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  1. Distribution of ELOVL4 in the Developing and Adult Mouse Brain

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    David M. Sherry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ELOngation of Very Long chain fatty acids (ELOVL-4 is essential for the synthesis of very long chain-fatty acids (fatty acids with chain lengths ≥ 28 carbons. The functions of ELOVL4 and its very long-chain fatty acid products are poorly understood at present. However, mutations in ELOVL4 cause neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative diseases that vary according to the mutation and inheritance pattern. Heterozygous inheritance of different ELOVL4 mutations causes Stargardt-like Macular Dystrophy or Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 34. Homozygous inheritance of ELOVL4 mutations causes more severe disease characterized by seizures, intellectual disability, ichthyosis, and premature death. To better understand ELOVL4 and very long chain fatty acid function in the brain, we examined ELOVL4 expression in the mouse brain between embryonic day 18 and postnatal day 60 by immunolabeling using ELOVL4 and other marker antibodies. ELOVL4 was widely expressed in a region- and cell type-specific manner, and was restricted to cell bodies, consistent with its known localization to endoplasmic reticulum. ELOVL4 labeling was most prominent in gray matter, although labeling also was present in some cells located in white matter. ELOVL4 was widely expressed in the developing brain by embryonic day 18 and was especially pronounced in regions underlying the lateral ventricles and other neurogenic regions. The basal ganglia in particular showed intense ELOVL4 labeling at this stage. In the postnatal brain, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla all showed prominent ELOVL4 labeling, although ELOVL4 distribution was not uniform across all cells or subnuclei within these regions. In contrast, the basal ganglia showed little ELOVL4 labeling in the postnatal brain. Double labeling studies showed that ELOVL4 was primarily expressed by neurons, although presumptive oligodendrocytes located in white matter tracts also showed

  2. Homozygous Expression of Mutant ELOVL4 Leads to Seizures and Death in a Novel Animal Model of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid Deficiency.

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    Hopiavuori, Blake R; Deák, Ferenc; Wilkerson, Joseph L; Brush, Richard S; Rocha-Hopiavuori, Nicole A; Hopiavuori, Austin R; Ozan, Kathryn G; Sullivan, Michael T; Wren, Jonathan D; Georgescu, Constantin; Szweda, Luke; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Towner, Rheal; Sherry, David M; Anderson, Robert E; Agbaga, Martin-Paul

    2018-02-01

    Lipids are essential components of the nervous system. However, the functions of very long-chain fatty acids (VLC-FA; ≥ 28 carbons) in the brain are unknown. The enzyme ELOngation of Very Long-chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of VLC-FA (Agbaga et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(35): 12843-12848, 2008; Logan et al., J Lipid Res 55(4): 698-708, 2014), which we identified in the brain as saturated fatty acids (VLC-SFA). Homozygous mutations in ELOVL4 cause severe neuropathology in humans (Ozaki et al., JAMA Neurol 72(7): 797-805, 2015; Mir et al., BMC Med Genet 15: 25, 2014; Cadieux-Dion et al., JAMA Neurol 71(4): 470-475, 2014; Bourassa et al., JAMA Neurol 72(8): 942-943, 2015; Aldahmesh et al., Am J Hum Genet 89(6): 745-750, 2011) and are post-natal lethal in mice (Cameron et al., Int J Biol Sci 3(2): 111-119, 2007; Li et al., Int J Biol Sci 3(2): 120-128, 2007; McMahon et al., Molecular Vision 13: 258-272, 2007; Vasireddy et al., Hum Mol Genet 16(5): 471-482, 2007) from dehydration due to loss of VLC-SFA that comprise the skin permeability barrier. Double transgenic mice with homozygous knock-in of the Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STDG3; 797-801_AACTT) mutation of Elovl4 with skin-specific rescue of wild-type Elovl4 expression (S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice) develop seizures by P19 and die by P21. Electrophysiological analyses of hippocampal slices showed aberrant epileptogenic activity in S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice. FM1-43 dye release studies showed that synapses made by cultured hippocampal neurons from S + Elovl4 mut/mut mice exhibited accelerated synaptic release kinetics. Supplementation of VLC-SFA to cultured hippocampal neurons from mutant mice rescued defective synaptic release to wild-type rates. Together, these studies establish a critical, novel role for ELOVL4 and its VLC-SFA products in regulating synaptic release kinetics and epileptogenesis. Future studies aimed at understanding the molecular

  3. Recessive mutations in ELOVL4 cause ichthyosis, intellectual disability, and spastic quadriplegia.

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    Aldahmesh, Mohammed A; Mohamed, Jawahir Y; Alkuraya, Hisham S; Verma, Ishwar C; Puri, Ratna D; Alaiya, Ayodele A; Rizzo, William B; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2011-12-09

    Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) play important roles in membrane structure and cellular signaling, and their contribution to human health is increasingly recognized. Fatty acid elongases catalyze the first and rate-limiting step in VLCFA synthesis. Heterozygous mutations in ELOVL4, the gene encoding one of the elongases, are known to cause macular degeneration in humans and retinal abnormalities in mice. However, biallelic ELOVL4 mutations have not been observed in humans, and murine models with homozygous mutations die within hours of birth as a result of a defective epidermal water barrier. Here, we report on two human individuals with recessive ELOVL4 mutations revealed by a combination of autozygome analysis and exome sequencing. These individuals exhibit clinical features of ichthyosis, seizures, mental retardation, and spasticity-a constellation that resembles Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) but presents a more severe neurologic phenotype. Our findings identify recessive mutations in ELOVL4 as the cause of a neuro-ichthyotic disease and emphasize the importance of VLCFA synthesis in brain and cutaneous development. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel recessive mutation in the gene ELOVL4 causes a neuro-ichthyotic disorder with variable expressivity

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    2014-01-01

    Background A rare neuro-ichthyotic disorder characterized by ichthyosis, spastic quadriplegia and intellectual disability and caused by recessive mutations in ELOVL4, encoding elongase-4 protein has recently been described. The objective of the study was to search for sequence variants in the gene ELOVL4 in three affected individuals of a consanguineous Pakistani family exhibiting features of neuro-ichthyotic disorder. Methods Linkage in the family was searched by genotyping microsatellite markers linked to the gene ELOVL4, mapped at chromosome 6p14.1. Exons and splice junction sites of the gene ELOVL4 were polymerase chain reaction amplified and sequenced in an automated DNA sequencer. Results DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel homozygous nonsense mutation (c.78C > G; p.Tyr26*). Conclusions Our report further confirms the recently described ELOVL4-related neuro-ichthyosis and shows that the neurological phenotype can be absent in some individuals. PMID:24571530

  5. ELOVL4 protein preferentially elongates 20:5n3 to very long chain PUFAs over 20:4n6 and 22:6n3[S

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    Yu, Man; Benham, Aaron; Logan, Sreemathi; Brush, R. Steven; Mandal, Md Nawajes A.; Anderson, Robert E.; Agbaga, Martin-Paul

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that reduction/loss of very long chain PUFAs (VLC-PUFAs) due to mutations in the ELOngase of very long chain fatty acid-4 (ELOVL4) protein contributes to retinal degeneration in autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) and age-related macular degeneration; hence, increasing VLC-PUFA in the retina of these patients could provide some therapeutic benefits. Thus, we tested the efficiency of elongation of C20-C22 PUFA by the ELOVL4 protein to determine which substrates are the best precursors for biosynthesis of VLC-PUFA. The ELOVL4 protein was expressed in pheochromocytoma cells, while green fluorescent protein-expressing and nontransduced cells served as controls. The cells were treated with 20:5n3, 22:6n3, and 20:4n6, either individually or in equal combinations. Both transduced and control cells internalized and elongated the supplemented FAs to C22-C26 precursors. Only ELOVL4-expressing cells synthesized C28-C38 VLC-PUFA from these precursors. In general, 20:5n3 was more efficiently elongated to VLC-PUFA in the ELOVL4-expressing cells, regardless of whether it was in combination with 22:6n3 or with 20:4n6. In each FA treatment group, C34 and C36 VLC-PUFAs were the predominant VLC-PUFAs in the ELOVL4-expressing cells. In summary, 20:5n3, followed by 20:4n6, seems to be the best precursor for boosting the synthesis of VLC-PUFA by ELOVL4 protein. PMID:22158834

  6. A novel mutation in the ELOVL4 gene causes autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy.

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    Maugeri, A.; Meire, F.; Hoyng, C.B.; Vink, C.W.; Regemorter, N. van; Karan, G.; Yang, Z.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Zhang, K.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct clinical and genetic studies in a European family with autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (adSTGD-like MD) and to investigate the functional consequences of a novel ELOVL4 mutation. METHODS: Ophthalmic examination and mutation screening by direct sequencing of

  7. Motor Deficits and Cerebellar Atrophy in Elovl5 Knock Out Mice.

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    Hoxha, Eriola; Gabriele, Rebecca M C; Balbo, Ilaria; Ravera, Francesco; Masante, Linda; Zambelli, Vanessa; Albergo, Cristian; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Brusco, Alfredo; Borroni, Barbara; Tempia, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Spino-Cerebellar-Ataxia type 38 (SCA38) is caused by missense mutations in the very long chain fatty acid elongase 5 gene, ELOVL5 . The main clinical findings in this disease are ataxia, hyposmia and cerebellar atrophy. Mice in which Elovl5 has been knocked out represent a model of the loss of function hypothesis of SCA38. In agreement with this hypothesis, Elovl5 knock out mice reproduced the main symptoms of patients, motor deficits at the beam balance test and hyposmia. The cerebellar cortex of Elovl5 knock out mice showed a reduction of thickness of the molecular layer, already detectable at 6 months of age, confirmed at 12 and 18 months. The total perimeter length of the Purkinje cell (PC) layer was also reduced in Elovl5 knock out mice. Since Elovl5 transcripts are expressed by PCs, whose dendrites are a major component of the molecular layer, we hypothesized that an alteration of their dendrites might be responsible for the reduced thickness of this layer. Reconstruction of the dendritic tree of biocytin-filled PCs, followed by Sholl analysis, showed that the distribution of distal dendrites was significantly reduced in Elovl5 knock out mice. Dendritic spine density was conserved. These results suggest that Elovl5 knock out mice recapitulate SCA38 symptoms and that their cerebellar atrophy is due, at least in part, to a reduced extension of PC dendritic arborization.

  8. Molecular characterization of elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (elovl6) genes in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and their potential roles in adaptation to cold temperature.

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    Chen, Jingwen; Cui, Yun; Yan, Jie; Jiang, Jimin; Cao, Xiaojuan; Gao, Jian

    2018-08-05

    Elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid. Although functional characteristics of Elovl6 have been demonstrated in mammal, the role of elovl6 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we firstly cloned three isoforms of elovl6 (elovl6a, elovl6b and elovl6-like) from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Molecular characterizations of the three elovl6 isoforms in loach and their expressions of early life stages and different tissues were then determined. We also functionally characterized the three elovl6 isoforms using heterologous expression in baker's yeast. Results obtained here showed the three elovl6 proteins in loach can elongate C16:0 and C16:1 to C18:0 and C18:1, respectively. At last, to confirm the role of three loach elovl6 isoforms for elongation of fatty acids in adaption to cold stress, differences in skin histological structures, body fatty acid compositions, expressions of four hepatic lipogenesis or lipolysis related genes, and expressions of the three elovl6 isoforms and their related gene uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1) in different tissues were investigated in the loach reared in two different water temperatures (28 °C and 4 °C) for ten days. Cold stress increased ratios of C18/C16 and C20:5n-3/C18:3n-3 in loach body, and induced expressions of hepatic acyl-CoA delta-9 desaturase 1 (scd1), sterol-regulator element-binding protein 1 (srebp1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) and fatty acid synthase (fas). Meanwhile, significant differences were found in expressions of the three elovl6 isoforms in different tissues between 28 °C and 4 °C groups. Overall, this study suggests that the three elovl6 isoforms in loach have ability to elongate C16 to C18, and elovl6 proteins in loach may play a role in adaptation to cold stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Systemic Age-Associated DNA Hypermethylation of ELOVL2 Gene: In Vivo and In Vitro Evidences of a Cell Replication Process.

