanics during the in vivo transition of the knee from non-weight bearing to weight bearing, the time when anterior cruciate ligament injury likely occurs. To investigate the effect of fatiguing exercise on tibiofemoral joint biomechanics during the transition from non-weight bearing to early weight bearing. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Ten participants (5 men and 5 women; age = 25.3 ± 4.0 years) with no previous history of knee-ligament injury to the dominant leg. Participants were tested before (preexercise) and after (postexercise) a protocol consisting of repeated leg presses (15 repetitions from 10°-40° of knee flexion, 10 seconds' rest) against a 60% body-weight load until they were unable to complete a full bout of repetitions. Electromagnetic sensors measured anterior tibial translation and knee-flexion excursion during the application of a 40% body-weight axial compressive load to the bottom of the foot, simulating weight acceptance. A force transducer recorded axial compressive force. The axial compressive force (351.8 ± 44.3 N versus 374.0 ± 47.9 N; P = .018), knee-flexion excursion (8.0° ± 4.0° versus 10.2° ± 3.7°; P = .046), and anterior tibial translation (6.7 ± 1.7 mm versus 8.2 ± 1.9 mm; P Neuromuscular fatigue may impair initial knee-joint stabilization during weight acceptance, leading to greater accessory motion at the knee and the potential for greater anterior cruciate ligament loading.

  7. Weight bearing or non-weight bearing after surgically fixed ankle fractures, the WOW! Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briet, Jan Paul; Houwert, Roderick M; Smeeing, Diederik P J; Pawiroredjo, Janity S; Kelder, Johannes C; Lansink, Koen W; Leenen, Luke P H; van der Zwaal, Peer; van Zutphen, Stephan W A M; Hoogendoorn, Jochem M; van Heijl, Mark; Verleisdonk, Egbert J M M; van Lammeren, Guus W; Segers, Michiel J; Hietbrink, Falco

    2015-04-18

    The optimal post-operative care regimen after surgically fixed Lauge Hansen supination exorotation injuries remains to be established. This study compares whether unprotected weight bearing as tolerated is superior to protected weight bearing and unprotected non-weight bearing in terms of functional outcome and safety. The WOW! Study is a prospective multicenter clinical trial. Patients between 18 and 65 years of age with a Lauge Hansen supination exorotation type 2, 3 or 4 ankle fractures requiring surgical treatment are eligible for inclusion. An expert panel validates the classification and inclusion eligibility. After surgery, patients are randomized to either the 1) unprotected non-weight-bearing, 2) protected weight-bearing, or 3) unprotected weight-bearing group. The primary outcome measure is ankle-specific disability measured by the Olerud-Molander ankle score. Secondary outcomes are 1) quality of life (e.g., return to work and resumption of sport), 2) complications, 3) range of motion, 4) calf wasting, and 5) maximum pressure load after 3 months and 1 year. This trial is designed to compare the effectiveness and safety of unprotected weight bearing with two commonly used post-operative treatment regimens after internal fixation of specified, intrinsically stable but displaced ankle fractures. An expert panel has been established to evaluate every potential subject, which ensures that every patient is strictly screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and that there is a clear indication for surgical fixation. The WOW! Study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR3727 ). Date of registration: 28-11-2012.

  8. Effect of partial weight bearing program on functional ability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lilian A. Zaky

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... essence of the importance of partial weight bearing program in rehabilitation of lower limb condi ... and long term physical and psychosocial impairments [11,12]. .... gram for their functional walking using the 6-min walking test,.

  9. Foot Loading Characteristics of Different Graduations of Partial Weight Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusinde, Johannes; Pauser, Johannes; Swoboda, Bernd; Gelse, Kolja; Carl, Hans-Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Limited weight bearing of the lower extremity is a commonly applied procedure in orthopaedic rehabilitation after reconstructive forefoot surgery, trauma surgery and joint replacement. The most frequent limitations are given as percentage of body weight (BW) and represent 10 or 50% BW. The extent of foot loading under these graduations of partial…

  10. Early weight bearing versus delayed weight bearing in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdaal, Joris Radboud; Mouton, Tanguy; Wascher, Daniel Charles; Demey, Guillaume; Lustig, Sebastien; Neyret, Philippe; Servien, Elvire

    2017-12-01

    The need for a period of non-weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy remains controversial. It is hypothesized that immediate weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy would have no difference in functional scores at one year compared to delayed weight bearing. Fifty patients, median age 54 years (range 40-65), with medial compartment osteoarthritis, underwent a medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy utilizing a locking plate without bone grafting. Patients were randomized into an Immediate or a Delayed (2 months) weight bearing group. All patients were assessed at one-year follow-up and the two groups compared. The primary outcome measure was the IKS score. Secondary outcome measures included the IKDC score, the VAS pain score and rate of complications. The functional scores significantly improved in both groups. The IKS score increased from 142 ± 31 to 171 ± 26 in the Immediate group (p bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy had no effect on functional scores at 1 year follow-up and did not significantly increase the complication rate. Immediate weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy appears to be safe and can allow some patients a quicker return to activities of daily living and a decreased convalescence period. II.

  11. Weights and hematology of wild black bears during hibernation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Rogers, Lynn L.; Allen, Arthur W.; Seal, U.S.

    1991-01-01

    We compared weights and hematological profiles of adult (greater than 3-yr-old) female black bears (Ursus americanus) during hibernation (after 8 January). We handled 28 bears one to four times (total of 47) over 4 yr of varying mast and berry production. Mean weight of lactating bears was greater (P less than 0.0001) than that of non-lactating females. White blood cells (P less than 0.05) and mean corpuscular volume (P = 0.005) also differed between lactating and non-lactating bears. Hemoglobin (P = 0.006) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.02) varied among years; values were lowest during 1975, following decreased precipitation and the occurrence of a second year of mast and berry crop shortages in a three-year period. Significant (P less than 0.05) interaction between reproductive status (lactating versus non-lactating) and study year for hemoglobin, red blood cells, and packed cell volume, and increased mean corpuscular volume, suggested a greater nutritional challenge for lactating females compared to non-lactating females during the 1975 denning season. Our data suggest that hematological characteristics of denning bears may be more sensitive than weights as indicators of annual changes in nutritional status; however, other influential factors, in addition to mast and berry crop production, remain to be examined.

  12. Eccentric exercise training as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing soleus muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Ryan, Mirelle J.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested whether eccentric resistance training could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during non-weight bearing. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to either weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes or non-weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes groups. Electrically stimulated maximal eccentric contractions were performed on anesthetized animals at 48-h intervals during the 10-day experiment. Non-weight bearing significantly reduced soleus muscle wet weight (28-31 percent) and noncollagenous protein content (30-31 percent) compared with controls. Eccentric exercise training during non-weight bearing attenuated but did not prevent the loss of soleus muscle wet weight and noncollagenous protein by 77 and 44 percent, respectively. The potential of eccentric exercise training as an effective and highly efficient counter-measure to non-weight-bearing atrophy is demonstrated in the 44 percent attenuation of soleus muscle noncollagenous protein loss by eccentric exercise during only 0.035 percent of the total non-weight-bearing time period.

  13. Dynamic weight-bearing assessment of pain in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Christensen, Robin; Osborne, Richard

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the reliability, agreement and smallest detectable change in a measurement instrument for pain and function in knee osteoarthritis; the Dynamic weight-bearing Assessment of Pain (DAP). METHODS: The sample size was set to 20 persons, recruited from the outpatient osteoarthritis...... for intra-rater test (1.95). The three knee bend scores all had ICC above 0.50, showing fair-to-good reliability. None of the knee bend scores showed acceptable SEM and SDC. CONCLUSIONS: The reproducibility of the DAP pain score meets the demands for use in clinical practice and research. The total knee...

  14. Non-Weight-Bearing and Weight-Bearing Ultrasonography of Select Foot Muscles in Young, Asymptomatic Participants: A Descriptive and Reliability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Patrick J; Mattox, Ross; Winchester, Brett; Kettner, Norman W

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the reliability of diagnostic ultrasound imaging for select intrinsic foot muscles using both non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing postures. Our secondary aim was to describe the change in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and dorsoplantar thickness when bearing weight. An ultrasound examination was performed with a linear ultrasound transducer operating between 9 and 12 MHz. Long-axis and short-axis ultrasound images of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and quadratus plantae were obtained in both the non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing postures. Two examiners independently collected ultrasound images to allow for interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability calculation. The change in muscle CSA and dorsoplantar thickness when bearing weight was also studied. There were 26 participants (17 female) with a mean age of 25.5 ± 3.8 years and a mean body mass index of 28.0 ± 7.8 kg/m 2 . Inter-examiner reliability was excellent when measuring the muscles in short axis (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) and fair to good in long axis (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.4). Intraexaminer reliability was excellent for the abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis and ranged from fair to good to excellent for the quadratus plantae. Bearing weight did not reduce interexaminer or intraexaminer reliability. All muscles exhibited a significant increase in CSA when bearing weight. This is the first report to describe weight-bearing diagnostic ultrasound of the intrinsic foot muscles. Ultrasound imaging is reliable when imaging these muscles bearing weight. Furthermore, muscle CSA increases in the weight-bearing posture. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Measuring polyethylene wear in total knee arthroplasty by RSA: differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ijsseldijk, Emiel A; Valstar, Edward R; Stoel, Berend C; de Ridder, Ruud; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Kaptein, Bart L

    2014-04-01

    Measuring the minimum-joint-space-width (mJSW) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) provides valuable information on polyethylene wear, a leading cause for TKA failure. Most existing studies use non-weight-bearing (NWB) patient positioning. The latter may compromise mJSW measurements due to knee laxity with subsequent non-contact between the TKA components. We investigated the difference in mJSW between weight-bearing (WB) and NWB images and the association with mediolateral (ML) knee stability. At one-year follow-up, 23 TKAs were included from an ongoing RSA study, and ML stability was evaluated. For each examination, the mJSW and femoral-tibial contact locations were measured. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association between the mJSW difference (NWB-WB) with the ML stability and contact locations. The mean mJSW difference was 0.28 mm medially and 0.20 mm laterally. Four TKAs had medium (5-9°) and 19 TKAs had high (RSA studies are influenced by knee laxity, but may still provide information on wear progression based on TKA with high ML stability. A direct comparison of mJSW measurements from WB and NWB data is not possible. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants : clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar / plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the 'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  17. Weight-bearing radiography in total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turula, K.B.; Haajanen, J.; Friberg, O.; Lindholm, T.S.; Tallroth, K.

    1985-01-01

    Serial anteroposterior (AP) radiographs of the weight-bearing pelvis and hips were taken of 29 patients with total hip replacement (THR). For constant positioning the patient stands with straight knees on a board with a block between the heels. A U-shaped mercury level strapped to the patient provides a horizontal reference line on the radiograph. On the average, individual variation of pelvic tilt in serial films was 1 0 and pelvic rotation 3.5 0 confirming satisfactory reproducibility. The horizontal reference enables estimation of pre- and postoperative leg length inequality (LLI) and of the angle of the acetabular cup (AA). Reproducibility allows assessment of the exact position of the femoral component and quantitative evaluation of radiolucency and bone resorption around the prosthetic implant in the follow-up of THR. (orig.)

  18. Upright Cone CT of the hindfoot: Comparison of the non-weight-bearing with the upright weight-bearing position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschmann, Anna; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Buck, Florian M. [University of Zurich, Department of Radiology, Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Klammer, Georg; Espinosa, Norman [University of Zurich, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    To prospectively compare computed tomography (CT) of the hindfoot in the supine non-weight-bearing position (NWBCT) with upright weight-bearing position (WBCT). Institutional review board approval and informed consent of all patients were obtained. NWBCT and WBCT scans of the ankle were obtained in 22 patients (mean age, 46.0 ± 17.1 years; range 19-75 years) using a conventional 64-row CT for NWBCT and a novel cone-beam CT for WBCT. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently performed the following measurements: the hindfoot alignment angle, fibulocalcaneal and tibiocalcaneal distances, lateral talocalcaneal joint space width, talocalcaneal overlap and naviculocalcaneal distance. Significant changes between NWBCT and WBCT were sought using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Significant differences were found for all measurements except the hindfoot alignment angle and tibiocalcaneal distance. Significant measurement results were as follows (NWBCT/WBCT reader 1; NWBCT/WBCT reader 2, mean ± standard deviation): fibulocalcaneal distance 3.6 mm ± 5.2/0.3 mm ± 6.0 (P = 0.006); 1.4 mm ± 6.3/-1.1 mm ± 6.3 (P = 0.002), lateral talocalcaneal joint space width 2.9 mm ± 1.7/2.2 mm ± 1.1 (P = 0.005); 3.4 mm ± 1.9/2.4 mm ± 1.3 (P = 0.001), talocalcaneal overlap 4.1 mm ± 3.9/1.4 mm ± 3.9 (P = 0.001); 4.5 mm ± 4.3/1.4 mm ± 3.7 (P < 0.001) and naviculocalcaneal distance 13.5 mm ± 4.0/15.3 mm ± 4.7 (P = 0.037); 14.0 mm ± 4.4/15.7 mm ± 6.2 (P = 0.100). Interreader agreement was good to excellent (ICC 0.48-0.94). Alignment of the hindfoot significantly changes in the upright weight-bearing CT position. Differences can be visualised and measured using WBCT. (orig.)

  19. Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression consequent to altered weight bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Kirby, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a dynamic organ that adapts to alterations in weight bearing. This brief review examines changes in muscle gene expression resulting from the removal of weight bearing by hindlimb suspension and from increased weight bearing due to eccentric exercise. Acute (less than or equal to 2 days) non-weight bearing of adult rat soleus muscle alters only the translational control of muscle gene expression, while chronic (greater than or equal to 7 days) removal of weight bearing appears to influence pretranslational, translational, and posttranslational mechanisms of control. Acute and chronic eccentric exercise are associated with alterations of translational and posttranslational control, while chronic eccentric training also alters the pretranslational control of muscle gene expression. Thus alterations in weight bearing influence multiple sites of gene regulation.

  20. Hip arthroscopy protocol: expert opinions on post-operative weight bearing and return to sports guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Ehud; Sharfman, Zachary T; Paret, Matan; Amar, Eyal; Drexler, Michael; Bonin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to survey the weight-bearing limitation practices and delay for returning to running and impact sports of high volume hip arthroscopy orthopedic surgeons. The study was designed in the form of expert survey questionnaire. Evidence-based data are scares regarding hip arthroscopy post-operative weight-bearing protocols. An international cross-sectional anonymous Internet survey of 26 high-volume hip arthroscopy specialized surgeons was conducted to report their weight-bearing limitations and rehabilitation protocols after various arthroscopic hip procedures. The International Society of Hip Arthroscopy invited this study. The results were examined in the context of supporting literature to inform the studies suggestions. Four surgeons always allow immediate weight bearing and five never offer immediate weight bearing. Seventeen surgeons provide weight bearing depending on the procedures performed: 17 surgeons allowed immediate weight bearing after labral resection, 10 after labral repair and 8 after labral reconstruction. Sixteen surgeons allow immediate weight bearing after psoas tenotomy. Twenty-one respondents restrict weight bearing after microfracture procedures for 3-8 weeks post-operatively. Return to running and impact sports were shorter for labral procedures and bony procedures and longer for cartilaginous and capsular procedures. Marked variability exists in the post-operative weight-bearing practices of hip arthroscopy surgeons. This study suggests that most surgeons allow immediate weight bearing as tolerated after labral resection, acetabular osteoplasty, chondroplasty and psoas tenotomy. For cartilage defect procedures, 6 weeks or more non-weight bearing is suggested depending on the area of the defect and lateral central edge angle. Delayed return to sports activities is suggested after microfracture procedures. The level of evidence was Level V expert opinions.

  1. The effect of weight-bearing exercise and non-weight-bearing exercise on gait in rats with sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Hwangbo, Gak; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to access the effect of weight bearing exercise (treadmill exercise) and non-weight-bearing exercise (swimming exercise) on gait in the recovery process after a sciatic nerve crush injury. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were randomly divided into a swimming group (n=3) with non-weight-bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush and a treadmill group (n=3) with weight bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush. Dartfish is a program that can analyze and interpret motion through video images. The knee lateral epicondyle, lateral malleolus, and metatarsophalangeal joint of the fifth toe were marked by black dots before recording. [Results] There were significant differences in TOK (knee angle toe off) and ICK (knee angle at initial contact) in the swimming group and in TOK, ICA (ankle angle at initial contact), and ICK in the treadmill group. In comparison between groups, there were significant differences in TOA (ankle angle in toe off) and ICA at the 7th day. [Conclusion] There was no difference between weight bearing and non-weight-bearing exercise in sciatic nerve damage, and both exercises accelerated the recovery process in this study.

  2. Weight-Bearing Exercise and Foot Health in Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaderes, Elena; DeShea, Lise; Lamb, W Lyndon

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes contributes to sensory peripheral neuropathy, which has been linked to lower limb abnormalities that raise the risk for foot ulcers and amputations. Because amputations are a reason for pain and hospitalization in those with diabetes, it is of critical importance to gain insight about prevention of ulcer development in this population. Although the American Diabetes Association (ADA) now recommends that individuals with neuropathy can engage in moderate-intensity weight-bearing activity (WBA), they must wear appropriate footwear and inspect their feet daily. The physical forces and inflammatory processes from WBA may contribute to plantar characteristics that lead to ulcers. The purpose of this study was to compare neuropathic status and foot characteristics in Native Americans according to WBA classification. The t tests for unequal sample sizes found that exercisers had more difficulty sensing baseline temperature than nonexercisers, except at the right foot (all p values Exercisers demonstrated higher surface skin temperature gradients at the first metatarsal head, a plantar site where wounds tend to form. The more consistently exercisers performed, the higher the plan-tar pressures were at the right second ( r = .24, p = .02) and third metatarsal heads ( r = .26, p = .01). Findings from this investigation do not refute current ADA recommendations and further intervention studies are needed that are longitudinal and measures WBA more accurately.

  3. Early Versus Late Weight-Bearing Protocols for Surgically Managed Posterior Wall Acetabular Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heare, Austin; Kramer, Nicholas; Salib, Christopher; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2017-07-01

    Despite overall improved outcomes with open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures, posterior wall fractures show disproportionately poor results. The effect of weight bearing on outcomes of fracture management has been investigated in many lower extremity fractures, but evidence-based recommendations in posterior wall acetabular fractures are lacking. The authors systematically reviewed the current literature to determine if a difference in outcome exists between early and late postoperative weight-bearing protocols for surgically managed posterior wall acetabular fractures. PubMed and MEDLINE were searched for posterior wall acetabular fracture studies that included weight-bearing protocols and Merle d'Aubigné functional scores. Twelve studies were identified. Each study was classified as either early or late weight bearing. Early weight bearing was defined as full, unrestricted weight bearing at or before 12 weeks postoperatively. Late weight bearing was defined as restricted weight bearing for greater than 12 weeks postoperatively. The 2 categories were then compared by functional score using a 2-tailed t test and by complication rate using chi-square analysis. Six studies (152 fractures) were placed in the early weight-bearing category. Six studies (302 fractures) were placed in the late weight-bearing category. No significant difference in Merle d'Aubigné functional scores was found between the 2 groups. No difference was found regarding heterotopic ossification, avascular necrosis, superficial infections, total infections, or osteoarthritis. This systematic review found no difference in functional outcome scores or complication rates between early and late weight-bearing protocols for surgically treated posterior wall fractures. [Orthopedics. 2017: 40(4):e652-e657.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Measurement of lower limb alignment: there are within-person differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Daphne A L; Feczko, Peter Z; Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Kort, Nanne P; Emans, Pieter J

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have compared weight-bearing mechanical leg axis (MLA) measurements to non-weight-bearing measurement modalities. Most of these studies compared mean or median values and did not analyse within-person differences between measurements. This study evaluates the within-person agreement of MLA measurements between weight-bearing full-length radiographs (FLR) and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities (computer-assisted surgery (CAS) navigation or MRI). Two independent observers measured the MLA on pre- and postoperative weight-bearing FLR in 168 patients. These measurements were compared to non-weight-bearing measurements obtained by CAS navigation or MRI. Absolute differences in individual subjects were calculated to determine the agreement between measurement modalities. Linear regression was used to evaluate the possibility that other independent variables impact the differences in measurements. A difference was found in preoperative measurements between FLR and CAS navigation (mean of 2.5° with limit of agreement (1.96 SD) of 6.4°), as well as between FLR and MRI measurements (mean of 2.4° with limit of agreement (1.96 SD) of 6.9°). Postoperatively, the mean difference between MLA measured on FLR compared to CAS navigation was 1.5° (limit of agreement (1.96 SD) of 4.6°). Linear regression analysis showed that weight-bearing MLA measurements vary significantly from non-weight-bearing MLA measurements. Differences were more severe in patients with mediolateral instability (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.049) and ≥3° varus or valgus alignment (p = 0.008). The clinical importance of this study lies in the finding that there are within-person differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities. This has implications for preoperative planning, performing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and clinical follow-up after TKA surgery using CAS navigation or patient-specific instrumentation. III.

  5. Is weight-bearing asymmetry associated with postural instability after stroke? A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, J.F.; Kam, D.C.J. de; Geurts, A.C.H.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Improvement of postural stability is an important goal during poststroke rehabilitation. Since weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) towards the nonparetic leg is common, training of weight-bearing symmetry has been a major focus in post-stroke balance rehabilitation. It is assumed that

  6. [Correlative analysis on metatarsalgia and the X-ray measurement indexes under weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing of hallux valgus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hao; Sang, Zhi-Cheng; Wen, Jian-Min; Sun, Wei-Dong; Hu, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Chao; Zuo, Jian-Gang; Wang, Hai-Xiong

    2014-04-01

    To study changes in the radiographic appearance during weight-bearing and non-weigh-bearing in hallux valgus, and to analyse the correlation between the elasticity of plantar soft tissue of hallux valgus and the pain under the metatarsal head. From May 2012 to October 2012, 240 feet of 120 patients with hallux valgus were enrolled in the study. The degrees of the pian under the metatarsal head of all the patients were observed. AP and lateral X-ray films of feet were taken on the condition of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing. So the hallux valgus angle (HVA), the inter-metatarsal angle between the first and second metatarsals (IM1-2), the inter-metatarsal angle between the first and fifth metatarsals (IM1-5), top angle of the medial longitudinal arch (TAOTMLA),and anterior angle of the medial longitudinal arch (AAOTMLA) were measured on the X-ray films. The differences of HVA, IM1-2, IM1-5, TAOTMLA and AAOTMLA between two groups were compared, and the correlation between the changes of IM1-2, IM 1-5, TAOTMLA, AAOTMLA and the degree of the pain under the metatarsal head were analysed. One hundred and forty-eight feet had the pain under the metatarsal head. The IM1-2, IM1-5 and TAOTMLA increased on weight-bearing position compared with those on non-weight-bearing position, but the HVA and AAOTMLA decreased on weight-bearing position compared with those on non-weight-bearing position. There was a moderate relationship between the changes of IM 1-2,IM1-5 and the degree of the hallux valgus deformity, as well as the relationship between the different of IM1-5 and the degree of the pian under the metatarsal head. The degree of the collapse of the arch of foot with hallux valgus becomes serious with its deformity increasing. The pain under the metatarsal head of hallux valgus increases with the increased changes of IM 1-2,IM 1-5 and TAOTMLA. Analysis of the X-ray observation indexes of hallux valgus on weight-bearing position and non-weight-bearing position has

  7. High Variability of Observed Weight Bearing During Standing Foot and Ankle Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher P; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Walley, Kempland C; Ghaheri, Azadeh; Kwon, John Y

    2017-06-01

    Weight-bearing radiographs are a critical component of evaluating foot and ankle pathology. An underlying assumption is that patients are placing 50% of their body weight on the affected foot during image acquisition. The accuracy of weight bearing during radiographs is unknown and, presumably, variable, which may result in uncertain ability of the resultant radiographs to appropriately portray the pathology of interest. Fifty subjects were tested. The percentage body weight through the foot of interest was measured at the moment of radiographic image acquisition. The subject was then instructed to bear "half [their] weight" prior to the next radiograph. The percentage body weight was calculated and compared to ideal 50% weight bearing. The mean percentage body weight in trial 1 and 2 was 45.7% ± 3.2% ( P = .012 compared to the 50% mark) and 49.2% ± 2.4%, respectively ( P = .428 compared to 50%). The mean absolute difference in percentage weight bearing compared to 50% in trials 1 and 2 was 9.3% ± 2.3% and 5.8% ± 1.8%, respectively ( P = .005). For trial 1, 18/50 subjects were within the "ideal" (45%-55%) range for weight bearing compared to 32/50 on trial 2 ( P = .005). In trial 1, 24/50 subjects had "appropriate" (>45%) weight bearing compared to 39/50 on trial 2 ( P = .002). There was substantial variability in the weight applied during radiograph acquisition. This study raises questions regarding the assumptions, reliability, and interpretation when evaluating weight-bearing radiographs. Level III, comparative study.

  8. Haptic biofeedback for improving compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; DeLuke, Levi; Buerba, Rafael A; Fan, Richard E; Zheng, Ying Jean; Leslie, Michael P; Baumgaertner, Michael R; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-11-01

    After lower-extremity orthopedic trauma and surgery, patients are often advised to restrict weight bearing on the affected limb. Conventional training methods are not effective at enabling patients to comply with recommendations for partial weight bearing. The current study assessed a novel method of using real-time haptic (vibratory/vibrotactile) biofeedback to improve compliance with instructions for partial weight bearing. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic participants were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: verbal instruction, bathroom scale training, and haptic biofeedback. Participants were instructed to restrict lower-extremity weight bearing in a walking boot with crutches to 25 lb, with an acceptable range of 15 to 35 lb. A custom weight bearing sensor and biofeedback system was attached to all participants, but only those in the haptic biofeedback group were given a vibrotactile signal if they exceeded the acceptable range. Weight bearing in all groups was measured with a separate validated commercial system. The verbal instruction group bore an average of 60.3±30.5 lb (mean±standard deviation). The bathroom scale group averaged 43.8±17.2 lb, whereas the haptic biofeedback group averaged 22.4±9.1 lb (Phaptic biofeedback group averaged 14.5±6.3% (Phaptic biofeedback to improve compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing, haptic biofeedback was superior to conventional physical therapy methods. Further studies in patients with clinical orthopedic trauma are warranted. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. 75 FR 14496 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Protections for the Grizzly Bear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... of Protections for the Grizzly Bear in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in Compliance With Court... grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and surrounding area. This rule corrects the grizzly bear listing to reinstate the listing of grizzly bears in the GYA. This final...

  10. Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS). To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits. PMID:22330655

  11. Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckstuhl Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS. To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits.

  12. Is it correct to always consider weight-bearing asymmetrically distributed in individuals with hemiparesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Emerson Fachin; de Araujo Barbosa, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; de Menezes, Lidiane Teles; de Sousa, Pedro Henrique Côrtes; Costa, Abraão Souza

    2011-11-01

    Injuries may cause unilateral deterioration of brain areas related to postural control resulting in lateralized motor disability with abnormal asymmetry in weight-bearing distribution. Although overloading toward the nonaffected limb has been described as the preferred posture among individuals with hemiparesis, characterization of the weight-bearing asymmetry is poorly and indirectly described. Therefore, this study aimed to describe weight-bearing distribution during upright stance, establishing criteria to consider asymmetry in hemiparesis when analyzed within the limits defined by controls matched by age and gender. Forty subjects with (n = 20) or without hemiparesis (n = 20) were included in procedures to record weight-bearing values between hemibodies, and these values were used to calculate a symmetry ratio. Control presented 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean for symmetry ratio ranging from 0.888 to 1.072, defining limits to symmetry. Four subjects with hemiparesis (20%) had symmetry ratios inside limits defined by controls (i.e., weight-bearing symmetrically distributed), and 11 (55%) subjects without hemiparesis showed symmetry ratios outside the limits, suggesting asymmetrical weight-bearing distribution. It was concluded that asymmetry, when present in a control group, was more frequently overloading nonpredominantly used hemibody (nondominant side), differing from a hemiparesis group commonly forced to assume the nonaffected side as the predominantly used hemibody and where the overload was observed.

  13. Real-time visual biofeedback during weight bearing improves therapy compliance in patients following lower extremity fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaben, Marco; Holtslag, Herman R; Leenen, Luke P H; Augustine, Robin; Blokhuis, Taco J

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with lower extremity fractures are often instructed on how much weight to bear on the affected extremity. Previous studies have shown limited therapy compliance in weight bearing during rehabilitation. In this study we investigated the effect of real-time visual biofeedback on weight bearing in individuals with lower extremity fractures in two conditions: full weight bearing and touch-down weight bearing. 11 participants with full weight bearing and 12 participants with touch-down weight bearing after lower extremity fractures have been measured with an ambulatory biofeedback system. The participants first walked 15m and the biofeedback system was only used to register the weight bearing. The same protocol was then repeated with real-time visual feedback during weight bearing. The participants could thereby adapt their loading to the desired level and improve therapy compliance. In participants with full weight bearing, real-time visual biofeedback resulted in a significant increase in loading from 50.9±7.51% bodyweight (BW) without feedback to 63.2±6.74%BW with feedback (P=0.0016). In participants with touch-down weight bearing, the exerted lower extremity load decreased from 16.7±9.77kg without feedback to 10.27±4.56kg with feedback (P=0.0718). More important, the variance between individual steps significantly decreased after feedback (P=0.018). Ambulatory monitoring weight bearing after lower extremity fractures showed that therapy compliance is low, both in full and touch-down weight bearing. Real-time visual biofeedback resulted in significantly higher peak loads in full weight bearing and increased accuracy of individual steps in touch-down weight bearing. Real-time visual biofeedback therefore results in improved therapy compliance after lower extremity fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yibin; Siu, Kayu; Wang, Ning; Ng, Kwan-Ming; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Tong, Yao

    2009-01-01

    Bear bile has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Modern investigations showed that it has a wide range of pharmacological actions with little toxicological side effect and the pure compounds have been used for curing hepatic and biliary disorders for decades. However, extensive consumption of bear bile made bears endangered species. In the 1980's, bear farming was established in China to extract bear bile from living bears with "Free-dripping Fistula Technique". Bear farming is extremely inhumane and many bears died of illness such as chronic infections and liver cancer. Efforts are now given by non-governmental organizations, mass media and Chinese government to end bear farming ultimately. At the same time, systematic research has to be done to find an alternative for bear bile. In this review, we focused on the literature, laboratory and clinical results related to bear bile and its substitutes or alternative in English and Chinese databases. We examined the substitutes or alternative of bear bile from three aspects: pure compounds derived from bear bile, biles from other animals and herbs from TCM. We then discussed the strategy for stopping the trading of bear bile and issues of bear bile related to potential alternative candidates, existing problems in alternative research and work to be done in the future. PMID:19138420

  15. Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamatsu Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bear bile has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for thousands of years. Modern investigations showed that it has a wide range of pharmacological actions with little toxicological side effect and the pure compounds have been used for curing hepatic and biliary disorders for decades. However, extensive consumption of bear bile made bears endangered species. In the 1980's, bear farming was established in China to extract bear bile from living bears with "Free-dripping Fistula Technique". Bear farming is extremely inhumane and many bears died of illness such as chronic infections and liver cancer. Efforts are now given by non-governmental organizations, mass media and Chinese government to end bear farming ultimately. At the same time, systematic research has to be done to find an alternative for bear bile. In this review, we focused on the literature, laboratory and clinical results related to bear bile and its substitutes or alternative in English and Chinese databases. We examined the substitutes or alternative of bear bile from three aspects: pure compounds derived from bear bile, biles from other animals and herbs from TCM. We then discussed the strategy for stopping the trading of bear bile and issues of bear bile related to potential alternative candidates, existing problems in alternative research and work to be done in the future.

  16. EARLY WEIGHT-BEARING AFTER ANKLE FRACTURE FIXATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In early 2006 during AO-scholarship training at Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem, I witnessed ... I then determined to study and compare the functional benefit of early weight- .... (.80) of detecting an effect we used a power table. A.

  17. Baropodometric technology used to analyze types of weight-bearing during hemiparetic upright position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Teles de Menezes

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although baropodometric analysis has been published since the 1990s, only now it is found a considerable number of studies showing different uses in the rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To amplify the use of this technology, this research aimed to analyze baropodometric records during upright position of subjects with hemiparesis, describing a way to define weight-bearing profiles in this population. METHOD: 20 healthy subjects were matched by gender and age with 12 subjects with chronic spastic hemiparesis. This control group was formed to establish the limits of symmetry during weight-bearing distribution in the hemiparesis group. Next, hemiparesis group was submitted to procedures to measure baropodometric records used to provide variables related to the weight-bearing distribution, the arch index and the displacements in the center of pressure (CoP. Data were used to compare differences among kinds of weight-bearing distribution (symmetric, asymmetric toward non-paretic or paretic foot and coordination system for CoP displacements. RESULTS: Hemiparesis group was compounded by eight symmetrics, eight asymmetrics toward non-paretic foot and four asymmetric toward paretic foot. Significant differences in the weight-bearing distributions between non-predominantly and predominantly used foot did not promote differences in the other baropodometric records (peak and mean of pressure, and support area. Mainly in the asymmetry toward non-paretic foot it was observed significant modifications of the baropodometric records. CONCLUSION: Baropodometric technology can be used to analyze weight-bearing distribution during upright position of subjects with hemiparesis, detecting different kinds of weight-bearing profiles useful to therapeutic programs and researches involving subjects with this disability.

  18. Activation of the hip adductor muscles varies during a simulated weight-bearing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Beall, Paula; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Stanton, Warren; Miokovic, Tanja; Richardson, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of muscle activation of the individual hip adductor muscles using a standardised simulated unilateral weight-bearing task. A repeated measures design. Laboratory. 20 healthy individuals (11 females, 9 males) participated in the study. Age ranged from 20 to 25 years. Surface electromyography recordings from adductor magnus and adductor longus muscles were taken at levels representing 10-50% of body weight during a simulated weight-bearing task. Electromyography (EMG) data were normalised to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. The adductor magnus was recruited at significantly higher levels than the adductor longus muscle during a simulated weight-bearing task performed across 10-50% of body weight (p bearing task. This information should be considered when selecting exercises for management and prevention of groin strains. Closed chain exercises with weight-bearing through the lower limb are more likely to recruit the adductor magnus muscle over the adductor longus muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of a 12-week program of static upper extremity weight bearing exercises on weight bearing in children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The  major  objective  of  this  study  was  to  quantify  the  effects  of a  12-week  program  of  weight  bearing  exercises  on  weight  borne  through  the hand and grip pressures in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. This study also sought to monitor the change in spasticity immediately following weight-bearing  exercises.  A  quasi-experimental,  one  group  pre-test,  post-test  study  was used. Eleven children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy from a special school in KwaZulu Natal participated after fully informed written consent. The intervention consisted of a 12-week program of weight bearing. The Tekscan Grip system was used to quantify weight borne through the hand during extended arm prone and quadruped positions and whilst holding a pencil and a tumbler. The modified Ashworth grading of spasticity was used to monitor spasticity. The data was analysed using the random effects GLS model Wald Chi Square test. Significant increases in contact pressure in extended arms prone (p=0,012 and quadruped (p=0,002 and when holding a pencil (p=0,045 was noted post-test compared to pre-test. Significant increases in contact area of the hand was also noted in prone (p=0,000, quadruped (p=0, 03 at assessment 7 and when holding a pencil (p=0,035.  A significant decrease in spasticity during elbow extension (p=0,004, and wrist flexion (p=0,026 and extension (p=0,004 was noted. An overall significant effect of static weight bearing exercises on weight borne through the hands, grip strength and spasticity justifies the use of static weight-bearing in therapy.

  20. Real-time visual biofeedback during weight bearing improves therapy compliance in patients following lower extremity fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaben, Marco; Holtslag, Herman R.; Leenen, Luke P. H.; Augustine, Robin; Blokhuis, Taco J.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with lower extremity fractures are often instructed on how much weight to bear on the affected extremity. Previous studies have shown limited therapy compliance in weight bearing during rehabilitation. In this study we investigated the effect of real-time visual biofeedback on weight

  1. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758 in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Alborz Protected Area. Our investigation showed that plant materials composed the main proportion of food items of the brown bears in the spring until mid-summer. Insects, especially ants were predominantly eaten in the first half of summer. As approaching to hibernation period in late autumn, fruits played the main role of bear food items having high fat content. We never witnessed bear attack on wild herbivores. Furthermore, we never found remains of wild herbivores except a few livestock remains in brown bear scats during our survey period. Accordingly, we concluded that brown bears were almost herbivorous in the Central Alborz Protected Area. We never found any bear scats or fresh signs in three consecutive years, between first of December until mid of March. Also, no direct sighting of brown bear was reported to us by local people and game keepers within the mentioned period. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the brown bears hibernate for a period of 3-3.5 months in winter in the Central Alborz Protected Area.

  2. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  3. Arthrosis of the ankle evaluated on films in weight-bearing position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Bergstroem, B.; Hemborg, A.

    1979-01-01

    About 7 years after a malleolar fracture 113 patients were examined for development of arthrosis. The addition of films exposed in weight-bearing position with a.p. beam direction to views of the ankle joint exposed in supine position did not contribute to the diagnosis of arthrosis. (Auth.)

  4. Is prescribed lower extremity weight-bearing status after geriatric lower extremity trauma associated with increased mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitajn, Ida Leah; Connelly, Daniel; Mascarenhas, Daniel; Breazeale, Stephen; Berger, Peter; Schoonover, Carrie; Martin, Brook; O'Toole, Robert V; Pensy, Raymond; Sciadini, Marcus

    2018-02-01

    Evaluate whether mortality after discharge is elevated in geriatric fracture patients whose lower extremity weight-bearing is restricted. Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Urban Level 1 trauma center PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: 1746 patients >65 years of age INTERVENTION: Post-operative lower extremity weight-bearing status MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, as determined by the Social Security Death Index RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients who were weight-bearing as tolerated on bilateral lower extremities (BLE) had significantly higher 5-year mortality compared to patients with restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity and restricted weight-bearing on BLE (30%, 21% and 22% respectively, p bearing as tolerated on BLE, restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.20, p = 0.76) and restricted weight-bearing in BLE had a HR of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.36, p = 0.73). In geriatric patients, prescribed weight-bearing status did not have a statistically significant association with mortality after discharge, when controlling for age, sex, body mass index, medical comorbidities, Injury Severity Scale (ISS), mechanism of injury, nonoperative treatment and admission GCS. This remained true in when the analysis was restricted to operative injuries only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Outcomes and weight-bearing status during rehabilitation after arthroplasty for hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebens, Hilary C; Sharkey, Phoebe; Aronow, Harriet U; Horn, Susan D; Munin, Michael C; DeJong, Gerben; Smout, Randall J; Radnay, Craig S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the association of weight-bearing status with patient-related variables and outcomes of inpatient rehabilitation after hip arthroplasty for acute hip fracture. A multi-site prospective observational cohort study. Eighteen skilled nursing and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Patients with hip fractures (N = 224) treated with hip arthroplasty and admitted to either skilled nursing or inpatient rehabilitation facilities; a subset (N = 84) with telephone follow-up outcomes 8 months after rehabilitation discharge. Measurements included demographic variables, medical severity using the Comprehensive Severity Index, and functional levels using the Functional Independence Measure. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASUREMENT: Cognitive, motor, and total Functional Independence Measure scores at rehabilitation discharge and at 8-month follow-up; living location at discharge and follow-up. Patients on average (standard deviation) were 76.8 ± 11.4 years old, mainly women (78%), and mainly white (87%). In unadjusted analysis, weight bearing as tolerated (WBAT) was associated with less osteoarthritis (P = .025) and lower admission medical severity (ACSI) (P = .014). One participating facility had a significant preponderance of restricted weight-bearing cases. WBAT had no bivariate association with cognitive or motor function at discharge. Therapists cited restricted weight bearing as a barrier to therapy in 11% of cases. In logistic regressions, lower medical admission severity, older age, and one specified site significantly predicted WBAT (c statistic = 0.714). Significant predictors for home discharge included lower maximum severity (P < .001), younger age (P < .001), higher cognition (P = .037), and WBAT (P = .051) (c statistic = 0.863). WBAT is associated with a greater likelihood of home discharge and had similar functional outcomes compared with restricted weight bearing. These findings add support for allowing WBAT after arthroplasty for hip fracture. Copyright © 2012

  6. Gait analysis and weight bearing in pre-clinical joint pain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ängeby Möller, Kristina; Svärd, Heta; Suominen, Anni; Immonen, Jarmo; Holappa, Johanna; Stenfors, Carina

    2018-04-15

    There is a need for better joint pain treatment, but development of new medication has not been successful. Pre-clinical models with readouts that better reflect the clinical situation are needed. In patients with joint pain, pain at rest and pain at walking are two major complaints. We describe a new way of calculating results from gait analysis using the CatWalk™ setup. Rats with monoarthritis induced by injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) intra-articularly into the ankle joint of one hind limb were used to assess gait and dynamic weight bearing. The results show that dynamic weight bearing was markedly reduced for the injected paw. Gait parameters such as amount of normal step sequences, walking speed and duration of step placement were also affected. Treatment with naproxen (an NSAID commonly used for inflammatory pain) attenuated the CFA-induced effects. Pregabalin, which is used for neuropathic pain, had no effect. Reduced dynamic weight bearing during locomotion, assessed and calculated in the way we present here, showed a dose-dependent and lasting normalization after naproxen treatment. In contrast, static weight bearing while standing (Incapacitance tester) showed a significant effect for a limited time only. Mechanical sensitivity (von Frey Optihairs) was completely normalized by naproxen, and the window for testing pharmacological effect disappeared. Objective and reproducible effects, with an endpoint showing face validity compared to pain while walking in patients with joint pain, are achieved by a new way of calculating dynamic weight bearing in monoarthritic rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of Roller Bearing Diagnosis with Unlabeled Data Using Cut Edge Weight Confidence Based Tritraining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Roller bearings are one of the most commonly used components in rotational machines. The fault diagnosis of roller bearings thus plays an important role in ensuring the safe functioning of the mechanical systems. However, in most cases of bearing fault diagnosis, there are limited number of labeled data to achieve a proper fault diagnosis. Therefore, exploiting unlabeled data plus few labeled data, this paper proposed a roller bearing fault diagnosis method based on tritraining to improve roller bearing diagnosis performance. To overcome the noise brought by wrong labeling into the classifiers training process, the cut edge weight confidence is introduced into the diagnosis framework. Besides a small trick called suspect principle is adopted to avoid overfitting problem. The proposed method is validated in two independent roller bearing fault experiment vibrational signals that both include three types of faults: inner-ring fault, outer-ring fault, and rolling element fault. The results demonstrate the desirable diagnostic performance improvement by the proposed method in the extreme situation where there is only limited number of labeled data.

  8. Real-time visual biofeedback during weight bearing improves therapy compliance in patients following lower extremity fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaben, Marco; Holtslag, Herman R; Leenen, Luke P H; Augustine, Robin; Blokhuis, Taco J

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with lower extremity fractures are often instructed on how much weight to bear on the affected extremity. Previous studies have shown limited therapy compliance in weight bearing during rehabilitation. In this study we investigated the effect of real-time visual biofeedback

  9. Gender differences in tibio-femoral kinematics and quadriceps muscle force during weight-bearing knee flexion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschel, Markus; Wülker, Nikolaus; Müller, Otto

    2013-11-01

    Females have a higher risk in terms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries during sports than males. Reasons for this fact may be different anatomy and muscle recruitment patterns leading to less protection for the cruciate- and collateral-ligaments. This in vitro study aims to evaluate gender differences in knee joint kinematics and muscle force during weight-bearing knee flexions. Thirty-four human knee specimens (17 females/17 males) were mounted on a dynamic knee simulator. Weight-bearing single-leg knee flexions were performed with different amounts of simulated body weight (BW). Gender-specific kinematics was measured with an ultrasonic motion capture system and different loading conditions were examined. Knee joint kinematics did not show significant differences regarding anteroposterior and medial-lateral movement as well as tibial varus-valgus and internal-external rotation. This applied to all simulated amounts of BW. Simulating 100 N BW in contrast to AF50 led to a significant higher quadriceps overall force in female knees from 45° to 85° of flexion in contrast to BW 50 N. In these female specimens, the quadriceps overall force was about 20 % higher than in male knees being constant in higher flexion angles. It is indicated by our results that in a squatting movement females compared with males produce higher muscle forces, suggesting an increased demand for muscular stabilization, whereas tibio-femoral kinematics was similar for both genders.

  10. Inaccuracy of a physical strain trainer for the monitoring of partial weight bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauser, Johannes; Jendrissek, Andreas; Swoboda, Bernd; Gelse, Kolja; Carl, Hans-Dieter

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the use of a physical strain trainer for the monitoring of partial weight bearing. Case series with healthy volunteers. Orthopedic clinic. Healthy volunteers (N=10) with no history of foot complaints. Volunteers were taught to limit weight bearing to 10% body weight (BW) and 50% BW, monitored by a physical strain trainer. The parameters peak pressure, maximum force, force-time integral, and pressure-time integral were assessed by dynamic pedobarography when volunteers walked with full BW (condition 1), 50% BW (condition 2), and 10% BW (condition 3). With 10% BW (condition 3), forces with normative gait (condition 1) were statistically significantly reduced under the hindfoot where the physical strain trainer is placed. All pedobarographic parameters were, however, exceeded when the total foot was measured. A limitation to 10% BW with the physical strain trainer (condition 3) was equal to a bisection of peak pressure and maximum force for the total foot with normative gait (condition 1). Halved BW (condition 2) left a remaining mean 82% of peak pressure and mean 59% of maximum force from full BW (condition 1). The concept of controlling partial weight bearing with the hindfoot-addressing device does not represent complete foot loading. Such devices may be preferably applied in cases when the hindfoot in particular must be off-loaded. Other training devices (eg, biofeedback soles) that monitor forces of the total foot have to be used to control partial weight bearing of the lower limb accurately. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Permissive weight bearing in trauma patients with fracture of the lower extremities: prospective multicenter comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmet, Pishtiwan H S; Meys, Guido; V Horn, Yvette Y; Evers, Silvia M A A; Seelen, Henk A M; Hustinx, Paul; Janzing, Heinrich; Vd Veen, Alexander; Jaspars, Coen; Sintenie, Jan Bernard; Blokhuis, Taco J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2018-02-02

    The standard aftercare treatment in surgically treated trauma patients with fractures around or in a joint, known as (peri)- or intra-articular fractures of the lower extremities, is either non-weight bearing or partial weight bearing. We have developed an early permissive weight bearing post-surgery rehabilitation protocol in surgically treated patients with fractures of the lower extremities. In this proposal we want to compare our early permissive weight bearing protocol to the existing current non-weight bearing guidelines in a prospective comparative cohort study. The study is a prospective multicenter comparative cohort study in which two rehabilitation aftercare treatments will be contrasted, i.e. permissive weight bearing and non-weight bearing according to the AO-guideline. The study population consists of patients with a surgically treated fracture of the pelvis/acetabulum or a surgically treated (peri)- or intra-articular fracture of the lower extremities. The inclusion period is 12 months. The duration of follow up is 6 months, with measurements taken at baseline, 2,6,12 and 26 weeks post-surgery. ADL with Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Outcome variables for compliance, as measured with an insole pressure measurement system, encompass peak load and step duration. This study will investigate the (cost-) effectiveness of a permissive weight bearing aftercare protocol. The results will provide evidence whether a permissive weight bearing protocol is more effective than the current non-weight bearing protocol. The study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR6077 ). Date of registration: 01-09-2016.

