WorldWideScience

Sample records for protect patient welfare

  1. Welfare Effects of Employment Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belot, M.V.K.; Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Employment protection is often related to costs incurred by the firms when they hire a worker.The stability of the employment relationship, enhanced by employment protection, is also favorable to the productivity of the job.We analyze employment protection focusing on this trade-off between

  2. Imitation, patent protection and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.; Pennings, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Once a new technology has been invented it is shown that the innovator has an incentive to postpone technology adoption when the cost of imitation is high and patent protection is strong. With the possibility of licensing it is shown that licensing oftechnology instead of delaying technology

  3. Social Welfare Centers Protect Outpatients with Mood Disorders from Risk of Hospital Admission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Tae Han

    Full Text Available South Korea faces difficulties in the management of mental disorders, and those difficulties are expected to gradually worsen. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between social welfare centers and hospital admission after outpatient treatment for mood disorders.We used data from the National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort 2002-2013, which included all medical claims filed for the 50,160 patients who were newly diagnosed with a mood disorder among the 1,025,340 individuals in a nationally representative sample. We performed a logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equation (GEE models to examine the relationship between social welfare centers and hospital admission after outpatient treatment for mood disorders (ICD-10: F3.There was a 3.9% admission rate among a total of 99,533 person-years. Outpatients who lived in regions with more social welfare centers were less likely to be admitted to a hospital (per increase of five social welfare centers per 100,000 people; OR: 0.958; 95% CI: 0.919-0.999. Social welfare centers had an especially strong protective effect on patients with relatively mild mood disorders and those who were vulnerable to medical expenditures.Considering the protective role of social welfare centers in managing patients with mood disorders, health-policy makers need to consider strategies for activating mental healthcare.

  4. Medicine as a corporate enterprise, patient welfare centered profession, or patient welfare centered professional enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

    2005-11-01

    enterprise or remain a patient welfare centered profession. A third approach involves an eclectic resolution of the two. Such amount of patient welfare as also ensures profit, and such amount of profit as also ensures patient welfare is to be forwarded. For, profit, without patient welfare, is blind. And patient welfare, without profit, is lame. According to this approach, medicine becomes a patient welfare centered professional enterprise.The various ramifications of each of these approaches are discussed in this monograph.

  5. How should the welfare of fetal and neurologically immature postnatal animals be protected?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Mellor, D.J.; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing...... such protection via rules or laws relating to the use of certain techniques and the management of pregnant animals, rather than via direct legal protection of fetuses themselves. In order to provide such protection effectively we need to know more about the relationship between maternal nutrition, stress...... legislation in various jurisdictions, and considering the extent to which legal protection of animal fetuses can be justified on animal welfare grounds. Questions related to the need to protect the welfare of neurologically immature postnatal animals are also considered. We argue that there are reasons...

  6. Renata Adler Memorial Research Center for Child Welfare and Protection, Tel-Aviv University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Tammie

    2011-01-01

    The Renata Adler Memorial Research Center for Child Welfare and Protection operates within the Bob Shapell School of Social Work at Tel-Aviv University in Israel. The main aims of this research center are to facilitate study and knowledge about the welfare of children experiencing abuse or neglect or children at risk and to link such knowledge to…

  7. HOW SHOULD THE WELFARE OF FETAL AND NEUROLOGICALLY IMMATURE POSTNATAL ANIMALS BE PROTECTED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L.H.; Mellor, David J.; Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing legislation in various jurisdictions, and considering the extent to which legal protection of animal fetuses can be justified on animal welfare grounds. Questions related to the need to protect the welfare of neurologically immature postnatal animals are also considered. We argue that there are reasons to protect animal fetuses, both in order to protect fetuses themselves against possible suffering, and in order to protect the animals which fetuses will become against negative welfare impacts that originate prenatally. We review the science on whether fetuses can suffer, and argue that extant regulations do not fully reflect current scientific understanding. Following the precautionary principle, we further argue that regulators should consider the possibility that foetuses and neurologically immature postnatal animals may suffer due to subcortically based ‘raw basic affects’ (i.e. relatively undifferentiated experiences of discomfort suggested to be generated by neural processing at levels below the cerebral cortex). Furthermore we show that there are reasons for affording fetuses protection in order to safeguard the long-term welfare of future animals. However, it may be possible to provide such protection via rules or laws relating to the use of certain techniques and the management of pregnant animals, rather than via direct legal protection of fetuses themselves. In order to provide such protection effectively we need to know more about the relationship between maternal nutrition, stress, exercise, management and fetal health, and about the impact of the timing of a fetal insult on long-term postnatal welfare. PMID:26973382

  8. Comparing Child Protective Investigation Performance between Law Enforcement Agencies and Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Gustafson, Mara; Armstrong, Mary; McNeish, Roxann; Vargo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the comparative effectiveness of using law enforcement agencies for child protective investigation (CPI), in contrast with the traditional approach of CPI conducted by the public child welfare agency. The analysis uses 2006-2007 data from a natural experiment conducted in Florida to show modest differences in performance and…

  9. Comparing child protective investigation performance between law enforcement agencies and child welfare agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Gustafson, Mara; Armstrong, Mary; McNeish, Roxann; Vargo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the comparative effectiveness of using law enforcement agencies for child protective investigation (CPI), in contrast with the traditional approach of CPI conducted by the public child welfare agency. The analysis uses 2006-2007 data from a natural experiment conducted in Florida to show modest differences in performance and cost-efficiency between the two approaches to CPI. These findings may have implications for other states considering outsourcing CPI to law enforcement.

  10. Predicting the decisions of hospital based child protection teams to report to child protective services, police and community welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Jedwab, Merav; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Slutzky, Hanna; Siegal, Gil; Lavi-Sahar, Zohar; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    This study examines judgments made by hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) when determining if there is reasonable suspicion that a child has been maltreated, and whether to report the case to a community welfare agency, to child protective services (CPS) and/or to the police. A prospective multi-center study of all 968 consecutive cases referred to CPTs during 2010-2011 in six medical centers in Israel. Centers were purposefully selected to represent the heterogeneity of medical centers in Israel in terms of size, geographical location and population characteristics. A structured questionnaire was designed to capture relevant information and judgments on each child referred to the team. Bivariate associations and multivariate multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to predict whether the decisions would be (a) to close the case, (b) to refer the case to community welfare services, or (c) to report it to CPS and/or the police. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified a large number of case characteristics associated with higher probability of reporting to CPS/police or of referral to community welfare services. Case characteristics associated with the decisions include socio-demographic (e.g., ethnicity and financial status), parental functioning (e.g., mental health), previous contacts with authorities and hospital, current referral characteristics (e.g., parental referral vs. child referral), physical findings, and suspicious behaviors of child and parent. Most of the findings suggest that decisions of CPTs are based on indices that have strong support in the professional literature. Existing heterogeneity between cases, practitioners and medical centers had an impact on the overall predictability of the decision to report. Attending to collaboration between hospitals and community agencies is suggested to support learning and quality improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Urgent Protection versus Chronic Need: Clarifying the Dual Mandate of Child Welfare Services across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Trocmé

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed data from the 1998, 2003 and 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of reported child abuse and neglect (CIS and compared the profile of children who were reported for an urgent protection investigation versus any other investigation or assessment. As a proportion of all investigations, urgent protection cases have dropped from 28% of all investigations in 1998, to 19% in 2003, to 15% in 2008. Results from the CIS-2008 analysis revealed that 7% of cases involved neglect of a child under four, 4% of cases involved sexual abuse, 2% of cases involved physical abuse of a child under four and 1% of cases involved children who had sustained severe enough physical harm that medical treatment was required. The other 85% of cases of investigated maltreatment involved situations where concerns appear to focus less on immediate safety and more on the long-term effects of a range of family related problems. These findings underscore the importance of considering the dual mandate of child welfare mandates across Canada: intervening to assure the urgent protection and safety of the child versus intervening to promote the development and well-being of the child.

  12. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  13. Child protection systems within the Danish, Finnish and Norwegian welfare states - time for a child centric approach?,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pösö, Tarja; Skivenes, Marit; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the child protection systems and the Nordic welfare state in Denmark, Finland and Norway. Despite an ideological focus on prevention and provision of a fair amount of universal services and in-home child protection services for families and children...... protection and related services. Consequently, many principles of the present child protection systems are – and will remain – challenged by a child-centric orientation, in which valuing children's needs, rights and voice in situ are central....

  14. Seeing eye to eye or not? Young people's and child protection workers' perspectives on children's participation within the Dutch child protection and welfare services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma-van Bijleveld, G.G.; Dedding, C.W.M.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Child participation is internationally seen as a crucial aspect of child protection and child welfare. Scholars have differences of opinion about what participation entails, but even less is known about whether children and case managers have similar perspectives on participation and its

  15. Professional responsibility for patient welfare. Is it possible to legislate pharmaceutical care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A. B.; Morgall, J. M.; Grímsson, A.

    2001-01-01

    rural group met at a conference outside the capital area. Key findings: Professional responsibility for the patient's welfare has changed due to the legislation. Pharmacists now have less time for patient care and face new ethical dilemmas due to discount wars. There are differences in how pharmacists...

  16. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  17. Radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2003-01-01

    The benefits of ionizing radiation in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as other conditions such as cardiac ablation, are well established. However determination, monitoring, and evaluation of patient doses is not as easy task. Furthermore, radiation doses for individual patients may vary greatly from one radiological procedure to another. Attention is needed to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to patients from All types of radiation producing machines and equipment. The patient risk from radiation injury-stochastic and/or deterministic must be weighted against the benefits of a proper medical examination or treatment as well as the risk of depriving the patient from the necessary medical care. Arbitrary reduction of radiological patient doses without regard to final outcome is determined to proper medical care provided to the patient. Sacrificing image quality in order to reduce patient dose is potentially harmful to the patient as well. Furthermore, the role of radiation exposure incurred from screening procedures such as mammography, needs to be properly considered and differentiated from medically indicated procedures. A known radiation induced risk needs to be balanced against diagnostic efficacy of a screening procedure. In these cases, regulations on standards and guidelines for determination, monitoring, and evaluation of patient doses may be appropriate. In this paper, the technical data collected in the United States have been compared with the corresponding data in Canada. However, even here, it has been recognized that we can not assume that one dose limit fits all. It is advisable to consider individual patient specifics if it means the difference between detection and miss

  18. Examining internal and external job resources in child welfare: Protecting against caseworker burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Phillips, Jon D; Lizano, Erica L; Rienks, Shauna; Leake, Robin

    2018-04-28

    Given intense job demands, it is not surprising that job burnout is a consistent threat to the well-being and retention of the child welfare workforce. Guided by central postulates of the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model which suggests that job burnout develops because of experiences of high work demands coupled with low resources in the workplace, we applied a conceptual model of job burnout (client and work related) that accounts for both internal and external resources available to child welfare workers. Findings among child welfare caseworkers from three states (N = 1917) indicate that job demands (stress and time pressure) were positively related to client- and work-related burnout. Additionally, both internal and external resources moderated the relationships between job demands and client- and work-related burnout. Study findings have workforce management implications in the child welfare sector, including the role resources might play in mitigating the negative impact of job demands on burnout in the child welfare workforce. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protection of patients in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selato Selato, P.

    2013-04-01

    Current literature on dental radiology was reviewed in order to seek justification for radiological protection of patients in dental radiography, to explore the different factors affecting patient dose and to derive practical guidance on how to achieve radiological protection of patients in dentistry. Individual doses incurred in dental radiology are in general relatively low, however it is generally accepted that there is no safe level of radiation dose and that no matter how low the doses received are, there is a mathematical probability of an effect. Hence appropriate patient protection measures must be instituted to keep the exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The literature review demonstrated that there is considerable scope for significant dose reductions in dental radiology using the techniques of optimisation of protection. The techniques of optimization of protection that can be used to ensure patient dose is as low as reasonably achievable whilst achieving clinically adequate image quality include the following: image receptor selection, image receptor holders, collimation, beam filtration, operating potential and exposure time, patient protective equipment, film exposure and processing, film storage, image viewing, quality assurance, diagnostic reference levels, technique charts and training and education.(au)

  20. Protection of patient In radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiyi, P.

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to clarify some aspects about protection of patient in radiotherapy. Therefore, some basic information about how the use of ionizing radiation in medicine has brought tremendous health benefits to the population globally, the requirement of radiation protection (Justification of practices, Dose limitation and Optimization of protection), and the deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation are presented. The aim of radiotherapy is to use ionizing radiation to cure diseases or make the symptoms of a disease less severe. Also presented are layout of a radiotherapy facility (controlled areas, supervised areas, mazes, door and interlocks, patient observation and communication, and warning sign and lights), radionuclides commonly used for radiation therapy and their main emissions, equipment and devices used in radiotherapy, aspect of protection of patient in radiotherapy such as: leakage test, source on/off, emergency buttons, radiation oncology team, treatment planning, room monitoring, equipment or for protection and Cobalt-60 unit stuck source. The advantages of brachytherapy, leakage from the treatment head and radiation incidents resulting from incorrect dose calibration are discussed. The importance of minimization dose exposure, by considering the basic principles of: time, distance and shielding are also stated. These principles prevent deterministic effects and limit stochastic effects of radiation. (author)

  1. An Impossible Task? Implementing the Recommendations of Child Abuse Inquiry Reports in a Context of High Workloads in Child Protection and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Burns

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of social workers’ caseloads in child protection and welfare in the Republic of Ireland. High caseloads impact on the type and quality of service provided to children and families, and on worker retention and job satisfaction. This exploratory paper examines the limited available evidence on social workers’ caseloads in the Republic of Ireland and presents data on child protection and welfare social workers’ perspectives on their caseloads drawn from a qualitative study. These analyses are set in the context of the Irish State’s commitments since the publication of the Ryan report. A central argument of this article is that the recommendations of successive child abuse inquiries in Ireland have given rise to expectations and demands on child protection and welfare teams that are not possible to meet given the increasing level of referrals and the high numbers of children for whom social workers are responsible.

  2. Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Role of Radiotherapy is treatment modalities for cancer which is generally assumed that 50 to 60% of cancer patients will benefit from radiotherapy. It constitutes a peaceful application of ionizing radiation and an essential part of cancer management. The two aims of radiation protection Prevention is of deterministic effect and Reduction of the probability of stochastic effects. The Shielding fundamentals is to limit radiation exposure of staff, patients, visitors and the public to acceptable levels it also optimize protection of patients, staff and the public. Diagnosis is important for target design and the dose required for cure or palliation while Simulator is often used twice in the radiotherapy process where Patient data acquisition - target localization, contours, outlines and Verification. The Prescription is the responsibility of individual clinicians, depending on the patient’s condition, equipment available, experience and training. An ultimate check of the actual treatment given can only be made by using in vivo dosimetry. Treatment records must be kept of all relevant aspects of the treatment – including Session and Summary Record information, Records all treatment parameters, Dose Calculations and Dose Measurements

  3. Thematic course: patient radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    The ratio benefit/risk of radiological examinations, especially with the multislice scanner cannot be ensured only if the principles of justification and optimization are rigorously respected. The justification relies on the reference to the guide of the appropriate use of imaging examinations and compliance with the Public Health Code which requires a written information exchange between the applicant and who will realizes the examination. The optimization relies on the dosimetry evaluation of our practice and the comparison with the diagnosis reference levels, to realize the examinations at the radiation lowest cost. the stakes are the insurance does not harm our patients, the rehabilitation of the radiologist in his role of consultant rather than performer and the protection against eventual legal consequences. (N.C.)

  4. Dating and Sexual Violence Research in the Schools: Balancing Protection of Confidentiality with Supporting the Welfare of Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Jill D; Reed, Lauren A; Felix, Erika D

    2017-12-01

    Rigorous research and program evaluation are needed to understand the experience of dating and sexual violence among youth and the impact of prevention and intervention efforts. Our dilemma in doing this work occurred when youth disclosed dating and sexual violence on a research survey. What responsibility do researchers have to protect survivors' confidentiality as a research participant versus taking steps to ensure the student has the opportunity to access help? In our evaluation of a pilot dating violence prevention program, our protocols employed widely used procedures for providing resources to participants upon their completion of the survey and de-identifying survey data. Upon reviewing preliminary survey results, we became concerned that these established procedures were not sufficient to support research participants who were adolescent survivors of dating and sexual violence. We followed a structured ethical decision-making process to examine legal and ethical considerations, consult with colleagues, consider impacts and alternative solutions, and ultimately find a solution. Through this process, we developed procedures that balance participant confidentiality and the desire to support the welfare of survivors, which other researchers may want to employ when conducting youth sexual and dating violence research in school and community settings. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  5. The Gentrification of Public Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

  6. The EU Seal Products Ban – Why Ineffective Animal Welfare Protection Cannot Justify Trade Restrictions under European and International Trade Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hennig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author questions the legitimacy of the general ban on trade in seal products adopted by the European Union. It is submitted that the EU Seal Regime, which permits the marketing of Greenlandic seal products derived from Inuit hunts, but excludes Canadian and Norwegian seal products from the European market, does not ensure a satisfactory degree of animal welfare protection in order to justify the comprehensive trade restriction in place. It is argued that the current ineffective EU ban on seal products, which according to the WTO Appellate Body cannot be reconciled with the objective of protecting animal welfare, has no legal basis in EU Treaties and should be annulled.

  7. Radiological protection of the radiotherapy patient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligorski, M.P.R.; Lesiak, J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose that the system and concepts of radiation protection should not be used with reference to radiotherapy patients. We justify this on conceptual grounds. The patient undergoing radiotherapy procedures, as prescribed by the medical practitioner, is protected by the quality assurance system legally required for medical exposures. (author)

  8. Patient care and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharko, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter deals with important aspects of patient care, which may become the radiographer's responsibility in the absence of dedicated nursing staff. Although large pediatric centers usually employ nurses for bedside patient management, the general radiographer should be familiar with some aspects of routine patient care. This knowledge guarantees the safety and well-being of children entrusted to the technologist

  9. Implementation of the European Working Time Directive in an NHS trust: impact on patient care and junior doctor welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Hugh F; Winfield, Sarah; Te, Hui Sen; Crook, David

    2010-04-01

    To comply with the European Working Time Directive (EWTD), from 1 August 2009, junior doctors are required to work no more than 48 hours per week. In accordance with this, East Sussex Hospitals Trust introduced changes to working practice in August 2007. To assess the impact upon patient care and junior doctor welfare a retrospective observational survey comparing data from the year prior to and the year following August 2007 was conducted. No impact on the standard of patient care, as measured by length of stay, death during admission or readmission was found. However, there was a notable increase in episodes of sick leave among junior doctors. Implementation of the EWTD may maintain standards of patient care but may be detrimental to the welfare of doctors in training.

  10. Animal Protection in the Lands of Pacha Mama: The Insufficiency of the Proposed Law Organic Animal Welfare in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Machado Júnior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the Pacha Mama is subject of right in the Ecuadorian Constitution, this project analyzes the rights of animals in Ecuador according to its Civil Code and its proposal for the Animal Welfare Act. For comparison purposes the laws of other countries that recognize the sentience of animals are quoted. The conclusion is that despite the paradigm of the Andean constitutionalism, Equatorian animals are legally considered things, a reality that will not change if approved the Law of Animal Welfare. The deductive method is used with bibliographic research and analysis of foreign law.

  11. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F.; Repine, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent

  12. Radiation protection in BNCT patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaumann, Hernan R.; Scharnichia, E.; Levanon, I.; Fernandez, C.; Facchini, Guillermo; Longhino, J.; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Pereira, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a technique that selectively targets cancer cells while sparing normal tissues by virtue of the differential uptake of a 10 B carrier compound in tumor. The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Oncology Institute 'Angel H. Roffo' (IOAR) began a BNCT programme in 2003 for treating cutaneous skin melanomas in extremities. The neutron beam used is the hyperthermal one developed at the RA-6 Reactor of the Bariloche Atomic Centre (CAB). The prescribed dose is delivered in one fraction and therefore patient positioning and knowledge of the dose received by normal tissue are crucial. 10 irradiations have been done since 2003, all of them in legs and feet and the dose prescription was determined by the maximum tolerable skin dose. Due to the characteristics of this treatment the patient body might be exposed not only to the primary beam but also to the secondary photon beam produced by neutron capture at the target itself. Thus a patient radiation-monitoring plan was implemented in order to evaluate the gamma dose delivered to sensible organs of each patient. An acrylic water-filled whole body phantom was used for preliminary gamma dose and thermal neutron flux measurements at positions related to patient's body sensible organs considering tentative patient positions. The beam port shielding was, in this way, optimized. TLD-700 and Manganese foils were used for gamma and thermal neutron detection. The TLD-700 thermal neutron response was previously evaluated by using the in-phantom beam dosimetry characterization. In-vivo dosimetry with TLD is routinely implemented in order to evaluate gamma dose to sensible organs of each patient. These organs are chosen depending on its distance from the zone to be irradiated and its radio-sensibility. All TLDs have been positioned well outside the irradiation field. Maximum gamma dose received outside the radiation field in healthy tissues was well below tolerance dose for

  13. Patient advocacy versus employer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubner, David; Sturm, Richard E

    2002-01-01

    In a departure from the usual Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews article, this piece comprises responses from two occupational physicians to the question of how balance is achieved between employer and patient interests in occupational medicine. The authors discuss the ethical dilemmas that may arise in such relationships, negotiation of confrontations, physician responsibilities, and conflict resolution.

  14. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  15. [Effectiveness of the Federal Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in the Novosibirsk Region in 2007 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, V N; Ivanova, L K; Iagudin, B I; Turbinskiĭ, V V

    2010-01-01

    A system for monitoring and analyzing the effectiveness and efficiency of the performance of the Board of the Federal Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in the Novosibirsk Region was introduced into its activities to estimate the provision of the Novosibirsk Region's population with sanitary epidemiological wellbeing in 2007-2009. The introduction of monitoring was ascertained to increase the effectiveness of budgetary fund surveillance and spending, by predicting the effectiveness and choice of priority lines of activities, by increasing the quality of budgetary services rendered in the provision of sanitary and epidemiological well-being to the population.

  16. Radiological protection of paediatric patients: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringertz, H.G.; Bremmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    Paediatric patients require special attention with respect to radiation protection, for various reasons. The difference between a 1 kg premature baby and a 100 kg teenager puts special demands on the radiographic techniques used, and the increased radiosensitivity of growing tissue and the patients' longer life expectancy put greater demands on the justification of the procedures to be carried out. The optimization procedure involves practical aspects such as immobilization, body build specific exposure parameters and body build specific anatomical knowledge. These and other aspects of paediatric radiological protection are discussed in this overview. (author)

  17. The situation of social welfare and child protection for vulnerable street-involved children in Tanzania : where is the gap?

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Daddy Omari

    2013-01-01

    Master in International Social Welfare and Health Policy The main objective of this study is to give a holistic analysis of the current situation experiences of street involved children in Tanzania whereas its population today is about 44.9 million inhabitants and children account for over 50 per cent of the population (NBS 2012; Mkombozi 2012. NBS: The Nation Bureau of Statistics (2012). http://www.nbs.go.tz/). The study is less focused on getting the actual numbers of street involved chi...

  18. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F; Repine, John E

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increa...

  19. Radiation Protection of Patients program (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.; Perez, M. R.; Buzzi, A.; Andisco, D.

    2006-01-01

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on Radiation Protection of Patients inside the medical community, there were organized working groups in Radiodiagnosis, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a Program of RPP that is being put nowadays into practice. This program has three aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: Basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the Justification. First goal: Development of the Prescription Guide (achieve) 2) To optimize the radioprotection: First goal: Development of a Manual of Procedures (achieved) 3) To prevent potential exposures. First goal: Design of a Basic Quality System in Health (achieved) The effective participation of the professional's and technician's associations in the development of the program of radiological protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success. (Author)

  20. Protecting Patient Privacy in Cyber Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.C.M. Aarts (Jos); S.A. Adams (Samantha); B. Kaplan (Bonnie); P.R. DeMuro (Paul); A.E. Solomonides (Anthony)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractConfidentiality in the medical encounter is crucial to providing adequate patient care. Health data is therefore privileged and protected by legal mechanisms. Health systems use electronic records and large-scale databases. Increasingly consumers use also IT to collect, store and share

  1. Gonad protection for the paediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyll, C.

    1988-01-01

    A brief article gives examples of hip radiographs of paediatric patients showing misplacement of shields for gonad protection. Shields cut out of lead-PVC sheeting or the fenestration method of shielding are proposed as more successful methods of gonad shielding. (UK)

  2. Protection of the patient in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In ICRP Publication 52, the 'Protection of the Patient in Nuclear Medicine', is concerned with exposures of patients resulting from the administration of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic, therapeutic and research purposes. The report includes guidelines for nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, medical physicists and technologists on the factors that influence absorbed doses to patients from different types of nuclear medicine examinations. Other topics in the report include education and training, estimates of absorbed dose, design of facilities, instrumentation, quality assurance and control and preparation, quality assurance and control of radiopharmaceuticals. (U.K.)

  3. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F; Repine, John E

    2015-05-06

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increasing, and facing these challenges is common in the operating rooms and critical care units worldwide. In this review we summarize the existing literature which supports the following recommendations for the perioperative ventilation in obese patients: (1) the use of protective ventilation with low tidal volumes (approximately 8 mL/kg, calculated based on predicted -not actual- body weight) to avoid volutrauma; (2) a focus on lung recruitment by utilizing PEEP (8-15 cmH2O) in addition to recruitment maneuvers during the intraoperative period, as well as incentivized deep breathing and noninvasive ventilation early in the postoperative period, to avoid atelectasis, hypoxemia and atelectrauma; and (3) a judicious oxygen use (ideally less than 0.8) to avoid hypoxemia but also possible reabsorption atelectasis. Obesity poses an additional challenge for achieving adequate protective ventilation during one-lung ventilation, but different lung isolation techniques have been adequately performed in obese patients by experienced providers. Postoperative efforts should be directed to avoid hypoventilation, atelectasis and hypoxemia. Further studies are needed to better define optimum protective ventilation strategies and analyze their impact on the perioperative outcomes of surgical patients with obesity.

  4. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  5. Decision-making and radiological protection at Three Mile Island. Response of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; California Univ., San Francisco

    1982-01-01

    The author's comments are limited to only three acts dealing with radiological health and protection: the struggle for power and assertion of leadership in response to possible health consequences of the accident; the decisions to evacuate the area during the radiological emergency; and the use of potassium iodide as a means of protecting the public and the workers from the hazards of exposure to radioactive iodine released to the environment. (author)

  6. Program of radiation protection of patients (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo E.; Buzzi, Alfredo; Rojas, Roberto; Andisco Daniel

    2008-01-01

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on Radiation Protection of Patients inside the medical community, there were organized 'working groups' in Radiodiagnosis, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a 'Program of RPP' that is being put nowadays into practice. The rapid advances which are present in medicine today, both in equipment and work protocol, determine that 'norms and regulations never arrive on time' which is why it is paramount that health services have 'systems of dynamic quality' and 'continual improvement' that can be adapted quickly to changes. This program has 6 principal aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: Basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the Justification. First goal: Development of the 'Prescription Guide' (achieved); 2) To optimize the radioprotection: First goal: Development of a 'Manual of Procedures' (In process); 3) To prevent potential exposures. First goal: Design of a 'Basic Quality System' in Health (achieved); 4) To achieve a qualification of the professionals by means of a process of certification and re-certification (In process); 5) To spread PRP's criteria by means of chats, meetings and the use of the media and graphical means. (Partially fulfilled); 6) To establish criteria for the protection of patient and operators in Interventional Radiology by creating a referral service. Strategies to cope with different interests within society are described. Main problems, failures and difficulties are also described. The effective participation of the professional and technicians' associations in the development of the program for radiation protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success of the whole national programme. (author)

  7. Radiological Protection of Patients in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: This lecture aims at presenting the state of the art of radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine focusing on three aspects of interest where to achieve improvement. The hierarchy of the justification principle of the radiation protection is one of them. There seems for a change to be presented in the paradigm of the radiological protection of patients. The role of the physician who prescribes the medical practice becomes more relevant, together with the nuclear medicine specialist who should be co-responsible for the application of this justification principle. Regarding the doses optimization and the implementation of Dose Reference Level the involvement extends far beyond the physician and radioprotection officer. It is clear that the Medical Physicist is to play a very relevant role in the coordination of actions, as the nuclear medicine technician is to execute them. Another aspect to consider is patient specific dosimetry. It should become a routine practice through calculation of the absorbed dose based on biodistribution data. It should be assessed for each individual patient, as it depends on a number of patient-specific parameters, such as gender, size and the amount of fatty tissue in the body, as well as the extent and nature of the disease. In most cases, dosimetry calculations are not carried out and patients are administered standard levels of activity. There may be situations with a lack of knowledge on internal dosimetry as in many centers either none or only one or two medical physics experts are available. It shows that a formal training for experts in internal dosimetry at national level is required. However up to now, there has been no satisfactory correlation between absorbed dose estimates and patient response. Moreover, the radiation protection for the patient is not assured, as the dose values given are often numbers without connection to radiobiological and/or hematological findings. Pending tasks related to

  8. Gonad protection in young orthopaedic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, N; Hill, J

    1992-05-30

    To determine whether gonad shields are correctly positioned on the pelvic radiographs of children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Retrospective study of radiographs taken of children treated by in situ pinning of slipped capital femoral epiphysis between 1 January 1983 and 31 December 1988. Three teaching hospitals in north west England. 32 patients with complete set of radiographs. An average of 10.8 anteroposterior pelvic radiographs plus 8.9 lateral hip radiographs had been performed per patient. Gonad shields had been completely omitted in 137 (40%) anteroposterior pelvic radiographs performed on the 32 patients at the time of completion of the study. In 100 (29%) the gonad shields were adequately protecting the gonads, but in 109 (31%) the gonad shields were not protecting the gonads due to incorrect positioning of the shield. The incorrect positioning of the gonad shields was more commonly found in girls than boys (64 vs 45; p less than 0.012), presumably because of the difficulty in determining gonadal position in relation to surface landmarks. Absence of gonad shields was also more commonly seen in girls (82 v 55; p less than 0.005), but this is not easily explained. Gonad shields are not protecting the gonads in a large percentage of anteroposterior pelvic radiographs (71%) because they have been omitted or inadequately placed. This avoidable excess radiation exposure to the gonads, combined with the inability to shield the gonads in lateral hip radiographs and the large number of radiographs performed, results in the gonads receiving a higher dose of radiation than may otherwise be the case, and may increase the potential for disease in the future offspring of these patients.

  9. Welfare costs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and their partners compared with matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    collected from population-based registers in the period from 1998 to 2009. A total of 25,547 Danish patients with a diagnosis of RA and 15,660 of their partners were identified and compared with 101,755 randomly selected age- and gender-matched controls and 62,681 control partners. The direct and indirect...... costs were calculated for patients and their partners and compared to matched controls. These included inpatient and outpatient treatment, medication, income from employment and social transfer payments. Patients with RA had statistically significantly more inpatient and outpatient costs than control...... subjects, i.e., treatment (€346 vs. €211), hospitalization (€1261 vs. €778), and medication use (€654 vs. €393). The costs associated with the patients were present 11 years before diagnosis of RA (€1592) compared with control subjects (€1172). Furthermore, income from employment was lower for patients...

  10. Poster COHERENT EFFORT FOR COPD PATIENTS  WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON WELFARE TECHNOLOGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard*, Kitt; Bagger, Bettan; Bech, Lone

    and consistency of treatment programs for patients with COPD this project seeks to explore: Experiences among patients with COPD and health professionals of implementation of technology regarding own competences for using the technologies as well as its impact on the quality of care. Method: The study...... the brochures as especially good, one expressed "The brochures are really good, that's for sure. I use it in my work with our patients, "and" it was a very good knowledge boost “. They were as well very satisfied about the telephone consultation, "Telephone consultation with a single patient case, which...... was a bit difficult (...)I got really good help." The healthcare professionals who had used www.helbredsprofilen.dk found it very informative and useful, both for them selves as professionals, but also for the patients with COPD. They found that it provide something, that the other technologies don´t, “It...

  11. COHERENT EFFORT FOR COPD PATIENTS  WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON WELFARE TECHNOLOGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard*, Kitt; Bagger, Bettan; Jensen, Lars Heegaard

    and consistency of treatment programs for patients with COPD this project seeks to explore: Experiences among patients with COPD and health professionals of implementation of technology regarding own competences for using the technologies as well as its impact on the quality of care. Method: The study...... the brochures as especially good, one expressed "The brochures are really good, that's for sure. I use it in my work with our patients, "and" it was a very good knowledge boost “. They were as well very satisfied about the telephone consultation, "Telephone consultation with a single patient case, which...... was a bit difficult (...)I got really good help." The healthcare professionals who had used www.helbredsprofilen.dk found it very informative and useful, both for them selves as professionals, but also for the patients with COPD. They found that it provide something, that the other technologies don´t, “It...

  12. Radiation protection of patients in epiescleral brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutos, J.M. de; Sanchez, G.; Sendon, J.R.; Castillo, A. del; Hernando, I.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. Choroidal melanoma and other ophthalmic tumors are treated with episcleral plaques. Optimisation and other criteria are necessary to avoid damage in eye and visual function preservation. Purpose. To study the dosimetric phases to apply radiation protection criteria. To determine procedures for quality assurance of applicators, sources and treatment prescription and planning. Method. We have revised treatment procedure. First, aspects shared for all the patients. Then treatment planning and applicator assembling. After that, we study insertion and treatment. Finally, we check the chart flow to modify, if necessary. It necessary consider normative and recommendations. Results and conclusions. Quality assurance of sources (calibration, autoradiography), applicator (effects, dose distribution) and treatment planning are revised. Appropriate patient data acquisition is essential due the special characteristics of tumor and eye. Treatment planning involves optimisation as a factor. Seed selection is very important to avoid misadministration. Next procedure is applicator assembling. We must care to choose the same as dosimetry and to carry out its verification. Sources insertion is a surgical procedure. It is essential in accurate placement. Desinsertion is also surgical, and must be adapted to dosimetry and prescription. Flow chart is modified adding two staff meetings to discuss about patient data and doses. (author)

  13. IAEA Patient Protection Effort Reaches Key Milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) effort to help people track their radiation exposure from medical procedures achieved a significant milestone this week. The Agency received the final approval from a group of medical oversight organizations for the 'Joint Position Statement on the IAEA Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking', a set of principles to guide patient protection efforts at the sub-national, national, and international level. The joint statement endorses the IAEA's three-year-old Smart Card/SmartRadTrack project, which aims to help nations develop systems to track medical radiation procedures and radiation doses. The statement has been agreed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Society of Radiology (ESR), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT), and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, USA (CRCPD). 'This system is critical if the medical community is going to keep patients safe when they are being referred for more and more diagnostic scans. These scans, over the years, are made using more and more powerful machines', said Madan Rehani, Radiation Safety Specialist in the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients Unit. 'The tracking system will draw doctors' attention to previous radiological examinations, both in terms of clinical information and radiation dose and thus help them assess whether the 11th or 20th CT scan is really appropriate, whether it will do more good than harm.' Advances in radiation-based diagnostic technologies, such as the CT scan, have led to patients receiving such procedures more frequently. The convenience of CT with the added advantage of increased information has resulted in increased usage to the point that there are instances of patients getting tens of CT scans in a few years, not all of which may be justified, or getting CT

  14. On the development of the system of risk-based supervision in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Popova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the legal requirements for the transition to the new risk-based model of the state control (supervision in the Federal Service for Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, the methodical approaches to the classification of economic entities and activities of potential risk of injury have been developed. The risk assessment takes into account the frequency of violations of sanitary legislation, the severity of the consequences of these violations for the health and extent of negative effects, which is estimated in terms of population under the influence of the economic entity. Algorithms and methods for calculating the exposed population: workers, consumers, including consumer food products, non-food products and services; residents of settlements under the negative impact of air pollution, water and soil, have been developed. Regional and federal registries of objects for sanitary and epidemiological supervision are formed. Testing of the risk-based approaches in the regions allowed excluding the low risk harm objects when forming the audit plans for 2016, due to what the number of planned inspections all over country was reduces by more than 20 %. The basic directions of further improvement of the risk-based model of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance: its extension to the system of technical regulation and consumer protection; scientific substantiation of its volume, content and laboratory support of the scheduled inspections of objects belonging to different classes of health risk; improving procedures and methods for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of risk-based supervisory activities; creation of an effective system of risk communication between the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, economic entities, public organizations and associations and civil society.