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    Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Deelen, Joris; Pirazzini, Chiara; De Cecco, Marco; Giuliani, Cristina; Lanzarini, Catia; Ravaioli, Francesco; Marasco, Elena; van Heemst, Diana; Suchiman, H Eka D; Slieker, Roderick; Giampieri, Enrico; Recchioni, Rina; Mercheselli, Fiorella; Salvioli, Stefano; Vitale, Giovanni; Olivieri, Fabiola; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Dollé, Martijn E T; Sedivy, John M; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio; Slagboom, Pieternella E; Garagnani, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetic remodeling is one of the major features of the aging process. We recently demonstrated that DNA methylation of ELOVL2 and FHL2 CpG islands is highly correlated with age in whole blood. Here we investigated several aspects of age-associated hypermethylation of ELOVL2 and FHL2. We showed that ELOVL2 methylation is significantly different in primary dermal fibroblast cultures from donors of different ages. Using epigenomic data from public resources, we demonstrated that most of the tissues show ELOVL2 and FHL2 hypermethylation with age. Interestingly, ELOVL2 hypermethylation was not found in tissues with very low replication rate. We demonstrated that ELOVL2 hypermethylation is associated with in vitro cell replication rather than with senescence. We confirmed intra-individual hypermethylation of ELOVL2 and FHL2 in longitudinally assessed participants from the Doetinchem Cohort Study. Finally we showed that, although the methylation of the two loci is not associated with longevity/mortality in the Leiden Longevity Study, ELOVL2 methylation is associated with cytomegalovirus status in nonagenarians, which could be informative of a higher number of replication events in a fraction of whole-blood cells. Collectively, these results indicate that ELOVL2 methylation is a marker of cell divisions occurring during human aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Genetic analysis of the ELOVL6 gene polymorphism associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Liu, Y.; Wang, F.; Yu, X.L.; Miao, Z.M.; Wang, Z.C.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Y.G. [Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao (China)

    2013-08-10

    Recent animal studies have indicated that overexpression of the elongation of long-chain fatty acids family member 6 (Elovl6) gene can cause insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. These are the major factors involved in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To identify the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of ELOVL6 and T2DM pathogenesis, we conducted a case-control study of 610 Han Chinese individuals (328 newly diagnosed T2DM and 282 healthy subjects). Insulin resistance and islet first-phase secretion function were evaluated by assessment of insulin resistance in a homeostasis model (HOMA-IR) and an arginine stimulation test. Three SNPs of the ELOVL6 gene were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, with DNA sequencing used to confirm the results. Only genotypes TT and CT of the ELOVL6 SNP rs12504538 were detected in the samples. Genotype CC was not observed. The T2DM group had a higher frequency of the C allele and the CT genotype than the control group. Subjects with the CT genotype had higher HOMA-IR values than those with the TT genotype. In addition, no statistical significance was observed between the genotype and allele frequencies of the control and T2DM groups for SNPs rs17041272 and rs6824447. The study indicated that the ELOVL6 gene polymorphism rs12504538 is associated with an increased risk of T2DM, because it causes an increase in insulin resistance.

  11. Genetic analysis of the ELOVL6 gene polymorphism associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Liu, Y.; Wang, F.; Yu, X.L.; Miao, Z.M.; Wang, Z.C.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Y.G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent animal studies have indicated that overexpression of the elongation of long-chain fatty acids family member 6 (Elovl6) gene can cause insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. These are the major factors involved in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To identify the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of ELOVL6 and T2DM pathogenesis, we conducted a case-control study of 610 Han Chinese individuals (328 newly diagnosed T2DM and 282 healthy subjects). Insulin resistance and islet first-phase secretion function were evaluated by assessment of insulin resistance in a homeostasis model (HOMA-IR) and an arginine stimulation test. Three SNPs of the ELOVL6 gene were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, with DNA sequencing used to confirm the results. Only genotypes TT and CT of the ELOVL6 SNP rs12504538 were detected in the samples. Genotype CC was not observed. The T2DM group had a higher frequency of the C allele and the CT genotype than the control group. Subjects with the CT genotype had higher HOMA-IR values than those with the TT genotype. In addition, no statistical significance was observed between the genotype and allele frequencies of the control and T2DM groups for SNPs rs17041272 and rs6824447. The study indicated that the ELOVL6 gene polymorphism rs12504538 is associated with an increased risk of T2DM, because it causes an increase in insulin resistance

  12. Genetic analysis of the ELOVL6 gene polymorphism associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Y. Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent animal studies have indicated that overexpression of the elongation of long-chain fatty acids family member 6 (Elovl6 gene can cause insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. These are the major factors involved in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. To identify the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of ELOVL6 and T2DM pathogenesis, we conducted a case-control study of 610 Han Chinese individuals (328 newly diagnosed T2DM and 282 healthy subjects. Insulin resistance and islet first-phase secretion function were evaluated by assessment of insulin resistance in a homeostasis model (HOMA-IR and an arginine stimulation test. Three SNPs of the ELOVL6 gene were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, with DNA sequencing used to confirm the results. Only genotypes TT and CT of the ELOVL6 SNP rs12504538 were detected in the samples. Genotype CC was not observed. The T2DM group had a higher frequency of the C allele and the CT genotype than the control group. Subjects with the CT genotype had higher HOMA-IR values than those with the TT genotype. In addition, no statistical significance was observed between the genotype and allele frequencies of the control and T2DM groups for SNPs rs17041272 and rs6824447. The study indicated that the ELOVL6 gene polymorphism rs12504538 is associated with an increased risk of T2DM, because it causes an increase in insulin resistance.

  13. Dehydrins Impart Protection against Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

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    Halder, Tanmoy; Upadhyaya, Gouranga; Basak, Chandra; Das, Arup; Chakraborty, Chandrima; Ray, Sudipta

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stresses generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be detrimental to the plants when produced in an uncontrolled way. However, the plants ameliorate such stresses by synthesizing antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the dismutation of ROS. Additionally, the dehydrins were also able to protect the inactivation of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase against hydroxyl radicals (OH ⋅ ) generated during Fenton's reaction. SbDhn1 and SbDhn2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were able to protect against oxidative damage. Transgenic tobacco lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency along with high chlorophyll content, soluble sugar and proline. However, the malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly lower in transgenic lines. Experimental evidence demonstrates the protective effect of dehydrins on electron transport chain in isolated chloroplast upon methyl viologen (MV) treatment. The transgenic tobacco plants showed significantly lower superoxide radical generation () upon MV treatment. The accumulation of the H 2 O 2 was also lower in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, in the transgenic plants the expression of ROS scavenging enzymes was higher compared to non-transformed (NT) or vector transformed (VT) plants. Taken together these data, during oxidative stress dehydrins function by scavenging the () directly and also by rendering protection to the enzymes responsible for the dismutation of () thereby significantly reducing the amount of hydrogen peroxides formed. Increase in proline content along with other antioxidants might also play a significant role in stress amelioration. Dehydrins thus function co-operatively with other protective mechanisms under oxidative stress conditions rendering protection in stress environment.

  14. Methylation associated transcriptional repression of ELOVL5 in novel colorectal cancer cell lines.

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    Arnoud Boot

    Full Text Available Genetic and epigenetic alterations mark colorectal cancer (CRC. Global hypomethylation is observed in nearly all CRC, but a distinct subset of CRC show the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP. These tumors show DNA hypermethylation of a specific subset of CpG islands, resulting in transcriptional downregulation of nearby genes. Recently we reported the establishment of novel CRC cell lines derived from primary and metastatic CRC tissues. In this study we describe the DNA methylation profiling of these low passage CRC cell lines. We generated global DNA methylation profiles with Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips and analysed them in conjunction with matching gene expression profiles. Multidimensional scaling of the DNA methylation and gene expression datasets showed that BRAF mutated cell lines form a distinct group. In this group we investigated the 706 loci which we have previously identified to be hypermethylated in BRAF mutant CRC. We validated the significant findings in the The Cancer Genome Atlas colon adenocarcinoma dataset. Our analysis identified ELOVL5, FAM127B, MTERF1, ZNF606 to be subject to transcriptional downregulation through DNA hypermethylation in CRC. We further investigated ELOVL5 with qPCR and immunohistochemical staining, validating our results, but did not find a clear relation between ELOVL5 expression and tumor stage or relapse free survival. ELOVL5, FAM127B, MTERF1, ZNF606 are involved in important cellular processes such as apoptosis, lipogenesis and the downstream transcriptional effect of the MAPK-pathway. We have identified a DNA methylation profile regulating key cellular processes in CRC, resulting in a growth advantage to the tumor cells.

  15. Gene expression of desaturase (FADS1 and FADS2) and Elongase (ELOVL5) enzymes in peripheral blood: association with polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and atopic eczema in 4-year-old children.

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    Chisaguano, Aida Maribel; Montes, Rosa; Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Guerendiain, Marcela; Bustamante, Mariona; Morales, Eva; García-Esteban, Raquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Franch, Angels; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown if changes in the gene expression of the desaturase and elongase enzymes are associated with abnormal n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in children with atopic eczema (AE). We analyzed whether mRNA-expression of genes encoding key enzymes of LC-PUFA synthesis (FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL5) is associated with circulating LC-PUFA levels and risk of AE in 4-year-old children. AE (n=20) and non-AE (n=104) children participating in the Sabadell cohort within the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project were included in the present study. RT-PCR with TaqMan Low-Density Array cards was used to measure the mRNA-expression of FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL5. LC-PUFA levels were measured by fast gas chromatography in plasma phospholipids. The relationship of gene expression with LC-PUFA levels and enzyme activities was evaluated by Pearson's rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression models were used to study its association with risk of developing AE. Children with AE had lower levels of several n-6 PUFA members, dihomo-γ-linolenic (DGLA) and arachidonic (AA) acids. mRNA-expression levels of FADS1 and 2 strongly correlated with DGLA levels and with D6D activity. FADS2 and ELOVL5 mRNA-expression levels were significantly lower in AE than in non-AE children (-40.30% and -20.36%; respectively), but no differences were found for FADS1. Changes in the mRNA-expression levels of FADS1 and 2 directly affect blood DGLA levels and D6D activity. This study suggests that lower mRNA-expressions of FADS2 and ELOVL5 are associated with higher risk of atopic eczema in young children.

  16. Gene Expression of Desaturase (FADS1 and FADS2) and Elongase (ELOVL5) Enzymes in Peripheral Blood: Association with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Atopic Eczema in 4-Year-Old Children

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    Chisaguano, Aida Maribel; Montes, Rosa; Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Guerendiain, Marcela; Bustamante, Mariona; Morales, Eva; García-Esteban, Raquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Franch, Àngels; López-Sabater, M. Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background It is unknown if changes in the gene expression of the desaturase and elongase enzymes are associated with abnormal n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in children with atopic eczema (AE). We analyzed whether mRNA-expression of genes encoding key enzymes of LC-PUFA synthesis (FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL5) is associated with circulating LC-PUFA levels and risk of AE in 4-year-old children. Methods AE (n=20) and non-AE (n=104) children participating in the Sabadell cohort within the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project were included in the present study. RT-PCR with TaqMan Low-Density Array cards was used to measure the mRNA-expression of FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL5. LC-PUFA levels were measured by fast gas chromatography in plasma phospholipids. The relationship of gene expression with LC-PUFA levels and enzyme activities was evaluated by Pearson’s rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression models were used to study its association with risk of developing AE. Results Children with AE had lower levels of several n-6 PUFA members, dihomo-γ-linolenic (DGLA) and arachidonic (AA) acids. mRNA-expression levels of FADS1 and 2 strongly correlated with DGLA levels and with D6D activity. FADS2 and ELOVL5 mRNA-expression levels were significantly lower in AE than in non-AE children (-40.30% and -20.36%; respectively), but no differences were found for FADS1. Conclusions and Significance Changes in the mRNA-expression levels of FADS1 and 2 directly affect blood DGLA levels and D6D activity. This study suggests that lower mRNA-expressions of FADS2 and ELOVL5 are associated with higher risk of atopic eczema in young children. PMID:24167612

  17. Two modes of regulation of the fatty acid elongase ELOVL6 by the 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase KAR in the fatty acid elongation cycle.

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    Tatsuro Naganuma

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs are diverse molecules, and such diversity is important for lipids to exert their functions under several environmental conditions. FA elongation occurs at the endoplasmic reticulum and produces a variety of FA species; the FA elongation cycle consists of four distinct enzyme reactions. For this cycle to be driven efficiently, there must exist coordinated regulation of protein components of the FA elongation machinery. However, such regulation is poorly understood. In the present study, we performed biochemical analyses using the FA elongase ELOVL6 and the 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase KAR, which catalyze the first and second steps of the FA elongation cycle, respectively. In vitro FA elongation assays using membrane fractions demonstrated that ELOVL6 activity was enhanced ∼10-fold in the presence of NADPH, although ELOVL6 itself did not require NADPH for its catalysis. On the other hand, KAR does use NADPH as a reductant in its enzyme reaction. Activity of purified ELOVL6 was enhanced by ∼3-fold in the presence of KAR. This effect was KAR enzyme activity-independent, since it was observed in the absence of NADPH and in the KAR mutant. However, ELOVL6 enzyme activity was further enhanced in a KAR enzyme activity-dependent manner. Therefore, KAR regulates ELOVL6 via two modes. In the first mode, KAR may induce conformational changes in ELOVL6 to become structure that can undergo catalysis. In the second mode, conversion of 3-ketoacyl-CoA to 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA by KAR may facilitate release of the product from the presumed ELOVL6-KAR complex.

  18. Examination of DNA methylation status of the ELOVL2 marker may be useful for human age prediction in forensic science.