  12. Relationship between pelvic alignment and weight-bearing asymmetry in community-dwelling chronic stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruliraj Karthikbabu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Altered pelvic alignment and asymmetrical weight bearing on lower extremities are the most common findings observed in standing and walking after stroke. The purpose of this study was to find the relationship between pelvic alignment and weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA in community-dwelling chronic stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in tertiary care rehabilitation centers. In standing, the lateral and anterior pelvic tilt angle of chronic stroke survivors was assessed using palpation (PALM™ meter device. The percentage of WBA was measured with two standard weighing scales. Pearson correlation coefficient (r was used to study the correlation between pelvic tilt and WBA. Results: Of 112 study participants, the mean (standard deviation age was 54.7 (11.7 years and the poststroke duration was 14 (11 months. The lateral pelvic tilt on the most affected side and bilateral anterior pelvic tilt were 2.47 (1.8 and 4.4 (1.8 degree, respectively. The percentage of WBA was 23.2 (18.94. There was a high correlation of lateral pelvic tilt with WBA (r = 0.631; P< 0.001 than anterior pelvic tilt (r = 0.44; P< 0.001. Conclusion: Excessive lateral pelvic tilt toward the most affected side in standing may influence the weight-bearing ability of the ipsilateral lower extremity in community-dwelling chronic stroke survivors.

  13. Connectivity strategies to enhance the capacity of weight-bearing networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janaki, T.M.; Gupte, Neelima

    2003-01-01

    The connectivity properties of a weight-bearing network are exploited to enhance its capacity. We study a 2D network of sites where the weight-bearing capacity of a given site depends on the capacities of the sites connected to it in the layers above. The network consists of clusters, viz., a set of sites connected with each other with the largest such collection of sites being denoted as the maximal cluster. New connections are made between sites in successive layers using two distinct strategies. The key element of our strategies consists of adding as many disjoint clusters as possible to the sites on the trunk T of the maximal cluster. In the first strategy the reconnections start from the last layer upwards and stop when no new sites are added. In the second case, the reconnections start from the top layer and go all the way down to the last layer. The new networks can bear much higher weights than the original networks and have much lower failure rates. The first strategy leads to a greater enhancement of stability, whereas the second leads to a greater enhancement of capacity compared to the original networks. The original network used here is a typical example of the branching hierarchical class. However, the application of strategies similar to ours can yield useful results in other types of networks as well

  14. Cranial acetabular retroversion is common in developmental dysplasia of the hip as assessed by the weight bearing position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Lone Rømer; Jacobsen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of acetabular version differs between the supine and weight bearing positions in developmental dysplasia of the hip. Weight bearing radiographic evaluation has been recommended to ensure the best coherence between symptoms, functional appearance, and hip deformities. Previous...... prevalence estimates of acetabular retroversion in dysplastic hips have been established in radiographs recorded with the patient supine and with inclusion only if pelvic tilt met standardized criteria. We assessed the prevalence and the extent of acetabular retroversion in dysplastic hip joints in weight...

  15. Combination of Weight-Bearing Training and Anti-MSTN Polyclonal Antibody Improve Bone Quality In Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Gao, Xiaohang; Yang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Didi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Du, Haiping; Han, Yanqi; Sun, Lijun

    2016-12-01

    Weight-bearing exercise is beneficial to bone health. Myostatin (MSTN) deficiency has a positive effect on bone formation. We wondered if a combination of weight-bearing training and polyclonal antibody for MSTN (MsAb) would augment bone formation to a greater degree than single treatment. In this study, rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Control, weight-bearing training (WT), MsAb, and WT+MsAb. The trained rats ran at 15 m/min bearing with 35% of their body weight, 40 min/day (2 min of running followed by 2 min of rest), 6 days/week, for 8 weeks. The rats with MsAb were injected once a week with MsAb for 8 weeks. MicroCT analysis showed that compared with the MsAb group, WT+MsAb significantly enhanced cortical bone mineral density (BMD) (p .05), weight-bearing training significantly increased energy absorption (p weight-bearing training and MsAb have a greater positive effect on bone than treatment with either MsAb or weight-bearing training alone, suggesting that resistance training in combination with MSTN antagonists could be an effective approach for improving bone health and reducing osteoporosis risk.

  16. Postoperative weight bearing and patient reported outcomes at one year following tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewlis, Dominic; Fraysse, Francois; Callary, Stuart A; Verghese, Viju Daniel; Jones, Claire F; Findlay, David M; Atkins, Gerald J; Rickman, Mark; Solomon, Lucian B

    2017-07-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are complex and the current evidence for postoperative rehabilitation is weak, especially related to the recommended postoperative weight bearing. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if loading in the first 12 weeks of recovery is associated with patient reported outcome measures at 26 and 52 weeks postoperative. We hypothesized that there would be no association between loading and patient reported outcome measures. Seventeen patients, with a minimum of 52-week follow-up following fragment-specific open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fracture, were selected for this retrospective analysis. Postoperatively, patients were advised to load their limb to a maximum of 20kg during the first 6 weeks. Loading data were collected during walking using force platforms. A ratio of limb loading (affected to unaffected) was calculated at 2, 6 and 12 weeks postoperative. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Scores were collected at 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks postoperative. The association between loading ratios and patient reported outcomes were investigated. Compliance with weight bearing recommendations and changes in the patient reported outcome measures are described. Fracture reduction and migration were assessed on plain radiographs. No fractures demonstrated any measurable postoperative migration at 52 weeks. Significant improvements were seen in all patient reported outcome measures over the first 52 weeks, despite poor adherence to postoperative weight bearing restrictions. There were no associations between weight bearing ratio and patient reported outcomes at 52 weeks postoperative. Significant associations were identified between the loading ratio at 2 weeks and knee-related quality of life at six months (R 2 =0.392), and between the loading ratio at 6 weeks combined with injury severity and knee-related quality of life at 26 weeks (R 2 =0.441). In summary, weight bearing as tolerated does not negatively affect the

  17. Characteristics of postoperative weight bearing and management protocols for tibial plateau fractures: Findings from a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Tu, Chen Gang; Phan, Tri M; Rickman, Mark; Varghese, Viju Daniel; Thewlis, Dominic; Solomon, Lucian B

    2017-12-01

    To identify and describe the characteristics of existing practices for postoperative weight bearing and management of tibial plateau fractures (TPFs), identify gaps in the literature, and inform the design of future research. Seven electronic databases and clinical trial registers were searched from inception until November 17th 2016. Studies were included if they reported on the surgical management of TPFs, had a mean follow-up time of ≥1year and provided data on postoperative management protocols. Data were extracted and synthesized according to study demographics, patient characteristics and postoperative management (weight bearing regimes, immobilisation devices, exercises and complications). 124 studies were included involving 5156 patients with TPFs. The mean age across studies was 45.1 years (range 20.8-72; 60% male), with a mean follow-up of 34.9 months (range 12-264). The most frequent fracture types were AO/OTA classification 41-B3 (29.5%) and C3 (25%). The most commonly reported non-weight bearing time after surgery was 4-6 weeks (39% of studies), with a further 4-6 weeks of partial weight bearing (51% of studies), resulting in 9-12 weeks before full weight bearing status was recommended (55% of studies). Loading recommendations for initial weight bearing were most commonly toe-touch/bearing was positively correlated with the proportion of fractures of AO/OTA type C (r=0.465, p=0.029) and Schatzker type IV-VI (r=0.614, pbearing time before full weight bearing is recommended at 9-12 weeks. Partial weight bearing protocols and brace use were varied. Type of rehabilitation may be an important factor influencing recovery, with future high quality prospective studies required to determine the impact of different protocols on clinical and radiological outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of protected, threatened, and endangered fish species in Upper Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, M.G.

    1998-07-01

    The East Bear Creek Site for the proposed centralized waste facility on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation was evaluated for potential rare, threatened or endangered (T and E) fish species in the six primary tributaries and the main stem of Bear Creek that are within or adjacent to the facility footprint. These tributaries and portion of Bear Creek comprise the upper Bear Creek watershed. One T and E fish species, the Tennessee dace (Phoxinus tennesseensis), was located in these streams. The Tennessee dace is listed by the State of Tennessee as being in need of management, and as such its habitat is afforded some protection. Surveys indicated that Tennessee dace occupy the northern tributaries NT-1, NT-4, and NT-5, as well as Bear Creek. Several specimens of the dace were gravid females, indicating that the streams may function as reproductive habitat for the species. The implications of impacts on the species are discussed and mitigation objectives are included

  19. Effects of obesity on weight-bearing versus weight-supported exercise testing in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatman, Robbert C; Spruit, Martijn A; van Melick, Paula P; Peeters, Jos P I; Rutten, Erica P A; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Wouters, Emiel F M; Franssen, Frits M E

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is associated with increased dyspnoea and reduced health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies on the effects of obesity on exercise capacity showed divergent results. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of obesity on weight-bearing versus weight-supported exercise tolerance in obese and normal weight patients, matched for age, gender and degree of airflow limitation. Retrospective analyses of data obtained during pre-pulmonary rehabilitation assessment in 108 obese COPD patients (OB) (age: 61.2 ± 5.3y, FEV1 : 43.2 ± 7.4%, BMI: 34.1 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) ,) and 108 age and FEV1 -matched normal weight COPD patients (NW) (age: 61.7 ± 3.6y, FEV1 : 41.5 ± 8.4%, BMI: 22.9 ± 1.2 kg/m(2) ,). Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and 6 min walk test (6MWT) were performed, Borg scores for dyspnoea and leg fatigue were recorded, before and after the tests. Six-minute walk distance differed between OB (398 ± 107 m) and NW patients (446 ± 109 m, P exercise load was comparable (OB: 75 ± 29 W, NW: 70 ± 25 W, ns). Dyspnoea (OB 3.2 ± 2.0 vs NW 3.1 ± 1.7, ns) and leg fatigue (OB 2.4 ± 2.3 vs NW 1.9 ± 1.7, ns) were not significantly different in OB compared with NW after 6MWT, or after CPET (dyspnoea: OB 5.1 ± 2.4 vs NW 5.4 ± 2.2, ns; leg fatigue: OB 4.0 ± 2.3 vs NW 4.0 ± 2.7, ns). In contrast to weight-supported exercise, obesity has a negative impact on weight-bearing exercise capacity, despite comparable exercise-related symptoms. The results of this study enhance the understanding of the impact of obesity on physical performance in COPD. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  1. Is Weight-Bearing Asymmetry Associated with Postural Instability after Stroke? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jip F. Kamphuis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Improvement of postural stability is an important goal during poststroke rehabilitation. Since weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA towards the nonparetic leg is common, training of weight-bearing symmetry has been a major focus in post-stroke balance rehabilitation. It is assumed that restoration of a more symmetrical weight distribution is associated with improved postural stability. Objective. To determine to what extent WBA is associated with postural instability in people after stroke. Methods. Electronic databases were searched (Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL until March 2012. Main Eligibility Criteria. (1 Participants were people after stroke. (2 The association between WBA and postural stability was reported. Quality of reporting was assessed with the STROBE checklist and a related tool for reporting of confounding. Results. Nine observational studies met all criteria. Greater spontaneous WBA was associated with higher center of pressure (COP velocity and with poorer synchronization of COP trajectories between the legs (two and one studies, resp.. Evidence for associations between WBA and performance on clinical balance tests or falls was weak. Conclusion. Greater WBA after stroke was associated with increased postural sway, but the current literature does not provide evidence for a causal relationship. Further studies should investigate whether reducing WBA would improve postural stability.

  2. Associations of lifetime walking and weight bearing exercise with accelerometer-measured high impact physical activity in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Hannam, Kimberly; Deere, Kevin C; Hartley, April; Clark, Emma M; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H; Dennison, Elaine; Gaysin, Tim; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Fox, Kenneth R; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Tobias, Jon H

    2017-12-01

    High impact physical activity (PA) is thought to benefit bone. We examined associations of lifetime walking and weight bearing exercise with accelerometer-measured high impact and overall PA in later life. Data were from 848 participants (66.2% female, mean age = 72.4 years) from the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon, Hertfordshire Cohort Study and MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Acceleration peaks from seven-day hip-worn accelerometer recordings were used to derive counts of high impact and overall PA. Walking and weight bearing exercise up to age 18, between 18-29, 30-49 and since age 50 were recalled using questionnaires. Responses in each age category were dichotomised and cumulative scores derived. Linear regression was used for analysis. Greater lifetime walking was related to higher overall, but not high impact PA, whereas greater lifetime weight bearing exercise was related to higher overall and high impact PA. For example, fully-adjusted differences in log-overall and log-high impact PA respectively for highest versus lowest lifetime scores were: walking [0.224 (0.087, 0.362) and 0.239 (- 0.058, 0.536)], and weight bearing exercise [0.754 (0.432, 1.076) and 0.587 (0.270, 0.904)]. For both walking and weight bearing exercise, associations were strongest in the 'since age 50' category. Those reporting the most walking and weight bearing exercise since age 50 had highest overall and high impact PA, e.g. fully-adjusted difference in log-high impact PA versus least walking and weight bearing exercise = 0.588 (0.226, 0.951). Promoting walking and weight bearing exercise from midlife may help increase potentially osteogenic PA levels in later life.

  3. Effect of Symmetry Improvement in Weight Bearing on Postural Stability of Hemiparetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Asghar-Hosseini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Impaired postural control has been known as the main cause of fall in hemiparesis after stroke. Is Asymmetry of weight bearing on lower limb is one of the prominent characteristics of postural imbalance in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of symmetry improvement in weight bearing through therapeutic interventions on postural stability in hemiparetic patients. Materials & Methods: In this quasi – experimental study which 27 hemiparetic patients were selected through sample of convenience by simple method from men and women who were referred to neurology clinic of Hazrat-e-Rasool hospital. For postural assessment patients stood quietly with open eyes and close eyes on force plates. Primary assessments included evaluation of asymmetry index (AI, RMS COP displacement (Root Mean Square of Center of Pressure and RMS COP velocity in both frontal and sagital planes. Then a 10mm lift was inserted under the unaffected limb and primary assessments were repeated. Data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA test. Results: Simple main effect of lift on asymmetry index was significant (P<0/0001. There was no significant interaction between vision and lift. Simple main effect of lift on postural stability variables was also non significant (for RMS COP displacement in frontal and sagital planes P=0.186 and P=0.245, respectively and for RMS COP velocity P=0.259 and P=0.342 respectively. Conclusion: Inserting a lift can improve symmetry by shifting center of gravity to midline. Since symmetry improvement did not decrease postural instability, asymmetric weight bearing can not be the primary cause of postural instability and may not be the principal target of rehabilitation programs aiming at restoring standing balance after stroke.

  4. Upright CT of the knee: the effect of weight-bearing on joint alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschmann, Anna [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, University of Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Basel Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Buck, Florian M.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, University of Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Fucentese, Sandro F. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, University of Zurich, Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    To prospectively compare patellofemoral and femorotibial alignment in supine non-weight-bearing computed tomography (NWBCT) and upright weight-bearing CT (WBCT) and assess the differences in joint alignment. NWBCT and WBCT images of the knee were obtained in 26 patients (mean age, 57.0 ± 15.9 years; range, 21-81) using multiple detector CT for NWBCT and cone-beam extremity CT for WBCT. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently quantified joint alignment by measuring femorotibial rotation, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG), lateral patellar tilt angle, lateral patellar shift, and medial and lateral femorotibial joint space widths. Significant differences between NWBCT and WBCT were sought using Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P-value < 0.05). Significant differences were found for femorotibial rotation (the NWBCT mean changed from 2.7 ± 5.1 (reader 1)/2.6 ± 5.6 (reader 2) external rotation to WBCT 0.4 ± 7.7/0.2 ± 7.5 internal rotation; P = 0.009/P = 0.004), TTTG decrease from NWBCT (13.8 mm ± 5.1/13.9 mm ± 3.9) to WBCT (10.5 mm ± 5.0/10.9 mm ± 5.2; P = 0.008/P = 0.002), lateral patellar tilt angle decrease from NWBCT (15.6 ± 6.7/16.9 ± 7.4) to WBCT (12.5 ± 7.7/15.0 ± 6.2; P = 0.011/P = 0.188). The medial femorotibial joint space decreased from NWBCT (3.9 mm ± 1.4/4.5 mm ± 1.3) to WBCT (2.9 mm ± 2.2/3.5 mm ± 2.2; P = 0.003/P = 0.004). Inter-reader agreement ranged from 0.52-0.97. Knee joint alignment changes significantly in the upright weight-bearing position using CT when compared to supine non-weight-bearing CT. (orig.)

  5. Upright CT of the knee: the effect of weight-bearing on joint alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschmann, Anna; Buck, Florian M.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Fucentese, Sandro F.

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively compare patellofemoral and femorotibial alignment in supine non-weight-bearing computed tomography (NWBCT) and upright weight-bearing CT (WBCT) and assess the differences in joint alignment. NWBCT and WBCT images of the knee were obtained in 26 patients (mean age, 57.0 ± 15.9 years; range, 21-81) using multiple detector CT for NWBCT and cone-beam extremity CT for WBCT. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently quantified joint alignment by measuring femorotibial rotation, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG), lateral patellar tilt angle, lateral patellar shift, and medial and lateral femorotibial joint space widths. Significant differences between NWBCT and WBCT were sought using Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P-value < 0.05). Significant differences were found for femorotibial rotation (the NWBCT mean changed from 2.7 ± 5.1 (reader 1)/2.6 ± 5.6 (reader 2) external rotation to WBCT 0.4 ± 7.7/0.2 ± 7.5 internal rotation; P = 0.009/P = 0.004), TTTG decrease from NWBCT (13.8 mm ± 5.1/13.9 mm ± 3.9) to WBCT (10.5 mm ± 5.0/10.9 mm ± 5.2; P = 0.008/P = 0.002), lateral patellar tilt angle decrease from NWBCT (15.6 ± 6.7/16.9 ± 7.4) to WBCT (12.5 ± 7.7/15.0 ± 6.2; P = 0.011/P = 0.188). The medial femorotibial joint space decreased from NWBCT (3.9 mm ± 1.4/4.5 mm ± 1.3) to WBCT (2.9 mm ± 2.2/3.5 mm ± 2.2; P = 0.003/P = 0.004). Inter-reader agreement ranged from 0.52-0.97. Knee joint alignment changes significantly in the upright weight-bearing position using CT when compared to supine non-weight-bearing CT. (orig.)

  6. Functional weight-bearing mobilization after Achilles tendon rupture enhances early healing response: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkering, Kars P; Aufwerber, Susanna; Ranuccio, Francesco; Lunini, Enricomaria; Edman, Gunnar; Ackermann, Paul W

    2017-06-01

    Functional weight-bearing mobilization may improve repair of Achilles tendon rupture (ATR), but the underlying mechanisms and outcome were unknown. We hypothesized that functional weight-bearing mobilization by means of increased metabolism could improve both early and long-term healing. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, patients with acute ATR were randomized to either direct post-operative functional weight-bearing mobilization (n = 27) in an orthosis or to non-weight-bearing (n = 29) plaster cast immobilization. During the first two post-operative weeks, 15°-30° of plantar flexion was allowed and encouraged in the functional weight-bearing mobilization group. At 2 weeks, patients in the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group received a stiff orthosis, while the functional weight-bearing mobilization group continued with increased range of motion. At 6 weeks, all patients discontinued immobilization. At 2 weeks, healing metabolites and markers of procollagen type I (PINP) and III (PIIINP) were examined using microdialysis. At 6 and 12 months, functional outcome using heel-rise test was assessed. Healing tendons of both groups exhibited increased levels of metabolites glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, and of PIIINP (all p bearing mobilization group demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of glutamate compared to the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group (p = 0.045).The upregulated glutamate levels were significantly correlated with the concentrations of PINP (r = 0.5, p = 0.002) as well as with improved functional outcome at 6 months (r = 0.4; p = 0.014). Heel-rise tests at 6 and 12 months did not display any differences between the two groups. Functional weight-bearing mobilization enhanced the early healing response of ATR. In addition, early ankle range of motion was improved without the risk of Achilles tendon elongation and without altering long-term functional outcome. The relationship between

  7. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishikawa Y

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoichi KishikawaKishikawa Orthopaedic Clinic, Saga City, Saga, JapanPurpose: The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures.Methods: In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103, while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93. All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks.Results: Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest

  8. Electromyographic analysis of the three subdivisions of gluteus medius during weight-bearing exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Sullivan Kieran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluteus medius (GM dysfunction is associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. Rehabilitation exercises aimed at strengthening GM appear to improve lower limb kinematics and reduce pain. However, there is a lack of evidence to identify which exercises best activate GM. In particular, as GM consists of three distinct subdivisions, it is unclear if GM activation is consistent across these subdivisions during exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the activation of the anterior, middle and posterior subdivisions of GM during weight-bearing exercises. Methods A single session, repeated-measures design. The activity of each GM subdivision was measured in 15 pain-free subjects using surface electromyography (sEMG during three weight-bearing exercises; wall squat (WS, pelvic drop (PD and wall press (WP. Muscle activity was expressed relative to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Differences in muscle activation were determined using one-way repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni analysis. Results The activation of each GM subdivision during the exercises was significantly different (interaction effect; p Discussion Posterior GM displayed higher activation across all three exercises than both anterior and middle GM. The WP produced the highest %MVIC activation for all GM subdivisions, and this was most pronounced for posterior GM. Clinicians may use these results to effectively progress strengthening exercises for GM in the rehabilitation of lower extremity injuries.

  9. A Canine Non-Weight-Bearing Model with Radial Neurectomy for Rotator Cuff Repair.

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    Xiaoxi Ji

    Full Text Available The major concern of using a large animal model to study rotator cuff repair is the high rate of repair retears. The purpose of this study was to test a non-weight-bearing (NWB canine model for rotator cuff repair research.First, in the in vitro study, 18 shoulders were randomized to 3 groups. 1 Full-width transections repaired with modified Mason-Allen sutures using 3-0 polyglactin suture, 2 Group 1 repaired using number 2 (#2 polyester braid and long-chain polyethylene suture, and 3 Partial-width transections leaving the superior 2 mm infraspinatus tendon intact without repair. In the in vivo study of 6 dogs, the infraspinatus tendon was partially transected as the same as the in vitro group 3. A radial neurectomy was performed to prevent weight bearing. The operated limb was slung in a custom-made jacket for 6 weeks.In the in vitro study, mean ultimate tensile load and stiffness in Group 2 were significantly higher than Group 1 and 3 (p<0.05. In the in vivo study, gross inspection and histology showed that the preserved superior 2-mm portion of the infraspinatus tendon remained intact with normal structure.Based on the biomechanical and histological findings, this canine NWB model may be an appropriate and useful model for studies of rotator cuff repair.

  10. Appearance of the weight-bearing lateral radiograph in retrocalcaneal bursitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bart; Maas, Mario; Sierevelt, Inger N; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose A retrocalcaneal bursitis is caused by repetitive impingement of the bursa between the Achilles tendon and the posterosuperior calcaneus. The bursa is situated in the posteroinferior corner of Kager's triangle (retrocalcaneal recess), which is a radiolucency with sharp borders on the lateral radiograph of the ankle. If there is inflammation, the fluid-filled bursa is less radiolucent, making it difficult to delineate the retrocalcaneal recess. We assessed whether the radiographic appearance of the retrocalcaneal recess on plain digital (filmless) radiographs could be used in the diagnosis of a retrocalcaneal bursitis. Methods Whether or not there was obliteration of the retrocalcaneal recess (yes/no) on 74 digital weight-bearing lateral radiographs of the ankle was independently assessed by 2 observers. The radiographs were from 24 patients (25 heels) with retrocalcaneal bursitis (confirmed on endoscopic calcaneoplasty); the control group consisted of 50 patients (59 heels). Results The sensitivity of the test was 83% for observer 1 and 79% for observer 2. Specificity was 100% and 98%, respectively. The kappa value of the interobserver reliability test was 0.86. For observer 1, intraobserver reliability was 0.96 and for observer 2 it was 0.92. Interpretation On digital weight-bearing lateral radiographs of a retrocalcaneal bursitis, the retrocalcaneal recess has a typical appearance. PMID:20450438

  11. Recurrence of Hallux Valgus Can Be Predicted from Immediate Postoperative Non-Weight-Bearing Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul Hyun; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2017-07-19

    The aims of this study were to identify risk factors for the recurrence of hallux valgus deformity and to clarify whether recurrence after surgery to treat hallux valgus can be predicted using radiographic parameters assessed on immediate postoperative non-weight-bearing radiographs. A proximal chevron osteotomy combined with a distal soft-tissue procedure was performed by a single surgeon to treat moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity in 93 patients (117 feet). The feet were grouped according to nonrecurrence or recurrence. Changes in the hallux valgus angle, the intermetatarsal angle, and sesamoid position over time were analyzed by comparing values measured during each postoperative period. The relative risks of recurrence as indicated by preoperative and postoperative radiographic parameters were determined. Twenty (17.1%) of the 117 feet showed hallux valgus recurrence at the time of the last follow-up. The hallux valgus angle and the intermetatarsal angle stabilized at 6 months after surgery in the nonrecurrence group. An immediate postoperative hallux valgus angle of ≥8°, an immediate postoperative sesamoid position of grade 4 or greater, a preoperative metatarsus adductus angle of ≥23°, and a preoperative hallux valgus angle of ≥40° were significantly associated with recurrence. Recurrence of hallux valgus after a proximal chevron osteotomy can be reliably predicted from immediate postoperative non-weight-bearing radiographs. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  12. Contributions of vital rates to growth of a protected population of American black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Pacifici, L.B.; Grand, J.B.; Powell, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of large, long-lived animals suggest that adult survival generally has the potential to contribute more than reproduction to population growth rate (??), but because survival varies little, high variability in reproduction can have a greater influence. This pattern has been documented for several species of large mammals, but few studies have evaluated such contributions of vital rates to ?? for American black bears (Ursus americanus). We used variance-based perturbation analyses (life table response experiments, LTRE) and analytical sensitivity and elasticity analyses to examine the actual and potential contributions of variation of vital rates to variation in growth rate (??) of a population of black bears inhabiting the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, using a 22-year dataset. We found that recruitment varied more than other vital rates; LTRE analyses conducted over several time intervals thus indicated that recruitment generally contributed at least as much as juvenile and adult survival to observed variation in ??, even though the latter 2 vital rates had the greater potential to affect ??. Our findings are consistent with predictions from studies on polar bears (U. maritimus) and grizzly bears (U. arctos), but contrast with the few existing studies on black bears in ways that suggest levels of protection from human-caused mortality might explain whether adult survival or recruitment contribute most to variation in ?? for this species. We hypothesize that ?? is most strongly influenced by recruitment in protected populations where adult survival is relatively high and constant, whereas adult survival will most influence ?? for unprotected populations. ?? 2009 International Association for Bear Research and Management.

  13. [Contact characteristics research of acetabular weight-bearing area with different internal fixation methods after compression fracture of acetabular dome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bowen; Zhang, Qingsong; An, Siqi; Pei, Baorui; Wu, Xiaobo

    2017-08-01

    To establish the model of compression fracture of acetabular dome, and to measure the contact characteristics of acetabular weight-bearing area of acetabulum after 3 kinds of internal fixation. Sixteen fresh adult half pelvis specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups, 4 specimens each group. Group D was the complete acetabulum (control group), and the remaining 3 groups were prepared acetabular dome compression fracture model. The fractures were fixed with reconstruction plate in group A, antegrade raft screws in group B, and retrograde raft screws in group C. The pressure sensitive films were attached to the femoral head, and the axial compression test was carried out on the inverted single leg standing position. The weight-bearing area, average stress, and peak stress were measured in each group. Under the loading of 500 N, the acetabular weight-bearing area was significantly higher in group D than in other 3 groups ( P area were significantly higher in group B and group C than in group A, and the average stress and peak stress were significantly lower than in group A ( P 0.05). For the compression fracture of the acetabular dome, the contact characteristics of the weight-bearing area can not restore to the normal level, even if the anatomical reduction and rigid internal fixation were performed; compared with the reconstruction plate fixation, antegrade and retrograde raft screws fixations can increase the weight-bearing area, reduce the average stress and peak stress, and reduce the incidence of traumatic arthritis.

  14. Effect of Weight-Bearing in Conservative and Operative Management of Fractures of the Base of the Fifth Metatarsal Bone

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    Jae-Yong Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is no established principle regarding weight-bearing in conservative and operative management of fifth metatarsal base fractures. Methods. We reviewed 86 patients with acute fifth metatarsal base fractures. Conservatively treated late or early weight-bearing patients were assigned to Group A or C, respectively. Operatively treated late or early weight-bearing patients were assigned to Group B or D, respectively. Results were evaluated by clinical union, bone resorption, and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS scores. Results. All 4 groups had bone union at a mean of 6.9 weeks (range, 5.1–15.0. There were no differences between the groups in the AOFAS and VAS scores. In the early weight-bearing groups, there were fewer cases of bone resorption, and the bone unions periods were earlier. Conclusions. Early weight-bearing may help this patient population. Moreover, conservative treatment could be an option in patients with underlying diseases.

  15. A Frequency-Weighted Energy Operator and complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition for bearing fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaouchen, Yacine; Kedadouche, Mourad; Alkama, Rezak; Thomas, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Signal processing techniques for non-stationary and noisy signals have recently attracted considerable attentions. Among them, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) which is an adaptive and efficient method for decomposing signals from high to low frequencies into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Ensemble EMD (EEMD) is proposed to overcome the mode mixing problem of the EMD. In the present paper, the Complementary EEMD (CEEMD) is used for bearing fault detection. As a noise-improved method, the CEEMD not only overcomes the mode mixing, but also eliminates the residual of added white noise persisting into the IMFs and enhance the calculation efficiency of the EEMD method. Afterward, a selection method is developed to choose relevant IMFs containing information about defects. Subsequently, a signal is reconstructed from the sum of relevant IMFs and a Frequency-Weighted Energy Operator is tailored to extract both the amplitude and frequency modulations from the selected IMFs. This operator outperforms the conventional energy operator and the enveloping methods, especially in the presence of strong noise and multiple vibration interferences. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed method improves performances for detecting the bearing faults. The method has also high computational efficiency and is able to detect the fault at an early stage of degradation.

  16. Immediate mobilisation with complete weight bearing after uncemented total hip replacement in elderly

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    Sankarlingam P, Shivraj V, V R Subramaniyam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study was analyzed in 23 patients who were allowed to do immediate weight bearing after uncemented total hip arthroplasty. Immediate mobilization shortened the hospital stay and facilitated early rehabilitation of hip. Immediate mobilization was started on postoperative Day 3 rather than Day 7 without any adverse consequences to the patients. A series of 23 elderly patients of age more than 60 years, who were diagnosed with conditions such as avascular necrosis of hip, non union of fracture neck of femur, trochanteric non union and rheumatoid arthritis, underwent uncemented total hip replacement and immediate mobilization was started in our hospital. Patients were evaluated by Harris Hip Scoring Scale. All ambulated patients had painless hip and the mean Harris Hip Score was 85. There were no incidence of stem subsidence, acetabular component loosening, and heterotrophic ossification. This data concluded that early intensive rehabilitation yielded faster attainment of short-term functional milestones in fewer days.

  17. Early weight-bearing after periacetabular osteotomy leads to a high incidence of postoperative pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Tanino, Hiromasa; Sato, Tatsuya; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Matsuno, Takeo

    2014-07-11

    It has not been shown whether accelerated rehabilitation following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is effective for early recovery. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare complication rates in patients with standard and accelerated rehabilitation protocols who underwent PAO. Between January 2002 and August 2011, patients with a lateral center-edge (CE) angle of rehabilitation protocol. In 65 patients (76 hips) with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol, postoperative strengthening of the hip, thigh and core musculature was begun on the day of surgery as tolerated. The exercise program included active hip range of motion, and gentle isometric hamstring and quadriceps muscle sets; these exercises were performed for 30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon with a physical therapist every weekday for 6 weeks. Full weight-bearing with two axillary crutches started on the day of surgery as tolerated. Complications were evaluated for 2 years. The clinical results at the time of follow-up were similar in the two groups. The average periods between the osteotomy and full-weight-bearing walking without support were 4.2 months and 6.9 months in patients with the accelerated and standard rehabilitation protocols (P rehabilitation protocol could achieve earlier recovery of patients. However, postoperative fractures of the ischial ramus and posterior column of the pelvis were more frequently found in patients with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol (8/76) than in those with the standard rehabilitation protocol (1/80) (P = 0.013). The accelerated rehabilitation protocol seems to have advantages for early muscle recovery in patients undergoing PAO; however, postoperative pelvic fracture rates were unacceptably high in patients with this protocol.

  18. Slow Recovery of Weight Bearing After Stabilization of Long-Bone Fractures Using Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nails in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardelli, Patrizia; Frech-Dörfler, Martina; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Mayr, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Stabilization of diaphyseal long-bone fractures using elastic stable intramedullary nails (ESIN) in children promises early mobilization and rapid resumption of full weight bearing. We evaluated the duration of postoperative functional rehabilitation after ESIN, measured by the time from stabilization until first partial weight bearing, full weight bearing, and resumption of school sports. Fifty children with unstable, displaced fractures of the femur or lower leg treated with ESIN between 2002 and 2012 were included in this retrospective analysis. We classified fractures according to the pediatric comprehensive classification of fractures (PCCF). Thirty-five children sustained a femur fracture, and 15 children had a fracture of the lower leg or tibia. The surgeons in charge applied an additional plaster cast in 7 of 15 children who suffered a lower leg fracture. The postoperative time interval until full weight bearing in the group of children who had suffered transverse or short oblique femur fractures was significantly shorter (median: 4.4 weeks; range: 0.1-9.1 weeks) than that in the group who had sustained more complex fracture patterns (median: 6.8 weeks; range: 2.9-13.9 weeks; P = 0.04). Similarly, transverse and short oblique lower leg and tibia fractures required less time until full weight bearing (median: 4.1 weeks; range 2.7-6.0 weeks) than complex lower leg fractures (median: 6.1 weeks; range: 1.3-12.9 weeks; P = 0.04). ESIN proved fairly effective in restoring full weight bearing in transverse or short oblique fractures of the lower extremities but was less effective in complex fractures.

  19. Minimum weight protection - Gradient method; Protection de poids minimum - Methode du gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danon, R.

    1958-12-15

    After having recalled that, when considering a mobile installation, total weight has a crucial importance, and that, in the case of a nuclear reactor, a non neglectable part of weight is that of protection, this note presents an iterative method which results, for a given protection, to a configuration with a minimum weight. After a description of the problem, the author presents the theoretical formulation of the gradient method as it is applied to the concerned case. This application is then discussed, as well as its validity in terms of convergence and uniqueness. Its actual application is then reported, and possibilities of practical applications are evoked.

  20. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF HIP ARTHROSCOPY IN AN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY POPULATION UTILIZING A CRITERION-BASED EARLY WEIGHT BEARING PROGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, K Aaron; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Evanson, J Richard; Pniewski, Josh; Dickston, Michelle L; Mueller, Terry; Bojescul, John A

    2017-10-01

    Hip arthroscopy allows surgeons to address intra-articular pathology of the hip while avoiding more invasive open surgical dislocation. However the post-operative rehabilitation protocols have varied greatly in the literature, with many having prolonged periods of limited motion and weight bearing. The purpose of this study was to describe a criterion-based early weight bearing protocol following hip arthroscopy and investigate functional outcomes in the subjects who were active duty military. Active duty personnel undergoing hip arthroscopy for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement were prospectively assessed in a controlled environment for the ability to incorporate early postoperative weight-bearing with the following criteria: no increased pain complaint with weight bearing and normalized gait pattern. Modified Harris Hip (HHS) and Hip Outcome score (HOS) were performed preoperatively and at six months post-op. Participants were progressed with a standard hip arthroscopy protocol. Hip flexion was limited to not exceed 90 degrees for the first three weeks post-op, with progression back to running beginning at three months. Final discharge was dependent upon the ability to run two miles at military specified pace and do a single leg broad jump within six inches of the contralateral leg without an increase in pain. Eleven participants met inclusion criteria over the study period. Crutch use was discontinued at an average of five days following surgery based on established weight bearing criteria. Only one participant required continued crutch use at 15 days. Participants' functional outcome was improved postoperatively, as demonstrated by significant increases in HOS and HHS. At the six month follow up, eight of 11 participants were able to take and complete a full Army Physical Fitness Test. Following completion of the early weight bearing rehabilitation protocol, 81% of participants were able to progress to full weight bearing by four days post

  1. Do Knee Bracing and Delayed Weight Bearing Affect Mid-Term Functional Outcome after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Miceli, Riccardo; Marambio, Carlotta Bustos; Zati, Alessandro; Monesi, Roberta; Benedetti, Maria Grazia

    2017-12-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of knee bracing and timing of full weight bearing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on functional outcomes at mid-term follow-up. Methods  We performed a retrospective study on 41 patients with ACLR. Patients were divided in two groups: ACLR group, who received isolated ACL reconstruction and ACLR-OI group who received ACL reconstruction and adjunctive surgery. Information about age at surgery, bracing, full or progressive weight bearing permission after surgery were collected for the two groups. Subjective IKDC score was obtained at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the two groups for IKDC score. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the effect of postoperative regimen (knee bracing and weight bearing) on functional outcomes. Results  The mean age of patients was 30.8 ± 10.6 years. Mean IKDC score was 87.4 ± 13.9. The mean follow-up was 3.5 ± 1.8 years. Twenty-two (53.7%) patients underwent ACLR only, while 19 (46.3%) also received other interventions, such as meniscal repair and/or collateral ligament suture. Analysis of overall data showed no differences between the groups for IKDC score. Patients in the ACLR group exhibited a significantly better IKDC score when no brace and full weight bearing after 4 weeks from surgery was prescribed in comparison with patients who worn a brace and had delayed full weight bearing. No differences were found with respect to the use of brace and postoperative weight bearing regimen in the ACLR-OI group. Conclusion  Brace and delayed weight bearing after ACLR have a negative influence on long-term functional outcomes. Further research is required to explore possible differences in the patients operated on ACLR and other intervention with respect to the use of a brace and the timing of full weight bearing to identify optimal recovery strategies. Level of Evidence  Level III, retrospective observational

  2. Effects of Patellofemoral Taping on Patellofemoral Joint Alignment and Contact Area During Weight Bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Epstein, Ryan; Garcia, Ron; Riley, Nicole; Lee, Szu-Ping

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Although it has been theorized that patellofemoral joint (PFJ) taping can correct patellar malalignment, the effects of PFJ taping techniques on patellar alignment and contact area have not yet been studied during weight bearing. Objective To examine the effects of 2 taping approaches (Kinesio and McConnell) on PFJ alignment and contact area. Methods Fourteen female subjects with patellofemoral pain and PFJ malalignment participated. Each subject underwent a pretaping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan session and 2 MRI scan sessions after the application of the 2 taping techniques, which aimed to correct lateral patellar displacement. Subjects were asked to report their pain level prior to each scan session. During MRI assessment, subjects were loaded with 25% of body weight on their involved/more symptomatic leg at 0°, 20°, and 40° of knee flexion. The outcome measures included patellar lateral displacement (bisect-offset [BSO] index), mediolateral patellar tilt angle, patellar height (Insall-Salvati ratio), contact area, and pain. Patellofemoral joint alignment and contact area were compared among the 3 conditions (no tape, Kinesio, and McConnell) at 3 knee angles using a 2-factor, repeated-measures analysis of variance. Pain was compared among the 3 conditions using the Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Our data did not reveal any significant effects of either McConnell or Kinesio taping on the BSO index, patellar tilt angle, Insall-Salvati ratio, or contact area across the 3 knee angles, whereas knee angle had a significant effect on the BSO index and contact area. A reduction in pain was observed after the application of the Kinesio taping technique. Conclusion In a weight-bearing condition, this preliminary study did not support the use of PFJ taping as a medial correction technique to alter the PFJ contact area or alignment of the patella. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017

  3. Cortical and trabecular bone microstructure did not recover at weight-bearing skeletal sites and progressively deteriorated at non-weight-bearing sites during the year following international space station missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vico, L.; van Rietbergen, B.; Vilayphiou, N.; Linossier, M.T.; Locrelle, H.; Normand, M.; Zouch, M.; Gerbaix, M.; Bonnet, N.; Novikov, V.; Thomas, T.; Vassilieva, G.

    2017-01-01

    Risk for premature osteoporosis is a major health concern in astronauts and cosmonauts; the reversibility of the bone lost at the weight-bearing bone sites is not established, although it is suspected to take longer than the mission length. The bone three-dimensional structure and strength that

  4. Assessment of Brown Bear\\'s (Ursus arctos syriacus Winter Habitat Using Geographically Weighted Regression and Generalized Linear Model in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zarei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter dens are one of the important components of brown bear's (Ursus arctos syriacus habitat, affecting their reproduction and survival. Therefore identification of factors affecting the habitat selection and suitable denning areas in the conservation of our largest carnivore is necessary. We used Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR and Generalized Linear Model (GLM for modeling suitability of denning habitat in Kouhkhom region in Fars province. In the present research, 20 dens (presence locations and 20 caves where signs of bear were not found (absence locations were used as dependent variables and six environmental factors were used for each location as independent variables. The results of GLM showed that variables of distance to settlements, altitude, and distance to water were the most important parameters affecting suitability of the brown bear's denning habitat. The results of GWLR showed the significant local variations in the relationship between occurrence of brown bear dens and the variable of distance to settlements. Based on the results of both models, suitable habitats for denning of the species are impassable areas in the mountains and inaccessible for humans.

  5. Weight-bearing recommendations after operative fracture treatment-fact or fiction? Gait results with and feasibility of a dynamic, continuous pedobarography insole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Benedikt J; Veith, Nils T; Rollmann, Mika; Orth, Marcel; Fritz, Tobias; Herath, Steven C; Holstein, Jörg H; Pohlemann, Tim

    2017-08-01

    Rehabilitation after lower-extremity fractures is based on the physicians' recommendation for non-, partial-, or full weight-bearing. Clinical studies rely on this assumption, but continuous compliance or objective loading rates are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance to weight-bearing recommendations by introducing a novel, pedobarography system continuously registering postoperative ground forces into ankle, tibial shaft and proximal femur fracture aftercare and test its feasibility for this purpose. In this prospective, observational study, a continuously measuring pedobarography insole was placed in the patients shoe during the immediate post-operative aftercare after ankle, tibial shaft and intertrochanteric femur fractures. Weight-bearing was ordered as per the institutional standard and controlled by physical therapy. The insole was retrieved after a maximum of six weeks (28 days [range 5-42 days]). Non-compliance was defined as a failure to maintain, or reach the ordered weight-bearing within 30%. Overall 30 patients were included in the study. Fourteen (47%) of the patients were compliant to the weight-bearing recommendations. Within two weeks after surgery patients deviated from the recommendation by over 50%. Sex, age and weight did not influence the performance (p > 0.05). Ankle fracture patients (partial weight-bearing) showed a significantly increased deviation from the recommendation (p = 0.01). Our study results show that, despite physical therapy training, weight-bearing compliance to recommended limits was low. Adherence to the partial weight-bearing task was further decreased over time. Uncontrolled weight-bearing recommendations should thus be viewed with caution and carefully considered as fiction. The presented insole is feasible to determine weight bearing continuously, could immediately help define real-time patient behaviour and establish realistic, individual weight-bearing recommendations.

  6. Weight bearing cone beam CT scan versus gravity stress radiography for analysis of supination external rotation injuries of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, John M; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Clyde, Corey; Anders, Mark J; Mutty, Christopher E; Ritter, Christopher A

    2017-12-01

    For AO 44-B2 ankle fractures of uncertain stability, the current diagnostic standard is to obtain a gravity stress radiograph, but some have advocated for the use of weight-bearing radiographs. The primary aim was to compare measures of medial clear space (MCS) on weight-bearing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans versus gravity stress radiographs for determining the state of stability of ankle fractures classified as AO SER 44-B2 or Weber B. The secondary aim was to evaluate the details offered by CBCT scans with respect to other findings that may be relevant to patient care. Nine patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study between April 2016 and February 2017 if they had an AO SER 44-B2 fracture of uncertain stability, had a gravity stress radiograph, and were able to undergo CT scan within seven days. The width of the MCS was measured at the level of the talar dome on all radiographs and at the mid coronal slice on CT. Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests were used to compare MCS between initial radiographs, gravity stress radiographs and weight-bearing CBCT scans. MCS on weight-bearing CBCT scan (1.41±0.41 mm) was significantly less than standard radiographs (3.28±1.63 mm, P=0.004) and gravity stress radiographs (5.82±1.93 mm, P=0.02). There was no statistically significant difference in MCS measured on standard radiographs versus gravity stress radiographs (P=0.11). Detailed review of the multiplanar CT images revealed less than perfect anatomical reduction of the fractures, with residual fibular shortening, posterior displacement, and fracture fragments in the incisura as typical findings. Similar to weight-bearing radiographs, weight-bearing CBCT scan can predict stability of AO 44-B2 ankle fractures by showing restoration of the MCS, and might be used to indicate patients for non-operative treatment. None of the fractures imaged in this study were perfectly reduced however, and further clinical research is necessary to determine if any of the

  7. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Andrew C R; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility.

  8. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C R Braid

    Full Text Available As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply and top-down (mortality risk from roads factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration have the highest potential utility.

  9. [Protective effect of polysaccharides extracts from corn silk against cyclophosphamide induced host damages in mice bearing H22 tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-chuang; Du, Gang-jun; Song, Xiao-yong; Zhang, Yong-zhou; Liu, Yu-xin

    2014-10-01

    To study the protective effect of polysaccharides from corn silk (PCS) against cyclophosphamide (CTX) induced host damages in mice bearing H22 tumors. The ascitic and solid tumor bearing mice model were established to investigate the anti-tumor effects of different dose of PCS (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg). The effects of PCS alone and with combination of CTX on tumor weight, survival time, thymus and spleen index, white blood cell, nucleated cell of marrow, serum ALT and AST level were tested. The high-dose PCS (300 mg/kg) had significant inhibitory effects on tumor. After combination with CTX, the tumor inhibitory ratio was enhanced to 68.71%, the survival time of tumor-burdened ascites tumor mice was significantly prolonged to 72.07% compared with CTX group. The Q value of combination group was 0.997. Thymus and spleen index, white blood cell, nucleated cell of marrow decreased by CTX were ameliorated significantly. The level of ALT and AST increased by CTX were reduced by combination with PCS. PCS has a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of implanted H22 tumors in mice and has a synergetic effect and an attenuated toxic effect in combination with CTX.

  10. Burst protection for reactor pressure vessels using a hinged support bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Maritsch, F.

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a simplification of the design and manufacture and the way of controlling a hinged support bearing used as burst protection. The pure pressure load of the, e.g., 32 hinged supports distributed along the circumference of the pressure vessel head is achieved in the braced state with little control effort by a pure rotating motion caused pneumatically or hydraulically. The hinged supports are inclined by about 45 0 upwards/outwards in the braced state and with their cap-shaped head and foot are selflocking by pivoted between a supporting structure, firmly connected with the building, and a fishing ring. (TK) [de

  11. Ideal Timing of Starting Weight-Bearing After Calcaneal Insufficiency Fracture: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Imamura; Mochizuki; Kawakami; Momohara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Criteria for starting weight-bearing on the heel with a symptomatic calcaneal insufficiency fracture have not yet been reported. Case Presentation We describe a rare case of a 52-year-old woman with a calcaneal insufficiency fracture who sustained a second ipsilateral calcaneal insufficiency fracture within a short time span. The initial fracture was not evident radiographically, but was detected using magnetic resona...