  15. A network system of medical and welfare information service for the patients, their families, hospitals, local governments, and commercial companies in a medical service area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kouji; Antoku, Yasuaki; Inoue, Reika; Kobayashi, Mariko; Hanada, Eisuke; Iwasaki, Yasutaka; Kumagai, Yasushi; Iwamoto, Haruya; Tsuchihashi, Saburo; Iwaki, Miho; Kira, Jun-ichi; Nose, Yoshiaki

    2002-06-01

    A service information system using the Internet, which connected the various people who are related to medical treatment and nursing welfare, was constructed. An intractable neurological disease patient who lives in the Onga district, Fukuoka, Japan, and the people who are related to the service were chosen as test users in an experimental model. The communicated service information was divided into open-use data (electronic bulletin board, welfare service, medical care service, and link to private company service home page) and closed-use data (the individual patient's hysterics). The open data server was installed in an Internet service provider The open data could be accessed not only by the patient, but also by the family, information center, companies, hospitals, and nursing commodity store related to patient's nursing and medical treatment. Closed data server was installed in an information center (public health center). Only patient and information center staff can access the closed data. Patients should search and collect the service information of various medical and welfare services by themselves. Therefore, services prepared for the patient are difficult to know, and they cannot be sufficiently utilized. With the use of this information system, all usable service information became accessible, and patients could easily use it. The electronic bulletin board system (BBS) was used by patients for knowing each other or each others' family, and was used as a device for exchange of wisdom. Also, the questions for the specialist, such as doctor, dentist, teacher, physical therapist, care manager, welfare office staff member, and public health nurse, and the answers were shown on the BBS. By arranging data file, a reference of various patients in question and answer, which appeared in this BBS, was made as "advisory hints" and was added to the open data. The advisory hints became the new service information for the patients and their family. This BBS discovered

  16. Patient Safety Data Sharing and Protection From Legal Discovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suydam, Steven; Liang, Bryan A; Anderson, Storm; Weinger, Matthew B

    2004-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, existing State and Federal law may offer some protection. The most promising source of existing protection for all members of patient safety collaboratives is 42 U.S.C. SS299c-3(c...

  17. [METHODICAL APPROACHES, EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RISK MODEL OF SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE SPHERE OF THE ASSURANCE OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELFARE OF POPULATION, POPULATION'S HEALTH RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Gileva, M A; Boiarskiĭ, A P

    2015-01-01

    Control and supervision measures--one of the main technologies of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare in the overall system of risk management for public health and damage to property consumers, aimed at the solution of the prior tasks in the field of assurance of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer rights protection. The effectiveness of this technology depends on the correct choice of priority objects of supervision, which form the main problems in the sanitary and epidemiological situation and in the consumer market. The application of is approach has led to more effective oversight activity and the improvement of a number of indices characterizing the achievement of the objectives in the common system of risk management for public health and property of consumers.

  18. [Interaction of the bodies and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the protection of consumer rights and human welfare on sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and issuing sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes problems in the organization of the interaction of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in Moscow and the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Moscow to perform sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and to issue sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions. The goals of setting up a one-window service and measures required for its effective work are defined. Positive results of one-window activities are shown.

  19. Family welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  20. Radiation Protection of Patients in Croatian Legislative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, M.; Molnar, M.; Kozuh, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The value of radiological examinations has been established over the last 100 years by custom and practice. Problem often occurs when scientific initiatives affect usual philosophy and tradition. At present, to many X-ray examinations are performed which are not clinically justified. In some counties in Croatia there are about 1000 examinations per 1000 inhabitants. Whereas in others, as well as in developed countries, it is at the 500 - 600 level. There is still a need to know what is the desirable level of radiological practice. Subsidiary is often used as an excuse not to take any action at all. Criteria are needed for deciding on the optimum number for particular procedures like CT or the length of time for fluoroscopy. Europe has repeatedly been the scene for harmonised improvements in medical exposure through introduction of its Medical Exposure Directive (1997). To be in a line Croatian authorities issued Regulation on Patient Protection (1999) based on this Directive and ICRP Publication 73. This Regulation includes a number of issues which have potential to improve the safety and quality of medical use of ionising radiation. Introduced diagnostic dose reference values are related to clinical questions and radiographic techniques as recommended in European or similar guidelines. These are supplementary to clinical judgement on image quality. Quality assurance programmes should be in place and these should be audited. There should be inspections of X-ray departments by the competent authorities and there should be clinical evaluation of the outcomes of various radiological examinations. Equipment must be quality assured on a regular basis. It must be capable of producing satisfactory images within reference levels set down at national level. Every effort should be made to avoid high and unnecessary exposures.(author)

  1. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  2. Protective mechanism against cancer found in progeria patient cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have studied cells of patients with an extremely rare genetic disease that is characterized by drastic premature aging and discovered a new protective cellular mechanism against cancer. They found that cells from patients with Hutchinson Gi

  3. [Risk and protection of fertility in male cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gan; Xiu, Zi-Chao; Wang, Pei-Tao; Wang, Xin-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Gonad damage is one of the major complications of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery in male cancer patients. For those who wish for childbearing after treatment, it is of great significance how to protect the reproductive function of the cancer patients. The main strategy for fertility protection is to optimize the treatment protocol, hormone therapy, antioxidant therapy, and the preservation of sperm and testicular tissue. This article presents an overview on the pathogenesis of gonadal damage induced by different treatments and protection of the reproductive function of the patient.

  4. Gender and Welfare Regimes Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    demographic patterns, with more elderly persons in need of both care and support, coupled with smaller working-age populations to deliver that care and support. Mapping and comparing the combinations of welfare regarding care for the elderly in China and Denmark reveals serious inequalities of class, gender...... and generation. Both states are in principle fully committed to the wellbeing of all citizens through universal welfare state protection, but in reality both rely very much on market and civil society solutions, which leaves the population strongly differentiated and polarized, not only when it comes to gender...... and generation, but also with respect to class. The conclusion is that Denmark and China are converging towards a model of welfare combinations set within an overall framework of universalism. The most important lines of conflict revolve around generation, though class and gender also remain influential....

  5. Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.

  6. Gonad protection in young orthopaedic patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, N.; Hill, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether gonad shields are correctly positioned on the pelvic radiographs of children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. DESIGN--Retrospective study of radiographs taken of children treated by in situ pinning of slipped capital femoral epiphysis between 1 January 1983 and 31 December 1988. SETTING--Three teaching hospitals in north west England. PATIENTS--32 patients with complete set of radiographs. RESULTS--An average of 10.8 anteroposterior pelvic radiographs pl...

  7. Welfare State Changes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    . The conclusion of this article is that income inequality has been steadily increasing in Danish society; while in Portugal, despite improvements in many social domains (healthcare, poverty alleviation, unemployment protection), problems of inequality remain deeply embedded in the country’s social......It is well known that welfare states ensure a certain level of social protection affecting levels of well-being and the extent of inequalities in society. Changes within crucial domains of social policy, such as education, health, or social protection, have, therefore, a major effect upon...

  8. Differentiating between child protection and family support in the Canadian child welfare system's response to intimate partner violence, corporal punishment, and child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocmé, Nico; Fallon, Barbara; Sinha, Vandna; Van Wert, Melissa; Kozlowski, Anna; Maclaurin, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Rates of reported child maltreatment nearly doubled in Canada over the period 1998-2003, an increase that reflects growing awareness of the harmful effects of an expanding array of parental behaviors, including corporal punishment, lack of supervision, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Some of these situations may benefit from voluntary family support programs outside of the child welfare system. Analyzing a sample of 11,807 investigations, this paper compares cases where the sole concern is exposure to IPV, or hitting a child, or neglect, or other forms of investigated maltreatment. Situations where exposure to IPV or potentially abusive hitting were the sole reason for investigation presented with fewer risk factors and were less likely to lead to ongoing child welfare interventions compared to other maltreatment investigations. While situations involving alleged neglect presented a higher risk profile and elicited a more intensive child welfare response than did exposure to IPV or hitting, opportunities for alternative services were nevertheless identified. The study also found that visible minority families were overrepresented in cases involving hitting and that Aboriginal families were overrepresented in cases involving neglect. Overall the findings support the development of alternative response programs in Canada.

  9. Protection of persons occupationally exposed to radiation and of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    The experiences of the last ten years have shown that the measures of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance generally proved to be sufficient for the protection of the employed or of the patients. They had to be amended in so far as the exposure to radiation for those occupationally exposed can be reduced. This results in changes to the regulations so that certain groups of persons can also be effectively controlled. The recognition that medical supervision for radiation protection reasons is reasonable only if exposure has occurred should be additionally utilized in the regulations if the Euratom standards make this possible. The protection of patients attains some new rules which can be derived from handling and from therapeutical use. In this case too experience resulted in a more reasonable application of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials than was expected when the First Radiation Protection Ordinance was issued. (orig.) [de

  10. Radiation protection of patients during radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the lecture was on concomitant doses. The learning objectives were as follows: (1) to investigate the origin of concomitant doses; (2) to assess concomitant doses from different sources; (3) to evaluate potential risk from patient from concomitant doses; and (4) to learn procedures for reduction and optimisation of concomitant doses. (P.A.)

  11. Radiation protection of the patient radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.; Tarakanath, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    Systematic studies of gonadal doses to patients undergoing therapy on 60 Co and X-ray machines were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). Phantom and in vivo measurements were performed for various field sizes and for different positions of the centre of the field on the patient's body with the exception of fields including the gonads during radiotherapeutic treatment. It was shown that there is no effect of various SSD and that most radiation reaching gonads is transmitted axially through the body and therefore, it is impossible to reduce this dose with a simple shielding. The figures presented allow prediction of gonadal doses at various conditions. The efficiency of lung, mouth etc. shielding during radiotherapy was also investigated. (orig.) [de

  12. Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.

    2001-01-01

    The key factor in medical exposure is justification, that is ensuring that the benefit exceeds the risk. Nuclear medicine studies are comparable in cost to more sophisticated radiological tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance. Radiation doses are similar from X ray and nuclear medicine procedures. Having justified exposures the next step is optimization, namely using a radiation dose as low as is reasonably practicable. Diagnostic reference levels may be set nationally or locally such that the balance of diagnostic quality and radiation burden is optimized. In therapy the aim is to achieve a therapeutic dose while keeping the dose to non-target tissues as low as reasonably practicable. Variations in activities may be required for overweight patients, those in severe pain, those with certain conditions and in the case of tomography. Any woman who has missed a period should be assumed to be pregnant; there should be notices to patients emphasizing this. Following the administration of longer lived pharmaceuticals it is important to avoid pregnancy for a time such that the dose to a foetus will not exceed 1 mGy. A similar situation applies to a child who is being breastfed when a mother receives a radiopharmaceutical. In the case of children undergoing investigations the activity needs to be reduced to maintain the same count density as in adults. With the administration of an incorrect pharmaceutical an attempt should be made to enhance excretion, and the referring doctor and the patient should be informed. Extravasation usually requires no action. Positron emission tomography results in higher doses both to staff and patients. Research should use subjects over the age of 50, and avoid anyone who is pregnant or is a child. Nuclear medicine procedures result in a very small loss in life expectancy compared with other common risks. (author)

  13. Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.  Created: 3/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/3/2016.

  14. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes univ...... of conditions with respect to political culture and ethnic homogeneity. The East Asian welfare regime resembles that of Southern Europe, characterized as it is by a high degree of informality regarding care for children, fragile elderly and the handicapped....

  15. Radiological protection of patients in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacc, Ricardo; Herrero, Flavia

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The prefix 'brachy' means short-range, so brachytherapy is the administration of radiation therapy using small radioactive sources in the form of needles, tubes, wires or seeds, which are placed within the tumor -interstitial form- or very near of it, superficially or in an endo-cavity form. This technique, which was limited by the size of the primary tumor, has the advantage, that the radiation, can be adjusted to the size and shape of the tumor volume and the radioisotope used, - short range -, is selected with the criteria of getting the dose in the organs at risk, as low as possible, making what it is known as conformal radiotherapy. Radioactive sources may be permanent or temporary implants. The application of radioactive material, can be manually or automatically. In the first case, a major breakthrough from the radioprotection point of view, was the use of afterloading devices, methodology highly recommended to reduce the radiation exposure to staff. With the development of technology, remotely controlled afterloading devices were introduced, which in addition to complying with the above requirement, allow the source to move in different positions along catheters housed in one or more channels, making therapeutic brachytherapy treatments in tumor volumes possible, that due to its length, decades ago would have been an unthinkable deal. In all cases, sources, which may vary from the 3 mm in length, 125 Iodine or 198 Gold seeds, to extensive wires of 192 Iridium, are encapsulated for two main purposes: preventing leakage of radioactive material and absorption of unwanted radiation, alpha and beta, produced by the radioactive decay. Consequently, it should be highly unlikely that the radioactive material, could be lost or located in the patient, in a different place of the one that was planned. However, history shows us the opposite. Its is known the kind of deterministic effect that radiation is going to produce in the tumor, where the severity of

  16. Outsourcing, Unemployment and Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keuschnigg; Evelyn Ribi

    2007-01-01

    Outsourcing of labor intensive activities challenges the welfare state and undermines the protection of low-skilled workers. The stylized facts are that profits are concentrated among the high-skilled, involuntary unemployment is mostly among the low-skilled, and private unemployment insurance is missing. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of redistribution and insurance policies when heterogeneous firms can outsource labor intensive components to low-wage economies. The main results are: ...

  17. Protection of the patient in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the ICRP report (ICRP-Pub-44) a broad picture of radiotheraphy is presented useful to all involved in the care of cancer patients, for instance to physicians, including medical oncologists, and to medical physicists, radiographers, dosimetrists, and administrators. Information is given on the general principles of radiation therapy including external beam therapy and brachytherapy; the accuracy of radiation delivery and quality assurance; the biological radiation response; the expected risk to specific organs or tissues from therapeutic irradiation; the absorbed dose to tissues inside and outside the useful radiation beams; the organization and planning of radiation oncology services; radiation therapy staff education, training and duties; and finally medical research involving the use of radiation therapy. (orig./HP) [de

  18. General comments on radiological patient protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez de Cepeda, M.; Plaza, R.; Corredoira, E.; Martin Curto, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an observation series about different aspects of the radiological protection of the patient in nuclear medicine is provided. It includes: The specific legislation contribution, the justification and, especially, optimization, as a fundamental base of the quality guarantee program, the importance of the fulfillment of the program and the importance of getting done the corresponding internal audits of the pursuit, the communication between the different groups of professionals implicated and between these and the patient, the volunteers who collaborate in the patient's care and the people in the patient's environment, knowing that the patient is a source of external radiation and contamination. (author) [es

  19. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  20. Protection of patients in the first radiotherapy standard in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quijada, R.

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of control measures on radiotherapy activities between 1980 and 2000 are reviewed. An increasing in the scope toward the patient protection was observed along these years. After approving the last main regulation on radiation safety the issuing of a specific rule for protection and radiation safety in radiotherapy with emphasis on the patient protection was needed. The proposed specific rules on radiotherapy were reviewed and discussed jointly with the radiotherapy users before approving, and modifications were made in order to reach consistency with the national situation. A summary comparison is made between some requisites as proposed at the beginning and as modified after discussions. Modifications were made because of the current social and economic conditions in the country and taking into consideration another reasons related to the medicine practice. It is suggested to make a revision to the rules and their results after a period of application. (author)

  1. Protection of patients in the first radiotherapy standard in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Quijada, R [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (Peru)

    2001-03-01

    The evolution of control measures on radiotherapy activities between 1980 and 2000 are reviewed. An increasing in the scope toward the patient protection was observed along these years. After approving the last main regulation on radiation safety the issuing of a specific rule for protection and radiation safety in radiotherapy with emphasis on the patient protection was needed. The proposed specific rules on radiotherapy were reviewed and discussed jointly with the radiotherapy users before approving, and modifications were made in order to reach consistency with the national situation. A summary comparison is made between some requisites as proposed at the beginning and as modified after discussions. Modifications were made because of the current social and economic conditions in the country and taking into consideration another reasons related to the medicine practice. It is suggested to make a revision to the rules and their results after a period of application. (author)

  2. Optimization and radiation protection of the patient in medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwambinga, S.A.

    2012-04-01

    Radiography has been an established imaging modality for over a century, continuous developments have led to improvements in technique resulting in improved image quality at reduced patient dose. If one compares the technique used by Roentgen with the methods used today, one finds that a radiograph can now be obtained at a dose which is smaller. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionising radiation and to provide for the worldwide application of those standards. A fundamental requirement of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) is the optimization of radiological protection of patients undergoing medical exposure. By using technique such as added filtration, use of high kVp techniques, low mAs, use of appropriate screen-film combination and making sure that all practices and any exposure to patient are justified, using ALARA principles and diagnostic Reference Levels, patient protection can be optimised. (author)

  3. Implementation of the CEC Directive on patient protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A report on a lecture given on the implementation in the UK of the CEC Directive on patient protection is given. After outlining the history of legislation on the medical uses of ionizing radiations, the current Directive and the Department of Health and Social Security's specific proposals to meet its requirements are presented. (UK)

  4. Radiation protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.; Ziliukas, J.

    2001-01-01

    The situation in control of exposure due to general diagnostic radiological examinations in Lithuania is described. Experience in creation of legal basis for radiation protection, results of measurements of patients' doses and quality control tests of x-ray units are given. The main problems encountered in implementation of international recommendations and requirements of European Medical Exposure Directive are discussed. (author)

  5. Role of the IAEA in the radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Lopez, P.; Wrixon, A.D.; Meghzifene, A.; Izewska, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the IAEA in relation to the radiological protection of patients. Within the IAEA there are two major programmes which have an impact on the protection of the patient. Firstly, patient protection is part of the programme on radiation safety; secondly, the human health programme contains a number of activities related to quality assurance (QA), and these also contribute to the protection of patients. A function of the IAEA, as stipulated in its Statute, is 'to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' and to provide for the application of these standards...'. There are three different levels of the IAEA Safety Standards: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. The Standards are supported by other documents such as Safety Reports. There are five means used by the IAEA in providing for the application of the Standards: co-ordinating research, promoting education and training, providing assistance, fostering information exchange and rendering services to its Member States. All these means are used in the programme on radiological protection of patients as described in the paper. The IAEA is assisting its Member Sates in the development and implementation of QA programmes. These activities help disseminate not only the technical knowledge but also the basic ingredients of the QA culture. The IAEA assistance is directed at: (1) national regulatory bodies for the establishment of a regulatory framework which complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; (2) standards laboratories for metrological traceability; and (3) end users at medical institutions for the development and implementation of QA programmes

  6. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  7. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...

  8. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  9. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...

  10. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  11. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  12. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  13. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  14. Patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Medical exposure of the French population: methodology and results (Bernard Aubert, IRSN); 2 - What indicators for the medical exposure? (Cecile Etard, IRSN); 3 - Guidebook of correct usage of medical imaging examination (Philippe Grenier, Pitie-Salpetriere hospital); 4 - Radiation protection optimization in pediatric imaging (Hubert Ducou-Le-Pointe, Aurelien Bouette (Armand-Trousseau children hospital); 5 - Children's exposure to image scanners: epidemiological survey (Marie-Odile Bernier, IRSN); 6 - Management of patient's irradiation: from image quality to good practice (Thierry Solaire, General Electric); 7 - Dose optimization in radiology (Cecile Salvat (Lariboisiere hospital); 8 - Cancer detection in the breast cancer planned screening program - 2004-2009 era (Agnes Rogel, InVS); 9 - Mammographic exposures - radiobiological effects - radio-induced DNA damages (Catherine Colin, Lyon Sud hospital); 10 - Breast cancer screening program - importance of non-irradiating techniques (Anne Tardivon, Institut Curie); 11 - Radiation protection justification for the medical imaging of patients over the age of 50 (Michel Bourguignon, ASN); 12 - Search for a molecular imprint for the discrimination between radio-induced and sporadic tumors (Sylvie Chevillard, CEA)

  15. The radiologist's responsibilities for the radiation protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etard, C.

    2010-01-01

    The obligations of the radiologist for the radiation protection of patients include a review of the appropriateness of the examination and optimization of the protocol. Both internal and external quality assurance programs are mandatory. The specific tasks and their frequency are defined by the AFSSAPS. The radiology report of procedures performed over radiosensitive regions must include the delivered dose. The imaging technique must be optimized based on published guidelines or law for the most frequent examinations. All radiologists should be familiar with radiation protection. Incidents should be reported to the Nuclear Safety Authority. (author)

  16. 42 CFR 3.208 - Continued protection of patient safety work product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued protection of patient safety work product... GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.208 Continued protection of patient safety work...

  17. [USE OF PROTECTIVE LUNG VENTILATION REGIMEN IN CARDIAC SURGERY PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichniy, T A; Akselrod, B A; Titova, I V; Trekova, N A; Khrustaleva, M V

    2017-09-01

    In cardiac surgery, protective lung ventilation and/or preventive brdnchoscopy (PB) are able to decrease lung injury effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and mechanical ventilation. define lung complication risks, evaluate the effect ofprotective lung ventilation (PLV) on lung functioning, and investigate the feasibility ofpreventive PB in higher pulmonary risk (PR) patients. 66 patients participated in prospective randomized research. Allocation was based on PR and intraoperative mechanical ventilation type. PLV includedfollowing parameters: PCK PIP - up to 20 cm H20, Vt - 6 ml/ kg of PBW, PEEP - 5-10 cm H20, IE ratio - 1:1.5-1:1, EtCO2 - 35-42 mm Hg, FiO2 - 45-60%, lung ventilation during CPB, alveolar recruitment. Four groups were formed: A - higher PR plus PLV- B - higher PR plus conventional LV (CLV), C - lower PR plus PLV- D - lower PR plus CLV PIP PEEP dynamic compliance, p/f ratio and intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) were recorded. Seventeen patients of group A underwent PB. Advanced dynamic compliance, higher p/f ratio and lower Qs/Qt were seen in group A, in comparison with group B (pProtective lung ventilation improves lung biomechanics and oxygenating function in higher risk patients and decreases intrapulmonary shunt fraction in higher and lower risk patients. Addictive preventive bronchoscopy can be successfully used in higher risk patients.

  18. Role of joy in farm animal welfare legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gall, Philipp; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    While animal welfare is commonly invoked in legal debates regarding non-human animals kept for food purposes, the concept of animal joy is rarely mentioned in such contexts. This paper analyzes the relationship between welfare and joy in the German animal protection law (GAPL) and in the EU...... directive 98/58/EC. Based on a review of scientific and philosophical approaches towards animal welfare, joy is argued to be a part of welfare. Nevertheless, joy is ignored in the German and EU legal provisions. While there may be economic disadvantages of legally protecting animal joy, it is argued...... that overlooking elements of joy cannot be justified from any ethical perspective that claims to take animal welfare into consideration. In order to clarify the aims of the legal provisions, decision-makers need to define the role joy ought to play in welfare legislation....

  19. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Ben Sassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.

  20. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  1. Privacy protection for patients with substance use problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Lianne Lian; Sparenborg, Steven; Tai, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Lianne Lian Hu1, Steven Sparenborg2, Betty Tai21Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 2Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MDAbstract: Many Americans with substance use problems will have opportunities to receive coordinated health care through the integration of primary care and specialty care for substance use disorders under the Patient Protection...

  2. Regulatory Politic for the radiological protection to the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt Hernandez, L.A.; De la Fuente Puch, A.; Jerez Vegueria, P.

    1998-01-01

    The present work has as objective to propose on based to the national experience the Regulatory Authority, the reach the competition to this authorization in the regulation to the topics with the patients protection and to base starting from the content the apendice II to the Basic Standards, the approaches in those that it should impact directly in the acting give their functions to assure it

  3. Qualitative and quantitative evidence on the true local welfare costs of forest conservation in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakotonarivo, O. Sarobidy; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    Protected areas may impose local welfare costs through the enforcement of use restrictions. Predicting their welfare impacts before their establishment could help with the design of compensation schemes. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used for ex ante evaluations...

  4. Radiation protection of patients in diagnostic radiology in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, I.

    2001-01-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation started at the beginning of the century. It has always been considered necessary, as well as for diagnostic applications where exposure to the patient is the price to pay in order to obtain useful images, as for therapy where the patient is exposed on purpose, in order to kill malignant cells. It is nowadays the major man-made contribution to the population dose. Even with the developments of substitutive imaging or treatment techniques, there is still an increasing demand and many organizations are joining their efforts to try to keep the dose to the patient 'as low as reasonably achievable'. This is particularly the case for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which recommended in publication 26 to follow three main principles: justification, optimisation and limitation. Limitation, however, does not apply to patients since the individuals exposed are expected to benefit from this exposure, but justification and optimization are relevant. (author)

  5. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    on public services, and install economic incentives for the behaviour of private households. The paper then digs into the proposals of the commission that are broadly grouped into five policy target areas con-cerning (1) the ageing of the population, (2) the incentives for labour market participation, (3......The paper deals with the main report of the Danish Welfare Commission and the one-hundred-and-nine proposals on the structure of the future Danish welfare state that the com-mission has put forward. Following upon a brief review of the discussion on the work of the Danish Welfare Commission......) competitiveness in the global economy, (4) behavioural regulation of the use of public bene-fits and services, and (5) management within tight budgets of an increasing demand on health and care. Finally, the concluding section sums up the discussion and elaborates on the debate on the Welfare Commission’s work...

  6. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...... objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market...... access and consumer welfare will always be weakly compatible, in the sense that reforms based on each objective have the same signed effect on the other objective. For strong compatibility, whereby both objectives increase as a result of a locally optimal tariff reform, we derive both a necessary...

  7. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    readily evident that power is at stake when institutions educate, counsel or ‘empower’ citizens. This book offers a framework for understanding and analyzing these complex and implicit forms of power at play in the encounters between citizens and welfare institutions. Taking as its starting point the idea......In the welfare provision of today, power takes both the shape of juridical sanctions and of attractive offers for self-development. When state institutions punish criminals, remove children at risk, or enforce sanctions upon welfare recipients the question of power is immediately urgent. It is less...... that power takes many different shapes, and that different approaches to power may be necessary in the diverse contexts where citizens encounter welfare professionals, the book demonstrates how significant social theorists, spanning from Goffman to Foucault, can be used for inquiries into these encounters...

  8. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    readily evident that power is at stake when institutions educate, counsel or 'empower' citizens. This book offers a framework for understanding and analyzing these complex and implicit forms of power at play in the encounters between citizens and welfare institutions. Taking as its starting point the idea......In the welfare provision of today, power takes both the shape of juridical sanctions and of attractive offers for self-development. When state institutions punish criminals, remove children at risk, or enforce sanctions upon welfare recipients the question of power is immediately urgent. It is less...... that power takes many different shapes, and that different approaches to power may be necessary in the diverse contexts where citizens encounter welfare professionals, the book demonstrates how significant social theorists, spanning from Goffman to Foucault, can be used for inquiries into these encounters...

  9. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare

  10. [THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF ORGANS OF FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SUPERVISION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELFARE IN THE SVERDLOVSK REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'min, S V; Gurvich, V B; Romanov, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Iarushin, S V; Malykh, O L

    2015-01-01

    In the Sverdlovsk region there have developed and implemented methodological approaches to the optimization oj the activity of the Directorate and the Centre directed to the improvement of the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and in the sphere of the protection of the rights of consumers in the framework of the development of an comprehensive regional system of risk management for the population's health in the Sverdlovsk region.

  11. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  12. Welfare and self care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Using the case of early childcare institutions in contemporary Denmark, the aim of the article is to show that welfare entails visions of living that are made manifest through the requirements of everyday institutional practices. The main argument is that welfare institutions are designed not onl...... their enculturation. Therefore, studying the collective investments in children, for example by paying attention to the institutional arrangements set up for them, offers insight into dominant cultural priorities and hoped-for outcomes....

  13. Radiological protection of patients: conceptual framework and new international recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria del R.

    2005-01-01

    Medical exposures represent the largest man-made source of radiation exposure. Within the concept medical exposures includes different kind of exposure: of patients as part of their own medical diagnosis or treatment; of individuals as part of occupational health surveillance; of individuals as part of health screening programs; of volunteers participating in biomedical research programs; of individuals as part of medico-legal procedures and of voluntary patient caregivers (relatives or friends). Radiological protection of patients (RPP) is founded on two basic principles: justification and optimization. The justification of a medical exposure is founded in the consideration that it will give a sufficient net benefit, including the direct health benefits to the patients and the potential benefits to society, against the individual detriment that the exposure might cause, taking into account the efficacy, benefits and risks of available alternative techniques having the same objective but involving no or less exposure to ionizing radiation. Concerning optimization in diagnosis, the radiological protection objective is to keep doses as low as reasonably achievable while obtaining the necessary diagnostic information. In therapy, the objective is to ensure that the target tissue is given the prescribed dose while minimizing the dose to surrounding healthy tissue. In this presentation we analyze new international recommendations concerning RPP, with emphasis in the Directive 97/43/EURATOM. The importance of referral guidelines to help physicians during the process of justification and use of diagnostic reference levels (to help in optimization) is discussed. (author)

  14. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  15. Program for radiation protection of the patient (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo E.; Perez, Maria del R.; Alfredo Buzzi; Andisco, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on radiation protection of patients inside the medical community, there were organized 'working groups' in radiodiagnosis, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a 'Program of RPP' that is being put nowadays into practice. This program has three aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the justification: first goal: development of the 'Prescription Guide' (achieved); 2) To optimize the radioprotection: first goal: Development of a 'Manual of Procedures' (achieved); 3) To prevent potential exposures: first goal: Design of a 'Basic quality system' in Health (achieved). The effective participation of the professional's and technician's associations in the development of the program of radiological protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success. (author) [es

  16. Radiation protection of patients: need of a paradigm change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria del R.

    2004-01-01

    Radiological protection of patients is founded on two basic principles: optimization and justification. However, the justification used to be an 'exclusion zone' observed as a foreign territory by radiation protection officers. Inspired in the Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) from Argentina has decided to perform a National Programme of Radiation Protection of Patients. Along with the regulation of medical practices in its particular fields of competence, the ARN will play a role in coordinating the actions with scientific associations representing health professionals involved in the medical uses of ionizing radiation. This programme, which includes three working groups (dosimetry, justification and optimization), will be developed in three stages. The first stage will consider the adaptation of the principles for validation of practices to local conditions, the adoption of a system for sorting medical practices according to prescription criteria taking into account alternative methods, the utilization of the dosimetric studies carried out by the ARN, the determination of diagnostic reference levels for pediatric and adult populations and the improvement of quality assurance concerning equipment and procedures. In cooperation with national sanitary authorities as the Health Ministry, the second stage will concern the elaboration of specific requirements regarding the justification of practices. The last stage will be addressed to the diffusion of the information and the promotion of continuing education and training of human resources. Is it a new paradigm focused on justification? A justification applied to a rational medical prescription where the 'obvious' does not always imply the 'need'. (author)

  17. Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide in Patients with Alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is associated with a high risk for suicidal behavior. Up to 40% of persons with alcoholism attempt suicide at some time and 7% end their lives by committing suicide. Risk factors include being male, older than 50 years of age, living alone, being unemployed, poor social support, interpersonal losses, continued drinking, consumption of a greater amount of alcohol when drinking, a recent alcohol binge, previous alcohol treatment, a family history of alcoholism, a history of comorbid substance abuse (especially cocaine, a major depressive episode, serious medical illness, suicidal communication, and prior suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior is especially frequent in patients with comorbid alcoholism and major depression. However, all patients with alcoholism should be evaluated for suicide risk. Understanding of risk and vulnerability to suicidal behavior in alcoholism still outweighs our knowledge of protective factors and resilience. Knowledge of protective factors for suicide may help to prevent and/or predict suicidal behavior. Protective factors for suicide in alcoholism are quite varied and include an individual's biological and behavioral characteristics, as well as attributes of the environment and culture. Protective factors include effective clinical care for psychiatric (including alcoholism and drug abuse and physical disorders, easy access to a variety of clinical interventions and support for seeking help, restricted access to highly lethal means of suicide, strong connections to family and community support, skills in problem solving and conflict resolution, cultural and religious beliefs that discourage suicide and support self-preservation. Future studies are necessary to determine which interventions may reduce suicidal behavior in alcoholism.

  18. Secondary radiation from supervoltage accelerators - its implications in patient protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    If the collimator and compensator of a supervoltage accelerator are made of high atomic number material they will tend to interact with the high energy photon beam predominantly by pair production. Associated with pair-production is a cascade formation resulting in a variety of radiations which may be serious from the point of view of patient protection, particularly if the field of treatment is close to some superficially located critical organ such as the lens of the eye or the gonads. Gonadal doses of about 15% of the mid-depth dose were measured on a young male patient undergoing treatment of the prostate by a 42MV X-ray beam from a Siemen's betatron. A lead block 1.5 cm thick placed over the patient's thighs covering the scrotum reduced the gonadal dose to less than 2% of the mid-depth dose. A similar set of measurements made on a specially constructed scrotum-penis phantom confirmed these results, and showed that the lead block must be placed close to the phantom to be effective. Comparative measurements made just outside a cobalt 60 beam showed that the doses were far smaller than those outside the 42MeV X-ray beam. Recommendations are therefore made for the thickness and positioning of lead shielding required to protect critical organs from secondary radiation in radiotherapy. (U.K.)

  19. Heart valve prostheses: who protects our patients, and from what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, A C

    1977-01-01

    Phenomenal advances in the development of cardiac valve prostheses have taken place in less than two decades. However, the currently prevailing atmosphere of consumer protectionism in existence 20 years ago probably would have made such developments impossible. Recent passage of the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (P.L. 94-295) will not only make future development extremely difficult, but also may force the field of cardiac valve replacement back into the era of the 1950s. Regulations implementing this legislation may be even more disastrous. It is time for someone to protect patients from their so-called protectors.

  20. General comments on radiological patient protection in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez de Cepeda, M; Plaza, R; Corredoira, E [Servicio de Radiofisica y Radioproteccion, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain); Martin Curto, L M [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    In this paper an observation series about different aspects of the radiological protection of the patient in nuclear medicine is provided. It includes: The specific legislation contribution, the justification and, especially, optimization, as a fundamental base of the quality guarantee program, the importance of the fulfillment of the program and the importance of getting done the corresponding internal audits of the pursuit, the communication between the different groups of professionals implicated and between these and the patient, the volunteers who collaborate in the patient's care and the people in the patient's environment, knowing that the patient is a source of external radiation and contamination. (author) [Spanish] Se resumen en este trabajo, una serie de observaciones sobre distintos aspectos de la proteccion radiologica del paciente en Medicina Nuclear que incluyen: El aporte de la legislacion especifica, los principios de justificacion y optimizacion (en especial este ultimo) como base fundamental del programa de garantia de calidad asi como la importancia de que dicho programa se cumpla y se lleven a cabo las correspondientes auditorias internas de seguimiento, la comunicacion tanto entre los diferentes grupos de profesionales implicados como entre estos y el paciente, los voluntarios que colaboran en su cuidado y las personas de su entorno, teniendo en cuenta que el paciente es una fuente de radiacion externa y contaminacion. (author)

  1. Privacy protection for patients with substance use problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu LL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lianne Lian Hu1, Steven Sparenborg2, Betty Tai21Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 2Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MDAbstract: Many Americans with substance use problems will have opportunities to receive coordinated health care through the integration of primary care and specialty care for substance use disorders under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Sharing of patient health records among care providers is essential to realize the benefits of electronic health records. Health information exchange through meaningful use of electronic health records can improve health care safety, quality, and efficiency. Implementation of electronic health records and health information exchange presents great opportunities for health care integration, but also makes patient privacy potentially vulnerable. Privacy issues are paramount for patients with substance use problems. This paper discusses major differences between two federal privacy laws associated with health care for substance use disorders, identifies health care problems created by privacy policies, and describes potential solutions to these problems through technology innovation and policy improvement.Keywords: substance abuse, patient privacy, electronic health records, health information exchange

  2. Comparing Non-Medical Sex Selection and Saviour Sibling Selection in the Case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel: Beyond the Welfare of the Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm K; Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    The national ethical guidelines relevant to assisted reproductive technology (ART) have recently been reviewed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The review process paid particular attention to the issue of non-medical sex selection, although ultimately, the updated ethical guidelines maintain the pre-consultation position of a prohibition on non-medical sex selection. Whilst this recent review process provided a public forum for debate and discussion of this ethically contentious issue, the Victorian case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel (Health and Privacy) [2011] VCAT 856 provides a rare instance where the prohibition on non-medical sex selection has been explored by a court or tribunal in Australia. This paper analyses the reasoning in that decision, focusing specifically on how the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal applied the statutory framework relevant to ART and its comparison to other uses of embryo selection technologies. The Tribunal relied heavily upon the welfare-of-the-child principle under the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act 2008 (Vic). The Tribunal also compared non-medical sex selection with saviour sibling selection (that is, where a child is purposely conceived as a matched tissue donor for an existing child of the family). Our analysis leads us to conclude that the Tribunal's reasoning fails to adequately justify the denial of the applicants' request to utilize ART services to select the sex of their prospective child.