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    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Makowska, Żanetta; Spas, Anna; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation in forensic investigations may complement the prediction of externally visible characteristics and the inference of biogeographical ancestry, thus allowing a better description of an unknown individual. Multiple CpG sites that show linear correlation between age and degree of DNA methylation have been identified in the human genome, providing a selection of candidates for age prediction. In this study, we optimized an assay based on bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of 7 CpG sites located in the ELOVL2 gene. Examination of 303 blood samples collected from individuals aged 2-75 years allowed selection of the most informative site, explaining 83% of variation in age. The final linear regression model included two CpG sites in ELOVL2 and enabled age prediction with R(2)=0.859, prediction error=6.85 and mean absolute deviation MAD=5.03. Examination of a testing set of 124 blood samples (MAD=5.75) showed that 68.5% of samples were correctly predicted, assuming that chronological and predicted ages matched ± 7 years. It was found that the ELOVL2 methylation status in bloodstains had not changed significantly after 4 weeks of storage in room temperature conditions. Analysis of 45 bloodstains deposited on tissue paper after 5, 10 and 15 years of storage in room conditions indicated that although a gradual decrease of positive PCR results was observed, the general age prediction success rate remained similar and equaled 60-78%. The obtained results show that the ELOVL2 locus provides a very good source of information about human chronological age based on analysis of blood, including bloodstains, and it may constitute a powerful and reliable predictor in future forensic age estimation models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the FADS Gene Cluster but not the ELOVL2 Gene are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition and Development of Allergy (in a Swedish Birth Cohort

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    Malin Barman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA influences immune function and may affect the risk of allergy development. Long chain PUFAs are produced from dietary precursors catalyzed by desaturases and elongases encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes. In 211 subjects, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL2 gene were associated with allergy or PUFA composition in serum phospholipids in a Swedish birth-cohort sampled at birth and at 13 years of age; allergy was diagnosed at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs102275 and rs174448 (FADS gene cluster had decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord and adolescent serum and increased proportions of 20:3 n-6 in cord serum as well as a nominally reduced risk of developing atopic eczema, but not respiratory allergy, at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs17606561 in the ELOVL2 gene had nominally decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord serum but ELOVL polymorphisms (rs2236212 and rs17606561 were not associated with allergy development. Thus, reduced capacity to desaturase n-6 PUFAs due to FADS polymorphisms was nominally associated with reduced risk for eczema development, which could indicate a pathogenic role for long-chain PUFAs in allergy development.

  20. Association of maternal weight with FADS and ELOVL genetic variants and fatty acid levels- The PREOBE follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza Puentes, Andrea; Montes Goyanes, Rosa; Chisaguano Tonato, Aida Maribel; Torres-Espínola, Francisco José; Arias García, Miriam; de Almeida, Leonor; Bonilla Aguirre, María; Guerendiain, Marcela; Castellote Bargalló, Ana Isabel; Segura Moreno, Maite; García-Valdés, Luz; Campoy, Cristina; Lopez-Sabater, M. Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) and elongase (ELOVL) enzymes affect long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) production. We aimed to determine if these SNPs are associated with body mass index (BMI) or affect fatty acids (FAs) in pregnant women. Participants (n = 180) from the PREOBE cohort were grouped according to pre-pregnancy BMI: normal-weight (BMI = 18.5–24.9, n = 88) and overweight/obese (BMI≥25, n = 92). Plasma samples were analyzed at 24 weeks of gestation to measure FA levels in the phospholipid fraction. Selected SNPs were genotyped (7 in FADS1, 5 in FADS2, 3 in ELOVL2 and 2 in ELOVL5). Minor allele carriers of rs174545, rs174546, rs174548 and rs174553 (FADS1), and rs1535 and rs174583 (FADS2) were nominally associated with an increased risk of having a BMI≥25. Only for the normal-weight group, minor allele carriers of rs174537, rs174545, rs174546, and rs174553 (FADS1) were negatively associated with AA:DGLA index. Normal-weight women who were minor allele carriers of FADS SNPs had lower levels of AA, AA:DGLA and AA:LA indexes, and higher levels of DGLA, compared to major homozygotes. Among minor allele carriers of FADS2 and ELOVL2 SNPs, overweight/obese women showed higher DHA:EPA index than the normal-weight group; however, they did not present higher DHA concentrations than the normal-weight women. In conclusion, minor allele carriers of FADS SNPs have an increased risk of obesity. Maternal weight changes the effect of genotype on FA levels. Only in the normal-weight group, minor allele carriers of FADS SNPs displayed reduced enzymatic activity and FA levels. This suggests that women with a BMI≥25 are less affected by FADS genetic variants in this regard. In the presence of FADS2 and ELOVL2 SNPs, overweight/obese women showed higher n-3 LC-PUFA production indexes than women with normal weight, but this was not enough to obtain a higher n-3 LC-PUFA concentration. PMID:28598979

  1. Dominant ELOVL1 mutation causes neurological disorder with ichthyotic keratoderma, spasticity, hypomyelination and dysmorphic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Anna; Rydzanicz, Małgorzata; Chlebowski, Aleksander; Kłosowska-Kosicka, Kamila; Mika, Adriana; Gruchota, Jakub; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta; Kowalewski, Cezary; Pollak, Agnieszka; Stradomska, Teresa Joanna; Kmieć, Tomasz; Jakubowski, Rafał; Gasperowicz, Piotr; Walczak, Anna; Śladowski, Dariusz; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Korniszewski, Lech; Kosińska, Joanna; Obersztyn, Ewa; Nowak, Wieslaw; Śledziński, Tomasz; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Płoski, Rafał

    2018-06-01

    Ichthyosis and neurological involvement occur in relatively few known Mendelian disorders caused by mutations in genes relevant both for epidermis and neural function. To identify the cause of a similar phenotype of ichthyotic keratoderma, spasticity, mild hypomyelination (on MRI) and dysmorphic features (IKSHD) observed in two unrelated paediatric probands without family history of disease. Whole exome sequencing was performed in both patients. The functional effect of prioritised variant in ELOVL1 (very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) elongase) was analysed by VLCFA profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in stably transfected HEK2932 cells and in cultured patient's fibroblasts. Probands shared novel heterozygous ELOVL1 p.Ser165Phe mutation (de novo in one family, while in the other family, father could not be tested). In transfected cells p.Ser165Phe: (1) reduced levels of FAs C24:0-C28:0 and C26:1 with the most pronounced effect for C26:0 (P=7.8×10 -6  vs HEK293 cells with wild type (wt) construct, no difference vs naïve HEK293) and (2) increased levels of C20:0 and C22:0 (P=6.3×10 -7 , P=1.2×10 -5 , for C20:0 and C22:0, respectively, comparison vs HEK293 cells with wt construct; P=2.2×10 -7 , P=1.9×10 -4 , respectively, comparison vs naïve HEK293). In skin fibroblasts, there was decrease of C26:1 (P=0.014), C28:0 (P=0.001) and increase of C20:0 (P=0.033) in the patient versus controls. There was a strong correlation (r=0.92, P=0.008) between the FAs profile of patient's fibroblasts and that of p.Ser165Phe transfected HEK293 cells. Serum levels of C20:0-C26:0 FAs were normal, but the C24:0/C22:0 ratio was decreased. The ELOVL1 p.Ser165Phe mutation is a likely cause of IKSHD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Integration of biological control and transgenic insect protection for mitigation of mycotoxins in corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is known to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination of corn and some transgenic corn hybrids incur greatly reduced damage from corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). We conducted seven field trials over two years to test the hypothesis that transgenic insect protection and biol...

  3. Protection of the photosynthetic apparatus from extreme dehydration and oxidative stress in seedlings of transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Almoguera

    Full Text Available A genetic program that in sunflower seeds is activated by Heat Shock transcription Factor A9 (HaHSFA9 has been analyzed in transgenic tobacco seedlings. The ectopic overexpression of the HSFA9 program protected photosynthetic membranes, which resisted extreme dehydration and oxidative stress conditions. In contrast, heat acclimation of seedlings induced thermotolerance but not resistance to the harsh stress conditions employed. The HSFA9 program was found to include the expression of plastidial small Heat Shock Proteins that accumulate only at lower abundance in heat-stressed vegetative organs. Photosystem II (PSII maximum quantum yield was higher for transgenic seedlings than for non-transgenic seedlings, after either stress treatment. Furthermore, protection of both PSII and Photosystem I (PSI membrane protein complexes was observed in the transgenic seedlings, leading to their survival after the stress treatments. It was also shown that the plastidial D1 protein, a labile component of the PSII reaction center, and the PSI core protein PsaB were shielded from oxidative damage and degradation. We infer that natural expression of the HSFA9 program during embryogenesis may protect seed pro-plastids from developmental desiccation.

  4. TRANSGENIC PLANTS OF RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L. WITH GENE OSMYB4 HAVE INCREASED RESISTANCE TO SALTS OF HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raldugina G.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the response of the transgenic spring rape plants (Brassica napus L. var. ‘Westar’ with the rice transfactor-encoding gene Osmyb4 to treatment with salts of heavy metals (HM CuSO4 or ZnSO4 and accumulation in the leaves of biomass, metals, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant compounds: total phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant enzyme activity superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were determined. Vegetatively propagated transgenic plants and wild-type plants were grown on Hoagland-Snyder medium at 24°C, then at the 5-6th leaves-stage, CuSO4 (in concentration 25-150 mM or ZnSO4 (500 - 5000 mM were added to the growth medium, and plants were exposed to the salts for 15 days. Under the action of small concentrations of salts, the results obtained for the transgenic and untransformed plants did not differ, but at high concentrations strong differences between transgenic and untransformed plants were observed. In transgenic plants, accumulation of biomass was greater. Carotene and xanthophyll were destroyed in transgenic plants less than in the untransformed plants. They have accumulated in their leaves more metal, especially Zn, reaching almost to the accumulation of 7 mg per g of dry biomass, bringing these plants to the hyperaccumulation of Zn. In the tissues of transgenic plants exposed to high concentrations of salts, the content of total phenols, anthocyanins, and low molecular weight compounds, that are responsible for protection against ROS, increased significantly. All these results indicate a greater stability of the transgenic plants to the action of heavy metals, as evidenced also by less activity of lipid peroxidases in their tissue: at high salt concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA accumulated significantly less in transgenic plants than in non-transformed plant tissues. The greater stability of transgenic plants to stressful effect of HM is also evidenced by the

  5. Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, James; James, Anthony; Paul, Jean-Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Smith, Mark; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Garcia-Bastidas, Fernando; Kema, Gert; Waterhouse, Peter; Mengersen, Kerrie; Harding, Robert

    2017-11-14

    Banana (Musa spp.) is a staple food for more than 400 million people. Over 40% of world production and virtually all the export trade is based on Cavendish banana. However, Cavendish banana is under threat from a virulent fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) for which no acceptable resistant replacement has been identified. Here we report the identification of transgenic Cavendish with resistance to TR4. In our 3-year field trial, two lines of transgenic Cavendish, one transformed with RGA2, a gene isolated from a TR4-resistant diploid banana, and the other with a nematode-derived gene, Ced9, remain disease free. Transgene expression in the RGA2 lines is strongly correlated with resistance. Endogenous RGA2 homologs are also present in Cavendish but are expressed tenfold lower than that in our most resistant transgenic line. The expression of these homologs can potentially be elevated through gene editing, to provide non-transgenic resistance.

  6. Oviduct-Specific Expression of Human Neutrophil Defensin 4 in Lentivirally Generated Transgenic Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongxin; Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Li, Qingyuan; Zhang, Yaqiong; Li, Ning; Hu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    The expression of oviduct-specific recombinant proteins in transgenic chickens is a promising technology for the production of therapeutic biologics in eggs. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector encoding an expression cassette for human neutrophil defensin 4 (HNP4), a compound that displays high activity against Escherichia coli, and produced transgenic chickens that expressed the recombinant HNP4 protein in egg whites. After the antimicrobial activity of the recombinant HNP4 protein was tested at the cellular level, a 2.8-kb ovalbumin promoter was used to drive HNP4 expression specifically in oviduct tissues. From 669 injected eggs, 218 chickens were successfully hatched. Ten G0 roosters, with semens identified as positive for the transgene, were mated with wild-type hens to generate G1 chickens. From 1,274 total offspring, fifteen G1 transgenic chickens were positive for the transgene, which was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The results of the Southern blotting and genome walking indicated that a single copy of the HNP4 gene was integrated into chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 of the chickens. As expected, HNP4 expression was restricted to the oviduct tissues, and the levels of both transcriptional and translational HNP4 expression varied greatly in transgenic chickens with different transgene insertion sites. The amount of HNP4 protein expressed in the eggs of G1 and G2 heterozygous transgenic chickens ranged from 1.65 μg/ml to 10.18 μg/ml. These results indicated that the production of transgenic chickens that expressed HNP4 protein in egg whites was successful. PMID:26020529

  7. Glufosinate ammonium-induced pathogen inhibition and defense responses culminate in disease protection in bar-transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2008-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium diminished developments of rice (Oryza sativa) blast and brown leaf spot in 35S:bar-transgenic rice. Pre- and postinoculation treatments of this herbicide reduced disease development. Glufosinate ammonium specifically impeded appressorium formation of the pathogens Magnaporthe grisea and Cochliobolus miyabeanus on hydrophobic surface and on transgenic rice. In contrast, conidial germination remained unaffected. Glufosinate ammonium diminished mycelial growth of two pathogens; however, this inhibitory effect was attenuated in malnutrition conditions. Glufosinate ammonium caused slight chlorosis and diminished chlorophyll content; however, these alterations were almost completely restored in transgenic rice within 7 d. Glufosinate ammonium triggered transcriptions of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in transgenic rice and PR1 transcription in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild-type ecotype Columbia harboring 35S:bar construct. All transgenic Arabidopsis showed robust hydrogen peroxide accumulation by glufosinate ammonium. This herbicide also induced PR1 transcription in etr1 and jar1 expressing bar; however, no expression was observed in NahG and npr1. Fungal infection did not alter transcriptions of PR genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation induced by glufosinate ammonium. Infiltration of glufosinate ammonium did not affect appressorium formation of M. grisea in vivo but inhibited blast disease development. Hydrogen peroxide scavengers nullified blast protection and transcriptions of PR genes by glufosinate ammonium; however, they did not affect brown leaf spot progression. In sum, both direct inhibition of pathogen infection and activation of defense systems were responsible for disease protection in bar-transgenic rice.