  12. Biofeedback in Partial Weight Bearing: Usability of Two Different Devices from a Patient's and Physical Therapist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Pisters, Martijn F; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; de Bie, Rob A; Wouters, Eveline J; Stukstette, Mirelle J

    2016-01-01

    Partial weight bearing is frequently instructed by physical therapists in patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. The use of biofeedback devices seems promising to improve the patient's compliance with weight-bearing instructions. SmartStep and OpenGo-Science are biofeedback devices that provide real-time feedback. For a successful implementation, usability of the devices is a critical aspect and should be tested from a user's perspective. To describe the usability from the physical therapists' and a patients' perspective of Smartstep and OpenGo-Science to provide feedback on partial weight bearing during supervised rehabilitation of patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. In a convergent mixed-methods design, qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Usability was subdivided into user performance, satisfaction and acceptability. Patients prescribed with partial weight bearing and their physical therapists were asked to use SmartStep and OpenGo-Science during supervised rehabilitation. Usability was qualitatively tested by a think-aloud method and a semi-structured interview and quantitatively tested by the System-Usability-Scale (SUS) and closed questions. For the qualitative data thematic content analyses were used. Nine pairs of physical therapists and their patients participated. The mean SUS scores for patients and physical therapists were for SmartStep 70 and 53, and for OpenGo-Science 79 and 81, respectively. Scores were interpreted with the Curved Grading Scale. The qualitative data showed that there were mixed views and perceptions from patients and physical therapists on satisfaction and acceptability. This study gives insight in the usability of two biofeedback devices from the patient's and physical therapist's perspective. The overall usability from both perspectives seemed to be acceptable for OpenGo-Science. For SmartStep, overall usability seemed only acceptable from the patient's perspective. The study findings could help

  13. Effect and safety of early weight-bearing on the outcome after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O-Sung; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Yong Seuk

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of early weight-bearing by comparing clinical and radiological outcomes between early and traditional delayed weight-bearing after OWHTO. A rigorous and systematic approach was used. The methodological quality was also assessed. Results that are possible to be compared in two or more than two articles were presented as forest plots. A 95% confidence interval was calculated for each effect size, and we calculated the I 2 statistic, which presents the percentage of total variation attributable to the heterogeneity among studies. The random-effects model was used to calculate the effect size. Six articles were included in the final analysis. All case groups were composed of early full weight-bearing within 2 weeks. All control groups were composed of late full weight-bearing between 6 weeks and 2 months. Pooled analysis was possible for the improvement in Lysholm score, but there was no statistically significant difference shown between groups. Other clinical results were also similar between groups. Four studies reported mechanical femorotibial angle (mFTA) and this result showed no statistically significant difference between groups in the pooled analysis. Furthermore, early weight-bearing showed more favorable results in some radiologic results (osseointegration and patellar height) and complications (thrombophlebitis and recurrence). Our analysis supports that early full weight-bearing after OWHTO using a locking plate leads to improvement in outcomes and was comparable to the delayed weight-bearing in terms of clinical and radiological outcomes. On the contrary, early weight-bearing was more favorable with respect to some radiologic parameters and complications compared with delayed weight-bearing.

  14. Postero-anterior radiogram of the knee in weight-bearing and semiflexion. Comparison with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegaard, T.; Rudling, O.; Sanfridsson, J.; Jonsson, K.; Saxne, T.; Svensson, B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was four-fold: to assess the reproducibility of p.a. weight-bearing radiograms of the knee and the minimal joint-space (MJS) width measurements in these radiograms; to compare the MJS with MR-detected cartilage defects; to evaluate the location of these cartilage defects; and to estimate the relation between meniscal abnormalities and joint-space narrowing. Material and Methods: Fifty-nine individuals, aged 41-58 years (mean 50), with chronic knee pain were examined by means of p.a. weight-bearing radiograms in semiflexion with fluoroscopic guidance of the knee joint. The MJS was measured with a standard ruler. On the same day MR imaging was performed with proton-density- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo on a 1.0 T imager. Meniscal abnormalities and cartilage defects in the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) were noted. Results and Conclusion: The p.a. view of the knee and the MJS measurements were reproducible. MJS of 3 mm is a limit in diagnosing joint-space narrowing in knees with MR-detected cartilage defects. There was a high proportion (p<0.001) of meniscal abnormality within the narrowed compartments in comparison with those that were not narrowed. A larger number of the cartilage defects (p<0.05) was found in the medial femoral condyle than in any of the other condyles of the TFJ. The defects had a dorsal location (p<0.001) as shown in the weight-bearing radiograms of the knee in semiflexion. (orig.)

  15. Multiscale investigation on the effects of additional weight bearing in combination with low-magnitude high-frequency vibration on bone quality of growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianlong; Gao, Jiazi; Fang, Juan; Gong, He

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of additional weight bearing in combination with low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV; 45 Hz, 0.3 g) on bone quality. One hundred twenty rats were randomly divided into ten groups; namely, sedentary (SED), additional weight bearing in which the rat wears a backpack whose weight is x% of the body weight (WBx; x = 5, 12, 19, 26), basic vibration (V), and additional weight bearing in combination with LMHFV in which the rat wears a backpack whose weight is x% of the body weight (Vx; x = 5, 12, 19, 26). The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks, 7 days per week, and 15 min per day. A three-point bending mechanical test, micro computed tomography, and a nanoindentation test were used. Serum samples were analyzed chemically. Failure load in V19 rats was significantly lower than that in SED rats (P bearing in combination with LMHFV negatively affected the macromechanical properties and microarchitecture of bone. Heavy additional weight bearing, such as 26% of body weight, in combination with LMHFV was able to improve the nanomechanical properties of growing bone material compared with LMHFV. A combined mechanical stimulation was used, which may provide useful information to understand the mechanism of this mechanical stimulation on bone.

  16. Delay in weight bearing in surgically treated tibial shaft fractures is associated with impaired healing: a cohort analysis of 166 tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, I B; Raaben, M; Van Basten Batenburg, M; Blokhuis, T J

    2018-04-09

    The relation between timing of weight bearing after a fracture and the healing outcome is yet to be established, thereby limiting the implementation of a possibly beneficial effect for our patients. The current study was undertaken to determine the effect of timing of weight bearing after a surgically treated tibial shaft fracture. Surgically treated diaphyseal tibial fractures were retrospectively studied between 2007 and 2015. The timing of initial weight bearing (IWB) was analysed as a predictor for impaired healing in a multivariate regression. Totally, 166 diaphyseal tibial fractures were included, 86 cases with impaired healing and 80 with normal healing. The mean age was 38.7 years (range 16-89). The mean time until IWB was significantly shorter in the normal fracture healing group (2.6 vs 7.4 weeks, p bearing is independently associated with impaired fracture healing in surgically treated tibial shaft fractures. Unlike other factors such as fracture type or soft tissue condition, early resumption of weight bearing can be influenced by the treating physician and this factor therefore has a direct clinical relevance. This study indicates that early resumption of weight bearing should be the treatment goal in fracture fixation. 3b.

  17. A hippotherapy simulator is effective to shift weight bearing toward the affected side during gait in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju; Yu, Byong-Kyu; Kim, Kyeong-Mi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether a hippotherapy simulator has influence on symmetric body weight bearing during gait in patients with stroke. Stroke patients were divided into a control group (n = 10) that received conventional rehabilitation for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 4 weeks and an experimental group (n = 10) that used a hippotherapy simulator for 15 min/day, 5 times/week for 4 weeks after conventional rehabilitation for 45 min/day. Temporospatial gait assessed using OptoGait and trunk muscles (abdominis and erector spinae on affected side) activity evaluated using surface electromyography during sit-to-stand and gait. Prior to starting the experiment, pre-testing was performed. At the end of the 4-week intervention, we performed post-testing. Activation of the erector spinae in the experimental group was significantly increased compared to that in the control group (p hippotherapy simulator compared to control group (p hippotherapy simulator to patients with stroke can improve asymmetric weight bearing by influencing trunk muscles.

  18. Effect of gradual weight-bearing on regenerated articular cartilage after joint distraction and motion in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomofumi; Ishii, Tomoo; Chang, Fei; Yanai, Takaji; Watanabe, Arata; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mishima, Hajime; Nakai, Kenjiro; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of gradual weight bearing (GWB) on regenerating cartilage. We developed a novel external fixation device (EFD) with a controllable weight-bearing system and continuous passive motion (CPM). A full-thickness defect was created by resection of the entire articular surface of the tibial plateau after the EFD was fixed in the rabbit's left knee. In the GWB group (n=6), GWB was started 6 weeks after surgery. In the CPM group (n=6), CPM with EFD was applied in the same manner without GWB. The control group (n=5) received only joint distraction. All rabbits were sacrificed 9 weeks after surgery. The central one-third of the regenerated tissue was assessed and scored blindly using a grading scale modified from the International Cartilage Repair Society visual histological assessment scale. The areas stained by Safranin-O and type II collagen antibody were measured, and the percentage of each area was calculated. There was no significant difference in the histological assessment scale among the groups. The percentage of the type II collagen-positive area was significantly larger in the GWB group than in the CPM group. The present study suggests that optimal mechanical stress, such as GWB, may affect regeneration of cartilage, in vivo. Copyright (c) 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  19. The observation about the change of the body weight for tumor patients and the bearing tumor mice in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dijun; Ju Yongjian; Ning Liyan; Wu Hong; Wang Gaoren; Gao Xuan; Tang Yahong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the change of the body weight for tumor patients and the bearing tumor mice in radiotherapy. Methods: For 63 tumor patients, the body weight (BW) were measured before and after radiotherapy respectively, and then the change of BW were compared and analyzed with that of 23 healthy volunteers at the median treatment period. Also 45 mice bearing human galactophore tumor cells SK-BR-3 were divided into irradiation and non-irradiation groups, and the change of BW for these two groups were measured and analyzed. Results: The average BW decreases in the irradiation groups' mice but increase in the non-irradiation groups' mice, and the change of BW in these two groups has the statistical significance respectively, also the difference between these two groups has the statistical significance. For the four groups' tumor patients including 63 tumor patients as a whole, the nasopharynx cancer, esophagus cancer and lung cancer, the average BW decreases, but only in nasopharynx cancer and lung cancer groups the statistical significance are found. And at the same period, the BW of healthy volunteers are maintained. Compared change of BW in the four tumor groups with that in the healthy volunteers respectively, except the esophagus cancer group, the statistical significance are found in the other three groups. Conclusion: For tumor patients,perhaps the BW will lose in the period of radiotherapy, so the effect of lose of BW must be cared about. (authors)

  20. Effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices using magnetic resonance imaging in patients with patellofemoral instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Christoph; Fleischer, Benjamin; Rase, Marten; Schumacher, Thees; Ettinger, Max; Ostermeier, Sven; Smith, Tomas

    2017-08-01

    This study analysed the effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices, determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with patellofemoral instability (PI). Healthy volunteers (control group, n = 9) and PI patients (PI group, n = 16) were scanned in an open-configuration MRI scanner during upright weight bearing and supine non-weight bearing positions at full extension (0° flexion) and at 15°, 30°, and 45° flexion. Patellofemoral indices included the Insall-Salvati Index, Caton-Deschamp Index, and Patellotrochlear Index (PTI) to determine patellar height and the patellar tilt angle (PTA), bisect offset (BO), and the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance to assess patellar rotation and translation with respect to the femur and alignment of the extensor mechanism. A significant interaction effect of weight bearing by flexion angle was observed for the PTI, PTA, and BO for subjects with PI. At full extension, post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed a significant effect of weight bearing on the indices, with increased patellar height and increased PTA and BO in the PI group. Except for the BO, no such changes were seen in the control group. Independent of weight bearing, flexing the knee caused the PTA, BO, and TT-TG distance to be significantly reduced. Upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle affected patellofemoral MRI indices in PI patients, with significantly increased values at full extension. The observations of this study provide a caution to be considered by professionals when treating PI patients. These patients should be evaluated clinically and radiographically at full extension and various flexion angles in context with quadriceps engagement. Explorative case-control study, Level III.

  1. Orthostatic Tremor and Orthostatic Myoclonus: Weight-bearing Hyperkinetic Disorders: A Systematic Review, New Insights, and Unresolved Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhar Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthostatic tremor (OT and orthostatic myoclonus (OM are weight-bearing hyperkinetic movement disorders most commonly affecting older people that induce “shaky legs” upon standing. OT is divided into “classical” and “slow” forms based on tremor frequency. In this paper, the first joint review of OT and OM, we review the literature and compare and contrast their demographic, clinical, electrophysiological, neuroimaging, pathophysiological, and treatment characteristics. Methods: A PubMed search up to July 2016 using the phrases “orthostatic tremor,” “orthostatic myoclonus,” “shaky legs,” and “shaky legs syndrome” was performed. Results: OT and OM should be suspected in older patients reporting unsteadiness with prolonged standing and/or who exhibit cautious, wide-based gaits. Surface electromyography (SEMG is necessary to verify the diagnoses. Functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology suggest the generator of classical OT lies within the cerebellothalamocortical network. For OM, and possibly slow OT, the frontal, subcortical cerebrum is the most likely origin. Clonazepam is the most useful medication for classical OT, and levetiracetam for OM, although results are often disappointing. Deep brain stimulation appears promising for classical OT. Rolling walkers reliably improve gait affected by these disorders, as both OT and OM attenuate when weight is transferred from the legs to the arms. Discussion: Orthostatic hyperkinesias are likely underdiagnosed, as SEMG is often unavailable in clinical practice, and thus may be more frequent than currently recognized. The shared weight-bearing induction of OT and OM may indicate a common pathophysiology. Further research, including use of animal models, is necessary to better define the prevalence and pathophysiology of OT and OM, in order to improve their treatment, and provide additional insights into basic balance and gait mechanisms.

  2. Protective role of coriandrum sativum oily extracts on ehrlich tumour bearing mice subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed Aly, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    This study was planned to evaluate the potency of coriandrum, sativum oily extract [in a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight; for six successive doses] as a chemopreventive agent against solid ehrlich tumour transplanted to the thigh of the left leg of mice subjected or not to gamma irradiation. The protective role of coriander oil was assessed through studying the level of serum phosphorus, calcium, prostaglandins, and anti-thyroid antibodies levels. Meanwhile, the content of cholesterol and triacylglycerols both in hepatic and tumor tissues were also measured. The levels of serum calcium ions revealed significant decline in the tested groups as compared with the control ones. Measurements of serum PGE 2 and anti-thyroid antibodies levels exhibited significant fluctuated changes as compared with the control levels. Serum phosphorus levels induced only non-significant changes. The contents of cholesterol both in hepatic and tumor tissues induced significant decline in the tested proups as compared with the control ones

  3. Modes of thermal protection in polar bear cubs--at birth and on emergence from the den.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, A S; Lentfer, J W

    1979-01-01

    At birth in late December the polar bear is small (700 g), uninsulated, and helpless. It probably has a modest capacity for metabolic heat production and depends on the female and a snow den in which it is born for thermal protection. The microclimate of an artificial polar bear den was investigated at Point Barrow, AK, and the temperature therein found to stay around 0 degrees C provided a heat source (200 W) equivalent to an adult polar bear was introduced. When the bears desert the den in early April the cub has grown to about 10 kg and has a well-developed fur insulation, but almost no subcutaneous fat. The cub has a high resting metabolic rate (4.6 W.kg-1), which is supported by the fat polar bear milk. Its lower critical temperature is about -30 degrees C, and an ambient temperature of -45 degrees C results in only a 33% increase in metabolism. The cub can tolerate a wind chill of 2.3 kW.m2 without apparent stress of drop in rectal temperature. If the cub is immersed in ice water rectal temperature drops 11 degrees C in 30 min. It is concluded that the cub can tolerate extremely low temperatures in air due to fur insulation and high metabolic heat production, but is unable to cope with the chill of ice water for any prolonged period of time.

  4. The TiltMeter app is a novel and accurate measurement tool for the weight bearing lunge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Caserta, Antoni J; Haines, Terry P

    2013-09-01

    The weight bearing lunge test is increasing being used by health care clinicians who treat lower limb and foot pathology. This measure is commonly established accurately and reliably with the use of expensive equipment. This study aims to compare the digital inclinometer with a free app, TiltMeter on an Apple iPhone. This was an intra-rater and inter-rater reliability study. Two raters (novice and experienced) conducted the measurements in both a bent knee and straight leg position to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was also established. Allied health practitioners were recruited as participants from the workplace. A preconditioning stretch was conducted and the ankle range of motion was established with the weight bearing lunge test position with firstly the leg straight and secondly with the knee bent. The measurement device and each participant were randomised during measurement. The intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability for the devices and in both positions were all over ICC 0.8 except for one intra-rater measure (Digital inclinometer, novice, ICC 0.65). The inter-rater reliability between the digital inclinometer and the tilmeter was near perfect, ICC 0.96 (CI: 0.898-0.983); Concurrent validity ICC between the two devices was 0.83 (CI: -0.740 to 0.445). The use of the Tiltmeter app on the iPhone is a reliable and inexpensive tool to measure the available ankle range of motion. Health practitioners should use caution in applying these findings to other smart phone equipment if surface areas are not comparable. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Jae-Ho; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2017-08-01

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis.

  6. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Lee, Woo-Chun [Seoul Foot and Ankle Center, Dubalo Orthopaedic Clinic, Seochogu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Young; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk [Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jung-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae-Ho [Hallym University, ChunCheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chuncheon, GangWon-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  7. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Lee, Woo-Chun; Kim, Jae-Young; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Cho, Jae-Ho

    2017-01-01

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  8. Validity of clinical outcome measures to evaluate ankle range of motion during the weight-bearing lunge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emily A; Docherty, Carrie L

    2017-07-01

    To determine the concurrent validity of standard clinical outcome measures compared to laboratory outcome measure while performing the weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT). Cross-sectional study. Fifty participants performed the WBLT to determine dorsiflexion ROM using four different measurement techniques: dorsiflexion angle with digital inclinometer at 15cm distal to the tibial tuberosity (°), dorsiflexion angle with inclinometer at tibial tuberosity (°), maximum lunge distance (cm), and dorsiflexion angle using a 2D motion capture system (°). Outcome measures were recorded concurrently during each trial. To establish concurrent validity, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (r) were conducted, comparing each dependent variable to the 2D motion capture analysis (identified as the reference standard). A higher correlation indicates strong concurrent validity. There was a high correlation between each measurement technique and the reference standard. Specifically the correlation between the inclinometer placement at 15cm below the tibial tuberosity (44.9°±5.5°) and the motion capture angle (27.0°±6.0°) was r=0.76 (p=0.001), between the inclinometer placement at the tibial tuberosity angle (39.0°±4.6°) and the motion capture angle was r=0.71 (p=0.001), and between the distance from the wall clinical measure (10.3±3.0cm) to the motion capture angle was r=0.74 (p=0.001). This study determined that the clinical measures used during the WBLT have a high correlation with the reference standard for assessing dorsiflexion range of motion. Therefore, obtaining maximum lunge distance and inclinometer angles are both valid assessments during the weight-bearing lunge test. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Weight-bearing exercise and bone mineral accrual in children and adolescents: a review of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, K; Burrows, M

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious skeletal disease and as there is currently no cure, there is a large emphasis on its prevention, including the optimisation of peak bone mass. There is increasing evidence that regular weight-bearing exercise is an effective strategy for enhancing bone status during growth. This systematic review evaluates randomised and non-randomised controlled trials to date, on the effects of exercise on bone mineral accrual in children and adolescents. An online search of Medline and the Cochrane database enabled the identification of studies. Those that met the inclusion criteria were included in the review and graded according to risk for bias. Twenty-two trials were reviewed. Nine were conducted in prepubertal children (Tanner I), 8 in early pubertal (Tanner II-III) and 5 in pubertal (Tanner IV-V). Sample sizes ranged from n=10 to 65 per group. Exercise interventions included games, dance, resistance training and jumping exercises, ranging in duration from 3 to 48 months. Approximately half of the trials (n=10) included ground reaction force (GRF) data (2 to 9 times body weight). All trials in early pubertal children, 6 in pre pubertal and 2 in pubertal children, reported positive effects of exercise on bone (P<0.05). Mean increases in bone parameters over 6 months were 0.9-4.9% in prepubertal, 1.1-5.5% in early pubertal and 0.3-1.9% in pubertal exercisers compared to controls (P<0.05). Although weight-bearing exercise appears to enhance bone mineral accrual in children, particularly during early puberty; it remains unclear as to what constitutes the optimal exercise programme. Many studies to date have a high risk for bias and only a few have a low risk. Major limitations concerned selection procedures, compliance rates and control of variables. More well designed and controlled investigations are needed. Furthermore, the specific exercise intervention that will provide the optimal stimulus for peak bone mineral accretion is unclear. Future

  10. Change in body weight of mothers and neonates and in milk composition during denning period in captive Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iibuchi, Ruriko; Nakano, Noriko; Nakamura, Tadashi; Urashima, Tadasu; Shimozuru, Michito; Murase, Tetsuma; Tsubota, Toshio

    2009-05-01

    Japanese black bears, Ursus thibetanus japonicus, have been classified as a vulnerable species so that data on reproduction are needed to maintain and/or extend their population. They are known to have a peculiar style of reproduction, giving birth to their neonates and raising them during denning, a period of complete fasting. In this study, we investigated the metabolic rate and milk composition of mother bears raising neonates, and the changes in body weight of the neonates under captive conditions. Seven female bears kept in dens were weighed once a month, and the amount of energy they used was calculated. From birth, cubs were also weighed and their growth rate was determined. In addition, the milk composition was analyzed to investigate its characteristics. As a result, it was found that mother bears used 34% more energy than did solitary females. There was no significant difference in the energy used for nursing whether they had single or twin cubs. On the other hand, the body weight gain of single cubs was significantly higher than that of twin cubs, suggesting that the growth of the cubs was highly affected by the suppression of mother's energy consumption during the fasting period. The milk had high fat and low sugar concentrations. This indicates that mother bears used the fat accumulated prior to denning for their main energy source when raising cubs. Considering all results together, Japanese black bears showed remarkable efficiency in the use of energy for reproduction during the fasting period.

  11. The push-off test: development of a simple, reliable test of upper extremity weight-bearing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Joshua I; MacDermid, Joy C; Michlovitz, Susan L; Rafuse, Richard; Wells-Rowsell, Christina; Wong, Owen; Bisbee, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) is a novel and simple measure of upper extremity weight-bearing that can be measured with a grip dynamometer. There are no published studies on the validity and reliability of the POT. The relationship between upper extremity self-report activity/participation and impairment measures remain an unexplored realm. The primary purpose of this study is to estimate the intra and inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the POT. The secondary purpose is to estimate the relationship between upper extremity self-report activity/participation questionnaires and impairment measures. A convenience sample of 22 patients with wrist or elbow injuries were tested for POT, wrist/elbow range of motion (ROM), isometric wrist extension strength (WES) and grip strength; and completed two self-report activity/participation questionnaires: Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and the Hand (DASH) and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ-26). POT's inter and intra-rater reliability and construct validity was tested. Pearson's correlations were run between the impairment measures and self-report questionnaires to look into the relationship amongst them. The POT demonstrated high inter-rater reliability (ICC affected = 0.97; 95% C.I. 0.93-0.99; ICC unaffected = 0.85; 95% C.I. 0.68-0.94) and intra-rater reliability (ICC affected = 0.96; 95% C.I. 0.92-0.97; ICC unaffected = 0.92; 95% C.I. 0.85-0.97). The POT was correlated moderately with the DASH (r = -0.47; p = 0.03). While examining the relationship between upper extremity self-reported activity/participation questionnaires and impairment measures the strongest correlation was between the DASH and the POT (r = -0.47; p = 0.03) and none of the correlations with the other physical impairment measures reached significance. At-work disability demonstrated insignificant correlations with physical impairments. The POT test provides a reliable and easily

  12. Preliminary radiation protection tests for the body height and body weight of the Chinese reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Z.Y.; Chang, Z.Y.; Lan, W.Z.; Yin, G.A.; Li, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation protection standard recommended by ICRP was evaluated in terms of its suitability for Chinese people. The body height and weight of 100,325 healthy Chinese were measured and anatomical data collected from usable corpses of persons who died by accident or sudden death. The data included the size and weight of certain organs. 18 refs

  13. The difference between actual and prescribed weight bearing of total hip patients with a trochanteric osteotomy: long-term vertical force measurements inside and outside the hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.P. Hurkmans (Henri); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); R.W. Selles (Ruud); E. Benda (Eric); H.J. Stam (Henk); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients load the operated leg at a prescribed weight-bearing target load during postoperative recovery. DESIGN: A descriptive prospective study. SETTING: Orthopedic clinic and patients' homes. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty patients who had undergone total hip

  14. Radiographic changes and factors associated with subsequent progression of damage in weight-bearing joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis under TNF-blocking therapies-three-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Isao; Motomura, Hiraku; Seki, Eiko; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2017-07-01

    The long-term effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking therapies on weight-bearing joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been fully characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the radiographic changes of weight-bearing joints in patients with RA during 3-year of TNF-blocking therapies and to identify factors related to the progression of joint damage. Changes in clinical variables and radiological findings in 243 weight-bearing joints (63 hips, 54 knees, 71 ankles, and 55 subtalar joints) in 38 consecutive patients were investigated during three years of treatment with TNF-blocking agents. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for the progression of weight-bearing joint damage. Seventeen (14.5%) of proximal weight-bearing joints (hips and knees) showed apparent radiographic progression during three years of treatment, whereas none of the proximal weight-bearing joints showed radiographic evidence of improvement or repair. In contrast, distal weight-bearing joints (ankle and subtalar joints) displayed radiographic progression and improvement in 20 (15.9%) and 8 (6.3%) joints, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis for proximal weight-bearing joints identified the baseline Larsen grade (p bearing joints identified disease activity at one year after treatment (p bearing joints. Disease activity after treatment was an independent factor for progression of damage in proximal and distal weight-bearing joints. Early treatment with TNF-blocking agents and tight control of disease activity are necessary to prevent the progression of damage of the weight-bearing joints.

  15. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Benjamin J; Noor, Natassya M; Whish, Sophie C; Truettner, Jessie S; Dietrich, W Dalton; Zhang, Moses; Crack, Peter J; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Saunders, Norman R

    2013-01-01

    following injury the isolated segment of the spinal cord retains some capability of rhythmic movement the mechanisms involved in weight-bearing locomotion are distinct.

  16. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Wheaton

    that although following injury the isolated segment of the spinal cord retains some capability of rhythmic movement the mechanisms involved in weight-bearing locomotion are distinct.

  17. A comparison between the dimensions of positive transtibial residual limb molds prepared by air pressure casting and weight-bearing casting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghaei, Behnam; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Saeedi, Hassan; Jalali, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Creating a socket with proper fit is an important factor to ensure the comfort and control of prosthetic devices. Several techniques are commonly used to cast transtibial stumps but their effect on stump shape deformation is not well understood. This study compares the dimensions, circumferences and volumes of the positive casts and also the socket comfort between two casting methods. Our hypothesis was that the casts prepared by air pressure method have less volume and are more comfortable than those prepared by weight bearing method. Fifteen transtibial unilateral amputees participated in the study. Two weight bearing and air pressure casting methods were utilized for their residual limbs. The diameters and circumferences of various areas of the residual limbs and positive casts were compared. The volumes of two types of casts were measured by a volumeter and compared. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to measure the sockets fit comfort. Circumferences at 10 and 15 cm below the patella on the casts were significantly smaller in air pressure casting method compared to the weight bearing method (p=0.00 and 0.01 respectively). The volume of the cast in air pressure method was lower than that of the weight bearing method (p=0.006). The amputees found the fit of the sockets prepared by air pressure method more comfortable than the weight bearing sockets (p=0.015). The air pressure casting reduced the circumferences of the distal portion of residual limbs which has more soft tissue and because of its snug fit it provided more comfort for amputees, according to the VAS measurements.

  18. Factors predicting weight-bearing asymmetry 1month after unilateral total knee arthroplasty: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Cory L; Bade, Michael J; Weitzenkamp, David A; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2013-03-01

    Factors predicting weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) after unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are not known. However, identifying modifiable and non-modifiable predictors of WBA is needed to optimize rehabilitation, especially since WBA is negatively correlated to poor functional performance. The purpose of this study was to identify factors predictive of WBA during sit-stand transitions for people 1month following unilateral TKA. Fifty-nine people were tested preoperatively and 1month following unilateral TKA for WBA using average vertical ground reaction force under each foot during the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test. Candidate variables tested in the regression analysis represented physical impairments (strength, muscle activation, pain, and motion), demographics, anthropometrics, and movement compensations. WBA, measured as the ratio of surgical/non-surgical limb vertical ground reaction force, was 0.69 (0.18) (mean (SD)) 1month after TKA. Regression analysis identified preoperative WBA (β=0.40), quadriceps strength ratio (β=0.31), and hamstrings strength ratio (β=0.19) as factors predictive of WBA 1month after TKA (R(2)=0.30). Greater amounts of WBA 1month after TKA are predicted by modifiable factors including habitual movement pattern and asymmetry in quadriceps and hamstrings strength. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Joint distraction and movement for repair of articular cartilage in a rabbit model with subsequent weight-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, T; Chang, F; Ishii, T; Yanai, T; Mishima, H; Ochiai, N

    2010-07-01

    We have previously shown that joint distraction and movement with a hinged external fixation device for 12 weeks was useful for repairing a large articular cartilage defect in a rabbit model. We have now investigated the results after six months and one year. The device was applied to 16 rabbits who underwent resection of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone from the entire tibial plateau. In group A (nine rabbits) the device was applied for six months. In group B (seven rabbits) it was in place for six months, after which it was removed and the animals were allowed to move freely for an additional six months. The cartilage remained sound in all rabbits. The areas of type II collagen-positive staining and repaired soft tissue were larger in group B than in group A. These findings provide evidence of long-term persistence of repaired cartilage with this technique and that weight-bearing has a positive effect on the quality of the cartilage.

  20. The fracture sites of atypical femoral fractures are associated with the weight-bearing lower limb alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Yoshitomo; Ishijima, Muneaki; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Kubota, Mitsuaki; Baba, Tomonori; Kaketa, Takefumi; Nagao, Masashi; Sakamoto, Yuko; Sakai, Kensuke; Kato, Rui; Nagura, Nana; Miyagawa, Kei; Wada, Tomoki; Liu, Lizu; Obayashi, Osamu; Shitoto, Katsuo; Nozawa, Masahiko; Kajihara, Hajime; Gen, Hogaku; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are stress-related fractures that are speculated to associate with long-term treatment with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. A history of AFF is a high risk factor for the development of a subsequent AFF in the same location of the contralateral femur, suggesting that a patient's individual anatomical factor(s) are related to the fracture site of AFFs. In this study, we investigated the radiographs of fourteen AFFs (four bilateral fractures among ten patients) treated at six hospitals associated with our university between 2005 and 2010. The fracture site and standing femorotibial angle (FTA), which reflects the mechanical axis of the lower limb, were measured on weight-bearing lower limb radiographs. The fracture site and FTA of patients with typical femoral fractures (TFF) were compared to those of patients with AFFs. The correlations were examined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The fracture locations in the femora were almost the same in the patients with bilateral AFFs. There was a positive correlation between the fracture site and the standing FTA in the patients with AFFs (r=0.82, 95% confidence interval; 0.49 to 0.94), indicating that the larger the standing FTA (varus alignment), the more distal the site of the fracture in the femur. The FTA of the patients with atypical diaphyseal femoral fracture were significantly larger compared to that of those with not only atypical subtrochanteric fractures but also TFFs. In conclusion, the fracture sites of AFFs are associated with the standing lower limb alignment, while those of TFFs are not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of isolating the paretic limb on weight-bearing distribution and EMG activity during squats in hemiplegic and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; An, Duk-Hyun; Yoo, Won-Gyu; Hwang, Byong-Yong; Kim, Tae-Ho; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2017-05-01

    Neural reorganization for movement therapy after a stroke is thought to be an important mechanism that facilitates motor recovery. However, there is a lack of evidence for the effectiveness of exercise programs in improving the lower limbs. We investigated the immediate effect of isolating the paretic limb using different foot positions ((i) foot parallel; both feet parallel, (ii) foot asymmetry; paretic foot backward by 10 cm, and (iii) foot lifting; nonparetic foot lifting by normalization to 25% of knee height) on weight-bearing distribution and electromyography (EMG) of the thigh muscle during squats. In total, 20 patients with hemiplegia and 16 healthy subjects randomly performed three squat conditions in which the knee joint was flexed to 30°. Weight distribution was measured using the BioRescue system. Muscle activity was measured using a surface EMG system. Patients with hemiplegia exhibited significantly decreased weight bearing on the paretic foot at 0° and 30° knee flexion compared with the nondominant foot of a healthy subject. The muscle activity of the quadriceps was significantly lower in patients with hemiplegia compared to healthy subjects. Weight bearing and EMG activity of the quadriceps femoris on the paretic or nondominant side significantly increased during a knee flexion of 30° with under the foot asymmetry and foot lifting positions compared with the parallel foot position. Isolating the paretic limb using the asymmetric foot positions and lifting of the foot during squats might help patients with hemiplegia to improve weight-bearing and achieve greater activation of the quadriceps muscle in the paretic limb.

  2. Evaluation of First-Ray Mobility in Patients with Hallux Valgus Using Weight-Bearing CT and a 3-D Analysis System: A Comparison with Normal Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Kubota, Makoto; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Marumo, Keishi

    2017-02-01

    Some physicians report that patients with hallux valgus have hypermobility at the tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint of the first ray and 3-dimensional (3-D) deformity. With use of non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing computed tomography (CT), we evaluated the 3-D mobility of each joint of the first ray in feet with hallux valgus compared with normal feet. Ten feet of 10 patients with hallux valgus and 10 feet of 10 healthy volunteers with no foot disorders were examined. All participants were women. Weight-bearing (a load equivalent to body weight) and non-weight-bearing CT scans were made with use of a device that we developed. Orthogonal coordinate axes were set and a 3-D model was reconstructed. Each joint of the first ray was aligned with the respective proximal bone, and 3-D displacement of the distal bone relative to the proximal bone under loading was quantified. At the talonavicular joint, significantly greater dorsiflexion of the navicular relative to the talus was observed in the hallux valgus group compared with the control group. At the medial cuneonavicular joint, the hallux valgus group showed significantly greater eversion and abduction of the medial cuneiform relative to the navicular. At the first TMT joint, the hallux valgus group showed significantly greater dorsiflexion, inversion, and adduction of the first metatarsal relative to the medial cuneiform. At the first metatarsophalangeal joint, the hallux valgus group showed significantly greater eversion and abduction of the first proximal phalanx relative to the first metatarsal (all p hallux valgus.

  3. Mountain-climbing bears protect cherry species from global warming through vertical seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Shoji; Tayasu, Ichiro; Sakai, Yoichiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nakajima, Akiko; Sato, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kiyokawa, Hiroki; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-04-25

    In a warming climate, temperature-sensitive plants must move toward colder areas, that is, higher latitude or altitude, by seed dispersal [1]. Considering that the temperature drop with increasing altitude (-0.65°C per 100 m altitude) is one hundred to a thousand times larger than that of the equivalent latitudinal distance [2], vertical seed dispersal is probably a key process for plant escape from warming temperatures. In fact, plant geographical distributions are tracking global warming altitudinally rather than latitudinally, and the extent of tracking is considered to be large in plants with better-dispersed traits (e.g., lighter seeds in wind-dispersed plants) [1]. However, no study has evaluated vertical seed dispersal itself due to technical difficulty or high cost. Here, we show using a stable oxygen isotope that black bears disperse seeds of wild cherry over several hundred meters vertically, and that the dispersal direction is heavily biased towards the mountain tops. Mountain climbing by bears following spring-to-summer plant phenology is likely the cause of this biased seed dispersal. These results suggest that spring- and summer-fruiting plants dispersed by animals may have high potential to escape global warming. Our results also indicate that the direction of vertical seed dispersal can be unexpectedly biased, and highlight the importance of considering seed dispersal direction to understand plant responses to past and future climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Immediate Effect of a Textured Insole in Nonparetic Lower Limb Symmetry of Weight Bearing and Gait Parameters in Patients with Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassan Abadi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion The current study showed that obligatory use of affected limb side could improve symmetry of weight bearing in walking and standing position of patients with chronic stroke by overcoming the phenomenon of learned lack of using and correcting the failure of sending sensory signals to centers of movement controls. The results of this study showed that unilateral use of textured insole with shore A-80 in the unaffected side could immediately improve weight bearing symmetry and step length symmetry in patients with hemiparesis, but it has no effect on their walking speed and step length. Using insole with A-60 hardness did not significantly change any variables of tests. Considering the results of this study, these insoles can be used in balance exercises and walking of hemiparetic patients.

  5. LIGHT-WEIGHT LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURES REINFORCED BY CORE ELEMENTS MADE OF SEGMENTS AND A METHOD OF CASTING SUCH STRUCTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure, reinforced by core elements (2) of a strong material constituting one or more compression or tension zones in the structure to be cast, which core (2) is surrounded by or adjacent to a material of less strength compared to the core (2......), where the core (2) is constructed from segments (1) of core elements (2) assembled by means of one or more prestressing elements (4). The invention further relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures, reinforced by core elements (2) of a strong material constituting one...... or more compression or tension zones in the structure to be cast, which core (2) is surrounded by or adjacent to a material of less strength compared to the core (2), where the core (2) is constructed from segments (1) of core elements (2) assembled and hold together by means of one or more prestressing...

  6. Plantar fascia evaluation with a dedicated magnetic resonance scanner in weight-bearing position: our experience in patients with plantar fasciitis and in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutera, R; Iovane, A; Sorrentino, F; Candela, F; Mularo, V; La Tona, G; Midiri, M

    2010-03-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of upright weight-bearing examination of the ankle/hind foot performed with a dedicated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging scanner in the evaluation of the plantar fascia in healthy volunteers and in patients with clinical evidence of plantar fasciitis. Between January and March 2009, 20 patients with clinical evidence of plantar fasciitis (group A) and a similar number of healthy volunteers (group B) underwent MR imaging of the ankle/hind foot in the upright weight-bearing and conventional supine position. A 0.25-Tesla MR scanner (G-Scan, Esaote SpA, Genoa, Italy) was used with a dedicated receiving coil for the ankle/hind foot. Three radiologists, blinded to patients' history and clinical findings, assessed in consensus morphological and dimensional changes and signal intensity alterations on images acquired in both positions, in different sequences and in different planes. In group A, MR imaging confirmed the diagnosis in 15/20 cases; in 4/15 cases, a partial tear of the plantar fascia was identified in the upright weight-bearing position alone. In the remaining 5/20 cases in group A and in all cases in group B, the plantar fascia showed no abnormal signal intensity. Because of the increased stretching of the plantar fascia, in all cases in group A and B, thickness in the proximal third was significantly reduced (pplantar fascia, which could be overlooked in the supine position.

  7. Primary observation on the effect of APBMV on tumor weight and general physical condition of hepatoma 22-bearing mice after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Tianhan; Wei Ling; Han Xuefei; Dong Weihua

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of antineoplastic polypeptide from buthus martensii venom (APBMV) combined with radiotherapy on hepatoma-bearing mouse. Methods: Hundreds H22-bearing mice were used in this experiment. The tumor growth inhibiting rate (IR%), WBC count, hemoglobin content, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), level of lipid peroxide (LPO) and spleens index (SI) were used as the parameters. After radiotherapy (RT) or after administration of different dosage of APBMV combined with RT, the changes of these parameters were observed. Results: On the 6th and 9th day after radiotherapy, the tumor weights decreased after administrating APBMV combined with RT, in which IR were 78.29% and 70.45%, respectively (comparing with RT and APBMV group, P 0.05) among all groups. SOD activity was the lowest and LPO level was the highest in RT group (comparing with the control group, P 22 -bearing mice, SOD activity increased and LPO level decreased evidently (comparing with RT group, P 22 was stronger than radiation or APBMV alone. APBMV can also antagonize radiation injury on H 22 -bearing mice

  8. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in carotid angioplasty and stenting with balloon embolic protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Fumio; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Toma, Naoki; Matsushima, Satoshi; Kuraishi, Keita; Tanemura, Hiroshi; Miura, Yoichi; Taki, Waro; Maeda, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    We compared the results of two procedures to protect against distal embolism caused by embolic debris from carotid angioplasty with stent deployment (CAS) using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study group comprised 39 men and 3 women (42 and 3 CAS procedures, respectively) with severe carotid stenosis (average age 70.0±6.6 years). During 20 CAS procedures the internal carotid artery was protected with a single balloon. A PercuSurge GuardWire was used for temporary occlusion. During 25 CAS procedures the internal and external carotid arteries were simultaneously temporarily occluded with a PercuSurge GuardWire and a Sentry balloon catheter, respectively. Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed 1 to 3 days after CAS. Data from 26 patients undergoing conventional angiography for diagnosis of cerebral ischemic disease, cerebral aneurysm or brain tumors were included as controls. Diffusion-weighted MRI after conventional diagnostic angiography showed ischemic spots in 3 of the 26 controls (11.5%). Ischemic spots were observed during 11 of 20 CAS procedures with the internal carotid artery protected with a single balloon (55.0%), and were observed during 9 of 25 CAS procedures with both the internal and external carotid arteries protected (36.0%). This difference was significant (P=0.0068). Ischemic lesions appeared not only ipsilateral to the carotid stenosis but also in the contralateral carotid artery (31.9%) and vertebrobasilar territory (25.3%). Better protection was obtained with simultaneous double occlusion of both the internal and external carotid artery than with single protection of the internal carotid artery during CAS. (orig.)

  9. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinari Takamura

    2017-07-01

    Interpretation: Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective marker against obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities.

  10. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track owner...

  11. Four Weeks in a Single-Leg Weight-Bearing Hip Spica Cast is Sufficient Treatment for Isolated Femoral Shaft Fractures in Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Sami; Sobh, Ali; Legakis, Julie E; Thomas, Ronald; Buhler, Kelsey; Jones, Eric T

    2016-01-01

    Hip spica casting regimens for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in a pediatric population aged 1 to 3 years vary. Patient charts were reviewed to determine if there are any clinical differences between 3 and 4 weeks in an ambulatory single-leg hip spica (SLHS) cast versus 6 to 8 weeks in a standard double-leg, non-weight-bearing hip spica cast. The medical records of 109 patients with femoral shaft fractures treated with a hip spica casting from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011 were examined. After exclusions, 94 patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patient records were assessed, noting age, weight, type of cast, time in cast, and complications. All casts were applied by senior pediatric orthopaedic surgeons at a single institution. Two groups were evaluated: 59 patients in the SLHS group and 35 in the double-leg hip spica group. The 2 groups were demographically similar with an average age of 2 years, 70.2% of patients were male, 45.7% were black, and 35.1% were white. The average time to cast removal was 4.1 weeks for the single-leg group and 5.3 weeks for the double-leg group (Pshaft fractures in patients less than 4 years old can be treated in a weight-bearing SLHS casts for approximately 4 weeks with fewer alignment and skin complications. Level III-clinical retrospective comparative study.

  12. Advantage and limitations of a minimally-invasive approach and early weight bearing in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures with locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, P; Bonnomet, F; Ehlinger, M

    2012-09-01

    Intramedullary nailing is a common method of treating tibial shaft fractures. However, precise control of reduction at the proximal and distal quarters is difficult to achieve. The purpose of this study was to assess the results of plating using locking screws and the feasibility of a minimally-invasive approach. All patients with tibial shaft fracture treated by means of locking plates from January 2004 to October 2006. Thirty-two fractures were treated in 32 patients with a mean age of 43.8 years. Internal fixation with a locking plate and screw construct, using a minimally-invasive or standard approach. Surgical approach, time to weight bearing, complications and their type, time to bone union, alignment in the frontal and sagittal planes on anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. The minimally-invasive approach was performed in 28 cases and immediate full weight bearing allowed in 25 cases. At a mean follow-up of 27 months, two patients had died and two patients were lost to follow-up. The mean time to bone union was 9.1 weeks. Four cases had a complicated course: one infection, one compartment syndrome, one hardware breakage and one pseudarthrosis. Six cases ended up with valgus malunion exceeding 5° in the frontal plane, already present at the time of surgery. Where a minimally-invasive approach can be performed, immediate pain-free weight bearing can be allowed without further displacement at follow-up. The observed rate of malunion underlines the need for adequate reduction and shows that the rationale for success does not solely depend on the plate anatomic design but also on the skills of the operating surgeon. Level I university regional hospital Cohort study. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Comparison of Findings from Oblique Radiographs of the Raised Limb with Those of the Weight-bearing Limb for Selected Diseases of the Equine Digit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šterc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the radiographic examination of the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints was performed in 43 randomly selected horses. A total of 86 forelimbs were examined. On the forelimbs, dorsolateral-palmaromedial, and dorsomedial-palmarolateral oblique views were performed. The oblique views were performed on raised limbs placed in a navicular block and on weight-bearing limbs placed on a pedestal made at the equine clinic. In total, 688 dorsolateral-palmaromedial and dorsomedial-palmarolateral views were taken. During the evaluation of the radiographs we focused on the detection of signs of degenerative joint disease of the distal and proximal iterphalangeal joints, and the detection of new bone formation in the phalanx regions, not associated with a disease of the distal or proximal interphalangeal joints. Based on the radiographic signs visible on these views, we diagnosed 9 cases of degenerative joint disease of the distal intraphalangeal joint, 13 cases of the degenerative joint disease of the proximal intraphalangeal joint and 21 cases of new bone formation in the phalanx regions. These signs were observed in 253 of 688 oblique views. Positive radiographic findings of the above-mentioned disorders were shown on 127 oblique views of the raised limb placed in the navicular block and 126 oblique views of the weight-bearing limb placed on the pedestal we made. When 128 oblique views of the weight-bearing limb (placed on the pedestal were compared with those of the raised limb (in the navicular block, there were different radiographic findings in three cases only. The differences in detection rates of radiographic signs between different type views showed no statistical significance (p ≥ 0.05. Therefore we assume that the pedestal we made can be routinely used for the radiographic examination of the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints on DL-PM and DM-PL oblique views, as part of pre-purchase examination or diagnosis

  14. Validity of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to assess weight bearing asymmetry during sit-to-stand and return-to-sit task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujaber, Sumayeh; Gillispie, Gregory; Marmon, Adam; Zeni, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Weight bearing asymmetry is common in patients with unilateral lower limb musculoskeletal pathologies. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) has been suggested as a low-cost and widely-available tool to measure weight bearing asymmetry in a clinical environment; however no study has evaluated the validity of this tool during dynamic tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent validity of force measurements acquired from the WBB as compared to laboratory force plates. Thirty-five individuals before, or within 1 year of total joint arthroplasty performed a sit-to-stand and return-to-sit task in two conditions. First, subjects performed the task with both feet placed on a single WBB. Second, the task was repeated with each foot placed on an individual laboratory force plate. Peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) under each foot and the inter-limb symmetry ratio were calculated. Validity was examined using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), regression analysis, 95% limits of agreement and Bland-Altman plots. Force plates and the WBB exhibited excellent agreement for all outcome measurements (ICC=0.83-0.99). Bland-Altman plots showed no obvious relationship between the difference and the mean for the peak VGRF, but there was a consistent trend in which VGRF on the unaffected side was lower and VGRF on the affected side was higher when using the WBB. However, these consistent biases can be adjusted for by utilizing regression equations that estimate the force plate values based on the WBB force. The WBB may serve as a valid, suitable, and low-cost alternative to expensive, laboratory force plates for measuring weight bearing asymmetry in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurements of Weight Bearing Asymmetry Using the Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Board Are Not Reliable for Older Adults and Individuals With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, Derek M; Peters, Denise M; Middleton, Addie; Lanier, Wes; Chain, Rebecca; Barksdale, Brittany; Fritz, Stacy L

    Clinicians and researchers have used bathroom scales, balance performance monitors with feedback, postural scale analysis, and force platforms to evaluate weight bearing asymmetry (WBA). Now video game consoles offer a novel alternative for assessing this construct. By using specialized software, the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board can provide reliable measurements of WBA in healthy, young adults. However, reliability of measurements obtained using only the factory settings to assess WBA in older adults and individuals with stroke has not been established. To determine whether measurements of WBA obtained using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board and default settings are reliable in older adults and individuals with stroke. Weight bearing asymmetry was assessed using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board in 2 groups of participants-individuals older than 65 years (n = 41) and individuals with stroke (n = 41). Participants were given a standardized set of instructions and were not provided auditory or visual feedback. Two trials were performed. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measure (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) scores were determined for each group. The ICC for the older adults sample was 0.59 (0.35-0.76) with SEM95 = 6.2% and MDC95 = 8.8%. The ICC for the sample including individuals with stroke was 0.60 (0.47-0.70) with SEM95 = 9.6% and MDC95 = 13.6%. Although measurements of WBA obtained using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board, and its default factory settings, demonstrate moderate reliability in older adults and individuals with stroke, the relatively high associated SEM and MDC values substantially reduce the clinical utility of the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board as an assessment tool for WBA. Weight bearing asymmetry cannot be measured reliably in older adults and individuals with stroke using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board without the use of specialized software.