  3. Are natural killer cells protecting the metabolically healthy obese patient?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Lydia A

    2012-02-01

    With the emerging obesity pandemic, identifying those who appear to be protected from adverse consequences such as type 2 diabetes and certain malignancies will become important. We propose that the circulating immune system plays a role in the development of these comorbidities. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 52 patients with severe obesity attending a hospital weight-management clinic and 11 lean healthy controls. Patients were classified into metabolically "healthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 42.6 years, mean BMI 46.8 kg\\/m(2)) or "unhealthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 45 years, mean BMI 47.5 kg\\/m(2)) groups, based upon standard cutoff points for blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting glucose. Circulating lymphoid populations and phenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry. Obese patients had significantly less circulating natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) compared to lean controls. There were significantly higher levels of NK cells and CTLs in the healthy obese group compared to the unhealthy obese group (NK: 11.7% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.0001, CD8 13.4% vs. 9.3%, P = 0.04), independent of age and BMI and these NK cells were also less activated in the healthy compared to the unhealthy group (CD69, 4.1% vs. 11.8%, P = 0.03). This is the first time that quantitative differences in the circulating immune system of obese patients with similar BMI but different metabolic profiles have been described. The significantly higher levels of CTLs and NK cells, which express fewer inhibitory molecules, could protect against malignancy, infection, and metabolic disease seen in obesity.

  4. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

     The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Hence...... this article seeks to investigate the reasons underlying this apparent anomaly so that future policies in Scandinavia nd Europe may be tailored to suit the needs of female entrepreneurs. We are addressing this through the analytical lens of a gender regime model which shows that hierarchical gender patterns...... have proven remarkably resilient and that social context matters. The results of the analysis shows that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate   entrepreneurship and that in order to overcome the obstacles female entrepreneurs 'babystrap'....

  5. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  6. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...

  7. Utilitarianism & Welfare Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa,Masayasu

    1992-01-01

    §1 Characteristics of Utilitarianism §2 Bentham's Ethical Theory §3 Faults of Bentham's Ethical Theory Ⅱ Pigou's The Economics of Welfare §4 The National Dividend and the Condition of Maximizing It §5 Three Questions Concerning Income Distribution §6 The National Dividend and Labor's Real Income Ⅲ The New Welfare Economics §7 Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility and Income Redistribution §8 Hicks and the New Welfare Economics §9 Feast and Starvation Ⅳ Income Distribution, Market, and Economic ...

  8. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    to include maternity/paternity leave, benefits, childcare and leave to take care of sick children. The aim of this paper is to increase awareness and elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women’s entrepreneurship because it may impact on women’s entrepreneurial behaviour. The paper investigates...... that the initiation of public childcare would facilitate increased entrepreneurship among women. Our study shows that this is not necessarily so, that women utilize ‘babystrapping’ strategies, and that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate entrepreneurship....

  9. HIPAA-protecting patient confidentiality or covering something else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A case of a physician fired from the Veterans Administration (VA for violation of the Health Care Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA illustrates a problem with both the law and the VA. Anil Parikh, a VA physician at the Jesse Brown VA in Chicago, was dismissed on a charge of making unauthorized disclosures of confidential patient information on October 19, 2007. On January 3, 2011 the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB reversed Dr. Parikh’s removal. Dr. Parikh's initially made disclosures to the VA Office of Inspector General and to Senator Barack Obama and Congressman Luis Gutierrez, in whose district the Jesse Brown VA lies. Dr. Parikh alleged that there were systematic problems within the Jesse Brown VA that resulted in untimely and inadequate patient care. The confidential patient information Parikh disclosed included examples of the misdiagnoses and misdirection of patients within the hospital. Specifically, Dr. Parikh alleged that …

  10. Animal Welfare: Data from an Online Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Paola; Baldinelli, Chiara; Iulietto, Maria F; Goga, Beniamino T Cenci

    2015-11-02

    This paper analyses data obtained from an online survey related to animal welfare and religious slaughter topics. The questionnaire was conducted with the purpose of examining the purchase behaviour of a group of consumers (with different religious orientation) and their views on animal protection and ritual slaughter. The main results of the consultation were two. The first evidenced the respondents' great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens concerning this issue. The second was the demand for a more transparent labelling of animal products, which would also reflect animal welfare and the slaughter method used. These results are in contrast with marketing analysis, which finds that consumers want to only receive positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers, the higher is the risk to alarm them.

  11. 77 FR 41716 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... No. APHIS-2011-0003] RIN 0579-AC36 Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions AGENCY... the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). We are also announcing the availability of a revised factsheet regarding... retail under the protection of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). ``Retail pet stores'' are not required to...

  12. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  13. Unequal Welfare States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Soede; J.C. Vrooman; P.M. Ferraresi; G. Segre

    2004-01-01

    The financial sustainability of the ageing welfare states in Europe has become a key policy issue recently. This study highlights a different aspect of the ageing process, namely its potential impact on income distributions. Since older people usually live on a lower income, their growing share

  14. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  15. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  16. Welfare's Children. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Michael

    States with family cap public assistance policies deny or reduce additional welfare benefits to mothers who conceive and give birth to additional children while they are receiving aid. By 1999, 22 states had family cap policies in place. This paper reports estimates of the number and cost implications of infants conceived by mothers receiving…

  17. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural...

  18. Welfare Reform and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  19. Cortisol and finfish welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, T.; Yildiz, H.Y.; López-Olmeda, J.; Spedicato, M.T.; Tort, L.; Overli, O.; Martins, C.I.

    2012-01-01

    Previous reviews of stress, and the stress hormone cortisol, in fish have focussed on physiology, due to interest in impacts on aquaculture production. Here, we discuss cortisol in relation to fish welfare. Cortisol is a readily measured component of the primary (neuroendocrine) stress response and

  20. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance...

  1. The protection of the patient for x radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhove, J.

    1977-01-01

    At the level of the individual, the benefit form the examination is out of all proportion to the hazard involved; it should be primarily aimed at a best possible radiological information. At the level of the community, it is necessary to eliminate any undue irradiation of the patient, causing an unbearable potential increase of the genetic or somatic load. Facing the specific problems of protection against radiation, the English-speaking countries have already since long initiated a multidisciplinary cooperation between the doctor and the radiological safety officer. In Belgium this cooperation either fits into the task of the physical control officer attached to the establishment itself, or is being ordered by a private organization for physical controls. Some results of physical controls carried out during the past ten years now being illustrated. (author)

  2. Problems with radiation protection concerning volunteers accompanying radiological patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian Daoud

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to point out, within the framework of the Radiation Protection guidelines, the irregular situation of the 'volunteer' or 'accompanying person' who accompanies anyone requiring medical treatment with ionising radiation, as well as to suggest a possible justification for such role. It should be noted that most of these persons are subject to ionising radiation without knowing anything about the effects that it could cause on them, so that their condition could be hardly considered as 'voluntary'. There are several circumstances under which the presence of accompanying persons is required, being different among them. Several examples could be mentioned such as: those who are accompanying a direct relative (family bonds), those who are acting in service during their normal work (social workers, policemen) and even those who are forced by unusual under an accidental situation. The qualitative classification that radiological protection established in society concerning radiation risks for people in general enables to set mechanisms of justification, optimisation and dose limitation for each category, being perfectly identified which of them each person belongs to. But the figure of 'accompanying person' has been excluded from such characterisation. They are subject to radiation exposure without knowing it, or without having any information concerning the potential risks. For them, no balance between the net benefit of an adequate medical treatment versus potential health detriment may be applied as for the case of a patient. Thus, their exposure could be not justified. It is not the purpose of this work to question radiological medicine or its practices, but to clarify certain aspects involving members of the public in general, patients and members of the radiological community, as well as to propose lines of action concerning this subject. We conclude that it is not the volunteer who should decide about medical actions, a role

  3. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...

  4. Fish welfare in capture fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Vis, van de J.W.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about the welfare of production animals have extended from farm animals to fish, but an overview of the impact of especially capture fisheries on fish welfare is lacking. This review provides a synthesis of 85 articles, which demonstrates that research interest in fish welfare in capture

  5. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  6. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... is a welfare issue. Furthermore, we argue that AWIA is unlikely to prevent serious moral disagreements over how to weigh concerns about wild animals against priorities in human health, the health of domestic and farm animals, and biodiversity, but that it may nonetheless serve to limit harms imposed......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...

  7. The study of patient exposure and protection from dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Won

    1979-01-01

    The utilization of x-ray for diagnosis and examination is increasing by about 5-15% every year, therefore, it would be mandatory to protect the patients from exposures and so, studies in this field are performed even now. In dental field, the area of irradiation is limited any to the head and neck area, but the irradiated angle is varied following the objected tooth, so the adjacent structures lens and thyroid gland would be fragile to radiation. And the scattered radiation is one of the complicated problems in the protection because of specificity of dental x-ray and its object structures. The author, by using TLD(Thermoluminescent Dosimeter; Teledyne Isotopes Model 7300, Element; TLD 200(CaF2: Dy) and Capintec(Capintec Model 192, PM-30 Diagnostic chamber 28 ml active volume), tried a measurement of air dose distribution of the scattered radiation and the irradiated dose of lens and thyroid gland under the condition of taking the film on the left maxillary molar. The results were as follows: 1. The half value layer of adapted dental x-ray machine was measured, and is 1.44 mm Al. 2. The time of irradiation on the left maxillary molar in the Alderson Rando Phantom, the measured doses of left and right lens, and thyroid gland were 8, 9 mR, 1, 2 mR and 2, 8 mR. Under the same conditions, the scattered radiation at the distance of 1 meter from the phantom were 84 μR at the front side, 11 μR at the back side, 18 μR at the right side and 72 μR at the left side. 3. Under the same conditions, the dose showed higher value by about 5% in the presence of object(phantom) than in the case of absence.

  8. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    not destroyed but rather accumulated in the following centuries up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. Focusing on the case of Denmark, our tentative argument is that social trust was not destroyed through five subsequent phases of state building but rather enhanced. Long-run political...... stability arguably allows such a self-reinforcing process over time between institutions and social trust....

  9. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role and responsibilities of medical physicists in radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides a brief history of the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), followed by some general comments on the radiological protection of patients. The importance of establishing scientific guidelines and professional standards is emphasized, as is the need to ensure the protection of patients undergoing radiation therapy. The responsibility of qualified medical physicists in the protection of patients in nuclear medicine and in diagnostic and interventional radiology is also discussed. (author)

  11. Radiological protection of the patient in the diagnostic X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.M.C. de

    1983-01-01

    Measures and procedures are given in relation to the radiological protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology. Technical and physical factors of the patient protection are discussed, as radiation beam properties, size of the irradiation field, shieldings, control of the scattered radiation that reaches the imaging record system, films, ecrans and radiographic film processing. General recommendations about the radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology are given. (M.A.) [pt

  12. Companion animal welfare and possible implications on the human-pet relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of pets (dogs and cats in particular in human society has changed in recent years. Nowadays pets are an integral part of the human family and this aspect has many social and emotional implications. For their positive effects on human health, pets are also employed in some special and therapeutic activities known by the generic term of “Pet Therapy”. In these programmes the animal becomes an integral part of the therapeutic plan in order to induce some physical, social, emotional, and cognitive improvements in human patients. However, the close bond between companion animals and man is not always the herald of beneficial effects. Sometimes the welfare of pets may be compromised by distress due to many factors, mostly related to the environment and to management by humans. Both behavioural and physiological variables may be analysed in order to evaluate welfare level in pets. Reduced welfare may be indicated by the onset of some behavioural problems, which have usually a multifactorial aetiology, related both to the genetic individual basis and environmental factors. Physiological variables which may be analysed in order to evaluate pet welfare include hormone levels, mainly related to the HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal- axis and to the immune systems activations. Behavioural problems may also lead to the relinquishment of pets to shelters. Animals housed in rescue shelters cannot display their ethogram and show behavioural and physiological signs of distress. Thus it is very important to improve the human-pet relationship both by educating owners and reducing the number of stray animals, in accordance with the indications of the European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals stated at Strasbourg in 1987, mainly as regards pet breeding and welfare. Humans have to realise that adopting pets implies the responsibility to care for their health and welfare, avoiding undue stress in the living environment and improving the

  13. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...... of those positive welfare image parties in government that implemented welfare state retrenchment. Comparative European Politics (2013) 11, 1-21. doi:10.1057/cep.2012.5; published online 11 June 2012...

  14. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    An International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was held in Malaga, Spain, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The Government of Spain hosted this Conference through the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, the Junta de Andalucia, the Universidad de Malaga and the Grupo de Investigacion en Proteccion Radiologica de la Universidad de Malaga (PRUMA). The Conference was organized in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the following professional societies: International Organization of Medical Physicists (IOMP), International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), International Society of Radiation Oncology (ISRO), International Society of Radiology (ISR), International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) and World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB). This publication contains contributed papers submitted to the Conference Programme Committee. The papers are in one of the two working languages of this Conference, English and Spanish. The topics covered by the Conference are as follows: Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (radiography), Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (fluoroscopy), Radiological protection issues in specific uses of diagnostic radiology, such as mammography and computed tomography (with special consideration of the impact of digital techniques), Radiological protection in interventional radiology, including fluoroscopy not carried out by radiologists, Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine, Developing and

  15. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was held in Malaga, Spain, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The Government of Spain hosted this Conference through the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, the Junta de Andalucia, the Universidad de Malaga and the Grupo de Investigacion en Proteccion Radiologica de la Universidad de Malaga (PRUMA). The Conference was organized in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the following professional societies: International Organization of Medical Physicists (IOMP), International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), International Society of Radiation Oncology (ISRO), International Society of Radiology (ISR), International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) and World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB). This publication contains contributed papers submitted to the Conference Programme Committee. The papers are in one of the two working languages of this Conference, English and Spanish. The topics covered by the Conference are as follows: Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (radiography), Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (fluoroscopy), Radiological protection issues in specific uses of diagnostic radiology, such as mammography and computed tomography (with special consideration of the impact of digital techniques), Radiological protection in interventional radiology, including fluoroscopy not carried out by radiologists, Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine, Developing and

  16. Entry regulations, welfare and determinants of market structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit with store-type differentiation to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability, market structure and welfare. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we estimate demand, recover variable profits, and estimate entry costs and fixed costs by store type. Counterfactual policy experiments show that welfare increases when competition is enhanced by lower entry costs. Protecting small stores by imposing licensing fees on ...

  17. Welfare of Aged Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McGowan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  18. Assessment of patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy departments after inspections performed by the ASN 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Vincent; Marchal, Carole

    2009-10-01

    This report proposes an assessment of patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy. It is based on inter-regional syntheses of inspections performed by the ASN in external radiotherapy departments during 2008. It addresses 6 main themes related to patient radiation protection: human and material resources, organisation of medical physics, training in patient radiation protection, mastering of equipment (maintenance, internal quality controls of medical devices), safety and care quality management (formalization of the patient care process and definition of responsibilities, patient identity control, treatment preparation, and treatment execution), and risk management (a priori risk analysis, declaration, recording and internal processing of dysfunctions, improvements of care quality and safety management system)

  19. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......-governmental organizations have been coopted to serve large welfare expenditure programs that benefit the welfare coalition....

  20. 77 FR 70583 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... and 156 [CMS-9972-P] RIN 0938-AR40 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market... Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal...

  1. Respecting patient autonomy versus protecting the patient's health: a dilemma for healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, James M; Ladd, Rosalind Ekman; Adler, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A 74-year-old man with multiple chronic medical problems was hospitalized for respiratory distress. He experienced recurrent aspiration and required frequent suctioning and endotracheal intubation on several occasions. The patient was deemed competent and steadfastly refused feeding tube placement. The patient demanded that he be allowed to eat a normal diet despite being told that it could lead to his death. The patient wanted to go home, but there was no one there to care for him. Additionally, neither a nursing home nor hospice would accept him in his present condition. The case is especially interesting because of the symbolic value of food and the plight of the patient who has no alternative to hospitalization. The hospital staff experienced considerable stress at having to care for him. They were uncertain whether their obligation was to respect his autonomy and continue to provide food or to protect his health by avoiding aspiration, pneumonia, and possible death by denying him food. This ethical dilemma posed by the professionals' duty to do what is in the patient's best interest versus the patient's right to decide treatment serves as the focus for this case study. Ethical, legal, and healthcare practitioners' considerations are explored. The case study concludes with specific recommendations for treatment.

  2. MO-E-213-02: Medical Physicist Involvement in Implementing Patient Protection Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of work of medical physicists in 1980’s was on quality control and quality assurance. Radiation safety was important but was dominated by occupational radiation protection. A series of over exposures of patients in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and observation of skin injuries among patients undergoing interventional procedures in 1990’s started creating the need for focus on patient protection. It gave medical physicists new directions to develop expertise in patient dosimetry and dose management. Publications creating awareness on cancer risks from CT in early part of the current century and over exposures in CT in 2008 brought radiation risks in public domain and created challenging situations for medical physicists. Increasing multiple exposures of individual patient and patient doses of few tens of mSv or exceeding 100 mSv are increasing the role of medical physicists. Expansion of usage of fluoroscopy in the hands of clinical professionals with hardly any training in radiation protection shall require further role for medical physicists. The increasing publications in journals, recent changes in Safety Standards, California law, all increase responsibilities of medical physicists in patient protection. Newer technological developments in dose efficiency and protective devices increase percentage of time devoted by medical physicists on radiation protection activities. Without radiation protection, the roles, responsibilities and day-to-day involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic radiology becomes questionable. In coming years either medical radiation protection may emerge as a specialty or medical physicists will have to keep major part of day-to-day work on radiation protection. Learning Objectives: To understand how radiation protection has been increasing its role in day-to-day activities of medical physicist To be aware about international safety Standards, national and State regulations that require higher attention to radiation

  3. MO-E-213-02: Medical Physicist Involvement in Implementing Patient Protection Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, J. [UC Davis Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The focus of work of medical physicists in 1980’s was on quality control and quality assurance. Radiation safety was important but was dominated by occupational radiation protection. A series of over exposures of patients in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and observation of skin injuries among patients undergoing interventional procedures in 1990’s started creating the need for focus on patient protection. It gave medical physicists new directions to develop expertise in patient dosimetry and dose management. Publications creating awareness on cancer risks from CT in early part of the current century and over exposures in CT in 2008 brought radiation risks in public domain and created challenging situations for medical physicists. Increasing multiple exposures of individual patient and patient doses of few tens of mSv or exceeding 100 mSv are increasing the role of medical physicists. Expansion of usage of fluoroscopy in the hands of clinical professionals with hardly any training in radiation protection shall require further role for medical physicists. The increasing publications in journals, recent changes in Safety Standards, California law, all increase responsibilities of medical physicists in patient protection. Newer technological developments in dose efficiency and protective devices increase percentage of time devoted by medical physicists on radiation protection activities. Without radiation protection, the roles, responsibilities and day-to-day involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic radiology becomes questionable. In coming years either medical radiation protection may emerge as a specialty or medical physicists will have to keep major part of day-to-day work on radiation protection. Learning Objectives: To understand how radiation protection has been increasing its role in day-to-day activities of medical physicist To be aware about international safety Standards, national and State regulations that require higher attention to radiation

  4. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  5. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    for children and the elderly, which in turn allows in particular women to (re-)enter the labour market, de-commodification of labour through easy accessible and relative generous cash benefits providing a more flexible labour market, and re-commodification of labour through conditioning of benefits and active......This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...... labour market policies giving long-term unemployed and people with low skills better opportunities to participate in the labour market, whether the ordinary or in special activities....

  6. Draught animals and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, N S

    1994-03-01

    In fifty developing countries, which contain half of the total human population of the world, there is a heavy dependence on draught animals as an energy source. These animals are used for agriculture operations in 52% of cultivated areas of the world, as well as for hauling 25 million carts. This situation is likely to continue for at least another fifty years. The work performed annually by these draught animals would require 20 million tons of petroleum, valued at US$6 billion, if it were performed by motorized vehicles. The poor working conditions of these animals often adversely affect their productivity. The application of improved technology and better management (i.e. through better feed and health services, and improved design of agricultural implements and carts) could considerably improve the welfare of these animals. Improved systems would generate sufficient benefits for the economy to justify the required investment. High priority should therefore be given to draught animal power in the economic development agenda.

  7. Impact of protected mealtimes on ward mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake in hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, M; Connolly, A; Whelan, K

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in hospitalised inpatients, resulting in a range of negative clinical, patient-centred and economic sequelae. Protected mealtimes (PM) aim to enhance the quality of the mealtime experience and maximise nutrient intake in hospitalised patients. The present study aimed to measure mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake before and after the implementation of PM.   PM were implemented in a large teaching hospital through a range of different approaches. Direct observations were used to assess ward-level mealtime environment (e.g. dining room use, removal of distractions) (40 versus 34 wards) and individual patient experience (e.g. assistance with eating, visitors present) (253 versus 237 patients), and nutrient intake was assessed with a weighed food intake at lunch (39 versus 60 patients) at baseline and after the implementation of PM, respectively. Mealtime experience showed improvements in three objectives: more patients were monitored using food/fluid charts (32% versus 43%, P = 0.02), more were offered the opportunity to wash hands (30% versus 40%, P = 0.03) and more were served meals at uncluttered tables (54% versus 64%, P = 0.04). There was no difference in the number of patients experiencing mealtime interruptions (32% versus 25%, P = 0.14). There was no difference in energy intake (1088 versus 837 kJ, P = 0.25) and a decrease in protein intake (14.0 versus 7.5 g, P = 0.04) after PM. Only minor improvements in mealtime experience were made after the implementation of PM and so it is not unexpected that macronutrient intake did not improve. The implementation of PM needs to be evaluated to ensure improvements in mealtime experience are made such that measurable improvements in nutritional and clinical outcomes ensue. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. The science of animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  9. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing social welfare subject to participation constraints. It is shown that for an income allocation method that maximizes a social welfare function there is a monotonic relationship between the incomes allocated to individual agents in a given coalition...

  10. Rescaling Welfare Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad Thorgaard, Camilla; Vinter, Henrik

    The report is a contribution to the research project ”Rescaling of Social Welfare Policies: a comparative study on the path towards multilevel governance in Europe”, which is coordinated by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research. The report is a background paper for the projec...

  11. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  12. Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karigi, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    With medical radiation exposures to mankind ranking the highest among man-made radiation, radiation protection safeguards have to be put in place in all countries. Competent authorities should have the legal legislation and adequate infrastructure to ensure implementation, enforcement and compliance with the radiation protection standards. Justification, optimization, quality assurance and control are to be the guiding ideals for those who prescribe and/or carry out radiographic procedures. Radiation dose limitation in medical practices is to be encouraged so far as it does not compromise image quality and the provision of a direct benefit to the exposed individual. (author)

  13. ABOUT WELFARE IN CULTURAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to briefly analyze the research efforts on measuring welfare indices in terms of cultural relativism. It presents the limitations of GDP and some of the proposed alternatives over time, to understand the wideness and interest in this topic, but also the consequences of imposing a certain type of indicators to reflect the progress and welfare of a country. To provide a coherent overview on the proposed subject, the approach starts with the presentation of general acceptation of the welfare concept. Further, the literature review reveals many concerns about the welfare and progress, but also the difficulties associated with this effort. Critical comments generally reflect the need to consider the culture factor in the debate on welfare.

  14. The ICRP principles applied to radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, S.; Mattsson, S.

    1994-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has published new recommendations in Publication 60. These take account of the new biological information and trends in the setting of radiation protection standards since 1977. The main principle for radiation protection of the patient is that the exposure should be justified not only at a broad level but also with respect to the individual patient. Protection arrangements should be optimised using reference dose levels as an upper bound of the optimisation process. The reference levels should be applied with flexibility and based on sound clinical judgement. (authors)

  15. The ICRP principles applied to radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, S [Department of Medical Physics, s-451 80 Uddevalla (Sweden); Mattsson, S [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Lund, S-214 01 Malmo (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has published new recommendations in Publication 60. These take account of the new biological information and trends in the setting of radiation protection standards since 1977. The main principle for radiation protection of the patient is that the exposure should be justified not only at a broad level but also with respect to the individual patient. Protection arrangements should be optimised using reference dose levels as an upper bound of the optimisation process. The reference levels should be applied with flexibility and based on sound clinical judgement. (authors). 7 refs.

  16. The objectives of the directive on radiation protection for patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courades, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Improvement of the quality of medical uses of radiation and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the main objectives of the 1984 Directive laying down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. This paper explains how these goals have been achieved through the implementation of the various provisions of the Community act since its adoption

  17. The objectives of the Directive on radiation protection for patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courades, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Improvement of the quality of medical uses of radiation and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the main objectives of the 1984 Directive laying down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. This paper explains how these goals have been achieved through the implementation of the various provisions of the Community act since its adoption. (author)

  18. Protecting patient privacy when sharing patient-level data from clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine; Branson, Janice; Dilleen, Maria; Hollis, Sally; Loughlin, Paul; Nixon, Mark J; Williams, Zoë

    2016-07-08

    Greater transparency and, in particular, sharing of patient-level data for further scientific research is an increasingly important topic for the pharmaceutical industry and other organisations who sponsor and conduct clinical trials as well as generally in the interests of patients participating in studies. A concern remains, however, over how to appropriately prepare and share clinical trial data with third party researchers, whilst maintaining patient confidentiality. Clinical trial datasets contain very detailed information on each participant. Risk to patient privacy can be mitigated by data reduction techniques. However, retention of data utility is important in order to allow meaningful scientific research. In addition, for clinical trial data, an excessive application of such techniques may pose a public health risk if misleading results are produced. After considering existing guidance, this article makes recommendations with the aim of promoting an approach that balances data utility and privacy risk and is applicable across clinical trial data holders. Our key recommendations are as follows: 1. Data anonymisation/de-identification: Data holders are responsible for generating de-identified datasets which are intended to offer increased protection for patient privacy through masking or generalisation of direct and some indirect identifiers. 2. Controlled access to data, including use of a data sharing agreement: A legally binding data sharing agreement should be in place, including agreements not to download or further share data and not to attempt to seek to identify patients. Appropriate levels of security should be used for transferring data or providing access; one solution is use of a secure 'locked box' system which provides additional safeguards. This article provides recommendations on best practices to de-identify/anonymise clinical trial data for sharing with third-party researchers, as well as controlled access to data and data sharing

  19. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects related to (perceived) overpopulation of wildlife

  20. Welfare issues of modern deer farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mattiello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

  1. Studies on optimization of radiation protection for patients in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Li, W.; Li, K.; Wei, L.; Zong, X.; Qiang, Z.; Wu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    For the exposure of patients in diagnostic radiology, individual dose limit does not apply, but optimization of radiological protection may play a major role. This project has been carried out with the purpose of improving the protection of patients in medical diagnostic radiology in China utilizing the principles of optimization. Taking Sichuan, Shandong and Beijing as surveyed areas, we investigated the present situation of the protection of patients. In the survey, the patient doses were classified into practical dose, justified dose and optimized dose to evaluate the influences of managerial and equipment factors separately. The results show that there are some urgent protection problems in X-ray protection to be solved in the surveyed regions. This paper, however, points out that the prospects of reducing patient doses are encouraging provided that appropriate measures are adopted. For instance, taking proper managerial measures without radical change of existing equipments may reduce patient doses in chest fluoroscopy and radiography by 40% and 18% respectively; refitting some equipment may reduce the doses by 82.4% in chest fluoroscopy, 66% in chest radiography, and 80% in barium meal examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Using chest radiography instead of fluoroscopy supplemented by other protection measures may reduce the doses by 91.7%. Optimization analysis shows that adoption of the above measures conforms to the principle of optimization of radiation protection. (authors). 5 refs., 7 tabs

  2. The economics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T J; Jackson, E L

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines four examples of animal welfare issues, demonstrating the interactions between welfare and economic principles. Welfare issues associated with purebred companion animals are examined in terms of predicted inherited diseases, highlighting the power of supply and demand in perpetuating traits in pets that compromise their well-being. The livestock industry is presented from the point of view of pig production and the impact that a major disease (pleurisy) has on production and the animals' welfare. The authors investigate the conflicting and complementary demands of animal welfare and economic gains during the transport and slaughter of livestock and poultry. Finally, wildlife species are considered in terms of their prevalence as pests, and the different types of economic analysis that have been conducted to understand the losses caused by these organisms. Also included in this example are decisions made about cost effectiveness and opportunity costs, and regulatory and financial barriers to the development of humane control agents. In conclusion, animal welfare is illustrated as a central factor in the benefits that humans enjoy from the role played by animals in society. There are, however, tradeoffs between optimal animal welfare and meeting the needs of modern human society.

  3. Naturalness and Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, James

    2018-04-05

    Naturalness is considered important for animals, and is one criterion for assessing how we care for them. However, it is a vague and ambiguous term, which needs definition and assessments suitable for scientific and ethical questions. This paper makes a start on that aim. This paper differentiates the term from other related concepts, such as species-typical behaviour and wellbeing. It identifies contingent ways in which naturalness might be used, as: (i) prompts for further welfare assessment; (ii) a plausible hypothesis for what safeguards wellbeing; (iii) a threshold for what is acceptable; (iv) constraints on what improvements are unacceptable; and (v) demarcating what is not morally wrong, because of a lack of human agency. It then suggests an approach to evaluating animals' behaviour that is quantitative, is based on reality, and which assesses naturalness by degrees. It proposes classing unaffected wild populations as natural by definition. Where animals might have been affected by humans, they should be compared to the closest population(s) of unaffected animals. This approach could allow us both to assess naturalness scientifically, and to make practical decisions about the behaviour of domestic animals.

  4. Perceptions of Social Responsibility of Prominent Animal Welfare Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Morgan, Carissa J; Croney, Candace C

    2018-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is an increasingly important component of consumer expectations of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The extent to which prominent animal welfare or protection organizations may influence people's perceptions of food industry CSR may be related to an organization's perceived social responsibility. Data from an online survey of 300 U.S. residents were used to explore relationships between demographics/lifestyle choices and perceptions of prominent animal welfare organizations (using best-worst scaling methodology). Overall, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was perceived to be the most socially responsible organization analyzed, followed by the Humane Society of the United States and the American Humane Association (AHA). Results suggest that the perceived social responsibility of animal protection organizations in this study was not strongly linked to personally (financially) supporting them, with 2 exceptions: the perceptions of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and AHA. Improved understanding of the perception of animal welfare or protection organizations can inform decision making by organizations interested in furthering animal welfare causes.

  5. Male nurses and the protection of female patient dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Antony

    Nurses need to be aware of their professional, legal and ethical responsibilities towards patients. Male nurses in particular face problems in their practice as a result of their gender and the stereotypes associated with male nurses. Such stereotypes can act as a barrier to their duty of care. This article examines the challenges associated with male nurses carrying out intimate, physical care. It discusses the ethical, legal and professional issues that male nurses should consider in relation to maintenance of patient dignity during nursing care provision, particularly in relation to female patients.

  6. CDC Vital Signs-Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.

  7. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  8. Privacy preservation and information security protection for patients' portable electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Chou; Chu, Huei-Chung; Lien, Chung-Yueh; Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Kao, Tsair

    2009-09-01

    As patients face the possibility of copying and keeping their electronic health records (EHRs) through portable storage media, they will encounter new risks to the protection of their private information. In this study, we propose a method to preserve the privacy and security of patients' portable medical records in portable storage media to avoid any inappropriate or unintentional disclosure. Following HIPAA guidelines, the method is designed to protect, recover and verify patient's identifiers in portable EHRs. The results of this study show that our methods are effective in ensuring both information security and privacy preservation for patients through portable storage medium.

  9. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future of the wel...... of worth stating welfare dependency to be one of the big problems and stressing the need for individual responsibility and for giving structural incentives for such behaviour....

  10. Skin protection behaviour and sex differences in melanoma location in patients with multiple primary melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Matthew; McMeniman, Erin; Adams, Agnieszka; De'Ambrosis, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that sunscreen usage, sun-protection measures and self-examination rates in patients with single primary melanomas (SPM) are similar to that in the general population. This study hypothesises that these rates would be different in a population with multiple primary melanomas (MPM). We further hypothesise that there would be a sex difference in melanoma location in patients with MPM. The objectives of this study were to determine skin protection measures, self-examinations and melanoma location in a cohort of patients with MPM. A survey was conducted on 137 patients with MPM examining their sun-protection measures, skin self-examination rates and medical and phenotypic characteristics. These data were combined with a review of their medical records to examine the patients' skin cancer history. Patients with MPM had higher rates of skin self-evaluation (74% vs 22%), sunscreen usage (70% vs 45%) and other sun-protection measures (95% vs 46%) than has been published for patients with a history of a SPM. We have also shown that women have a higher risk of developing melanomas on their arms (p skin self-examination, sunscreen usage and other sun-protection methods in patients with MPM is higher than in studies of patients with SPM. It also highlighted sex differences in terms of melanoma location for patients with MPM. Further studies to examine the cause of the differences in these forms of protective behaviour could help improve the utilisation of these important preventative measures in all patients. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  11. Sun protection and sunbathing practices among at-risk family members of patients with melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the increased level of familial risk, research indicates that family members of patients with melanoma engage in relatively low levels of sun protection and high levels of sun exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate a broad range of demographic, medical, psychological, knowledge, and social influence correlates of sun protection and sunbathing practices among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma patients and to determine if correlates of sun protection and sunbathing were unique. Methods We evaluated correlates of sun protection and sunbathing among FDRs of melanoma patients who were at increased disease risk due to low compliance with sun protection and skin surveillance behaviors. Participants (N = 545) completed a phone survey. Results FDRs who reported higher sun protection had a higher education level, lower benefits of sunbathing, greater sunscreen self-efficacy, greater concerns about photo-aging and greater sun protection norms. FDRs who reported higher sunbathing were younger, more likely to be female, endorsed fewer sunscreen barriers, perceived more benefits of sunbathing, had lower image norms for tanness, and endorsed higher sunbathing norms. Conclusion Interventions for family members at risk for melanoma might benefit from improving sun protection self-efficacy, reducing perceived sunbathing benefits, and targeting normative influences to sunbathe. PMID:21338483

  12. [Prescription annotations in Welfare Pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Welfare Pharmacy contains medical formulas documented by the government and official prescriptions used by the official pharmacy in the pharmaceutical process. In the last years of Southern Song Dynasty, anonyms gave a lot of prescription annotations, made textual researches for the name, source, composition and origin of the prescriptions, and supplemented important historical data of medical cases and researched historical facts. The annotations of Welfare Pharmacy gathered the essence of medical theory, and can be used as precious materials to correctly understand the syndrome differentiation, compatibility regularity and clinical application of prescriptions. This article deeply investigated the style and form of the prescription annotations in Welfare Pharmacy, the name of prescriptions and the evolution of terminology, the major functions of the prescriptions, processing methods, instructions for taking medicine and taboos of prescriptions, the medical cases and clinical efficacy of prescriptions, the backgrounds, sources, composition and cultural meanings of prescriptions, proposed that the prescription annotations played an active role in the textual dissemination, patent medicine production and clinical diagnosis and treatment of Welfare Pharmacy. This not only helps understand the changes in the names and terms of traditional Chinese medicines in Welfare Pharmacy, but also provides the basis for understanding the knowledge sources, compatibility regularity, important drug innovations and clinical medications of prescriptions in Welfare Pharmacy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern.