  8. Transcervical Inoculation with Chlamydia trachomatis Induces Infertility in HLA-DR4 Transgenic and Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sukumar; Tifrea, Delia F; Zhong, Guangming; de la Maza, Luis M

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of infection-induced infertility in women. Attempts to control this epidemic with screening programs and antibiotic therapy have failed. Currently, a vaccine to prevent C. trachomatis infections is not available. In order to develop an animal model for evaluating vaccine antigens that can be applied to humans, we used C. trachomatis serovar D (strain UW-3/Cx) to induce infertility in mice whose major histocompatibility complex class II antigen was replaced with the human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4). Transcervical inoculation of medroxyprogesterone-treated HLA-DR4 transgenic mice with 5 × 10 5 C. trachomatis D inclusion forming units (IFU) induced a significant reduction in fertility, with a mean number of embryos/mouse of 4.4 ± 1.3 compared to 7.8 ± 0.5 for the uninfected control mice ( P < 0.05). A similar fertility reduction was elicited in the wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (4.3 ± 1.4 embryos/mouse) compared to the levels of the WT controls (9.1 ± 0.4 embryos/mouse) ( P < 0.05). Following infection, WT mice mounted more robust humoral and cellular immune responses than HLA-DR4 mice. As determined by vaginal shedding, HLA-DR4 mice were more susceptible to a transcervical C. trachomatis D infection than WT mice. To assess if HLA-DR4 transgenic and WT mice could be protected by vaccination, 10 4 IFU of C. trachomatis D was delivered intranasally, and mice were challenged transcervically 6 weeks later with 5 × 10 5 IFU of C. trachomatis D. As determined by severity and length of vaginal shedding, WT C57BL/6 and HLA-DR4 mice were significantly protected by vaccination. The advantages and limitations of the HLA-DR4 transgenic mouse model for evaluating human C. trachomatis vaccine antigens are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Molecular phenotyping of multiple mouse strains under metabolic challenge uncovers a role for Elovl2 in glucose-induced insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest a role for Elovl2 in ensuring normal insulin secretory responses to glucose. Moreover, the large comprehensive dataset and integrative network-based approach provides a new resource to dissect the molecular etiology of β cell failure under metabolic stress.

  10. Expression of cartilage developmental genes in Hoxc8- and Hoxd4-transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kruger

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes encode transcription factors, which regulate skeletal patterning and chondrocyte differentiation during the development of cartilage, the precursor to mature bone. Overexpression of the homeobox transcription factors Hoxc8 and Hoxd4 causes severe cartilage defects due to delay in cartilage maturation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and fibroblastic growth factors (FGFs are known to play important roles in skeletal development and endochondral bone formation and remodeling. In order to investigate whether these molecules are aberrantly expressed in Hoxc8- and/or Hoxd4-transgenic cartilage, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on chondrocytes from Hox-transgenic mice. Gene expression levels of Bmp4, Fgf8, Fgf10, Mmp9, Mmp13, Nos3, Timp3, Wnt3a and Wnt5a were altered in Hoxc8-transgenic chondrocytes, and Fgfr3, Ihh, Mmp8, and Wnt3a expression levels were altered in Hoxd4-transgenic chondrocytes, respectively. Notably, Wnt3a expression was elevated in Hoxc8- and reduced in Hoxd4-transgenic cartilage. These results suggest that both transcription factors affect cartilage maturation through different molecular mechanisms, and provide the basis for future studies into the role of these genes and possible interactions in pathogenesis of cartilage defects in Hoxc8- and Hoxd4-transgenic mice.

  11. Epigenetic regulation of the ELOVL6 gene is associated with a major QTL effect on fatty acid composition in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corominas, J.; Marchesi, J.A.; Puig-Oliveras, A.; Revilla, M.; Estelle, J.; Alves, E.; Folch, J.M.; Ballester, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In previous studies on an Iberian x Landrace cross, we have provided evidence that supported the porcine ELOVL6 gene as the major causative gene of the QTL on pig chromosome 8 for palmitic and palmitoleic acid contents in muscle and backfat. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

  12. Status and risk assessment of the use of transgenic arthropods in plant protection. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    New developments in the modern biotechnology have opened up the possibility of introducing genes into the germline of many insect species, including those of agricultural importance. This technology offers the potential to improve current pest control strategies that incorporate the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Potential improvements include the development of strains that (1) produce only male insects for sterilization and release and (2) carry a marker that distinguishes them from wild insects. There are many institutions involved in the development of transgenic insect technology both for studies on basic gene regulation and for the creation of transgenic strains for use in a wide range of insect control programmes. It has been realized that the release into the environment of transgenic insects will not be an easy process considering the current public sensitivities in this area. The fact that insects are mobile and that once released cannot be recalled creates much concern. If fertile transgenic insects were to be released in any type of control programme, then the transgene would enter the wild population through mating. This strategy is fraught with, as yet, unknown risks and it is inconceivable that regulatory approval will be given for such a release in the near future. However, when transgenic strains are integrated into a sterile insect release then the concerns about transmission of the transgene to the wild population disappear as the matings between the released and the wild insects are sterile. This scenario is likely to be the first type of transgenic release. Insects that are currently released in SIT programmes experience no significant regulatory problems, but this will not be the case if the insects that are released are transgenic, even if they are sterile. The meeting Status and Risk Assessment of the Use of Transgenic Arthropods in Plant Protection held in FAO Headquarters, Rome, in April 2002 was the first effort to bring together

  13. Constitutive ω-3 fatty acid production in fat-1 transgenic mice and docosahexaenoic acid administration to wild type mice protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Hye-Won; Kang, Jing X; Hahm, Ki Baik; Surh, Young-Joon

    2017-06-10

    Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to have strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs on experimentally induced murine colitis. Intrarectal administration of 2.5% 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) caused inflammation in the colon of wild type mice, but this was less severe in fat-1 transgenic mice that constitutively produce ω-3 PUFAs from ω-6 PUFAs. The intraperitoneal administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a representative ω-3 PUFA, was also protective against TNBS-induced murine colitis. In addition, endogenously formed and exogenously introduced ω-3 PUFAs attenuated the production of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in the colon of TNBS-treated mice. The effective protection against inflammatory and oxidative colonic tissue damages in fat-1 and DHA-treated mice was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and with elevated activation of Nrf2 and upregulation of its target gene, heme oxygenase-1. Taken together, these results provide mechanistic basis of protective action of ω-3 fatty PUFAs against experimental colitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3 zeta protects hippocampus against endoplasmic reticulum stress and status epilepticus in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P Brennan

    Full Text Available 14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that are abundantly expressed in the brain where they regulate cell functions including metabolism, the cell cycle and apoptosis. Brain levels of several 14-3-3 isoforms are altered in diseases of the nervous system, including epilepsy. The 14-3-3 zeta (ζ isoform has been linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER function in neurons, with reduced levels provoking ER stress and increasing vulnerability to excitotoxic injury. Here we report that transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in mice results in selective changes to the unfolded protein response pathway in the hippocampus, including down-regulation of glucose-regulated proteins 78 and 94, activating transcription factors 4 and 6, and Xbp1 splicing. No differences were found between wild-type mice and transgenic mice for levels of other 14-3-3 isoforms or various other 14-3-3 binding proteins. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were potently protected against cell death caused by intracerebroventricular injection of the ER stressor tunicamycin. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were also potently protected against neuronal death caused by prolonged seizures. These studies demonstrate that increased 14-3-3ζ levels protect against ER stress and seizure-damage despite down-regulation of the unfolded protein response. Delivery of 14-3-3ζ may protect against pathologic changes resulting from prolonged or repeated seizures or where injuries provoke ER stress.

  15. Glufosinate Ammonium-Induced Pathogen Inhibition and Defense Responses Culminate in Disease Protection in bar-Transgenic Rice1[C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2008-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium diminished developments of rice (Oryza sativa) blast and brown leaf spot in 35S:bar-transgenic rice. Pre- and postinoculation treatments of this herbicide reduced disease development. Glufosinate ammonium specifically impeded appressorium formation of the pathogens Magnaporthe grisea and Cochliobolus miyabeanus on hydrophobic surface and on transgenic rice. In contrast, conidial germination remained unaffected. Glufosinate ammonium diminished mycelial growth of two pathogens; however, this inhibitory effect was attenuated in malnutrition conditions. Glufosinate ammonium caused slight chlorosis and diminished chlorophyll content; however, these alterations were almost completely restored in transgenic rice within 7 d. Glufosinate ammonium triggered transcriptions of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in transgenic rice and PR1 transcription in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild-type ecotype Columbia harboring 35S:bar construct. All transgenic Arabidopsis showed robust hydrogen peroxide accumulation by glufosinate ammonium. This herbicide also induced PR1 transcription in etr1 and jar1 expressing bar; however, no expression was observed in NahG and npr1. Fungal infection did not alter transcriptions of PR genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation induced by glufosinate ammonium. Infiltration of glufosinate ammonium did not affect appressorium formation of M. grisea in vivo but inhibited blast disease development. Hydrogen peroxide scavengers nullified blast protection and transcriptions of PR genes by glufosinate ammonium; however, they did not affect brown leaf spot progression. In sum, both direct inhibition of pathogen infection and activation of defense systems were responsible for disease protection in bar-transgenic rice. PMID:17981989

  16. Improved Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses to Vaccination with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in 4-1BB Transgenic Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangping Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most reliable measure to prevent infectious diseases in domestic animals. Development of novel vaccines demands extensive studies with new technologies, such as using novel adjuvants and immunomodulatory molecules. The co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB provides a key signal that directs the fate of T cells during activation, and thus is important to their function in immune protection. To determine whether host immune responses to viral infection could be promoted by enhancing 4-1BB co-stimulation, in this study, we produced transgenic pig clones expressing an extra copy of the 4-1BB gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated gene 9-mediated homologous recombination at the Rosa26 locus. The immune responses of transgenic pigs to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV vaccine were determined on day 14. We show that peripheral blood lymphocytes of transgenic pigs expressed around twice the level of 4-1BB mRNA than those of control pigs. We also found IL-2, TNF-α, and granzyme B mRNA levels as well as PRRSV-specific IFN-γ response were significantly upregulated in 4-1BB transgenic pigs, leading to more efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL killing, whereas the expressions of IL-4, IL-17, and Foxp3 were not affected. These results indicate that higher levels of 4-1BB expression involve in promoting Th1 differentiation and enhancing specific CTL responses to PRRSV, and provide a novel approach to increase the efficacy of current vaccines to control the infectious diseases.

  17. Stable Skin-specific Overexpression of Human CTLA4-Ig in Transgenic Mice through Seven Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong WANG; Yong NI; Hong WEI; Feng-Chao WANG; Liang-Peng GE; Xiang GAO

    2006-01-01

    Skin graft rejection is a typical cellular immune response, mainly mediated by T cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4-immunoglobin (CTLA4-Ig) extends graft survival by blocking the T cell co-stimulation pathway and inhibiting T cell activation. To investigate the efficacy of CTLA4-Ig in prolonging skin graft survival, human CTLA4-Ig (hCTLA4-Ig) was engineered to overexpress in mouse skin by transgenesis using the K14 promoter. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assay indicated that the expression of CTLA4-Ig remained skin-specific and relatively constant compared to the internal control protein, AKT, through seven generations. The presence and concentration of the hCTLA4-Ig protein in transgenic mouse sera was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the results indicated that the serum CTLA4-Ig concentration also remained constant through generations. Survival of transgenic mouse skins grafted onto rat wounds was remarkably prolonged compared to that of wild-type skins from the same mouse strain, and remained comparable among all seven generations. This suggested that the bioactive hCTLA4-Ig protein was stably expressed in transgenical mice through at least seven generations, which was consistent with the stable skin-specific CTLA4-Ig expression.The results demonstrated that the transgenic expression of hCTLA4-Ig in skin driven by the K14 promoter remained constant through generations, and a transgenic line can be established to provide transgenic skin with extended survival reproducibly.

  18. Comparative studies focusing on transgenic through cp4EPSPS gene and non-transgenic soybean plants: an analysis of protein species and enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Sandra C C; Barbosa, Herbert S; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Arruda, Marco A Z

    2013-11-20

    This work evaluates the activity of a few key enzymes involved in combating reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2), and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), as well as the concentration of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in transgenic and non-transgenic soybean leaves. Additionally, differential protein species from leaves of both genotypes were evaluated by applying a regulation factor of ≥1.8 to further corroborate the hypothesis that genetic modification itself can be a stress factor for these plants. For this task, transgenic soybean plants were obtained from seeds modified with the cp4EPSPS gene. The results revealed higher activities of all evaluated enzymes in transgenic than in non-transgenic soybean leaves (ranging from 13.8 to 70.1%), as well as higher concentrations of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in transgenic soybean leaves, clearly indicating a condition of oxidative stress established in the transgenic genotype. Additionally, 47 proteins were differentially abundant when comparing the leaves of both plants, with 26 species accurately identified, including the protein involved in the genetic modification (CP4EPSPS). From these results, it is possible to conclude that the plant is searching for a new equilibrium to maintain its metabolism because the stress condition is being maintained within levels that can be tolerated by the plant. The present paper is the first one in the literature where are shown translational aspects involving plant stress and the genetic modification for soybean involving the cp4 EPSPS gene. The main biological importance of this work is to make possible the demystification of the genetic modification, allowing answers for some questions that still remain unknown, and enlarge our knowledge about genetically modified organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. Copyright

  19. Anthrax lethal factor as an immune target in humans and transgenic mice and the impact of HLA polymorphism on CD4+ T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Stephanie; Ingram, Rebecca J; Chu, Karen K; Reynolds, Catherine J; Musson, Julie A; Doganay, Mehmet; Metan, Gökhan; Ozkul, Yusuf; Baillie, Les; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Moore, Stephen J; Gallagher, Theresa B; Dyson, Hugh; Williamson, E Diane; Robinson, John H; Maillere, Bernard; Boyton, Rosemary J; Altmann, Daniel M

    2014-05-01

    Bacillus anthracis produces a binary toxin composed of protective antigen (PA) and one of two subunits, lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF). Most studies have concentrated on induction of toxin-specific antibodies as the correlate of protective immunity, in contrast to which understanding of cellular immunity to these toxins and its impact on infection is limited. We characterized CD4+ T cell immunity to LF in a panel of humanized HLA-DR and DQ transgenic mice and in naturally exposed patients. As the variation in antigen presentation governed by HLA polymorphism has a major impact on protective immunity to specific epitopes, we examined relative binding affinities of LF peptides to purified HLA class II molecules, identifying those regions likely to be of broad applicability to human immune studies through their ability to bind multiple alleles. Transgenics differing only in their expression of human HLA class II alleles showed a marked hierarchy of immunity to LF. Immunogenicity in HLA transgenics was primarily restricted to epitopes from domains II and IV of LF and promiscuous, dominant epitopes, common to all HLA types, were identified in domain II. The relevance of this model was further demonstrated by the fact that a number of the immunodominant epitopes identified in mice were recognized by T cells from humans previously infected with cutaneous anthrax and from vaccinated individuals. The ability of the identified epitopes to confer protective immunity was demonstrated by lethal anthrax challenge of HLA transgenic mice immunized with a peptide subunit vaccine comprising the immunodominant epitopes that we identified.