  16. Effects of spine loading in a patient with post-decompression lumbar disc herniation: observations using an open weight-bearing MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Niladri Kumar; Sybert, Daryl; Law, Tim; Clark, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to use an open weight-bearing MRI to identify the effects of different loading conditions on the inter-vertebral anatomy of the lumbar spine in a post-discectomy recurrent lumbar disc herniation patient. A 43-year-old male with a left-sided L5-S1 post-decompression re-herniation underwent MR imaging in three spine-loading conditions: (1) supine, (2) weight-bearing on standing (WB), and (3) WB with 10 % of body mass axial loading (WB + AL) (5 % through each shoulder). A segmentation-based proprietary software was used to calculate and compare linear dimensions, angles and cross sections across the lumbar spine. The L5 vertebrae showed a 4.6 mm posterior shift at L5-S1 in the supine position that changed to an anterior translation >2.0 mm on WB. The spinal canal sagittal thickness at L5-S1 reduced from supine to WB and WB + AL (13.4, 10.6, 9.5 mm) with corresponding increases of 2.4 and 3.5 mm in the L5-S1 disc protrusion with WB and WB + AL, respectively. Change from supine to WB and WB + AL altered the L5-S1 disc heights (10.2, 8.6, 7.0 mm), left L5-S1 foramen heights (12.9, 11.8, 10.9 mm), L5-S1 segmental angles (10.3°, 2.8°, 4.3°), sacral angles (38.5°, 38.3°, 40.3°), L1-L3-L5 angles (161.4°, 157.1°, 155.1°), and the dural sac cross sectional areas (149, 130, 131 mm 2 ). Notably, the adjacent L4-L5 segment demonstrated a retro-listhesis >2.3 mm on WB. We observed that with weight-bearing, measurements indicative of spinal canal narrowing could be detected. These findings suggest that further research is warranted to determine the potential utility of weight-bearing MRI in clinical decision-making.

  17. Biofeedback in Partial Weight Bearing: Usability of Two Different Devices from a Patient’s and Physical Therapist’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Pisters, Martijn F.; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; de Bie, Rob A.; Wouters, Eveline J.; Stukstette, Mirelle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Partial weight bearing is frequently instructed by physical therapists in patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. The use of biofeedback devices seems promising to improve the patient’s compliance with weight-bearing instructions. SmartStep and OpenGo-Science are biofeedback devices that provide real-time feedback. For a successful implementation, usability of the devices is a critical aspect and should be tested from a user’s perspective. Aim To describe the usability from the physical therapists’ and a patients’ perspective of Smartstep and OpenGo-Science to provide feedback on partial weight bearing during supervised rehabilitation of patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. Methods In a convergent mixed-methods design, qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Usability was subdivided into user performance, satisfaction and acceptability. Patients prescribed with partial weight bearing and their physical therapists were asked to use SmartStep and OpenGo-Science during supervised rehabilitation. Usability was qualitatively tested by a think-aloud method and a semi-structured interview and quantitatively tested by the System-Usability-Scale (SUS) and closed questions. For the qualitative data thematic content analyses were used. Results Nine pairs of physical therapists and their patients participated. The mean SUS scores for patients and physical therapists were for SmartStep 70 and 53, and for OpenGo-Science 79 and 81, respectively. Scores were interpreted with the Curved Grading Scale. The qualitative data showed that there were mixed views and perceptions from patients and physical therapists on satisfaction and acceptability. Conclusion This study gives insight in the usability of two biofeedback devices from the patient’s and physical therapist’s perspective. The overall usability from both perspectives seemed to be acceptable for OpenGo-Science. For SmartStep, overall usability seemed only acceptable from the

  18. Strengthening the composite protective shield of light-weight ship against ballistic impacts: analytical and experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jalili

    Full Text Available Light and medium protection for small naval vessels guarantees their high performance and safety during the guard duties. In this study, a protective shield fabricated from Dyneema HB25 fibers has been utilized as an add-on layer on the coast guard boat hull. Finite element analyses have been conducted using Chocron's model. Two standards of gun-fire were employed and various thicknesses of the composite layers were examined by ballistic impacts. Afterward, numerical simulations results compared with experiments and revealed a good consistency. Finally, some graphs have been presented to help designers for choosing more convenient shield based on protection and weight characteristics after judgment of vessel requirements.

  19. Wayside Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Envelope Analysis Paved with Time-Domain Interpolation Resampling and Weighted-Correlation-Coefficient-Guided Stochastic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope spectrum analysis is a simple, effective, and classic method for bearing fault identification. However, in the wayside acoustic health monitoring system, owing to the high relative moving speed between the railway vehicle and the wayside mounted microphone, the recorded signal is embedded with Doppler effect, which brings in shift and expansion of the bearing fault characteristic frequency (FCF. What is more, the background noise is relatively heavy, which makes it difficult to identify the FCF. To solve the two problems, this study introduces solutions for the wayside acoustic fault diagnosis of train bearing based on Doppler effect reduction using the improved time-domain interpolation resampling (TIR method and diagnosis-relevant information enhancement using Weighted-Correlation-Coefficient-Guided Stochastic Resonance (WCCSR method. First, the traditional TIR method is improved by incorporating the original method with kinematic parameter estimation based on time-frequency analysis and curve fitting. Based on the estimated parameters, the Doppler effect is removed using the TIR easily. Second, WCCSR is employed to enhance the diagnosis-relevant period signal component in the obtained Doppler-free signal. Finally, paved with the above two procedures, the local fault is identified using envelope spectrum analysis. Simulated and experimental cases have verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Treatment of dispersed iron-bearing raw materials and modeling of the protection systems against air-pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Anđić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the non-standard iron-bearing raw materials treatment process and the results of real composition measurements of the flue gas, the study of hazards by identification of harmful substances that occur in the accident, as well as the modeling of the system of protection against air-pollution due to the cancellation of work the bag filter was carried out. Applying the model (Aloha software package provides an overview of possible developments of events and zones of propagation of the precipitated particulate matter through the share of cadmium (Cd in them. In the case of malfunction of filter system, emissions of particulate matter enormously exceed the permitted values. In the conditions of the simulated accident, particle velocity of flue gases was amounted E≈738mg/s or 2657g/h of dust. The propagation of the precipitated particulate matter in the lower layer of the atmosphere, downwind, given trough the share of Cd in them, is 100m from the source of pollution for the characteristic density of 5mg/m2×day and 140m for the characteristic density of 2mg/m2×day, in the stable state of the atmosphere, i.e. 870m and 1100m, respectively, in the neutral state of the atmosphere.

  1. Reliability of the measures of weight-bearing distribution obtained during quiet stance by digital scales in subjects with and without hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo-Barbosa, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; de Menezes, Lidiane Teles; Costa, Abraão Souza; Couto Paz, Clarissa Cardoso Dos Santos; Fachin-Martins, Emerson

    2015-05-01

    Described as an alternative way of assessing weight-bearing asymmetries, the measures obtained from digital scales have been used as an index to classify weight-bearing distribution. This study aimed to describe the intra-test and the test/retest reliability of measures in subjects with and without hemiparesis during quiet stance. The percentage of body weight borne by one limb was calculated for a sample of subjects with hemiparesis and for a control group that was matched by gender and age. A two-way analysis of variance was used to verify the intra-test reliability. This analysis was calculated using the differences between the averages of the measures obtained during single, double or triple trials. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was utilized and data plotted using the Bland-Altman method. The intra-test analysis showed significant differences, only observed in the hemiparesis group, between the measures obtained by single and triple trials. Excellent and moderate ICC values (0.69-0.84) between test and retest were observed in the hemiparesis group, while for control groups ICC values (0.41-0.74) were classified as moderate, progressing from almost poor for measures obtained by a single trial to almost excellent for those obtained by triple trials. In conclusion, good reliability ranging from moderate to excellent classifications was found for participants with and without hemiparesis. Moreover, an improvement of the repeatability was observed with fewer trials for participants with hemiparesis, and with more trials for participants without hemiparesis.

  2. Hypolocomotion, asymmetrically directed behaviors (licking, lifting, flinching, and shaking and dynamic weight bearing (gait changes are not measures of neuropathic pain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schorscher-Petcu Ara

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous (non-evoked pain is a major clinical symptom of neuropathic syndromes, one that is understudied in basic pain research for practical reasons and because of a lack of consensus over precisely which behaviors reflect spontaneous pain in laboratory animals. It is commonly asserted that rodents experiencing pain in a hind limb exhibit hypolocomotion and decreased rearing, engage in both reflexive and organized limb directed behaviors, and avoid supporting their body weight on the affected side. Furthermore, it is assumed that the extent of these positive or negative behaviors can be used as a dependent measure of spontaneous chronic pain severity in such animals. In the present study, we tested these assumptions via blinded, systematic observation of digital video of mice with nerve injuries (chronic constriction or spared nerve injury, and automated assessment of locomotor behavior using photocell detection and dynamic weight bearing (i.e., gait using the CatWalk® system. Results We found no deficits in locomotor activity or rearing associated with neuropathic injury. The frequency of asymmetric (ipsilaterally directed behaviors were too rare to be seriously considered as representing spontaneous pain, and in any case did not statistically exceed what was blindly observed on the contralateral hind paw and in control (sham operated and unoperated mice. Changes in dynamic weight bearing, on the other hand, were robust and ipsilateral after spared nerve injury (but not chronic constriction injury. However, we observed timing, pharmacological, and genetic dissociation of mechanical allodynia and gait alterations. Conclusions We conclude that spontaneous neuropathic pain in mice cannot be assessed using any of these measures, and thus caution is warranted in making such assertions.

  3. Effect of Motivational Interviewing on a Weight Loss Program Based on the Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkarimi, Kamal; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Eshghinia, Samira; Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Ozouni-Davaji, Rahman Berdi; Aryaie, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the increase the world over, which imposes an ever-increasing burden on societies and health care systems. This study sought to investigate the effect of motivational interviewing (MI) on a weight-loss program based on the protection motivation theory (PMT). This randomized clinical trial study, comprising pretest-posttest with a control group, was conducted on 150 overweight and obese women attending a private nutrition clinic for the first time. Samples were randomly selected using the clinic's records and then allocated to three groups (50 women in each group) receiving: 1) a standard weight-control program; 2) motivational interviewing; and 3) MI plus intention intervention. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire through in-person interviews and were analyzed using SPSS (version 11) and statistical tests, including the Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, paired t-test, and linear regression model. In the two intervention groups, the PMT construct scores, namely susceptibility (P = 0.001), severity (P = 0.001), rewards (P =0.004), self-efficacy (P = 0.001), response efficacy (P = 0.001), and costs (P = 0.014), were significantly increased compared to those in the control group. The anthropometric status was statistically significant in the MI group (P = 0.001) and the MI plus intention-intervention group (P = 0.001) at 2 months' follow-up, while in the control group, weight was meaningfully different after the intervention (P = 0.027). Weight was different between the groups after the intervention, with the Tukey test demonstrating that the differences were statistically significant between the control group and the MI group. Our results demonstrated that MI, combined with the implementation of intention intervention, increased weight loss and PMT construct scores in our study population.

  4. [Obesity paradox or reverse epidemiology: is high body weight a protective factor for various chronic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, T E; Rieder, A

    2010-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for the development of disease and death in the general population. However, in people with various conditions (old age, wasting diseases, heart diseases or renal dialysis) overweight and obesity are associated with a higher survival rate. The terms "reverse epidemiology" or "obesity paradox" have been suggested to describe this finding. However, it still remains uncertain, whether this phenomenon is attributable to a real protective effect of high body fat mass. Methodological problems in studies suggesting an obesity paradox such as survivor bias, selection bias, lead time bias or, in meta analyses, publication bias and confounders have been discussed. These cannot, however, entirely explain the observed phenomenon. Biological models, examining possible explanations for the protective effect of high body mass, for instance, in wasting diseases and elderly patients, have also been produced. In particular high inflammation markers combined with malnutrition predict a high mortality rate among patients with various medical conditions: overweight and obesity could counter these effects. Possible implications for clinical and public health recommendations regarding weight management and nutrition are issues for future research. In elderly subjects and patients with a poor prognosis the impact of weight management on quality of life should also be taken into account.

  5. The effect of non-weight bearing group-exercising on females with non-specific chronic low back pain: a randomized single blind controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masharawi, Youssef; Nadaf, Nedal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of active non-weight-bearing (NWB) group exercising on women with non specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). Forty females with NSCLBP were assigned in a randomized control longitudinal single blinded pilot study. 20 of them were assigned to a NWB bi-weekly group exercise class and 20 females were included in the control group. The exercises involved the entire lumbo-pelvic spine aimed at improving lumbar mobility/flexibility and stability. Pain intensity (VAS), back specific disability (Rolland Morris questionnaire-RMQ), and lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion measurements were taken prior to intervention (t(0)), immediately following 4 weeks of intervention (t(1)) and 8 weeks later (t(fu)). Reliability trials were conducted on 10 females. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical significance (p exercising improves functional, painful status, lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion in women suffering from NSCLBP.

  6. Orthopaedic measurements with computed radiography: Methodological development, accuracy, and radiation dose with special reference to the weight-bearing lower extremity and the dislocating patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfridsson, J.

    2001-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a measurement system for computed radiography and Picture Archiving and Communication Systems, permitting measurements of long distances and angles in and between related images. The developed measurement system, which was based on the QUESTOR Precision Radiography system, was applied to the weight-bearing knee with special reference to the dislocating patella. The QPR system modified for CR fulfilled the criteria for measuring the weight-bearing knee. The special measuring assistance tools that were developed were important for the implementation of CR and PACS, particularly in workstations programmed for musculoskeletal radiology. The energy imparted to the patient was reduced by 98% at the lowest exposure of the CR-system, compared with our conventional analogue method, without loss of diagnostic accuracy. The CR technique creates a possibility, to an extent not previously feasible, to differentiate the exposure parameters (and thus minimise the radiation dose to the patient) by carefully considering the purpose of the examination. A radiographic method for measuring the rotation of the femur and the tibia, and the patellar translation was developed and applied to healthy volunteers. The introduced patellar variables have yielded new insights into the complex sequence of motions between the femur, tibia, and patella. The patients with a dislocating patella were subdivided into one 'clean' group of spontaneous dislocations and one group with various traumas in the history, which thus resulted in two groups with distinct radiographic differences. The Q-angle was decreased in knees that had suffered dislocations, and the traditional surgical treatment with a further reduction of the Q-angle must be challenged. The use of clinical measurements of the Q-angle was not an optimal way to evaluate the mechanical alignment in the patellofemoral joint under physiological conditions. In this study, we have proved

  7. The self-protective nature of implicit identity and its relationship to weight bias and short-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Gumble, Amanda; Young, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that making overly positive self-evaluations is the norm rather than the exception. However, unlike other stigmatized groups, overweight individuals do not exhibit a positive in-group social identity and instead exhibit significant explicit, implicit, and internalized weight bias. Therefore, it is not known whether overweight/obese individuals will evidence self-enhancement on general traits (good, attractive), or on traits inconsistent with fat stereotypes (disciplined, active, healthy eater), on an assessment of implicit attitudes. Similarly, it is not known whether these ratings will be associated with preexisting levels of weight bias, gender, or short-term weight loss. At baseline, 53 overweight/obese adults (BMI > 27 kg/m(2), mean BMI = 37.3 kg/m(2), SD = 6.6 kg/m(2), 89% Caucasian, and 77% female) participating in a weight loss intervention completed measures of explicit and internalized weight bias as well as implicit weight bias and identity (self-other comparisons). Although participants evidenced significant anti-fat attitudes, they implicitly identified themselves as significantly thinner, better, more attractive, active, disciplined, and more likely to eat healthy than 'other' people. Compared to men, women were less likely to view themselves as thin and attractive relative to others. Greater implicit anti-fat bias and implicitly seeing the self as thin relative to others was associated with less short-term weight loss. Despite evidence for explicit, implicit, and internalized weight bias, participants generally evidenced a positive implicit self-identity, including areas consistent with negative fat stereotypes. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  9. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. II. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Keil, Andreas; McWalter, Emily J.; Gold, Garry E.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Pal, Saikat; Beaupré, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A C-arm CT system has been shown to be capable of scanning a single cadaver leg under loaded conditions by virtue of its highly flexible acquisition trajectories. In Part I of this study, using the 4D XCAT-based numerical simulation, the authors predicted that the involuntary motion in the lower body of subjects in weight-bearing positions would seriously degrade image quality and the authors suggested three motion compensation methods by which the reconstructions could be corrected to provide diagnostic image quality. Here, the authors demonstrate that a flat-panel angiography system is appropriate for scanning both legs of subjectsin vivo under weight-bearing conditions and further evaluate the three motion-correction algorithms using in vivo data. Methods: The geometry of a C-arm CT system for a horizontal scan trajectory was calibrated using the PDS-2 phantom. The authors acquired images of two healthy volunteers while lying supine on a table, standing, and squatting at several knee flexion angles. In order to identify the involuntary motion of the lower body, nine 1-mm-diameter tantalum fiducial markers were attached around the knee. The static mean marker position in 3D, a reference for motion compensation, was estimated by back-projecting detected markers in multiple projections using calibrated projection matrices and identifying the intersection points in 3D of the back-projected rays. Motion was corrected using three different methods (described in detail previously): (1) 2D projection shifting, (2) 2D deformable projection warping, and (3) 3D rigid body warping. For quantitative image quality analysis, SSIM indices for the three methods were compared using the supine data as a ground truth. Results: A 2D Euclidean distance-based metric of subjects’ motion ranged from 0.85 mm (±0.49 mm) to 3.82 mm (±2.91 mm) (corresponding to 2.76 to 12.41 pixels) resulting in severe motion artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Shifting in 2D, 2D warping, and 3D

  10. Human-Wildlife Conflict and Environmental Education: Evaluating a Community Program to Protect the Andean Bear in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Santiago; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental education is a widespread, yet relatively unexamined strategy to reduce human-wildlife conflicts. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions toward bear conservation after five years of environmental education in a Quichua community. Conflicts with livestock predation created mixed attitudes and behaviors toward bear…

  11. Orthopaedic measurements with computed radiography: Methodological development, accuracy, and radiation dose with special reference to the weight-bearing lower extremity and the dislocating patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfridsson, J. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2001-03-01

    The overall aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a measurement system for computed radiography and Picture Archiving and Communication Systems, permitting measurements of long distances and angles in and between related images. The developed measurement system, which was based on the QUESTOR Precision Radiography system, was applied to the weight-bearing knee with special reference to the dislocating patella. The QPR system modified for CR fulfilled the criteria for measuring the weight-bearing knee. The special measuring assistance tools that were developed were important for the implementation of CR and PACS, particularly in workstations programmed for musculoskeletal radiology. The energy imparted to the patient was reduced by 98% at the lowest exposure of the CR-system, compared with our conventional analogue method, without loss of diagnostic accuracy. The CR technique creates a possibility, to an extent not previously feasible, to differentiate the exposure parameters (and thus minimise the radiation dose to the patient) by carefully considering the purpose of the examination. A radiographic method for measuring the rotation of the femur and the tibia, and the patellar translation was developed and applied to healthy volunteers. The introduced patellar variables have yielded new insights into the complex sequence of motions between the femur, tibia, and patella. The patients with a dislocating patella were subdivided into one 'clean' group of spontaneous dislocations and one group with various traumas in the history, which thus resulted in two groups with distinct radiographic differences. The Q-angle was decreased in knees that had suffered dislocations, and the traditional surgical treatment with a further reduction of the Q-angle must be challenged. The use of clinical measurements of the Q-angle was not an optimal way to evaluate the mechanical alignment in the patellofemoral joint under physiological conditions. In this study, we have

  12. Hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate content of osteoarthritic human knee cartilage: site-specific correlation with weight-bearing force based on femorotibial angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Shuhei; Nakajima, Mikio; Lotz, Martin; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    2008-09-01

    This study analyzed glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in specific compartments of the knee joint to determine the impact of malalignment and helped refine indications for osteotomy. To assess malalignment, the radiological femorotibial angle (FTA) was measured and knee joints were also graded for OA severity with the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) classification. Cartilage samples were obtained from 36 knees of 32 OA patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery. Explants were harvested from the medial femoral condyle (MFC), lateral femoral condyle (LFC), patellar groove (PG), and lateral posterior femoral condyle (LPC). Concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). With OA severity, the average FTA significantly increased. HA and CS content in MFC was negatively correlated with radiographic FTA. In LFC, HA ratio, which is HA content in lateral condyle divided by medial condyle and chondroitin 6 sulfate, increased until about 190 degrees FTA. Importantly, at >190 degrees these contents were significantly decreased. HA and CS content of the femoral condyle shows topographic differences that are related to OA grade and weight-bearing force based on FTA. The clinical relevance is that osteotomy may not be indicated for patients with severe varus (>190 degrees) abnormalities. (c) 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society

  13. Electromyographic preactivation pattern of the gluteus medius during weight-bearing functional tasks in women with and without anterior knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Theresa H; Muniz, Thiago B; Baldon, Rodrigo M; Maciel, Carlos D; Amorim, César F; Serrão, Fábio V

    2011-01-01

    Proximal factors have been proposed to influence the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint. A delayed or diminished gluteus medius (GM) activation, before the foot contact on the ground during functional activities could lead to excessive femur adduction and internal rotation and be associated with anterior knee pain (AKP). There are few studies on this topic and the results were inconclusive, therefore, it is necessary to investigate the GM preactivation pattern during functional activities. To compare the GM electromyographic (EMG) preactivation pattern during walking, descending stairs and in single leg jump task in women with and without AKP. Nine women clinically diagnosed with AKP and ten control subjects with no history of knee injury participated in this study. We evaluated GM EMG linear envelope before the foot contact on the ground during walking and GM onset time and EMG linear envelope during descending stairs as well as in a single leg vertical jump. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine the between-group differences in GM EMG preactivation pattern. No between-group differences were observed in GM linear envelope during walking (P=0.41), GM onset time and linear envelope during descending stairs (P=0.17 and P=0.15) and single leg jump (P=0.81 and P=0.33). Women with AKP did not demonstrated altered GM preactivation pattern during functional weight bearing activities. Our results did not support the hypothesis that poor GM preactivation pattern could be associated with AKP.

  14. Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel): changes in weighting methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2017-01-01

    to introduce the methodology used to calculate post-stratification weights of the 2012 Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel) and to compare the trends of indicators estimated by cell-by-cell weighting and raking methods. in this panel of cross-sectional studies, the prevalences of smokers, overweight, and intake of fruits and vegetables from 2006 to 2012 were estimated using the cell-by-cell weighting and raking methods. there were no differences in time trends of the indicators estimated by both methods, but the prevalence of smokers estimated by the raking method was lower than the estimated by cell-by-cell weighting, whilst the prevalence of fruit and vegetable intake was higher; for overweight, there was no difference between the methods. raking method presented higher accuracy of the estimates when compared to cell-by-cell weighting method, proving to be most convenient, although it presents register coverage bias.

  15. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  16. The influence of clothing weight and bulk on metabolic rate when wearing protective clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorman, L.; Havenith, G.

    2005-01-01

    Protective clothing is worn in many industrial and military situations. Although worn for protection from one or more hazards, the clothing can have secondary effects which may limit the ability of the worker to perform the tasks required of the job. Protective clothing can add significantly to the

  17. Weight-bearing MR imaging as an option in the study of gravitational effects on the vocal tract of untrained subjects in singing phonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traser, Louisa; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard; Vicari, Marco; Echternach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of subjects in a supine position can be used to evaluate the configuration of the vocal tract during phonation. However, studies of speech phonation have shown that gravity can affect vocal tract shape and bias measurements. This is one of the reasons that MRI studies of singing phonation have used professionally trained singers as subjects, because they are generally considered to be less affected by the supine body position and environmental distractions. A study of untrained singers might not only contribute to the understanding of intuitive singing function and aid the evaluation of potential hazards for vocal health, but also provide insights into the effect of the supine position on singers in general. In the present study, an open configuration 0.25 T MRI system with a rotatable examination bed was used to study the effect of body position in 20 vocally untrained subjects. The subjects were asked to sing sustained tones in both supine and upright body positions on different pitches and in different register conditions. Morphometric measurements were taken from the acquired images of a sagittal slice depicting the vocal tract. The analysis concerning the vocal tract configuration in the two body positions revealed differences in 5 out of 10 measured articulatory parameters. In the upright position the jaw was less protruded, the uvula was elongated, the larynx more tilted and the tongue was positioned more to the front of the mouth than in the supine position. The findings presented are in agreement with several studies on gravitational effects in speech phonation, but contrast with the results of a previous study on professional singers of our group where only minor differences between upright and supine body posture were observed. The present study demonstrates that imaging of the vocal tract using weight-bearing MR imaging is a feasible tool for the study of sustained phonation in singing for vocally untrained subjects.

  18. Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle Function and Skeletal Quality and Strength in +/G610C Mice With and Without Weight-Bearing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youngjae; Carleton, Stephanie M; Gentry, Bettina A; Yao, Xiaomei; Ferreira, J Andries; Salamango, Daniel J; Weis, MaryAnn; Oestreich, Arin K; Williams, Ashlee M; McCray, Marcus G; Eyre, David R; Brown, Marybeth; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2015-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous heritable connective tissue disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fragility. Bone is inherently mechanosensitive, with bone strength being proportional to muscle mass and strength. Physically active healthy children accrue more bone than inactive children. Children with type I OI exhibit decreased exercise capacity and muscle strength compared with healthy peers. It is unknown whether this muscle weakness reflects decreased physical activity or a muscle pathology. In this study, we used heterozygous G610C OI model mice (+/G610C), which model both the genotype and phenotype of a large Amish OI kindred, to evaluate hindlimb muscle function and physical activity levels before evaluating the ability of +/G610C mice to undergo a treadmill exercise regimen. We found +/G610C mice hindlimb muscles do not exhibit compromised muscle function, and their activity levels were not reduced relative to wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice were also able to complete an 8-week treadmill regimen. Biomechanical integrity of control and exercised wild-type and +/G610C femora were analyzed by torsional loading to failure. The greatest skeletal gains in response to exercise were observed in stiffness and the shear modulus of elasticity with alterations in collagen content. Analysis of tibial cortical bone by Raman spectroscopy demonstrated similar crystallinity and mineral/matrix ratios regardless of sex, exercise, and genotype. Together, these findings demonstrate +/G610C OI mice have equivalent muscle function, activity levels, and ability to complete a weight-bearing exercise regimen as wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice exhibited increased femoral stiffness and decreased hydroxyproline with exercise, whereas other biomechanical parameters remain unaffected, suggesting a more rigorous exercise regimen or another exercise modality may be required to improve bone quality of OI mice. © 2015 American Society for Bone

  19. High frequency circular translation pin-on-disk method for accelerated wear testing of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikko, Vesa

    2015-01-21

    The temporal change of the direction of sliding relative to the ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component of prosthetic joints is known to be of crucial importance with respect to wear. One complete revolution of the resultant friction vector is commonly called a wear cycle. It was hypothesized that in order to accelerate the wear test, the cycle frequency may be substantially increased if the circumference of the slide track is reduced in proportion, and still the wear mechanisms remain realistic and no overheating takes place. This requires an additional slow motion mechanism with which the lubrication of the contact is maintained and wear particles are conveyed away from the contact. A three-station, dual motion high frequency circular translation pin-on-disk (HF-CTPOD) device with a relative cycle frequency of 25.3 Hz and an average sliding velocity of 27.4 mm/s was designed. The pins circularly translated at high frequency (1.0 mm per cycle, 24.8 Hz, clockwise), and the disks at low frequency (31.4mm per cycle, 0.5 Hz, counter-clockwise). In a 22 million cycle (10 day) test, the wear rate of conventional gamma-sterilized UHMWPE pins against polished CoCr disks in diluted serum was 1.8 mg per 24 h, which was six times higher than that in the established 1 Hz CTPOD device. The wear mechanisms were similar. Burnishing of the pin was the predominant feature. No overheating took place. With the dual motion HF-CTPOD method, the wear testing of UHMWPE as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty can be substantially accelerated without concerns of the validity of the wear simulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinic-based assessment of weight-bearing asymmetry during squatting in people with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using Nintendo Wii Balance Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Howells, Brooke; Feller, Julian; Whitehead, Tim; Webster, Kate E

    2014-06-01

    To use low-cost Nintendo Wii Balance Boards (NWBB) to assess weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), and to compare their results with a matched control group. Quantitative clinical study using a cross-sectional design. Orthopedic clinic of a private hospital. ACLR participants (n=41; mean age ± SD, 26.0 ± 9.8 y; current Cincinnati sports activity level, 75.3 ± 19.8) performed testing in conjunction with their routine 6- or 12-month clinical follow-up, and a control group (n=41) was matched for age, height, body mass, and physical activity level. Participants performed double-limb squats while standing on 2 NWBBs, 1 under each foot. The WBA variables mean mass difference as a percentage of body mass, time favoring a single limb by >5% body mass, absolute symmetry index, and symmetry index relative to the operated or matched control limb were derived. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to assess between-group differences. Significant (P<.05) increases in asymmetry in the ACLR group were found for all outcome measures except symmetry index relative to the operated limb. People who have undergone ACLR are likely to possess WBA during squats, and this can be assessed using low-cost NWBBs in a clinical setting. Interestingly, the observed asymmetry was not specific to the surgical limb. Future research is needed to assess the relationship between WBA early in the rehabilitation process and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving anti-bullying laws and policies to protect youth from weight-based victimization: parental support for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Suh, Y; Li, X

    2017-04-01

    Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015. Identical online questionnaires were completed by two independent national samples of parents in 2014 and 2015 (N = 1804). Parental support for all policy actions was high (at least 81%) and significantly increased from 2014 to 2015 for legal measures that would a) require state anti-bullying laws to add protections against weight-based bullying, and b) enact a federal anti-bullying law that includes weight-based bullying. These findings can inform policy discourse about remedies for youth bullying, and suggest that parental support for improved legal protections against weight-based bullying is present, consistent, and strong. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  2. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side bearings. 229.69 Section 229.69....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  3. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis of blower fan for HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mingshan; Yang Guojun; Xu Yang; Zhao Lei; Yu Suyuan

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic bearing instead of ordinary mechanical bearing was chosen to support the rotor in the blower fan system with helium of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test reactor (HTR-10), and the auxiliary bearing was applied in the HTR-10 as the backup protector. When the electromagnetic bearing doesn't work suddenly for the power broken, the auxiliary bearing is used to support the falling rotor with high rotating speed. The rotor system will be protected by the auxiliary bearing. The design of auxiliary bearing is the ultimate safeguard for the system. This rotor is vertically mounted to hold the blower fan. The rotor's length is about 1.5 m, its weight is about 240 kg and the rotating speed is about 5400 r/min. Auxiliary bearing design and rotor dynamics analysis are very important for the design of blower fan to make success. The research status of the auxiliary bearing was summarized in the paper. A sort of auxiliary bearing scheme was proposed. MSC.Marc was selected to analyze the vibration mode and the natural frequency of the rotor. The scheme design of auxiliary bearing and analysis result of rotor dynamics offer the important theoretical base for the protector design and control system of electromagnetic bearing of the blower fan. (authors)

  4. Over-the-Counter and Out-of-Control: Legal Strategies to Protect Youths From Abusing Products for Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of widely available, over-the-counter drugs and supplements such as laxatives and diet pills for weight control by youths is well documented in the epidemiological literature. Many such products are not medically recommended for healthy weight control or are especially susceptible to abuse, and their misuse can result in serious health consequences. We analyzed the government’s role in regulating these products to protect public health. We examined federal and state regulatory authority, and referred to international examples to inform our analysis. Several legal interventions are indicated to protect youths, including increased warnings and restrictions on access through behind-the-counter placement or age verification. We suggest future directions for governments internationally to address this pervasive public health problem. PMID:23237149

  5. Reliability, validity, and minimal detectable change of the push-off test scores in assessing upper extremity weight-bearing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; George, Hannah R; Goering, Christian A; Shafer, Danielle R; Koester, Alan; Novotny, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) was recently conceived and found to be reliable and valid for assessing weight bearing through injured wrist or elbow. However, further research with larger sample can lend credence to the preliminary findings supporting the use of the POT. This study examined the interrater reliability, construct validity, and measurement error for the POT in patients with wrist conditions. Participants with musculoskeletal (MSK) wrist conditions were recruited. The performance on the POT, grip isometric strength of wrist extensors was assessed. The shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and numeric pain rating scale were completed. The intraclass correlation coefficient assessed interrater reliability of the POT. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) examined the concurrent relationships between the POT and other measures. The standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval were assessed as measurement error and index of true change for the POT. A total of 50 participants with different elbow or wrist conditions (age: 48.1 ± 16.6 years) were included in this study. The results of this study strongly supported the interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.96 and 0.93 for the affected and unaffected sides, respectively) of the POT in patients with wrist MSK conditions. The POT showed convergent relationships with the grip strength on the injured side (r = 0.89) and the wrist extensor strength (r = 0.7). The POT showed smaller standard error of measurement (1.9 kg). The minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval for the POT was 4.4 kg for the sample. This study provides additional evidence to support the reliability and validity of the POT. This is the first study that provides the values for the measurement error and true change on the POT scores in patients with wrist MSK conditions. Further research should examine the

  6. Rehabilitation after hallux valgus surgery: importance of physical therapy to restore weight bearing of the first ray during the stance phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Reinhard; Hofstaetter, Stefan G; Adams, Samuel B; Pichler, Florian; Kristen, Karl-Heinz; Trnka, Hans-Joerg

    2009-09-01

    Operative treatment of people with hallux valgus can yield favorable clinical and radiographic results. However, plantar pressure analysis has demonstrated that physiologic gait patterns are not restored after hallux valgus surgery. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the changes of plantar pressure distribution during the stance phase of gait in patients who underwent hallux valgus surgery and received a multimodal rehabilitation program. This was a prospective descriptive study. Thirty patients who underwent Austin (n=20) and scarf (n=10) osteotomy for correction of mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity were included in this study. Four weeks postoperatively they received a multimodal rehabilitation program once per week for 4 to 6 weeks. Plantar pressure analysis was performed preoperatively and 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. In addition, range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint was measured, and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot questionnaire was administered preoperatively and at 6 months after surgery. The mean AOFAS score significantly increased from 60.7 points (SD=11.9) preoperatively to 94.5 points (SD=4.5) 6 months after surgery. First metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion increased at 6 months postoperatively, with a significant increase in isolated dorsiflexion. In the first metatarsal head region, maximum force increased from 117.8 N to 126.4 N and the force-time integral increased from 37.9 N.s to 55.6 N.s between the preoperative and 6-month assessments. In the great toe region, maximum force increased from 66.1 N to 87.2 N and the force-time integral increased from 18.7 N.s to 24.2 N.s between the preoperative and 6-month assessments. A limitation of the study was the absence of a control group due to the descriptive nature of the study. The results suggest that postoperative physical therapy and gait training may lead to improved function and weight bearing of the first

  7. Effects of weight-bearing exercise on a mini-trampoline on foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation of diabetic neuropathic feet; a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanasamut, Wararom; Pensri, Praneet

    2017-01-01

    Objective : Foot and ankle exercise has been advocated as a preventative approach in reducing the risk of foot ulceration. However, knowledge about the appropriate types and intensity of exercise program for diabetic foot ulcer prevention is still limited. The current study aimed to examine the effects of an eight-week mini-trampoline exercise on improving foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation of diabetic neuropathic feet. Methods : Twenty-one people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy who had impaired sensation perception were divided into two groups. The exercise group received a foot-care education program plus an eight-week home exercise program using the mini-trampoline ( n  = 11); whereas a control group received a foot-care education only ( n  = 10). Measurements were undertaken at the beginning, at the completion of the eight-week program and at a 20-week follow-up. Results : Both groups were similar prior to the study. Subjects in the exercise group significantly increased the range of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in flexion (left: p  = 0.040, right: p  = 0.012) and extension (left: p  = 0.013) of both feet more than controlled subjects. There was a trend for peak plantar pressure at the medial forefoot to decrease in the exercise group ( p  = 0.016), but not in the control group. At week 20, the number of subjects in the exercise group who improved their vibration perception in their feet notably increased when compared to the control group (left: p  = 0.043; right: p  = 0.004). Conclusions : This is a preliminary study to document the improvements in foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation following weight-bearing exercise on a flexible surface in people with diabetic neuropathic feet. Mini-trampoline exercise may be used as an adjunct to other interventions to reduce risk of foot ulceration. A larger sample size is needed to verify these findings. This trial is registered with COA No. 097.2/55.

  8. A conceptual model of psychosocial risk and protective factors for excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette; Kent, Bridie; Herring, Sharon J; Hartley-Clark, Linda; Gale, Janette

    2013-02-01

    nearly half of all women exceed the guideline recommended pregnancy weight gain for their Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is correlated positively with postpartum weight retention and is a predictor of long-term, higher BMI in mothers and their children. Psychosocial factors are generally not targeted in GWG behaviour change interventions, however, multifactorial, conceptual models that include these factors, may be useful in determining the pathways that contribute to excessive GWG. We propose a conceptual model, underpinned by health behaviour change theory, which outlines the psychosocial determinants of GWG, including the role of motivation and self-efficacy towards healthy behaviours. This model is based on a review of the existing literature in this area. there is increasing evidence to show that psychosocial factors, such as increased depressive symptoms, anxiety, lower self-esteem and body image dissatisfaction, are associated with excessive GWG. What is less known is how these factors might lead to excessive GWG. Our conceptual model proposes a pathway of factors that affect GWG, and may be useful for understanding the mechanisms by which interventions impact on weight management during pregnancy. This involves tracking the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors, including body image concerns, motivation to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours, confidence in adopting healthy lifestyle behaviours for the purposes of weight management, and actual behaviour changes. health-care providers may improve weight gain outcomes in pregnancy if they assess and address psychosocial factors in pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  10. Evaluation of novel disposable, light-weight radiation protection devices in an interventional radiology setting: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Heiko; Peña, Constantino; West, James; Contreras, Francisco; Benenati, James F; Katzen, Barry T

    2013-04-01

    Radiation exposure to interventionalists is increasing. The currently available standard radiation protection devices are heavy and do not protect the head of the operator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and comfort of caps and thyroid collars made of a disposable, light-weight, lead-free material (XPF) for occupational radiation protection in a clinical setting. Up to two interventional operators were randomized to wear a XPF or standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent thyroid collars in 60 consecutive endovascular procedures requiring fluoroscopy. Simultaneously a XPF cap was worn by all operators. Radiation doses were measured using dosimeters placed outside and underneath the caps and thyroid collars. Wearing comfort was assessed at the end of each procedure on a visual analog scale (0-100 [100 = optimal]). Patient and procedure data did not differ between the XPF and standard protection groups. The cumulative radiation dose measured outside the cap was 15,700 μSv and outside the thyroid collars 21,240 μSv. Measured radiation attenuation provided by the XPF caps (n = 70), XPF thyroid collars (n = 40), and standard thyroid collars (n = 38) was 85.4% ± 25.6%, 79.7% ± 25.8% and 71.9% ± 34.2%, respectively (mean difference XPF vs standard thyroid collars, 7.8% [95% CI, -5.9% to 21.6%]; p = 0.258). The median XPF cap weight was 144 g (interquartile range, 128-170 g), and the XPF thyroid collars were 27% lighter than the standard thyroid collars (p disposable caps and thyroid collars made of XPF were assessed as being comfortable to wear, and they provide radiation protection similar to that of standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent thyroid collars.

  11. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  12. Grizzly bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  13. [The effect of verticalization of the resulting force (R) of weight bearing in the hip joint on morphologic characteristics of the medullary canal in the femoral shaft in patients with coxarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, S

    1992-01-01

    An influence of verticalization of the resulting force of weight-bearing on the hip joint "R" on the morphological characteristics of the medullar canal on the proximal edge of the shaft of femur was researched. Progressive degenerative changes of the hip joint with a consequent sideways limping or changes of the collodiaphysial angle (ccd angle) were the cause of the verticalization of the resulting force "R". The analysis of patients treated and operated on The Orthopaedic Department of the General Hospital Osijek and The Orthopaedic Clinic of The Medical Faculty of The University of Zagreb. The research, undoubtedly, proved that the patients with coxarthrosis and side-ways in the hip or with changed collodiaphysial angle experienced verticalization of the resulting force of weigh-bearing of the hip joint and the proximal edge of femur which caused morphological changes of the medular canal of the shaft of femur.

  14. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. Part I. Numerical model-based optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Fahrig, Rebecca; Keil, Andreas; Besier, Thor F; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J; Beaupré, Gary S; Maier, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    in three scenarios. Average optical-based translational motion for the nine subjects was 2.14 mm (± 0.69 mm) and 2.29 mm (± 0.63 mm) for the right and left knee, respectively. In the representative central slices of Subject 2, the authors observed 20.30%, 18.30%, and 22.02% improvements in the structural similarity (SSIM) index with 2D shifting, 2D warping, and 3D warping, respectively. The performance of 2D warping improved as the number of markers increased up to 12 while 2D shifting and 3D warping were insensitive to the number of markers used. The minimum required number of markers for 2D shifting, 2D warping, and 3D warping was 4-6, 12, and 8, respectively. An even distribution of markers over the entire field of view provided robust performance for all three correction methods. The authors were able to simulate subject-specific realistic knee movement in weight-bearing positions. This study indicates that involuntary motion can seriously degrade the image quality. The proposed three methods were evaluated with the numerical knee model; 3D warping was shown to outperform the 2D methods. The methods are shown to significantly reduce motion artifacts if an appropriate marker setup is chosen.

  15. Potentiating Effects of MPL on DSPC Bearing Cationic Liposomes Promote Recombinant GP63 Vaccine Efficacy: High Immunogenicity and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Saumyabrata; Maji, Mithun; Ali, Nahid

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccines that activate strong specific Th1-predominant immune responses are critically needed for many intracellular pathogens, including Leishmania. The requirement for sustained and efficient vaccination against leishmaniasis is to formulate the best combination of immunopotentiating adjuvant with the stable antigen (Ag) delivery system. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an immunomodulator on liposomal Ag through subcutaneous (s.c.) route of immunization, and its usefulness during prime/boost against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in BALB/c mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Towards this goal, we formulated recombinant GP63 (rGP63)-based vaccines either with monophosphoryl lipid A-trehalose dicorynomycolate (MPL-TDM) or entrapped within cationic liposomes or both. Combinatorial administration of liposomes with MPL-TDM during prime confers activation of dendritic cells, and induces an early robust T cell response. To investigate whether the combined formulation is required for optimum immune response during boost as well, we chose to evaluate the vaccine efficacy in mice primed with combined adjuvant system followed by boosting with either rGP63 alone, in association with MPL-TDM, liposomes or both. We provide evidences that the presence of either liposomal rGP63 or combined formulations during boost is necessary for effective Th1 immune responses (IFN-γ, IL-12, NO) before challenge infection. However, boosting with MPL-TDM in conjugation with liposomal rGP63 resulted in a greater number of IFN-γ producing effector T cells, significantly higher levels of splenocyte proliferation, and Th1 responses compared to mice boosted with liposomal rGP63, after virulent Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) challenge. Moreover, combined formulations offered superior protection against intracellular amastigote replication in macrophages in vitro, and hepatic and splenic parasite load in vivo. Conclusion Our results define the

  16. Measurement of low molecular weight silicon AMC to protect UV optics in photo-lithography environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobert, Jürgen M.; Miller, Charles M.; Grayfer, Anatoly; Tivin, Anne M.

    2009-03-01

    A new analytical method for semiconductor-specific applications is presented for the accurate measurement of low molecular weight, silicon-containing, organic compounds TMS, HMDSO and D3. Low molecular weight / low boiling point silicon-containing compounds are not captured for extended periods of time by traditional chemical filters but have the same potential to degrade exposure tool optical surfaces as their high molecular weight counterparts. Likewise, we show that capturing these compounds on sample traps that are commonly used for organic AMC analysis does not work for various reasons. Using the analytical method described here, TMS, HMDSO and D3 can be measured artifact-free, with at least a 50:1 peak-to-noise ratio at the method detection limit, determined through the Hubaux-Vos method and satisfying a conservative 99% statistical confidence. Method detection limits for the compounds are 1-6 ppt in air. We present calibration curve, capacity, capture efficiency, break-through and repeatability data to demonstrate robustness of method. Seventy-one real-world samples from 26 projects taken in several fab environments show that TMS is found in concentrations 100 times higher than those of HMDSO and D3. All compounds are found in all environments in concentrations ranging from zero to 12 ppm, but most concentrations were below 50 ppb. All compounds are noticeably higher in litho-bays than in sub-fabs and we found all three compounds inside of two exposure tools, suggesting cleanroom and/or tool-internal contamination sources.

  17. Light Weight Ceramic Ablators for Mars Follow-on Mission Vehicle Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Turan, Ryan

    1994-01-01

    New Light Weight Ceramic Ablators (LCA) were produced by using ceramic and carbon fibrous substrates, impregnated with silicone and phenolic resins. The special infiltration techniques (patent pending) were developed to control the amount of organic resins in the highly porous fiber matrices so that the final densities of LCA's range from 0.22 to 0.24 g/cc. This paper presents the thermal and ablative performance of the Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablators (SIRCA) in simulated entry conditions for Mars-Pathfinder in the Ames 60 MW Interaction Heating Facility (I HF). Arc jet test results yielded no evidence of char erosion and mass loss at high stagnation pressures to 0.25 atm. Minimal silica melt was detected on surface char at a stagnation pressure of 0.31 atm. Four ceramic substrates were used in the production of SIRCA's to obtain the effective of boron oxide present in substrate so the thermal performance of SIRCA's. A sample of SIRCA was also exposed to the same heating condition for five cycles and no significant mass loss or recession was observed. Tensile testing established that the SIRCA tensile strength is about a factor of two higher than that of the virgin substrates. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the char in nitrogen and air showed no evidence of free carbon in the char. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the post test sample showed that the char surface consists of a fibrous structure that was sealed with a thin layer of silicon oxide melt.

  18. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions significantly reversed the weight-bearing deficit and the overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn in the monosodium iodoacetate induced model of osteoarthritis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Yu

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is the most prominent and disabling symptom of osteoarthritis (OA. Clinical data suggest that subchondral bone lesions contribute to the occurrence of joint pain. The present study investigated the effect of the inhibition of subchondral bone lesions on joint pain.Osteoarthritic pain was induced by an injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the rat knee joint. Zoledronic acid (ZOL, a third generation of bisphosphonate, was used to inhibit subchondral bone lesions. Joint histomorphology was evaluated using X-ray micro computed tomography scanning and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The activity of osteoclast in subchondral bone was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Joint pain was evaluated using weight-bearing asymmetry, the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG, and spinal glial activation status using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1 immunofluorescence. Afferent neurons in the DRGs that innervated the joints were identified using retrograde fluorogold labeling.MIA injections induced significant histomorphological alterations and joint pain. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions by ZOL significantly reduced the MIA-induced weight-bearing deficit and overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn at 3 and 6 weeks after MIA injection; however, joint swelling and synovial reaction were unaffected.The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions alleviated joint pain. Subchondral bone lesions should be a key target in the management of osteoarthritic joint pain.