  14. Reunifying Families, Cutting Costs: Housing-Child Welfare Partnerships for Permanent Supportive Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburger, Deborah S.; White, Ruth A.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of an adequate supply of affordable, quality housing, child welfare agencies are placed in the unenviable position of separating families to protect children from the debilitating effects of homelessness. This article presents recommendations for cost-effective housing-child welfare partnerships that will shift the burden of…

  15. Radiation Protection of the Young Patient: Kenya perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambani, S.

    2015-01-01

    The human body anatomy and health issues are universal. Radionuclide and ionizing radiation are used in a variety of techniques in research, primary and secondary healthcare. One out of every five patients attending a hospital in Kenya benefits from some type of nuclear procedure. In 2013 over 3.5 million Kenyans benefited from nuclear applications in medicine. The radiographer patient workload is 189,300 examinations while that of each radiologist approximately 325,000 per year. There is need for catalyzed effort in the transition to the state-of-the-art nuclear techniques/equipment to Kenya and development of quality assurance program in diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Develop the manpower/human resource and Policies that lower expenses and increase availability of nuclear techniques in medicine

  16. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, Immanuel K H

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus.

  17. Regulation of radiological protection for patients under radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Ferreira, R.S.; Souza, A.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Face to the increasing exposition of the population to ionizing radiations and the needs to fulfill user's rights, political and scientific efforts have been made in order to improve image quality and reduce risks to patients. A proposal to create a National Reference Laboratory to survey, supervise and evaluate the implementation of norms which require the control of physical parameters of the radiological equipment is presented. Aspects related to the profile of the Medical Physicist are also discussed. (author)

  18. CDC Vital Signs-Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.  Created: 3/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/3/2016.

  19. Radiation protection of patients in X-ray diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, P.

    1975-01-01

    The author states as a result that the care taken by the physician and the technical assistant is the most important factor in reducing the radiation exposure of patients. A fair relation between efficiency and possible unnecessary exposure is provided by careful and conscientious work which has to be based on sound knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the organism and of the possibilities of reducing the doses responsible for these effects. (orig./AK) [de

  20. [Protection of reproductive functions in patients with tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snajderová, M; Mardesić, T; Ganevová, M; Malinová, B

    2002-08-16

    Survival from cancer continues to improve. Antimitotic therapy can induce failure of spermatogenesis and oogenesis, gonadal disturbances and infertility. Recent advances in reproductive medicine have opened opportunities for the preservation of reproductive potential of patients with cancer. The aim of our study was to analyse by a multidisciplinary team the contemporary state of art and proposal of the Czech model of fertility preservation starting in childhood and continuing through the whole reproductive period. This paper highlights the problems associated with gonadal failure as a consequence of therapy for malignancy in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Analysis of these problems served as a principle for the management strategy for fertility preservation. Patients undergoing treatment for malignancy are at the high risk of gonadal damage and infertility. Therefore, alternative treatments with less gonadal toxicity and different treatment protocols were evaluated. Fertility can be preserved with the freezing and banking of spermatozoa, embryos, and oocytes obtained prior to the cancer treatment. In female patients (starting in puberty) pharmacological preservation of gonads with gonadoliberin analogues is also possible. Chance for the future fertility preservation for children offers freezing and thawing of primordial follicles and spermatozoa obtained during the gonadal biopsies. Long-term follow-up study by a multidisciplinary medical team is necessary.

  1. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism or Four?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Deborah; Castles, Francis

    1991-01-01

    This paper is developed in response to Gosta Esping-Andersen's study, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (1990), in which he categorizes welfare capitalism as Liberal, Conservative, and Social Democratic. The authors argue that there also exists radical welfare capitalism which describes Australia's welfare state.

  2. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  3. Protective buffering and emotional desynchrony among spousal caregivers of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Rudd, Michael E; Syrjala, Karen L

    2007-09-01

    To examine protective buffering and emotional desynchrony among spousal caregivers of cancer survivors. Repeated measures; 42 caregivers engaged in 2 videotaped, oral emotional expression exercises: 1 in the presence of their patient and 1 in the absence of their patient. Felt emotion (self-report) and expressed emotion (lexical expression or words uttered and coder-derived facial expression). Other measures assessed mental and physical health, dyadic satisfaction, and dispositional emotional inhibition. Protective buffering differed by communicative channel (lexical vs. facial). Caregivers' facial expressions were more positive when the patient was present versus absent. In contrast, the valence of caregivers' words did not differ per patient presence. Facial protective buffering was unrelated to health and dyadic outcomes. Lexical protective buffering was inversely related to both caregiver and patient marital satisfaction. Dispositional emotional inhibition was inversely related to caregiver mental health and marital satisfaction. Desynchrony occurred when the patient was present but was counter to prediction; felt emotion was more positive than expressed emotion. Results provide behavioral evidence of facial protective buffering. To the extent that lexical buffering occurs, it poses a dyadic risk, and chronic inhibition poses both psychological and dyadic risks. Future research is needed to refine the operational definition of desynchrony and to examine the biopsychosocial sequelae of buffering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Radiation hazards and protection of patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Y.C.; Haldar, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Biological radiation effects such as somatic certainty effects, somatic stochastic effects and genetic effects are described. Diagnostic radiology, therefore, involves risk to the patient in case of undesirable exposures and in particular to the fetus. Gonad doses in diagnostic radiology which may lead to genetic effects have been found to vary within a wide range. To avoid somatic certainty and to keep genetic effects to a minimum, some suggestions are enumerated. They deal with the choice of technique, proper positioning, use of calibrated equipment and use of techniques like xerography, ultrasonography, thermography etc. (M.G.B.)

  5. 78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012). \\2\\ Patient..., including States, health insurance issuers, consumer groups, agents and brokers, provider groups, Members of....120(c) to Exchange consumer assistance entities, please see the recent final rule, Patient Protection...

  6. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  7. [Individual prevention of occupational contact dermatitis: protective gloves and skin protection recommendations as part of the patient management scheme by the public statutory employers' liability insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, A; Skudlik, C; Sonsmann, F K

    2018-05-02

    The dermatologist's procedure is a pivotal tool for early recognition of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD), for reporting OCD cases to the statutory accident insurance and for treating the diseases. The employer is in charge of implementing skin protection measures at the workplace. However, in terms of an individual prevention approach it may be necessary to propose targeted skin protection recommendations in specific patient cases. The patient's own skin protection behavior significantly contributes to regenerating and maintaining healthy skin. This behavior includes the use of occupational skin products, and in particular the correct use of appropriately selected protective gloves. Protective gloves are the most important personal protective measure in the prevention of OCD. Prevention services, occupational health and safety specialists, occupational physicians and centers specialized in occupational dermatology can support the identification of suitable protective measures. Nowadays, suitable protective gloves exist for (almost) every occupational activity and exposure. However, improper use in practice can become a risk factor by itself for the skin (e. g., incorrectly used gloves). Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify application errors, to educate patients in terms of skin protection and to motivate them to perform an appropriate skin protection behavior. With particular focus on protective gloves, this article gives an overview of various types, materials and potentially glove-related allergens, presents strategies for reducing occlusion effects and discusses some typical application errors and solutions.

  8. The patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy: specificity and methods; La radioprotection du patient en radiotherapie externe: specificites et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvais March, H. [Hopital Val de Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-07-01

    The daily use of high level radiation doses to fight against carcinomas has often led to consider radiation protection as a marginal problem, in this area. But the therapeutic advances, by increasing the life time and life quality have made the side effects unacceptable and revealed the appearance of radioinduced carcinomas. So, it is necessary to practice a patient radiation protection. The general principles of radiation protection are applicable to radiotherapy. (justification, optimization and dose limit, planning of the treatment, quality control of installations). (N.C.)

  9. Proposed radiological protection rules for patients in radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, A.; Souza, A.C.A.; Ferreira, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Faced with the increasing exposure of the population to ionizing radiations and the need to respect users' rights, political and scientific efforts have been undertaken in order to improve image quality in radiodiagnostics and reduce risks to patients. In Brazil, in the past 20 years, a low rate of investment in this area and inadequate health policies have lead to diagnostic radiology services of poor quality. For their part, scientific societies, professional associations and the Ministry of Health have issued federal and state norms which require the control of physical parameters of the radiological equipment. Consequently, there is a need to create a National Reference Laboratory to oversee, inspect and evaluate the implementation of such norms. Another topic addressed in this article is the professional profile of the Medical Physics Specialist. (author)

  10. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  11. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    welfare chauvinism occurs as a result of legislative changes that explicitly exclude recipients from social protection or reduce the level thereof on the basis of ethnicity. Indirect welfare chauvinism is the result of policy measures that apply to both natives and immigrants, but which deliberately...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  12. Intra- and Inter-personal Consequences of Protective Buffering among Cancer Patients and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L.; Brown, Jonathon D.; Syrjala, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Protective buffering refers to hiding cancer-related thoughts and concerns from one’s spouse or partner. This study sought to examine the intra- and inter-personal consequences of protective buffering and motivations for such (desire to shield partner from distress, desire to shield self from distress). METHODS Eighty hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and their spousal caregivers/ partners completed measures designed to assess protective buffering and relationship satisfaction at two time points: prior to the transplant (T1) and 50 days post-transplant (T2). Overall mental health was also assessed at T2. RESULTS There was moderate agreement between one dyad member’s reported buffering of his/ her partner, and the partner’s perception of the extent to which s/he felt buffered. Caregivers buffered patients more than patients buffered caregivers, especially at T2. The more participants buffered their partners at T2, and the more they felt buffered, the lower their concurrent relationship satisfaction and the poorer their mental health. The latter effect was particularly true for patients who buffered, and patients who felt buffered. With respect to motivations, patients who buffered primarily to protect their partner at T1 reported increases in relationship satisfaction over time, but when they did so at T2, their caregiver reported concurrent decreases in relationship satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Protective buffering is costly, in that those who buffer and those who feel buffered report adverse psychosocial outcomes. In addition, buffering enacted by patients with an intention to help may prove counterproductive, ultimately hurting the object of such protection. PMID:19731352

  13. Radiation protection of the patient during medical uses of ionizing radiation in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, D.

    1987-01-01

    Section 18 of the new Radiation Protection Ordinance of the GDR defines basic principles for the radiation protection of patients undergoing diagnostic examinations or treatments with ionizing radiation, including, for example, the requirements that necessary exposures should be justifiable in terms of the benefit to be expected and that doses administered should be limited to as low an amount as possible. An outline is given of these principles, their importance and enforcement. (author)

  14. Post-Communist Welfare Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerami, Alfio; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    . The authors' impressive analysis of causal factors, including political elites' strategic use of social policy, makes the book an original and important contribution to the comparative welfare state literature.'- Professor Linda J. Cook, Brown University“ 'This edited volume is extraordinarily good...... factors such as micro-causal mechanisms, ideas, discourses, path departures, power politics, and elite strategies. This book includes contributions from leading international Experts such as Claus Offe, Robert Kaufman, Stefan Haggard, Tomasz Inglot, and Mitchell Orenstein, to examine welfare in specific...... countries and across social policy domains. By providing a broad overview based on a theoretical foundation and drawing on recent empirical evidence, Post-Communist Welfare Pathways offers a comprehensive, state-of-the-art account of the progress that has been made since 1989, and the main challenges...

  15. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    . Research limitations/implications – In this study willingness to pay is measured using a hypothetical choice experiment. Values people express as citizens, however, may not accurately predict true consumer behaviour. This is generally referred to as “citizen-consumer duality” and may have affected...... about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings – Results showed...... the results. Practical implications – The study shows that there is a national market for welfare-assured fish products, but education initiatives focusing on fish farming and fish welfare issues would further influence the attitudes and purchasing habits of Norwegian consumers. Originality/value – Although...

  16. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... housing is understood, regulated and subsidized, and, in turn, how housing regimes respond to the general challenges to the national welfare states. The paper presents a historical institutionalist approach to understanding the diversity of regime responses in the modern era characterized by increasing...... marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...

  17. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    , but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...... 'ethnicized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward ethnic outgroups. The existing literature has tended to focus on the issue of welfare, where the expectation is that ethnic diversity will diminish public support. I outline a theoretical framework which explains why political attitudes can be ethnicized...

  18. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    After the golden age of welfare state development in Europe, the glorious thirty years from 1945 to 1974, perceptions changed and the welfare state was interpreted to be in crisis. One solution to the crisis was a neo-liberal approach emphasizing privatization and retrenchment. And at least...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...... policies are in question? And what parts of Europe are being investigated? Furthermore, the time perspective is crucial. From the perspective of the late 2000s this paper argues first that neo-liberalism in the form of the so-called Washington consensus is no longer promoted by international organizations...

  19. Welfare: The Negative Societal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Victoria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The welfare system was instituted, presumably, to decrease poverty, increase the wealth and well-being of the poor. Paradoxically, it has had just about the opposite effect. How did this boomerang in public policy occur? It is simple. Welfare payments helped break up the family, disproportionately in the black community. But a non-intact family is one of the most effective causal agents in impoverishment. Hence, a program that throws massive amounts of money at poor people reduces their economic wellbeing, does not increase it.

  20. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  1. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  2. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  3. Faces of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2012-01-01

    The paper is a short presentation of a central theme in my PhD thesis, which revolves around the way the welfare State is approached as dangerous by parents struggling to keep their family from falling apart. The thesis is an excavation of the risks and dangers they navigate in relation to both...... the welfare State and other realms of life, such as their family and neighborhood, threatening to take away their children (to crime, to prison, to foster families or to the divorced partner, etc). The paper conceptualizes immobility and confinement as embedded in the contrary; a continuous spatial placement...

  4. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  5. Assessment and protection of esophageal mucosal integrity in patients with heartburn without esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Philip; Lee, Chung; Duraisamy, Yasotha; Duraysami, Yasotha; Farré, Ricard; Dettmar, Peter; Sifrim, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Intact esophageal mucosal integrity is essential to prevent symptoms during gastroesophageal reflux events. Approximately 70% of patients with heartburn have macroscopically normal esophageal mucosa. In patients with heartburn, persistent functional impairment of esophageal mucosal barrier integrity may underlie remaining symptoms. Topical protection of a functionally vulnerable mucosa may be an attractive therapeutic strategy. We aimed to evaluate esophageal mucosal functional integrity in patients with heartburn without esophagitis, and test the feasibility of an alginate-based topical mucosal protection. Three distal esophageal biopsies were obtained from 22 patients with heartburn symptoms, and 22 control subjects. In mini-Ussing chambers, the change in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of biopsies when exposed to neutral, weakly acidic, and acidic solutions was measured. The experiment was repeated in a further 10 patients after pretreatment of biopsies with sodium alginate, viscous control, or liquid control "protectant" solutions. Biopsy exposure to neutral solution caused no change in TER. Exposure to weakly acidic and acidic solutions caused a greater reduction in TER in patients than in controls (weakly acid -7.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) -9.9 to -4.5) vs. 3.2% (-2.2 to 8.6), Pheartburn without esophagitis shows distinct vulnerability to acid and weakly acidic exposures. Experiments in vitro suggest that such vulnerable mucosa may be protected by application of an alginate-containing topical solution.

  6. Real-time sun protection decisions in first-degree relatives of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Shuk, Elyse; Schofield, Elizabeth; Loeb, Rebecca; Holland, Susan; Burkhalter, Jack; Li, Yuelin

    2017-09-01

    Melanoma is the most serious skin cancer, and consistent use of sun protection is recommended to reduce risk. Yet sun protection use is generally inconsistent. Understanding the decisional factors driving sun protection choices could aid in intervention development to promote sun protection maintenance. In 59 first-degree relatives of melanoma patients, an interactive voice response system (IVRS) on participants' cell phones was used to assess twice daily (morning, afternoon) real-time sun protection usage (sunscreen, shade, hats, protective clothing) and decision factors (weather, type of activity, convenience, social support) over a 14-day summer interval where morning and afternoon outdoor exposures were anticipated. Generalized estimating equations and hierarchical linear models were used to examine the effect of demographics and decisional factors on sun protection choices over time. Sun protection use was inconsistent (e.g., 61% used sunscreen inconsistently). Most strategies were used independently, with the exception of moderate overlap of sunscreen and hat usage. Decision factors were highly relevant for sun protection. For instance, sunscreen use was related to the perception of having adequate time to apply it, whereas shade and hat usage were each related to convenience. Few findings emerged by gender, age, time of day, or year. Significant within-subject variation remained, however. The findings support continued examination of decision factors in understanding sun protection consistency in real time. Interventions where cues to action and environmental supports work together in varied settings can be developed to improve sun protection maintenance in populations at risk for this common disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Health and Welfare IT Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a university design class focused on the design of systems intended to solve problems faced by health care professionals, patients and systems that support welfare or extended independence for older people. The students worked in groups for 10 weeks...... finding a suitable problem to solve, iterating and refining their designs, evaluating prototypes with users, and finally presenting their work as a potential product with a detailed plan for how the product would be sold in the market. The primary contribution of this paper is to share innovative design...

  8. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  9. Welfare State and globalisation of the economic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João ABRANTES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A “welfare State” is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization. This article examines the concept of welfare state in the context of legislation adopted in recent years in Portugal that wants to "provide greater flexibility" of the labour market. This article discusses the crisis and the future of the Social State that is also, according to my view, an act of citizenship, a way of expressing our concern with the actual status of the welfare State.

  10. Eastern migrations vs western welfare states - (unbiased fears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry considers some effects of migration on the labour markets and the welfare systems found in the EU-15, and from the perspectives of sustainability of the current welfare state regimes. Our inquiry aims to determine whether and to what extent different approaches in regulation of migration flows between the new and old member states are compatible with related economic and demographic findings. Within this context, our research considers regulations affecting migration flows. Our findings suggest that some effects of migration from the EU8+2 on the labour markets and social protection systems found in the EU-15, both with respect to level and structure, do indeed generate effects on migration, especially considering whether migration is based upon economic or welfare decisions. In addition, our inquiry considers perspectives upon restrictive versus liberal migration policies.

  11. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late.

  12. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic welfare model is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Using Denmark we show how a universal welfare state model is gradually being transformed into an emergent multi-tiered welfare state. Whereas the Danish pension system's having become multi-tiered in the 1990s, with private...... and the sick. Although Denmark still offers universal coverage in core welfare state areas, the increased use of occupational and fiscal welfare as well as changes in public schemes has gradually transformed the nation into a multi-tiered welfare state that is more dualistic and individualistic...

  13. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DECISION MAKING AND ITS RELEVANCE TO RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE PATIENT IN MEDICINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, B Michael

    2018-02-01

    An analysis and review of the fundamental psychological basis of decision making has been undertaken in respect of radiation protection of the patient in medicine. Both clinical and scientific aspects of patient protection have been considered. Every stage of the clinical process of radiological examinations, from referral through to diagnostic outcome, has been shown to be subject to proven psychological effects including biases, framing, anchoring and prospect theory, which deals with perceived gains and losses. Such factors also influence the scientific aspects of radiation protection of the patient. Justification for the use of single dose reference level (DRL) values has employed framing with substitution or manipulation by accessibility in order to promote their usefulness. The use of DRLs as presently proposed constrains a diverse patient population to a reference or representative person. This approach is shown to represent a public health initiative that largely ignores the ethical basis of patient protection inherent in the Hippocratic Oath. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  15. European welfare states in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemerijck, A.C.; Dräbing, V.; Vis, B.; Nelson, M.L.; Soentken, M.F.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this working paper, we assess to what extent European welfare states have moved in the direction of social investment in terms of spending and how well they are performing socio-economically, for instance in terms of unemployment, poverty-reduction and work-family life reconciliation. Moreover,

  16. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    on processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming presents opportunities for economic...

  17. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  18. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  19. Measuring Welfare of Productive Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn the last few decades an increasing number of economists have contributed to new methods of welfare (or utility) measurement. As set out in this journal (Tinbergen, 1985) three groups of economists have been active in this field since 1968, initially relatively independently; an

  20. Jobs and welfare in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    Mozambique has achieved remarkable macroeconomic success over recent decades, boasting one of the world’s highest rates of GDP growth. However, absolute poverty remains persistent, spilling over into social unrest. To better understand the link between aggregate growth and household welfare...

  1. Intercultural Health Care and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen har fokus på undervisning, planlægning, udvikling og evaluering af et internationalt tværfagligt valgfag Intercultural Health Care and Welfare, der udbydes på Det Sundhedsfaglige og Teknologiske Fakultet på Professionshøjskolen Metropol. Ifølge den tysk-amerikanske professor Iris Varner og...

  2. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge...

  3. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of

  4. Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Levy-Shraga

    Full Text Available Survivors of childhood cancer are at high risk for developing non-melanoma skin cancer and therefore are firmly advised to avoid or minimize sun exposure and adopt skin protection measures. We aimed to compare sun exposure and protection habits in a cohort of pediatric patients with a history of malignancy to those of healthy controls.Case-control study of 143 pediatric patients with a history of malignancy (aged 11.2±4.6 y, Male = 68, mean interval from diagnosis 4.4±3.8 y and 150 healthy controls (aged 10.4±4.8 y, Male = 67. Sun exposure and protection habits were assessed using validated questionnaires.Patients and controls reported similar sun exposure time during weekdays (94±82 minutes/day vs. 81±65 minutes/day; p = 0.83, while during weekends patients spent significantly less time outside compared to controls (103±85 minutes/day vs. 124±87 minutes/day; p = 0.02. Time elapsed from diagnosis positively correlated with time spent outside both during weekdays (r = 0.194, p = 0.02 and weekends (r = 0.217, p = 0.01, and there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures.Although childhood cancer survivors are firmly instructed to adopt sun protection habits, the adherence to these instructions is incomplete, and more attention should be paid to improve these habits throughout their lives. Since sunlight avoidance may results in vitamin D deficiency, dietary supplementation will likely be needed.

  5. Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Shraga, Yael; Cohen, Rinat; Ben Ami, Michal; Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Temam, Vered; Modan-Moses, Dalit

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of childhood cancer are at high risk for developing non-melanoma skin cancer and therefore are firmly advised to avoid or minimize sun exposure and adopt skin protection measures. We aimed to compare sun exposure and protection habits in a cohort of pediatric patients with a history of malignancy to those of healthy controls. Methods Case-control study of 143 pediatric patients with a history of malignancy (aged 11.2±4.6y, Male = 68, mean interval from diagnosis 4.4±3.8y) and 150 healthy controls (aged 10.4±4.8y, Male = 67). Sun exposure and protection habits were assessed using validated questionnaires. Results Patients and controls reported similar sun exposure time during weekdays (94±82minutes/day vs. 81±65minutes/day; p = 0.83), while during weekends patients spent significantly less time outside compared to controls (103±85minutes/day vs. 124±87minutes/day; p = 0.02). Time elapsed from diagnosis positively correlated with time spent outside both during weekdays (r = 0.194, p = 0.02) and weekends (r = 0.217, p = 0.01), and there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures. Conclusions Although childhood cancer survivors are firmly instructed to adopt sun protection habits, the adherence to these instructions is incomplete, and more attention should be paid to improve these habits throughout their lives. Since sunlight avoidance may results in vitamin D deficiency, dietary supplementation will likely be needed. PMID:26348212

  6. Evaluation of the knowledge of physicians prescribing CT examinations on the radiation protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervaise, A.; Pernin, M.; Naulet, P.; Portron, Y.; Lapierre-Combes, M.; Esperabe-Vignau, F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the knowledge of physicians prescribing CT examinations on the radiation protection of patients. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was distributed to all clinicians on medical staff who prescribe CT examinations. Several questions related to their prescription pattern and their knowledge of radiation protection. Results: Forty-four questionnaires were analyzed. While 70% of physicians claimed that they considered the risks from exposure to ionizing radiation when prescribing a CT examination, only 25% informed their patients about those risks. Knowledge of the radiation dose delivered during CT evaluation of the abdomen and pelvis was poorly understood and the risks related to small doses of radiation were grossly underestimated. Finally, only a third of clinicians had received training with regards to radiation protection. Conclusion: While most clinicians claim that they consider the risks from exposure to ionizing radiation when prescribing a CT examination, the risks are either not well known or not known at all. Increased formation of clinicians with regards to the radiation protection of patients, maybe through a dedicated clinical rotation while in medical school, could be a solution to improve the knowledge of hospital clinicians with regards to radiation protection. (authors)

  7. [Evaluation of the knowledge of physicians prescribing CT examinations on the radiation protection of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaise, A; Esperabe-Vignau, F; Pernin, M; Naulet, P; Portron, Y; Lapierre-Combes, M

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge of physicians prescribing CT examinations on the radiation protection of patients. A questionnaire was distributed to all clinicians on medical staff who prescribe CT examinations. Several questions related to their prescription pattern and their knowledge of radiation protection. Forty-four questionnaires were analyzed. While 70% of physicians claimed that they considered the risks from exposure to ionizing radiation when prescribing a CT examination, only 25% informed their patients about those risks. Knowledge of the radiation dose delivered during CT evaluation of the abdomen and pelvis was poorly understood and the risks related to small doses of radiation were grossly underestimated. Finally, only a third of clinicians had received training with regards to radiation protection. While most clinicians claim that they consider the risks from exposure to ionizing radiation when prescribing a CT examination, the risks are either not well known or not known at all. Increased formation of clinicians with regards to the radiation protection of patients, maybe through a dedicated clinical rotation while in medical school, could be a solution to improve the knowledge of hospital clinicians with regards to radiation protection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS and Éditions françaises de radiologie. All rights reserved.

  8. Less educated and older patients have reduced access to biologic DMARDs even in a country with highly developed social welfare (Norway): results from Norwegian cohort study NOR-DMARD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putrik, Polina; Ramiro, Sofia; Lie, Elisabeth; Keszei, Andras P; Kvien, Tore K; van der Heijde, Désirée; Landewé, Robert; Uhlig, Till; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-07-01

    To explore whether age, gender or education influence the time until initiation of the first bDMARD in patients with RA. Data from the Norwegian Register of DMARDs collected between 2000 and 2012 were used. Only DMARD-naïve patients with RA starting their first conventional synthetic DMARD were included in the analyses. The start of the first bDMARD was the main outcome of interest. Cox regression analyses were used to explore the impact of education, age and gender on the start of a first bDMARD, adjusting for confounders, either at baseline or varying over time (time-varying model). Of 1946 eligible patients [mean (s.d.) age: 55 (14) years, 68% females], 368 (19%) received a bDMARD during follow-up (mean 2.6 years). In the baseline prediction model, older age [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98], lower education [HR = 0.76 and 0.68 for low and intermediate education levels vs college/university education, respectively (P = 0.01)] and female gender [only in the period 2000-03, HR = 0.61 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.91)] were associated with a lower hazard ratio to start a bDMARD. The time-varying model provided overall consistent results, but the effect of education was only relevant for older patients (>57 years) and became more pronounced by the end of the decade. Less educated and older patients have disadvantages with regard to access to costly treatments, even in a country with highly developed welfare like Norway. Females had lower access in the beginning of the 2000s, but access had improved by the end of the decade. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  10. 78 FR 37031 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, Premium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... in the private market, were previously proposed through the Blueprint process, discussed in agency... Vol. 78 Wednesday, No. 118 June 19, 2013 Part III Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 144, 147, 153, 155, and 156 [CMS-9957-P] RIN 0938-AR82 Patient Protection...

  11. 78 FR 76212 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 147, 155 and 156 [CMS-9945-IFC] RIN 0938-AS17 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities AGENCY... meeting the size standards of the Small Business Administration (SBA); (2) a not-for-profit organization...

  12. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed...

  13. 78 FR 12833 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... wellness services and chronic disease management; and pediatric services, including oral \\8\\ and vision... Act uses the terms ``dental'' and ``oral'' interchangeably when referring to the pediatric dental care... Parts 147, 155, and 156 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential...

  14. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  15. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfar......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare...

  16. Towards Farm Animal Welfare and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Henry; Blokhuis, Harry; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda

    2018-05-25

    As farm animal welfare becomes an increasingly important component of contemporary global livestock production, animal welfare science and animal welfare policy-making need to find new ways of entering global debates over food security and sustainability. In this paper, we explore the means by which both animal welfare science and policy should articulate with these emerging global debates. Having first established the important gains in animal welfare policy and the maturity of animal welfare science, we identify and explore the potential impact of these current debates and argue that they have the potential for profound change in our understanding of, and our response to, the welfare of animals. We conclude the paper with a number of possible recommendations for how a scientifically informed, sustainable animal welfare policy might flourish.

  17. Protecting patients with cardiovascular diseases from catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment by health finance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Fan, Yancun; McNeil, Edward

    2015-12-01

    To compare the incidences of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and impoverishment, the risk protection offered by two health financial reforms and to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Patients with CVDs aged over 18 years residing in the sample areas for at least one year were eligible. The definitions of CHE and impoverishment recommended by WHO were adopted. The protection of CHE and impoverishment was compared between the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) alone and NCMS plus National Essential Medicines Scheme (NEMS) using the percentage change of incidences for CHE and impoverishment. Logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment. The incidences of CHE and impoverishment under NCMS plus NEMS were 11.26% and 3.30%, respectively, which were lower than those under NCMS alone. The rates of protection were higher among households with patients with CVDs covered by NCMS plus NEMS (25.68% and 34.65%, respectively). NCMS plus NEMS could protect the poor households more from CHE but not impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS protected more than one-fourth of households from CHE and more than one-third from impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS was more effective at protecting households with patients with CVDs from CHE and impoverishment than NCMS alone. An integration of NCMS with NEMS should be expanded. However, further strategies to minimise catastrophic health expenditure after this health finance reform are still needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Conference proceedings; Radioprotection des patients en imagerie medicale. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Medical exposure of the French population: methodology and results (Bernard Aubert, IRSN); 2 - What indicators for the medical exposure? (Cecile Etard, IRSN); 3 - Guidebook of correct usage of medical imaging examination (Philippe Grenier, Pitie-Salpetriere hospital); 4 - Radiation protection optimization in pediatric imaging (Hubert Ducou-Le-Pointe, Aurelien Bouette (Armand-Trousseau children hospital); 5 - Children's exposure to image scanners: epidemiological survey (Marie-Odile Bernier, IRSN); 6 - Management of patient's irradiation: from image quality to good practice (Thierry Solaire, General Electric); 7 - Dose optimization in radiology (Cecile Salvat (Lariboisiere hospital); 8 - Cancer detection in the breast cancer planned screening program - 2004-2009 era (Agnes Rogel, InVS); 9 - Mammographic exposures - radiobiological effects - radio-induced DNA damages (Catherine Colin, Lyon Sud hospital); 10 - Breast cancer screening program - importance of non-irradiating techniques (Anne Tardivon, Institut Curie); 11 - Radiation protection justification for the medical imaging of patients over the age of 50 (Michel Bourguignon, ASN); 12 - Search for a molecular imprint for the discrimination between radio-induced and sporadic tumors (Sylvie Chevillard, CEA)

  19. Examining social work with children and youth in welfare service organizations observed as hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes de Oca, Lis Klovning Hansen

    This paper seeks to explore social work as it can be observed in the welfare service organizations of Danish municipalities, specifically within the context of social work concerned with the protection of the child at risk. The paper uses the systems theory of Niklas Luh-mann to elaborate...... within the welfare system of child protection can be said to emerge into a different form than (maybe) other welfare services. The explorative curiosity rises from recognition of the economic systems expansion and dominant semantics within social services, specifically child protection and how social...... workers may and may not refer to this as potential conflict using semantics of conflict. Welfare technologies as for instance the law stipulated “child conversation”, budget control and action plans form the preliminary basis of the decision-making process of a social intervention regarding a child...

  20. Welfarism and extra-welfarism: a critical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Viegas Seixas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rules and principles for guiding decision-making in the health care sector have been debated for decades. Here, we present a critical appraisal of the two most important paradigms in this respect: welfarism and extra-welfarism. While the former deals with the maximization of the overall sum of individual utilities as its primary outcome, the latter has been focusing on the maximization of the overall health status. We argue that welfarism has three main problems: (1 its central idea of overall sum of individual utilities does not capture societal values decisively relevant in the context of health; (2 the use of the Potential Pareto Improvement brings an unresolvable separation between efficiency and equity; and (3 individual utility may not be a good measure in the health sector, given that individuals might value things that diminish their overall health. In turn, the extra-welfarist approach is criticized regarding four main limitations: (1 the advocated expansion of the evaluative space, moving from utility to health, may have represented in reality a narrowing of it; (2 it operates using non-explicit considerations of equity; (3 it still holds the issue of “inability to desire” of unprivileged people being considered the best judges of weighing the criteria used to building the health measures; and (4 there is controversial empirical evidence about society members’ values that support its assumptions. Overall, both paradigms show significant weaknesses, but the debate has still been within the realm of welfare economics, and even the new approaches to resource allocation in health care systems appear to be unable to escape from these boundaries.

  1. The radiologist's responsibilities for the radiation protection of patients; Obligations du radiologue pour la radioprotection des patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-11-15

    The obligations of the radiologist for the radiation protection of patients include a review of the appropriateness of the examination and optimization of the protocol. Both internal and external quality assurance programs are mandatory. The specific tasks and their frequency are defined by the AFSSAPS. The radiology report of procedures performed over radiosensitive regions must include the delivered dose. The imaging technique must be optimized based on published guidelines or law for the most frequent examinations. All radiologists should be familiar with radiation protection. Incidents should be reported to the Nuclear Safety Authority. (author)

  2. In pursuit of peak animal welfare; the need to prioritize the meaningful over the measurable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Jake S

    2017-12-01

    Despite the diversity of animal welfare definitions, most recognise the centrality of the feelings of animals which are currently impossible to measure directly. As a result, animal welfare assessment is heavily reliant upon the indirect measurement of factors that either affect what animals feel, or are effected by how they feel. Physiological and health orientated measures have emerged as popular metrics for assessing welfare because they are quantifiable, can effect and be affected by how animals feel and have merits regardless of their relationship to the feelings of animals. However, their popularity in animal welfare assessment has led to them having a disproportionate influence on animal management to the detriment of animal welfare in numerous instances. Here, the case is made that a tension exists between management that prioritizes aspects of care reflecting popular animal welfare metrics such as those relating to physical health, and management that emphasizes psychological wellbeing. By re-examining the relative merits of physical and psychological priorities in animal management, an alternate animal welfare paradigm emerges less tied to traditional welfare metrics. This paradigm theorizes about the possibility for an optimal animal welfare state to exist where managed animal populations provided essential psychological outlets but protected from key physical stressors routinely experienced in the wild, might experience higher levels of welfare than wild populations would routinely experience. The proposition that optimal animal welfare could theoretically be achieved in well managed and well designed captive environments challenges a widely held ethical perspective that captivity is inherently bad for animal welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in anthropomor......The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...

  4. Advertising and Consumer Welfare: Scaling versus Translating

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Chalfant, James A.; Piggott, Nicholas E.

    1997-01-01

    Controversy has surrounded the welfare effects of advertising, mainly concerning the consumer welfare effects. Unfortunately, the measures of consumer welfare effects in most studies have been ad hoc and incorrect. The consumer welfare consequences of advertising can be measured consistently when consumer demand equations are derived from an expenditure function. This is illustrated using the Almost Ideal demand system, which is popular in econometric estimation of food demand systems. An emp...

  5. The Future of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare.......This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare....