  20. Chromosomal localisation of the CD4cre transgene in B6·Cg-Tg(Cd4-cre)1Cwi mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorf, Kerstin; Durek, Pawel; Ayew, Samia; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Radbruch, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The B6·Cg-Tg(Cd4-cre)1Cwi line expresses CRE recombinase under the control of the promoter and regulatory elements of the Cd4 gene. Here we show that CRE recombinase expression reduces the number and frequencies of CD4 positive subsets in a dose-dependent manner and localize the integration site of the transgenic construct to position 60335693-60341285 (qD) of chromosome 3. The insert contains at least 15 complete sequential copies of the transgenic construct. Based on this information we describe a novel PCR assay for genetic typing of transgenic mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased 4E-BP1 Expression Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yin Tsai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor driving the global type II diabetes pandemic. However, the molecular factors linking obesity to disease remain to be elucidated. Gender differences are apparent in humans and are also observed in murine models. Here, we link these differences to expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, which, upon HFD feeding, becomes significantly reduced in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of male but not female mice. Strikingly, restoring 4E-BP1 expression in male mice protects them against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Male 4E-BP1 transgenic mice also exhibit reduced white adipose tissue accumulation accompanied by decreased circulating levels of leptin and triglycerides. Importantly, transgenic 4E-BP1 male mice are also protected from aging-induced obesity and metabolic decline on a normal diet. These results demonstrate that 4E-BP1 is a gender-specific suppressor of obesity that regulates insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism.

  2. Effects of the deletion of early region 4 (E4 open reading frame 1 (orf1, orf1-2, orf1-3 and orf1-4 on virus-host cell interaction, transgene expression, and immunogenicity of replicating adenovirus HIV vaccine vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Thomas

    Full Text Available The global health burden engendered by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-induced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a sobering reminder of the pressing need for a preventative vaccine. In non-human primate models replicating adenovirus (Ad-HIV/SIV recombinant vaccine vectors have been shown to stimulate potent immune responses culminating in protection against challenge exposures. Nonetheless, an increase in the transgene carrying capacity of these Ad vectors, currently limited to approximately 3000 base pairs, would greatly enhance their utility. Using a replicating, E3-deleted Ad type 5 host range mutant (Ad5 hr encoding full-length single-chain HIVBaLgp120 linked to the D1 and D2 domains of rhesus macaque CD4 (rhFLSC we systematically deleted the genes encoding early region 4 open reading frame 1 (E4orf1 through E4orf4. All the Ad-rhFLSC vectors produced similar levels of viral progeny. Cell cycle analysis of infected human and monkey cells revealed no differences in virus-host interaction. The parental and E4-deleted viruses expressed comparable levels of the transgene with kinetics similar to Ad late proteins. Similar levels of cellular immune responses and transgene-specific antibodies were elicited in vaccinated mice. However, differences in recognition of Ad proteins and induced antibody subtypes were observed, suggesting that the E4 gene products might modulate antibody responses by as yet unknown mechanisms. In short, we have improved the transgene carrying capacity by one thousand base pairs while preserving the replicability, levels of transgene expression, and immunogenicity critical to these vaccine vectors. This additional space allows for flexibility in vaccine design that could not be obtained with the current vector and as such should facilitate the goal of improving vaccine efficacy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the effects of these E4 deletions on transgene expression and

  3. Effects of the deletion of early region 4 (E4) open reading frame 1 (orf1), orf1-2, orf1-3 and orf1-4 on virus-host cell interaction, transgene expression, and immunogenicity of replicating adenovirus HIV vaccine vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael A; Song, Rui; Demberg, Thorsten; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Venzon, David; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    The global health burden engendered by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a sobering reminder of the pressing need for a preventative vaccine. In non-human primate models replicating adenovirus (Ad)-HIV/SIV recombinant vaccine vectors have been shown to stimulate potent immune responses culminating in protection against challenge exposures. Nonetheless, an increase in the transgene carrying capacity of these Ad vectors, currently limited to approximately 3000 base pairs, would greatly enhance their utility. Using a replicating, E3-deleted Ad type 5 host range mutant (Ad5 hr) encoding full-length single-chain HIVBaLgp120 linked to the D1 and D2 domains of rhesus macaque CD4 (rhFLSC) we systematically deleted the genes encoding early region 4 open reading frame 1 (E4orf1) through E4orf4. All the Ad-rhFLSC vectors produced similar levels of viral progeny. Cell cycle analysis of infected human and monkey cells revealed no differences in virus-host interaction. The parental and E4-deleted viruses expressed comparable levels of the transgene with kinetics similar to Ad late proteins. Similar levels of cellular immune responses and transgene-specific antibodies were elicited in vaccinated mice. However, differences in recognition of Ad proteins and induced antibody subtypes were observed, suggesting that the E4 gene products might modulate antibody responses by as yet unknown mechanisms. In short, we have improved the transgene carrying capacity by one thousand base pairs while preserving the replicability, levels of transgene expression, and immunogenicity critical to these vaccine vectors. This additional space allows for flexibility in vaccine design that could not be obtained with the current vector and as such should facilitate the goal of improving vaccine efficacy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the effects of these E4 deletions on transgene expression and immunogenicity in a

  4. Protective effect of oral administration of transgenic tobacco seeds against verocytotoxic Escherichia coli strain in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luciana; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Vagni, Simona; Sala, Vittorio; Reggi, Serena; Baldi, Antonella

    2014-03-01

    The use of transgenic plants as delivery system for antigenic proteins is attractive for its simplicity and increases likelihood for local immune response at sites of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of oral administration of tobacco seeds, expressing the FedA, the major protein of the F18 adhesive fimbriae, and B subunit of verocytotoxin, against verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) strain in piglets. Forty-three early weaned piglets, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups: 3 test groups and a control. Treatment groups orally received a bolus, with different dose of tobacco seeds on 0, 1, 2, 14 days post primary administration. After challenge, with 1*10(10) CFU of O138 Escherichia coli strain, piglets showed clinical scores significantly higher in the control group compared to orally immunized groups (P administration of recombinant tobacco seeds expressing antigenic proteins against VTEC strains can induce a protective effect against challenger strain in piglets.

  5. Nucleocapsid Gene-Mediated Transgenic Resistance Provides Protection Against Tomato spotted wilt virus Epidemics in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, S; Culbreath, A K; Csinos, A S; Pappu, H R; Rufty, R C; Daub, M E

    2000-02-01

    ABSTRACT Transformation of plants with the nucleocapsid (N) gene of Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) provides resistance to disease development; however, information is lacking on the response of plants to natural inoculum in the field. Three tobacco cultivars were transformed with the N gene of a dahlia isolate of TSWV (TSWV-D), and plants were evaluated over several generations in the greenhouse. The resistant phenotype was more frequently observed in 'Burley 21' than in 'KY-14' or 'K-326', but highly resistant 'Burley 21' transgenic lines were resistant to only 44% of the heterologous TSWV isolates tested. Advanced generation (R(3) and R(4)) transgenic resistant lines of 'Burley 21' and a 'K-326' F(1) hybrid containing the N genes of two TSWV isolates were evaluated in the field near Tifton, GA, where TSWV is endemic. Disease development was monitored by symptom expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Whereas incidence of TSWV infection in 'Burley 21' susceptible controls was 20% in 1996 and 62% in 1997, the mean incidence in transgenic lines was reduced to 4 and 31%, respectively. Three transgenic 'Burley 21' lines were identified that had significantly lower incidence of disease than susceptible controls over the two years of the study. In addition, the rate of disease increase at the onset of the 1997 epidemic was reduced for all the 'Burley 21' transgenic lines compared with the susceptible controls. The 'K-326' F(1) hybrid was as susceptible as the 'K-326' nontransformed control. ELISA analysis demonstrated that symptomless plants from the most resistant 'Burley 21' transgenic lines accumulated detectable nucleocapsid protein, whereas symptomless plants from more susceptible lines did not. We conclude that transgenic resistance to TSWV is effective in reducing incidence of the disease in the field, and that accumulation of transgene protein may be important in broad-spectrum resistance.

  6. Transgenic overexpression of adenine nucleotide translocase 1 protects ischemic hearts against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpe, Inga; Savvatis, Konstantinos; Westermann, Dirk; Tschöpe, Carsten; Rauch, Ursula; Landmesser, Ulf; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Dörner, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Ischemia impairs the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), which transports ADP and ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. We investigated whether ANT1 overexpression has protective effects on ischemic hearts. Myocardial infarction was induced in wild-type (WT) and heart-specific ANT1-transgenic (ANT1-TG) rats, and hypoxia was set in isolated cardiomyocytes. ANT1 overexpression reduced the myocardial infarct area and increased the survival rate of infarcted rats. Reduced ANT1 expression and increased 4-hydroxynonenal modification of ANT paralleled to impaired ANT function in infarcted WT hearts. ANT1 overexpression improved ANT expression and function. This was accompanied by reduced mitochondrial cytochrome C release and caspase-3 activation. ANT1-TG hearts suffered less from oxidative stress, as shown by lower protein carbonylation and 4-hydroxynonenal modification of ANT. ANT1 overexpression also increased cell survival of hypoxic cardiomyocytes and attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This was linked to higher stability of mitochondrial membrane potential and lower activity of ROS detoxifying catalase. ANT1-TG cardiomyocytes also showed higher resistance against H2O2 treatment, which was independent of catalase activity. In conclusion, ANT1 overexpression compensates impaired ANT activity under oxygen-restricted conditions. It reduces ROS production and oxidative stress, stabilizes mitochondrial integrity, and increases survival, making ANT1 a component in ROS management and heart protection during ischemia. ANT1 overexpression reduces infarct size and increases survival after infarction. ANT1 overexpression compensates restricted ANT expression and function in infarcted hearts. Increased ANT1 expression enhances mitochondrial integrity. ANT1-overexpressing hearts reduce oxidative stress by decreasing ROS generation. ANT1 is a component in ROS management and heart protection.

  7. Role of Human Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 in Sperm Function, Derived from Studies in Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Jeffrey; Sánchez, Gladis; Nangia, Ajay K.; Blanco, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Most of our knowledge on the biological role of the testis-specific Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 isoform derives from studies performed in non-human species. Here, we studied the function of human Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 after its expression in transgenic mice. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) construct, containing the human ATP1A4 gene locus, we obtained expression of the human α4 transgene specifically in mouse sperm, enriched in the sperm flagellum. The expressed, human alpha 4 was active, and compared to wild-type sperm, those from transgenic mice displayed higher Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 activity and greater binding of fluorescently labeled ouabain, which is typical of the alpha 4 isoform. The expression and activity of endogenous alpha 4 and the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform present in sperm, alpha 1, remained unchanged. Male mice expressing the human ATP1A4 transgene exhibited similar testis size and morphology, normal sperm number and shape, and no changes in overall fertility compared to wild-type mice. Sperm carrying the human transgene exhibited enhanced total motility and an increase in multiple parameters of sperm movement, including higher sperm hyperactive motility. In contrast, no statistically significant changes in sperm membrane potential, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, or spontaneous acrosome reaction were found between wild-type and transgenic mice. Altogether, these results provide new genetic evidence for an important role of human Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 in sperm motility and hyperactivation, and establishes a new animal model for future studies of this isoform. PMID:25640246

  8. Heterologous Reconstitution of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstitution of nonnative, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken. The introduction of three primary biosynthetic activities to cells requires the stable coexpression of multiple proteins within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 VLC-PUFAs were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by Δ6-desaturase, an ELOVL5-like enzyme involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and Δ5-desaturase. Coexpression of the corresponding genes (McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter resulted in production of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3 and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4 n-6 as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3 and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6 in Arabidopsis seeds. The contributions of the transgenic enzymes and endogenous fatty acid metabolism were determined. Specifically, the reasonable synthesis of omega-3 stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3 could be a useful tool to obtain a sustainable system for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in seeds of a transgenic T3 line 63-1. The results indicated that coexpression of the three proteins was stable. Therefore, this study suggests that metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce VLC-PUFAs is feasible.