  19. Fractal analysis of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? The paper concludes that its fractal porosity plays an important role, and its fractal dimensions are very close to the golden mean, 1.618, revealing the possible optimal structure of polar bear hair.

  20. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  1. To Compare the Effect of Pre and Post Weight Bearing Anxiety, Depression in Conventional and Modular Prosthesis on Unilateral Transtibial Amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To compare the effect of anxiety and depression on unilateral trans tibial amputees those who are using conventional and modular patellar tendon bearing (PTB prosthesis with stump exercises. Material and Methods: A sample of 40 persons with below knee amputation who were trained to wear prosthesis were studied with an experimental comparative study design. Patients who were admitted at Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy and Research Centre Mangalore, (N=150 who underwent unilateral transtibial, transfemoral and other amputations between August 2009 - December 2011. To find out peri and postoperative prosthetic fitting, anxiety and depression level of transtibial amputees who wear conventional and modular PTB prosthesis. 3 years of experimental comparative study reveals that the outcome measures of peri and post-operative anxiety and depression level while using conventional PTB prosthesis with stump exercises and modular PTB prosthesis with stump exercises on unilateral transtibial amputees. Results: The unilateral transtibial amputees who were trained with modular prosthesis along with stump exercises group patients anxiety and depression levels are reduced as compared to the unilateral transtibial amputees who were trained with conventional PTB prosthesis along with stump exercises. There is no significant difference seen in both the groups while giving stump exercises alone. Conclusion: The unilateral transtibial amputees who were trained with modular prosthesis along with stump exercises group, patient’s anxiety and depression levels are reduced drastically.

  2. Evaluation of knee-joint cartilage and menisci ten years after isolated and combined ruptures of the medial collateral ligament. Investigation by weight-bearing radiography, MR imaging and analysis of proteoglycan fragments in the joint fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, M. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine (Sweden); Thuomas, K.Aa. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Messner, K. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare radiography, MR imaging, and chemical analysis in posttraumatic knees. Material and Methods: Ten matched pairs with either isolated partial rupture of the medial collateral ligament or combined medial collateral ligament/anterior cruciate ligament rupture were compared with matched controls 10 years after trauma. Weight-bearing radiographys and MR examinations were compared with proteoglycan fragment concentrations in the joint fluid. Results: The chemical analyses were similar in both trauma groups. The radiographs showed mild signs of arthrosis in half the patients with combined injury. MR images showed almost all injuried knees to have degenerative changes of various degrees in the cartilage and menisci. More frequent and more advanced changes were found after combined injury than after isolated injury (p<0.01). There were no changes in the controls. Conclusion: MR imaging is the best method for detecting and differentiating early posttraumatic knee arthrosis. (orig.).

  3. Evaluation of knee-joint cartilage and menisci ten years after isolated and combined ruptures of the medial collateral ligament. Investigation by weight-bearing radiography, MR imaging and analysis of proteoglycan fragments in the joint fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, M.; Thuomas, K.Aa.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare radiography, MR imaging, and chemical analysis in posttraumatic knees. Material and Methods: Ten matched pairs with either isolated partial rupture of the medial collateral ligament or combined medial collateral ligament/anterior cruciate ligament rupture were compared with matched controls 10 years after trauma. Weight-bearing radiographys and MR examinations were compared with proteoglycan fragment concentrations in the joint fluid. Results: The chemical analyses were similar in both trauma groups. The radiographs showed mild signs of arthrosis in half the patients with combined injury. MR images showed almost all injuried knees to have degenerative changes of various degrees in the cartilage and menisci. More frequent and more advanced changes were found after combined injury than after isolated injury (p<0.01). There were no changes in the controls. Conclusion: MR imaging is the best method for detecting and differentiating early posttraumatic knee arthrosis. (orig.)

  4. Protective and recuperative effects of 3-bromopyruvate on immunological, hepatic and renal homeostasis in a murine host bearing ascitic lymphoma: Implication of niche dependent differential roles of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Saveg; Pandey, Shrish Kumar; Goel, Yugal; Kujur, Praveen Kumar; Maurya, Babu Nandan; Verma, Ashish; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Rana Pratap; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2018-03-01

    3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) possesses promising antineoplastic potential, however, its effects on immunological homeostasis vis a vis hepatic and renal functions in a tumor bearing host remain unclear. Therefore, the effect of 3-BP administration to a murine host bearing a progressively growing tumor of thymoma origin, designated as Dalton's lymphoma (DL), on immunological, renal and hepatic homeostasis was investigated. Administration of 3-BP (4 mg/kg) to the tumor bearing host reversed tumor growth associated thymic atrophy and splenomegaly, accompanied by altered cell survival and repertoire of splenic, bone marrow and tumor associated macrophages (TAM). TAM displayed augmented phagocytic, tumoricidal activities and production of IL-1 and TNF-α. 3-BP-induced activation of TAM was of indirect nature, mediated by IFN-γ. Blood count of T lymphocytes (CD4 + & CD8 + ) and NK cells showed a rise in 3-BP administered tumor bearing mice. Moreover, 3-BP administration triggered modulation of immunomodulatory cytokines in serum along with refurbished hepatic and renal functions. The study indicates the role of altered cytokines balance, site specific differential macrophage functions and myelopoiesis in restoration of lymphoid organ homeostasis in 3-BP administered tumor bearing host. These observations will have long lasting impact in understanding of alternate mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of 3-BP accompanying appraisal of safety issues for optimizing its antineoplastic actions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively

  6. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  7. Mechanism study of endothelial protection and inhibits platelet activation of low molecular weight fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anjin; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Jie; Zhao, Xue; Yan, Meixing

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have indicated that fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica could inhibit the activation of platelets directly by reducing the platelet aggregation. To explore the direct effect of LMW fucoidan on the platelet system furthermore and examine the possible mechanism, the endothelial protection and inhibits platelet activation effects of two LMW fucoidan were investigated. In the present study, Endothelial injury model of rats was made by injection of adrenaline (0.4 mg kg-1) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured. vWF level was be investigated in vivo and in vitro as an important index of endothelial injury. LMW fucoidan could significantly reduce vWF level in vascular endothelial injury rats and also significantly reduce vWF level in vitro. The number of EMPs was be detected as another important index of endothelial injury. The results showed that LMW fucoidan reduced EMPs stimulated by tumor necrosis factor. In this study, it was found that by inhibiting platelet adhesion, LMW fucoidan played a role in anti-thrombosis and the specific mechanism of action is to inhibit the flow of extracellular Ca2+. All in a word, LMW fucoidan could inhibit the activation of platelets indirectly by reducing the concentration of EMPs and vWF, at the same time; LMW fucoidan inhibited the activation of platelets directly by inhibiting the flow of extracellular Ca2+.

  8. Bearing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.; Preece, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A hydrostatic bearing for the lower end of the vertical shaft of a sodium pump comprises a support shell encircling the shaft and a bush located between the shell and shaft. Liquid sodium is fed from the pump outlet to the bush/shaft and bush/shell interfaces to provide hydrostatic support. The bush outer surface and the shell inner surface are of complementary part-spherical shape and the bush floats relative to the shaft so that the bush can align itself with the shaft axis. Monitoring of the relative rotational speed of the bush with respect to the shaft (such rotation being induced by the viscous drag forces present) is also performed for the purposes of detecting abnormal operation of the bearing or partial seizure, at least one magnet is rotatable with the bush, and a magnetic sensor provides an output having a frequency related to the speed of the bush. (author)

  9. Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Brancati

    1999-01-01

    determined after acquiring and analysing the orbits described by the journal axis for assigned unbalance values in different operating conditions. Analysis of the results shows some particular operating features that were not entirely predicted by the theoretical model and which may give rise to malfunctions in the rotor-tilting pad bearings system. The tests were carried out in the rotor dynamics laboratory of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica per l'Energetica at the University of Naples.

  10. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  11. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jung Chou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Inonotus obliquus (IO is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP, from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10–100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance, reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1, while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  12. Protective Misperception? Prospective Study of Weight Self-Perception and Blood Pressure in Adolescents With Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Emily S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Milliren, Carly E; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Thurston, Idia B; Gooding, Holly C; Richmond, Tracy K

    2017-06-01

    Underestimating one's weight is often seen as a barrier to weight loss. However, recent research has shown that weight underperception may be beneficial, with lower future weight gain and fewer depressive symptoms. Here, we examine the relationship between adolescent weight underperception and future blood pressure. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we obtained a nationally representative sample of 2,463 adolescents with overweight and obesity (students in grades 8-12 in 1996). We used multivariable linear regression to prospectively examine the relationship between weight self-perception in adolescence and blood pressure in adulthood (year 2008; follow-up rate 80.3%), controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education level, household income, and body mass index. Additional analyses were stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Youth with overweight/obesity who underperceived their weight had lower blood pressure in adulthood than those who perceived themselves to be overweight. The decrease in systolic blood pressure was -2.5 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -4.3, -0.7; p = .006). Although the interaction by gender was statistically insignificant (p = .289), important differences appeared upon stratification by gender. Young men showed no significant difference in adult blood pressure related to weight self-perception. Conversely, in young women, weight underperception was associated with an average decrease in systolic blood pressure of -4.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -7.0, -1.7; p = .002). Contrary to conventional wisdom, weight underperception is associated with improved health markers in young women. The observed differences in blood pressure are clinically relevant in magnitude, and interventions to correct weight underperception should be re-examined for unintended consequences. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  13. Big bearings. Unsung hero; Kyodaina jikuuke. Hitome ni tsukanai hatarakimono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanba, S. [Koyo Seiko Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-05

    This paper introduces examples of the use of big bearings. Bearings are divided largely into those used for radial load supporting and those used for thrust load supporting, while big bearings are often used for the latter usage. Thrust bearings include a cutter heat supporting bearing for tunnel excavator working underground, in addition to those used for swing motion of parabolic antennas and tower cranes. A bearing used in an excavator has an outer diameter of about half that of the excavator. The outer diameter of a shielding machine practically used in tunnel drilling currently has an outer diameter of 14,140 mm, and the outer diameter of the bearing is 7200 mm (bearing weighing 45 tons). Other big thrust bearings may include a swing tower swinging thrust bearing used in a continuous casting facility. Big radial bearings are used in iron and steel making facilities. This paper describes two examples of bearings used in this application. A spherical roller bearing to support converter trunion should be of an ultra big size to withstand total weight of about 1400 tons composed of a converter weight and weight of steel to be processed. A four-row cylindrical roller bearing to support the backup roll of a thick plate rolling mill is a bearing with durability against large loads to support reduction rolls whose size have become increasingly large. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Cerebral ischemic lesions detected with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging after carotid artery stenting. Comparison of several anti-embolic protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, M.M.; Maeda, Masayuki; Sakaida, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Distal embolism is an important periprocedural technical complication with carotid angioplasty and carotid artery stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of protection devices used during CAS by detecting new cerebral ischemic lesions using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 95 patients who underwent 98 CAS procedures: 34 using single PercuSurge GuardWire, 31 using double balloon protection, 15 using proximal flow reverse protection devices, 14 using Naviballoon, and 4 using filter anti-embolic devices. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed preoperatively and postoperatively to evaluate the presence of any new embolic cerebral lesions. Postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging revealed 117 new ischemic lesions. Three patients had new ischemic stroke, two minor and one major, all ipsilateral to the treated carotid artery. The remaining patients had clinically silent ischemia. The incidence of new embolic lesions was lower using the proximal flow reverse protection device than with the double balloon protection (33% vs. 48.4%), but the volume of ipsilateral new ischemic lesions per patient was 136.6 mm 3 vs. 86.9 mm 3 , respectively. Neuroprotection with Naviballoon yielded ipsilateral lesions of large volume (86.6 mm 3 ) and higher number (5.7 lesions per patient) than using the filter anti-embolic device (34.8 mm 3 and 1 lesion per patient). New cerebral ischemic lesions after neuroprotected CAS are usually silent. The lower incidence of distal ischemia using proximal flow reverse and double balloon protection devices is limited by the larger volume and higher number of ischemic lesions. (author)

  15. Cerebral ischemic lesions detected with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging after carotid artery stenting: Comparison of several anti-embolic protection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud M; Maeda, Masayuki; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Toma, Naoki; Yamamoto, Akitaka; Hirose, Tomofumi; Miura, Youichi; Fujimoto, Masashi; Matsushima, Satoshi; Taki, Waro

    2009-09-01

    Distal embolism is an important periprocedural technical complication with carotid angioplasty and carotid artery stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of protection devices used during CAS by detecting new cerebral ischemic lesions using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 95 patients who underwent 98 CAS procedures: 34 using single PercuSurge GuardWire, 31 using double balloon protection, 15 using proximal flow reverse protection devices, 14 using Naviballoon, and 4 using filter anti-embolic devices. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed preoperatively and postoperatively to evaluate the presence of any new embolic cerebral lesions. Postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging revealed 117 new ischemic lesions. Three patients had new ischemic stroke, two minor and one major, all ipsilateral to the treated carotid artery. The remaining patients had clinically silent ischemia. The incidence of new embolic lesions was lower using the proximal flow reverse protection device than with the double balloon protection (33% vs. 48.4%), but the volume of ipsilateral new ischemic lesions per patient was 136.6 mm(3) vs. 86.9 mm(3), respectively. Neuroprotection with Naviballoon yielded ipsilateral lesions of large volume (86.6 mm(3)) and higher number (5.7 lesions per patient) than using the filter anti-embolic device (34.8 mm(3) and 1 lesion per patient). New cerebral ischemic lesions after neuroprotected CAS are usually silent. The lower incidence of distal ischemia using proximal flow reverse and double balloon protection devices is limited by the larger volume and higher number of ischemic lesions.

  16. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). Prepared by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program) that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas where contaminants from Y-12 operations are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) are presented in Appendix A. Brief data summary tables referenced in each section are contained within the sections. Supplemental information and extensive data tables are provided in Appendix B.

  17. Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempel Monica C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR and liquid meals, remains unknown. Objective This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. Methods Obese women (n = 54 were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F diet. The trial had two phases: 1 2-week weight maintenance period, and 2 8-week weight loss period. Results Body weight decreased more (P = 0.04 in the IFCR-L group (3.9 ± 1.4 kg versus the IFCR-F group (2.5 ± 0.6 kg. Fat mass decreased similarly (P P = 0.04 in the IFCR-L (19 ± 10%; 20 ± 9%, respectively versus the IFCR-F group (8 ± 3%; 7 ± 4%, respectively. LDL peak particle size increased (P Conclusion These findings suggest that IF combined with CR and liquid meals is an effective strategy to help obese women lose weight and lower CHD risk.

  18. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  19. Oral beta-glucan adjuvant therapy converts nonprotective Th2 response to protective Th1 cell-mediated immune response in mammary tumor-bearing mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon D Ross

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Beta (1-3-D-glucans were identified almost 40 years ago as biological response modifiers that stimulated tumor rejection. In vitro studies have shown that beta-glucans bind to a lectin domain within complement receptor type 3 (CR3, or to, more recently described dectin-1 a beta-glucan specific receptor, acting mainly on phagocytic cells. In this study, we assessed the intracellular cytokine profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes from mice bearing mammary tumors receiving i.v. anti-tumor mAbs combined or not with whole glucan particle suspension given orally (WGP, 400 microg every 24 hours. The proportions of T cells producing IL-4 and IFNgamma were determined by flow cytometry. The proportion of T cells producing IL-4 was significantly higher in tumor-bearing mice not receiving beta-glucan-enhanced therapy. Conversely, T cells from mice undergoing beta-glucan-enhanced therapy showed increased production of the Th1 cytokine IFNgamma. The switch from a Th2 to a Th1 response after WGP therapy was possibly mediated by intestinal mucosal macrophages releasing IL-12.

  20. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  1. A review of bear farming and bear trade in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Livingstone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the bear farming industry in Lao PDR with the objective of documenting the current number of commercial bear facilities (i.e. captive bear facilities judged to be trading in bear bile and/or bears and bear parts and the number of bears contained within these facilities, noting changes since it was last examined between 2000 and 2012 by Livingstone and Shepherd (2014. We surveyed all known commercial bear facilities and searched for previously unrecorded facilities. We compared our records with Livingstone and Shepherd (2014 and corrected some duplicate records from their study. In 2017, we recorded seven commercial facilities; four dedicated bear farms, and three tiger farms that were reportedly also keeping bears. We found that between 2012 and 2017 the recorded number of dedicated bear farms reduced by two, and the recorded number of tiger farms also keeping bears increased by one. Within the same period, the total number of captive bears among all facilities in Lao PDR hardly changed (+one, but the number of bears within each facility did. The northern facilities, owned by ethnic Chinese, have expanded since 2012, and central and southern facilities have downsized or closed. While bear farming appears to be downsizing in Lao PDR overall, efforts to phase it out are undermined by the expansion of foreign owned facilities in the north, within Special and Specific Economic Zones that largely cater to a Chinese market, and where the Lao government's efforts to enforce laws and protect wildlife appear to be lacking. Closing the facilities in the north will require political will and decisive law enforcement. Keywords: Bear farms, Bear bile, Gall bladder, Urso-deoxycholic acid, Bear bile extraction facilities, Lao PDR, Ursus thibetanus

  2. Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempel, Monica C; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Bhutani, Surabhi; Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2012-11-21

    Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week) facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD) risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR) and liquid meals, remains unknown. This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet) on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. Obese women (n = 54) were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L) or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F) diet. The trial had two phases: 1) 2-week weight maintenance period, and 2) 8-week weight loss period. Body weight decreased more (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L group (3.9 ± 1.4 kg) versus the IFCR-F group (2.5 ± 0.6 kg). Fat mass decreased similarly (P < 0.0001) in the IFCR-L and IFCR-F groups (2.8 ± 1.2 kg and 1.9 ± 0.7 kg, respectively). Visceral fat was reduced (P < 0.001) by IFCR-L (0.7 ± 0.5 kg) and IFCR-F (0.3 ± 0.5 kg) diets. Reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels were greater (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L (19 ± 10%; 20 ± 9%, respectively) versus the IFCR-F group (8 ± 3%; 7 ± 4%, respectively). LDL peak particle size increased (P < 0.01), while heart rate, glucose, insulin, and homocysteine decreased (P < 0.05), in the IFCR-L group only. These findings suggest that IF combined with CR and liquid meals is an effective strategy to help obese women lose weight and lower CHD risk.

  3. Peri-Conceptional undernutrition in twin bearing ewes: Eect on early fetal growth and birth weight / Desnutrición peri-concepcional en ovejas con gestación gemelar: Efecto sobre el crecimiento fetal temprano y peso al nacimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vicente Pérez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 48 Katahdin x Pelibuey multiparous ewes were used to evaluate the eect of nutritional restriction (40 % before (30 d, RT, after (50 d, TR or both periods (80 d, RR compared with a control group on maternal body status, early fetal growth and lamb birth weights. Only twin bearing ewes were selected at d 50 of pregnancy for fetal measurements by ultrasonography and record of birth weight. Compared with control ewes, lower (p < 0.05 weight and body condition score had RT and RR ewes at mating time, likewise, TR and RR ewes at d 50 post-conception. There were mainly dierences between fetuses from control and RT ewes, being higher (p < 0.05 the vesicular, abdominal and fetal area, as well as crown-rump length and birth weight for RT fetuses. In conclusion, preconception undernutrition positively altered the early fetal growth and lamb birth weights in hair ewes pregnant with twins

  4. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  5. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  6. Seismic isolation rubber bearings for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes results of biaxial breaking tests by compression and shear and by tension and shear for seismic isolation rubber bearings with bolted-type connections. The bearings used in the tests were low-damping rubber bearings, high-damping rubber bearings, and lead-rubber bearings. Three modes of failure of the bolted-type bearings were observed in the tests. They are the breaking failure by tension and shear; the breaking failure by compression and shear; and the buckling failure by compression and shear. The first and the second modes of failures are almost independent of the types and the sizes of the bearings. The breaking conditions of those failure modes are described in the axial-stress-shear-strain plane. This expression is useful for the evaluation of safety margins of the bearings. The paper outlines the basic design of the nuclear-grade bearings which were used for large-scale rubber bearing tests in a research project for seismic isolation of FBR plants. It also discusses the protection method against aging and the quality control which are important for implementation. (orig./HP)

  7. Seismic isolation rubber bearings for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results of biaxial breaking tests by compression and shear and by tension and shear for seismic isolation rubber bearings with bolted-type connections. The bearings used in the tests were low-damping rubber bearings, high-damping rubber bearings, and lead-rubber bearings. Three modes of failure of the bolted-type bearings were observed in the tests. They are the breaking failure by tension and shear; the breaking failure by compression and shear; and the buckling failure by compression and shear. The first and the second modes of failures are almost independent of the types and the sizes of the bearings. The breaking conditions of those failure modes are described in the axial stress-shear strain plane. This expression is useful for the evaluation of safety margins of the bearings. The paper outlines the basic design of the nuclear-grade bearings which were used for large-scale rubber bearing tests in a research project for seismic isolation of fast breeder reactor (FBR) plants. The paper also discusses the protection method against aging and the quality control which are important for implementation

  8. Protective specific immunity induced by doxorubicin plus TNF-alpha combination treatment of EL4 lymphoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, M J; Verstovsek, S; Maccubbin, D L; Ujházy, P; Zaleskis, G; Berleth, E; Mihich, E

    2000-07-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of a single (day 8), moderate dose (4 mg/kg, i.v.) of doxorubicin (DOX, Adriamycin) combined with recombinant human TNF-alpha (3 different doses and 5 different schedules, i.v.) was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice bearing an implant (s.c.) of the DOX-sensitive, TNF-alpha-resistant EL4 lymphoma. In parallel to monitoring survival, the levels of several host anti-tumor cytolytic effector functions of splenocytes and thymocytes were evaluated throughout the treatment period and in long-term survivors (LTS). DOX treatment alone resulted in a moderate (approx. 20%) increase in life span but no cures. TNF-alpha alone, at any tested dose or schedule, had little or no positive effect on survival. The combinations of DOX and TNF-alpha were only slightly better than DOX alone with respect to the time to death of mice that died (approx. 29% increase); however, each of the combinations involving 1,000 U TNF-alpha/injection produced a fraction (20% to 80%) of LTS. The host defense activities examined included those of splenic and thymic cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and lymphokine-activated killer cells as well as splenic tumoricidal macrophages. Although most activities were modulated by tumor growth and/or treatment, only CTL responsiveness appeared to correlate with survival. CTL activity in the treated groups with LTS was significantly higher than in control groups late in the treatment period. Finally, ex vivo analyses of splenocytes and thymocytes together with the rejection of implanted tumor at 17 months established that LTS displayed specific long-term immune memory. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Physical training improves body weight and energy balance but does not protect against hepatic steatosis in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Fabiana S; Muller, Cynthia R; Stefano, Jose T; Torres, Mariana M; Muntanelli, Bruna R; Simon, Daniel; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R; Pereira, Isabel V; Cogliati, Bruno; Carrilho, Flair J; Oliveira, Claudia P

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the role of physical training (PT) on body weight (BW), energy balance, histological markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic gene expression in the liver of ob/ob mice. Adult male ob/ob mice were assigned into groups sedentary (S; n = 8) and trained (T; n = 9). PT consisted in running sessions of 60 min at 60% of maximal speed conducted five days per week for eight weeks. BW of S group was higher from the 4(th) to 8(th) week of PT compared to their own BW at the beginning of the experiment. PT decreased daily food intake and increased resting oxygen consumption and energy expenditure in T group. No difference was observed in respiratory exchange ratio, but the rates of carbohydrate and lipids oxidation, and maximal running capacity were greater in T than S group. Both groups showed liver steatosis but not inflammation. PT increased CPT1a and SREBP1c mRNA expression in T group, but did not change MTP, PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, and NFKB mRNA expression. In conclusion, PT prevented body weight gain in ob/ob mice by inducing negative energy balance and increased physical exercise tolerance. However, PT did not change inflammatory gene expression and failed to prevent liver steatosis possible due to an upregulation in the expression of SREBP1c transcription factor. These findings reveal that PT has positive effect on body weight control but not in the liver steatosis in a leptin deficiency condition.

  10. Effectiveness of elastic band-type ankle–foot orthoses on postural control in poststroke elderly patients as determined using combined measurement of the stability index and body weight-bearing ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jong Hyun Kim, Woo Sang Sim, Byeong Hee Won Usability Evaluation Technology Center, Advanced Biomedical and Welfare R&D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea Purpose: Poor recovery of postural stability poststroke is the primary cause of impairment in activities and social participation in elderly stroke survivors. The purpose of our study was to experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of our new elastic ankle–foot orthosis (AFO, compared to a traditional AFO fabricated with hard plastic, in improving postural stability in elderly chronic stroke survivors. Patients and methods: Postural stability was evaluated in ten chronic stroke patients, 55.7±8.43 years old. Postural stability was evaluated using the standardized methods of the Biodex Balance System combined with a foot pressure system, under three experimental conditions, no AFO, rigid plastic AFO, and elastic AFO (E-AFO. The following dependent variables of postural stability were analyzed: plantar pressure under the paretic and nonparetic foot, area of the center of balance (COB and % time spent in each location, distance traveled by the COB away from the body center, distance traveled by the center of pressure, and calculated index of overall stability, as well as indices anterior–posterior and medial–lateral stability. Results: Both AFO designs improved all indices of postural stability. Compared to the rigid plastic AFO, the E-AFO produced additional positive effects in controlling anterior–posterior body sway, equalizing weight bearing through the paretic and nonparetic limbs, and restraining the displacement of the center of pressure and of the COB. Conclusion: Based on our outcomes, we recommend the prescription of E-AFOs as part of a physiotherapy rehabilitation program to promote recovery of postural stability poststroke. When possible, therapeutic outcomes should be documented using the Biodex Balance System and

  11. Cerebral Ischemia Detected with Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging after Protected Carotid Artery Stenting: Comparison of Distal Balloon and Filter Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Jung; Jeon, Pyoung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Hong Gee [Konkuk University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of ischemia during protected carotid artery stenting (CAS) as well as to compare the protective efficacy of the balloon and filter devices on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). Seventy-one consecutive protected CAS procedures in 70 patients with a severe (> 70%) or symptomatic moderate (> 50%) carotid artery stenosis were examined. A balloon device (PercuSurge GuardWire) and a filter device (FilterWire EX/EZ, Emboshield) was used in 33 cases (CAS-B group) and 38 cases (CAS-F group) to prevent distal embolization, respectively. All the patients underwent DWI within seven days before and after the procedures. The number of new cerebral ischemic lesions on the post-procedural DWI were counted and divided into ipsilateral and contralateral lesions according to the relationship with the stenting side. New cerebral ischemic lesions were detected in 13 (39.4%) out of the 33 CAS-Bs and in 15 (39.5%) out of the 38 CAS-Fs. The mean number of total, ipsilateral and contralateral new cerebral ischemic lesion was 2.39, 1.67 and 0.73 in the CAS-B group and 2.11, 1.32 and 0.79 in the CAS-F group, respectively. No statistical differences were found between the two groups (p = 0.96, 0.74 and 0.65, respectively). The embolic complications encountered included two retinal infarctions and one hemiparesis in the CAS-B group (9.09%), and one retinal infarction, one hemiparesis and one ataxia in the CAS-F group (7.89%). There was a similar incidence of embolic complications in the two groups (p 1.00). The type of distal protection device used such as a balloon and filter does not affect the incidence of cerebral embolization after protected CAS.

  12. Radioprotection of normal tissues in tumor-bearing mice by troxerutin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, D.K.; Salvi, V.P.; Krishnan Nair, C.K.

    2004-01-01

    The flavanoid derivative troxerutin, used clinically for treating venous disorders, protected biomembranes and cellular DNA against the deleterious effects of γ-radiation. The peroxidation of lipids (measured as thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, or TBARS) in rat liver microsomal and mitochondrial membranes resulting from γ-irradiation up to doses of 500 Gy in vitro was prevented by 0.2 mM troxerutin. The administration of troxerutin (175 mg/kg body weight) to tumor-bearing mice by intraperitoneal (ip) one hour prior to 4 Gy whole-body γ-irradiation significantly decreased the radiation-induced peroxidation of lipids in tissues such as liver and spleen, but there was no reduction of lipid peroxidation in tumor. The effect of troxerutin in γ-radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in different tissues of tumor-bearing mice was studied by comet assay. The administration of troxerutin to tumor-bearing animals protected cellular DNA against radiation-induced strand breaks. This was evidenced from decreases in comet tail length, tail moment, and percent of DNA in the tails in cells of normal tissues such as blood leukocytes and bone marrow, and these parameters were not altered in cells of fibrosarcoma tumor. The results revealed that troxerutin could preferentially protect normal tissues against radiation-induced damages in tumor-bearing animals. (author)

  13. Chimeric human parainfluenza virus bearing the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the sole surface protein is immunogenic and highly protective against Ebola virus challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Zhang Liqun; Yang Lijuan; Ward, Jerrold M.; Dorward, David W.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Murphy, Brian R.; Feldmann, Heinz; Collins, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    We generated a new live-attenuated vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a chimeric virus HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP that contains the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) as the sole transmembrane envelope protein combined with the internal proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). Electron microscopy analysis of the virus particles showed that they have an envelope and surface spikes resembling those of EBOV and a particle size and shape resembling those of HPIV3. When HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP was inoculated via apical surface of an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium, the virus was released from the apical surface; when applied to basolateral surface, the virus infected basolateral cells but did not spread through the tissue. Following intranasal (IN) inoculation of guinea pigs, scattered infected cells were detected in the lungs by immunohistochemistry, but infectious HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP could not be recovered from the lungs, blood, or other tissues. Despite the attenuation, the virus was highly immunogenic, and a single IN dose completely protected the animals against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge of guinea pig-adapted EBOV

  14. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...... bears have traditionally centred on interpersonal relations within the nuclear family, but have recently been institutionalized and commercialized....

  15. Protective specific immunity induced by cyclophosphamide plus tumor necrosis factor alpha combination treatment of EL4-lymphoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, C M; Verstovsek, S; Ujházy, P; Maccubbin, D; Ehrke, M J

    1995-06-01

    A combination treatment protocol initiated 12 days after tumor injection, when the tumor was large, by administering cyclophosphamide (CY, 150 or 250 mg/kg) intraperitoneally followed by intravenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha, 1000 units injection) on days 13, 16, 18, 21, and 23, resulted in about 60% long-term survival (i.e., survival for at least 60 days) in the syngeneic C57BL/6 mouse/EL4 lymphoma model system. The establishment of a specific antitumor immune memory and its possible therapeutic relevance was verified by reinjecting 60-day survivors with EL4 cells; all 60-day survivors that had received the combination treatments rejected the implants and survived for a further 60 days. Thymic cellularity was reduced during treatment and its recovery appeared to correlate with long-term survival and immunity. Thymocytes from mice treated with the combination were found to express significant levels of specific anti-EL4 cytolytic activity following a 4-day stimulation culture with X-irradiated EL4 cells and low concentrations of interleukin-2. This response could not be generated with thymocytes from naive animals. In each case the effect seen with the combination of a moderate CY dose (150 mg/kg) with TNF alpha was better than that seen with either dose of CY alone and equal to or better than that seen with the higher dose of CY combined with TNF alpha. These results indicate that treatment with a single moderate dose of CY in combination with TNF alpha is effective against a large, established tumor in this murine model. Furthermore, all the long-term survivors induced by this treatment developed protective immunity against reimplanted tumor and demonstrated a long-term specific immune memory in the thymus.

  16. Trichinella and polar bears: a limited risk for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy-Camet, J; Bourée, P; Yera, H

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we identified 63 cases reported since World War II of human trichinellosis linked to the consumption of parasitized polar bear (Ursus maritimus) meat. This low number contrasts to the numerous cases of human trichinellosis related to consumption of the meat of black (U. americanus) or brown bears (U. arctos). The prevalence of Trichinella infection is high in bears, but larval muscular burden is usually lower in polar bears compared to other bear species. Polar bears, therefore, seem to play a limited role in the transmission of trichinellosis to humans, as native residents living in the Arctic traditionally consume well-cooked bear meat, and travellers and foreign hunters have only limited access to this protected species due to the declining polar bear population.

  17. Corneal protection with high-molecular-weight hyaluronan against in vitro and in vivo sodium lauryl sulfate-induced toxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauloin, Thierry; Dutot, Mélody; Liang, Hong; Chavinier, Emilie; Warnet, Jean-Michel; Rat, Patrice

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HA-HMW) corneal protection against sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced toxic effects with in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches. In vitro experiments consisted of a human corneal epithelial cell line incubated with HA-HMW, rinsed, and incubated with SLS. Cell viability, oxidative stress, chromatin condensation, caspase-3, -8, -9, and P2X7 cell death receptor activation, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 production were investigated. In vivo experiments consisted of 36 New Zealand white rabbits treated for 3 days, 3 times per day, with HA-HMW or phosphate-buffered salt solution. At day 4, eyes were treated with SLS. Clinical observation and in vivo confocal microscopy using the Rostock Cornea Module of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph-II were performed to evaluate and to compare SLS-induced toxicity between eyes treated with HA-HMW and eyes treated with phosphate-buffered salt solution. In vitro data indicate that exposure of human corneal epithelial cells to HA-HMW significantly decreased SLS-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation cytokine production. In vivo data indicate that SLS cornea injuries, characterized by damaged corneal epithelium, damaged anterior stroma, and inflammatory infiltrations, were attenuated with HA-HMW treatment. A good correlation was seen between in vitro and in vivo findings showing that HA-HMW decreases SLS-induced toxic effects and protects cornea.

  18. R+D works for the further development of high temperature reactors. (1) Captive bearing experiments for active magnetic bearings. (2) Captive bearing test for HTR blowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    When using active magnetic bearings as blower shaft bearings, blower motors and bearings must be protected against mechanical damage in case of faults (example: total electrical supply failure due to the supply cables breaking). So-called captive bearings are provided, in order to be able to shut the blowers down safely in such faults. These captive bearings are roller bearings which are additionally fitted in the area of the blower shaft bearings, to prevent mechanical contact between the blower rotor and stator. As there was little experience available for the given boundary conditions, such as - speed, - acceleration, - bearing load, - bearing dimensions, - ambient conditions, appropriate development and tests had to be carried out. It was important to determine suitable captive bearings and the necessary ambient conditions, which will make it possible to support the failures of the magnetic bearings to be expected in 40 years' operation of the reactor without damage and to meet the requirements of the captive bearings. (orig./GL) [de

  19. A semi-analytical bearing model considering outer race flexibility for model based bearing load monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerst, Stijn; Shyrokau, Barys; Holweg, Edward

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel semi-analytical bearing model addressing flexibility of the bearing outer race structure. It furthermore presents the application of this model in a bearing load condition monitoring approach. The bearing model is developed as current computational low cost bearing models fail to provide an accurate description of the more and more common flexible size and weight optimized bearing designs due to their assumptions of rigidity. In the proposed bearing model raceway flexibility is described by the use of static deformation shapes. The excitation of the deformation shapes is calculated based on the modelled rolling element loads and a Fourier series based compliance approximation. The resulting model is computational low cost and provides an accurate description of the rolling element loads for flexible outer raceway structures. The latter is validated by a simulation-based comparison study with a well-established bearing simulation software tool. An experimental study finally shows the potential of the proposed model in a bearing load monitoring approach.

  20. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  1. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting....... We present our initial design and implementation of the EcoBears that consist of two bear modules (a mother and her cub). We also present our preliminary concept validations and lessons learned to be considered for future directions....

  2. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  3. Polar bears at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, S.; Rosentrater, L.; Eid, P.M. [WWF International Arctic Programme, Oslo (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    Polar bears, the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, spend much of their lives on the arctic sea ice. This is where they hunt and move between feeding, denning, and resting areas. The world population, estimated at 22,000 bears, is made up of 20 relatively distinct populations varying in size from a few hundred to a few thousand animals. About 60 per cent of all polar bears are found in Canada. In general, the status of this species is stable, although there are pronounced differences between populations. Reductions in the extent and thickness of sea ice has lead the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group to describe climate change as one of the major threats facing polar bears today. Though the long-term effects of climate change will vary in different areas of the Arctic, impacts on the condition and reproductive success of polar bears and their prey are likely to be negative. Longer ice-free periods resulting from earlier break-up of sea ice in the spring and later formation in the fall is already impacting polar bears in the southern portions of their range. In Canada's Hudson Bay, for example, bears hunt on the ice through the winter and into early summer, after which the ice melts completely, forcing bears ashore to fast on stored fat until freeze-up in the fall. The time bears have on the ice to hunt and build up their body condition is cut short when the ice melts early. Studies from Hudson Bay show that for every week earlier that ice break-up occurs, bears will come ashore 10 kg lighter and in poorer condition. It is likely that populations of polar bears dividing their time between land and sea will be severely reduced and local extinctions may occur as greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and sea ice melts. Expected changes in regional weather patterns will also impact polar bears. Rain in the late winter can cause maternity dens to collapse before females and cubs have departed, thus exposing occupants to the elements and to predators. Such

  4. Light to Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Protective for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Normal Weight and Overweight Individuals but Not the Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM overall and by body mass index. Methods. Cross-sectional study of employed individuals. Daily alcohol intakes were calculated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire by 5,512 Maori, Pacific Island, and European workers (3,992 men, 1520 women aged 40 years and above. Results. There were 170 new cases of T2DM. Compared to the group with no alcohol consumption and adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, the group consuming alcohol had relative risks of T2DM of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.65 in normal weight individuals, 0.38 (0.18, 0.81 in overweight individuals, and 0.99 (0.59, 1.67 in obese individuals. After further adjusting for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking habit, physical activity, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and hypertension, the relative risks of T2DM were 0.16 (0.05, 0.50 in normal weight individuals, 0.43 (0.19, 0.97 in overweight individuals, and 0.92 (0.52, 1.60 in overweight individuals. Across the categories of alcohol consumption, there was an approximate U-shaped relationship for new cases of T2DM. There was no significant association between alcohol consumption and IGT. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption was protective against diagnosis of T2DM in normal and overweight individuals but not in the obese.

  5. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF AIR BEARING ROCKET SLED SLIPPERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    a simple self-acting type of bearing can support a typical monorail rocket sled, without contact between the slipper and the rail, at speeds between...slipper bearing is capable of preventing slipper-rail contact over the entire speed range of typical monorail and dual rail sleds. However, the weight and

  6. A theoretical-experimental study of backup bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe Linhares da Fonseca, Cesar Augusto

    of two types of backup bearings, which are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The first type is a conventional ball bearing commonly used in industrial applications. The second is an unconventional bearing that, which contains pins inside the clearance for the rotor to impact on. The main...... both types of bearings for further investigation. Also, a full failure of the control and a rotor drop on the ball bearing as backup bearing is investigated by removing the magnetic forces. The nonlinear features of the dynamics of the rotor are assessed for different levels of unbalance. It has been...... radial forces. Remaining in this condition, it may lead to permanent damage or total failure of the machine. This is why the backup bearing design has to be carefully planned and investigated as to whether it helps to protect the integrity of the machine. This PhD thesis provides a comprehensive study...

  7. An electric motor with magnetic bearings: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Because same magnetic flux is used to control rotor as to drive it, size, weight, and power required are minimized. Constant total current keeps motor torque invarient, and absence of mechanical bearings eliminates wear and reduces frictional power loss.

  8. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report updates a study to examine the cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies. The project was initiated in 1994 to acquire accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of the study is used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers monitored 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers worked with representatives from Husky Oil and Rigel Energy on the development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over eight years indicates that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered thus far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears suffer from high mortality, and the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The research concluded in November 2001 provides sufficient information to accurately asses the status of the grizzly bear population and habitat. The data will be analyzed and integrated in 2002 into models that reflect the variables affecting grizzly bears and a final report will be published.

  9. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  10. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  11. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  12. Long-term administration of a small molecular weight catalytic metalloporphyrin antioxidant, AEOL 10150, protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, Zahid N.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Huang Jie; Day, Brian J.; Alexander, Elaine; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether administration of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn(III) tetrakis(N,N'-diethylimidazolium-2-yl) porphyrin, AEOL 10150, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic properties, reduces the severity of radiation-induced injury to the lung from single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy. Methods and Materials: Rats were randomly divided into four different dose groups (0, 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150), receiving either short-term (1 week) or long-term (10 weeks) drug administration via osmotic pumps. Rats received single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy to the right hemithorax. Breathing rates, body weights, blood samples, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess lung damage. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the study endpoints between the irradiated controls and the three groups receiving RT and short-term administration of AEOL 10150. For the long-term administration, functional determinants of lung damage 20 weeks postradiation were significantly worse for RT + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and RT + 1 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150 as compared with the irradiated groups treated with higher doses of AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day). Lung histology at 20 weeks revealed a significant decrease in structural damage and collagen deposition in rats receiving 10 or 30 mg/kg/day after radiation in comparison to the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant reduction in macrophage accumulation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia in rats receiving AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day) after lung irradiation compared with the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Conclusions: The chronic administration of a novel catalytic antioxidant, AEOL 10150, demonstrates a significant protective effect from radiation-induced lung injury. AEOL 10150 has its primary impact on the cascade of events after irradiation, and adding the drug before irradiation and its short-term administration have no significant

  13. Roller bearing geometry design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M.; Pinkston, B. H. W.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is extended and applied to the design of cylindrical roller bearings. The kinematic stabilization mechanism puts a reverse skew into the rolling elements by changing the roller taper. Twelve basic bearing modification designs are identified amd modeled. Four have single transverse convex curvature in their rollers while eight have rollers which have compound transverse curvature made up of a central cylindrical band surrounded by symmetric bands with slope and transverse curvature. The bearing designs are modeled for restoring torque per unit axial displacement, contact stress capacity, and contact area including dynamic loading, misalignment sensitivity and roller proportion. Design programs are available which size the single transverse curvature roller designs for a series of roller slopes and load separations and which design the compound roller bearings for a series of slopes and transverse radii of curvature. The compound rollers are proportioned to have equal contact stresses and minimum size. Design examples are also given.

  14. DW_BEAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Subset of BEAR (Bi-Weekly Examination Analysis and Reporting) data used for financial audit remediation reporting within the Coast Guard Business Intelligence (CGBI)...

  15. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  16. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  17. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  18. Substitutes for Bear Bile for the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Research Progress and Future Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Hong, Ming; Li, Lei; Cheung, Fan; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Bear bile has been a well-known Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Because of the endangered species protection, the concept on substitutes for bear bile was proposed decades ago. Based on their chemical composition and pharmacologic actions, artificial bear bile, bile from other animals, synthetic compounds, and medicinal plants may be the promising candidates to replace bear bile for the similar therapeutic purpose. Accumulating research evidence has indicated that these potential substitutes for bear bile have displayed the same therapeutic effects as bear bile. However, stopping the use of bear bile is a challenging task. In this review, we extensively searched PubMed and CNKI for literatures, focusing on comparative studies between bear bile and its substitutes for the treatment of liver diseases. Recent research progress in potential substitutes for bear bile in the last decade is summarized, and a strategy for the use of substitutes for bear bile is discussed carefully. PMID:27087822

  19. Foothills model forest grizzly bear study : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report updates a five year study launched in 1999 to ensure the continued healthy existence of grizzly bears in west-central Alberta by integrating their needs into land management decisions. The objective was to gather better information and to develop computer-based maps and models regarding grizzly bear migration, habitat use and response to human activities. The study area covers 9,700 square km in west-central Alberta where 66 to 147 grizzly bears exist. During the first 3 field seasons, researchers captured and radio collared 60 bears. Researchers at the University of Calgary used remote sensing tools and satellite images to develop grizzly bear habitat maps. Collaborators at the University of Washington used trained dogs to find bear scat which was analyzed for DNA, stress levels and reproductive hormones. Resource Selection Function models are being developed by researchers at the University of Alberta to identify bear locations and to see how habitat is influenced by vegetation cover and oil, gas, forestry and mining activities. The health of the bears is being studied by researchers at the University of Saskatchewan and the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre. The study has already advanced the scientific knowledge of grizzly bear behaviour. Preliminary results indicate that grizzlies continue to find mates, reproduce and gain weight and establish dens. These are all good indicators of a healthy population. Most bear deaths have been related to poaching. The study will continue for another two years. 1 fig.

  20. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  1. Watchable Wildlife: The Black Bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Black bears are the bears people most often encounter. Black bears live in forests over much of North America, unlike grizzlies that live only in Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the northern Rocky Mountains. This brochure presents the latest information on black bear life and how this species responds to an ever-increasing number of campers, hikers, and...

  2. Tribology of alternative bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen

    2006-12-01

    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  3. Telemetry experiments with a hibernating black bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, J. J.; Varney, J. R.; Sumner, J. S.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop and test telemetry equipment suitable for monitoring physiological parameters and activity of a hibernating bear in its den, to monitor this data and other environmental information with the Nimbus 3 IRLS data collection system, and to refine immobilizing, handling, and other techniques required in future work with wild bears under natural conditions. A temperature-telemetering transmitter was implanted in the abdominal cavity of a captive black bear and body temperature data was recorded continuously during a 3 month hibernation period. Body temperatures ranging between 37.5 and 31.8 C were observed. Body temperature and overall activity were influenced by disturbances and ambient den temperature. Nychthemeral temperature changes were not noticable. A load cell weight recording device was tested for determining weight loss during hibernation. Monitoring of data by satellite was not attempted. The implanted transmitter was removed and the bear was released with a radiolocation collar at the conclusion of the experiment.

  4. A Three-Dimensional Foil Bearing Performance Map Applied to Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    stress brought on by excessive viscous power loss; therefore a map that graphically relates component and system-level parameters (bearing size, applied...Introduction Foil bearings are self-acting, hydrodynamic gas bearings that use air as their working fluid . Their use in rotating systems eliminates the...weight, maintenance requirements, speed, and temperature limitations associated with conventional oil-lubricated rotor supports (i.e., bearings, dampers

  5. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  6. Protective Skins for Composite Airliners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

  7. Bear maul craniocerebral trauma in Kashmir Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Sheikh Adil; Rasool, Altaf; Zaroo, Mohamad Inam; Wani, Adil Hafeez; Zargar, Haroon Rashid; Darzi, Mohammad Ashraf; Khursheed, Nayil

    2013-01-01

    Craniocerebral injuries constitute the bulk of the trauma patients in all the tertiary-care hospitals. Bear attacks as a cause of trauma to the brain and its protective covering are rare. This was a hospital-based retrospective (January 1990 to July 2005) and prospective study (August 2005 to December 2010). Craniocerebral trauma was seen in 49 patients of bear maul injuries. Loss of scalp tissue was seen in 17 patients, 13 of whom had exposed pericranium and needed split-thickness skin grafting, while 4 patients with exposed skull bones required scalp transposition flaps as an initial procedure. Skull bone fractures without associated brain injury were observed in 24 cases. Frontal bone was the site of fracture in the majority of cases (95%). Surgical intervention was needed in 18 patients for significantly depressed fractures. Three of these patients had depressed frontal bone fractures with underlying contusions and needed brain debridement and duraplasty. Injury to the brain was observed in 8 patients. Trauma to the brain and its protective coverings as a result of bear attacks is rarely known. Brain injury occurs less commonly as compared to soft tissue and bony injury. Craniocerebral trauma as a result of bear assaults has been a hitherto neglected area of trauma as the past reported incidence has been very low. Of late, the incidence and severity of such attacks has assumed grave proportions in areas adjacent to known bear habitats. An innocuous-looking surface wound might be the only presentation of an underlying severe brain trauma. Public awareness has to be generated to protect the people living in hilly areas.