  6. [Status of law-making on animal welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polten, B

    2007-03-01

    Since the last report there have been major revisions of laws and ordinances. Deliberations on rules of Community law were also continued. On national level, the Act on the Shoeing of Horses amending the Animal Welfare Act and amendments of animal welfare provisions as well as the Deregulation Act were prepared, some of which have meanwhile entered into force. At legislative level, the work on the ratification laws for the Council of Europe conventions (Strasbourg) was concluded in order to enable Germany to adopt the revisions. They include (1) the European Convention for the protection of animals used for experimental purposes and (2) the European Convention for the protection of animals during international transport. At the level of ordinances, the amendment and extension of the Animal Welfare -Farm Animal Husbandry Ordinance are of vital importance for the sections on pig farming and laying hen husbandry. Another section refers to the husbandry of fur animals, on which an ordinance has been submitted to the Bundesrat (German upper house of Parliament). Deliberations on this issue have been adjourned. Drafts of a circus register were prepared to amend the Animal Welfare Act and to adopt a separate ordinance, and they are being discussed with the federal states and associations. Previously,the rules of Community law in the area of animal welfare were adopted as EC directives which the member states had to transfer in national law. This was done by incorporating them into national laws or ordinances, with non-compliance having to be sanctioned. It is the member states' responsibility to establish sanctions. Yet the Commission has introduced a directly operative animal welfare legislation by adopting EC Regulation 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport. This means that a national implementation is not required. Nevertheless, the establishment of sanctions continues to be the responsibility of the member states. A special authorisation by the

  7. Patient awareness and sun protection behaviour following excision of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blacam, Catherine; Dermott, Clodagh Mc; Sugrue, Conor; Kilmartin, Darren; Kelly, Jack

    2017-02-01

    Limited information is available regarding disease awareness and sun protection behaviour in patients previously treated for non-melanoma skin cancer. Using a telephone-administered questionnaire, we investigated these characteristics in 250 patients in the west of Ireland who had undergone excision of basal cell carcinomas between January 2011 and December 2012. Only 28.8% of respondents knew that the lesion they had excised was a BCC and understood that there was a significant chance of developing another similar lesion in the next 3 years. Women and patients under age 65 were significantly better informed about their diagnosis than men (p = 0.021 and 0.000 respectively). The majority of patients (71.2%) knew that the overall effect of UV radiation on the skin was harmful and did employ some form of sun protection (avoid midday sun 72%; stay in shade 74%; wear hat 73.6%; wear sunscreen 72.8%). Females were statistically more likely to exercise better sun-protection behaviour (p = 0.002). While 76.8% of patients undertook some form of outdoor activity every day, only 22.8% wore sunscreen every day. Greater efforts should be made to communicate disease details and sun protection implications associated with basal cell carcinoma, especially to male patients. Improved population specific skin cancer awareness may lead to earlier detection and thus decrease both the patient morbidity and economic burden associated with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  9. Marketization of welfare services in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Hjelmar, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Scandinavian welfare states are undergoing a gradual transformation towards a more market-based mode of public service delivery. The results of these marketization reforms are, however, insufficiently documented in terms of their consequences for the price and quality of welfare services...... the evidence base and inform future policy-making on marketization in general and within the welfare areas in particular....

  10. Health and welfare of organic livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal health and welfare are important principles of organic animal husbandry. In the Netherlands organic animal husbandry has proven to perform better than the conventional sector on many aspects of animal welfare. The Dutch organic animal husbandry sector has recognised animal health and welfare

  11. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is, ...

  12. Technical knowledge assessment in radiology in patients protection in collective environments and more radiosensitive organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of X-rays in medical fields has increased significantly in recent years, since various therapeutic procedures can be performed without the need for surgery, which presents the greatest risk to the patient. An example of this increase is the practice of cardiac catheterization, this procedure fluoroscopy is used for placement of central venous catheters and temporary pacemakers, and long-term use increases the risk of exposure to X-rays to the patient, doctor and his assistants. This has been observed with concern by many researchers, since many companies did not fit the standards of radiation protection. This failure can lead to exposure of professionals, patients and caregivers. It is therefore of fundamental importance, the use of personal protective equipment such as aprons and thyroid plumbíferos protectors, for dose reduction produced by the primary and secondary radiation. This study evaluated the knowledge of radiology professionals in Goiânia, on the use of lead apron in collective environments and use of guards in sensitive parts of patients to radiation. Through an information gathering technique based on a questionnaire with closed questions. From dista and focuses on the knowledge of professionals. The results showed that there is a serious deficiency as regards the most radiosensitive organ protection of patients when they are exposed to X-ray beams. (author)

  13. Methodology for comprehensive patient, worker and public radiation protection considerations while introducing new medical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeman, E.; Keren, M.

    2001-01-01

    Patient protection is a major consideration while introducing new medical procedure. But protection of the workers and the public should be considered too. A methodology of combining non-patient radiation protection considerations with the introduction of new medical procedures is described. The new medical procedure was the Intracoronary Gamma Irradiation for the Prevention of Restenosis by using Iridium 192 gamma radiation sources. The usual authors' responsibility is the licensing of the use of radioactive materials while keeping public protection. According to this responsibility, the methodology's original orientation is public protection. As a result of coordination between several competent authorities, managed by the authors, the methodology was adopted for patient and worker protection too. Applicants, actually possible users (hospitals) of the new procedure, were obliged to plan medical procedures and working area according to dose limits and constrains as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency and local competent authorities. Exposure calculations had to consider the usual parameters as sources types and activity, dose rate and dose levels, duration and number of treatments. Special attention was given to the presence workers and public by chance presence in or near treatment area. A usual condition to give a license was the installation of continuous (during treatment) radiation monitoring systems. But a special attention was given to physical barriers and procedures in order to stop unauthorized personal to arrive near to working area. Satisfactory staff training for normal operation and emergency situations are essential, including appropriate safety procedures and the presence of safety assistance team while executing treatment. (author)

  14. Protective Effects of Salivary Factors in Dental Caries in Diabetic Patients of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Jawed, Muhammad; Khan, Rashid N.; Shahid, Syed M.; Azhar, Abid

    2012-01-01

    Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups acc...

  15. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  16. Wages, Welfare Benefits and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennan, John; Walker, James R

    2010-05-01

    Differences in economic opportunities give rise to strong migration incentives, across regions within countries, and across countries. In this paper we focus on responses to differences in welfare benefits across States. We apply the model developed in Kennan and Walker (2008), which emphasizes that migration decisions are often reversed, and that many alternative locations must be considered. We model individual decisions to migrate as a job search problem. A worker starts the life-cycle in some home location and must determine the optimal sequence of moves before settling down. The model is sparsely parameterized. We estimate the model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Our main finding is that income differences do help explain the migration decisions of young welfare-eligible women, but large differences in benefit levels provide surprisingly weak migration incentives.

  17. We Develop Welfare Together - Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Helle; Carlsbæk, Poul Hornshøj

    information: Poul Carlsbæk:  Master of Science (MSc) in Political Science  Senior lecturer at Department of Management and Administration and head responsible for the interprofessional course We Develop Welfare Together – Locally.  Has taught adults at the Diploma programme in Public Administration for 26...... years  Former Information Manager in municipalities and Senior Executive Consultant in a Danish consultant firm and in a IT-firm's innovative department  Volunteer in e.g. DJØF (association for layers and economists) and DN (society for nature conservation) Helle Flindt:  Occupational Therapist.......  Master in Medical Anthropology  Senior lecturer at Department of physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy  Lecturer at the the interprofessional course We Develop Welfare Together – Locally. 'Equality in Health' depend on both interprofessional collaboration regarding the individual citizen...

  18. Applying the welfare model to at-own-risk discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha; Menon, Sumytra; Kanesvaran, Ravindran

    2017-08-01

    "At-own-risk discharges" or "self-discharges" evidences an irretrievable breakdown in the patient-clinician relationship when patients leave care facilities before completion of medical treatment and against medical advice. Dissolution of the therapeutic relationship terminates the physician's duty of care and professional liability with respect to care of the patient. Acquiescence of an at-own-risk discharge by the clinician is seen as respecting patient autonomy. The validity of such requests pivot on the assumptions that the patient is fully informed and competent to invoke an at-own-risk discharge and that care up to the point of the at-own-risk discharge meets prevailing clinical standards. Palliative care's use of a multidisciplinary team approach challenges both these assumptions. First by establishing multiple independent therapeutic relations between professionals in the multidisciplinary team and the patient who persists despite an at-own-risk discharge. These enduring therapeutic relationships negate the suggestion that no duty of care is owed the patient. Second, the continued employ of collusion, familial determinations, and the circumnavigation of direct patient involvement in family-centric societies compromises the patient's decision-making capacity and raises questions as to the patient's decision-making capacity and their ability to assume responsibility for the repercussions of invoking an at-own-risk discharge. With the validity of at-own-risk discharge request in question and the welfare and patient interest at stake, an alternative approach to assessing at-own-risk discharge requests are called for. The welfare model circumnavigates these concerns and preserves the patient's welfare through the employ of a multidisciplinary team guided holistic appraisal of the patient's specific situation that is informed by clinical and institutional standards and evidenced-based practice. The welfare model provides a robust decision-making framework for

  19. Exploring the work/ welfare relationship

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The impact of current transformations in European labor markets social policy and employment patterns on women gender relations motherhood and family: implications for social work and social care (Editorial) We are delighted to introduce this exciting Special Edition for the Swiss Journal of Social Work. This special guest edited issue will interrogate a particular problem of the impact of the shifting axis on family gender relations and gendered impacts of welfare reform and change. In the c...

  20. Tax Havens, Growth, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong; Cheng, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring tax havens, and uses it to examine how the existence of tax havens affects the economic growth rate and social welfare in high-tax countries. We show that the presence of tax havens generates two conflicting channels in determining the growth effect. First, the public investment effect states that tax havens may erode tax revenues and in turn decrease the government’s infrastructure expenditure, thereby reducing growth. Second, the t...

  1. Human cloning and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  2. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  3. Protective Isolation for Patients with Haematological Malignancies: A Pilot Study Investigating Patients' Distress and Use of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, O; Pensieri, C; Tomarchio, V; Biagioli, V; Pennacchini, M; Tendas, A; Tambone, V; Tirindelli, M C

    2017-10-01

    Background: Patients with haematological malignancies are often hospitalized in protective isolation until full neutrophil recovery in order to prevent infections. This descriptive pilot study evaluate the level of isolation-related distress and the use of free time in a sample of Italian onco-haematological patients who were hospitalized in protective isolation. Materials and Methods: Participants were 18 patients hospitalized in hematologic ward to receive induction therapy (n=12) or autologous stem cell transplant (n=6). They completed a self-report questionnaire before discharge. Results: Participants reported a moderate level of isolation-related distress, anxiety, and boredom: the more the anxiety and the boredom, the more the distress (r=.77; Psurfing in Internet or using PC (33.3%), and playing games or making cross-words (16.7%). Participants who reported pessimistic thinking had higher isolation-related distress (P=.004) as well as anxiety (P<.001) and boredom (P=.001). Conclusion: Haematology Units should support isolated patients in spending their time in recreational activities, allowing more contacts with immediate relatives and friends, providing free TV and Wi-Fi connection inside the room. In addition, patients should have to keep themselves physically active. Isolation-related distress could also be reduced by providing psychological support.

  4. Medical and welfare device session. Toward medical treatment and welfare of tomorrow; Iryo fukushi kiki session. Ashita no iryo fukushi ni mukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This paper is the material distributed in the medical and welfare device session held under the auspices of NEDO in September 2000. Diversification of needs in the medical and welfare areas and handling of age advancement are the growing issue. NEDO is putting efforts toward enhancement of quality of life (QOL) and realization of the nation with great life by providing high-quality and high-efficiency medical and welfare services. The NEDO's efforts cover the areas of treating adult diseases such as cancers and cardiac diseases whose seriousness is growing, early diagnoses of diseases, medical treatment with low invasion, elderly people helping, reduction of helpers' burden, reduction of handicaps to elderly people and mentally and physically handicapped persons, and assistance to participation in the society. To achieve these goals, NEDO is implementing the following four projects: research and development of medical and welfare device technologies, researches of medical science and engineering collaboration type, and promotion of developing welfare techno-systems and practical application of welfare appliances. Developments are being made toward practical application of medical and welfare devices with excellent safety and convenience, of low cost and high performance. The session gave the keynote addresses related to medical treatment and prevention of brain diseases; brain, the universe and MRI (the world of mind as seen in images), and high-tech medical treatments to protect brain (challenge to brain that starts now). (NEDO)

  5. Reinforce the radiation protection of the health personnel, patients and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    One of the missions of the IRSN is the public radiation protection. In this context and in order to inform the public, this press document presents the actions of the IRSN in the occupational safety, the patients and the public, with a special interest to the Chernobyl accident consequences in France. The prevention policy against the radon, implemented by the Institute is also presented. (A.L.B.)

  6. Osteoprotegerin CGA haplotype protection against cerebrovascular complications in anti-CCP negative patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Genre

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease with high incidence of cardiovascular disease due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Several polymorphisms in the OPG gene with functional effects on cardiovascular disease in non-rheumatic individuals have been described. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of three of these functional OPG polymorphisms on the risk of cardiovascular disease in a large and well-characterized cohort of Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis.Three OPG gene variants (rs3134063, rs2073618 and rs3134069 were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 2027 Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody testing was positive in 997 of 1714 tested. Also, 18.3% of the whole series had experienced cardiovascular events, including 5.4% with cerebrovascular accidents. The relationship between OPG variants and cardiovascular events was assessed using Cox regression.No association between OPG gene variants and cardiovascular disease was observed in the whole group of rheumatoid arthritis patients or in anti-CCP positive patients. Nevertheless, a protective effect of CGA haplotype on the risk of cardiovascular disease in general, and specifically in the risk of cerebrovascular complications after adjusting for sex, age at disease diagnosis and traditional cardiovascular risk factors was disclosed in anti-CCP negative patients (HR = 0.54; 95%CI: 0.31-0.95; p = 0.032 and HR = 0.17; 95%CI: 0.04-0.78; p = 0.022, respectively.Our results indicate a protective effect of the OPG CGA haplotype on cardiovascular risk, mainly due to a protective effect against cerebrovascular events in anti-CCP negative rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  7. Education, training and continuous professional development in the radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.

    2001-01-01

    Education and training in the radiological protection of patients has to face many challenges. These stem from the interdisciplinary nature of the personnel involved, their varied backgrounds, the difficult to quantify risk and benefit considerations, concern for quality of the end product, changing attitudes as knowledge develops in fast growing areas of technology and the wide complexity of the equipment used. On the one hand there is a need for giving orientation about the medical exigencies and situations in clinical practice to the radiation protection regulators and, on the other, more and more clinicians without any training in radiation protection are getting involved in the use of high levels of radiation through angiographic procedures. It is hence no wonder that the deterministic effects of radiation have been observed in patients undergoing angiographic procedures. A review of the state of the art in education and training and identifying educational challenges is therefore needed. The medical training of physicians and support personnel in the health care use of ionizing or other radiation in patients is particularly challenging for many reasons, most of which are unique to health care. These include those described in the paper. (author)

  8. The efficacy of Protected Mealtimes in hospitalised patients: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Judi; Haines, Terry P; Truby, Helen

    2017-02-07

    Protected Mealtimes is an intervention developed to address the problem of malnutrition in hospitalised patients through increasing positive interruptions (such as feeding assistance) whilst minimising unnecessary interruptions (including ward rounds and diagnostic procedures) during mealtimes. This clinical trial aimed to measure the effect of implementing Protected Mealtimes on the energy and protein intake of patients admitted to the subacute setting. A prospective, stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken across three hospital sites at one health network in Melbourne, Australia. All patients, except those receiving end-of-life care or not receiving oral nutrition, admitted to these wards during the study period participated. The intervention was guided by the British Hospital Caterers Association reference policy on Protected Mealtimes and by principles of implementation science. Primary outcome measures were daily energy and protein intake. The study was powered to determine whether the intervention closed the daily energy deficit between estimated intake and energy requirements measured as 1900 kJ/day in the pilot study for this trial. There were 149 unique participants, including 38 who crossed over from the control to intervention period as the Protected Mealtimes intervention was implemented. In total, 416 observations of 24-hour food intake were obtained. Energy intake was not significantly different between the intervention ([mean ± SD] 6479 ± 2486 kJ/day) and control (6532 ± 2328 kJ/day) conditions (p = 0.88). Daily protein intake was also not significantly different between the intervention (68.6 ± 26.0 g/day) and control (67.0 ± 25.2 g/day) conditions (p = 0.86). The differences between estimated energy/protein requirements and estimated energy/protein intakes were also limited between groups. The adjusted analysis yielded significant findings for energy deficit: (coefficient [robust 95% CI], p

  9. European legislation impedes critical care research and fails to protect patients' rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Rossel, Peter Johannes Hancke

    2011-01-01

    in which a waiver of consent is deemed necessary, the Ethical Review Board should ensure that non-therapeutic risks are minimal, that the research is specifically designed to benefit critically ill patients, and that it cannot be conducted under circumstances where an informed consent can be obtained....... If the European Directive is changed accordingly, this permits clinical trials in critical care settings, while adequate protection from risky non-therapeutic procedures is ensured and exploitation of the patient as an easily accessible research subject is prevented....

  10. Patients' Data Management System Protected by Identity-Based Authentication and Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-García, Alexandra; Santos-González, Iván; Hernández-Goya, Candelaria; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Yung, Moti

    2017-03-31

    A secure and distributed framework for the management of patients' information in emergency and hospitalization services is proposed here in order to seek improvements in efficiency and security in this important area. In particular, confidentiality protection, mutual authentication, and automatic identification of patients are provided. The proposed system is based on two types of devices: Near Field Communication (NFC) wristbands assigned to patients, and mobile devices assigned to medical staff. Two other main elements of the system are an intermediate server to manage the involved data, and a second server with a private key generator to define the information required to protect communications. An identity-based authentication and key exchange scheme is essential to provide confidential communication and mutual authentication between the medical staff and the private key generator through an intermediate server. The identification of patients is carried out through a keyed-hash message authentication code. Thanks to the combination of the aforementioned tools, a secure alternative mobile health (mHealth) scheme for managing patients' data is defined for emergency and hospitalization services. Different parts of the proposed system have been implemented, including mobile application, intermediate server, private key generator and communication channels. Apart from that, several simulations have been performed, and, compared with the current system, significant improvements in efficiency have been observed.

  11. Protective effects of salivary factors in dental caries in diabetic patients of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Muhammad; Khan, Rashid N; Shahid, Syed M; Azhar, Abid

    2012-01-01

    Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  12. Protective Effects of Salivary Factors in Dental Caries in Diabetic Patients of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jawed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  13. Hospital security and patient elopement: protecting patients and your healthcare facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory and financial consequences of adverse events associated with patient elopements are bringing new challenges to healthcare security to develop policies and procedures to prevent and respond to such incidents. This article provides an overview of the problem of elopement in healthcare and what it means to the security function; gives a working knowledge of healthcare related standards and guidelines aimed at reducing patient elopement; and reviews the elements of an elopement prevention and response plan for your organization.

  14. Environmental Sustainability based on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Scandinavian countries have some traditions of equity and social welfare, which are essential for reaching a truly environmentally sustainable society. But for the highly polluting Denmark, this would require a dramatic change in the political visions. Maintaining...... the present low birth rate is one condition necessary, environmentally better technology is another, and finally a saturation with material consumption, which is required. The latter is in line with people's quest for more leisure time rather than more consumption, but unfortunately counteracted by government...

  15. A review of the scientific basis for radiation protection of the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moores, B. M.; Regulla, D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of ionising radiation in medicine is the single largest man-made source of population exposure. Individual and collective doses to patients arising from the medical use of ionising radiations continue to rise significantly year on year. This is due to the increasing use of medical imaging procedures in modern health care systems as well as the continued development of new high dose techniques. This paper reviews the scientific basis for the principles of radiation protection as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These principles attempt to include exposures arising from both medical and non-medical applications within a common framework and have evolved over many years and changing socioeconomic considerations. In particular, the concepts of justification and ALARA (doses should be as low as reasonably achievable), which underpin the principles for medical exposures are assessed in terms of their applicability to the scientific process and relevance to a rapidly changing technologically-led health care system. Radiation protection is an integral component of patient safety in medical practices and needs to be evidence based and amenable to the scientific process. The limitations imposed by the existing philosophy of radiation protection to the development of a quantitative framework for adequately assessing the performance of medical imaging systems are highlighted. In particular, medical practitioners will require quantitative guidance as to the risk-benefits arising from modern X-ray imaging methods if they are to make rational judgements as to the applicability of modern high-dose techniques to particular diagnostic and therapeutic tasks. At present such guidance is variable due to the lack of a rational framework for assessing the clinical impact of medical imaging techniques. The possible integration of radiation protection concepts into fundamental bio-medical imaging research activities is discussed. (authors)

  16. International conference to explore ways to improve radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The first international conference specifically focused on the radiological protection of patients will be held in Torremolinos (Malaga), Spain, next week, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The conference, formally titled, 'International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy', is being organized by the IAEA, hosted by the Government of Spain and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. Medical applications of ionizing radiation are accepted world-wide as essential tools for keeping or restoring human health. However, they also represent by far the largest man-made source of radiation exposure. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) estimates that diagnostic medical applications of radiation account for about 95% of the exposure to radiation from man-made sources of radiation and about 12% of total exposure, which includes the exposures received from natural sources. More than 900 participants from 80 countries are expected to attend the conference. They cover a broad spectrum of expertise, including radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, technologists/radiographers, radiological protection officers, equipment manufacturers, experts who develop standards for radiological equipment, hospital administrators and public health officials and representatives of professional societies. In addition, a number of patients who have undergone radiation treatment will represent patients' interests and a patient will chair one of the round table debates. The conclusions of the Conference will be incorporated into the IAEA's programme of work in the field of radiation safety and will be reported to the IAEA General Conference at its next meeting in September 2001

  17. Health and Welfare IT Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    finding a suitable problem to solve, iterating and refining their designs, evaluating prototypes with users, and finally presenting their work as a potential product with a detailed plan for how the product would be sold in the market. The primary contribution of this paper is to share innovative design......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a university design class focused on the design of systems intended to solve problems faced by health care professionals, patients and systems that support welfare or extended independence for older people. The students worked in groups for 10 weeks...... ideas with the design community and to reflect on lessons learned by the students who, for the first time, were designing robust prototypes that solve real world problems....

  18. Subclinical ischemic events in patients undergoing carotid artery stent placement: comparison of proximal and distal protection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Emrah; Gürkaş, Erdem; Akpinar, Cetin Kursad; Saleem, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2017-10-01

    To determine the relative effectiveness of proximal and distal protection in prevention of cerebral ischemic events during carotid artery stent (CAS) placement using diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI). We analyzed data from patients who had undergone DW-MRI before and within 24 hours of CAS for symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis (with last ischemic events within 3 months). The study was performed prospectively; patients were not randomized, and were treated either with a proximal balloon occlusion system (Mo.Ma; Invatec, Roncadelle, Italy) or filter-type distal protection device (Spider device; ev3, Plymouth, Minnesota, USA). Of the 45 patients (mean age±SD: 66.9±9.8 years; 73.3% were men) who underwent CAS, 19 had proximal protection and 26 distal protection. New ischemic lesions were detected in 26/45 patients on DW-MRI scans obtained within 24 hours after CAS. The proportion of patients with new lesions on DW-MRI at 24 hours was not different between the two groups (47.4% vs 65.4% for proximal and distal protection, respectively). The mean number of new ischemic lesions on post-CAS DW-MRI was non-significantly higher in patients who underwent CAS with distal protection (2.80±3.54 for proximal protection vs 4.96±5.11 for distal protection; p=0.12). The proportion of patients with new lesions >1 cm did not differ between the two groups (5.3% for proximal protection vs 11.5% for distal protection; p=0.62). There was no difference in the rates of ischemic stroke between patients who underwent CAS treatment using proximal and distal protection (5.3% vs 7.7%; p=1.000). We found a relatively high rate of new ischemic lesions in patients undergoing CAS with cerebral protection. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with new lesions between patients treated using distal protection and those treated using proximal protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  19. A REVIEW OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION PROTECTION WHEN APPLIED TO THE PATIENT IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, B Michael

    2017-06-01

    A review of the role and relevance of the principles of radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology as specified by ICRP has been undertaken when diagnostic risks arising from an examination are taken into account. The increase in population doses arising from diagnostic radiology over the past 20 years has been due to the widespread application of higher dose CT examinations that provide significantly more clinical information. Consequently, diagnostic risks as well as radiation risks need to be considered within the patient radiation protection framework. Justification and optimisation are discussed and the limitations imposed on patient protection by employing only a radiation risk framework is highlighted. The example of radiation protection of the patient in breast screening programmes employing mammography is used to highlight the importance of defined diagnostic outcomes in any effective radiation protection strategy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A review of the fundamental principles of radiation protection when applied to the patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moores, B. Michael

    2017-01-01

    A review of the role and relevance of the principles of radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology as specified by ICRP has been undertaken when diagnostic risks arising from an examination are taken into account. The increase in population doses arising from diagnostic radiology over the past 20 years has been due to the widespread application of higher dose CT examinations that provide significantly more clinical information. Consequently, diagnostic risks as well as radiation risks need to be considered within the patient radiation protection framework. Justification and optimisation are discussed and the limitations imposed on patient protection by employing only a radiation risk framework is highlighted. The example of radiation protection of the patient in breast screening programmes employing mammography is used to highlight the importance of defined diagnostic outcomes in any effective radiation protection strategy. (author)

  1. Support for Ethical Consumerism and Welfare States in the Global Economy : Complements or Substitutes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Fransen, L.

    This paper explores attitudes about alternative paths to promoting labor and social standards in the global political economy: public welfare-state policy protecting workers and social standards through policy and regulation, versus private ‘red consumerism’ protecting standards through consumer

  2. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  3. European Integration between Equity, Efficiency and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article I tried to highlight the path for improving the Europeans standards ofliving. Poverty, inequality and efficiency are the key concepts of the welfare economic. Similar to many otherarticles about equity, efficiency and welfare, this article offers an account of the challenges facing theEuropean Union welfare in a context of global economy assessing the ability of different components of thewelfare governance to respond to these challenges. The welfare of European Union is analyzed under themultidimensional aspects of integration, such as: internal versus external integration and multilevelintegration. Aging, changes in the labor market, increased mobility are particular aspects that characterize EUand under the fundamental reform of Europe 2020 Strategy, welfare economic becomes a priority even if thepolitical integration comes first to the economic one. As Europe grows more diverse, the welfare economictranslates from desire to necessity.

  4. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  5. Protective versus Conventional Ventilation for Surgery: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Barbas, Carmen S V; Beiderlinden, Martin; Biehl, Michelle; Binnekade, Jan M; Canet, Jaume; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Futier, Emmanuel; Gajic, Ognjen; Hedenstierna, Göran; Hollmann, Markus W; Jaber, Samir; Kozian, Alf; Licker, Marc; Lin, Wen-Qian; Maslow, Andrew D; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Reis Miranda, Dinis; Moine, Pierre; Ng, Thomas; Paparella, Domenico; Putensen, Christian; Ranieri, Marco; Scavonetto, Federica; Schilling, Thomas; Schmid, Werner; Selmo, Gabriele; Severgnini, Paolo; Sprung, Juraj; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Treschan, Tanja; Unzueta, Carmen; Weingarten, Toby N; Wolthuis, Esther K; Wrigge, Hermann; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies show that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes (VT) can prevent postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). The aim of this individual patient data meta-analysis is to evaluate the individual associations between VT size and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level and occurrence of PPC. Randomized controlled trials comparing protective ventilation (low VT with or without high levels of PEEP) and conventional ventilation (high VT with low PEEP) in patients undergoing general surgery. The primary outcome was development of PPC. Predefined prognostic factors were tested using multivariate logistic regression. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were included (2,127 patients). There were 97 cases of PPC in 1,118 patients (8.7%) assigned to protective ventilation and 148 cases in 1,009 patients (14.7%) assigned to conventional ventilation (adjusted relative risk, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.88; P ventilation with low VT and high PEEP levels and 63 cases in 525 patients (12%) assigned to ventilation with low VT and low PEEP levels (adjusted relative risk, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.37; P = 0.72). A dose-response relationship was found between the appearance of PPC and VT size (R2 = 0.39) but not between the appearance of PPC and PEEP level (R2 = 0.08). These data support the beneficial effects of ventilation with use of low VT in patients undergoing surgery. Further trials are necessary to define the role of intraoperative higher PEEP to prevent PPC during nonopen abdominal surgery.

  6. Protection of the patient from ionizing radiation in medical exposure in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Ben Shlomo, A.; Berlovitz, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The ICRP issued in 1991 its recent recommendations related to the protection of the worker, the public and the patient from ionizing radiation. In 1996 the IAEA together with the WHO, the ILO and other major international bodies published the Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the BSS). The BSS are based on the core principles of Justification, Optimization and Dose Limitation. Many countries adopted the radiation protection philosophy and the administrative framework presented in the BSS as the basis for their legal radiation protection system. Following the publication of the BSS, the EC published in 1997 its Medical Exposure Directive 97/43 /Euratom. Article 14 of the ME Directive requires that EC member states bring into force the laws and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this directive before 13 May 2000. Most EC member states have complied with this requirement and issued the relevant laws and /or regulations. The Ionizing Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations that came into force in the UK on 13 May 2000 are a good example

  7. Animal welfare at the group level: more than the sum of individual welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, F; Putman, R J

    2014-03-01

    Currently assessment and management of animal welfare are based on the supposition that welfare status is something experienced identically by each individual animal when exposed to the same conditions. However, many authors argue that individual welfare cannot be seen as an 'objective' state, but is based on the animal's own self-perception; such perception might vary significantly between individuals which appear to be exposed to exactly the same challenges. We argue that this has two implications: (1) actual perceived welfare status of individuals in a population may vary over a wide range even under identical environmental conditions; (2) animals that appear to an external observer to be in better or poorer welfare condition may all in fact perceive their own individual status as the same. This would imply that optimum welfare of a social group might be achieved in situations where individual group members differ markedly in apparent welfare status and perceive their own welfare as being optimal under differing circumstances. Welfare phenotypes may also vary along a continuum between self-regarding and other-regarding behaviour; a variety of situations exist where (social) individuals appear to invest in the welfare of other individuals instead of maximising their own welfare; in such a case it is necessary to re-evaluate individual welfare within the context of a social group and recognise that there may be consequences for the welfare of individuals, of decisions made at the group level or by other group members.

  8. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  9. Legislative and statutory framework of radiation protection of patients in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the legislative and statutory framework of radiation protection of patients in Romania, starting with the basic Law 111/1996 on the Safe Deployment of Nuclear Activities, and its amendments in 1998 and 2006 and the general nuclear safety regulation, which is in agreement with the international regulation. Regarding the medical exposure, jointly the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Ministry of Public Health issued in 2002 a separate regulation, which was published in the Official Gazette Part I No. 446 bis in 25 June 2002 and represents the transposition of the European Directive 97/43/EURATOM of 30 June 1997 on health protection on individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure, and repealing Directive 84/466/EURATOM. Following this document, several specific regulations on radiation protection of the patients were approved by the Ministry of Public Health. Some practical problems already arise, particularly due to the lack of medical physics departments in hospitals. (author)

  10. IAEA calls for enhanced radiation protection of patients. Safety specialists warn against overuse of new imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Advances in medical imaging techniques are allowing doctors to detect hidden diseases and make ever more accurate diagnoses. But radiation safety experts at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) say that overuse of high-tech scanning procedures may unnecessarily expose patients to increased radiation levels. The IAEA, in collaboration with other international organizations, is developing a series of measures aimed at strengthening patient protection. The focus of recent efforts is a Smart Card project, to log how much radiation a person receives in the course of a lifetime. Concern surrounds procedures such as computed tomography (CT) scans because they deliver higher doses of radiation to patients in comparison to conventional X-rays (radiographs). It's been estimated that the average radiation dose of one CT scan is equal to roughly 500 chest X-rays. And that can increase a patient's lifetime risk of cancer, particularly if CT scans are repeated. The IAEA is one of the key international players in the field of patient radiation protection. A unit dedicated to the Radiological Protection of Patients (RPoP) was established in 2001. The IAEA's activities in radiation protection of patients include training, knowledge sharing and capacity building in the medical use of radiation. Extensive, up-to-date training material for health professionals is freely available on the RPoP website. An International Action Plan on the Radiological Protection of Patients that has been established together with leading international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), UNSCEAR, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and others to identify strategies for strengthening radiation protection of patients. Coordinating and managing technical cooperation projects with Member States on patient dose assessment. The aim is to identify the factors that contribute to unnecessary radiation dose to patients, provide guidance on dealing with

  11. Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

    2014-07-01

    As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved

  12. Radon in balneology - measurement of radon retention by patients and radiation protection for personell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, G.; Falkenbach, A.; Grunewald, W.A.; Philipsborn, H. von

    2001-01-01

    In radon balneology patients are exposed to radon either from water or air through the skin or through inhalation. Drinking radon water was not included in the study. Previously, the radon transfer has been determined for an estimate of the medically active amount of radon retained in the patient. A simpler approach of measuring radon in expiration under and after exposure has now been standardised and applied to probands under different conditions of exposure. In addition, radon decay products were measured in sweat, saliva and in the skin. Experimental parameters were evaluated for a comparison of different concentrations observed under different conditions. Results are likely to improve both therapy for patients and radiation protection for members of the personnel. (orig.) [de

  13. Protecting Your Patients' Interests in the Era of Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, and Predictive Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Patricia; Harri, Peter; Prater, Adam; Safdar, Nabile M

    2018-03-01

    The Hippocratic oath and the Belmont report articulate foundational principles for how physicians interact with patients and research subjects. The increasing use of big data and artificial intelligence techniques demands a re-examination of these principles in light of the potential issues surrounding privacy, confidentiality, data ownership, informed consent, epistemology, and inequities. Patients have strong opinions about these issues. Radiologists have a fiduciary responsibility to protect the interest of their patients. As such, the community of radiology leaders, ethicists, and informaticists must have a conversation about the appropriate way to deal with these issues and help lead the way in developing capabilities in the most just, ethical manner possible. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lung protective mechanical ventilation and two year survival in patients with acute lung injury: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Dale M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Dinglas, Victor D; Sevransky, Jonathan E; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R; Desai, Sanjay V; Shanholtz, Carl; Brower, Roy G; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-05

    To evaluate the association of volume limited and pressure limited (lung protective) mechanical ventilation with two year survival in patients with acute lung injury. Prospective cohort study. 13 intensive care units at four hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 485 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury. Two year survival after onset of acute lung injury. 485 patients contributed data for 6240 eligible ventilator settings, as measured twice daily (median of eight eligible ventilator settings per patient; 41% of which adhered to lung protective ventilation). Of these patients, 311 (64%) died within two years. After adjusting for the total duration of ventilation and other relevant covariates, each additional ventilator setting adherent to lung protective ventilation was associated with a 3% decrease in the risk of mortality over two years (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.99, P=0.002). Compared with no adherence, the estimated absolute risk reduction in two year mortality for a prototypical patient with 50% adherence to lung protective ventilation was 4.0% (0.8% to 7.2%, P=0.012) and with 100% adherence was 7.8% (1.6% to 14.0%, P=0.011). Lung protective mechanical ventilation was associated with a substantial long term survival benefit for patients with acute lung injury. Greater use of lung protective ventilation in routine clinical practice could reduce long term mortality in patients with acute lung injury. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00300248.

  15. Collapsing Worlds and Varieties of welfare capitalism: In search of a new political economy of welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Waltraud Schelkle

    2012-01-01

    The study of welfare capitalism is concerned with a founding question of political economy, namely how capitalism and democracy can be combined. Ever since the publication of Esping-Andersen’s Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in 1990, the answer was sought in identifying ideal types of welfare states that support a class compromise. The Varieties of (Welfare) Capitalism literature is increasingly used as a complementary theory of production systems although its rationale for social policies...

  16. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving...... consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital....

  17. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. European Welfare State in a Historical Perspective. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marian ŞTEFAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the historical evolution of the European welfare state, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. Even if one considers that social protection systems have their origins in the period of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, various social problems have been treated in European countries before the Bismarck’s social legislation, beginning with the sixteenth century. In this article we presented mainly (i the origins of social policy systems in Europe, as shown in the literature covered, (ii the conceptual evolution of the so-called “welfare state” and (iii the development of social security schemes based on International Labour Organization typology.

  19. Pricing schemes for new drugs: a welfare analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaggi, Rosella

    2014-02-01

    Drug price regulation is acquiring increasing significance in the investment choices of the pharmaceutical sector. The overall objective is to determine an optimal trade-off between the incentives for innovation, consumer protection, and value for money. However, price regulation is itself a source of distortion. In this study, we examine the welfare properties of listing through a bargaining process and value-based pricing schemes. The latter are superior instruments to uncertain listing processes for maximising total welfare, but the distribution of the benefits between consumers and the industry depends on rate of rebate chosen by the regulator. However, through an appropriate choice, it is always possible to define a value-based pricing scheme with risk sharing, which both consumers and the industry prefer to an uncertain bargaining process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The protective role of carotenoids and polyphenols in patients with head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ping Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is a critical global health problem and approximately 650,000 patients per year are diagnosed with this type of cancer. In addition, head and neck cancer exhibits a high recurrence rate, readily causing second primary cancers in other locations, often yielding a poor prognosis. Current medical and surgical treatment options result in considerable impairment of speaking and swallowing functions, with side effects such as nausea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, and renal damage, thereby impairing patients' quality of life. Thus, developing a prevention and therapeutic intervention strategy for head and neck cancer is vital. Phytochemicals have been shown to have a unique ability to protect cells from damage and modulation of cell repair. The chemopreventive activities of phytochemicals have also been demonstrated to be associated with their antioxidant properties and the induction and stimulation of intercellular communication via gap junctions, which play a role in the regulation of cancer cell cycle, differentiation, apoptosis, and stagnate cancer cell growth. Phytochemicals can also regulate cancer cell signaling pathways, reduce the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, and protect normal cells during treatment, thus reducing the damage caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The most studied of the chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals are the carotenoids and phenolics. In this review, we investigated the multiple mechanisms of carotenoids and polyphenols (PPs for use in preventing head and neck cancer, reducing the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, improving patient survival rates, and reducing the occurrence rate of second primary cancers.