  9. α-Lipoic acid prevents lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in acyl CoA-synthase transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young; Naseem, R. Haris; Park, Byung-Hyun; Garry, Daniel J.; Richardson, James A.; Schaffer, Jean E.; Unger, Roger H.

    2006-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) mimics the hypothalamic actions of leptin on food intake, energy expenditure, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To determine if, like leptin, α-LA protects against cardiac lipotoxicity, α-LA was fed to transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the acyl CoA synthase (ACS) gene. Untreated ACS-transgenic mice died prematurely with increased triacylglycerol content and dilated cardiomyopathy, impaired systolic function and myofiber disorganization, apoptosis, and interstitial fibrosis on microscopy. In α-LA-treated ACS-transgenic mice heart size, echocardiogram and TG content were normal. Plasma TG fell 50%, hepatic-activated phospho-AMPK rose 6-fold, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c declined 50%, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ cofactor-1α mRNA rose 4-fold. Since food restriction did not prevent lipotoxicity, we conclude that α-LA treatment, like hyperleptinemia, protects the heart of ACS-transgenic mice from lipotoxicity

  10. Failure of pulmonary clearance of Rhodococcus equi infection in CD4+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaly, S T; Hines, S A; Palmer, G H

    1993-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of Rhodococcus equi requires functional T lymphocytes. In this study, CD8+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice cleared virulent R. equi from the lungs while infection in CD4+ T-lymphocyte-deficient transgenic mice persisted. Although both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells function early in pulmonary defense against R. equi, clearance is dependent on CD4+ T lymphocytes.

  11. Bt rice harbouring cry genes controlled by a constitutive or wound-inducible promoter: protection and transgene expression under Mediterranean field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitler, Jean Christophe; Vassal, Jean Michel; del Mar Catala, Maria; Meynard, Donaldo; Marfà, Victoria; Melé, Enric; Royer, Monique; Murillo, Isabel; San Segundo, Blanca; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Messeguer, Joaquima

    2004-09-01

    Seven homozygous transgenic lines of two European commercial cultivars of rice (Ariete (A) and Senia (S)), harbouring the cry1B or cry1Aa Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta-endotoxin genes, were field evaluated for protection from striped stem borer (SSB) (Chilo suppressalis) damage during the 2001 and 2002 summer crop seasons in the Delta de l'Ebre region, Spain. The plant codon-optimized toxin gene was placed under the control of the promoter of either the constitutive ubi1 gene or the wound-inducible mpi gene from maize. Stable, high-level, insecticidal protein accumulation was observed throughout root, leaf and seed tissues of field-grown plants harbouring the cry1B (lines A64.1, A33.1, A3.4 and S98.9) or cry1Aa (lines S05.1 and A19.14) genes under the control of the ubi1 promoter. Conversely, no toxin was detected in unwounded vegetative tissues of the A9.1 line harbouring the cry1B gene controlled by the mpi promoter, indicating that natural environmental stresses did not trigger the activity of the wound-inducible promoter. However, the toxin accumulated at 0.2% total soluble proteins in A9.1 sheath tissue exhibiting brown lesions resulting from SSB damage. The agronomical traits and performance of the transgenic lines were generally comparable with parental controls, except in the two lines accumulating Cry1Aa, which exhibited a high frequency of plants non-true to type. Natural infestation was assisted with manual infestations of L2/L3 SSB larvae in border control plants surrounding the experimental plots, which served as a reservoir for the second-cycle SSB population. The observation of damage (brown lesions and dead hearts) during the crop season and dissection of plants at harvest stage revealed a range of protection amongst the transgenic lines, which was highly consistent with the level of toxin accumulation and with previous experience in greenhouse assays. Lines A3.4 and S05.1 were found to exhibit stable and full protection against SSB attacks

  12. Over-expression of Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice via up-regulation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yulan; Purohit, Sharad; Chen, Xueqin; Yi, Bing; She, Jin-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This is the first study to provide direct evidence of the role of Stat5b in NOD mice. ► Over-expression of wild type Stat5b transgene protects NOD mice against diabetes. ► This protection may be mediated by the up-regulation of CD4 + CD25 + Tregs. -- Abstract: The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins play a critical role in cytokine signaling required for fine tuning of immune regulation. Previous reports showed that a mutation (L327M) in the Stat5b protein leads to aberrant cytokine signaling in the NOD mice. To further elaborate the role of Stat5b in diabetes, we established a NOD transgenic mouse that over-expresses the wild type Stat5b gene. The incidences of spontaneous diabetes as well as cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes were significantly reduced and delayed in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice compared to their littermate controls. The total cell numbers of CD4 + T cells and especially CD8 + T cells in the spleen and pancreatic lymph node were increased in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice. Consistent with these findings, CD4 + and CD8 + T cells from the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice showed a higher proliferation capacity and up-regulation of multiple cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 as well as anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xl. Furthermore, the number and proportion of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells were significantly increased in transgenic mice although in vitro suppression ability of the regulatory T-cells was not affected by the transgene. Our results suggest that Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the NOD mice by regulating the numbers and function of multiple immune cell types, especially by up-regulating CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells.

  13. Recombinant Promoter (MUASCsV8CP) Driven Totiviral Killer Protein 4 (KP4) Imparts Resistance Against Fungal Pathogens in Transgenic Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Debasish; Shrestha, Ankita; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2018-01-01

    Development of disease-resistant plant varieties achieved by engineering anti-microbial transgenes under the control of strong promoters can suffice the inhibition of pathogen growth and simultaneously ensure enhanced crop production. For evaluating the prospect of such strong promoters, we comprehensively characterized the full-length transcript promoter of Cassava Vein Mosaic Virus (CsVMV; -565 to +166) and identified CsVMV8 (-215 to +166) as the highest expressing fragment in both transient and transgenic assays. Further, we designed a new chimeric promoter ‘MUASCsV8CP’ through inter-molecular hybridization among the upstream activation sequence (UAS) of Mirabilis Mosaic Virus (MMV; -297 to -38) and CsVMV8, as the core promoter (CP). The MUASCsV8CP was found to be ∼2.2 and ∼2.4 times stronger than the CsVMV8 and CaMV35S promoters, respectively, while its activity was found to be equivalent to that of the CaMV35S2 promoter. Furthermore, we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing the totiviral ‘Killer protein KP4’ (KP4) under the control of the MUASCsV8CP promoter. Recombinant KP4 was found to accumulate both in the cytoplasm and apoplast of plant cells. The agar-based killing zone assays revealed enhanced resistance of plant-derived KP4 against two deuteromycetous foliar pathogenic fungi viz. Alternaria alternata and Phoma exigua var. exigua. Also, transgenic plants expressing KP4 inhibited the growth progression of these fungi and conferred significant fungal resistance in detached-leaf and whole plant assays. Taken together, we establish the potential of engineering “in-built” fungal stress-tolerance in plants by expressing KP4 under a novel chimeric caulimoviral promoter in a transgenic approach. PMID:29556246

  14. Increased Expression of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 Isoform Enhances Sperm Motility in Transgenic Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Tamara; Sanchez, Gladis; McDermott, Jeffrey P.; Nguyen, Anh-Nguyet; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Blanco, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase alpha4 (ATP1A4) isoform is specifically expressed in male germ cells and is highly prevalent in spermatozoa. Although selective inhibition of alpha4 activity with ouabain has been shown to affect sperm motility, a more direct analysis of the role of this isoform in sperm movement has not yet been demonstrated. To establish this, we engineered transgenic mice that express the rat alpha4 isoform fused to green fluorescent protein in male germ cells, under the control of the mouse protamine 1 promoter. We showed that the rat Atp1a4 transgene is expressed in mouse spermatozoa and that it is localized to the sperm flagellum. In agreement with increased expression of the alpha4 isoform, sperm from transgenic mice displayed higher alpha4-specific Na,K-ATPase activity and binding of fluorescently labeled ouabain than wild-type mice. In contrast, expression and activity of ATP1A1 (alpha1), the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform present in sperm, remained unchanged. Similar to wild-type mice, mice expressing the alpha4 transgene exhibited normal testis and sperm morphology and no differences in fertility. However, compared to wild-type mice, sperm from transgenic mice displayed plasma membrane hyperpolarization and higher total and progressive motility. Other parameters of motility also increased, including straight-line, curvilinear, and average path velocities and amplitude of lateral head displacement. In addition, sperm from the transgenic mice showed enhanced sperm hyperactive motility, but no changes in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. Altogether, these results provide new genetic evidence for the role of the ATP1A4 isoform in sperm motility, under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions. PMID:20826726

  15. Over-expression of Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice via up-regulation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yulan; Purohit, Sharad [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Chen, Xueqin; Yi, Bing [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); She, Jin-Xiong, E-mail: jshe@georgiahealth.edu [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study to provide direct evidence of the role of Stat5b in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of wild type Stat5b transgene protects NOD mice against diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This protection may be mediated by the up-regulation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} Tregs. -- Abstract: The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins play a critical role in cytokine signaling required for fine tuning of immune regulation. Previous reports showed that a mutation (L327M) in the Stat5b protein leads to aberrant cytokine signaling in the NOD mice. To further elaborate the role of Stat5b in diabetes, we established a NOD transgenic mouse that over-expresses the wild type Stat5b gene. The incidences of spontaneous diabetes as well as cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes were significantly reduced and delayed in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice compared to their littermate controls. The total cell numbers of CD4{sup +} T cells and especially CD8{sup +} T cells in the spleen and pancreatic lymph node were increased in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice. Consistent with these findings, CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells from the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice showed a higher proliferation capacity and up-regulation of multiple cytokines including IL-2, IFN-{gamma}, TNF-{alpha} and IL-10 as well as anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xl. Furthermore, the number and proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells were significantly increased in transgenic mice although in vitro suppression ability of the regulatory T-cells was not affected by the transgene. Our results suggest that Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the NOD mice by regulating the numbers and function of multiple immune cell types, especially by up-regulating CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells.

  16. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Yeom

    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1, an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs. Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.

  17. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye-Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Yang, Jaeseok; Cho, Bumrae; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Park, Sol Ji; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Hwajung; Lee, Eun Mi; Ro, Han; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Su Jin; Won, Jae-Kyung; O'Connell, Philip J; Kim, Hyunil; Surh, Charles D; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs). Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.

  18. The in vitro protection of human decay accelerating factor and hDAF/heme oxygenase-1 transgenes in porcine aortic endothelial cells against sera of Formosan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, C-F; Tai, H-C; Wu, C-P; Ho, L-L; Lin, Y-J; Hwang, C-S; Yang, T-S; Lee, J-M; Tseng, Y-L; Huang, C-C; Weng, C-N; Lee, P-H

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate hyperacute rejection, pigs have been generated with alpha-Gal transferase gene knockout and transgenic expression of human decay accelerating factor (hDAF), MCP, and CD59. Additionally, heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been suggested to defend endothelial cells. Sera (MS) (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) from Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis, MC), an Old World monkey wildly populated in Taiwan, was used to test the protective in vitro, effects of hDAF or hDAF/hHO-1 on porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAEC) derived from hDAF(+), hDAF(+)/hHO-1(+), and hDAF(+)/hHO-1(-) and 1 nontransgenic pAEC. Ten percent human serum (HS) served as a positive control. When MS addition increased to 10% or 15%, all transgenic pAEC exhibited a greater survival than nontransgenic pAEC. Noticeably, 15% MS reduced survived to 40% in nontransgenic and transgenic pAEC, respectively. These results revealed that hDAF exerted protective effects against MC complement activation. However, comparing with 10% MS and HS in pAEC of nontransgenic pigs, the survivability was higher in HS, suggesting that complement activation by MS was more toxic than that by HS. Furthermore, hDAF(+)/hHO-1(+) showed no further protection against effects of MS on transgenic pAEC. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The immunodominant influenza matrix t cell epitope recognized in human induces influenza protection in HLA-A2/Kb transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnicky, H.; Cyblat-Chanal, D.; Aubry, J.-P.; Derouet, F.; Klinguer-Hamour, C.; Beck, A.; Bonnefoy, J.-Y.; Corvaiea, N.

    2003-01-01

    The protective efficacy of the influenza matrix protein epitope 58-66 (called M1), recognized in the context of human HLA-A2 molecules, was evaluated in a HLA-A2/K b transgenic mouse model of lethal influenza infection. Repeated subcutaneous immunizations with M1 increased the percentage of survival. This effect was mediated by T cells since protection was abolished following in vivo depletion of all T lymphocytes, CD8 + , or CD4 + T cells. The survival correlated with the detection of memory CD8 + splenocytes able to proliferate in vitro upon stimulation with M1 and to bind M1-loaded HLA-A2 dimers, as well as with M1-specific T cells in the lungs, which were directly cytotoxic to influenza-infected cells following influenza challenge. These results demonstrated for the first time that HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T cells specific for the major immunodominant influenza matrix epitope are protective against the infection. They encourage further in vivo evaluation of T cell epitopes recognized in the context of human MHC molecules

  20. Transgenic rice expressing a codon-modified synthetic CP4-EPSPS confers tolerance to broad-spectrum herbicide, glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhapekar, Sushil; Raghavendrarao, Sanagala; Pavan, Gadamchetty; Ramakrishna, Chopperla; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Phanindra, Mullapudi Lakshmi Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Ananda Kumar, Polumetla

    2015-05-01

    Highly tolerant herbicide-resistant transgenic rice was developed by expressing codon-modified synthetic CP4--EPSPS. The transformants could tolerate up to 1% commercial glyphosate and has the potential to be used for DSR (direct-seeded rice). Weed infestation is one of the major biotic stress factors that is responsible for yield loss in direct-seeded rice (DSR). Herbicide-resistant rice has potential to improve the efficiency of weed management under DSR. Hence, the popular indica rice cultivar IR64, was genetically modified using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with a codon-optimized CP4-EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, with N-terminal chloroplast targeting peptide from Petunia hybrida. Integration of the transgenes in the selected rice plants was confirmed by Southern hybridization and expression by Northern and herbicide tolerance assays. Transgenic plants showed EPSPS enzyme activity even at high concentrations of glyphosate, compared to untransformed control plants. T0, T1 and T2 lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that the transgenic rice could tolerate up to 1% of commercial Roundup, which is five times more in dose used to kill weeds under field condition. All together, the transgenic rice plants developed in the present study could be used efficiently to overcome weed menace.