  8. DC Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic-bearing-supported shaft may have a number of concentricity and alignment problems. One of these involves the relationship of the position sensors, the centerline of the backup bearings, and the magnetic center of the magnetic bearings. For magnetic bearings with permanent magnet biasing, the average control current for a given control axis that is not bearing the shaft weight will be minimized if the shaft is centered, on average over a revolution, at the magnetic center of the bearings. That position may not yield zero sensor output or center the shaft in the backup bearing clearance. The desired shaft position that gives zero average current can be achieved if a simple additional term is added to the control law. Suppose that the instantaneous control currents from each bearing are available from measurements and can be input into the control computer. If each control current is integrated with a very small rate of accumulation and the result is added to the control output, the shaft will gradually move to a position where the control current averages to zero over many revolutions. This will occur regardless of any offsets of the position sensor inputs. At that position, the average control effort is minimized in comparison to other possible locations of the shaft. Nonlinearities of the magnetic bearing are minimized at that location as well.

  9. [The kangaroo mothers' programme: a simple and cost-effective alternative for protecting the premature newborn or low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarazo-Medina, Jenny P; Ospina-Diaz, Juan M; Ariza-Riaño, Nelly E

    2012-06-01

    Describing the efficacy and achievements of the kangaroo mothers' programme (KMP) regarding preterm or low-birth-weight babies' health and development in Hospital San Rafael in Tunja from November 2007 to December 2009. This was a retrospective observational cohort study; 374 infants born prematurely or having low-birth-weight were included to assess household socio-demographic factors, maternal and obstetric history, delivery characteristics and complications and follow-up until 40 weeks post-conception age. There was a high prevalence of teenage pregnancy (17.5 %) and in women older than 35 years (12.6 %), unwanted pregnancy (40.6 %), low quality and poor availability of food in families, complications such as preeclampsia, infection and premature rupture of membranes, 1,969 grams average birth weight, 2,742.9 grams average weight on discharge and 22 grams average weight gain per day. It was found that KMP methodology substantially improved the mothers' psychological aspects and health status and the newborns' prognosis and led to stabilising body temperature and weight gain rate while decreasing risks of complications and nosocomial infection. It also lowered health care costs and shortened hospital stay.

  10. Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer

    1993-01-01

    A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.

  11. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  12. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  13. Platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos compared to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särndahl Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies.

  14. The thermodynamic properties of a new type catcher bearing used in active magnetic bearings system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Chaowu; Zhu, Yili; Xu, Longxiang; Xu, Yuanping; Zheng, Yantong

    2015-01-01

    Normally a rotor levitated by active magnetic bearings (AMBs) system would rotate without contacting with any stator component, but the possibility still remains that the supporting force might lose temporarily or permanently, thus requiring the Catcher bearings (CBs) to provide backup protection in case of the failure of AMBs. A new type CB with two separate rolling element bearing series could have the speed distribution between the inner race and intermediate race according to certain ratio, in which the speed of each roller element bearing decreases with the limit speed of the whole CB increasing, offering high capability to sustain its initial rotation speed. Based on the theory of heat transfer, tribology, and rotor dynamics, this paper analyzes the thermal structure of double-decker catcher bearing (DDCB) and single-decker catcher bearing (SDCB), respectively. Through this structure, the thermal resistances and equations of heat transfer can be obtained. Then we calculate the friction heat and temperature distribution in the various CBs upon rotor's dropping on SDCB or DDCB, followed by the discussion on the CBs temperature rise's effects on lubrication conditions and rotor dynamics parameters. Finally various experiments are carried out to measure the temperature rise of different CBs. The results obtained validate the theoretical analysis and also provide main methods to reduce heat generation. Using DDCB is proved to be effective to reduce the temperature rise. - Highlights: • The DDCB is a more suitable catcher bearing for AMBs. • Compared to SDCB, using DDCB, the temperature rise can decrease in the same states. • A lower viscosity of lubricant may induce a lower temperature rise. • The inner raceway temperature of the first layer bearing is the highest. • Reducing the unbalance mass of the rotor is a method to decrease the temperature rise

  15. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  16. High d(+)-fructose diet adversely affects testicular weight gain in weaning rats─protection by moderate d(+)-glucose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The use of high D(+)-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+)-fructose diet (80% D(+)-fructose as part of the diet) to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+)-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+)-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+)-glucose was ≈23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain.

  17. Actuators for Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H. Maslen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature of active magnetic bearing (AMB technology dates back to at least 1937 when the earliest work that clearly describes an active magnetic bearing system was published by Jesse Beams [...

  18. Experimental and Numerical Simulation of Unbalance Response in Vertical Test Rig with Tilting-Pad Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Nässelqvist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertically oriented machines with journal bearing, there are no predefined static radial loads, such as dead weight for horizontal rotor. Most of the commercial software is designed to calculate rotordynamic and bearing properties based on machines with a horizontally oriented rotor; that is, the bearing properties are calculated at a static eccentricity. For tilting-pad bearings, there are no existing analytical expressions for bearing parameters and the bearing parameters are dependent on eccentricity and load angle. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified method to perform numerical simulations on vertical rotors including bearing parameters. Instead of recalculating the bearing parameters in each time step polynomials are used to represent the bearing parameters for present eccentricities and load angles. Numerical results are compared with results from tests performed in a test rig. The test rig consists of two guide bearings and a midspan rotor. The guide bearings are 4-pad tilting-pad bearings. Shaft displacement and strains in the bearing bracket are measured to determine the test rig’s properties. The comparison between measurements and simulated results shows small deviations in absolute displacement and load levels, which can be expected due to difficulties in calculating exact bearing parameters.

  19. The Role of Body Weight on Bone in Anorexia Nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Jacob; Hansen, Stinus; Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), trabecular microarchitecture and estimated failure load in weight-bearing vs. non-weight-bearing bones...

  20. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  1. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  2. Passive magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  3. High D(+-Fructose Diet Adversely Affects Testicular Weight Gain in Weaning Rats—Protection by Moderate D(+-Glucose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Shibata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of high D(+-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+-fructose diet (80% D(+-fructose as part of the diet to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P < 0.0001 and thus delayed the weight gains in the body (40% less, P < 0.0001 and testes (40% less, P < 0.0001 compared to the no D(+-fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+-glucose was ã23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain.

  4. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  5. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  6. Magnetic translator bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  7. Sources of mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic Chlorella-bearing ciliates (Ciliophora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SONNTAG, BETTINA; SUMMERER, MONIKA; SOMMARUGA, RUBEN

    2007-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a family of secondary metabolites known to protect organisms exposed to solar UV radiation. We tested their distribution among several planktonic ciliates bearing Chlorella isolated from an oligo-mesotrophic lake in Tyrol, Austria. In order to test the origin of these compounds, the MAAs were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography in both the ciliates and their symbiotic algae. Considering all Chlorella-bearing ciliates, we found: (i) seven different MAAs (mycosporine-glycine, palythine, asterina-330, shinorine, porphyra-334, usujirene, palythene); (ii) one to several MAAs per species and (iii) qualitative and quantitative seasonal changes in the MAAs (e.g. in Pelagodileptus trachelioides). In all species tested, concentrations of MAAs were always <1% of ciliate dry weight. Several MAAs were also identified in the Chlorella isolated from the ciliates, thus providing initial evidence for their symbiotic origin. In Uroleptus sp., however, we found evidence for a dietary source of MAAs. Our results suggest that accumulation of MAAs in Chlorella-bearing ciliates represents an additional benefit of this symbiosis and an adaptation for survival in sunlit, UV-exposed waters.

  8. New challenges for grizzly bear management in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Gunther, Kerry A.

    2016-01-01

    A key factor contributing to the success of grizzly bear Ursus arctos conservation in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem has been the existence of a large protected area, Yellowstone National Park. We provide an overview of recovery efforts, how demographic parameters changed as the population increased, and how the bear management program in Yellowstone National Park has evolved to address new management challenges over time. Finally, using the management experiences in Yellowstone National Park, we present comparisons and perspectives regarding brown bear management in Shiretoko National Park.

  9. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  10. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  11. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of..., 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor) and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC (transferees) filed an application for the partial the transfer of licenses...

  12. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Conservation of brown bear in the Alps: space use and settlement behavior of reintroduced bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preatoni, Damiano; Mustoni, Andrea; Martinoli, Adriano; Carlini, Eugenio; Chiarenzi, Barbara; Chiozzini, Simonetta; Van Dongen, Stefan; Wauters, Luc A.; Tosi, Guido

    2005-11-01

    Large carnivores typically need large home ranges containing habitats patches of different quality. Consequently, their conservation requires habitat protection and management at the landscape scale. In some cases, reintroduction might be used to support remnant or restore extinct populations. This is the case for the brown bear ( Ursus arctos) in the Italian Alps. We monitored spacing behavior and settlement of reintroduced brown bears in Adamello-Brenta Natural Park, North-Italy, using radio-tracking. Habitat use, dispersion and survival were studied to evaluate the success of reintroduction and possible conflicts with man. All three males and five of seven females settled in the study area. Most bears roamed widely the first months after release, exploring the new habitat. Patterns of home range overlap between seasons and years revealed that home range use stabilized the year after first hibernation. Home ranges were larger in the mating season (May-July) than in spring or autumn. Home ranges varied between 34 and 1813 km 2 the year after release, but core-areas, where feeding activity was concentrated, were much smaller. Some bears had exclusive core-areas in summer and autumn, but most showed considerable core-area overlap with animals of the same and/or the opposite sex. Bears selected deciduous forests, mixed and conifer forests were used according to availability, and areas with anthropogenic disturbance were avoided. Most bears settled and some reproduced successfully at the release site, causing high initial population growth, suggesting that reintroduction can help to re-establish a brown bear population in the Italian Alps.

  14. 40 CFR 86.229-94 - Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inertia weight class determination. 86.229-94 Section 86.229-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 86.229-94 Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) Flywheels... vehicle weight (pounds) Equivalent test weight (pounds) Inertia weight class (pounds) Up-1,062 1,000 1,000...

  15. 40 CFR 86.129-80 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inertia weight class determination. 86.129-80 Section 86.129-80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) Flywheels, electrical or other means of... weight (pounds) Equivalent test weight (pounds) Inertia weight class (pounds) Up to 1,062 1,000 1,000 1...

  16. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  17. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, A.T.W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    θ-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The θ-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  18. Superconducting bearings in flywheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Ganney, I.; Lo, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Twardowski, T. [International Energy Systems, Chester High Road, Neston, South Wirral (United Kingdom); Dawson, B. [British Nuclear Fuels, Capenhurst, South Wirral (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out into the use of superconducting magnetic bearings to levitate energy storage flywheels. In a planned program of work, Cambridge University are aiming to produce a practical bearing system for Pirouette(TM). The Pirouette(TM) system is designed to provide 5 kWh of recoverable energy which is currently recoverable at a rate of 5 kW (future revisions will provide up to 50 kW). IES (a British Nuclear Fuels subsidiary) the owners of the Pirouette(TM) machine have supplied Cambridge with a flywheel. This flywheel weighs >40 kg and is being levitated using an Evershed-type arrangement in which the superconductor is being used to stabilize the interaction between two magnets. To date we have demonstrated stable levitation in static and low speed tests in a rig designed for low speeds of rotation in air. A second rig which is currently under construction at BNFL will run in vacuum at speeds of up to 50 (orig.) 5 refs.

  19. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  20. Dynamic weight-bearing assessment of pain in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Christensen, Robin; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    -minute-walk-test (6MWT), and 6-min-walk-test with subsequent pain rating (6MWTpain), and once with a transition questionnaire (TRANS-Q) for the patient-reported change in pain after 12 weeks of exercise. Construct validity (baseline-scores) and responsiveness (change-scores) were estimated by Spearman Correlation...... a standing position). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability of the DAP for knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: One-hundred participants with knee OA were tested twice each with the DAP, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), six...

  1. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  2. Lead-free bearing alloys for engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratke, Lorenz; Ågren, John; Ludwig, Andreas; Tonn, Babette; Gránásy, László; Mathiesen, Ragnvald; Arnberg, Lars; Anger, Gerd; Reifenhäuser, Bernd; Lauer, Michael; Garen, Rune; Gust, Edgar

    2005-10-01

    Recent developments to reduce the fuel consumption, emission and air pollution, size and weight of engines for automotive, truck, ship propulsion and electrical power generation lead to temperature and load conditions within the engines that cannot be borne by conventional bearings. Presently, only costly multilayer bearings with electroplated or sputtered surface coatings can cope with the load/speed combinations required. Ecological considerations in recent years led to a ban by the European Commission on the use of lead in cars a problem for the standard bronze-lead bearing material. This MAP project is therefore developing an aluminium-based lead-free bearing material with sufficient hardness, wear and friction properties and good corrosion resistance. Only alloys made of components immiscible in the molten state can meet the demanding requirements. Space experimentation plays a crucial role in optimising the cast microstructure for such applications.

  3. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  4. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  5. Effect of Bidens pilosa extract on renal functions and some tumor markers of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma bearing mice exposed to γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabany, H.; Ibrahim, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    The Ethanolic extract of Bidens pilosa (EtBP) was tested in Swiss albino mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and exposed to γ-radiation. EAC mice received intraperitoneal (i.p) 250 mg/kg body weight EtBP for nine days , 24hr after tumor inoculation. Mice exposed to 4 Gy γ-radiation 30 min after the first dose of EtBP. Seventy female mice were classified into 6 groups (15 mice in each group) as follows, control, mice treated with EtBP for 9 consecutive days, mice bearing EAC cells, EAC bearing mice treated with EtBP, 24 hour after tumor inoculation, EAC bearing mice and irradiated, and EAC bearing mice treated with EtBP and exposed to γ-radiation. Five animals from each group were sacrificed 18 hr after administration of the last EtBP dose. Blood and ascetic fluid were collected and kidneys were removed for biochemical and histopathological studies. The remaining animals were observed daily for recording survival percentage and body weight. Results showed that treatment of EAC bearing mice with EtBP and/or exposure to γ- radiation increased the survival percentage of the animals and decreased their body weight compared to EAC group. Inoculation of mice with EAC cells resulted in biochemical and histopathological changes leading to kidney damage. Animals of EAC bearing mice with EtBP and /or exposure to γ- radiation significantly restored the elevated levels of serum urea and creatinine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), metalo matrix protein (mmp-2 and mmp9), also the elevated level of lipid peroxidation (MDA) in kidneys tissue, compared to EAC group. On the other hand, a significantly decline was observed in glutathione (GSH) and super oxide dismutase (SOD) contents in kidney tissue of EAC group. Treatment of EAC bearing mice with EtBP and/or exposure to γ-radiation resulted in increase GSH and SOD in kidney tissue and increased caspase-3 in ascetic fluid, comparing to EAC group. It could be concluded that EtBP through its antioxidant

  6. The paradigm of grizzly bear restoration in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C. C.; Maehr, David S.; Noss, Reed F.; Larkin, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Grizzly bear restoration and recovery is a controversial, highly politicized process. By 1959, when the Craigheads began their pioneering work on Yellowstone grizzly bears, the species had been reduced to a remnant of its historic range. Prior to the colonization of North America by Europeans, the grizzly lived in relatively pristine habitats with aboriginal Native Americans. As civilization expanded, humans changed the face of the landscape, converting grizzly bear habitat to farms and ranches. People killed grizzlies to protect livestock and eliminate a perceived threat to human safety. In concert, habitat loss and direct human-caused mortality had effectively eliminated the grizzly from 95 percent of its historic range in the conterminous United States by the 1920s (Servheen 1989). Grizzly bear numbers had been reduced nearly 98 percent by 1975 when the species was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) (USFWS 1993).

  7. Reducing Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Bearing Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, N. E.; Dennies, D. P.; Lumsden, I., J.b.

    1986-01-01

    Resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in some stainless-steel alloys increased by addition of small amounts of noble metals. 0.75 to 1.00 percent by weight of palladium or platinum added to alloy melt sufficient to improve properties of certain stainless steels so they could be used in manufacture of high-speed bearings.

  8. Evaluation of black bear (Ursus americanus) diet and consequences in its conservation in Sierra de Picachos, Nuevo León, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez-Casillas, Luis Antonio; Varas, Cora

    2013-01-01

    Black bears (Ursus americanus) are considered endangered in Mexico. In northern Mexico, bears are considered responsible for preying on livestock, damaging private property, and crops; therefore they are killed to protect locals' livelihoods. There is a need to understand bears' ecological requirements in order to create conservation plans that include human-bear conflict resolution and that reduce the hunting of this endangered species. We studied the diet of black bears in the Sierra de Pic...

  9. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2001-05-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found on the applications of superconducting bearings in flywheels. (au)

  10. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  11. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Katharine; Rong, Hou; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard; Loeffler, I.Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over a...

  12. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  13. Flywheel Challenge: HTS Magnetic Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Riedel, T; Rothfeld, R; Wippich, D; Goebel, B

    2006-01-01

    A 200 mm cylindrical engineering prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) was designed and fabricated. Measurements show that the 17 kg PM rotor can suspend safely 1000 kg in axial direction and 470 kg radially. The rationale for the bearing performance is to stabilize a 400 kg rotor of a new compact 5 kWh/280 kW flywheel energy storage system (COM - FESS). Measurements of the magnetic bearing force, stiffness and drag-torque are presented indicated the successful targeting a milestone in the HTS bearing technology. The influence of the PM configuration and the YBCO temperature on the bearing performance was experimentally studied, providing high-force or high-stiffness behaviour. The axial stiffness 5 kN/mm at 0.5 mm displacement is the highest value of a HTS bearing we know

  14. High Capacity cylinder roller bearing; High Capacity Zylinderrollenlager. Ein vollrolliges Lager mit Kaefig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, J.; Baum, J. [SKF, Schweinfurt (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The high capacity cylinder roller bearing is an example for continuous development of SKF products and does an effective contribution to increase operational safety and offers the possibility to reduce weight and compact design. (GL)

  15. Journal bearing impedance descriptions for rotordynamic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Childs, D.W.; Moes, H.; Leeuwen, van H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Bearing impedance vectors are introduced for plain journal bearings which define the bearing reaction force components as a function of the bearing motion. Impedance descriptions are developed directly for the approximate Ocvirk (short) and Sommerfeld (long) bearing solutions. The impedance vector

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 266 - Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units XIII Appendix XIII to Part 266 Protection of Environment... XIII to Part 266—Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units These...

  17. A new fractional derivative and its application to explanation of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new fractional derivative is defined through the variational iteration method, and its application in explaining the excellent thermal protection of polar bear hairs is elucidated. The fractal porosity of its inner structure makes a polar bear mathematically adapted for living in a harsh Arctic region.

  18. A new fractional derivative and its application to explanation of polar bear hairs

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Huan He; Zheng-Biao Li; Qing-li Wang

    2016-01-01

    A new fractional derivative is defined through the variational iteration method, and its application in explaining the excellent thermal protection of polar bear hairs is elucidated. The fractal porosity of its inner structure makes a polar bear mathematically adapted for living in a harsh Arctic region.

  19. EFFECT OF BEARING MACROGEOMETRY ON BEARING PERFORMANCE IN ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin GÜLLÜ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available During manufacturing, ideal dimension and mutual positioning of machine elements proposed in project desing can be achieved only within certain range of tolerances. These tolerances, being classified in two groups, related to micro and macro geometry of machine elements, don't have to effect the functioning of these elements. So, as for all machine elements, investigation of the effects of macro and micro tolerances for journal bearings is important. In this study, we have investigated the effect of macro geometric irregularities of journal bearings on performance characteristics. In this regard, we have studied the change of bearing performance in respect to deviation from ideal circle for an elliptic shaft with small ovality rolling in circular journal bearing.

  20. Non-contacting "snubber bearing" for passive magnetic bearing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F

    2017-08-22

    A new non-contacting magnetic "snubber" bearing is provided for application to rotating systems such as vehicular electromechanical battery systems subject to frequent accelerations. The design is such that in the equilibrium position the drag force of the snubber is very small (milliwatts). However in a typical case, if the rotor is displaced by as little as 2 millimeters a large restoring force is generated without any physical contact between the stationary and rotating parts of the snubber bearing.

  1. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  2. Temporal Trends and Future Predictions of Mercury Concentrations in Northwest Greenland Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Born, E.W.; Riget, Frank Farsø

    2011-01-01

    -2008 concentrations ofHg in Northwest Greenland polar bear hair exceeded the general guideline values of 20-30 μg/g dry weight for terrestrial wildlife, whereas the neurochemical effect level of 5.4 μg Hg/g dry weight proposed for East Greenland polar bears was exceeded in 93.5% of the cases. These results call......Hair samples from 117 Northwest Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were taken during 1892-2008 and analyzed for total mercury (hereafterHg). The sample represented 28 independent years and the aim of the study was to analyze for temporal Hg trends. Mercury concentrations showed yearly...

  3. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  4. Water-bearing explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, G M

    1970-12-21

    An explosive water-bearing composition, with high detonation velocity, comprises a mixture of (1) an inorganic oxidizer salt; (2) nitroglycerine; (3) nitrocellulose; (4) water; and (5) a water thickening agent. (11 claims)

  5. Failure analysis of superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Amit; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-01

    The dynamics of superconductor bearings in a cryogenic failure scenario have been analyzed. As the superconductor warms up, the rotor goes through multiple resonance frequencies, begins to slow down and finally touches down when the superconductor goes through its transition temperature. The bearing can be modelled as a system of springs with axial, radial and cross stiffness. These springs go through various resonant modes as the temperature of the superconductor begins to rise. We have presented possible explanations for such behavio0008.

  6. Superconducting composite for magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II.

    1995-01-01

    A composite includes granules of Type II superconducting material and granules of rare-earth permanent magnets that are distributed in a binder. The composite is a two-phase structure that combines the properties of the superconductor and magnets with the flexibility and toughness of a polymeric material. A bearing made from this composite has the load capacity and stiffness of a permanent magnet bearing with added stability from a Type II superconducting material. 7 figs

  7. An analysis of heat conduction in polar bear hairs using one-dimensional fractional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. The polar bears can perennially live in an extremely cold environment and can maintain body temperature at around 37 °C. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? Its membrane-pore structure plays an important role. In the previous work, we established a 1-D fractional heat conduction equation to reveal the hidden mechanism for the hairs. In this paper, we further discuss solutions and parameters of the equation established and analyze heat conduction in polar bear hairs.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1772-99 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. 86.1772-99 Section 86.1772-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1772-99 Road load power, test weight, and inertia...

  9. Analyzing the use of pins in safety bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Fonseca, Cesar A. L. L.; Weber, Hans I.; Fleischer, Philip F.

    2015-01-01

    A new concept for safety bearings is analyzed: useful in emergency situations, it shall protect the bearing from destruction by the use of pins which impact with a disc, both capable of good energy dissipation. Results of work in progress are presented by validating partial stages......–Kutta method is validated with experimental results. Simulations of rotor orbits due to the impact condition are analyzed and compared to data obtained from the experiment giving a good perspective on the use of pins. The contact interaction between rotor and pins uses an elastic-dissipative model. In addition...

  10. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Rothfeld, R; Riedel, T; Goebel, B; Wippich, D; Schirrmeister, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS–FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN 2 . More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  11. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Research and Development FY-2002 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Deldebbio, John Anthony; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Olson, Lonnie Gene; Scholes, Bradley Adams

    2002-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering several optional processes for disposal of liquid sodium-bearing waste. During fiscal year 2002, immobilization-related research included of grout formulation development for sodium-bearing waste, absorption of the waste on silica gel, and off-gas system mercury collection and breakthrough using activated carbon. Experimental results indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be immobilized in grout at 70 weight percent and onto silica gel at 74 weight percent. Furthermore, a loading of 11 weight percent mercury in sulfur-impregnated activated carbon was achieved with 99.8% off-gas mercury removal efficiency.

  12. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  13. Noise estimation of oil lubricated journal bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Byoung Hoo; Kim, Kyung Woong

    2003-01-01

    Noise estimating procedures of oil lubricated journal bearings are presented. Nonlinear analysis of rotor-bearing system including unbalance mass of the rotor is performed in order to obtain acoustical properties of the bearing. Acoustical properties of the bearing are investigated through frequency analysis of the pressure fluctuation of the fluid film calculated from the nonlinear analysis. Noise estimating procedures presented in this paper could aid in the evaluation and understanding of acoustical properties of oil lubricated journal bearings

  14. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  15. Pronounced expression of the lipolytic inhibitor G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2) in adipose tissue from brown bears (Ursus arctos) prior to hibernation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas S; Vendelbo, Mikkel H

    2016-01-01

    Prior to hibernation, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) exhibits unparalleled weight gain. Unlike humans, weight gain in bears is associated with lower levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) and increased insulin sensitivity. Understanding how free-ranging brown bears suppress lipolysis when...... gaining weight may therefore provide novel insight toward the development of human therapies. Blood and subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected from immobilized free-ranging brown bears (fitted with GPS-collars) during hibernation in winter and from the same bears during the active period in summer...... in Dalarna, Sweden. The expression of lipid droplet-associated proteins in adipose tissue was examined under the hypothesis that bears suppress lipolysis during summer while gaining weight by increased expression of negative regulators of lipolysis. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) expression did...

  16. Changes in plain bearing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Koring, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A unique fusion of theoretical and practical knowledge, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology, by Rolf Koring, covers a meaningful range of expertise in this field.Drawing from years of experience in design development, materials selection, and their correlation to real-life part failure, this title, co-published by SAE International and expert Verlag (Germany), concentrates on hydrodynamic bearings lined with white metals, also known as Babbits.Written under the assumption that even the most mature body of knowledge can be revisited and improved, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology is a courageous and focused approach to questioning accepted test results and looking at alternative material compounds, and their application suitability.The process, which leads to innovative answers on how the technology is transforming itself to respond to new market requirements, shows how interdisciplinary thinking can recognize new potential in long-established industrial modus operandi.Tackling the highly complex issue of co...

  17. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Bear Creek Project. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Bear Creek Project consists of mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from six known ore bodies will take place over ten years; a 1000 tons ore/day will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The tailings will be stored onsite in an impoundment. The project would convert 2700 acres from grazing use to mining/milling activities for about ten years. Mining would disturb a total of 1600 acres but, because of reclamation, the max acreage disturbed at any one time would be about 1000 acres, the average being about 650 acres. Dose rates were computed for an individual in a ranch house at the nearest ranch. Conditions for the protection of the environment are proposed. Possible environmental impacts evaluated cover air, land, water, soil, vegetation, wildlife, and community. A benefit-cost analysis is made

  19. THK: CLB Crossed Linear Bearing Seismic Isolators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toniolo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This text highlights the new seismic isolation technology called CLB (Crossed Linear Bearing), which is made of linear guides with recirculating steel ball technology. It describes specifications and building characteristics, provides examples of seismic isolation and application functionalities and shows experimental data. Since 1994, the constant commitment by Japan to develop diversified anti-seismic systems based on the precise needs of the structures to protect and the areas where they were built has led to the creation of important synergy between the research institutions of leading Japanese companies and THK's Centre for Research and Development. Their goal has been to develop new technology and solutions to allow seismic isolation to be effective in the following cases:

  20. A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Dutton

    Full Text Available Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product.

  1. A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Adam J; Hepburn, Cameron; Macdonald, David W

    2011-01-01

    Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product.

  2. Overload protection: avoidance response to heavy plantar surface loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S E; Hanna, A M; Gouw, G J

    1988-02-01

    Current footwear which are designed for use in running are examples of intentional biomechanical model integration into device design. The inadequacy of this footwear in protecting against injury is postulated to be due to fixation on inadequate models of locomotory biomechanics that do not provide for feedback control; in particular, an hypothesized plantar surface sensory-mediated feedback control system, which imparts overload protection during locomotion. A heuristic approach was used to identify the hypothesized system. A random series of loads (0 to 164 kg) was applied to the knee flexed at 90 degrees. In this testing system, plantar surface avoidance behavior was the difference between the sum of the leg weight and the load applied to the knee, and the load measured at the plantar surface; this was produced by activation of hip flexors. Significant avoidance behavior was found in all of the subjects (P less than 0.001). On all surfaces tested, including modern athletic footwear (P less than 0.001), its magnitude increased directly in relation to the load applied to the knee (P less than 0.001). There were significant differences in avoidance behavior in relation to the weight-bearing surfaces tested (P less than 0.05). With the identification of a feedback control system which would serve to moderate loading during locomotion, an explanation is provided as to why current athletic footwear do not protect and may be injurious; thus allowing the design of footwear which may be truly protective.

  3. An Assessment of Gas Foil Bearing Scalability and the Potential Benefits to Civilian Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years the term oil-free turbomachinery has been used to describe a rotor support system for high speed turbomachinery that does not require oil for lubrication, damping, or cooling. The foundation technology for oil-free turbomachinery is the compliant foil bearing. This technology can replace the conventional rolling element bearings found in current engines. Two major benefits are realized with this technology. The primary benefit is the elimination of the oil lubrication system, accessory gearbox, tower shaft, and one turbine frame. These components account for 8 to 13 percent of the turbofan engine weight. The second benefit that compliant foil bearings offer to turbofan engines is the capability to operate at higher rotational speeds and shaft diameters. While traditional rolling element bearings have diminished life, reliability, and load capacity with increasing speeds, the foil bearing has a load capacity proportional to speed. The traditional applications for foil bearings have been in small, lightweight machines. However, recent advancements in the design and manufacturing of foil bearings have increased their potential size. An analysis, grounded in experimentally proven operation, is performed to assess the scalability of the modern foil bearing. This analysis was coupled to the requirements of civilian turbofan engines. The application of the foil bearing to larger, high bypass ratio engines nominally at the 120 kN (approx.25000 lb) thrust class has been examined. The application of this advanced technology to this system was found to reduce mission fuel burn by 3.05 percent.

  4. Design and Experiment of Auxiliary Bearing for Helium Blower of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guojun; Shi Zhengang; Liu Xingnan; Zhao Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    The helium blower is the important equipment for HTR-PM. Active magnetic bearing (AMB) instead of mechanical bearing is selected to support the rotor of the helium blower. However, one implication of AMB is the requirement to provide the auxiliary bearing to mitigate the effects of failures or overload conditions. The auxiliary bearing is used to support the rotor when the AMB fails to work. It must support the dropping rotor and bear the great impact force and friction heat. The design of the auxiliary bearing is one of the challenging problems in the whole system. It is very important for the helium blower with AMB of HTR-PM to make success. The rotor’s length of helium blower of HTR-PM is about 3.3 m, its weight is about 4000 kg and the rotating speed is 4000 r/min. The axial load is 4500kg, and the radial load is 1950kg. The angular contact ball bearing was selected as the auxiliary bearing. The test rig has been finished. It is difficult to analyze the falling course of the rotor. The preliminary analysis of the dropping rotor was done in the special condition. The impact force of auxiliary bearing was computed for the axial and radial load. And the dropping test of the blower rotor for HTR-10 will be introduced also in this paper. Results offer the important theoretical base for the protector design of the helium blower with AMB for HTR-PM. (author)

  5. The correct "ball bearings" data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, C

    2002-12-01

    The famous data on fatigue failure times of ball bearings have been quoted incorrectly from Lieblein and Zelen's original paper. The correct data include censored values, as well as non-fatigue failures that must be handled appropriately. They could be described by a mixture of Weibull distributions, corresponding to different modes of failure.

  6. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  7. Satellite monitoring of black bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, J. J.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.; Varney, J. R.; Cote, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a feasibility experiment recently performed to test the use of a satellite system for telemetering environmental and physiological data from the winter den of a 'hibernating' black bear, Ursus americanus. The instrumentation procedure and evaluations of the equipment performance and sensory data obtained are discussed in detail.

  8. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we...

  9. TOOL ASSEMBLY WITH BI-DIRECTIONAL BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, G.E.

    1961-07-11

    A two-direction motion bearing which is incorporated in a refueling nuclear fuel element trsnsfer tool assembly is described. A plurality of bi- directional bearing assembliesare fixed equi-distantly about the circumference of the transfer tool assembly to provide the tool assembly with a bearing surface- for both axial and rotational motion. Each bi-directional bearing assembly contains a plurality of circumferentially bulged rollers mounted in a unique arrangement which will provide a bearing surface for rotational movement of the tool assembly within a bore. The bi-direc tional bearing assembly itself is capable of rational motion and thus provides for longitudinal movement of the tool assembly.

  10. Estimating Wear Of Installed Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E.; Mcvey, Scott E.

    1993-01-01

    Simple inspection and measurement technique makes possible to estimate wear of balls in ball bearing, without removing bearing from shaft on which installed. To perform measurement, one observes bearing cage while turning shaft by hand to obtain integral number of cage rotations and to measure, to nearest 2 degrees, number of shaft rotations producing cage rotations. Ratio between numbers of cages and shaft rotations depends only on internal geometry of bearing and applied load. Changes in turns ratio reflect changes in internal geometry of bearing provided measurements made with similar bearing loads. By assuming all wear occurs on balls, one computes effective value for this wear from change in turns ratio.

  11. EFFECT OF CLEARANCE THE BALL BEARINGS ON INCORRECT WORK OF THREE-SUPORT BEARING SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław KACZOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Durability deep groove ball bearings depends on factors (called attributes design, technological and operational. Among the design features one of the most important is play in the bearings. Polish Norm shows five groups of looseness in the bearings, in which the play range from 0 to 105 microns. Manufacturers of rolling bearings they only play group, which has a bearing data, without giving the exact value of the slack. Aim of this study is to determine how it affects the play in the bearings to work three-bearing shafts, including elasticity and resilience three-bearing shafts.

  12. Journal and Wave Bearing Impedance Calculation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, Amanda; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The wave bearing software suite is a MALTA application that computes bearing properties for user-specified wave bearing conditions, as well as plain journal bearings. Wave bearings are fluid film journal bearings with multi-lobed wave patterns around the circumference of the bearing surface. In this software suite, the dynamic coefficients are outputted in a way for easy implementation in a finite element model used in rotor dynamics analysis. The software has a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting bearing geometry parameters, and uses MATLAB s structure interface for ease of interpreting data. This innovation was developed to provide the stiffness and damping components of wave bearing impedances. The computational method for computing bearing coefficients was originally designed for plain journal bearings and tilting pad bearings. Modifications to include a wave bearing profile consisted of changing the film thickness profile given by an equation, and writing an algorithm to locate the integration limits for each fluid region. Careful consideration was needed to implement the correct integration limits while computing the dynamic coefficients, depending on the form of the input/output variables specified in the algorithm.

  13. Contrafreeloading in grizzly bears: implications for captive foraging enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Robbins, Charles T; Alldredge, J Richard; Newberry, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment items over more balanced "chow" diets could lead to nutrient imbalance. One alternative is to provide balanced diets in a contrafreeloading paradigm. Contrafreeloading occurs when animals choose resources that require effort to exploit when identical resources are freely available. To investigate contrafreeloading and its potential as a theoretical foundation for foraging enrichment, we conducted two experiments with captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). In Experiment 1, bears were presented with five foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples in ice, salmon, salmon in ice, and plain ice under two levels of food restriction. Two measures of contrafreeloading were considered: weight of earned food consumed and time spent working for earned food. More free than earned food was eaten, with only two bears consuming food extracted from ice, but all bears spent more time manipulating ice containing salmon or apples than plain ice regardless of level of food restriction. In Experiment 2, food-restricted bears were presented with three foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples inside a box, and an empty box. Although they ate more free than earned food, five bears consumed food from boxes and all spent more time manipulating boxes containing apples than empty boxes. Our findings support the provision of contrafreeloading opportunities as a foraging enrichment strategy for captive wildlife. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A Optimal Dimension Parameters Design of Needle Roller Bearings Considering Multi Factors Affecting Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, XiaoBo; Li, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Taking into many influencing factors, a Needle Roller Bearings life calculation model was established using the Influence coefficient method and ISO formula. Take this model as the optimization objective function, some optimization variables were determined, and these variables were added constraint conditions. Using dynamic nonlinear strategy to improve the inertia weight, the arccosine strategy to adjust the learning factor, function constraints was solved by the methods of ensure particle legitimacy. Nonlinear optimization design of cylindrical roller bearings was realized by Improved Particle Swarm Algorithm. The proposed method of bearing design was verified effective by test of the optimization results.

  15. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  16. Happy 50th Birthday Smokey Bear! A Learning Kit about Forests and Fire Safety for Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Meryl

    For over 50 years, the primary goal of Smokey Bear has been to introduce the forest fire prevention message to young children. This learning kit provides the K-3 teacher with activities and resources to help students learn about Smokey Bear and fire safety, about forests as habitats, and about what they can do to protect forests. Students are…

  17. 40 CFR 86.129-94 - Road load power, test weight, inertia weight class determination, and fuel temperature profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road load power, test weight, inertia... Procedures § 86.129-94 Road load power, test weight, inertia weight class determination, and fuel temperature... duty trucks 1,2,3 Test weightbasis 4,5 Test equivalent test weight(pounds) Inertia weight class(pounds...

  18. Numerical analysis of magnetically suspended rotor in HTR-10 helium circulator being dropped into auxiliary bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingxiong; Yang Guojun; Li Yue; Yu Suyuan

    2012-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings (AMB) have been selected to support the rotor of primary helium circulator in commercial 10 Mega-Walt High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTR-10). In an AMB system, the auxiliary bearings are necessary to protect the AMB components in case of losing power. This paper performs the impact simulation of Magnetically Suspended Rotor in HTR-10 Helium Circulator being dropped into the auxiliary bearings using the finite element program ABAQUS. The dynamic response and the strain field of auxiliary bearings are analyzed. The results achieved by the numerical analysis are in agreement with the experiment results. Therefore, the feasibility of the design of auxiliary bearing and the possibility of using the AMB system in the HTR are proved. (authors)

  19. Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, P.K.; Soni, N.L.; Agrawal, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

  20. Research In Diagnosing Bearing Defects From Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, T.; Earhart, E.; Fiorucci, T.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes research in bearing-defect signature analysis - use of vibration-signal analysis to diagnose defects in roller and ball bearings. Experiments performed on bearings in good condition and other bearings in which various parts scratched to provide known defects correlated with vibration signals. Experiments performed on highly instrumented motor-driven rotor assembly at speeds up to 10,050 r/min, using accelerometers, velocity probes, and proximity sensors mounted at various locations on assembly to measure vibrations.

  1. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  2. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  3. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  4. Bears and pipeline construction in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follmann, E.H.; Hechtel, J.L. (Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks, AK (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Serious problems were encountered with bears during construction of the 1274-km trans-Alaska oil pipeline between Prudhoe Bay and Valdez. This multi-billion-dollar project traversed both black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) and grizzly bear (U. arctos L.) habitat throughtout its entire length. Plans for dealing with anticipated problems with bears were often inadequate. Most (71%) problems occurred north of the Yukon River in a previously roadless wilderness where inadequate refuse disposal and widespread animal feeding created dangerous situations. Of the 192 officially reported bear problems associated with the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) (1971-1979), about 65% involved the presence of bears in camps or dumps, 13% the feeding of bears on garbage or handouts, 10% property damage or economic loss, 7% bears under and in buildings, and only 5% charges by bears. Remarkably, no bear-related injuries were reported, suggesting that bears became accustomed to people and did not regard them as a threat. Following construction of the TAPS there have been proposals for pipelines to transport natural gas from Prudhoe Bay to southern and Pacific-rim markets. Based on past experience, some animal control measures were developed during the planning phase for the authorized gas pipeline route in Alaska. Fences installed around 100-person survey camps were found to be effective in deterring bears in two traditionally troublesome areas. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236 Section 13.1236 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear...

  6. 14 CFR 29.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 29.623 Section 29.623... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.623 Bearing factors. (a... subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of...

  7. 14 CFR 27.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 27.623 Section 27.623... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.623 Bearing factors. (a) Except... subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of...

  8. 14 CFR 25.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 25.623 Section 25.623... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.623 Bearing factors. (a) Except... subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of...

  9. 14 CFR 23.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 23.623 Section 23.623... Bearing factors. (a) Each part that has clearance (free fit), and that is subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of normal relative motion. (b) For...

  10. The BEAR Beamline at Elettra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannarone, S.; Pasquali, L.; Selvaggi, G.; Borgatti, F.; DeLuisa, A.; Doyle, B.P.; Gazzadi, G.C.; Giglia, A.; Finetti, P.; Pedio, M.; Mahne, N.; Naletto, G.; Pelizzo, M.G.; Tondello, G.

    2004-01-01

    The BEAR (Bending Magnet for Emission Absorption and Reflectivity) beamline is installed at the right exit of the 8.1 bending magnet at ELETTRA. The beamline - in operation since January 2003 - delivers linear and circularly polarized radiation in the 5 - 1600 eV energy range. The experimental station is composed of a UHV chamber for reflectivity, absorption, fluorescence and angle resolved photoemission measurements and a UHV chamber for in-situ sample preparation

  11. BEAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Sabina Storbjerg; Wolff, Anne; Hougaard, Dan Dupont

    2017-01-01

    profiling and fitting strategies. Data from 2000 patients are collected from the departments of Audiology in Odense and Aalborg University Hospital. Some of the registered variables include gender, age, and health related questions, noise exposure and whether they are suffering from tinnitus. The database...... subgroups of HA users, including experienced versus new HA users will be made. Previous noise exposure and the relation to the occurrence of tinnitus will be investigated as well....

  12. Health Assessment of Cooling Fan Bearings Using Wavelet-Based Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Miao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed, locked rotor, failure to start, and other problems; therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the health assessment of cooling fan bearings. This paper presents a vibration-based fan bearing health evaluation method using comblet filtering and exponentially weighted moving average. A new health condition indicator (HCI for fan bearing degradation assessment is proposed. In order to collect the vibration data for validation of the proposed method, a cooling fan accelerated life test was conducted to simulate the lubricant starvation of fan bearings. A comparison between the proposed method and methods in previous studies (i.e., root mean square, kurtosis, and fault growth parameter was carried out to assess the performance of the HCI. The analysis results suggest that the HCI can identify incipient fan bearing failures and describe the bearing degradation process. Overall, the work presented in this paper provides a promising method for fan bearing health evaluation and prognosis.

  13. Anorexia‐cachexia syndrome in hepatoma tumour‐bearing rats requires the area postrema but not vagal afferents and is paralleled by increased MIC‐1/GDF15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Tito; Arnold, Myrtha; Ruud, Johan; Breit, Samuel N.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Lutz, Thomas A.; Blomqvist, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The cancer‐anorexia‐cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively affects survival and therapy success in cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators and tumour‐derived factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of CACS. However, the central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to CACS are insufficiently understood. The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarii are two important brainstem centres for the control of eating during acute sickness conditions. Recently, the tumour‐derived macrophage inhibitory cytokine‐1 (MIC‐1) emerged as a possible mediator of cancer anorexia because lesions of these brainstem areas attenuated the anorectic effect of exogenous MIC‐1 in mice. Methods Using a rat hepatoma tumour model, we examined the roles of the AP and of vagal afferents in the mediation of CACS. Specifically, we investigated whether a lesion of the AP (APX) or subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) attenuate anorexia, body weight, muscle, and fat loss. Moreover, we analysed MIC‐1 levels in this tumour model and their correlation with tumour size and the severity of the anorectic response. Results In tumour‐bearing sham‐operated animals mean daily food intake significantly decreased. The anorectic response was paralleled by a significant loss of body weight and muscle mass. APX rats were protected against anorexia, body weight loss, and muscle atrophy after tumour induction. In contrast, subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation did not attenuate cancer‐induced anorexia or body weight loss. Tumour‐bearing rats had substantially increased MIC‐1 levels, which positively correlated with tumour size and cancer progression and negatively correlated with food intake. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the importance of the AP in the mediation of cancer‐dependent anorexia and body weight loss and support a pathological role of MIC‐1 as a tumour‐derived factor mediating CACS, possibly via an AP

  14. Anorexia-cachexia syndrome in hepatoma tumour-bearing rats requires the area postrema but not vagal afferents and is paralleled by increased MIC-1/GDF15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Tito; Arnold, Myrtha; Ruud, Johan; Breit, Samuel N; Langhans, Wolfgang; Lutz, Thomas A; Blomqvist, Anders; Riediger, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The cancer-anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively affects survival and therapy success in cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators and tumour-derived factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of CACS. However, the central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to CACS are insufficiently understood. The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarii are two important brainstem centres for the control of eating during acute sickness conditions. Recently, the tumour-derived macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) emerged as a possible mediator of cancer anorexia because lesions of these brainstem areas attenuated the anorectic effect of exogenous MIC-1 in mice. Using a rat hepatoma tumour model, we examined the roles of the AP and of vagal afferents in the mediation of CACS. Specifically, we investigated whether a lesion of the AP (APX) or subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) attenuate anorexia, body weight, muscle, and fat loss. Moreover, we analysed MIC-1 levels in this tumour model and their correlation with tumour size and the severity of the anorectic response. In tumour-bearing sham-operated animals mean daily food intake significantly decreased. The anorectic response was paralleled by a significant loss of body weight and muscle mass. APX rats were protected against anorexia, body weight loss, and muscle atrophy after tumour induction. In contrast, subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation did not attenuate cancer-induced anorexia or body weight loss. Tumour-bearing rats had substantially increased MIC-1 levels, which positively correlated with tumour size and cancer progression and negatively correlated with food intake. These findings demonstrate the importance of the AP in the mediation of cancer-dependent anorexia and body weight loss and support a pathological role of MIC-1 as a tumour-derived factor mediating CACS, possibly via an AP-dependent action. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle

  15. Scaling laws for radial foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavara Prasad, Srikanth

    The effects of fluid pressurization, structural deformation of the compliant members and heat generation in foil bearings make the design and analysis of foil bearings very complicated. The complex fluid-structural-thermal interactions in foil bearings also make modeling efforts challenging because these phenomena are governed by highly non-linear partial differential equations. Consequently, comparison of various bearing designs require detailed calculation of the flow fields (velocities, pressures), bump deflections (structural compliance) and heat transfer phenomena (viscous dissipation in the fluid, frictional heating, temperature profile etc.,) resulting in extensive computational effort (time/hardware). To obviate rigorous computations and aid in feasibility assessments of foil bearings of various sizes, NASA developed the "rule of thumb" design guidelines for estimation of journal bearing load capacity. The guidelines are based on extensive experimental data. The goal of the current work is the development of scaling laws for radial foil bearings to establish an analytical "rule of thumb" for bearing clearance and bump stiffness. The use of scale invariant Reynolds equation and experimentally observed NASA "rule of thumb" yield scale factors which can be deduced from first principles. Power-law relationships between: a. Bearing clearance and bearing radius, and b. bump stiffness and bearing radius, are obtained. The clearance and bump stiffness values obtained from scaling laws are used as inputs for Orbit simulation to study various cases. As the clearance of the bearing reaches the dimensions of the material surface roughness, asperity contact breaks the fluid film which results in wear. Similarly, as the rotor diameter increases (requiring larger bearing diameters), the load capacity of the fluid film should increase to prevent dry rubbing. This imposes limits on the size of the rotor diameter and consequently bearing diameter. Therefore, this thesis aims

  16. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    damage to bee yards, even in areas frequented by bears. A survey of beekeepers indicated that apiarists often relied on more expensive, less effective, and sometimes illegal methods to protect their bee yards from bears. Beekeepers within bear range should be urged to consider electric fencing, which can almost eliminate bear damage to their yards.

  17. Improvement of journal bearing operation at heavy misalignment using bearing flexibility and compliant liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2012-01-01

    A flexure journal bearing design is proposed that will improve operational behaviour of a journal bearing at pronounced misalignment. Using a thermoelastohydrodynamic model, it is shown that the proposed flexure journal bearing has vastly increased the hydrodynamic performance compared to the stiff...... bearing when misaligned. The hydrodynamic performance is evaluated on lubricant film thickness, pressure and temperature. Furthermore, the influence of a compliant bearing liner is investigated and it is found that it increases the hydrodynamic performance when applied to a stiff bearing, whereas...... the liner has practically no influence on the flexure journal bearing's performance....