  1. Patient-oncologist alliance as protection against suicidal ideation in young adults with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Kelly M; Abbott, Caroline H; Fisch, Michael J; Friedlander, Robert J; Duberstein, Paul R; Prigerson, Holly G

    2014-08-01

    Young adults with cancer are at an increased risk of suicidal ideation. To the authors' knowledge, the impact of the patient-oncologist alliance on suicidal ideation has not been examined to date. The current study examined the relationship between the patient-oncologist therapeutic alliance and suicidal ideation in young adults with advanced cancer. A total of 93 young adult patients (aged 20 years-40 years) with incurable, recurrent, or metastatic cancer were evaluated by trained interviewers. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the Yale Evaluation of Suicidality scale, dichotomized into a positive and negative score. Predictors included diagnoses of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, physical quality of life, social support, and use of mental health and supportive care services. The Human Connection Scale, dichotomized into a strong (upper third) and weak (lower two-thirds) therapeutic alliance, assessed the strength of the patients' perceived oncologist alliance. Approximately 22.6% of patients screened positive for suicidal ideation. Patients with a strong therapeutic alliance were found to be at reduced risk of suicidal ideation after controlling for confounding influences of cancer diagnosis, Karnofsky performance status, number of physical symptoms, physical quality of life, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and social support. A strong therapeutic alliance was also associated with a reduced risk of suicidal ideation after controlling for mental health discussions with health care providers and use of mental health interventions. The patient-oncologist alliance was found to be a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and provided better protection against suicidal ideation than mental health interventions, including psychotropic medications. Oncologists may significantly influence patients' mental health and may benefit from training and guidance in building strong alliances with their young adult patients.

  2. A history of animal welfare science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made.

  3. The Relationship Between Mental Representations of Welfare Recipients and Attitudes Toward Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Dotsch, Ron; Cooley, Erin; Payne, B Keith

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  4. The relationship between mental representations of welfare recipients and attitudes toward welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, J.L.; Dotsch, R.; Cooley, E.; Payne, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  5. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Gunnink, H.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  6. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While it is possi...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries.......We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...

  7. Social Welfare Activism in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Juul

    Many Jordanians perceive formal politics in Jordan as illegitimate, corrupt and authoritarian. Thus, when searching for agents of change and reform, we have to look beyond the formal political system. In this regard, recent years have seen an increasing interest in civil society. However, this in...... the organisations' positions on a number of concepts often associated with "democratisation", namely women's rights, participation and pluralism, paying particular attention to the role of Islam......., this interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care...... and financial assistance to the poor. This brief asks whether these organisations can be considered potential agents of democratic change or rather as preservers of the status quo. Moreover, do they employ Islam as a means of control or empowerment? Attempting to answer these questions, the brief discusses...

  8. Radiological protection in X-ray diagnosis: How to minimize the patient exposure in X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.M.C. de.

    1986-01-01

    The principles involved in the radiation protection and the radiographic process are discussed. An adequate systematic work is presented, to achieve the main goal of the Radiation Protection that is, to irradiate the patient and the staff with lowest possible exposure. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the regulation of the health insurance industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive and multipronged reform of the US health care system. The legislation makes incremental changes to Medicare, Medicaid, and the market for employer-sponsored health insurance. However, it makes substantial changes to the market for individual and small-group health insurance. The purpose of this article is to introduce the key regulatory reforms in the market for individual and small-group health insurance and explain how these reforms tackle adverse selection and risk classification and improve access to health care for the hitherto uninsured or underinsured population. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of certification programs in the radiological protection of the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucino, Sergio; Touzet, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: One of the main recommendations of the Congress of Malaga on Radiological Protection of the Patient is 'the qualification and training of the staff'. This goal cannot be reached in a country, in complete and systematic form, without the help of existing national programs who allow designing a program of continuous development of the professional capacities. This program must be able to adapt in permanent form to the needs of the Program of Radiological Protection of the Patient that change and evolve in constant form. In case of the Argentina it was adapted to these needs the 'National Program of Certification and Re-certification of medical professionals in Radiology and Radio-Diagnosis'. On the base of the existing program, general requirements were established for the radiological protection of the patient and in addition, special requirements for four specialties: a) General and pediatrics radiology; b) Computed tomography; c) Interventional radiology; d) Radiotherapy. The National Program of Certification was established in 1997 with a 'Top Permanent Council' formed by the National Minister of Health advised by a scientific council. It was also creates the 'National Council of Certification and professional Re-certification' integrated by the Minister of Education, the National Academy of Medicine, the Faculties of Medicine of the whole country, the medical Federations, the trade-union Associations and the Argentine Medical Association. The process of certification can be delegated to academic or university entities, medical colleges and medical chambers that have been recognized path and ethical conduct. The certification is voluntary but it becomes obligatory to be recognized as a specialist. The certification has duration of 5 years and is renewable on the basis of a system of credits that considers different elements of the developed activities and the written theoretical and practical evaluations. It is a transparent process where the ethical

  11. Skin Cancer Awareness and Sun Protection Behavior Before and Following Treatment Among Skin Cancer-Treated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Robabeh; Nasimi, Maryam; Nourmohammad Pour, Pedram; Etesami, Ifa; Al-Asiri, Safa; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza

    2017-11-15

    There is little known about illness perception in patients with skin tumors. We conducted this study to investigate Iranian patients' understanding of skin tumors, and to evaluate their sun-protective behavior changes after treatment of skin cancer. Patients with a skin biopsy of basal cell carcinoma were asked to complete questionnaires. A total of 110 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were mostly referred to our tumor clinic from rural areas. At the skin cancer perception investigation, 63% of patients did not consider their disease as a long-lasting situation. Besides, 45.4% of patients consider their illness as a serious condition which significantly affecting their lives. Our patients had a strong belief in treatment control (81%) and 81% of them also described worries about their skin cancer. The leading causes of skin cancer as assumed by patients were: history of skin cancer (37.4%), poor medical care in the past (36.4%), extreme sun exposure (31.5%), and lack of sun protection (27.5%). In regard to sun-protective behavior after treatment of skin cancer, 55.4% of patients showed no changes or even negative change in their sun-protective behavior, But 44.5% of the patients changed their sun-protective behavior in a positive way which was statically significant (P ≤ 0.001). Our study demonstrates how our patients with skin cancer perceive their disease and we need to educate our patients, considering diseases' aspects, causes and symptoms. This is of great value as dermatologists should be aware of patients' perceptions of their disease in order to improve patients' knowledge through educating more about different aspects of disease.

  12. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter.

  13. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  14. Animal Welfare: What's coming down the pipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern for farm animal welfare is not a new concept. However, increased public pressure and an increasingly entangled global economy are effecting change across the world. The conversation about farm animal welfare is difficult because the world’s population has become disconnected from agricultur...

  15. What Works in Education and Social Welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    -up professional strategy. It is subsequently reworked and launched into education and social welfare in moves that largely bypass professionals to serve policy-maker and market needs to enable evidence-based choices among public services. From this perspective, the author argues that education and social welfare...

  16. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  17. Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…

  18. Animal Welfare in organic framing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of farm animal welfare can, for practical purposes, be translated into the so-called Five Freedoms.[1] Organic farming aims to meet animal welfare needs and should therefore comply with these Freedoms. The first Freedom, from hunger and thirst, is met in any system properly managed to

  19. Nash social welfare in multiagent resource allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, S.; Endriss, U.; David, E.; Gerding, E.; Sarne, D.; Shehory, O.

    2010-01-01

    We study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and fairness

  20. The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

  1. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  2. Efficacy of corneal eye shields in protecting patients' eyes from laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, S W; Dinehart, S M; Davis, I; Flock, S T

    1996-07-01

    The continuing development of new types and applications of lasers has appeared to surpass the development of specific eye protection for these lasers. There are a variety of eye shields on the market, but few are specifically designed for laser protection. Our purpose was to test a variety of eye shields by two parameters, light transmission and temperature rise, and to determine from these measurements the most protective shield for patients. We tested four plastic shields, one metal shield, and two sets of tanning goggles for temperature rise and light transmission when irradiated with a beam from a flashlamp-pumped, pulsed-dye laser. The temperature rise at the surface of the shield opposite the laser impacts was no more than 0.2 degree C in any case. White light was transmitted at significant levels through several of the shields, but yellow light transmittance was noted only through the green eye shield. Our measurements indicate that all except the green shield appeared safe from transmission of the 585-nm radiant energy. However, the optimal laser eye shield, in our opinion, would be a composite of several different shields' characteristics.

  3. A protective screen for persons assisting in X-ray examination of children and patients with severe diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    To increase the radiation protection reliability when carrying out auxiliary actions by medical attendants or patient relatives during X-ray investigations of children and seriously ill patients, X-ray screen provided with self-installed supporting rolls, a window with secured lead glass and a hand port is suggested. A screen constructure is described. Using the screens improves the radiation protection of roentgenologist

  4. Protecting the privacy of individual general practice patient electronic records for geospatial epidemiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Konings, Paul; Hewett, Michael; Bagheri, Nasser; McRae, Ian; Del Fante, Peter

    2014-12-01

    General practitioner (GP) practices in Australia are increasingly storing patient information in electronic databases. These practice databases can be accessed by clinical audit software to generate reports that inform clinical or population health decision making and public health surveillance. Many audit software applications also have the capacity to generate de-identified patient unit record data. However, the de-identified nature of the extracted data means that these records often lack geographic information. Without spatial references, it is impossible to build maps reflecting the spatial distribution of patients with particular conditions and needs. Links to socioeconomic, demographic, environmental or other geographically based information are also not possible. In some cases, relatively coarse geographies such as postcode are available, but these are of limited use and researchers cannot undertake precision spatial analyses such as calculating travel times. We describe a method that allows researchers to implement meaningful mapping and spatial epidemiological analyses of practice level patient data while preserving privacy. This solution has been piloted in a diabetes risk research project in the patient population of a practice in Adelaide. The method offers researchers a powerful means of analysing geographic clinic data in a privacy-protected manner. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Internal dosimetry for the radiological protection of the patient in the therapy with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, G.M.; Rojo, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (CADIT) subjected to therapy with radiopharmaceuticals should be considered the possible risk of sharp depression of the bone marrow like consequence of the intolerance to the quantity of administered activity. The manifestation of the myelotoxicity can limit in a substantial way the future treatments and to deteriorate the predict of resolution of the illness. In this work it shows the physical-mathematical mark of a methodology for the estimated absorbed dose in bone marrow based in the MIRD scheme whose objective is to protect the one patient of the noxious and undesirable effects of the internal radiotherapy in organs that are not target of the same one. The formalism incorporates specific information of the patient and also peculiar characteristics of the internal therapy in patient with CADIT. The considerations are the following ones: (1) the main organ to protect is the bone marrow: (2) the accumulated activity, in bone marrow, it is obtained starting from measurements in blood: (3) the used isotope almost exclusively in this type of therapies is the 131 I; (4) it is used as radiopharmaceutical at the 131 INa that it is characterized to be a simple, inorganic and small molecule: (5) the statistical incidence of the CADIT is bigger in women than in men. It is explained for that it was selected the formalism that is presented, the principles on which it is sustained which are their reaches and their limitations. They are also presented future innovations that can be implemented to effects of improving the estimates. The work is framed inside the thematic of the medical applications of open radioactive sources and it constitutes a contribution to the invigoration of the internal therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. This is due to that the methodology of dose estimation presented supplements with a theoretical biophysics base the protocols of empiric prescription broadly used in this practice. For these reasons

  6. Trade liberalisation, resource sustainability and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    that even though liberalising trade in products supplied by such a fishery might cause steady-state welfare reductions in the supplier countries, these welfare reductions are small compared to the welfare gains from a hypothetical change to optimal management. Hence, the introduction of better fisheries......Recent research has warned that liberalising trade in capture fish products originating from inefficiently managed fisheries might cause over-exploitation, reduced fish stocks and thereby a reduced steady-state of welfare. This paper qualifies the warning in a case study of the East Baltic cod...... market by developing an age-structured bio-economic supply model combined with basic theory of trade between two countries. Welfare effects of trade liberalisation are identified taking fishing quotas, input limitations, mesh-size regulations and shared ownership of stocks into account. It is shown...

  7. The impact of renal protection clinics on prescription of and adherence to cardioprotective drug therapy in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeytre, Fanny; Cardinal, Héloise; Fradette, Lorraine; Verhave, Jacobien; Dorais, Marc; LeLorier, Jacques; Pichette, Vincent; Madore, François

    2017-06-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of follow-up in renal protection clinics on the prescription of and adherence to cardioprotective drugs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: We studied stage 4 and 5 CKD patients who initiated follow-up in three renal protection clinics. The prescription pattern of antihypertensive agents (AHA) and lipid-lowering agents (LLAs) was measured as the percentage of patients who are prescribed the agents of interest at a given time. Adherence to drug therapy was defined as the percentage of days, during a pre-defined observation period, in which patients have an on-hand supply of their prescribed medications. Results: A total of 259 CKD patients were enrolled and followed for up to 1 year after referral to renal protection clinics. There was a significant increase in the prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (34-39%), angiotensin II receptor blockers (11-14%), beta-blockers (40-51%), calcium channel blockers (62-74%), diuretics (66-78%) and LLAs (39-47%) during follow-up in the renal protection clinic compared with baseline (P-values protection clinics. Conclusion: Our results suggest that referral and follow-up in a renal protection clinic may increase the prescription of cardioprotective agents in CKD patients, but does not appear to improve adherence to these medications.

  8. A potential protective effect in multilingual patients with semantic dementia: two case reports of patients speaking Taiwanese and Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Chien; Yip, Ping-Keung; Fan, Yu-Ming; Meguro, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    Several reports have suggested that multilingualism has a protective effect against semantic dementia. Here, we provide further evidence for this effect. The patient was a 75-year-old right-handed Taiwanese woman who had retired after working as a tailor. She was able to speak Taiwanese, Japanese and Mandarin Chinese fluently until 5 years ago. She gradually developed symptoms of profound anomia and difficulty with word-finding. Her mother tongue was Taiwanese and she had learned Japanese as her first symbolized language. She had used Mandarin Chinese for most of her life, but depended on Japanese to read and write (such as reading a newspaper and keeping accounts). However, she could now speak only very simple Taiwanese and Japanese, and could recognize only simple Japanese characters. SECOND: The patient was a 62-year-old right-handed man who had worked as an ironworker. He could speak Taiwanese and Mandarin Chinese fluently until 5 years ago. His mother tongue was Taiwanese. After 5 years of language deterioration, he was unable to communicate with his family members or recognize any characters, including numbers. SPECT RESULTS: Brain perfusion ECD SPECT (Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography) showed less perfusion in the multilingual patient (Case #1) than in the bilingual patient (Case #2). Neuropsychological tests also demonstrated a slower rate of degeneration in the multilingual patient. We speculate that reading and writing in Japanese had a greater impact on the semantic system in Case #1. Thus, this patient showed relatively less degeneration or functional inactivity, as shown by perfusion in the frontal lobe, and this might be due to the persistent activation involved in multilingualism.

  9. Images of welfare in law and society: the British welfare state in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Designed by Beveridge and built by Attlee's post-war Labour government, the welfare state was created during the 1940s. Britain has been seen – in domestic debates and internationally – as a world first: the place where both the idea and the practice of the welfare state were invented. I draw together comparative welfare state analysis with law and society scholarship (previously largely developed in isolation from one another) – as well as using British political cartoons as a source – to develop a revisionist historical critique of this conventional wisdom. First, the British welfare state has always been comparatively parsimonious. Second, the idea of the welfare state seems to have its origins outside the United Kingdom and this terminology was adopted relatively late and with some ambivalence in public debate and scholarly analysis. Third, a large body of socio-legal scholarship shows that robust ‘welfare rights’ were never embedded in the British ‘welfare state’.

  10. Release of patients after radionuclide therapy. With contributions from the [International Commission on Radiological Protection] ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The use of unsealed radiopharmaceuticals for treatment of disease is common practice worldwide. This approach was widely employed some years ago and, following a decline, there has recently been a resurgence of interest in it. The combination of newly accessible radionuclides, improved labelling technology and developments in biotechnology has resulted in more enthusiasm and a wider range of applications for this form of therapy. Radionuclide treatments are performed with either the patient admitted to hospital or as an outpatient only. The criteria to determine which approach is best vary considerably, and are not always closely linked with the well established standards of radiation protection practice. Safety issues for the patient, their family, associated carers, staff and the general public arise with either approach. The potential risks are from both external irradiation and contamination. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) specify the dose constraints and limits for all of these groups, and their more general provisions with respect to the as low as reasonably achievable principle and justification also apply. One way of managing exposures of the various groups is to control when patients are released from hospital. While they are in hospital, it is relatively easy to control exposure. Once they have returned to their family in the community, they must be advised on how to restrict the exposure of those people that they will come into contact with. Until recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) did not provide specific advice in this area, and relied on the application of dose limits and constraints. However, regulators in some countries took a prescriptive approach, often using estimates of retained activity as a release criterion. These only loosely relate to dose limits. This publication attempts to bring newly available advice

  11. Perioperative erythropoietin protects the CNS against ischemic lesions in patients after open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakič, Nikola; Mrak, Miha; Šušteršič, Miha; Rakovec, Peter; Bunc, Matjaž

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish erythropoietin as a protective factor against brain ischemia during open heart surgery. A total of 36 consecutive patients scheduled for revascularization heart surgery were included in the study. Of the patients 18 received 3 intravenous doses of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo, 24,000 IU) and 18 patients received a placebo. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect new brain ischemic lesions was performed. Additionally, S100A, S100B, neuron-specific enolase A and B (NSE-A and B) and the concentration of antibodies against N‑methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) to identify new neurological complications were determined. Patients who received rHuEpo showed no postoperative ischemic changes in the brain on MRI images. In the control group 5 (27.8 %) new ischemic lesions were found. The NMDAR antibody concentration, S100A, S100B and NSE showed no significant differences between the groups for new cerebral ischemia. High levels of lactate before and after external aortic compression (p = 0.022 and p = 0.048, respectively) and duration of operation could predict new ischemic lesions (p = 0.009). The addition of rHuEpo reduced the formation of lesions detectable by MRI in the brain and could be used clinically as neuroprotection in cardiac surgery.

  12. Is serum Klotho protective against atherosclerosis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Nursen; Dogan, Burcu; Kalcik, Macit; Caliskan, Mustafa; Keles, Necibe Nur; Aksu, Feyza; Bulut, Mustafa; Kostek, Osman; Isbilen, Banu; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Oguz, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Klotho deficiency is associated with several metabolic disorders. Two dimensional (2D) longitudinal strain (LS) of left ventricle (LV), carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of brachial artery and epicardial fat thickness (EFT) have been reported to be early predictors of atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the relationship between serum Klotho levels and these early predictors of atherosclerosis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). The study included 45 type 1 diabetic patients and 35 controls. Serum Klotho levels were determined by ELISA method. The patient group was also divided into two subgroups according to serum Klotho levels: high (HK) and low Klotho (LK) groups. EFT, CIMT and FMD were measured according to appropriate recommendations. Speckle tracking analysis was performed using the Echopac software. The patient group had significantly lower serum Klotho (p=0.001), FMD (p1) and LS of LV (p1) values, but larger EFT (p1) and CIMT (p1) values than controls. LK subgroup had also significantly lower FMD (p1) and LS of LV (p1) but larger EFT (p=0.002) and CIMT (p1) values than HK subgroup. Serum Klotho may have a protective effect against atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction in type 1 DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protection Against Lung Cancer Patient Plasma-Induced Lymphocyte Suppression by Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study was conducted to determine the potential of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS in protection against lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocytes. Lung cancer is a major cause of disease and loss of life in the United States and worldwide. Cancer cells release immunosuppressive mediators, such as PGE2, TGF-β, IL-10, and VEGF, to inhibit the immune response to escape from immune surveillance. Gl-PS has been shown to counteract this immune inhibition in an animal cell culture model, and thus to facilitate tumor control. The present study explored whether or not such an effect could also be demonstrated in human lung cancer patients. Methods: Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, MTT, immunocytochemistry, and western blot analysis were used to assess lymphocyte activation with PHA. Results: The plasma of lung cancer patients suppressed proliferation, CD69 expression, and perforin and granzyme B production in lymphocytes upon activation by PHA, effects that were partially of fully reversed by Gl-PS. Conclusion: Lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocyte activation by phytohemagglutinin may be antagonized fully or partially by Gl-PS, an observation suggesting the potential of Gl-PS in cancer therapy.

  14. The Digital Society and Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Wilkinson, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The digital society has been announced and subconsequently, the digital welfare state. The digital society and the digital welfare state changes the provision of welfare services to the citizens as end-users. The article analyses how....

  15. Identifying the gaps: Armenian health care legislation and human rights in patient care protections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopunyan, Violeta; Krmoyan, Suren; Quinn, Ryan

    2013-12-12

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia has undergone an extensive legislative overhaul. Although a number of developments have aimed to improve the quality and accessibility of Armenia's health care system, a host of factors has prevented the country from fully introducing measures to ensure respect for human rights in patient care. In particular, inadequate health care financing continues to oblige patients to make both formal and informal payments to obtain basic medical care and services. More generally, a lack of oversight and monitoring mechanisms has obstructed the implementation of Armenia's commitments to human rights in several international agreements. Within the framework of a broader project on promoting human rights in patient care, research was carried out to examine Armenia’s health care legislation with the aim of identifying gaps in comparison with international and regional standards. This research was designed using the 14 rights enshrined in the European Charter on Patient Rights as guiding principles, along with domestic legal acts relevant to the rights of health care providers. The gaps analysis revealed numerous problems with Armenian legislation governing the relationships between stakeholders in health care service delivery. It also identified several practical inconsistencies with the international legal instruments ratified by the Armenian government. These legislative shortcomings are illustrated by highlighting key health-related rights violations experienced by patients and their health care providers, and by indicating opportunities for improved rights protections. A full list of human rights relevant to patient care and recommendations for promoting them in the Armenian context is provided in Tables 1 and 2. A number of initiatives must be undertaken in order to promote the full spectrum of human rights in patient care in Armenia. This section highlights certain recommendations flowing from the findings of

  16. Assessment of radiation protection of patients and staff in interventional procedures in four Algerian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelassi-Toutaoui, N.; Toutaoui, A.; Merad, A.; Sakhri-Brahimi, Z.; Baggoura, B.; Mansouri, B.

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess patient dosimetry in interventional cardiology (IC) and radiology (IR) and radiation safety of the medical operating staff. For this purpose, four major Algerian hospitals were investigated. The data collected cover radiation protection tools assigned to the operating staff and measured radiation doses to some selected patient populations. The analysis revealed that lead aprons are systematically worn by the staff but not lead eye glasses, and only a single personal monitoring badge is assigned to the operating staff. Measured doses to patients exhibited large variations in the maximum skin dose (MSD) and in the dose area product (DAP). The mean MSD registered values are as follows: 0.20, 0.14 and 1.28 Gy in endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedures, respectively. In PTCA, doses to 3 out of 22 patients (13.6 %) had even reached the threshold value of 2 Gy. The mean DAP recorded values are as follows: 21.6, 60.1 and 126 Gy cm 2 in ERCP, CA and PTCA procedures, respectively. Mean fluoroscopic times are 2.5, 5 and 15 min in ERCP, CA and PTCA procedures, respectively. The correlation between DAP and MSD is fair in CA (r = 0.62) and poor in PTCA (r = 0.28). Fluoroscopic time was moderately correlated with DAP in CA (r = 0.55) and PTCA (r = 0.61) procedures. Local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in CA and PTCA procedures have been proposed. In conclusion, this study stresses the need for a continuous patient dose monitoring in interventional procedures with a special emphasis in IC procedures. Common strategies must be undertaken to substantially reduce radiation doses to both patients and medical staff. (authors)

  17. Optimization of patient radiation protection in pelvic X-ray examination in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Eric K; Antwi, William K; Scutt, Diane N; Ward, Matt

    2012-07-05

    Pelvis X-ray examinations inevitably involve exposure of the gonads to ionizing radiation. In line with the principle of keeping doses as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), accurate patient dose measurement is vital if we are to ascertain that these exposures are fully optimized. The study aimed to provide patient dose estimates for pelvis examination being undertaken at 10 separate hospitals in Ghana in order to provide an initial quantitative indication of each site's typically achievable radiation safety and quality standards. The method employed was adapted from established methods and peer reviewed literature, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publications on optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing radiography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography examinations in some countries in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Dose measurements were calculated on 323 patients (137 (42%) male, 186 (58%) female, ages, 38.56 yr ± 9.0; range 20-68). The entrance surface dose (ESD) was determined by an indirect method, using the patient's anatomical data and exposure parameters utilized for the specific examination. The Quality Assurance Dose Database software (QADDs) developed by Integrated Radiological Services Ltd. in Liverpool, UK was used to generate the ESD values. The study identified variations in the technique factors used compared with the recommendations in the European Commission (EC) quality criteria. Eighty percent of the hospitals recorded lower ESD values below IAEA recommended diagnostic reference levels (10 mGy) and 40% of the hospitals exceeded the UK national reference value (4 mGy). However, one hospital consistently recorded higher ESDs than the other hospitals. The variations in the data recorded demonstrate the importance of creating awareness by the radiographic staff on quality assurance and standardization of protocols to ensure satisfactory standards and optimized radiation dose to patients and

  18. Training courses for radiological technicians: radiation protection of the patient and control of image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus Yoshimura, Elisabeth; Costa, Paulo Roberto; Furquim, Tania Aparecida; Freitas, Marcelo Baptista de; Valente, Marcelo; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2008-01-01

    Full text: As in other countries, life expectancy is increasing in Brazil, and the number of radiological examinations tends to increase. Old equipment and high technology ones cohabit, radiology technicians are not well prepared to conduct practices, images and doses to patients are not optimized. Digital techniques that began to be introduced in the last years are also an important issue, because, as it is possible to modify the image digitally, there is less concern about the choice of equipment parameters that produce the best-image/lowest-dose compromise. Pediatric radiology, CT and fluoroscopy require attention too, as they are of dosimetric interest or because the patient ages imply higher risks or because the techniques deliver higher doses than the conventional ones. In our opinion, the most important role that we can play is educating and forming people to work in this area: training programs and refreshing courses are a way of facing the problem. This way, we are organizing, in a technical cooperation with IAEA, two training courses in quality assurance and radiation protection in radiology, one designed to physicists (60 h), and the radiological technicians (40 h). An important cooperation with a paediatric and a general hospital made it possible to offer courses with 50% practical lessons, performed both in the University and in hospital equipment. Both courses cover a basic Radiation Physics program, radiation protection, image formation and quality control in conventional and digital equipment, and patient dosimetry. Equipment donated by IAEA facilitate the practical QA and dosimetry lessons. The rationale of our project is making it sustainable through the formation of physicists that will go on in the education process of technicians in technical schools. We present the results of the first two courses (physicists and technicians), considering the selection process, the development of the activities, and the assessment both of the students enrolled

  19. Policing Welfare: Risk, Gender and Criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarlet Wilcock

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, welfare states across the West have embraced a host of new technologies and initiatives in the name of fighting welfare abuse and fraud (see Cook 1989, 2006; Wacquant 2001, 2009. Increasingly, these practices of ‘welfare policing’ are graduated according to risk; particular welfare populations considered at greater risk of welfare fraud are subject to more intense scrutiny. Drawing on interview research with compliance staff from the Australian Department of Human Services, this paper critically explores how the rationality of risk figures in the process of welfare surveillance in Australia. It pays particular attention to the ways in which risk formulations are embedded in gender and class politics, and how this has led to the characterisation of single mothers and unemployed recipients as more ‘risky’ than the general welfare population, a point that is often overlooked in the literature. But, far from being immutable, this paper also considers how the politics of risk are open to reformulation with often unexpected results.

  20. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  1. Practice of hand hygiene and use of protective gloves: Differences in the perception between patients and medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałaszek, Marta; Kołpa, Małgorzata; Różańska, Anna; Wolak, Zdzisław; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga

    2018-03-13

    This study investigated differences in perceptions of hand hygiene and protective glove use among patients and health care workers (HCWs) in Poland. We conducted a survey using an original questionnaire among 462 respondents, including 173 (37.4%) patients and 289 (62.6%) HCWs; HCWs demonstrated poor familiarity with the My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene. The role of protective gloves in preventing health care-associated infection was overestimated by both patients and HCWs. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of patient protection using rare earth screen in conventional imaging procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkoom, S.; Schandorf, C.; Fletcher, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize patient protection using rare earth screen of speed 400 in place of conventional screen-film of speed 200. The entrance surface dose (ESD) for the two screen-film systems was determined for patients undergoing simple radiographic examinations (chest, lumbar spine and pelvis series). The determination of the ESD included backscatter factors. The ESD was the optimizing parameter and its trade off with the image quality assessment, which was surveyed based on the information obtained through standardized questionnaire. The estimated ESDs were compared with reference levels set by the Community of European Commission (CEC) for a standard adult patient. For chest PA, ESD estimates were lower than the CEC reference levels whilst that of lumbar spine AP and LAT and pelvis AP were high. Upon the adoption of rare earth screen of speed 400, a dose reduction of 33% for chest, 17% for lumbar spine and 28% for pelvis examinations was achieved. From the observations made from this study, some corrective actions such as equipment quality control of parameters that affect patient dose and image quality like kVp accuracy and consistency, mAs accuracy and consistency, optimal film processing conditions, regular film reject analysis to detect and minimize the root causes and contributory factors to poor image quality and periodic training of staff on dose reduction techniques must be undertaken. Regular assessment of patient dose and image quality, equipment quality control, adoption of faster rare earth screens and optimum radiographic technique are therefore recommended in order to achieve optimization goals. (author)

  3. The Protection of Animals in Thailand--An Insight into Animal Protection Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Dorloh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many critics of current Thai law concerning the welfare of animals. They argue that the PACPAWA,2014 is inadequate to protect the welfare of animals. The absence of clear guidelines in the legislation concerning animal welfare has resulted in animal welfare receiving inadequate protection. There are other limitations contributing to the inadequacy of existing laws in protecting animals in Thailand. The possible penalties are very low. For the offence of cruelty against an animal, the PACPAWA,2014 sets a maximum fine of TBH 2000. This is considered inadequate and ineffective in preventing cruelty to animals. The study utilises doctrinal legal research or library-based research approach to provide valuable insights in understanding the law and and ascertaining the principles of legal interpretation and analysis. The study also provides possible suggestions to enhance the protection of the welfare of animals in Thailand. The research suggests that education should play an important role in promoting kindness towards animals.

  4. Percutaneous renal angioplasty and stenting: application of embolic protection device in patients with normal renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Xiaoqiang; Yang Ming; Wang Jian; Song Li; Wang Chao; Lv Yongxing; Sun Hongliang; Zou Yinghua; Yin Ming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the Value of embolic protection device (EPD)in renal artery stenting (RAS)for the patients with normal renal function. Methods: Total 24 patients (26 renal arteries) suffering from renal artery stenosis with normal serum creatinine were divided into two groups: EPD group (n12)and non-EPD group (n=12). Serum creatinine was calculated and analized statistically between the two groups, 1 month and 6months after stenting respectively, and followed by comparisons taking inside of each group and between both groups. Results: Serum creatinine of the EPD and non-EPD groups before, 1 month and 6 month after stenting were(99.18 ± 18.26) μmol/L, (101.73 ± 12.65) μmol/L, (96.82 ± 15.81) μmol/L and (100.18 ± 19.81) μmol/L, (107.36 ± 29.49) μmol/L, (127.64 ± 88.05) μmol/L, respectively; showing no significant difference inside each group individually (P>0.05), and also no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: For the patients suffering from renal artery stenosis with normal serum creatinine, application of EPD may have no impact on renal function. Further evaluation is needed. (authors)

  5. Study on Difrarel protecting dark adaptation function in the patients with diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hui

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the change in full-field electroretinogram(ERGin patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRafter panretinal photocoagulation(PRP2d and 2mo, and evaluate the effects of Difrarel protecting dark adaptation function. METHODS: Fifty-five cases with NPDR were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group.Both groups were treated with panretinal photocoagulation.Difrarel tablets was added in the observation group,and Vitamin B was added in the control group. We administered these drugs to the patients for 2mo continuously and the changes in ERG were observed after 2d and 2mo treatment. The amplitude of wave b(bA, and the peak time of wave b(bTwere observed and the data were treated statistically with SPSS 20.0 and test t in pairs. RESULTS: The bT of the two groups before and at 2mo treatment had no difference inner group or inter-group(P>0.05. But there was obvious difference in bA of control group at 2mo after treatment compared with before treatment(PPCONCLUSION: The function of each layer of PDR's retina has been damaged obviously and cannot get well after PRP. The patients with diabetic retinopathy combined with Difrarel tablets and PRP can better restore vision and improve the dark adaptation function.

  6. Radiological protection in a patient during a total body irradiation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez O, J. O.; Hinojosa G, J.; Gomez M, E.; Balam de la Vega, J. A.; Deheza V, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    A technique used in the Service of Radiotherapy of the Cancer Center of the American British Cowdray Medical Center (ABC) for the bone marrow transplantation, is the total body irradiation. It is known that the dose calculation, for this irradiation type, is old, since the dosimetric calculation is carried out by hand and they exist infinity of techniques for the patients irradiation and different forms of protecting organs of risk, as well as a great uncertainty in the given dose. In the Cancer Center of the ABC Medical Center, was carried out an irradiation procedure to total body with the following methodology: Computerized tomography of the patient total body (two vacuum mattresses in the following positions: dorsal and lateral decubitus), where is combined the two treatment techniques anterior-posterior and bilateral, skin delineate and reference volumes, dose calculation with the planning system Xi O of CMS, dose determination using an ionization chamber and a lung phantom IMRT Thorax Phantom of the mark CIRS and dosimetry in vivo. In this work is presented the used treatment technique, the results, statistics and the actualization of the patient clinical state. (Author)

  7. Effective personal protective clothing for health care workers attending patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas K S; Chung, Joanne W Y; Li, Y; Chan, Wai F; Ching, Patricia T Y; Lam, Conita H S; Chow, Chun B; Seto, Wing H

    2004-04-01

    Optimal usability is crucial in providing protection for health care workers who are exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome day and night while taking care of patients with the virus. No research study has yet tested the usability of personal protective clothing (PPC). The study was carried out in 3 stages. PPC available in Hong Kong were sorted by their physical properties in the first stage. The second stage was a single-blinded study examining the different usability aspects of the PPC. The third stage was a simulated viral load test. Four types were identified: good water repellency and water resistance, poor air permeability (Type A PPC); good water repellency and air permeability, poor water resistance (Type B PPC); poor water repellency, poor water resistance, and fair air permeability (Type C PPC); and good water repellency, poor air permeability, and fair water resistance (Type D PPC). Type D PPC had a significantly higher number of contamination sites on the subjects' dorsum and palm. Type C PPC had the highest contamination over the trunk. Findings in the viral load test showed that there was a significant difference in the contamination of the face (t=4.69, df=38, Phand contamination is lowest among the 4 groups in the current study.

  8. The patient's radiological protection in medical practices: Legal support in the Cuban legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, I.; Duran Delgado, M.