  1. Identification of short hairpin RNA targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus with transgenic bovine fetal epithelium cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is known that RNA interference (RNAi targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, it has not been previously investigated whether shRNAs targeting FMDV in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against FMDV challenge. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we constructed three recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against VP2 (RNAi-VP2, VP3 (RNAi-VP3, or VP4 (RNAi-VP4 of FMDV, and found that all of them strongly suppressed the transient expression of a FLAG-tagged viral gene fusion protein in 293T cells. In BHK-21 cells, RNAi-VP4 was found to be more potent in inhibition of viral replication than the others with over 98% inhibition of viral replication. Therefore, recombinant lentiviral vector RNAi-VP4 was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells to generate transgenic nuclear donor cells. With subsequent somatic cell cloning, we generated forty transgenic blastocysts, and then transferred them to 20 synchronized recipient cows. Three transgenic bovine fetuses were obtained after pregnant period of 4 months, and integration into chromosome in cloned fetuses was confirmed by Southern hybridization. The primary tongue epithelium cells of transgenic fetuses were isolated and inoculated with 100 TCID(50 of FMDV, and it was observed that shRNA significantly suppressed viral RNA synthesis and inhibited over 91% of viral replication after inoculation of FMDV for 48 h. CONCLUSION: RNAi-VP4 targeting viral VP4 gene appears to prevent primary epithelium cells of transgenic bovine fetus from FMDV infection, and it could be a candidate shRNA used for cultivation of transgenic cattle against FMDV.

  2. Herbicidal and antioxidant responses of transgenic rice overexpressing Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunyo; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2005-05-01

    We analyzed the herbicidal and antioxidant defense responses of transgenic rice plants that overexpressed the Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene. Leaf squares of the wild-type incubated with oxyfluorfen were characterized by necrotic leaf lesions and increases in conductivity and malonyldialdehyde levels, whereas transgenic lines M4 and M7 did not show any change with up to 100 microM oxyfluorfen. The wild-type had decreased F(v)/F(m) and produced a high level of H(2)O(2) at 18 h after foliar application of oxyfluorfen, whereas transgenic lines M4 and M7 were unaffected. In response to oxyfluorfen, violaxanthin, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls (Chls) decreased in wild-type plants, whereas antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin increased. Only a slight decline in Chls was observed in transgenic lines at 48 h after oxyfluorfen treatment. Noticeable increases of cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, peroxidase isozymes 1 and 2, and catalase were observed after at 48 h of oxyfluorfen treatment in the wild-type. Non-enzymatic antioxidants appeared to respond faster to oxyfluorfen-induced photodynamic stress than did enzymatic antioxidants. Protective responses for the detoxification of active oxygen species were induced to counteract photodynamic stress in oxyfluorfen-treated, wild-type plants. However, oxyfluorfen-treated, transgenic plants suffered less oxidative stress, confirming increased herbicidal resistance resulted from dual expression of M. xanthus Protox in chloroplasts and mitochondria.

  3. CD4 T cell-mediated protection from lethal influenza: perforin and antibody-mediated mechanisms give a one-two punch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Deborah M; Dilzer, Allison M; Meents, Dana L; Swain, Susan L

    2006-09-01

    The mechanisms whereby CD4 T cells contribute to the protective response against lethal influenza infection remain poorly characterized. To define the role of CD4 cells in protection against a highly pathogenic strain of influenza, virus-specific TCR transgenic CD4 effectors were generated in vitro and transferred into mice given lethal influenza infection. Primed CD4 effectors conferred protection against lethal infection over a broad range of viral dose. The protection mediated by CD4 effectors did not require IFN-gamma or host T cells, but did result in increased anti-influenza Ab titers compared with untreated controls. Further studies indicated that CD4-mediated protection at high doses of influenza required B cells, and that passive transfer of anti-influenza immune serum was therapeutic in B cell-deficient mice, but only when CD4 effectors were present. Primed CD4 cells also acquired perforin (Pfn)-mediated cytolytic activity during effector generation, suggesting a second mechanism used by CD4 cells to confer protection. Pfn-deficient CD4 effectors were less able to promote survival in intact BALB/c mice and were unable to provide protection in B cell-deficient mice, indicating that Ab-independent protection by CD4 effectors requires Pfn. Therefore, CD4 effectors mediate protection to lethal influenza through at least two mechanisms: Pfn-mediated cytotoxicity early in the response promoted survival independently of Ab production, whereas CD4-driven B cell responses resulted in high titer Abs that neutralized remaining virus.

  4. Analysis of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harboring a maize (Zea mays L.) gene for plastid EF-Tu: segregation pattern, expression and effects of the transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianming; Ristic, Zoran

    2010-06-01

    We previously reported that transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) carrying a maize (Zea mays L.) gene (Zmeftu1) for chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, displays reduced thermal aggregation of leaf proteins, reduced injury to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), and enhanced rate of CO(2) fixation following exposure to heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C) [Fu et al. in Plant Mol Biol 68:277-288, 2008]. In the current study, we investigated the segregation pattern and expression of the transgene Zmeftu1 and determined the grain yield of transgenic plants after exposure to a brief heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C). We also assessed thermal aggregation of soluble leaf proteins in transgenic plants, testing the hypothesis that increased levels of EF-Tu will lead to a non-specific protection of leaf proteins against thermal aggregation. The transgenic wheat displayed a single-gene pattern of segregation of Zmeftu1. Zmeftu1 was expressed, and the transgenic plants synthesized and accumulated three anti-EF-Tu cross-reacting polypeptides of similar molecular mass but different pI, suggesting the possibility of posttranslational modification of this protein. The transgenic plants also showed better grain yield after exposure to heat stress compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. Soluble leaf proteins of various molecular masses displayed lower thermal aggregation in transgenic than in non-transgenic wheat. The results suggest that overexpression of chloroplast EF-Tu can be beneficial to wheat tolerance to heat stress. Moreover, the results also support the hypothesis that EF-Tu contributes to heat tolerance by acting as a molecular chaperone and protecting heat-labile proteins from thermal aggregation in a non-specific manner.

  5. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  6. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4 + permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4 + conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4 +). The NH4 + uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4 + transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4 + uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4 + assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4 + permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4 + content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4 + fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4 + contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4 + levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  7. Circumsporozoite Protein-Specific Kd-Restricted CD8+ T Cells Mediate Protective Antimalaria Immunity in Sporozoite-Immunized MHC-I-Kd Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the roles of CD8+ T cells and a major preerythrocytic antigen, the circumsporozoite (CS protein, in contributing protective antimalaria immunity induced by radiation-attenuated sporozoites, have been shown by a number of studies, the extent to which these players contribute to antimalaria immunity is still unknown. To address this question, we have generated C57BL/6 (B6 transgenic (Tg mice, expressing Kd molecules under the MHC-I promoter, called MHC-I-Kd-Tg mice. In this study, we first determined that a single immunizing dose of IrPySpz induced a significant level of antimalaria protective immunity in MHC-I-Kd-Tg mice but not in B6 mice. Then, by depleting various T-cell subsets in vivo, we determined that CD8+ T cells are the main mediator of the protective immunity induced by IrPySpz. Furthermore, when we immunized (MHC-I-Kd-Tg × CS-Tg F1 mice with IrPySpz after crossing MHC-I-Kd-Tg mice with PyCS-transgenic mice (CS-Tg, which are unable to mount PyCS-specific immunity, we found that IrPySpz immunization failed to induce protective antimalaria immunity in (MHC-I-Kd-Tg × CS-Tg F1 mice, thus indicating the absence of PyCS antigen-dependent immunity in these mice. These results indicate that protective antimalaria immunity induced by IrPySpz in MHC-I-Kd-Tg mice is mediated by CS protein-specific, Kd-restricted CD8+ T cells.

  8. Impacts of elevated CO2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shoulin; Lu, Yongqing; Dai, Yang; Qian, Lei; Muhammad, Adnan Bodlah; Li, Teng; Wan, Guijun; Parajulee, Megha N; Chen, Fajun

    2017-11-07

    Recent studies have highlighted great challenges of transgene silencing for transgenic plants facing climate change. In order to understand the impacts of elevated CO 2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of N-fertilizer supply, we investigated the biomass, exogenous Bt toxins, Bt-transgene expression and methylation status in Bt rice exposed to two levels of CO 2 concentrations and nitrogen (N) supply (1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2 N). It is elucidated that the increased levels of global atmospheric CO 2 concentration will trigger up-regulation of Bt toxin expression in transgenic rice, especially with appropriate increase of N fertilizer supply, while, to some extent, the exogenous Bt-transgene expression is reduced at sub-N levels (1/4 and 1/2N), even though the total protein of plant tissues is reduced and the plant growth is restricted. The unpredictable and stochastic occurrence of transgene silencing and epigenetic alternations remains unresolved for most transgenic plants. It is expected that N fertilization supply may promote the expression of transgenic Bt toxin in transgenic Bt rice, particularly under elevated CO 2 .

  9. Production of transgenic pigs over-expressing the antiviral gene Mx1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanmei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The myxovirus resistance gene (Mx1 has a broad spectrum of antiviral activities. It is therefore an interesting candidate gene to improve disease resistance in farm animals. In this study, we report the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT to produce transgenic pigs over-expressing the Mx1 gene. These transgenic pigs express approximately 15–25 times more Mx1 mRNA than non-transgenic pigs, and the protein level of Mx1 was also markedly enhanced. We challenged fibroblast cells isolated from the ear skin of transgenic and control pigs with influenza A virus and classical swine fever virus (CFSV. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA revealed a profound decrease of influenza A proliferation in Mx1 transgenic cells. Growth kinetics showed an approximately 10-fold reduction of viral copies in the transgenic cells compared to non-transgenic controls. Additionally, we found that the Mx1 transgenic cells were more resistant to CSFV infection in comparison to non-transgenic cells. These results demonstrate that the Mx1 transgene can protect against viral infection in cells of transgenic pigs and indicate that the Mx1 transgene can be harnessed to develop disease-resistant pigs.

  10. Low CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio associated with inflammatory arthropathy in human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ohsugi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1 can cause an aggressive malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL as well as inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. A transgenic mouse that expresses HTLV-1 Tax also develops T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and an inflammatory arthropathy that resembles rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to identify the primary T-cell subsets involved in the development of arthropathy in Tax transgenic mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By 24 months of age, Tax transgenic mice developed severe arthropathy with a cumulative incidence of 22.8%. The pathological findings of arthropathy in Tax transgenic mice were similar to those seen in human rheumatoid arthritis or mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis, with synovial proliferation and a positive rheumatoid factor. Before the onset of spontaneous arthropathy, young and old Tax transgenic mice were not sensitive to collagen and did not develop arthritis after immunization with type II collagen. The arthropathic Tax transgenic mice showed a significantly decreased proportion of splenic CD4(+ T cells, whereas the proportion of splenic CD8(+ T cells was increased. Regulatory T cells (CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ were significantly decreased and CD8(+ T cells that expressed the chemokine receptor CCR4 (CD8(+CCR4(+ were significantly increased in arthropathic Tax transgenic mice. The expression of tax mRNA was strong in the spleen and joints of arthropathic mice, with a 40-fold increase compared with healthy transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that Tax transgenic mice develop rheumatoid-like arthritis with proliferating synovial cells in the joints; however, the proportion of different splenic T-cell subsets in these mice was completely different from other commonly used animal models of rheumatoid arthritis. The crucial T-cell subsets in arthropathic Tax transgenic mice appear to resemble

  11. Wheel-running in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: protection or symptom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Helene; Ambrée, Oliver; Lewejohann, Lars; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Paulus, Werner; Palme, Rupert; Touma, Chadi; Schäbitz, Wolf-Rüdiger; Sachser, Norbert

    2008-06-26

    Several studies on both humans and animals reveal benefits of physical exercise on brain function and health. A previous study on TgCRND8 mice, a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease, reported beneficial effects of premorbid onset of long-term access to a running wheel on spatial learning and plaque deposition. Our study investigated the effects of access to a running wheel after the onset of Abeta pathology on behavioural, endocrinological, and neuropathological parameters. From day 80 of age, the time when Abeta deposition becomes apparent, TgCRND8 and wildtype mice were kept with or without running wheel. Home cage behaviour was analysed and cognitive abilities regarding object recognition memory and spatial learning in the Barnes maze were assessed. Our results show that, in comparison to Wt mice, Tg mice were characterised by impaired object recognition memory and spatial learning, increased glucocorticoid levels, hyperactivity in the home cage and high levels of stereotypic behaviour. Access to a running wheel had no effects on cognitive or neuropathological parameters, but reduced the amount of stereotypic behaviour in transgenics significantly. Furthermore, wheel-running was inversely correlated with stereotypic behaviour, suggesting that wheel-running may have stereotypic qualities. In addition, wheel-running positively correlated with plaque burden. Thus, in a phase when plaques are already present in the brain, it may be symptomatic of brain pathology, rather than protective. Whether or not access to a running wheel has beneficial effects on Alzheimer-like pathology and symptoms may therefore strongly depend on the exact time when the wheel is provided during development of the disease.