  18. Electromyographic preactivation pattern of the gluteus medius during weight-bearing functional tasks in women with and without anterior knee pain Padrão de pré-ativação eletromiográfica do glúteo médio durante atividades funcionais com descarga de peso em mulheres com e sem dor anterior do joelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa H. Nakagawa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proximal factors have been proposed to influence the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint. A delayed or diminished gluteus medius (GM activation, before the foot contact on the ground during functional activities could lead to excessive femur adduction and internal rotation and be associated with anterior knee pain (AKP. There are few studies on this topic and the results were inconclusive, therefore, it is necessary to investigate the GM preactivation pattern during functional activities. OBJECTIVE: To compare the GM electromyographic (EMG preactivation pattern during walking, descending stairs and in single leg jump task in women with and without AKP. METHODS: Nine women clinically diagnosed with AKP and ten control subjects with no history of knee injury participated in this study. We evaluated GM EMG linear envelope before the foot contact on the ground during walking and GM onset time and EMG linear envelope during descending stairs as well as in a single leg vertical jump. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine the between-group differences in GM EMG preactivation pattern. RESULTS: No between-group differences were observed in GM linear envelope during walking (P=0.41, GM onset time and linear envelope during descending stairs (P=0.17 and P=0.15 and single leg jump (P=0.81 and P=0.33. CONCLUSIONS: Women with AKP did not demonstrated altered GM preactivation pattern during functional weight bearing activities. Our results did not support the hypothesis that poor GM preactivation pattern could be associated with AKP.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Tem sido proposto que fatores proximais influenciam a biomecânica da articulação fêmoro-patelar. Um atraso ou diminuição da ativação do glúteo médio (GM antes do contato do pé no solo, durante atividades funcionais, poderia levar a adução e rotação interna excessiva do fêmur e provocar a dor anterior do joelho (DAJ. Existem poucos estudos sobre o assunto, e os resultados n

  19. A motor with superconducting magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladun, A.; Stoye, P.; Verges, P.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Goernert, P.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting bearings may be one of the most promising near term applications of HTSC. For use at liquid nitrogen temperature and below, they offer the advantage of lower energy consumption and higher reliability. Different bearing configurations have been proposed. But in order to substitute for conventional bearings a further increase in the critical current density of the superconductor and improved bearing concepts are necessary. For this it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the interaction between permanent magnets and bulk superconductors. As a contribution to this programme we present the model of a motor with superconducting magnetic bearings. (orig.)

  20. [Advances in studies on bear bile powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao-fan; Gao, Guo-jian; Liu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis was made on relevant literatures about bear bile powder in terms of chemical component, pharmacological effect and clinical efficacy, indicating bear bile powder's significant pharmacological effects and clinical application in treating various diseases. Due to the complex composition, bear bile powder is relatively toxic. Therefore, efforts shall be made to study bear bile powder's pharmacological effects, clinical application, chemical composition and toxic side-effects, with the aim to provide a scientific basis for widespread reasonable clinical application of bear bile powder.

  1. Valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; Tanner, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings is disclosed wherein a valve disc is supported within a flow duct for rotation about a pair of axially aligned bearings, one of which is carried by a spindle received within a diametral bore in the valve disc, and the other of which is carried by a bearing support block releasably mounted on the duct circumferentially of an annular collar on the valve disc coaxial with its diametrical bore. The spindle and bearing support block are adapted for remote removal to facilitate servicing or replacement of the valve disc support bearings

  2. Ball Bearing Analysis with the ORBIS Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Ball bearing design is critical to the success of aerospace mechanisms. Key bearing performance parameters, such as load capability, stiffness, torque, and life all depend on accurate determination of the internal load distribution. Hence, a good analytical bearing tool that provides both comprehensive capabilities and reliable results becomes a significant asset to the engineer. This paper introduces the ORBIS bearing tool. A discussion of key modeling assumptions and a technical overview is provided. Numerous validation studies and case studies using the ORBIS tool are presented. All results suggest the ORBIS code closely correlates to predictions on bearing internal load distributions, stiffness, deflection and stresses.

  3. Servo Reduces Friction In Flexure Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingman, W. Dean

    1991-01-01

    Proposed servocontrol device reduces such resistive torques as stiction, friction, ripple, and cogging in flexure bearing described in LAR-14348, "Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction". Reduces frictional "bump" torque encountered when bearing ball runs into buildup of grease on bearing race. Also used as cable follower to reduce torque caused by cable and hoses when they bend because of motion of bearing. New device includes torquer across ball race. Torquer controlled by servo striving to keep flexure at null, removing torque to outer ring. In effect, device is inner control loop reducing friction, but does not control platforms or any outer-control-loop functions.

  4. Impacts of Human Recreation on Brown Bears (Ursus arctos): A Review and New Management Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jennifer K; Rode, Karyn D; Hilderbrand, Grant V; Wilder, James; Farley, Sean; Jorgensen, Carole; Marcot, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    Increased popularity of recreational activities in natural areas has led to the need to better understand their impacts on wildlife. The majority of research conducted to date has focused on behavioral effects from individual recreations, thus there is a limited understanding of the potential for population-level or cumulative effects. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are the focus of a growing wildlife viewing industry and are found in habitats frequented by recreationists. Managers face difficult decisions in balancing recreational opportunities with habitat protection for wildlife. Here, we integrate results from empirical studies with expert knowledge to better understand the potential population-level effects of recreational activities on brown bears. We conducted a literature review and Delphi survey of brown bear experts to better understand the frequencies and types of recreations occurring in bear habitats and their potential effects, and to identify management solutions and research needs. We then developed a Bayesian network model that allows managers to estimate the potential effects of recreational management decisions in bear habitats. A higher proportion of individual brown bears in coastal habitats were exposed to recreation, including photography and bear-viewing than bears in interior habitats where camping and hiking were more common. Our results suggest that the primary mechanism by which recreation may impact brown bears is through temporal and spatial displacement with associated increases in energetic costs and declines in nutritional intake. Killings in defense of life and property were found to be minimally associated with recreation in Alaska, but are important considerations in population management. Regulating recreation to occur predictably in space and time and limiting recreation in habitats with concentrated food resources reduces impacts on food intake and may thereby, reduce impacts on reproduction and survival. Our results suggest that

  5. The impacts of human recreation on brown bears (Ursus arctos): A review and new management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin-noreus, Jennifer; Rode, Karyn D.; Hilderbrand, Grant V; Wilder, James; Farley, Sean; Jorgensen, Carole; Marcot, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    Increased popularity of recreational activities in natural areas has led to the need to better understand their impacts on wildlife. The majority of research conducted to date has focused on behavioral effects from individual recreations, thus there is a limited understanding of the potential for population-level or cumulative effects. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are the focus of a growing wildlife viewing industry and are found in habitats frequented by recreationists. Managers face difficult decisions in balancing recreational opportunities with habitat protection for wildlife. Here, we integrate results from empirical studies with expert knowledge to better understand the potential population-level effects of recreational activities on brown bears. We conducted a literature review and Delphi survey of brown bear experts to better understand the frequencies and types of recreations occurring in bear habitats and their potential effects, and to identify management solutions and research needs. We then developed a Bayesian network model that allows managers to estimate the potential effects of recreational management decisions in bear habitats. A higher proportion of individual brown bears in coastal habitats were exposed to recreation, including photography and bear-viewing than bears in interior habitats where camping and hiking were more common. Our results suggest that the primary mechanism by which recreation may impact brown bears is through temporal and spatial displacement with associated increases in energetic costs and declines in nutritional intake. Killings in defense of life and property were found to be minimally associated with recreation in Alaska, but are important considerations in population management. Regulating recreation to occur predictably in space and time and limiting recreation in habitats with concentrated food resources reduces impacts on food intake and may thereby, reduce impacts on reproduction and survival. Our results suggest that

  6. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalaksh Shenoy, K.

    2013-01-01

    Three main pillars underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security - The IAEA helps countries to upgrade their infrastructure for nuclear and radiation safety and security, and to prepare for and respond to emergencies. Work is keyed to international conventions, the development of international standards and the application of these standards. The aim is to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Science and Technology - The IAEA is the world's focal point for mobilizing peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology for critical needs in developing countries. The work contributes to alleviating poverty, combating disease and pollution of the environment and to other goals of sustainable development. Safeguards and Verification - The IAEA is the nuclear inspectorate, with more than four decades of verification experience. Inspectors work to verify that nuclear material and activities are not diverted towards military purposes. Quantities and Units: Dose equivalent is the product of absorbed dose of radiation and quality factor (Q). For absorbed dose in rads, dose equivalent is in rems. If absorbed dose is in gray, the dose equivalent is in sievert. Quality factor is defined without reference to any particular biological end point. Quality factors are recommended by committees such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) or the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), based on experimental RBE values but with some judgment exercised. Effective Dose Equivalent: It is the sum of the weighted dose equivalents for all irradiated tissues, in which the weighting factors represent the different risks of each tissue to mortality from cancer and hereditary effects. Committed dose equivalent: It is the integral over 50 years of dose equivalent following the intake of a radionuclide. Collective effective dose equivalent: It is a quantity for a population and is

  7. Ameliorative influence of Urtica dioica L against cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkol, Halil; Musa, Davut; Tuluce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used cytotoxic agent against cancer, and high doses of CP have been known to cause nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Some reports claim that antioxidants can reduce CP-induced toxicity. This study investigated the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L methanolic extract (UDME) against CP toxicity in Erhlich ascites tumor (EAT)-bearing mice. Levels of serum hepatic enzymes, renal function markers, and oxidant/antioxidant parameters of liver tissue were measured. Mice were inoculated with EAT on day 0 and treated with nothing else for 24 hours. After a single dose of CP administration on day 1, the extract was given at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight daily during 6 days. Almost all doses of UDME performed a significant (P < 0.05) preventive role against CP toxicity by decreasing aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation levels, and myeloperoxidase activity, as well as increasing reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. This suggests that UDME has a protective capacity and antioxidant activity against CP toxicity in EAT-bearing mice, probably by promoting antioxidative defense systems.

  8. Identification of Bearing Failure Using Signal Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yani, Irsyadi; Resti, Yulia; Burlian, Firmansyah

    2018-04-01

    Vibration analysis can be used to identify damage to mechanical systems such as journal bearings. Identification of failure can be done by observing the resulting vibration spectrum by measuring the vibration signal occurring in a mechanical system Bearing is one of the engine elements commonly used in mechanical systems. The main purpose of this research is to monitor the bearing condition and to identify bearing failure on a mechanical system by observing the resulting vibration. Data collection techniques based on recordings of sound caused by the vibration of the mechanical system were used in this study, then created a database system based bearing failure due to vibration signal recording sounds on a mechanical system The next step is to group the bearing damage by type based on the databases obtained. The results show the percentage of success in identifying bearing damage is 98 %.

  9. A prototype construction of bearing heater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman Silitonga

    2007-01-01

    A bearing heater system has been successfully constructed using transformer-like method of 1000 VA power, 220 V primary voltage, and 50 Hz electrical frequency. The bearing heater consists of primary coil 230 turns, U type and bar-type iron core with 36 cm 2 , 9 cm 2 ,and 3 cm 2 cross-section, and electrical isolation. The bearing heater is used to enlarge the diameter of the bearing so that it can be easily fixed on an electric motor shaft during replacement because the heating is conducted by treated the bearing as a secondary coil of a transformer. This bearing heater can be used for bearing with 3 and 6 cm of inner diameter and 12 cm of maximum outside diameter. (author)

  10. Noise of oil lubricated journal bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Byoung Hoo; Kim, Kyung Woong

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to provide a procedure to calculate the noise of oil lubricated journal bearings. To do this, the nonlinear transient analysis of rotor-bearing system including rotor imbalance is performed. Acoustical properties of the bearing are investigated through frequency analysis of the pressure fluctuation of the fluid film calculated from the nonlinear analysis. Furthermore, a transmission theory of plane waves on a boundary of the outer surface of the bearing is used to obtain the sound pressure level of the bearing. Results show that the sound pressure level of the bearing can be increased with the rotational speed of the rotor although the whirl amplitude of the rotor is decreased at high speed. Noise estimating procedures presented in this paper could be an aid in the evaluation and understanding of acoustical properties of oil lubricated journal bearings

  11. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-03-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Development and Evaluation of Titanium Spacesuit Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Battisti, Brian; Ytuarte, Raymond, Jr.; Schultz, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z-series of spacesuits, designed with the intent of meeting a wide variety of exploration mission objectives, including human exploration of the Martian surface. Incorporating titanium bearings into the Z-series space suit architecture allows us to reduce mass by an estimated 23 lbs per suit system compared to the previously used stainless steel bearing race designs, without compromising suit functionality. There are two obstacles to overcome when using titanium for a bearing race- 1) titanium is flammable when exposed to the oxygen wetted environment inside the space suit and 2) titanium's poor wear properties are often challenging to overcome in tribology applications. In order to evaluate the ignitability of a titanium space suit bearing, a series of tests were conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) that introduced the bearings to an extreme test profile, with multiple failures imbedded into the test bearings. The testing showed no signs of ignition in the most extreme test cases; however, substantial wear of the bearing races was observed. In order to design a bearing that can last an entire exploration mission (approx. 3 years), design parameters for maximum contact stress need to be identified. To identify these design parameters, bearing test rigs were developed that allow for the quick evaluation of various bearing ball loads, ball diameters, lubricants, and surface treatments. This test data will allow designers to minimize the titanium bearing mass for a specific material and lubricant combination and design around a cycle life requirement for an exploration mission. This paper reviews the current research and testing that has been performed on titanium bearing races to evaluate the use of such materials in an enriched oxygen environment and to optimize the bearing assembly mass and tribological properties to accommodate for the high bearing cycle life for an

  13. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inertia weight class determination. 86.129-00 Section 86.129-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. Applicability. Section 86.129-94 (a) applies... testing using paragraphs (e)(1) and (e)(2) of this section. (f)(1) Required test dynamometer inertia...

  14. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  15. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  16. Nanocrystalline, superhard, ductile ceramic coatings for roller-cone bit bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namavar, F.; Colter, P.; Karimy, H. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The established method for construction of roller bits utilizes carburized steel, frequently with inserted metal bearing surfaces. This construction provides the necessary surface hardness while maintaining other desirable properties in the core. Protective coatings are a logical development where enhanced hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and surface properties are required. The wear properties of geothermal roller-cone bit bearings could be further improved by application of protective ceramic hard coatings consisting of nanometer-sized crystallites. Nanocrystalline protective coatings provide the required combination of hardness and toughness which has not been available thus far using traditional ceramics having larger grains. Increased durability of roller-cone bit bearings will ultimately reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells through increased durability.

  17. Process for the production of a tantalum and niobium bearing concentrate from a tantalum and niobium bearing ferro-alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deweck, J.; Van, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a process for the production of a tantalum and niobium bearing concentrate from a tantalum and niobium bearing ferro-alloy containing tantalum and niobium as carbide, by treating the ferro-alloy in molten state with a controlled amount of an oxidizing agent in order to slag at least most of the tantalum and at least part of the niobium and by separting the so obtained slag phase from the metal phase, the improvement which comprises using air, oxygen enriched air or oxygen as oxidizing agent and adjusting the iron content to the ferro-alloy by adding at least 70% by weight of iron prior to the step of forming the slag so that at least most of the tantalum carbide is dissolved in the molten ferro-alloy

  18. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) on the Liver of Mice Bearing Ehrlich Solid Tumor (EST) and Exposed to γ-Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.I.; El-Kabany, H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the antitumor and radio sensitizing efficacy of Ganodarma lucidum (G. lucidum) and to evaluate its potential to improve hepatic dysfunction in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST) bearing mice. G. lucidum (100 mg/Kg body weight) was administered orally to EST bearing mice for 15 days before and 15 days after tumor inoculation. Irradiation was carried out the 8th day of tumor inoculation when the diameter of the tumor reached approximately 10 mm. Mice were exposed to fractionated doses of whole body γ-radiation (3x2Gy) at two days interval to attain a total dose of 6 Gy. Mice were divided into 6 groups (15 mice in each group) as follows: normal control, mice treated with G. lucidum for 30 days, EST bearing mice, EST bearing mice exposed to fractionated doses of γ-radiation (2Gy x 3), EST bearing mice treated with G. lucidum for 15 days before and 15 days after tumor inoculation and EST bearing mice received combined treatment radiation and G. lucidum. Five mice from each group were sacrificed, after 18 hr fasting after the last dose of G. lucidum treatment. Blood was collected, liver and tumor were removed for biochemical and histopathological studies. The remaining animals were observed for recording survival percentage and tumor size. In vitro study on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells showed that the percentage of nonviable cells (NVC%) increase with increasing G. lucidum concentration. The results revealed also that treatment of EST bearing mice with G. lucidum and/or γ- radiation increased the survivability and decrease the tumor size as compared to EST group. The biochemical analysis for EST bearing group recorded an elevation in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), asparta amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) in the serum. Also, there was an elevation in the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, accompanied by a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD

  19. Comparison of Alignment Correction Angles Between Fixed-Bearing and Mobile-Bearing UKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Atsuo; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Yamazoe, Shoichi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Good outcomes have been reported with both fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). However, overcorrected alignment could induce the progression of arthritis on the non-arthroplasty side. Changes of limb alignment after UKA with both types of bearings (fixed bearing: 24 knees, mobile bearing: 28 knees) were investigated. The mean difference between the preoperative standing femoral-tibial angle (FTA) and postoperative standing FTA was significantly larger in mobile bearing UKA group. In fixed-bearing UKA, there must be some laxity in MCL tension so that a 2-mm tension gauge can be inserted. In mobile-bearing UKA, appropriate MCL tension is needed to prevent bearing dislocation. This difference in MCL tension may have caused the difference in the correction angle between the groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of roads on habitat quality for bears in the southern Appalachians: A long-term study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that gravel roads, not paved roads, had the largest negative effect on habitat quality for a population of American black bears (Ursus americanus) that lived in a protected area, where vehicle collision was a relatively minimal source of mortality. We also evaluated whether road use by bears differed by sex or age and whether annual variation in hard mast productivity affected the way bears used areas near roads. In addition, we tested previous findings regarding the spatial extent to which roads affected bear behavior negatively. Using summer and fall home ranges for 118 black bears living in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary in western North Carolina during 1981-2001, we estimated both home-range-scale (2nd-order) and within-home-range-scale (3rd-order) selection for areas within 250, 500, 800, and 1,600 m of paved and gravel roads. All bears avoided areas near gravel roads more than they avoided areas near paved roads during summer and fall for 2nd-order selection and during summer for 3rd-order selection. During fall, only adult females avoided areas near gravel roads more than they avoided areas near paved roads for 3rd-order selection. We found a positive relationship between use of roads by adults and annual variability in hard mast productivity. Overall, bears avoided areas within 800 m of gravel roads. Future research should determine whether avoidance of gravel roads by bears affects bear survival. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  1. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  2. Electron beam melting of bearing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmied, G.; Schuler, A. (Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Elektrotechnik); Elsinger, G.; Koroschetz, F. (MIBA Gleitlager AG, Laakirchen (Austria)); Tschegg, E.K. (Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte und Technische Physik)

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports on a surface treatment method for the bearing materials AlSn6 which permits the use of this material without the overlay usually required. Microstructural refinement is achieved by means of a surface melting technique using an electron beam with successive rapid solidification. Extremely fine tin precipitates are formed in the melted surface layer which lead to significantly better tribological properties of the bearing material. Tests compared the tribological properties for AlSn6 bearings treated by the surface melting technique with those of untreated bearings. Whereas all untreated bearings failed by seizure after only 2 h of testing, 30% of the tested bearings which had been surface melted survived the entire testing program without damage.

  3. Bearing Health Assessment Based on Chaotic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration signals extracted from rotating parts of machinery carry a lot of useful information about the condition of operating machine. Due to the strong non-linear, complex and non-stationary characteristics of vibration signals from working bearings, an accurate and reliable health assessment method for bearing is necessary. This paper proposes to utilize the selected chaotic characteristics of vibration signal for health assessment of a bearing by using self-organizing map (SOM. Both Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm and Takens' theory are employed to calculate the characteristic vector which includes three chaotic characteristics, such as correlation dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent and Kolmogorov entropy. After that, SOM is used to map the three corresponding characteristics into a confidence value (CV which represents the health state of the bearing. Finally, a case study based on vibration datasets of a group of testing bearings was conducted to demonstrate that the proposed method can reliably assess the health state of bearing.

  4. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adjusted loaded vehicle weight, as defined in § 86.094-2 or 86.1803-01 as applicable. For all other vehicles, test weight basis shall be loaded vehicle weight, as defined in § 86.082-2 or 86.1803-01 as... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road load power, test weight, and...

  5. Femoral fracture repair using a locking plate technique in an adult captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Dew, Terry; Douglass, Michael; Perez, Edward

    2010-02-01

    To report successful femoral fracture repair in a polar bear. Case report. Female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) 5 years and approximately 250 kg. A closed, complete, comminuted fracture of the distal midshaft femur was successfully reduced and stabilized using a compression plating technique with 2 specialized human femur plates offering axial, rotational, and bending support, and allowing the bone to share loads with the implant. Postoperative radiographs were obtained at 11.5 weeks, 11 months, and 24 months. Bone healing characterized by marked periosteal reaction was evident at 11 months with extensive remodeling evident at 24 months. No complications were noted. Distal mid shaft femoral fracture was reduced, stabilized, and healed in an adult polar bear with a locking plate technique using 2 plates. Previously, femoral fractures in polar bears were considered irreparable. Use of 2 plates applied with a locking plate technique can result in successful fracture repair despite large body weight and inability to restrict postoperative activity.

  6. Detection of generator bearing inner race creep by means of vibration and temperature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Dragiev, Ivaylo G.; Hilmisson, Reynir

    2015-01-01

    Vibration and temperature analysis are the two dominating condition monitoring techniques applied to fault detection of bearing failures in wind turbine generators. Relative movement between the bearing inner ring and generator axle is one of the most severe failure modes in terms of secondary...... damages and development. Detection of bearing creep can be achieved reliably based on continuous trending of the amplitude of vibration running speed harmonic and temperature absolute values. In order to decrease the number of condition indicators which need to be assessed, it is proposed to exploit...... a weighted average descriptor calculated based on the 3rd up to 6th harmonic orders. Two cases of different bearing creep severity are presented, showing the consistency of the combined vibration and temperature data utilization. In general, vibration monitoring reveals early signs of abnormality several...

  7. Trends in Controllable Oil Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    This work gives an overview about the theoretical and experimental achievements of mechatronics applied to oil film bearings, with the aim of: controlling the lateral vibration of flexible rotating shafts; modifying bearing dynamic characteristics, as stiffness and damping properties; increasing......" components and be applied to rotating machines with the goal of avoiding unexpected stops of plants, performing rotordynamic tests and identifying model parameters "on site". Emphasis is given to the controllable lubrication (active lubrication) applied to different types of oil film bearings, i...

  8. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Aryal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus. However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA. Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area and 48% (1917 km2 lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur, and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region.

  9. Technical Development Path for Gas Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Foil gas bearings are in widespread commercial use in air cycle machines, turbocompressors and microturbine generators and are emerging in more challenging applications such as turbochargers, auxiliary power units and propulsion gas turbines. Though not well known, foil bearing technology is well over fifty years old. Recent technological developments indicate that their full potential has yet to be realized. This paper investigates the key technological developments that have characterized foil bearing advances. It is expected that a better understanding of foil gas bearing development path will aid in future development and progress towards more advanced applications.

  10. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.

    2011-10-01

    NREL has initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) to investigate the root cause of the low wind turbine gearbox reliability. The GRC follows a multi-pronged approach based on a collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers and consultants. The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database. At the core of the project are two 750kW gearboxes that have been redesigned and rebuilt so that they are representative of the multi-megawatt gearbox topology currently used in the industry. These gearboxes are heavily instrumented and are tested in the field and on the dynamometer. This report discusses the bearing calibrations of the gearboxes.

  11. Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank; Kutschera, Verena E; Hallström, Björn M; Klassert, Denise; Fain, Steven R; Leonard, Jennifer A; Arnason, Ulfur; Janke, Axel

    2012-04-20

    Recent studies have shown that the polar bear matriline (mitochondrial DNA) evolved from a brown bear lineage since the late Pleistocene, potentially indicating rapid speciation and adaption to arctic conditions. Here, we present a high-resolution data set from multiple independent loci across the nuclear genomes of a broad sample of polar, brown, and black bears. Bayesian coalescent analyses place polar bears outside the brown bear clade and date the divergence much earlier, in the middle Pleistocene, about 600 (338 to 934) thousand years ago. This provides more time for polar bear evolution and confirms previous suggestions that polar bears carry introgressed brown bear mitochondrial DNA due to past hybridization. Our results highlight that multilocus genomic analyses are crucial for an accurate understanding of evolutionary history.

  12. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  13. Effects of low dose radiation on antioxidant enzymes after radiotherapy of tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Gao Gang; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Liu Xiaoqiu; Wang Zhiquan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To search for effects of low dose radiation on the activities of antioxidant enzymes after radiotherapy of tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were all determined by chemical colorimetry. Results: Low dose radiation increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) in serum of tumor-bearing mice more markedly than those in the unirradiated controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GST, CAT in serum of tumor-bearing mice (d 5 , d 3 ) irradiated with 5cGy 6h before 2.0 Gy radiation are obviously higher than those of the group (c 3 , c 5 ) given with radiotherapy only. Conclusion: The increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum of tumor-bearing mice triggered by low dose radiation could partly contribute to the protective mechanism. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of bearing configurations using the single bearing tester in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, T.; Hall, P.; Thom, R.

    1991-01-01

    Various bearing configurations were tested using the Marshall Space Flight Center single bearing tester with LN2 as the cryogenic coolant. The baseline was one Rocketdyne phase one high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) pump end 45-mm bore bearing. The bearing configurations that were tested included a Salox/M cage configuration, a silicon nitride ball configuration, an elongated cage configuration, and a Bray 601 grease configuration.

  15. Rolling Bearing Life Prediction, Theory, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2016-01-01

    A tutorial is presented outlining the evolution, theory, and application of rolling-element bearing life prediction from that of A. Palmgren, 1924; W. Weibull, 1939; G. Lundberg and A. Palmgren, 1947 and 1952; E. Ioannides and T. Harris, 1985; and E. Zaretsky, 1987. Comparisons are made between these life models. The Ioannides-Harris model without a fatigue limit is identical to the Lundberg-Palmgren model. The Weibull model is similar to that of Zaretsky if the exponents are chosen to be identical. Both the load-life and Hertz stress-life relations of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, and Ioannides and Harris reflect a strong dependence on the Weibull slope. The Zaretsky model decouples the dependence of the critical shear stress-life relation from the Weibull slope. This results in a nominal variation of the Hertz stress-life exponent. For 9th- and 8th-power Hertz stress-life exponents for ball and roller bearings, respectively, the Lundberg-Palmgren model best predicts life. However, for 12th- and 10th-power relations reflected by modern bearing steels, the Zaretsky model based on the Weibull equation is superior. Under the range of stresses examined, the use of a fatigue limit would suggest that (for most operating conditions under which a rolling-element bearing will operate) the bearing will not fail from classical rolling-element fatigue. Realistically, this is not the case. The use of a fatigue limit will significantly overpredict life over a range of normal operating Hertz stresses. (The use of ISO 281:2007 with a fatigue limit in these calculations would result in a bearing life approaching infinity.) Since the predicted lives of rolling-element bearings are high, the problem can become one of undersizing a bearing for a particular application. Rules had been developed to distinguish and compare predicted lives with those actually obtained. Based upon field and test results of 51 ball and roller bearing sets, 98 percent of these bearing sets had acceptable

  16. Unbalance Response Prediction for Rotors on Ball Bearings Using Speed and Load Dependent Nonlinear Bearing Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Poplawski, J. V.

    2003-01-01

    Rolling-element bearing forces vary nonlinearly with bearing deflection. Thus an accurate rotordynamic analysis requires that bearing forces corresponding to the actual bearing deflection be utilized. For this work bearing forces were calculated by COBRA-AHS, a recently developed rolling-element bearing analysis code. Bearing stiffness was found to be a strong function of bearing deflection, with higher deflection producing markedly higher stiffness. Curves fitted to the bearing data for a range of speeds and loads were supplied to a flexible rotor unbalance response analysis. The rotordynamic analysis showed that vibration response varied nonlinearly with the amount of rotor imbalance. Moreover, the increase in stiffness as critical speeds were approached caused a large increase in rotor and bearing vibration amplitude over part of the speed range compared to the case of constant bearing stiffness. Regions of bistable operation were possible, in which the amplitude at a given speed was much larger during rotor acceleration than during deceleration. A moderate amount of damping will eliminate the bistable region, but this damping is not inherent in ball bearings.

  17. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Gerald F.; Adams, Deborah; Garner, Gerald W.; Labelle, Martine; Pietsch, Jacy; Ramsay, Malcolm; Schwartz, Charles; Titus, Kimberly; Williamson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples.

  18. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, G F; Adams, D; Garner, G; Labelle, M; Pietsch, J; Ramsay, M; Schwartz, C; Titus, K; Williamson, S

    2000-05-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. State Space Formulation of Nonlinear Vibration Responses Collected from a Dynamic Rotor-Bearing System: An Extension of Bearing Diagnostics to Bearing Prognostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Peter W; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-14

    Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To extend bearing diagnostics to bearing prognostics, this paper reports the design of a state space formulation of nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system in order to intelligently predict bearing remaining useful life (RUL). Firstly, analyses of nonlinear vibration responses were conducted to construct a bearing health indicator (BHI) so as to assess the current bearing health condition. Secondly, a state space model of the BHI was developed to mathematically track the health evolution of the BHI. Thirdly, unscented particle filtering was used to predict bearing RUL. Lastly, a new bearing acceleration life testing setup was designed to collect natural bearing degradation data, which were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed bearing prognostic method. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed bearing prognostic method is promising and the proposed bearing prognostic method is able to reflect future bearing health conditions.

  20. State Space Formulation of Nonlinear Vibration Responses Collected from a Dynamic Rotor-Bearing System: An Extension of Bearing Diagnostics to Bearing Prognostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Tse

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To extend bearing diagnostics to bearing prognostics, this paper reports the design of a state space formulation of nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system in order to intelligently predict bearing remaining useful life (RUL. Firstly, analyses of nonlinear vibration responses were conducted to construct a bearing health indicator (BHI so as to assess the current bearing health condition. Secondly, a state space model of the BHI was developed to mathematically track the health evolution of the BHI. Thirdly, unscented particle filtering was used to predict bearing RUL. Lastly, a new bearing acceleration life testing setup was designed to collect natural bearing degradation data, which were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed bearing prognostic method. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed bearing prognostic method is promising and the proposed bearing prognostic method is able to reflect future bearing health conditions.

  1. Skeletal muscles of hibernating brown bears are unusually resistant to effects of denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, David C; Hershey, John D; Mattoon, John S; Robbins, Charles T

    2012-06-15

    Hibernating bears retain most of their skeletal muscle strength despite drastically reduced weight-bearing activity. Regular neural activation of muscles is a potential mechanism by which muscle atrophy could be limited. However, both mechanical loading and neural activity are usually necessary to maintain muscle size. An alternative mechanism is that the signaling pathways related to the regulation of muscle size could be altered so that neither mechanical nor neural inputs are needed for retaining strength. More specifically, we hypothesized that muscles in hibernating bears are resistant to a severe reduction in neural activation. To test this hypothesis, we unilaterally transected the common peroneal nerve, which innervates ankle flexor muscles, in hibernating and summer-active brown bears (Ursus arctos). In hibernating bears, the long digital extensor (LDE) and cranial tibial (CT) musculotendon masses on the denervated side decreased after 11 weeks post-surgery by 18 ± 11 and 25 ± 10%, respectively, compared with those in the intact side. In contrast, decreases in musculotendon masses of summer-active bears after denervation were 61 ± 4 and 58 ± 5% in the LDE and CT, respectively, and significantly different from those of hibernating bears. The decrease due to denervation in summer-active bears was comparable to that occurring in other mammals. Whole-muscle cross-sectional areas (CSAs) measured from ultrasound images and myofiber CSAs measured from biopsies decreased similarly to musculotendon mass. Thus, hibernating bears alter skeletal muscle catabolic pathways regulated by neural activity, and exploration of these pathways may offer potential solutions for disuse atrophy of muscles.

  2. A superconducting thrust-bearing system for an energy storage flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T.A.; Cansiz, A.; Campbell, A.M. [IRC in Superconductivity, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    We have constructed a bearing system for an energy storage flywheel. This bearing system uses a combination of permanent magnets and superconductors in an arrangement commonly termed as an Evershed bearing. In an Evershed system there are in fact two bearings which act in concert. In our system we have one bearing constructed entirely out of permanent magnets acting in attraction. This system bears the weight of the flywheel (43.6 kg) but would not, on its own, be stable. Stability is provided by a superconducting bearing which is formed by the interaction between the magnetic field of a permanent magnet sited on the rotor and superconductors on the stator. This overall arrangement is stable over a range of levitation heights and has been tested at rotation speeds of up to around 12 Hz (the maximum speed is dictated by the drive system not the bearing system). There is a sharp resonance peaking at between 2 and 3 Hz and spin down tests indicate that the equivalent coefficient of friction is of the order of 10{sup -5}. The rate of change of velocity is, however, not constant so the drag is clearly not solely frictional. The position of the resonance is dictated by the stiffness of the bearing relative to the mass of the flywheel but the amplitude of the resonance is dictated by the variation in magnitude of the magnetic field of the permanent magnets. Large magnets are (at present) fabricated in sections and this leads to a highly inhomogeneous field. The field has been smoothed by using a combination of iron which acts passively and copper which provides magnetic shielding due to the generation of eddy currents and therefore acts as an 'active' component. Calculations based on the spin down tests indicate that the resultant variation in field is of the order of 3% and measurements are being carried out to confirm this. (author)

  3. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    high alpine regions the leopard Panthera pardus seem to have used the ecological niche of the absent hyenas (Diedrich 2009d, in review a). At open air sites cave bear scavenging by the largest Late Quaternary predators were proven, too (Diedrich 2006, 2009e). The predation stress caused by the three main and largest Late Quaternary predators seem to have provided cave bears to hibernate often deeply in many European caves, and here especially in larger and longer cave systems (e.g. Diedrich et al 2009, in review, Diedrich and Moldovan 2010) to protect themselves against the largest Quaternary predators. In conflicts with those large felids must have been killed by adult cave bears, which explains why those predator carcasses remained as complete skeletons or as partly disarticulated ones even deep in caves all over Europe which were finally not scavenged by the herbivorous cave bears (Diedrich in review). In such cave bear den caves the amount of lion bones generally take only 1-3% of the total bone amount being highly dominated by cave bear bones (Diedrich 2009c, in review). Lions and hyenas seem to have focussed onto the hunt of cave bears all over Europe, especially with the reduction of the biomass in the open environments at the maximum cold period during around 26.000-24.000 BP (Solutrean). The slow extinction of their largest prey was an important motor of the predation pressure onto cave bears. This might be one reason for the cave bear extinction in the final Late Quaternary (early Late Weichselian, maximum cold period) at least in northern Europe, but it seem to have happened in a combination of climatic change, and also human impact (cf. Diedrich, this volume). References Diedrich, C., 2005. Cracking and nibbling marks as indicators for the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyena as a scavenger of cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, 1794) carcasses in the Perick Caves den of Northwest Germany. Abhandlungen der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Nürnberg, 45, 73

  4. Friction coefficients of PTFE bearing liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C. M.

    1979-01-01

    Data discusses frictional characteristics of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) under temperature extremes and in vacuum environment. Tests were also run on reduced scale hardware to determine effects of vacuum. Data is used as reference by designers of aircraft-control system rod-end bearings and for bearings used in polar regions.

  5. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coe±cients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 [1]and described further in 1972 [2]. Several authors have re¯ned this metho...

  6. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  7. Measurement of Wear in Radial Journal Bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.; Ligterink, D.J.; de Gee, A.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    this article, the measurement of wear in radial journal bearings is discussed, where a distinction is made between stationary and non-stationary contact conditions. Starting with Holm/Archard's wear law, equations are derived for the calculation of the specific wear rate k of the bearing material as

  8. Stabilizing gas bearing in free piston machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Manmohan (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    In a free piston engine, to reduce dynamic loads on the reciprocating elements caused by a time varying pressure gradient across the gas bearing and close clearance seals provided therein, drain galleries are incorporated at the ends of the gas bearings to isolate the same, and circumferentially spaced grooves are incorporated in the close clearance seal region.

  9. Accuracy of Spindle Units with Hydrostatic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorynenko Dmytro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the research of precision regularities in a spindle unit by the trajectory of the spindle installed on hydrostatic bearings. The mathematical model of trajectories spindle with lumped parameters that allows to define the position of the spindle with regard the simultaneous influence of design parameters, geometrical deviations ofform, temperature deformation bearing surfaces, the random nature of operational parameters and technical loads of hydrostatic bearings has been developed. Based on the results of numerical modeling the influence of shape errors of bearing surface of hydrostatic bearing on the statistical characteristics of the radius vector trajectories of the spindle by varying the values rotational speed of the spindle and oil pressure in front hydrostatic bearing has been developed. The obtained statistical regularities of precision spindle unit have been confirmed experimentally. It has been shown that an effective way to increase the precision of spindle units is to regulate the size of the gap in hydrostatic spindle bearings. The new design of an adjustable hydrostatic bearing, which can improve the accuracy of regulation size gap has been proposed.

  10. On the dynamics of ball bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This investigation on the dynamic behaviour of ball bearings was motivated by the demand for silent bearings in noise-sensitive applications, especially in the household appliance and automotive industry. The present investigations are intended to provide a clear understanding of the role of the

  11. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  12. Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Compliant Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavatskih S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic response of the compliant tilting pad journal bearings subjected to synchronous excitation. Bearing compliance is affected by the properties of pad liner and pad support geometry. Different unbalance eccentricities are considered. It is shown that bearing dynamic response is non-linear. Journal orbit complexity increases with pad compliance though the orbit amplitudes are marginally affected at low loads. At high loads, the journal is forced to operate outside the bearing clearance. The polymer liner reduces the maximum oil film pressure by a factor of 2 when compared to the white metal liner. The nonlinear dynamic response of compliant tilting pad journal bearings is thoroughly discussed.

  13. The dynamic state monitoring of bearings system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methods of dynamic state monitoring of bearings system. A vibration signal contains important technical information about the machine condition and is currently the most frequently used in diagnostic bearings systems. One of the main ad-vantages of machine condition monitoring is identifying the cause of failure of the bearings and taking preventative measures, otherwise the operation of such a machine will lead to frequent replacement of the bearings. Monitoring changes in the course of the operation of machin-ery repair strategies allows keeping the conditioned state of dynamic failure conditioned preventive repairs and repairs after-failure time. In addition, the paper also presents the fundamental causes of bearing failure and identifies mechanisms related to the creation of any type of damage.

  14. Bears benefit plants via a cascade with both antagonistic and mutualistic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinath, Joshua B; Inouye, Brian D; Underwood, Nora

    2015-02-01

    Predators can influence primary producers by generating cascades of effects in ecological webs. These effects are often non-intuitive, going undetected because they involve many links and different types of species interactions. Particularly, little is understood about how antagonistic (negative) and mutualistic (positive) interactions combine to create cascades. Here, we show that black bears can benefit plants by consuming ants. The ants are mutualists of herbivores and protect herbivores from other arthropod predators. We found that plants near bear-damaged ant nests had greater reproduction than those near undamaged nests, due to weaker ant protection for herbivores, which allowed herbivore suppression by arthropod predators. Our results highlight the need to integrate mutualisms into trophic cascade theory, which is based primarily on antagonistic relationships. Predators are often conservation targets, and our results suggest that bears and other predators should be managed with the understanding that they can influence primary producers through many paths. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Transient response of two lobe aerodynamic journal bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Yadav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of a rotor-dynamic system is greatly affected by the performance of aerodynamic bearing and the performance of bearing is characterized by the stiffness and damping coefficients. In the present work, stiffness and damping coefficients of bearing are computed and the performance of the bearing is greatly changed with the change in bearing air film profile. The effect of lobe offset factors on the transient performance of aerodynamic bearing is presented. Bifurcation and Poincare diagrams of two lobe journal bearing have been presented for different offset factors. A bearing designer can judge the bearing performance based on bifurcation diagrams.

  16. Whistleblower Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 (WPA) and the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 Enhanced by the Act of 2012 provides protection rights for Federal employees against retaliation for whistleblowing activities.

  17. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  18. EFFECT OF CLEARANCE THE BALL BEARINGS ON INCORRECT WORK OF THREE-SUPORT BEARING SHAFT

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław KACZOR

    2014-01-01

    Durability deep groove ball bearings depends on factors (called attributes) design, technological and operational. Among the design features one of the most important is play in the bearings. Polish Norm shows five groups of looseness in the bearings, in which the play range from 0 to 105 microns. Manufacturers of rolling bearings they only play group, which has a bearing data, without giving the exact value of the slack. Aim of this study is to determine how it affects the play in the bea...

  19. Failure of GIMBAL bearing in directional GYRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervaiz, R.; Baig, N.A.; Shahid, M.; Ahmad, A.; Chohan, G.Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper relates to the directional gyro of a sensing device used in indigenously developed surface-to-surface missile. The assembling of more than one thousand components in the form of several sub assemblies including hundreds of silver solders of this device was done in the hundred-thousands-class clean room according to assembly procedure. Whereas more than twenty bearings including gimbals bearings were assembled in the ten-thousands-class clean room after inspection/ testing them on beating testing system as per routine. The device was entered in testing and adjustment phase after successful completion of assembly work. The directional gyro qualified all the tests except the most critical one, the drift-rate. The drift-rate of outer gimbal was 60% more than permissible limit whereas drift-rate of inner gimbal was found O.K. It was diagnosed that at least one inner gimbal bearing out of two had some problem. The results were same after rebalancing of gimbals three times. The directional gyro was disassembled in clean room and the radial-thrust-bearing was recovered and flange bearing which are inner gimbal bearings. They were checked on bearing testing system and it was found that flange-bearing had more friction than permissible limit and hence rejected but radial thrust bearing were declared O.K. The gyro was reassembled with new O.K. flange bearing and the assembly work was completed in all respects. The sensing device qualified all the tests including the drift-rate. This case study is being presented to emphasize the importance of careful assembly of gyro in clean environment. (author)

  20. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  1. Pronounced expression of the lipolytic inhibitor G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2) in adipose tissue from brown bears (Ursus arctos) prior to hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas S; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Viggers, Rikke; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Evans, Alina; Frøbert, Ole

    2016-04-01

    Prior to hibernation, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) exhibits unparalleled weight gain. Unlike humans, weight gain in bears is associated with lower levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) and increased insulin sensitivity. Understanding how free-ranging brown bears suppress lipolysis when gaining weight may therefore provide novel insight toward the development of human therapies. Blood and subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected from immobilized free-ranging brown bears (fitted with GPS-collars) during hibernation in winter and from the same bears during the active period in summer in Dalarna, Sweden. The expression of lipid droplet-associated proteins in adipose tissue was examined under the hypothesis that bears suppress lipolysis during summer while gaining weight by increased expression of negative regulators of lipolysis. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) expression did not differ between seasons, but in contrast, the expression of ATGL coactivator Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) was lower in summer. In addition, the expression of the negative regulators of lipolysis, G0S2 and cell-death inducing DNA fragmentation factor-a-like effector (CIDE)C markedly increased during summer. Free-ranging brown bears display potent upregulation of inhibitors of lipolysis in adipose tissue during summer. This is a potential mechanism for increased insulin sensitivity during weight gain and G0S2 may serve as a target to modulate insulin sensitivity. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are designed for earthquake shaking with very long return periods. Seismic isolation is a viable strategy to protect NPPs from extreme earthquake shaking because it filters a significant fraction of earthquake input energy. This study addresses the seismic isolation of NPPs using sliding bearings, with a focus on the single concave Friction Pendulum(TM) (FP) bearing. Friction at the sliding surface of an FP bearing changes continuously during an earthquake as a function of sliding velocity, axial pressure and temperature at the sliding surface. The temperature at the sliding surface, in turn, is a function of the histories of coefficient of friction, sliding velocity and axial pressure, and the travel path of the slider. A simple model to describe the complex interdependence of the coefficient of friction, axial pressure, sliding velocity and temperature at the sliding surface is proposed, and then verified and validated. Seismic hazard for a seismically isolated nuclear power plant is defined in the United States using a uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS) at mean annual frequencies of exceedance (MAFE) of 10-4 and 10 -5. A key design parameter is the clearance to the hard stop (CHS), which is influenced substantially by the definition of the seismic hazard. Four alternate representations of seismic hazard are studied, which incorporate different variabilities and uncertainties. Response-history analyses performed on single FP-bearing isolation systems using ground motions consistent with the four representations at the two shaking levels indicate that the CHS is influenced primarily by whether the observed difference between the two horizontal components of ground motions in a given set is accounted for. The UHRS at the MAFE of 10-4 is increased by a design factor (≥ 1) for conventional (fixed base) nuclear structure to achieve a target annual frequency of unacceptable performance. Risk oriented calculations are performed for

  3. Outer skin protection of columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A coated columbium alloy material system 0.04 centimeter thick was developed which provides for increased reliability to the load bearing character of the system in the event of physical damage to and loss of the exterior protective coating. The increased reliability to the load bearing columbium alloy (FS-85) was achieved by interposing an oxidation resistant columbium alloy (B-1) between the FS-85 alloy and a fused slurry silicide coating. The B-1 alloy was applied as a cladding to the FS-85 and the composite was fused slurry silicide coated. Results of material evaluation testing included cyclic oxidation testing of specimens with intentional coating defects, tensile testing of several material combinations exposed to reentry profile conditions, and emittance testing after cycling of up to 100 simulated reentries. The clad material, which was shown to provide greater reliability than unclad materials, holds significant promise for use in the thermal protection system of hypersonic reentry vehicles.

  4. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  5. Genomic Evidence of Widespread Admixture from Polar Bears into Brown Bears during the Last Ice Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James A; Heintzman, Peter D; Harris, Kelley; Teasdale, Matthew D; Kapp, Joshua; Soares, Andre E R; Stirling, Ian; Bradley, Daniel; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Graim, Kiley; Kisleika, Aliaksandr A; Malev, Alexander V; Monaghan, Nigel; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2018-05-01

    Recent genomic analyses have provided substantial evidence for past periods of gene flow from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) into Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos), with some analyses suggesting a link between climate change and genomic introgression. However, because it has mainly been possible to sample bears from the present day, the timing, frequency, and evolutionary significance of this admixture remains unknown. Here, we analyze genomic DNA from three additional and geographically distinct brown bear populations, including two that lived temporally close to the peak of the last ice age. We find evidence of admixture in all three populations, suggesting that admixture between these species has been common in their recent evolutionary history. In addition, analyses of ten fossil bears from the now-extinct Irish population indicate that admixture peaked during the last ice age, whereas brown bear and polar bear ranges overlapped. Following this peak, the proportion of polar bear ancestry in Irish brown bears declined rapidly until their extinction. Our results support a model in which ice age climate change created geographically widespread conditions conducive to admixture between polar bears and brown bears, as is again occurring today. We postulate that this model will be informative for many admixing species pairs impacted by climate change. Our results highlight the power of paleogenomics to reveal patterns of evolutionary change that are otherwise masked in contemporary data.

  6. Bear-ly” learning: Limits of abstraction in black bear cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vonk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We presented two American black bears (Ursus americanus with a serial list learning memory task, and one of the bears with a matching-to-sample task. After extended training, both bears demonstrated some success with the memory task but failed to generalize the overarching rule of the task to novel stimuli. Matching to sample proved even more difficult for our bear to learn. We conclude that, despite previous success in training bears to respond to natural categories, quantity discriminations, and other related tasks, that bears may possess a cognitive limitation with regards to learning abstract rules. Future tests using different procedures are necessary to determine whether this is a limit of bears’ cognitive capacities, or a limitation of the current tasks as presented. Future tests should present a larger number of varying stimuli. Ideally, bears of various species should be tested on these tasks to demonstrate species as well as individual differences.