    2001-01-01

    Peaceful applications of nuclear energy have a great importance in medical practice, for their use in diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. The possibility to detect diseases and the use of radiation as a palliative or curative method, enables the use of such polemic energy. Practices associated with the use of ionizing radiation are under regulatory control, and in this regard it becomes necessary to prescribe a series of administrative requirements aimed at granting the corresponding authorization, once it has been demonstrated that the technical requirements that ensure the safe performance of the practice, without undue risk on life, goods and environment, are met. This includes the protection of any patient who could be under treatment, who is considered the main user of this application. (author)

  9. Global view on the radiological protection of patients: PAHO position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), founded in 1902, initiated a radiological health programme in the 1950s. Within this programme, there are currently three lines of work: (a) radiology services; (b) radiation safety; and (c) radiological emergencies. Radiology services deals with health services for diagnostic and interventional imaging, and for radiation therapy. Radiation safety studies the three types of exposures to both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation: occupational; medical; and public. Radiological emergencies involve radioactive waste management programmes and emergency plans. The radiological protection of patients is addressed in each of these areas: (a) when analysing the infrastructure of radiology services; and (b) when determining medical exposures; and (c) when investigating overexposures in interventional or therapeutic procedures or under-doses in radiation therapy. (author)

  10. Post-acute care and vertical integration after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Patrick D; Mick, Stephen S

    2013-01-01

    The anticipated changes resulting from the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act-including the proposed adoption of bundled payment systems and the promotion of accountable care organizations-have generated considerable controversy as U.S. healthcare industry observers debate whether such changes will motivate vertical integration activity. Using examples of accountable care organizations and bundled payment systems in the American post-acute healthcare sector, this article applies economic and sociological perspectives from organization theory to predict that as acute care organizations vary in the degree to which they experience environmental uncertainty, asset specificity, and network embeddedness, their motivation to integrate post-acute care services will also vary, resulting in a spectrum of integrative behavior.

  11. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - The Role of the School Nurse: Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation’s students within the health care system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This law presents an opportunity to transform the health care system through three primary goals: expanding access, improving quality, and reducing cost (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010). School nurses stand at the forefront of this system change and continue to provide evidence-based, quality interventions and preventive care that, according to recent studies, actually save health care dollars (Wang et al., 2014). NASN supports the concept that school nursing services receive the same financial parity as other health care providers to improve overall health outcomes, including insurance reimbursement for services provided to students.

  12. The patient's radiological protection in medical practices, legal support in the cuban legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, Ivonne; Duran Delgado, Marlen

    2005-01-01

    Peaceful applications of nuclear energy have a great importance in medical practice, for their use in diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. The possibility to detect diseases and the use of radiation as a palliative or curative method, ennobles the use of such polemic energy. Practices associated with the use of ionizing radiation are under regulatory control, and in this regard it becomes necessary to prescribe a series of administrative requirements aimed at granting the corresponding authorization, once it has been demonstrated that the technical requirements that ensure the safe performance of the practice, without undue risk on life, goods and environment are met. This includes the protection of any patient who could be under treatment, who is considered the main user of this application

  13. Cultural buffering as a protective factor against electronic cigarette use among Hispanic emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Nok; Goldenson, Nicholas I; Burner, Elizabeth; Unger, Jennifer B

    2016-12-01

    Hispanics in the U.S. historically use tobacco at lower rates than other racial and ethnic groups. Cultural buffering, the process by which aspects of traditional Hispanic culture delay the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, is believed to be a protective factor against tobacco use. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a new tobacco product that have not been extensively studied, and it is unknown if cultural factors that protect against tobacco use will buffer against e-cigarette use among the Hispanic population. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the emergency department (ED) in a safety-net hospital in 2014. Patients visiting the ED participated in a survey assessing demographics and substance use. Cultural buffering was operationalized as participants' primary language spoken at home. Multivariate logistic regression and generalized estimating equations examined the association between Hispanic cultural buffering and e-cigarette ever-use. Of the 1476 Hispanic ED patients (age: 46.6M±14.5SD, 49.3% male), 7.6% reported e-cigarette ever-use and 11.1% reported current combustible cigarette use. In adjusted models, Spanish speakers were half as likely to report e-cigarette ever-use (O.R.: 0.54, 95% C.I.: 0.34-0.84, p=0.007), compared with English speakers. Combustible cigarette use remained the most significant factor associated with e-cigarette ever-use (O.R.: 9.28, 95% C.I.:7.44-11.56, pcigarette ever-use at higher rates than Spanish speakers (28.2% vs. 5.9%, pcigarette ever-use, especially in higher-income neighborhoods. These results support research on culturally-sensitive prevention programs for new and emerging tobacco products in Hispanic communities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Radiation risk and protection of patients in clinical SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, Gunnar; Nekolla, Elke A.; Nosske, Dietmar [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Borowski, Markus [Klinikum Braunschweig, Institute of Radiation Diagnostics and Nuclear Medicine, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that hybrid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT for various diagnostic issues has an added value as compared to SPECT alone. However, the combined acquisition of functional and anatomical images can substantially increase radiation exposure to patients, in particular when using a hybrid system with diagnostic CT capabilities. It is, therefore, essential to carefully balance the diagnostic needs and radiation protection requirements. To this end, the evidence on health effects induced by ionizing radiation is outlined. In addition, the essential concepts for estimating radiation doses and lifetime attributable cancer risks associated with SPECT/CT examinations are presented taking into account both the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as the most recent radiation risk models. Representative values of effective dose and lifetime attributable risk are reported for ten frequently used SPECT radiopharmaceuticals and five fully diagnostic partial-body CT examinations. A diagnostic CT scan acquired as part of a combined SPECT/CT examination contributes considerably to, and for some applications even dominates, the total patient exposure. For the common SPECT and CT examinations considered in this study, the lifetime attributable risk of developing a radiation-related cancer is less than 0.27 %/0.37 % for men/women older than 16 years, respectively, and decreases markedly with increasing age at exposure. Since there is no clinical indication for a SPECT/CT examination unless an emission scan has been indicated, the issue on justification comes down to the question of whether it is necessary to additionally acquire a low-dose CT for attenuation correction and anatomical localization of tracer uptake or even a fully diagnostic CT. In any case, SPECT/CT studies have to be optimized, e.g. by adapting dose reduction measures from state-of-the-art CT practice, and

  15. Patient rights protection in the Czech Republic: challenges of a transition from Communism to a modern legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, O

    2007-03-01

    The post-Communist countries in Central Europe, including the Czech Republic, underwent a rapid transformation of their legal systems, within which the concept of patient rights passed through revolutionary changes. This process however often left significant gaps in patient rights protection. There are practical difficulties for patients in defending their rights before the courts, such as problems with obtaining evidence and independent expert opinions, long delays and high costs of court proceedings, strict burden of proof rules and low compensation levels. Modern patient rights often collide with the systems of health care provision that are still unprepared for patient autonomy and responsibility. The experience gained in the transition process might be applicable also to other countries that undergo changes from traditional to modern system of patient rights protection.

  16. Texas passes first law for safe patient handling in America: landmark legislation protects health-care workers and patients from injury related to manual patient lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mary Anne

    2005-01-01

    compensation costs. Because the health-care industry has relied on people to do the work of machines, nursing work remains the most dangerous occupation for disabling back injury. Back injury from patient lifting may be the single largest contributor to the nursing shortage, with perhaps 12% of nurses leaving or being terminated because of back injury. The US health-care industry has not kept pace with other industries, which provide mechanical lift equipment for lifting loads equivalent to the weight of patients, or with other countries, such as Australia and England, which are more advanced in their use of modern technology for patient lifting and with no-lifting practices in compliance with government regulations and nursing policies banning manual lifting. With Texas being the first state to succeed in passing legislation for safe patient handling, other states are working toward legislative protection against injury with manual patient lifting. California re-introduced safe patient handling legislation on February 17, 2005, with CA SB 363, Hospitals: Lift Teams, following the September 22, 2004, veto of CA AB 2532 by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who said he believes existing statutory protection and workplace safety standards are sufficient to protect health care workers from injury. Massachusetts HB 2662, Relating to Safe Patient Handling in Certain Health Facilities, was introduced December 1, 2004. Ohio HB 67, signed March 21, 2005 by Governor Bob Taft (R), creates a program for interest-free loans to nursing homes for implementation of a no-manual-lift program. New York companion bills AB 7641 and SB 4029 were introduced in April, 2005, calling for creation of a 2-year study to establish safe patient handling programs and collect data on nursing staff and patient injury with manual patient handling versus lift equipment, to determine best practices for improving health and safety of health-care workers and patients during patient handling. Washington State is

  17. The politics of welfare state retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Welfare state retrenchment is widely seen as a highly unpopular endeavour and, therefore, as politically difficult to pursue. This assumption has underpinned most of the political science research on this issue, notably Paul Pierson's seminal contributions about the 'new politics of the welfare...... state'. Yet, the question remains why and under what circumstances cutbacks take place in highly developed welfare states despite these formidable political obstacles. This article reviews the literature on the politics of retrenchment, namely on the impact of socio-economic problem pressure, political...... parties, political institutions, welfare state structures and ideas. Most authors agree that socio-economic problems - particularly domestic problems - contribute to an atmosphere of 'permanent austerity' which inspires cutbacks. Moreover, according to most scholars, the extent of retrenchment possible...

  18. Disability and the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A higher proportion of working- age persons receive disability assistance in the Nordic countries and the Netherlands than in other European countries. Whereas current research emphasizes the connection between disability assistance and rates of labor force exit, to date there has been no exploration of how welfare state context influences individual self-reported disability. Using nationally representative data from 15 countries (n = 88, 478, I find that residents of generous welfare states are significantly more likely to report a disability net of self-reported health, sociodemographic, and labor force characteristics and, notably, that this association extends to younger and more educated workers. I argue that welfare state context may directly shape what it means to be disabled, which may have consequences for evaluations of welfare state performance and social exclusion.

  19. Taxation and Welfare: A Revision Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Offers a revision exercise intended to remind students of some economic terminology associated with taxation and welfare. Provides a set of definitions for which students are to supply matching terms. Includes an answer list and suggests related exercises. (SG)

  20. 37 Subjective Welfarism, Communitarian Paternalism and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi Ezenwa-Ohaeto

    debate between the advocates of liberal welfarism and ... Once the first step is taken towards the emergence of the state, ... power once this division of power or collaboration of ..... compromise the existence of future generation yet unborn.

  1. The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Marc F.

    1979-01-01

    While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

  2. 77 FR 895 - Tribal Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... note that for title IV-E funding purposes, criminal record and child abuse and neglect registry checks... Administration for Children and Families 45 CFR Parts 1355 and 1356 Tribal Child Welfare; Interim Final Rule #0... 896

  3. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  4. Major welfare issues in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Guemene, D.

    2011-01-01

    Under current practices, broiler parent stock (broiler breeders) encounter several welfare problems, such as feed restriction and injury during mating. Intensive selection for production traits, especially growth rate, is associated with increased nutritious requirement and thus feed consumption,

  5. Dynamic activity of NF-κB in multiple trauma patients and protective effects of ulinastain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the dynamic activity of NF-κB at the early stage of injury in multiple trauma patients and the protective effects of ulinastain. Methods: From January 2008 to May 2010, patients with multiple traumas admitted to our emergency department were enrolled in this study. Their age varied from 20-55 years. All enrolled patients were assigned randomly into control group (26 cases of multiple injury without ulinastain treatment, ulinastain group (25 cases of multiple injury with ulinastain treatment, and mild injury group (20 cases for basic control. The inclusion criteria for mild injury group were AIS-2005≤3, single wound, previously healthy inhospital patients without the history of surgical intervention. In addition to routine treatment, patients in ulinastain group were intravenously injected 200 000 IU of ulinastain dissolved in 100 ml of normal saline within 12 hours after injury and subsequently injected at the interval of every 8 hours for 7 days. NF-κB activity in monocytes and the level of TNF? IL-1, IL? in serum on admission (day 0, day 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 were measured. Data were compared and analyzed between different groups. Results: NF-κB activity in monocytes and TNF? IL-1 and IL? of these patients reached peak levels at 24 hour after trauma, with gradual decrease to normal at 72 hour after trauma. NF-κB activity and levels of TNF? IL-1 and IL? were lower in ulinastain group than control one, without any significant difference between the two groups. The mean duration for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome was 7 d?.1 d and 10 d?.5 d in ulinastain group and control group respectively, and showed a significant difference. Conclusions: NF-κB activity in monocytes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in multiply injured patients increased transiently at the early stage of trauma. Ulinastain may shorten the duration of systemic inflammatory

  6. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  7. Market Integration, Choice of Technology and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2010-01-01

    technologies. Market integration may induce a technological restructuring where firms either diversify their technologies or switch to a homogeneous technology. In general, market integration improves welfare. However, a small decrease of trade costs which induces a switch from heterogeneous technologies...... to a homogeneous technology may locally reduce global welfare. The model also shows that productivity differences lead to intra-industry firm heterogeneity in size and exports similar to the "new-new" trade models with monopolistic competition....

  8. Water and the Welfare of Farm Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Von Keyserlingk, Marina A.G.; Phillips, Clive J.C.; Nielsen, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Provision of adequate water supplies is essential for the welfare of farmanimals. Water forms the largest component of an animal's body and is an essentialnutrient required for all biological functions, including temperature regulation, digestion, foetal development, and production. This essential nutrient can only be restricted for short periods of time. Water deprivation results in substantial welfare concerns, as it can hinder biological functioning, and has been associated withmorbidity a...

  9. Welfare improving barter in imperfect competition

    OpenAIRE

    CRESTI, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers a rationale for the development of the barter industry in industrialized economies. It argues that, in a context of imperfect competition, barter represents a profitable and efficient system of exchange. Thanks to barter, even if already at the optimum, a monopolist can still reduce the production costs and thus increase profits. Moreover, by adopting a barter strategy, he also improves social welfare, as he raises total output and decreases market price. Social welfare impr...

  10. Work culture and migrant women's welfare marginalization

    OpenAIRE

    Psimmenos, Iordanis

    2007-01-01

    Central to this paper is the relationship between work and welfare marginalization ofmigrant women domestic workers. Based upon the findings of a recent (2005-2007)research study on Albanian and Ukrainian domestic workers’ access to socialinsurance, medical and children’s care (i.e. nurseries, kindergartens), the paper claimsthat welfare barriers are constituted around lack of resources, discriminations as well asconditions and values at work.At the highest level of generality, paid domestic ...

  11. The Legal Nature of Informed Consent from the Perspective of the Spanish and Brasilian Models of Patient Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éfren Paulo Porfirio de Sá Lima

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presented makes a bibliographical and jurisprudential revision about the juridical nature of informed consent and its respective suitability in the selected list of fundamental rights, through the comparative study of the Brazilian and Spanish models of patient protection. The goal is to demonstrate that the informed consent doesn’t directly constitute a fundamental right in both juridical systems analyzed and that the informed consent protects, essentially, freedom and self-determination in health.

  12. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  13. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contemporary Welfare Regimes in Baltic States: Adapting Post-Communist Conditions to Post-Modern Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Toots

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article revises the conventional approach to welfare state development in the post-communist world, according to which the main challenge for the Eastern European states is to catch up with Western European welfare regimes. The article argues that adjustment to the new social risks and volatile markets is more important today than the catching-up scenario. Based on social and labour market statistics for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the article analyses how the Baltic States are coping with this adjustment challenge. Adaptation to the post-modern conditions can be regarded as successful if the stability of welfare spending is accompanied by the expanding and flexible employment and by the stable or decreasing level of poverty. The findings suggest that the opportunities to increase the flexibility and equality of the labour market provided by the breakdown of the communist regime were not used. Instead, the Baltic welfare states continue to focus on protecting against the old social risks by combining neoliberal and post-communist principles. Poor performance in meeting new social risks poses a greater challenge for the post-communist welfare states than their lag in terms of gross welfare expenditure.

  15. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social....... The restructuring of mature Western welfare states thus accounts for changing patterns of political behaviour as a consequence of policy feedback....

  16. Blowing the whistle to protect a patient: a comparison between physiotherapy students and physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, Abraham; Melzer, Itzik; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2012-12-01

    To answer three questions: Are physiotherapists and physiotherapy students willing to take action to prevent misconduct in order to protect a patient's interests? Are they willing to report the misconduct to authorities within an organisation and/or outside of it? Are they willing to report a colleague's wrongdoing as well as that of a manager? Observational questionnaire study. Two hundred and twenty-seven participants divided into two groups: 126 undergraduate students at the Department of Physical Therapy at Ben Gurion University, and 101 certified physiotherapists working in hospitals and rehabilitation centres in south and central regions of Israel. Participants were presented with two vignettes - one describing a colleague's misconduct and the other describing a manager's misconduct - and asked to make a decision about whistleblowing. Both groups rated their own willingness to take action to change the harmful situations very highly. The physiotherapists perceived a colleague's misconduct as being more serious than the students, and were more willing to intervene internally. The students were more prepared than the physiotherapists to take such action externally. The students perceived the manager's misconduct as being more serious than the physiotherapists, and also reported a greater readiness to intervene externally. Physiotherapists consider acts that are detrimental to a patient to be very serious, and are more willing to take action when the offending individual is a colleague. Students are more willing to blow the whistle externally. This article suggests tools for handling similar situations. Copyright © 2011 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective mechanisms against oxidative stress and angiopathy in young patients with diabetes type 1 (DM1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumani, Nikolitsa; Partsalaki, Ioanna; Lamari, Fotini; Dettoraki, Athina; Gil, Andrea Paola Rojas; Karvela, Alexia; Kostopoulou, Eirini; Spiliotis, Bessie E

    2013-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) via their receptor, RAGE, are involved in diabetic angiopathy. Soluble RAGE, an inhibitor of this axis, is formed by enzymatic catalysis (sRAGE) or alternative splicing (esRAGE). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is an oxidative stress marker, and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) is an anti-oxidant capacity marker. In isolated mononuclear blood cells from 110 DM1-patients (P) and 124 controls (C) (4-29 years) RAGE mRNA (g) and protein expression (pe) were measured by RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting, respectively. Plasma levels of CML (AGEs) and sRAGE were measured by ELISA, MDA by flurometry and FRAP according to 'Benzie and Strain'. P showed: (i) higher g of RAGE, especially in p>13 years of age and >5 years DM1, (ii) increased pe of esRAGE in DM1>5 years and (iii) increased FRAP and MDA. The increased esRAGE and FRAP with increased levels of CML and MDA possibly reflects a protective response against the formation of diabetic complications in these young diabetic patients.

  18. Patient and population protection in X-ray examinations -a general roentgenological and health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhidekov, G.; Dermendzhiev, Kh.

    1975-01-01

    Population exposure in excess of that due to natural radiation background is known to result primarily (to 70-90%) from medical X-rays given in mass screening. Protection of the population is a problem of great concern in present-day radiology and is approached by balancing benefits of diagnostic X-rays against risks presented by the probability of overexposing the patient. An evaluation on such a basis necessitates detailed and accurate information on patient radiation exposure and takes into account factors leading to a population hazard by making assessments in terms of so-called genetically significant doses. Gonad doses have to be carefully analysed, implying a need for studies of various types of X-ray procedures, precautionary measures taken, etc. An important issue in the choice and adoption of an appropriate method for large-scale gonad dose assessments in routine practice. To obtain an estimate of radiation hazard from medical roentgenology in terms of genetically significant doses and identify measures necessary to limit exposure risks, collaborative efforts are needed involving participation of roentgenologists and hygienists, and use of dosimetric, organizational-methodological, and statistical techniques. These efforts should lead to an abrupt reduction in radiation burden to the population from diagnostic X-rays. (author)

  19. Psoriasis Patients Are Enriched for Genetic Variants That Protect against HIV-1 Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoyan; Hayashi, Genki; Lai, Olivia Y.; Dilthey, Alexander; Kuebler, Peter J.; Wong, Tami V.; Martin, Maureen P.; Fernandez Vina, Marcelo A.; McVean, Gil; Wabl, Matthias; Leslie, Kieron S.; Maurer, Toby; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; Carrington, Mary; Bowcock, Anne M.; Nixon, Douglas F.; Liao, Wilson

    2012-01-01

    An important paradigm in evolutionary genetics is that of a delicate balance between genetic variants that favorably boost host control of infection but which may unfavorably increase susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Here, we investigated whether patients with psoriasis, a common immune-mediated disease of the skin, are enriched for genetic variants that limit the ability of HIV-1 virus to replicate after infection. We analyzed the HLA class I and class II alleles of 1,727 Caucasian psoriasis cases and 3,581 controls and found that psoriasis patients are significantly more likely than controls to have gene variants that are protective against HIV-1 disease. This includes several HLA class I alleles associated with HIV-1 control; amino acid residues at HLA-B positions 67, 70, and 97 that mediate HIV-1 peptide binding; and the deletion polymorphism rs67384697 associated with high surface expression of HLA-C. We also found that the compound genotype KIR3DS1 plus HLA-B Bw4-80I, which respectively encode a natural killer cell activating receptor and its putative ligand, significantly increased psoriasis susceptibility. This compound genotype has also been associated with delay of progression to AIDS. Together, our results suggest that genetic variants that contribute to anti-viral immunity may predispose to the development of psoriasis. PMID:22577363

  20. Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Radiotherapy. Advances and Challenges in Radiation Protection of Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in medicine has led to major improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. While bringing new benefits for cancer treatment, modern radiotherapy also poses new challenges in terms of radiation protection of patients. Prevention of radiotherapy incidents and accidents is a major issue in this area. In December 2009, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) organised the 1. international conference on radiation protection of patients in radiotherapy. The major objective of the conference was to provide a platform for exchanging experience, and reviewing the actions implemented to improve the radiation safety in radiotherapy both at national and international level. The expected result was: - to reach a consensus about the necessity to strengthen existing international actions for prevention of incidents and accidents, - to set up an international cooperation to improve management for overexposed patients, - to outline a strategy for strengthening regulation, - to contribute to the elaboration of an international scale to rate patient related events for communication and reporting purpose. 360 delegates from 50 countries across the world participated at the 3-day conference. 41 presentations were made and 67 posters were displayed. The conference brought together a broad spectrum of expertise: scientists, health professionals, medical devices manufacturers, risk management specialists, radiation protection experts, representatives from Radiation Protection and Health Authorities as well as patient's associations. The programme covered both scientific and medical issues, such as patient sensitivity to ionising radiation and the treatment of complications. It also provided scope to discuss the benefits and risks of modern radiotherapy and to explore treatment safety issues from various perspectives, including human resources, expertise, education and training along with control and prevention strategies. The conference

  1. Caseworkers' and Supervisors' Perceptions of Ohio's Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochis, Shelia P.

    2013-01-01

    Children represent the future of mankind and their safety, well-being, and permanency are goals of the Department of Health and Human Services. The Department of Health and Human Services is the primary funding source for child welfare and protection in the United States; their requirements, rules, and laws must be upheld and understood by every…

  2. Development of nuclear medicine techniques - radiation protection issues for patients; Evolution des techniques en medecine nucleaire - Enjeux de radioprotection pour les patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchandise, Xavier [Faculte de Medecine de Lille, F-59045 Lille Cedex (France)

    2011-07-15

    Nuclear medicine uses radioactive isotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The radiation protection culture is now well-anchored in the training of nuclear medicine specialists in France and must remain at the highest possible level. However, practices change and the immediate medical - or even media - interest in new equipment and new tracers must not obscure the fundamentals of patient radiation protection. Particular vigilance is today required with regard to two aspects: - children; - the corresponding computed tomography. (author)

  3. One more brick in the wall of protective ventilation in surgical patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Roberto Rabello; Serpa Neto, Ary

    2015-01-01

    On June 14, 2015, Ladha and colleagues published an article in the BMJ entitled "Intraoperative protective mechanical ventilation and risk of postoperative respiratory complications: hospital based registry study", which investigated the effects of intraoperative protective ventilation on major

  4. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the...

  5. Operational welfare indicators (OWI) in rainbow trout farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    A number of welfare parameters are defined in order to create tools for the future management of welfare in farmed fish......A number of welfare parameters are defined in order to create tools for the future management of welfare in farmed fish...

  6. How should death be taken into account in welfare assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2017-01-01

    That death is not a welfare issue appears to be a widespread view among animal welfare researchers. This paper demonstrates that this view is based on a mistaken assumption about harm, which is coupled to ‘welfare’ being conceived as ‘welfare at a time’. Assessments of welfare at a time ignore is...

  7. How should death be taken into account in welfare assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2016-01-01

    It appears to be a widespread view among animal welfare researchers that death is not a welfare issue. This paper demonstrates that this view is based on the mistaken assumption that welfare assessment is absolute, which moreover is coupled with the assumption that ‘welfare’ means ‘welfare...... at a time’. It also demonstrates that to exclude the welfare issues of being deprived of life from the ethical assessment of killing distorts the ethical considerations. In order to assess the welfare issues of death, it is necessary to structure welfare assessment as comparisons of possible whole lives...

  8. Protective factors in patients aged over 65 with stroke treated by physiotherapy, showing cognitive impairment, in the Valencia Community. Protection Study in Older People (EPACV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-Guillen Vicente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family function may have an influence on the mental health deterioration of the caregivers of dependent family members and it could have a varying importance on the care of dependents. Little attention has been paid to the preparation of minor stroke survivors for the recovery trajectory or the spouse for the caregiving role. Therefore, this study protocol intends to analyze the influence of family function on the protection of patients with stroke sequels needing physiotherapy in the family environment. Methods/Design This is an analytical observational design, prospective cohort study and using a qualitative methodology by means of data collected in the “interviews of life”. The study will be carried out by the Rehabilitation Service at Hospital of Elda in the Valencia Community. All patients that have been diagnosed with stroke and need physiotherapy treatment, having a dependency grade assigned and consent to participate in the study, will undergo a monitoring of one year in order to assess the predictive factors depending on the dependence of the people affected. Discussion Our research aims to analyze the perception of caregivers, their difficulties to work, and the influence of family function. Moreover, it aims to register the perception of the patients with stroke sequel over the care received and whether they feel protected in their family environment.

  9. 22 CFR 71.1 - Protection of Americans abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ESTATES PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF CITIZENS AND THEIR PROPERTY General Activities § 71.1 Protection of Americans abroad. Officers of the Foreign Service shall perform such duties in connection with the...

  10. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - Can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the market potential of pork labelled to indicate medium and high levels of animal welfare. The paper asks, in particular, whether there is a risk that Danish consumers will abandon high level welfare pork if less expensive products with a medium level of animal welfare became available. The study was based on an online questionnaire with a choice experiment involving 396 Danish respondents. The results indicated that the Danish market could accommodate more than one pork product with a welfare label but the price differential separating medium and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Welfare inequality, regionalisation, and welfare policy : measurement and analysis for Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadrado, L.

    1999-01-01

    This study is focused on the changes in regional inequality in Spain over the last four decades, with emphasis on regional welfare. The two most important items of welfare in Spain are, health and education, and so these are the main focus of this study. Attention is paid to the levels and

  12. Welfare and Work: Job-Retention Outcomes of Federal Welfare-to-Work Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Susan Tinsley; Bailey, Margo

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of differences in job-retention outcomes for 1,777 welfare-to-work employees and 16,723 other employees in federal agencies reveals that welfare-to-work employees have greater odds of retaining their jobs. (Contains 32 references.) (JOW)

  13. On economic inequality and social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begović Boris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explore the relations between economic inequality and social welfare staring from the assumption that causality goes from economic inequality to social welfare. Standard methodological framework of economic science was enhanced with interpersonal function of individual welfare so the effects of economic inequality of the level of social welfare can be considered. It was demonstrated that there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion and that differences in the preferences among people should be empirical considered for more insights. The analysis of the consequences of economic inequality to economic growth, i.e. dynamics of social welfare, demonstrated that there are numerous mechanisms of causality with the countervailing effects. The most important mechanism by which inequality speeds-up economic growth is based on the increased saving and invents rates, and the most important mechanism by which it slows-down growth is based on decreasing investments in human capital. Accordingly, there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion also in this case. Nonetheless, modern growth theory has demonstrated that that the most dangerous economic growth is inequality of the treatment of economic agents, i.e. discrimination and exclusion, as that kind of inequality creates substantial allocative inefficiency.

  14. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  15. The Elusiveness of Welfare-State Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Architecture and the Welfare State, edited by Mark Swenarton, Tom Avermaete and Dirk van den Heuvel (Oxon and New York: Routledge, 2015.Incomprehensibly, the relation of architecture to society is, on the one hand, a trivial fact, and, on the other, a perplexing assumption. Trivial, because the evidence of the tight relationship is ubiquitous, screaming its existence from the tops of skyscrapers, from the basements of gloomy panopticon prisons, and from the doorsteps of Levittown houses. Perplexing, because, despite of such an abundance of evidence, the actual form of such a relationship remains contested and, mostly, obscure. This review article will interrogate the relation of architecture to society via the recently published anthology Architecture and the Welfare State, edited by Mark Swenarton, Tom Avermaete and Dirk van den Heuvel. The anthology postulates that a rigorous correlation can be established between architectural design and the welfare state. The review article, in turn, posits two questions to the anthology: what is specific about the welfare state which differentiates it from other societies of the era, and how is a rigorous correlation of a specific form of architecture to the welfare state established, beyond limited notions such as zeitgeist? 

  16. 45 CFR 164.522 - Rights to request privacy protection for protected health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.522 Rights to request privacy protection for protected health information. (a)(1... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights to request privacy protection for protected...

  17. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...... out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing...

  18. In-patient suicide: selection of people at risk, failure of protection and the possibility of causation

    OpenAIRE

    Large, Matthew Michael; Chung, Daniel Thomas; Davidson, Michael; Weiser, Mark; Ryan, Christopher James

    2017-01-01

    Background Being a current psychiatric in-patient is one of the strongest statistical risk factors for suicide. It is usually assumed that this strong association is not causal but is a result of the combination of the selection of high-risk patients for admission and the imperfect protection from suicide afforded by psychiatric wards. Logically, a third factor, which is causal, might play a role in the association. It has recently been suggested that adverse experiences in psychiatric units ...

  19. Surface roughness of glass ionomer cements indicated for uncooperative patients according to surface protection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Edoardo; Bossù, Maurizio; Giovannetti, Agostino; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Even today, use of Glass Ionomer Cements (GIC) as restorative material is indicated for uncooperative patients. The study aimed at estimating the surface roughness of different GICs using or not their proprietary surface coatings and at observing the interfaces between cement and coating through SEM. Forty specimens have been obtained and divided into 4 groups: Fuji IX (IX), Fuji IX/G-Coat Plus (IXC), Vitremer (V), Vitremer/Finishing Gloss (VFG). Samples were obtained using silicone moulds to simulate class I restorations. All specimens were processed for profilometric evaluation. The statistical differences of surface roughness between groups were assessed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (One-Way ANOVA) (p<0.05). The Two-Way Analysis of Variance (Two-Way ANOVA) was used to evaluate the influence of two factors: restoration material and presence of coating. Coated restoration specimens (IXC and VFG) were sectioned perpendicular to the restoration surface and processed for SEM evaluation. No statistical differences in roughness could be noticed between groups or factors. Following microscopic observation, interfaces between restoration material and coating were better for group IXC than for group VFG. When specimens are obtained simulating normal clinical procedures, the presence of surface protection does not significantly improve the surface roughness of GICs.

  20. Health Education Specialists' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Jessica; Hanson, Carl L; Magnusson, Brianna; Neiger, Brad

    2016-03-01

    The changing landscape of health care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) may provide new opportunities for health education specialists (HES). The purpose of this study was to survey HES in the United States on their knowledge and attitudes of the ACA and assess their perceptions of job growth under the law. A random sample of 220 (36% response rate) certified HES completed a 53-item cross sectional survey administered online through Qualtrics. Findings were compared to public opinion on health care reform. HES are highly favorable of the law (70%) compared to the general public (23%). A total of 85% of respondents were able to list a provision of the ACA, and most (81%) thought the ACA would be successful at increasing insured Americans. Over half (64.6%) believe job opportunities will increase. Those who viewed the law favorably were significantly more likely to score better on a knowledge scale related to the ACA. HES understand publicized provisions but are uncertain about common myths and specific provisions related to Title IV, "Prevention of Chronic Disease and Improving Public Health." Directed and continuing education to HES regarding the ACA is warranted. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. Physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Daniel J; Thomas, Steven; Puscas, Liana; Lee, Walter T

    2014-02-01

    To assess otolaryngology physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) and compare the association of bias toward the PPACA with knowledge of the provisions of the PPACA. Cross-sectional survey. Nationwide assessment. Members of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Otolaryngology physicians answered 10 true/false questions about major provisions of the PPACA. They also indicated their level of agreement with 9 statements about health care and the PPACA. Basic demographic information was collected. Email solicitation was sent to 9972 otolaryngologists and 647 responses were obtained (6.5% response rate). Overall correct response rate was 74%. Fewer than 60% of physicians correctly answered questions on whether small businesses receive tax credits for providing health insurance, the effect of the PPACA on Medicare benefits, and whether a government-run health insurance plan was created. Academic center practice setting, bias toward the PPACA, and Democratic Party affiliation were associated with significantly more correct responses. Overall physician knowledge of the PPACA is assessed as fair, although better than the general public in 2010. There are several areas where knowledge of physicians regarding the PPACA is poor, and this knowledge deficit is more pronounced within certain subgroups. These knowledge issues should be addressed by individual physicians and medical societies.

  2. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: the victory of unorthodox lawmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussier, Anne-Laure

    2012-10-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was a major legislative achievement of the 111th Congress. This law structurally reforms the US health care system by encouraging universal health care coverage through regulated competition among private insurance companies. When looking at the process for reform, what strikes an observer of US health care policy in the first place is that the Democratic majority was able to enact something in a political field characterized by strong resistance to change. This article builds on that observation. Arguments concentrate on the legislative process of the reform and support the idea that it may be partly explained by considering an evolution of US legislative institutions, mostly in the sense of a more centralized legislative process. Based on approximately one hundred semidirected interviews, I argue that the Democratic majority, building on lessons from both President Bill Clinton's health care reform attempt and the Republicans' strategy of using strong congressional leadership to pass social reforms, was able to overcome institutional constraints that have long prevented comprehensive change. A more centralized legislative process, which has been described as "unorthodox lawmaking," enabled the Democratic leadership to overcome multiple institutional and political veto players.

  3. Patient protection in radiotherapy (Radio neurosurgery National Service of the Social Security Mexican Institute)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espiritu R, R.

    2008-12-01

    The perspective of patient protection at the Radio neurosurgery National Service of the Social Security Mexican Institute is divided into three parts: the testing program for equipment acceptance, an assurance quality program based on periodic tests, an also other assurance quality based on tests during the application. Among the technical aspects that influence in the equipment acceptance tests, it is the collimation type, the characteristics of the lineal accelerator, the platform for planning and the network type. In the case of the collimation system and the accelerator characteristics, we consider the manufacturer's specifications and requirements of Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-NUCL-1999, T echnical Specifications for the Teletherapy Units Operation, Linear Accelerators . Planning for the platform takes into account the manufacturer's specifications. In the case of computed tomography as well as review the calibration according to manufacturer's specifications should be considered the standard NOM-229-SSA1-2002. In the case of the linear accelerator must be the radiological characterization of radiation beam as part of this, the absolute dose determination. As for the periodic tests is verified the dose constancy, as well as the flattening and symmetry of X-rays beam. There are also tests battery with daily, monthly and yearly frequencies, which make up the assurance quality program. (Author)

  4. To What Extent Did the Financial Crisis Intensify the Pressure to Reform the Welfare State?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vis, Barbara; Kersbergen, Kees van; Hylands, Tom

    2011-01-01

    – it does not. Focusing on a selection of advanced welfare states (the UK, the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden), we find that these countries face similar problems and that their initial response to these problems is also similar. The latter is surprising because, theoretically, we would...... expect varying responses across welfare state regime types. Rather than retrenchment, we observe a first phase of emergency capital injections in the banking sector and a second of Keynesian demand management and labour market protection, including the (temporary) expansion of social programmes...

  5. Social policies and activation in the Scandinavian welfare model: the case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    countries been able to reconcile social objectives with a high employment level? It is argued that the Scandinavian welfare model has a strong employment focus both because it is an important element in social policy based on social inclusion, but also because a collective welfare arrangement is only...... financially viable if (private) employment is sufficiently high. To ensure this, the social safety net includes a number of employment conditionalities (active labour market policies/workfare) to balance income protection with an employment focus. These policies are discussed using Denmark as an example...

  6. 75 FR 37242 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Under the Patient Protection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Under the Patient Protection and Affordable... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance...

  7. Some aspects of chicken behavior and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world leader in broiler production and export. It achieved this position mainly to its excellent supply chain structure and climate, which favor poultry and grain production throughout its territory. Although Brazilian egg production is not as important as broiler production, this segment presents great potential of increasing its share in the global market. However, as elsewhere in the world, Brazilian poultry production faces the challenge to balance two elements within its supply chain: cruelty and productivity. The consumers of the European Union (EU are very concerned with animal welfare issues. In order to increase its share in the European market, and eventually in the world market, Brazilian poultry producers must understand the effects of production systems on poultry welfare, and try to develop systems that are suited for its climate and other production conditions. There is a consensus that the natural behaviors performed by poultry in intensive production systems allow better welfare. This objective of this review is to present scientific research studies that relate different behaviors to chicken welfare. Poultry behavior is a reflex of their welfare status at a particular moment, and it is related to internal (physiological and external (environmental factors. Several natural behaviors that favor welfare, as well as undesirable behaviors, may be stimulated by environmental enrichment. The correct interpretation of the behaviors expressed by poultry, including their frequency, duration, and sequence, may be used to estimate their welfare. Animal production is an import sector of Brazilian economy. It significantly contributes to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, in terms of products destined both to domestic consumption and exports. New technologies applied to products and management practices have been developed for field application, aiming at improving producers' productivity and profitability. In order to comply

  8. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare.

  9. Labor, Welfare and Coping with the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    of contemporary capitalism – the discredited Anglo-Saxon finance-driven model versus the export-driven production model of growth, with weak safety nets, adopted by East Asian countries in contrast to the export-oriented Nordic social welfare model. The third section documents the impact of the crisis...... are the weaknesses? What are the human costs and collateral damage in the context of new types of regulation of labor markets and social welfare in the broadest sense and what are the differences and similarities between the models in general specifically with regard to crisis management? The approach guiding...... on the economies, and discusses core examples of state intervention in the socio-economic sectors such as labor markets and social welfare in the Nordic as well as Korean contexts. The final section discusses some tentative conclusions about the resilience of the Nordic and ROK models and their potential...

  10. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    welfare state and based on data from our ongoing SoCap project, we suggest how more bridging social capital can be established between parallel societies and the rest of society. Our ‘institutions matter' model is tentative and needs to be tested rigorously in future empirical research.......  The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply...... to rescue the ageing populations in Western Europe. Though the modern welfare state seems in strong need of reform within a globalized world, it nevertheless enjoys strong support among voters in its present form. Thus, an empirical puzzle exists. Given the existing institutional set-up of the modern...

  11. Market Behavior in the Welfare State:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; christensen, bjarke

    2018-01-01

    The “consumerist citizen” is a type of citizen who develops his or her public and political commitments on the basis of market-like principles. For this citizen the important thing is the possibility to make individual choices in public contexts. In this article the implications of the consumerist...... of the consumerist citizen, and finally we suggest its implications for the welfare state. The dissemination of consumerist identity represents a serious change in the relationship between citizens and the welfare state. The rise of a public acting on the basis of market-logic is a serious change taking place...... in relation to citizenship. Regardless of whether this development is perceived as positive or negative, it will inevitably influence the ways in which the public sector is perceived. The rise of the consumerist citizen can be seen as a factor erosive of the basic solidary principles of the welfare state...

  12. WOMEN IN THE PATRIARCHAL WELFARE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshi Thoradeniya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the implications of the state performing a welfare function for an extended period of time in relation to the social contract between women citizens and the state. It argues that a prolonged status of ‘welfare provider’ ascribes certain patriarchal attributes to the state, which in turn reduces the position of the citizens, especially women, to a mere ‘beneficiary’ level. With the use of two specific policy documents relating to public health – Well Woman Clinic (WWC programme launched in 1996, and the Population and Reproductive Health (PRH policy designed in 1998 – it shows that in the absence of a rights based approach to public health, women have become mere beneficiaries, as opposed to active citizens, of the prolonged welfare State of Sri Lanka. This relationship has deterred women citizens from exercising the right to demand their needs from the State.

  13. Immigration and welfare state cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing evidence on welfare dependence among immigrants in Denmark and to produce new evidence with focus on the most recent years. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines a broad descriptive/analytical approach with multivariate...... estimation on the impact on welfare dependence from individual background factors. Findings – The main finding is the importance of aggregate low unemployment for immigrants to assimilate out of welfare dependence. Fairly small effects are reported from policy changes intending to influence the economic...... policy programs and to extend the analysis to cover the period including the financial crisis years. Social implications – The paper has a potential to influence public attitudes in this area and to inform further public policy regarding benefit programs. Originality/value – The main new result...

  14. Evaluating the Welfare of Index Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Ng, Jia Min

    affects both the demand for the product and the welfare of individuals making take-up decisions. We study the impact of basis risk on insurance take-up and on expected welfare in a laboratory experiment with an insurance frame. We measure the expected welfare of index insurance to individuals while......Index insurance was conceived to be a product that would simplify the claim settlement process and make it more objective, reducing transaction costs and moral hazard. However, index insurance also exposes the insured to basis risk, which arises because there can be a mismatch between the index...... risks that are different from preferences exhibited for their actuarially-equivalent counterparts. We study the potential link between index insurance demand and attitudes towards compound risks. We test the hypothesis that the compound risk nature of index insurance induced by basis risk negatively...

  15. RECOUNTING STORIES IN SOUTH AFRICAN CHILD WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid, Jeanette

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to proactively bring about change, it is critical in a post-apartheid context for South African social workers to appreciate how colonial and apartheid forces have shaped the inherited welfare priorities, structures, legislation, policies and practices. It is as necessary also to identify stories of resistance as these offer hope and alternative possibilities. Authors such as McKendrick (2001, Patel (2005 and Loffell (2000 have tracked many aspects of South African welfare history. In its submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission – a body set up to formally acknowledge past injustices with the goal of bringing about political reconciliation – the welfare sector set out how it had contributed to historical discrimination and wrongs (Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 1999. While these narratives provide the framework for the development of child welfare in South Africa, relatively little is known about its particular history, especially its earliest roots. Beukes and Gannon (1999 and Allsopp (2005 have attempted to explore the origins of that profession in the child and youth work field. Badroodien (2001 examined the extensive impact of one institution, the Ottery School of Industry, on “coloured” youths and their families. Scordillis and Becker (2005 recount briefly the history of adoption practice in South Africa. Some of the child welfare societies have been able to provide sketches of their agency history. In this article the author attempts to add to the child welfare record, gathering the existing strands of literature and inserting the stories that emerged in her doctoral research (Schmid, 2008b

  16. Neopterin/7,8-dihydroneopterin is elevated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and protects mdx skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Schmiechen, Alexandra; Chamberlain, Christopher M; Ervasti, James M; Lowe, Dawn A

    2018-05-23

    Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of dystrophin-deficient muscle. We tested the hypothesis that Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients would have elevated levels of the macrophage synthesized pterins, neopterin and 7,8-dihydroneopterin compared to unaffected age-matched controls. Urinary neopterin/creatinine and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine were elevated in DMD patients and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine was associated with patient age and ambulation. 7,8-dihydroneopterin correction with specific gravity was also elevated in DMD patients. Because 7,8-dihydroneopterin is an antioxidant, we then identified a potential role for 7,8-dihydroneopterin in disease pathology. We assessed whether 7,8-dihydroneopterin could 1) protect against isometric force loss in wildtype skeletal muscle exposed to various pro-oxidants, and 2) protect wildtype and mdx muscle from eccentric contraction-induced force drop which has an oxidative component. Force drop was elicited in isolated Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscles by 10 eccentric contractions and recovery of force following the contractions was measured in the presence of exogenous 7,8-dihydroneopterin. 7,8-dihydroneopterin attenuated isometric force loss by wildtype EDL muscles when challenged by H 2 O 2 and HOCl, but exacerbated force loss when challenged by SIN-1 (NO · , O 2 · , ONOO - ). 7,8-dihydroneopterin attenuated eccentric contraction-induced force drop in mdx muscle. Isometric force by EDL muscles of mdx mice also recovered to a greater degree following eccentric contractions in the presence of 7,8-dihydroneopterin. The results corroborate macrophage activation in DMD patients, provide a potential protective role for 7,8-dihydroneopterin in the susceptibility of dystrophic muscle to eccentric contractions and indicate oxidative stress contributes to eccentric contraction-induced force drop in mdx skeletal muscle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by

  17. Welfare Commonsense, Poverty Porn and Doxosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Tracey Jensen

    2014-01-01

    This article critically examine how Benefits Street – and the broader genre of poverty porn television – functions to embed new forms of ‘commonsense’ about welfare and worklessness. It argues that such television content and commentary crowds out critical perspectives with what Pierre Bourdieu (1999) called ‘doxa', making the social world appear self-evident and requiring no interpretation, and creating new forms of neoliberal commonsense around welfare and social security. The art...

  18. Negotiating privacy in surveillant welfare relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Bøge, Ask Risom

    . However, while privacy is central to debates of surveillance, it has proven less productive as an analytical resource for studying surveillance in practice. Consequently, this paper reviews different conceptualisations of privacy in relation to welfare and surveillance and argues for strengthening...... the analytical capacity of the concept by rendering it a situated and relational concept. The argument is developed through a research and design project called Teledialogue meant to improve the relation between case managers and children placed at institutions or in foster families. Privacy in Teledialogue...... notion of privacy are discussed in relation to both research- and public debates on surveillance in a welfare setting....

  19. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  20. The effect of steps to promote higher levels of farm animal welfare across the EU. Societal versus animal scientists’ perceptions of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averós, X.; Aparicio, M.A.; Ferrari, P.; Guy, J.H.; Hubbard, C.; Schmid, O.; Ilieski, V.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific

  1. High serum uric acid levels are a protective factor against unfavourable neurological functional outcome in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Fang; Li, Jiao-Xing; Sun, Xun-Sha; Lai, Rong; Sheng, Wen-Li

    2018-05-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid levels at the onset and prognostic outcome in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Methods We retrospectively analysed the outcomes of 1166 patients with ischaemic stroke who were hospitalized in our centre during August 2008 to November 2012. Correlations of serum uric acid levels and prognostic outcomes were analysed. Results Men had higher serum uric acid levels and better neurological functional outcomes compared with women. There was a strong negative correlation between serum uric acid levels and unfavourable neurological functional outcomes. Generalized estimated equation analysis showed that a higher serum uric acid level (>237 µmol/L) was a protective factor for neurological functional outcome in male, but not female, patients. Among five trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment classification subtypes, only patients with the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype had a significant protective effect of serum uric acid levels on neurological outcome. Conclusions Our study shows that high serum uric acid levels are a significant protective factor in men and in the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype in patients with ischaemic stroke. This is helpful for determining the prognostic value of serum uric acid levels for neurological outcome of acute ischaemic stroke.

  2. Personal Protective Equipment in the humanitarian governance of Ebola: between individual patient care and global biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Personal Protective Equipment in humanitarianism. It takes the recent Ebola outbreak as a case through which to explore the role of objects in saving individual lives and protecting populations. The argument underlines the importance of PPE in mediating between

  3. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Utilization of Preventive Health Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Eno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined how (a health insurance coverage, and (b familiarity with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA’s or ObamaCare mandate of cost-free access to preventive health services, affect the use of preventive services by residents of a minority community. It was based on primary data collected from a survey conducted during March to April 2012 among a sample of self-identified African American adults in Tallahassee-Leon County area of northwest Florida. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22 was used for running frequency analysis on the data set and multivariable regression modeling. The results showed that of 524 respondents, 382 (73% had health insurance while 142 (27% lacked insurance. Majority of insured respondents, 332 (87%, used preventive health services. However, the remaining 13% of respondents did not use preventive services because they were unfamiliar with the ACA provision of free access to preventive services for insured people. Regression analysis showed a high (91.04% probability that, among the insured, the use of preventive health services depended on the person’s age, income, and education. For uninsured residents, the lack of health insurance was the key reason for non-use of preventive health services, while among the insured, lack of knowledge about the ACA benefit of free access contributed to non-use of preventive services. Expansion of Medicaid eligibility can increase insurance coverage rates among African Americans and other minority populations. Health promotion and awareness campaigns about the law’s benefits by local and state health departments can enhance the use of preventive services.

  4. Hepcidin protects against lethal E. coli sepsis in mice inoculated with isolates from septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Deborah; Raychev, Antoan; Deville, Jaime; Humphries, Romney; Campeau, Shelley; Ruchala, Piotr; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas; Bulut, Yonca

    2018-05-07

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for most microbes and their hosts. Mammalian hosts respond to infection by inducing the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin, which causes iron sequestration and a rapid decrease in plasma and extracellular iron concentration (hypoferremia). Previous studies showed that hepcidin regulation of iron is essential for protection from infection-associated mortality with the siderophilic pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Vibrio vulnificus However, the evolutionary conservation of the hypoferremic response to infection suggests that not only rare siderophilic bacteria but also common pathogens may be targeted by this mechanism. We tested 10 clinical isolates of E. coli from children with sepsis and found that both genetic (hepcidin knockout, HKO) and iatrogenic iron overload (IV iron) potentiated infection with 8 out of 10 studied isolates: after peritoneal injection of E. coli , iron-loaded mice developed sepsis with 60% to 100% mortality within 24h while control wild type mice suffered 0% mortality. Using one strain for more detailed study, we show that iron overload allowed rapid bacterial multiplication and dissemination. We further found that the presence of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) in circulation is more important than total plasma or tissue iron in rendering mice susceptible to infection and mortality. Post infection treatment of HKO mice with just two doses of the hepcidin agonist PR73 abolished NTBI and completely prevented sepsis-associated mortality. We demonstrate that siderophilic phenotype extends to clinically common pathogens. The use of hepcidin agonists promises to be an effective early intervention in patients with infections and dysregulated iron metabolism. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Welfare Technology and Surveillance in Care Work for Elderly Citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Kamp, Annette; Grosen, Sidsel Lond

    Welfare technologies’ are increasingly used in a variety of settings in the Danish welfare state (Mortensen 2015), where they are envisioned as leading to a new and smarter form of welfare state service delivery, promising increased efficiency, better quality, and citizen empowerment (Finansmini......‘Welfare technologies’ are increasingly used in a variety of settings in the Danish welfare state (Mortensen 2015), where they are envisioned as leading to a new and smarter form of welfare state service delivery, promising increased efficiency, better quality, and citizen empowerment...

  6. Toward a harmonized approach to animal welfare law in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Koralesky, Katherine E; Urton, Geoff

    2018-03-01

    Animal protection law in Canada varies across the country. Federal animal protection law exists in the Criminal Code, in regulations for the transport of animals, and in regulations for humane handling and slaughter at abattoirs that are inspected by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Provincial animal protection laws often include provisions that i) describe a duty of care toward animals; ii) prohibit causing or permitting animal "distress;" iii) specify exemptions from prosecution; and iv) reference various national and other standards. Inconsistencies lead to duplication of effort, create difficulty in working across jurisdictions, and may erode public trust. A more consistent approach might be achieved by i) referencing a common suite of standards in provincial statutes; ii) citing the federal transport and humane slaughter regulations in provincial regulations; iii) establishing agreements so provincial authorities may enforce federal regulations; iv) wider and more uniform adoption of enforcement tools that require people to take immediate action to protect animal welfare; v) developing new standards; and vi) national consultation to define frequently used terms.

  7. The use of animal welfare indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    At any given time, an animal’s welfare ranges on a scale of very good to very poor. It contains both physical elements and mental elements. The physical elements, such as behaviour, physiology, health, productivity and pathology, can be measured relatively easily, in an experimental setting, but the...

  8. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  9. Beyond home ownership: housing, welfare and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Elsinga, M.

    2012-01-01

    In context of ongoing transformations in housing markets and socioeconomic conditions, this book focuses on past, current and future roles of home ownership in social policies and welfare practices. It considers owner-occupied housing in terms of diverse meanings and manifestations, but in

  10. The institutional logic of welfare attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    to link institutions and welfare attitudes have not been convincing. The empirical studies have had large difficulties in finding the expected effects from regime dependent differences in self-interest, class-interest, and egalitarian values. This book develops a new theoretical macro-micro link...

  11. The institutional logic of welfare attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2008-01-01

    to link institutions and welfare attitudes have not been convincing. The empirical studies have had large difficulties in finding the expected effects from regime dependent differences in self-interest, class-interest, and egalitarian values. This article develops a new theoretical macro-micro link...

  12. Energy efficiency program at the Welfare Ministry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Marco Aurelio Lenzi; Ferreira Filho, Anesio de Leles; Monteiro, Fernando Figueiredo de

    2003-01-01

    his article presents the detailed study performed at the annexe building of the Welfare Ministry, viewing an implantation of a efficient and rational use of energy. The article also presents the results of installed load assesment and for correction of the power factor with capacitor bank

  13. Child Welfare and Stigma: Principles into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Matthew; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the stigma attached to child welfare services in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Spain. Found that stigma continues to be part of the experience of using and delivering such services, despite positive determination of policies in all three countries that this should not be so. Also found that the experience of stigma can, with…

  14. Sustainable Welfare in Low Energy Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    The chapter presents some general basic concepts which are useful in analyzing future options for saving energy and thereby mitigate the environmental problems. Three factors are suggested as determinants of the energy demand, namely the population, the level of energy services (material welfare)...

  15. The Handbook of Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook is a timely compilation dedicated to exploring a rare diversity of perspectives and content on the development, successes, reforms and challenges within China’s contemporary welfare system. It showcases an extensive introduction and 20 original chapters by leading and emerging area...... case-based research from diverse disciplines and perspectives, engage existing literature and further key debates....

  16. Welfare States and Labour Market Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2017-01-01

    to labour markets, and whether there might be in the future, including arguments pro and con the possible impact thereof. The article thus provides a review of knowledge within the field, with a focus especially on how this can or might have an impact on welfare states, given the often strong connection...

  17. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are made...

  18. Work and Welfare: A Reevaluation of AFDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviews policy development and research trends relating to work, welfare, and AFDC. Examines the persistence over time of the values of capitalism, liberalism, and positivism, which have resulted in the work ethic and influenced the AFDC. Outlines a research agenda to counter these influences. (Author/JAC)

  19. Social Welfare and the Market Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joel I.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study that questions whether private enterprise can maintain quality while reducing costs of providing social welfare services. Reviews three aspects of privatization: (1) competitive markets; (2) rationality; and (3) cost reduction. Concludes by questioning a central claim of economic theory: that free markets and private firms are…

  20. Towards the Measurement of Spatial Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grevers, Wilbert

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for assessing the welfare effects of the capitalisation of the value of environmental quality in the price for land, combining elements from environmental and spatial economics on the basis of equilibrium considerations for population games. Its main contribution to

  1. General versus program-specific welfare chauvinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2018-01-01

    similarity across programs. The Danish welfare chauvinist attitudes are in general fuelled by lack of shared identity with migrants and sociotropic concerns about the economic burden of migration. The article finds little evidence of narrow self-interest effects; with a notable exception of disability...

  2. Reciprocity, Materialism and Welfare: An Evolutionary Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyze preference evolution in a simple bargaining situation. Preferences for reciprocity, who sustain a conflict-free outcome, may be viable if players have enough information about the opponent's preferences. However, depending on the initial starting point preference evolution can in gener...... both enhance and reduce welfare, relative to the situation where all players have materialistic perferences....

  3. Multiple-Father Families and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhouse, Eirik; Reilly, Siobhan

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, multipartnered fertility (MPF) has become commonplace. This study provides the first nationally representative measures of women's MPF, across multiple years, using the U.S. Census Bureau's Surveys of Income and Program Participation. Because welfare rules contain strong incentives for MPF, and because MPF is especially…

  4. European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

  5. The Ideology of Welfare Reform: Deconstructing Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Frederick B.

    1996-01-01

    Critiques recent welfare reform proposals and recommends social work practices that humanize Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The critique deconstructs the labels "dependent,""addict," and "illegitimate" as they are applied to AFDC mothers and explores the reproduction of stigma through social work…

  6. Measuring rural welfare in colonial Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, De Michiel

    2017-01-01

    Recent scholarship on historical welfare development in Sub-Saharan Africa has uncovered long-term trends in standards of living. How the majority of rural dwellers fared, however, remains largely elusive. This study develops a new approach to reconstruct rural living standards in a historical

  7. Welfare financing : Grant allocation and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda; Allers, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. Block grants are more efficient than matching grants, because the latter reduce the

  8. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    and membership of the Danish community, e.g., promoting Danish culture as sort of a superior democratic culture, appealing for morally apt behaviour and interest in own individual development. The aim of the analyses is to understand welfare workers’ visions and divisions as significant factors in the making...

  9. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price

  10. Energy, economic growth, and human welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: economic growth and human welfare; world-wide economic growth; economic growth and energy consumption; assessing the future; caution advised; energy supply and economic growth; supply as constraint; sound policies needed. (U.K.)

  11. From Welfare to Work: The Endorsement of the Money Ethic and the Work Ethic among Welfare Recipients, Welfare Recipients in Training Programs, and Employed Past Welfare Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Smith-Brandon, Vancie L.

    2001-01-01

    Work-related attitudes of 164 welfare recipients, 159 recipients in job training, and 158 employed former recipients were compared. Those employed had the highest scores in money ethic, work ethic, and self-esteem; higher education and income; and longer job tenure. Recipients not in training had the least positive money and work ethic. (Contains…

  12. Fun, animal welfare or community development? Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the impact of young travellers' value orientations on their choice for a wildlife tourism package. On the basis of existing literature, four different packages were designed: one mirroring the traditional offer of wildlife tourism as a hedonic experience; one enhancing the animal welfare aspect and intended ...

  13. Welfare benefits of agglomeration and worker heterogenity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teulings, C.N.; Ossokina, I.V.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    2014-01-01

    The direct impact of local public goods on welfare is relatively easy to measure from land rents. However, the indirect effects on home and job location, on land use, and on agglomeration benefits are hard to pin down. We develop a spatial general equilibrium model for the valuation of these

  14. Welfare Financing : Grant Allocation and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema, L.A.; Allers, Maarten A.

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. We analyze block grants used in The Netherlands, which depend on exogenous spending

  15. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states are presented. These include full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and public sector spending. The Nordic countries are compared to other European countries. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model...... is here to stay, although a movement in a European direction is underway....

  16. Practical radiation protection of the patient in radiological diagnostics; Praktischer Strahlenschutz am Patienten in der radiologischen Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebich, M. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Institut fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz, Giessen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The use of radiation protection equipment can reduce the radiation exposure of patients. The aim was to show which patient shields should be used for the different types of examination. The results of multiple studies were compiled and analyzed and recommendations made for the use of patient shields. The absolute dose values and the protective effect were considered. Radiological protection should be used in many investigations; particularly in the case of CT investigations, a reasonable dose reduction potential exists due to the higher radiation dose. Based on these recommendations, workflow changes in some types of investigation are expected due to the use of additional patient shields. (orig.) [German] Durch die Verwendung von Strahlenschutzmitteln kann die Strahlenexposition von Patienten reduziert werden. Es soll dargestellt werden, welche Strahlenschutzmittel bei welchen Untersuchungen eingesetzt werden sollen. Die Ergebnisse von Studien wurden zusammengestellt, analysiert und daraus Empfehlungen fuer die Anwendung von Strahlenschutzmitteln erstellt. Dabei wurden die absoluten Dosiswerte und die Schutzwirkung beruecksichtigt. Bei vielen Untersuchungen sind Strahlenschutzmittel anzuwenden, insbesondere bei CT-Untersuchungen besteht aufgrund der hoeheren Strahlendosis ein gutes Dosisreduktionspotenzial. Aufgrund der Empfehlungen ist bei einigen Untersuchungsarten mit veraenderten Arbeitsablaeufen aufgrund der Anwendung weiterer Strahlenschutzmittel zu rechnen. (orig.)

  17. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  18. Model to evaluate welfare in dairy cow farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Calamari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of herd welfare is a scientific discipline that is rapidly developing. The scientific community plays an important role in delivering appropriate, repeatable, valid and feasible models for this assessment. Unfortunately, there are different feelings regarding the welfare of animals and it is imperative for its assessment that certain agreement on the meaning of animal welfare is accepted. Then it is necessary to look at the goals of the models of welfare assessment because different goals require a different combination of welfare indicators. The different models for welfare assessment can be categorized broadly into research, legislative requirements, certification systems, and advisory/management tools. These models may have various goals: quantification of welfare, provision of welfare assurance or welfare management. However, it is widely accepted that welfare is best assessed with multiple different measures; therefore, a welfare assessment model for a livestock herd can include two types of measure: a description of the housing system and management (indirect indicators and data recording on how the animals react to the system (direct indicators. The first type provides information on risk factors for welfare problems. Direct measures on the animals provide information on their response to the environment and are more direct measures of welfare than their counterparts, but direct welfare indicators alone do not point out the causes of impaired welfare. Because welfare is a complex construct, different approaches for the aggregation of the different aspects of welfare have been proposed, although the aggregation in an overall welfare value is not sufficient. The thresholds between acceptable and unacceptable welfare levels have to be included in the model of welfare assessment but it seems useful to set certain minimum standards for each single welfare aspect. Afterward, judging the validity of a common welfare assessment

  19. The Nordic welfare model and welfare services - Can we maintain acceptable standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    used only by those who cannot afford better solutions. Can the Nordic welfare model meet this objective in the future? Increasing productivity and wealth challenge this. Services tend to have lower productivity growth and thus to become more expensive (Baumol’s cost disease), but also to have a high......A key feature of the Nordic welfare model is provision of welfare services like care, education and health. They are individual entitlements, and collectively financed. It is a prerequisite that contemporary standards of services are provided; thus the public solution is not a second rate solution...... income elasticity, and thus demands rise alongside improved material living standards (Wagner effects). The same implies to leisure, implying that tax bases may be eroded. In short, expenditures are on an upward drift and revenues on a downward trend, challenging the financial viability of the welfare...

  20. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.

    2011-01-01

    dimension of scoring and labelling does not mean that we should reject them, but it does mean that we need to make the normative and ethical background explicit. The Welfare Quality® scoring system is used as a case study in order to highlight the role of underlying value-based decisions. In this scoring......, but the rules governing the assignment of an animal unit to a category take into account what had been observed on European farms. The scientists behind Welfare Quality® are keen to make the value-based choices underlying assessments of animal welfare transparent. This is essential to allow stakeholder groups......All systems of scoring animal units (groups, farms, slaughter plants, etc.) according to the level of the animals’ welfare are based inevitably on normative decisions. Similarly, all methods of labelling, in terms of acceptability, are based on choices reflecting ethical values. The evaluative...

  1. The 'Real Welfare' scheme: benchmarking welfare outcomes for commercially farmed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, F; Stoddart, K; Wainwright, N; Kyriazakis, I; Edwards, S A

    2017-10-01

    Animal welfare standards have been incorporated in EU legislation and in farm assurance schemes, based on scientific information and aiming to safeguard the welfare of the species concerned. Recently, emphasis has shifted from resource-based measures of welfare to animal-based measures, which are considered to assess more accurately the welfare status. The data used in this analysis were collected from April 2013 to May 2016 through the 'Real Welfare' scheme in order to assess on-farm pig welfare, as required for those finishing pigs under the UK Red Tractor Assurance scheme. The assessment involved five main measures (percentage of pigs requiring hospitalization, percentage of lame pigs, percentage of pigs with severe tail lesions, percentage of pigs with severe body marks and enrichment use ratio) and optional secondary measures (percentage of pigs with mild tail lesions, percentage of pigs with dirty tails, percentage of pigs with mild body marks, percentage of pigs with dirty bodies), with associated information about the environment and the enrichment in the farms. For the complete database, a sample of pens was assessed from 1928 farm units. Repeated measures were taken in the same farm unit over time, giving 112 240 records at pen level. These concerned a total of 13 480 289 pigs present on the farm during the assessments, with 5 463 348 pigs directly assessed using the 'Real Welfare' protocol. The three most common enrichment types were straw, chain and plastic objects. The main substrate was straw which was present in 67.9% of the farms. Compared with 2013, a significant increase of pens with undocked-tail pigs, substrates and objects was observed over time (P0.3). The results from the first 3 years of the scheme demonstrate a reduction of the prevalence of animal-based measures of welfare problems and highlight the value of this initiative.

  2. The Predictive Effects of Protection Motivation Theory on Intention and Behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad; Abdolkarimi, Mahdi; Asadpour, Mohammad; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Balaee, Parisa

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Theory-based education tailored to target behaviour and group can be effective in promoting physical activity. AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive power of Protection Motivation Theory on intent and behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted on 250 patients in Rafsanjan, Iran. To examine the scores of protection motivation theory structures, a researcher-made questionnaire was used. Its validity and reliability were confirmed. The level of physical activity was also measured by the International Short - form Physical Activity Inventory. Its validity and reliability were also approved. Data were analysed by statistical tests including correlation coefficient, chi-square, logistic regression and linear regression. RESULTS: The results revealed that there was a significant correlation between all the protection motivation theory constructs and the intention to do physical activity. The results showed that the Theory structures were able to predict 60% of the variance of physical activity intention. The results of logistic regression demonstrated that increase in the score of physical activity intent and self - efficacy increased the chance of higher level of physical activity by 3.4 and 1.5 times, respectively OR = (3.39, 1.54). CONCLUSION: Considering the ability of protection motivation theory structures to explain the physical activity behaviour, interventional designs are suggested based on the structures of this theory, especially to improve self -efficacy as the most powerful factor in predicting physical activity intention and behaviour. PMID:29731945

  3. The Predictive Effects of Protection Motivation Theory on Intention and Behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad; Abdolkarimi, Mahdi; Asadpour, Mohammad; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Balaee, Parisa

    2018-04-15

    Theory-based education tailored to target behaviour and group can be effective in promoting physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive power of Protection Motivation Theory on intent and behaviour of Physical Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. This descriptive study was conducted on 250 patients in Rafsanjan, Iran. To examine the scores of protection motivation theory structures, a researcher-made questionnaire was used. Its validity and reliability were confirmed. The level of physical activity was also measured by the International Short - form Physical Activity Inventory. Its validity and reliability were also approved. Data were analysed by statistical tests including correlation coefficient, chi-square, logistic regression and linear regression. The results revealed that there was a significant correlation between all the protection motivation theory constructs and the intention to do physical activity. The results showed that the Theory structures were able to predict 60% of the variance of physical activity intention. The results of logistic regression demonstrated that increase in the score of physical activity intent and self - efficacy increased the chance of higher level of physical activity by 3.4 and 1.5 times, respectively OR = (3.39, 1.54). Considering the ability of protection motivation theory structures to explain the physical activity behaviour, interventional designs are suggested based on the structures of this theory, especially to improve self -efficacy as the most powerful factor in predicting physical activity intention and behaviour.

  4. How welfare states care : Culture, gender and citizenship in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Women's employment patterns changed drastically the last decades. But they are still different across Europe. Welfare state scholars often presume that diversity and change in women's employment across Europe is based on financial (dis) incentive structures embedded in welfare states

  5. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Margaret

    2010-12-31

    Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  6. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  7. Implementation of an action plan in radiological protection of the patient in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, S.; Perez, M.R.; Dubner, D.

    2006-01-01

    The medical irradiations constitute the main contribution to the human exposure to ionizing radiations of artificial character. The growing quantity of practices, facilities and human resources dedicated to such ends, it has increased the concern of regulator organisms and scientific societies by the radiological protection of the patient (PRP). Besides completing it regulatory function in the domains of the medical practices that its concern it, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina, decided to install an active discussion in order to promoting an action plan in PRP in the national environment. To such end, the ARN organized the First National Day on PRP in December, 2004, with the attendance of professionals of the fields of the Radiodiagnostic, the Nuclear Medicine and the Radiotherapy as well as of representatives of professional associations and authorities of health. In this day the conclusions of the International Conference on PRP (Malaga, 2001) and the approaches of the Directive 97/43/EURATOM adopted in European countries were presented. It was discussed about: practices justification, responsibility of the prescriber doctor, quality systems, dose optimization, reference levels, dosimetry, training of human resources, especially for certain practices (pregnant woman, pediatric radiology and interventionist, PR/118 tomography for the correct application of diagnostic practices and an expert presented in teleconference form the experience of France for the adoption of these guides. During the Second National Day on PRP organized by the ARN (June 2005), received opinions were debated in the different environments in relation to the PR/118 guide and it potential adaptation to the national conditions. Also it was presented the state of advance of the activities developed in relation to the proposed tasks. As a result of this meeting, it was conformed a national net of PRP to which intended to incorporate academic institutions, in order to

  8. Carotid artery stenting in high surgical risk patients using the FiberNet embolic protection system: the EPIC trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myla, Subbarao; Bacharach, J Michael; Ansel, Gary M; Dippel, Eric J; McCormick, Daniel J; Popma, Jeffrey J

    2010-05-01

    The multicenter EPIC (FiberNet Embolic Protection System in Carotid Artery Stenting Trial) single-arm trial evaluated the 30-day outcomes of a new design concept for embolic protection during carotid artery stenting (CAS). Embolic protection filters available for use during CAS include fixed and over-the-wire systems that rely on embolic material capture within a "basket" structure. The FiberNet Embolic Protection System (EPS), which features a very low crossing profile, consists of a three-dimensional fiber-based filter distally mounted on a 0.014 inch guidewire with integrated aspiration during filter retrieval. The trial enrolled 237 patients from 26 centers. Demographics, clinical and lesion characteristics, as well as adverse events through a 30-day follow-up were recorded. The mean age of the patients was 74 years, 64% were male and 20% had symptomatic carotid artery disease. The combined major adverse event (MAE) rate at 30 days for all death, stroke, and myocardial infarction was 3.0%. There were three major strokes (two ischemic and one hemorrhagic) and two minor strokes (both ischemic) for a 2.1% 30-day stroke rate. The procedural technical success rate was 97.5% and macroscopic evidence of debris was reported in 90.9% of the procedures. The FiberNet EPS, used with commercially available stents, produced low stroke rates following CAS in high surgical risk patients presenting with carotid artery disease. The unique filter design including aspiration during retrieval may have contributed to the low 30-day stroke rate reported during CAS in patients considered at high risk for complications following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Financing the Welfare State and the Politics of Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Morel , Nathalie; Palme , Joakim

    2012-01-01

    In an era of 'permanent austerity' (Pierson, 2001) and financial crisis, the issue of financing welfare state provision is topical. Moreover, the future of welfare state funding in countries with ageing populations is no doubt raising increasing interest in scholarly as well as policy circles. Yet the financing side of welfare provision has traditionally been given little attention and remains somewhat of a black box of the welfare state. The fact that some of the financing mechanisms have re...

  10. Collection of legislative and regulatory arrangements relative to radiation protection. Part 1: laws and decrees of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations; Recueil des dispositions legislatives et reglementaires relatives a la radioprotection. Partie 1: lois et decrets du code de la sante publique et du code du travail concernant la protection de la population, des patients et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This collection concerns on one hand the protection of the population and on the other hand the protection of the workers against ionizing radiations. As regards the protection of the populations, there is a quality control of waters, a control of the medical devices for the protection of patients. For the protection of the workers it is the employment law which serves as reference. (N.C.)

  11. A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2007-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current

  12. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be... concerning animal welfare. 2 The Department Grants Administration Manual is available for inspection at the...

  13. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... animals only from dealers licensed by the Secretary of Agriculture under 7 U.S.C. 2133 and 9 CFR subpart A...

  14. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the...) Chapter 1-43 of the Department Grants Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

  15. Impacts of toxic plants on the welfare of grazing livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in farm animal welfare has been increasing for several decades. Animal health is an integral part of animal welfare, but the concept of animal welfare has evolved from an emphasis on physical health, and coping ability to a greater sensitivity to and recognition of animals’ experiences of...

  16. Review A balanced perspective on animal welfare for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chulayo, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... Increased public concern for animal welfare in the logistics chain has .... still complain about poor management of animals and state that ... assurance of good animal welfare and healthier foods to all participating supply chains, animal genetics has ...... Toward a global perspective on farm animal welfare.

  17. Transformations of the Danish Field of Welfare Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jan Thorhauge

    2017-01-01

    a set of welfare professions, each of which provides a specific subset of welfare benefits, or services. These professionals - agents of the Danish field of welfare work – make up the population of the analysis: teachers, social workers, occupational therapists, social educators, nurses, librarians...

  18. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  19. At the heart of the Nordic occupational welfare model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Sweden and Denmark are countries with a strong tradition of the involvement of labor market partners in welfare policies, and this begs the question whether this influences the development of occupational welfare. This article depicts the reasons for, and the development of, occupational welfare,...

  20. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.