  7. Impact of Weight Loss With Intragastric Balloon on Bone Density and Microstructure in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Eduardo; Madeira, Miguel; Guedes, Erika Paniago; Mafort, Thiago Thomaz; Moreira, Rodrigo Oliveira; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Lima, Inayá Correa Barbosa; Neto, Leonardo Vieira; de Pinho, Paulo Roberto Alves; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss

    2018-03-21

    The historical concept that obesity protects against bone fractures has been questioned. Weight loss appears to reduce bone mineral density (BMD); however, the results in young adults are inconsistent, and data on the effects of weight loss on bone microstructure are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of weight loss using an intragastric balloon (IGB) on bone density and microstructure. Forty obese patients with metabolic syndrome (mean age 35.1 ± 7.3 yr) used an IGB continuously for 6 mo. Laboratory tests, areal BMD, and body composition measurements via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and volumetric BMD and bone microstructure measurements via high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography were conducted before IGB placement and after IGB removal. The mean weight loss was 11.5%. After 6 mo, there were significant increases in vitamin D and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen levels. After IGB use, areal BMD increased in the spine but decreased in the total femur and the 33% radius. Cortical BMD increased in the distal radius but tended to decrease in the distal tibia. The observed trabecular bone loss in the distal tibia contributed to the decline in the total volumetric BMD at this site. There was a negative correlation between the changes in leptin levels and the measures of trabecular quality in the tibia on high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Weight loss may negatively impact bone microstructure in young patients, especially for weight-bearing bones, in which obesity has a more prominent effect. Copyright © 2018 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Resistance exercise attenuates skeletal muscle oxidative stress, systemic pro-inflammatory state, and cachexia in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Camila Souza; Borges, Fernando Henrique; Costa Mendes da Silva, Lilian Eslaine; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan; Jordao, Alceu Afonso; Duarte, José Alberto; Cecchini, Rubens; Guarnier, Flávia Alessandra; Deminice, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) on oxidative stress, systemic inflammatory markers, and muscle wasting in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Male (Wistar) rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary controls (n = 9), tumor-bearing (n = 9), exercised (n = 9), and tumor-bearing exercised (n = 10). Exercised and tumor-bearing exercised rats were exposed to resistance exercise of climbing a ladder apparatus with weights tied to their tails for 6 weeks. The physical activity of control and tumor-bearing rats was confined to the space of the cage. After this period, tumor-bearing and tumor-bearing exercised animals were inoculated subcutaneously with Walker-256 tumor cells (11.0 × 10 7 cells in 0.5 mL of phosphate-buffered saline) while control and exercised rats were injected with vehicle. Following inoculation, rats maintained resistance exercise training (exercised and tumor-bearing exercised) or sedentary behavior (control and tumor-bearing) for 12 more days, after which they were euthanized. Results showed muscle wasting in the tumor-bearing group, with body weight loss, increased systemic leukocytes, and inflammatory interleukins as well as muscular oxidative stress and reduced mTOR signaling. In contrast, RET in the tumor-bearing exercised group was able to mitigate the reduced body weight and muscle wasting with the attenuation of muscle oxidative stress and systemic inflammatory markers. RET also prevented loss of muscle strength associated with tumor development. RET, however, did not prevent the muscle proteolysis signaling via FBXO32 gene messenger RNA expression in the tumor-bearing group. In conclusion, RET performed prior tumor implantation prevents cachexia development by attenuating tumor-induced systemic pro-inflammatory condition with muscle oxidative stress and muscle damage.

  9. Rotational characteristics in the resonance state of the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid magnetic bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morii, Y.; Sukedai, M. [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Ohashi, S., E-mail: ohashi@kansai-u.ac.jp [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The hybrid magnetic bearing has been developed. In the hybrid system, effect of the pinning force becomes smaller. Influence of the vibration and the gradient angle in the resonance state is large. The resonance frequency becomes small in the hybrid bearing system. The hybrid magnetic bearing using permanent magnets and the high-Tc bulk superconductor (HTSC) has been developed. Repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced to increase the load weight of the magnetic bearing. Effect of the hybrid system has been shown. In this paper, influence of the hybrid system on the dynamic characteristics of the rotor is studied. The rotational characteristics in the mechanical resonance state are studied, and the equivalent magnetic spring coefficient is estimated from the experimental results of the load weight. The resonance frequency is measured by the rotation experiments. The rotor achieves stable levitation even in the resonance state. In the hybrid system, effect of the pinning force becomes smaller than that of the lateral force generated by the repulsive force between the two permanent magnets at the smaller air gap. Thus influence of the lateral vibration and the gradient angle in the resonance state becomes larger at a smaller air gap. The equivalent magnetic spring coefficient becomes also small, and the resonance frequency becomes small in the hybrid bearing system.

  10. Temporal trends and future predictions of mercury concentrations in Northwest Greenland polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, R; Born, E W; Rigét, F; Aubail, A; Sonne, C; Drimmie, R; Basu, N

    2011-02-15

    Hair samples from 117 Northwest Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were taken during 1892-2008 and analyzed for total mercury (hereafter Hg). The sample represented 28 independent years and the aim of the study was to analyze for temporal Hg trends. Mercury concentrations showed yearly significant increases of 1.6-1.7% (p polar bear Hg exposure is 95.6-96.2% anthropogenic in its origin. Assuming a continued anthropogenic increase, this model estimated concentrations in 2050 and 2100 will be 40- and 92-fold the baseline concentration, respectively, which is equivalent to a 97.5 and 98.9% man-made contribution. None of the 2001-2008 concentrations of Hg in Northwest Greenland polar bear hair exceeded the general guideline values of 20-30 μg/g dry weight for terrestrial wildlife, whereas the neurochemical effect level of 5.4 μg Hg/g dry weight proposed for East Greenland polar bears was exceeded in 93.5% of the cases. These results call for detailed effect studies in main target organs such as brain, liver, kidney, and sexual organs in the Northwest Greenland polar bears.

  11. Vibration model of rolling element bearings in a rotor-bearing system for fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Feiyun; Chen, Jin; Dong, Guangming; Pecht, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Rolling element bearing faults are among the main causes of breakdown in rotating machines. In this paper, a rolling bearing fault model is proposed based on the dynamic load analysis of a rotor-bearing system. The rotor impact factor is taken into consideration in the rolling bearing fault signal model. The defect load on the surface of the bearing is divided into two parts, the alternate load and the determinate load. The vibration response of the proposed fault signal model is investigated and the fault signal calculating equation is derived through dynamic and kinematic analysis. Outer race and inner race fault simulations are realized in the paper. The simulation process includes consideration of several parameters, such as the gravity of the rotor-bearing system, the imbalance of the rotor, and the location of the defect on the surface. The simulation results show that different amplitude contributions of the alternate load and determinate load will cause different envelope spectrum expressions. The rotating frequency sidebands will occur in the envelope spectrum in addition to the fault characteristic frequency. This appearance of sidebands will increase the difficulty of fault recognition in intelligent fault diagnosis. The experiments given in the paper have successfully verified the proposed signal model simulation results. The test rig design of the rotor bearing system simulated several operating conditions: (1) rotor bearing only; (2) rotor bearing with loader added; (3) rotor bearing with loader and rotor disk; and (4) bearing fault simulation without rotor influence. The results of the experiments have verified that the proposed rolling bearing signal model is important to the rolling bearing fault diagnosis of rotor-bearing systems.

  12. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  13. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces XII Appendix XII to Part 266... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. XII Appendix XII to Part 266—Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be...

  15. Polar bears and sea ice habitat change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is an obligate apex predator of Arctic sea ice and as such can be affected by climate warming-induced changes in the extent and composition of pack ice and its impacts on their seal prey. Sea ice declines have negatively impacted some polar bear subpopulations through reduced energy input because of loss of hunting habitats, higher energy costs due to greater ice drift, ice fracturing and open water, and ultimately greater challenges to recruit young. Projections made from the output of global climate models suggest that polar bears in peripheral Arctic and sub-Arctic seas will be reduced in numbers or become extirpated by the end of the twenty-first century if the rate of climate warming continues on its present trajectory. The same projections also suggest that polar bears may persist in the high-latitude Arctic where heavy multiyear sea ice that has been typical in that region is being replaced by thinner annual ice. Underlying physical and biological oceanography provides clues as to why polar bear in some regions are negatively impacted, while bears in other regions have shown no apparent changes. However, continued declines in sea ice will eventually challenge the survival of polar bears and efforts to conserve them in all regions of the Arctic.

  16. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  17. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  18. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  19. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglierchio, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  20. Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... orifices machined in the bearing pads, one can alter the machine dynamic characteristics, thus enhancing its operational range. A mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system, as well as of the hydraulic system, is presented. Numerical results of the system frequency response show good agreement...

  1. Microeconomic analysis of military aircraft bearing restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding program was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed. The annual cost savings to U.S. Army aviation is approximately $950,000.00 for three engines and three transmissions. The capital value over an indefinite life is approximately ten million dollars. The annual cost savings for U.S. Air Force engines is approximately $313,000.00 with a capital value of approximately 3.1 million dollars. The program will result in the government obtaining bearings at lower costs at equivalent reliability. The bearing industry can recover lost profits during a period of reduced demand and higher costs.

  2. Superconducting bearings for a LHe transfer pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeppel, S.; Muehsig, C.; Funke, T.; Haberstroh, C.; Hesse, U.; Lindackers, D.; Zielke, S.; Sass, P.; Schoendube, R.

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting bearings are used in a number of applications for high speed, low loss suspension. Most of these applications suspend a warm shaft and thus require continuous cooling, which leads to additional power consumption. Therefore, it seems advantageous to use these bearings in systems that are inherently cold. One respective application is a submerged pump for the transfer of liquid helium into mobile dewars. Centrifugal pumps require tight sealing clearances, especially for low viscosity fluids and small sizes. This paper covers the design and qualification of superconducting YBCO bearings for a laboratory sized liquid helium transfer pump. Emphasis is given to the axial positioning, which strongly influences the achievable volumetric efficiency.

  3. Camshaft bearing arrangement for overhead cam engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.

    1985-01-01

    In an assembly for an internal combustion engine comprising a cylinder block, a cylinder head detachably affixed to the cylinder block by a plurality of threaded fastening means, a plurality of poppet valves supported for reciprocation in the cylinder head and a camshaft for operating the poppet valves, the improvement is described comprising a cam carrier detachably affixed to the cylinder head and overlying the threaded fastening means, and a bearing cap affixed to the cam carrier. The cam carrier and the bearing cap have bearing surfaces for journaling the camshaft.

  4. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpern, David G [Los Angeles, CA; McCabe, Niall [Torrance, CA; Gee, Mark [South Pasadena, CA

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  5. Prediction of low birth weight from other anthropometric parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight is a global problem but presents a major burden on the neonatal services in developing countries such as Nigeria, and brings to bear a greater strain on the meagre resources available for health care delivery and family financing. In a resourceconstrained setting as ours, proper weighing of all ...

  6. Public Perceptions of Bears and Management Interventions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of bears is a challenge globally. In Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and brown bears (Ursus arctos) are considered a nuisance because of agricultural and property damage and personal human danger due to occasional human casualties. Reduction of human–bear conflicts in Japan would improve long-term conservation of bears and reduce risks to human health and safety. To understand Japanese perceptions of and experience with bears, we analyzed results of 5 public surveys...

  7. Management of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Klenzendorf, Sybille A.

    1997-01-01

    Management of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) in Europe. Sybille A. Klenzendorf (Abstract) Successful conservation of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Europe is associated with public acceptance of damages caused by bears. Recent increases in sheep depredation and beehive damage in central Austria resulted in the deaths of two bears there. Since bear numbers are low in most European populations, alternatives to the elimination of problem bears associated with dam...

  8. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  9. Diplomatic Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Režná, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Final thesis Topic: Diplomatic protection Thesis supervisor: JUDr. Vladimír Balaš, CSc. Student: Marek Čermák Thesis on the topic of diplomatic protection deals with the granting of exercise of diplomatic protection by the states and is divided into seven chapters which follow each other. The first chapter describes the diplomatic protection and its historical foundations. The second chapter focuses on the possibility of exercise of diplomatic protection in respect of natural persons and the ...

  10. Blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns in captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nicholas; Elliott, Sarah B; Allin, Shawn B; Ramsay, Edward C

    2006-02-01

    To compare blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns for captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus). 7 captive and 9 wild adult (> or = 4 years old) black bears. Blood was collected from 2 groups of captive black bears (groups A and B) and 1 group of wild black bears (group C). Blood triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol concentrations were compared among groups. Plasma lipoproteins were isolated by use of a self-generating gradient of iodixanol, and lipoprotein patterns were compared between groups A and B. Captive bears (mean +/- SD, 187.8 +/- 44.4 kg) weighed significantly more than wild bears (mean, 104.8 +/- 41.4 kg), but mean body weight did not differ between groups A and B. Mean blood TG concentrations for groups B (216.8 +/- 16.0 mg/dL) and C (190.7 +/- 34.0 mg/dL) were significantly higher than that of group A (103.9 +/- 25.3 mg/dL). Mean blood cholesterol concentration was also significantly higher for group B (227.8 +/- 8.2 mg/dL) than for groups A (171.7 +/- 35.5 mg/dL) or C (190.8 +/- 26.8 mg/dL). Mean very-low-density lipoprotein TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were 2- and 3-fold higher, respectively, for group B, compared with concentrations for group A. Blood lipid concentrations vary significantly among populations of black bears. Plasma lipoprotein patterns of captive bears differed significantly between colonies and may have reflected differences in diet or management practices.

  11. Comparative analysis of the gut microbiota of black bears in China using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Can; Wang, Bochu; Tan, Jun; Zhu, Liancai; Lou, Deshuai; Cen, Xiaoxi

    2017-04-01

    The Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) is a protected species from eastern Asia. In China, the Asiatic black bear occurs in 17 provinces from northeast to southwest regions. To date, information on microbial diversity in the gut of the Asiatic black bears from different populations remains limited. To determine the species composition and community structure of the gut microbiota in the Asiatic black bear, we characterized 36 fecal samples from Sichuan, Yunnan, and Heilongjiang provinces, China, by pyrosequencing the 16S V3-V4 hypervariable regions using the Illumina Miseq platform. Results showed that Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla in the samples, which were largely comprised Escherichia-Shigella, Peptostreptococcaceae_incertae_sedis, Turicibacter, Streptococcus, and Clostridium. By analyzing the community structure from these 36 samples, we found that there were significant differences in the species diversity and richness between Sichuan, Yunnan, and Heilongjiang populations. In conclusion, our results reveal the species composition and structure of the gut microbiota in captive black bears in China, and suggest that biogeography could affect the black bear' gut microbiota.

  12. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.

  13. State Space Formulation of Nonlinear Vibration Responses Collected from a Dynamic Rotor-Bearing System: An Extension of Bearing Diagnostics to Bearing Prognostics

    OpenAIRE

    Peter W. Tse; Dong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To exten...

  14. Effect of 5 weeks horizontal bed rest on human muscle thickness and architecture of weight bearing and non-weight bearing muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Maarten D; Seynnes, Olivier R; di Prampero, Pietro E; Pisot, Rado; Mekjavić, Igor B; Biolo, Gianni; Narici, Marco V

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in thickness, fascicle length (L (f)) and pennation angle (theta) of the antigravity gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles, and the non-antigravity tibialis anterior (TA) and biceps brachii (BB) muscles measured by ultrasonography in ten healthy males (aged 22.3 +/- 2.2 years) in response to 5 weeks of horizontal bed rest (BR). After BR, muscle thickness decreased by 12.2 +/- 8.8% (P antigravity muscles of the lower limbs, the GM deteriorated to a greater extent than the VL is possibly related to the differences in relative load that this muscle normally experiences during daily loading. The dissimilar response in antigravity and non-antigravity muscles to unloading likely reflects differences in loading under normal conditions. The significant structural alterations of the GM and VL muscles highlight the rapid remodelling of muscle architecture occurring with disuse.

  15. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie H Larsson

    Full Text Available The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5 is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  16. Bearings for the biomass boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-03-15

    Biomass energy is booming –– more than two billion people depend on biomass for their energy and the International Energy Agency predicts that biomass' share of the global energy supply will treble by 2050. But in many developing countries it is still regarded as a traditional and dirty solution that is often criminalised, unsustainable and poorly paid. A more sophisticated approach that legalises and secures sustainable production by and for local people could help improve energy security, cut carbon emissions, protect forests and reduce poverty.

  17. Molecular phylogeny and SNP variation of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) derived from genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; Rincon, Gonzalo; Meredith, Robert W; MacNeil, Michael D; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Cánovas, Angela; Medrano, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relationships of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) with high throughput genomic sequencing data with an average coverage of 25× for each species. A total of 1.4 billion 100-bp paired-end reads were assembled using the polar bear and annotated giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome sequences as references. We identified 13.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3 species aligned to the polar bear genome. These data indicate that polar bears and brown bears share more SNP with each other than either does with black bears. Concatenation and coalescence-based analysis of consensus sequences of approximately 1 million base pairs of ultraconserved elements in the nuclear genome resulted in a phylogeny with black bears as the sister group to brown and polar bears, and all brown bears are in a separate clade from polar bears. Genotypes for 162 SNP loci of 336 bears from Alaska and Montana showed that the species are genetically differentiated and there is geographic population structure of brown and black bears but not polar bears.

  18. How to live with black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1988-01-01

    A black bear in camp requires caution but is not cause for great alarm. Most are timid enough to be scared away by yelling, waving, and banging pans. But a few are too accustomed to people to be bothered.

  19. Centrifuge advances using HTS magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Flögel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Wippich, D.; Riedel, T.

    2001-05-01

    Passive magnetic bearings are of increasing technical interest. We performed experiments with centrifugal rotors to analyze gyroscopic forces in terms imbalance, rotor elasticity and damping. Centrifuge rotors need to be operated soft and stable without whirling the sediments. In order to evaluate optimal parameters critical and resonance behaviors are investigated. Eccentricities up 2 mm are safely passed by accelerating test wheels. In a simple model we describe the effect of passing critical rotational speeds. Measurements of bearing properties and wheel performance are presented. We have constructed a first prototype centrifuge designed with a HTS double bearing which operates a titanium rotor safely up to 30 000 rpm. A 15 W Stirling cooler serves cryogenics of the YBCO stators. From the experiments design guidelines for centrifugal applications with HTS bearings are given.

  20. Hydrostatic radial bearing of centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrostatic radial pump is described characterized by the fact that part of the medium off-taken from delivery is used as a lubricating medium. Two additional bodies are placed alongside a hydrostatic bearing with coils in between them and the pump shaft; the coils have an opposite pitch. The feed channel for the hydrostatic bearing pocket is linked to delivery. The coil outlets are connected to the pump suction unit. Two rotating coils placed alongside the hydrostatic bearing will considerably simplify the communication channel design and reduce the dependence on the pump shaft deflections. The addition of another rotating coil in the close vicinity of the pump shaft or directly on the shaft further increases the efficiency. The bearing can be used in designing vertical circulating pumps for the cooling circuits of nuclear reactors. (J.B.)

  1. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  2. Bearings for the HFIR control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, A.A.

    1975-08-01

    Recent accelerated wear of HFIR bearings seems to be a more advanced stage of the situation encountered in 1967. The latest observations are in agreement with the hypothesis that high-frequency impact loads at a 30 0 angle on these bearings are the apparent basic cause of their short life. In view of the limited possibilities for change at this stage of HFIR operation, the region of best payoff seems to be an increase in the load-carrying area at some acceptable sacrifice of low rolling friction. On this basis three types of bearings are proposed for test--two of these are journal types and one is a slider type. The next planned shutdown for major parts replacement provides an opportunity to test these modified bearing types in the HFIR under full mechanical operating conditions but without nuclear operation. The program is recommended for consideration and adoption. (U.S.)

  3. Mathematical simulation of bearing ring grinding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, I. I.; Gorbunova, T. N.; Tumanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    The paper suggests the method of forming a solid finite element model of the bearing ring. Implementation of the model allowed one to evaluate the influence of the inner cylindrical surface grinding scheme on the ring shape error.

  4. Covalently linked bisporphyrins bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Covalently linked bisporphyrins bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and perbromoporphyrin units: Synthesis and their properties. Puttaiah Bhyrappa V Krishnan ... yields of the TPP moiety. Electrochemical redox and fluorescence data seem to suggest the possible existence of intramolecular interactions in these bisporphyrins.

  5. Cavitation Peening of Aerospace Bearings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-value bearings are a critical part of the safety, reliability, cost and performance of modern aircraft. A typical passenger jet will have 100 to 175 high-valve...

  6. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  7. Active magnetic bearings used as exciters for rolling element bearing outer race defect diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanping; Di, Long; Zhou, Jin; Jin, Chaowu; Guo, Qintao

    2016-03-01

    The active health monitoring of rotordynamic systems in the presence of bearing outer race defect is considered in this paper. The shaft is assumed to be supported by conventional mechanical bearings and an active magnetic bearing (AMB) is used in the mid of the shaft location as an exciter to apply electromagnetic force to the system. We investigate a nonlinear bearing-pedestal system model with the outer race defect under the electromagnetic force. The nonlinear differential equations are integrated using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the characteristic signal of outer race incipient defect is significantly amplified under the electromagnetic force through the AMBs, which is helpful to improve the diagnosis accuracy of rolling element bearing׳s incipient outer race defect. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic relationships of extant brown bears (Ursus arctos) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and brown bears (Ursus arctos) are closely related species for which extensive mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic comparisons have been made. We used previously published genotype data for 8 microsatellite DNA loci from 930 brown bears in 19 populations and 473 polar bears in 16 populations to compare the population genetic relationships of extant populations of the species. Genetic distances (Nei standard distance = 1.157), the proportion of private alleles (52% of alleles are not shared by the species), and Bayesian cluster analysis are consistent with morphological and life-history characteristics that distinguish polar bears and brown bears as different species with little or no gene flow among extant populations.

  9. Tool Indicates Contact Angles In Bearing Raceways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akian, Richard A.; Butner, Myles F.

    1995-01-01

    Tool devised for use in measuring contact angles between balls and races in previously operated ball bearings. Used on both inner and outer raceways of bearings having cross-sectional widths between approximately 0.5 and 2.0 in. Consists of integral protractor mounted in vertical plane on bracket equipped with leveling screws and circular level indicator. Protractor includes rotatable indicator needle and set of disks of various sizes to fit various raceway curvatures.

  10. Comments to a polar bear population model

    OpenAIRE

    Øritsland, Nils Are

    1985-01-01

    Larsen, T. & Ugland, K. I. (Polar Research 2 n.s., 117-118) note correctly that a Leslie matrix model treats cubs and females as independent units which is not the case for polar bears. Population projections using the Leslie model with hunting mortalities added are instructive first approximations in evaluations of field data, however, and are recommended as exercises also for polar bear biologists. An APL programme for such projections is available.

  11. Apparatus Would Measure Temperatures Of Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, John C.; Fredricks, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    Rig for testing ball bearings under radial and axial loads and measuring surface temperatures undergoing development. Includes extensible thermocouples: by means of bellows as longitudinal positioners, thermocouples driven into contact with bearing balls to sense temperatures immediately after test run. Not necessary to disassemble rig or to section balls to obtain indirect indications of maximum temperatures reached. Thermocouple measurements indicate temperatures better than temperature-sensitive paints.

  12. Encapsulated Ball Bearings for Rotary Micro Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    occurrence as well as the overall tribological properties of the bearing mechanism. Firstly, the number of stainless steel balls influences not only the load...stacks.iop.org/JMM/17/S224 Abstract We report on the first encapsulated rotary ball bearing mechanism using silicon microfabrication and stainless steel balls...The method of capturing stainless steel balls within a silicon race to support a silicon rotor both axially and radially is developed for rotary micro

  13. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  14. Active Vibration Control of Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůma, J.; Šimek, J.; Škuta, J.; Los, J.; Zavadil, J.

    Rotor instability is one of the most serious problems of high-speed rotors supported by sliding bearings. With constantly increasing parameters, new machines problems with rotor instability are encountered more and more often. Even though there are many solutions based on passive improvement of the bearing geometry to enlarge the operational speed range of the journal bearing, the paper deals with a working prototype of a system for the active vibration control of journal bearings with the use of piezoactuators. The actively controlled journal bearing consists of a movable bushing, which is actuated by two piezoactuators. It is assumed that the journal vibration is measured by a pair of proximity probes. Force produced by piezoactuators and acting at the bushing is controlled according to error signals derived from the proximity probe output signals. The active vibration control was tested with the use of a test rig, which consists of a rotor supported by two controllable journal bearings and driven by an inductive motor up to 23,000 rpm. As it was proved by experiments the active vibration control extends considerably the range of the rotor operational speed.

  15. Consumption choice by bears feeding on salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gende, S M; Quinn, T P; Willson, M F

    2001-05-01

    Consumption choice by brown (Ursus arctos) and black bears (U. americanus) feeding on salmon was recorded for over 20,000 bear-killed fish from 1994 to 1999 in Bristol Bay (sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka) and southeastern Alaska (pink, O. gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta). These data revealed striking patterns of partial and selective consumption that varied with relative availability and attributes of the fish. As the availability of salmon decreased, bears consumed a larger proportion of each fish among both years and habitats. When availability was high (absolute number and density of salmon), bears consumed less biomass per captured fish, targeting energy-rich fish (those that had not spawned) or energy-rich body parts (eggs in females; brain in males). In contrast, individual fish were consumed to a much greater extent, regardless of sex or spawning status, in habitats or years of low salmon availability. The proportion of biomass consumed per fish was similar for males and females, when spawning status was statistically controlled, but bears targeted different body parts: the body flesh, brain and dorsal hump in males and the roe in females. Bears thus appeared to maximize energy intake by modifying the amount and body parts consumed, based on availability and attributes of spawning salmon.

  16. Adaptive Spindle Balancing Using Magnetically Levitated Bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARNEY, PATRICK S.; LAUFFER, JAMES P.; PETTEYS, REBECCA; REDMOND, JAMES M.; SULLIVAN, WILLIAM N.

    1999-01-01

    A technological break through for supporting rotating shafts is the active magnetic bearing (AMB). Active magnetic bearings offer some important advantages over conventional ball, roller or journal bearings such as reduced frictional drag, no physical contact in the bearing, no need for lubricants, compatibility with high vacuum and ultra-clean environments, and ability to control shaft position within the bearing. The disadvantages of the AMB system are the increased cost and complexity, reduced bearing stiffness and the need for a controller. Still, there are certain applications, such as high speed machining, biomedical devices, and gyroscopes, where the additional cost of an AMB system can be justified. The inherent actuator capabilities of the AMB offer the potential for active balancing of spindles and micro-shaping capabilities for machine tools, The work presented in this paper concentrates on an AMB test program that utilizes the actuator capability to dynamically balance a spindle. In this study, an unbalanced AMB spindle system was enhanced with an LMS (Least Mean Squares) algorithm combined with an existing PID (proportional, integral, differential) control. This enhanced controller significantly improved the concentricity of an intentionally unbalanced shaft. The study included dynamic system analysis, test validation, control design and simulation, as well as experimental implementation using a digital LMS controller

  17. Hydrostatic bearing with a stepped duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevsun, Eh.P.; Ivanov, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method for calculating and experimental data from tests on a hydrostatic bearing whose operating hydraulic channel is formed by two cylincrical surfaces, are presented. Unlike currently used hydrostatic bearings, the bearing described has no capillary choke or diaphragm choke at the entrance. This simplifies the construction and increases the reliability, especially when it is operated with corrosive liquids or liquids containing solid suspensoids and causing erosion and blockage of the choke structures. In order to obtain the calculated relations, the flow of a liquid from the bearing in the axial direction to one side through a part of an aperture of unit width was examined. The effect of rotating the axle, of flow in the circumferential direction, and curvature of the aperture was not considered. Isothermal and laminar flows were considered. Because of the simplicity of the hydraulic circuit and the satisfactory properties (bearing capability and flow rate), the bearing described may be used in pumps operating with corrosive liquids, with those containing solid suspensoids and in nuclear energy establishments. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Strip Footing Bearing Capacity Built on the Anthropogenic Embankment by Random Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczynska-Kozlowska, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    One of a geotechnical problem in the area of Wroclaw is an anthropogenic embankment layer delaying to the depth of 4-5m, arising as a result of historical incidents. In such a case an assumption of bearing capacity of strip footing might be difficult. The standard solution is to use a deep foundation or foundation soil replacement. However both methods generate significant costs. In the present paper the authors focused their attention on the influence of anthropogenic embankment variability on bearing capacity. Soil parameters were defined on the basis of CPT test and modeled as 2D anisotropic random fields and the assumption of bearing capacity were made according deterministic finite element methods. Many repeated of the different realizations of random fields lead to stable expected value of bearing capacity. The algorithm used to estimate the bearing capacity of strip footing was the random finite element method (e.g. [1]). In traditional approach of bearing capacity the formula proposed by [2] is taken into account. qf = c'Nc + qNq + 0.5γBN- γ (1) where: qf is the ultimate bearing stress, cis the cohesion, qis the overburden load due to foundation embedment, γ is the soil unit weight, Bis the footing width, and Nc, Nq and Nγ are the bearing capacity factors. The method of evaluation the bearing capacity of strip footing based on finite element method incorporate five parameters: Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (ν), dilation angle (ψ), cohesion (c), and friction angle (φ). In the present study E, ν and ψ are held constant while c and φ are randomized. Although the Young's modulus does not affect the bearing capacity it governs the initial elastic response of the soil. Plastic stress redistribution is accomplished using a viscoplastic algorithm merge with an elastic perfectly plastic (Mohr - Coulomb) failure criterion. In this paper a typical finite element mesh was assumed with 8-node elements consist in 50 columns and 20 rows. Footings width B

  19. Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Gloria G; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Kolbe, Ben; Fernandes, Daniel; Meleg, Ioana N; García-Vázquez, Ana; Pinto-Llona, Ana C; Constantin, Silviu; de Torres, Trino J; Ortiz, Jose E; Frischauf, Christine; Rabeder, Gernot; Hofreiter, Michael; Barlow, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost exclusively contains a unique lineage of closely related haplotypes. This remarkable pattern suggests extreme fidelity to their birth site in cave bears, best described as homing behaviour, and that cave bears formed stable maternal social groups at least for hibernation. In contrast, brown bears do not show any strong association of mitochondrial lineage and cave, suggesting that these two closely related species differed in aspects of their behaviour and sociality. This difference is likely to have contributed to cave bear extinction, which occurred at a time in which competition for caves between bears and humans was likely intense and the ability to rapidly colonize new hibernation sites would have been crucial for the survival of a species so dependent on caves for hibernation as cave bears. Our study demonstrates the potential of ancient DNA to uncover patterns of behaviour and sociality in ancient species and populations, even those that went extinct many tens of thousands of years ago. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Large-scale projects between regional planning and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of the work discusses the current law of land-use planning, municipal and technical construction planning, and licensing under the atomic energy law and the federal law on immission protection. In the second part some theses suggesting modifications are submitted. In the sector of land-use planning substantial contributions to the protection of the environment can only be expected from programs and plans (aims). For the environmental conflicts likely to arise from large-scale projects (nuclear power plant, fossil-fuel power plant) this holds good for the most part of site selection plans. They have bearings on environmental protection in that they presuppose thorough examination of facts, help to recognize possible conflicts at an early date and provide a frame for solving those problems. Municipal construction planning is guided by the following principles: Environmental protection is an equivalent planning target. Environmental data and facts and their methodical processing play a fundamental part as they constitute the basis of evaluation. Under the rules and regulations of the federal law on immission protection, section 5, number 2 - prevention of nuisances - operators are obliged to take preventive care of risks. That section is not concerned with planning or distribution. Neither does the licensing of nuclear plants have planning character. So far as the legal preconditions of licensing are fulfilled, the scope for rejection of an application under section 7, subsection 2 of the atomic energy law in view of site selection and requirement of a plant hardly carries any practical weight. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Biodegradation of surfactant bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitra, S.; Chandran, S.; Sasidhar, P.; Lal, K.B.; Amalraj, R.V.

    1991-01-01

    In nuclear industry, during decontamination of protective wears and contaminated materials, detergents are employed to bring down the level of radioactive contamination within safe limits. However, the surfactant present in these wastes interferes in the chemical treatment process, reducing the decontamination factor. Biodegradation is an efficient and ecologically safe method for surfactant removal. A surfactant degrading culture was isolated and inoculated separately into simulated effluents containing 1% yeast extract and 5-100 ppm sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and 1% yeast extract and 5-100 ppm of commercial detergent respectively. The growth of the bacterial culture and the degradation characteristics of the surfactant in the above effluents were monitored under both dynamic and static conditions. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Manual centrifuge system: Bearing-based hand spinner made with 3-D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Young Yoo; Seung Jae Lee; Jong-Mo Seo

    2017-07-01

    Compact disk (CD) Microfluidic platforms are being studied for medical applications such as blood tests. However, its size is bulky and electricity is needed to realize centrifuge force. In this paper, bearing-based hand spinner is designed using three-dimensional printer. This spinner does not need electricity and keeps rotating direction unlike paperfuge while it is spinning. The properties of spinner vary depending on bearing type which is positioned at the center. The type of weighting area also affects change in RPM over time. When a separation experiment is implemented, separating mixture into red ink and oil and whole blood into red blood cell and plasma are achieved properly with ceramic ball bearing.

  3. Xenoendocrine pollutants May Reduce Size of Sexual Organs in East Greenland Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Leifsson, Pall S.; Dietz, Rune

    2006-01-01

    .01) and uterine horn length and HCB (p = 0.02). The study suggests thatthere is an impact from xenoendocrine pollutants on the size of East Greenland polar bear genitalia. This may pose a riskto this polar bear subpopulation in the future because of reduced sperm and egg quality/quantity and uterus and penis size......Reproductive organs from 55 male and 44 female East Greenland polar bears were examined to investigate the potential negative impact from organohalogen pollutants (OHCs). Multiple regressions normalizing for age showed a significant inverse relationship between OHCs and testis length and baculum...... length and weight, respectively, and was found in both subadults (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethanes, dieldrin, chlordanes, hexacyclohexanes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) and adults (hexachlorobenzene [HCB]) (all p

  4. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  5. Impacts of Human Recreation on Brown Bears (Ursus arctos: A Review and New Management Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Fortin

    Full Text Available Increased popularity of recreational activities in natural areas has led to the need to better understand their impacts on wildlife. The majority of research conducted to date has focused on behavioral effects from individual recreations, thus there is a limited understanding of the potential for population-level or cumulative effects. Brown bears (Ursus arctos are the focus of a growing wildlife viewing industry and are found in habitats frequented by recreationists. Managers face difficult decisions in balancing recreational opportunities with habitat protection for wildlife. Here, we integrate results from empirical studies with expert knowledge to better understand the potential population-level effects of recreational activities on brown bears. We conducted a literature review and Delphi survey of brown bear experts to better understand the frequencies and types of recreations occurring in bear habitats and their potential effects, and to identify management solutions and research needs. We then developed a Bayesian network model that allows managers to estimate the potential effects of recreational management decisions in bear habitats. A higher proportion of individual brown bears in coastal habitats were exposed to recreation, including photography and bear-viewing than bears in interior habitats where camping and hiking were more common. Our results suggest that the primary mechanism by which recreation may impact brown bears is through temporal and spatial displacement with associated increases in energetic costs and declines in nutritional intake. Killings in defense of life and property were found to be minimally associated with recreation in Alaska, but are important considerations in population management. Regulating recreation to occur predictably in space and time and limiting recreation in habitats with concentrated food resources reduces impacts on food intake and may thereby, reduce impacts on reproduction and survival. Our

  6. Transient Vibration Prediction for Rotors on Ball Bearings Using Load-dependent Non-linear Bearing Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Poplawski, J. V.

    2002-01-01

    Rolling-element bearing forces vary nonlinearly with bearing deflection. Thus an accurate rotordynamic transient analysis requires bearing forces to be determined at each step of the transient solution. Analyses have been carried out to show the effect of accurate bearing transient forces (accounting for non-linear speed and load dependent bearing stiffness) as compared to conventional use of average rolling-element bearing stiffness. Bearing forces were calculated by COBRA-AHS (Computer Optimized Ball and Roller Bearing Analysis - Advanced High Speed) and supplied to the rotordynamics code ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) for accurate simulation of rotor transient behavior. COBRA-AHS is a fast-running 5 degree-of-freedom computer code able to calculate high speed rolling-element bearing load-displacement data for radial and angular contact ball bearings and also for cylindrical and tapered roller beatings. Results show that use of nonlinear bearing characteristics is essential for accurate prediction of rotordynamic behavior.

  7. Assessment of neurotoxic effects of mercury in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Anke; Ostertag, Sonja K; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-03-15

    Marine mammals are indicator species of the Arctic ecosystem and an integral component of the traditional Inuit diet. The potential neurotoxic effects of increased mercury (Hg) in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are not clear. We assessed the risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity to these species by comparing their brain Hg concentrations with threshold concentrations for toxic endpoints detected in laboratory animals and field observations: clinical symptoms (>6.75 mg/kg wet weight (ww)), neuropathological signs (>4 mg/kg ww), neurochemical changes (>0.4 mg/kg ww), and neurobehavioral changes (>0.1mg/kg ww). The total Hg (THg) concentrations in the cerebellum and frontal lobe of ringed seals and polar bears were 3mg/kg ww. Our results suggest that brain THg levels in polar bears are below levels that induce neurobehavioral effects as reported in the literature, while THg concentrations in ringed seals are within the range that elicit neurobehavioral effects and individual ringed seals exceed the threshold for neurochemical changes. The relatively high THg concentration in beluga whales exceeds all of the neurotoxicity thresholds assessed. High brain selenium (Se):Hg molar ratios were observed in all three species, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg-associated neurotoxicity. This assessment was limited by several factors that influence neurotoxic effects in animals, including: animal species; form of Hg in the brain; and interactions with modifiers of Hg-associated toxicity, such as Se. Comparing brain Hg concentrations in wildlife with concentrations of appropriate laboratory studies can be used as a tool for risk characterization of the neurotoxic effects of Hg in Arctic marine mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polar bears: the fate of an icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Polar bears are one of the most iconic animals on our planet. Worldwide, even people who would never see one are drawn to these charismatic arctic ice hunters. They are the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, and despite being born on land, they spend most of their lives out on the sea ice and are considered a marine mammal. Current global studies estimate there are around 20,000 animals in some 19 discrete circumpolar populations. Aside from pregnant females denning in the winter months to give birth, the white bears do not hibernate. They spend their winters on the sea ice hunting seals, an activity they are spectacularly adapted for. Research on these animals is incredibly difficult because of the inhospitable surroundings they inhabit and how inaccessible they make the bears. For many years, the sum of our understanding of the natural history of polar bears came from tracks, scats, the remains of their kills, abandoned dens, and anecdotal observations of native hunters, explorers, and early biologists. Nonetheless, the last 40 years have seen a much better picture of their biology emerge thanks to, first, dedicated Canadian researchers and, later, truly international efforts of workers from many countries. Veterinarians have contributed to our knowledge of the bears by delivering and monitoring anesthesia, obtaining blood samples, performing necropsies, investigating their reproduction, conducting radiotelemetry studies, and examining their behavior. Recently, new technologies have been developed that revolutionize the study of the lives and natural history of undisturbed polar bears. These advances include better satellite radiotelemetry equipment and the development of remote-controlled miniature devices equipped with high-definition cameras. Such new modalities provide dramatic new insights into the life of polar bears. The remarkable degree of specialized adaptation to life on the sea ice that allowed the bears to be successful is the very reason that

  9. Importância da realização de radiografias em posição ortostática na avaliação inicial de pacientes com fraturas toracolombares Importancia de la realización de radiografías en posición ortostática en la evaluación inicial de pacientes con fracturas toraco-lumbares Importance of performing weight-bearing radiographs in the initial evaluation of patients with thoracolumbar fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lúcio Chaves de Resende

    2010-03-01

    early orthostatism. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of weight-bearing radiographs on defining the treatment of patients with thoracolumbar fractures classified as type "A" of AO-ASIF. METHODS: from January 2007 to November 2008, patients with thoracolumbar fractures were evaluated by radiographs in supine position and computed tomography to identify signs of instability. Fractures classified radiographically as type "A" of AO-ASIF, initially treated with nonoperative care, were submitted to weight-bearing radiographs without bracing in acute phase and their radiographic parameters were re-evaluated. RESULTS: 59 patients with stable thoracolumbar fractures (T11 to L4 were included in this study,and all of them tolerated the weight-bearing radiographs. The vertebral kyphosis increased 46.8%. The anterior collapse increased 15.52%. Three of these patients (5.1% were submitted to surgical treatment after weight-bearing radiographs due to instability criteria. CONCLUSIONS: weight-bearing radiographs were efficient in identifying patients with instability not established yet. This exam is able to predict the satisfactory evolution during the nonoperative treatment and it is a safe and low cost diagnostic examination with easy applicability. In this study, a total of 5.1% of the patients had their treatment changed from conservative to surgical.

  10. A circumpolar monitoring framework for polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraven, Dag; Aars, Jon; Amstrup, Steven C.; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W.; DeBruyn, T.D.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Durner, George M.; Gill, Michael J.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Omelak, Jack; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Peacock, Elizabeth; Richardson, E.E.; Sahanatien, Vicki; Stirling, Ian; Wiig, Øystein

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) occupy remote regions that are characterized by harsh weather and limited access. Polar bear populations can only persist where temporal and spatial availability of sea ice provides adequate access to their marine mammal prey. Observed declines in sea ice availability will continue as long as greenhouse gas concentrations rise. At the same time, human intrusion and pollution levels in the Arctic are expected to increase. A circumpolar understanding of the cumulative impacts of current and future stressors is lacking, long-term trends are known from only a few subpopulations, and there is no globally coordinated effort to monitor effects of stressors. Here, we describe a framework for an integrated circumpolar monitoring plan to detect ongoing patterns, predict future trends, and identify the most vulnerable polar bear subpopulations. We recommend strategies for monitoring subpopulation abundance and trends, reproduction, survival, ecosystem change, human-caused mortality, human–bear conflict, prey availability, health, stature, distribution, behavioral change, and the effects that monitoring itself may have on polar bears. We assign monitoring intensity for each subpopulation through adaptive assessment of the quality of existing baseline data and research accessibility. A global perspective is achieved by recommending high intensity monitoring for at least one subpopulation in each of four major polar bear ecoregions. Collection of data on harvest, where it occurs, and remote sensing of habitat, should occur with the same intensity for all subpopulations. We outline how local traditional knowledge may most effectively be combined with the best scientific methods to provide comparable and complementary lines of evidence. We also outline how previously collected intensive monitoring data may be sub-sampled to guide future sampling frequencies and develop indirect estimates or indices of subpopulation status. Adoption of this framework

  11. Mass Loss Rates of Fasting Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Hedman, Daryll; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E; Lunn, Nicholas J; Richardson, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased. To date, there is limited empirical data with which to evaluate the potential energetic capacity of polar bears to withstand longer fasts. We measured the incoming and outgoing mass of inactive polar bears (n = 142) that were temporarily detained by Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship during the open-water period near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, in 2009-2014. Polar bears were given access to water but not food and held for a median length of 17 d. Median mass loss rates were 1.0 kg/d, while median mass-specific loss rates were 0.5%/d, similar to other species with high adiposity and prolonged fasting capacities. Mass loss by unfed captive adult males was identical to that lost by free-ranging individuals, suggesting that terrestrial feeding contributes little to offset mass loss. The inferred metabolic rate was comparable to a basal mammalian rate, suggesting that while on land, polar bears can maintain a depressed metabolic rate to conserve energy. Finally, we estimated time to starvation for subadults and adult males for the on-land period. Results suggest that at 180 d of fasting, 56%-63% of subadults and 18%-24% of adult males in this study would die of starvation. Results corroborate previous assessments on the limits of polar bear capacity to withstand lengthening ice-free seasons and emphasize the greater sensitivity of subadults to changes in sea ice phenology.

  12. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mello Maria

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein: pregnant (N, tumor-bearing (WN, pair-fed rats (Np. Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine: leucine (L, tumor-bearing (WL and pair-fed with leucine (Lp. Non pregnant rats (C, which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones.

  13. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventrucci, Gislaine; Mello, Maria Alice Roston de; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2002-01-01

    It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein): pregnant (N), tumor-bearing (WN), pair-fed rats (Np). Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine): leucine (L), tumor-bearing (WL) and pair-fed with leucine (Lp). Non pregnant rats (C), which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones

  14. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in... the bearing; or (2) Have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and the bearings. ...

  15. 77 FR 77070 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2727-086] Black Bear Hydro...: October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project... designating Black Bear Hydro as the Commission's non-federal representative for carrying out informal...

  16. What Can We Learn?--The Algonquin Bear Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Describes a bear attack in Algonquin Park in Lake Opeongo (Canada) in which a man and woman were killed. Hypothesizes that the bear deliberately preyed on its victims and concludes that the bear was physically normal. Despite this isolated attack, the chance of being attacked by a black bear when camping is virtually nonexistent. (KS)

  17. Wear numbers for ball cup and journal bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.; Moes, H.

    1980-01-01

    A wear number is defined for ball cup bearings and for journal bearings where the cup and the cylindrical bearing are made of soft material. This dimensionless wear number provides a relation between the following five quantities: the radius of the ball or the length of the journal bearing in

  18. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown. 61.20-23 Section...; bearing weardown. (a) Water lubricated bearings, other than rubber, must be rebushed as follows: (1) Where the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it is...

  19. Noise reduction of rotating machinery by viscoelastic bearing supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    The demand for silent rolling bearing applications, such as electric motors and gearboxes, has resulted in an investigation of viscoelastic bearing supports. By placing a thin viscoelastic layer between the bearing outer ring and the surrounding structure, vibrations of the shaft-bearing arrangement

  20. EFFECT OF ACTIVE COOLING AND α-2 ADRENOCEPTOR ANTAGONISM ON CORE TEMPERATURE IN ANESTHETIZED BROWN BEARS (URSUS ARCTOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Larissa Mourad; Caulkett, Nigel; Stenhouse, Gordon; Arnemo, Jon M; Fahlman, Åsa

    2015-06-01

    Hyperthermia is a common complication during anesthesia of bears, and it can be life threatening. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of active cooling on core body temperature for treatment of hyperthermia in anesthetized brown bears (Ursus arctos). In addition, body temperature after reversal with atipamezole was also evaluated. Twenty-five adult and subadult brown bears were captured with a combination of zolazepam-tiletamine and xylazine or medetomidine. A core temperature capsule was inserted into the bears' stomach or 15 cm into their rectum or a combination of both. In six bears with gastric temperatures≥40.0°C, an active cooling protocol was performed, and the temperature change over 30 min was analyzed. The cooling protocol consisted of enemas with 2 L of water at approximately 5°C/100 kg of body weight every 10 min, 1 L of intravenous fluids at ambient temperature, water or snow on the paws or the inguinal area, intranasal oxygen supplementation, and removing the bear from direct sunlight or providing shade. Nine bears with body temperature>39.0°C that were not cooled served as control for the treated animals. Their body temperatures were recorded for 30 min, prior to administration of reversal. At the end of the anesthetic procedure, all bears received an intramuscular dose of atipamezole. In 10 bears, deep rectal temperature change over 30 min after administration of atipamezole was evaluated. The active cooling protocol used in hyperthermic bears significantly decreased their body temperatures within 10 min, and it produced a significantly greater decrease in their temperature than that recorded in the control group.