  12. Alteration of cell wall polysaccharides through transgenic expression of UDP-Glc 4-epimerase-encoding genes in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie-Hong; Kortstee, Anne; Dees, Dianka C T; Trindade, Luisa M; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-08-01

    Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) catalyzes the conversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose. Cell wall materials from the cv. Kardal (wild-type, background) and two UGE transgenic lines (UGE 45-1 and UGE 51-16) were isolated and fractionated. The galactose (Gal) content (mg/100g tuber) from UGE 45-1 transgenic line was 38% higher than that of wild-type, and resulted in longer pectin side chains. The Gal content present in UGE 51-16 was 17% lower than that of wild-type, although most pectin populations maintained the same level of Gal. Both UGE transgenic lines showed unexpectedly a decrease in acetylation and an increase in methyl-esterification of pectin. Both UGE transgenic lines showed similar proportions of homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I within pectin backbone as the wild-type, except for the calcium-bound pectin fraction exhibiting relatively less rhamnogalacturonan I. Next to pectin modification, xyloglucan populations from both transgenic lines were altered resulting in different XSGG and XXGG proportion in comparison to wild-type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of the neuronal adaptor protein X11alpha protects against memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C

    2010-01-01

    X11alpha is a neuronal-specific adaptor protein that binds to the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP). Overexpression of X11alpha reduces Abeta production but whether X11alpha also protects against Abeta-related memory dysfunction is not known. To test this possibility, we crossed X11alpha transgenic mice with AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice. AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice produce high levels of brain Abeta and develop age-related defects in memory function that correlate with increasing Abeta load. Overexpression of X11alpha alone had no detectable adverse effect upon behavior. However, X11alpha reduced brain Abeta levels and corrected spatial reference memory defects in aged X11alpha\\/AbetaPP double transgenics. Thus, X11alpha may be a therapeutic target for Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  14. Antioxidant protection during ageing and senescence in transgenic tobacco with enhanced activity of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Dagmar; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2009), s. 691-696 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP522/05/P558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : oxidative stress * reactive oxygen species * transgenic plants Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.656, year: 2009

  15. Proteomics and transcriptomics of broccoli subjected to exogenously supplied and transgenic senescence-induced cytokinin for amelioration of postharvest yellowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Li, Hui-Chun; Lai, Ying-Mi; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2013-11-20

    Previously, we investigated transgenic broccoli harboring senescence-associated-gene (SAG) promoter-triggered isopentenyltransferase (ipt), which encodes the key enzyme for cytokinin (CK) synthesis and mimics the action of exogenous supplied CK in delaying postharvest senescence of broccoli. Here, we used proteomics and transcriptomics to compare the mechanisms of ipt-transgenic and N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BA) CK treatment of broccoli during postharvest storage. The 2 treatments conferred common and distinct mechanisms. BA treatment decreased the quantity of proteins involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism, and ipt-transgenic treatment increased that of stress-related proteins and molecular chaperones and slightly affected levels of carbohydrate metabolism proteins. Both treatments regulated genes involved in CK signaling, sugar transport, energy and carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism, although ipt-transgenic treatment to a lesser extent. BA treatment induced genes encoding molecular chaperones, whereas ipt-transgenic treatment induced stress-related genes for cellular protection during storage. Both BA and ipt-transgenic treatments acted antagonistically on ethylene functions. We propose a long-term acclimation of metabolism and protection systems with ipt-transgenic treatment of broccoli and short-term modulation of metabolism and establishment of a protection system with both BA and ipt-transgenic treatments in delaying senescence of broccoli florets. Transgenic broccoli harboring senescence-associated-gene (SAG) promoter-triggered isopentenyltransferase (ipt), which encodes the key enzyme for cytokinin (CK) synthesis and N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BA) CK treated broccoli both showed retardation of postharvest senescence during storage. The mechanisms underlying the two treatments were compared. The combination of proteomic and transcriptomic evidences revealed that the 2 treatments conferred common

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES TO MEASURE TRANSGENE FLOW AND INTROGRESSION IN CROP AND NON-CROP PLANT SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gene Flow Project at the US Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division is developing methodologies for ecological risk assessments of transgene flow using Agrostis and Brassica engineered with CP4 EPSPS genes that confer resistance to glyphosate herbicide. In ...

  17. Impacts of elevated CO2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shoulin; Lu, Yongqing; Dai, Yang; Qian, Lei; Muhammad, Adnan Bodlah; Li, Teng; Wan, Guijun; Parajulee, Megha N.; Chen, Fajun

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted great challenges of transgene silencing for transgenic plants facing climate change. In order to understand the impacts of elevated CO2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of N-fertilizer supply, we investigated the biomass, exogenous Bt toxins, Bt-transgene expression and methylation status in Bt rice exposed to two levels of CO2 concentrations and nitrogen (N) supply (1/8, 1/4, 1/2...

  18. Overexpression of a specific soybean GmGSTU4 isoenzyme improves diphenyl ether and chloroacetanilide herbicide tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benekos, Kostantinos; Kissoudis, Christos; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Labrou, Nikolaos; Madesis, Panagiotis; Kalamaki, Mary; Makris, Antonis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2010-10-01

    Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) superfamily consists of multifunctional enzymes and forms a major part of the plants herbicide detoxification enzyme network. The tau class GST isoenzyme GmGSTU4 from soybean, exhibits catalytic activity towards the diphenyl ether herbicide fluorodifen and is active as glutathione-dependent peroxidase (GPOX). Transgenic tobacco plants of Basmas cultivar were generated via Agrobacterium transformation. The aim was to evaluate in planta, GmGSTU4's role in detoxifying the diphenyl ether herbicides fluorodifen and oxyfluorfen and the chloroacetanilides alachlor and metolachlor. Transgenic tobacco plants were verified by PCR and Southern blot hybridization and expression of GmGSTU4 was determined by RT-PCR. Leaf extracts from transgenic plants showed moderate increase in GST activity towards CDNB and a significant increase towards fluorodifen and alachlor, and at the same time an increased GPOX activity towards cumene hydroperoxide. GmGSTU4 overexpressing plants when treated with 200 μM fluorodifen or oxyfluorfen exhibited reduced relative electrolyte leakage compared to wild type plants. Moreover all GmGSTU4 overexpressing lines exhibited significantly increased tolerance towards alachlor when grown in vitro at 7.5 mg/L alachlor compared to wild type plants. No significant increased tolerance was observed to metolachlor. These results confirm the contribution of this particular GmGSTU4 isoenzyme from soybean in the detoxification of fluorodifen and alachlor, and provide the basis towards the development of transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capabilities for future use in environmental cleanup of herbicides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus against hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice as a model of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Kanaya

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM, Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX mice (a model of postmenopausal women. OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6, were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women.

  20. The ecological risks of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Manuela

    2003-01-01

    Biotechnologies have been utilized "ante litteram" for thousands of years to produce food and drink and genetic engineering techniques have been widely applied to produce many compounds for human use, from insulin to other medicines. The debate on genetically modified (GM) organisms broke out all over the world only when GM crops were released into the field. Plant ecologists, microbiologists and population geneticists carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the environmental impact of GM crops. The most significant findings concern: the spread of transgenes through GM pollen diffusion and its environmental impact after hybridisation with closely related wild species or subspecies; horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to soil microbes; the impact of insecticide proteins released into the soil by transformed plants on non-target microbial soil communities. Recent developments in genetic engineering produced a technology, dubbed "Terminator", which protects patented genes introduced in transgenic plants by killing the seeds in the second generation. This genetic construct, which interferes so heavily with fundamental life processes, is considered dangerous and should be ex-ante evaluated taking into account the data on "unexpected events", as here discussed, instead of relying on the "safe until proven otherwise" claim. Awareness that scientists, biotechnologists and genetic engineers cannot answer the fundamental question "how likely is that transgenes will be transferred from cultivated plants into the natural environment?" should foster long-term studies on the ecological risks and benefits of transgenic crops.

  1. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2012-01-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

  2. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch.

  3. Dynamics of antigen presentation to transgene product-specific CD4+ T cells and of Treg induction upon hepatic AAV gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Q Perrin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tolerogenic hepatic microenvironment impedes clearance of viral infections but is an advantage in viral vector gene transfer, which often results in immune tolerance induction to transgene products. Although the underlying tolerance mechanism has been extensively studied, our understanding of antigen presentation to transgene product-specific CD4+ T cells remains limited. To address this, we administered hepatotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV8 vector expressing cytoplasmic ovalbumin (OVA into wt mice followed by adoptive transfer of transgenic OVA-specific T cells. We find that that the liver-draining lymph nodes (celiac and portal are the major sites of MHC II presentation of the virally encoded antigen, as judged by in vivo proliferation of DO11.10 CD4+ T cells (requiring professional antigen-presenting cells, e.g., macrophages and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg induction. Antigen presentation in the liver itself contributes to activation of CD4+ T cells egressing from the liver. Hepatic-induced Treg rapidly disseminate through the systemic circulation. By contrast, a secreted OVA transgene product is presented in multiple organs, and OVA-specific Treg emerge in both the thymus and periphery. In summary, liver draining lymph nodes play an integral role in hepatic antigen presentation and peripheral Treg induction, which results in systemic regulation of the response to viral gene products.

  4. Inhibition of microglial activation protects hippocampal neurogenesis and improves cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaro, Barbara; Lindvall, Olle; Tesco, Giuseppina; Ekdahl, Christine T; Nitsch, Roger M

    2012-01-01

    Activated microglia with macrophage-like functions invade and surround β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly contributing to the turnover of Aβ, but they can also secrete proinflammatory factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Microglia are known to modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. To determine the role of microglia on neurogenesis in brains with Aβ pathology, we inhibited microglial activation with the tetracycline derivative minocycline in doubly transgenic mice expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and mutant human presenilin-1 (PS1). Minocycline increased the survival of new dentate granule cells in APP/PS1 mice indicated by more BrdU+/NeuN+ cells as compared to vehicle-treated transgenic littermates, accompanied by improved behavioral performance in a hippocampus-dependent learning task. Both brain levels of Aβ and Aβ-related morphological deficits in the new neurons labeled with GFP-expressing retrovirus were unaffected in minocycline-treated mice. These results suggest a role for microglia in Aβ-related functional deficits and in suppressing the survival of new neurons, and show that modulation of microglial function with minocycline can protect hippocampal neurogenesis in the presence of Aβ pathology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Genetics and molecular pathology of Stargardt-like macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddy, Vidyullatha; Wong, Paul; Ayyagari, Radha

    2010-05-01

    Stargardt-like macular degeneration (STGD3) is an early onset, autosomal dominant macular degeneration. STGD3 is characterized by a progressive pathology, the loss of central vision, atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, and accumulation of lipofuscin, clinical features that are also characteristic of age-related macular degeneration. The onset of clinical symptoms in STGD3, however, is typically observed within the second or third decade of life (i.e., starting in the teenage years). The clinical profile at any given age among STGD3 patients can be variable suggesting that, although STGD3 is a single gene defect, other genetic or environmental factors may play a role in moderating the final disease phenotype. Genetic studies localized the STGD3 disease locus to a small region on the short arm of human chromosome 6, and application of a positional candidate gene approach identified protein truncating mutations in the elongation of very long chain fatty acids-4 gene (ELOVL4) in patients with this disease. The ELOVL4 gene encodes a protein homologous to the ELO group of proteins that participate in fatty acid elongation in yeast. Pathogenic mutations found in the ELOVL4 gene result in altered trafficking of the protein and behave with a dominant negative effect. Mice carrying an Elovl4 mutation developed photoreceptor degeneration and depletion of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). ELOVL4 protein participates in the synthesis of fatty acids with chain length longer than 26 carbons. Studies on ELOVL4 indicate that VLCFA may be necessary for normal function of the retina, and the defective protein trafficking and/or altered VLCFA elongation underlies the pathology associated with STGD3. Determining the role of VLCFA in the retina and discerning the implications of abnormal trafficking of mutant ELOVL4 and depleted VLCFA content in the pathology of STGD3 will provide valuable insight in understanding the retinal structure, function, and pathology underlying STGD3

  6. Novel protective role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4 receptors in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiehong; Shen, Jian-bing; Yang, Ronghua; Redden, John; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Grady, James; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Liang, Bruce T

    2014-05-01

    Heart failure (HF), despite continuing progress, remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) have emerged as potentially important molecules in regulating cardiac function and as potential targets for HF therapy. Transgenic P2X4R overexpression can protect against HF, but this does not explain the role of native cardiac P2X4R. Our goal is to define the physiological role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R under basal conditions and during HF induced by myocardial infarction or pressure overload. Mice established with conditional cardiac-specific P2X4R knockout were subjected to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation-induced postinfarct or transverse aorta constriction-induced pressure overload HF. Knockout cardiac myocytes did not show P2X4R by immunoblotting or by any response to the P2X4R-specific allosteric enhancer ivermectin. Knockout hearts showed normal basal cardiac function but depressed contractile performance in postinfarct and pressure overload models of HF by in vivo echocardiography and ex vivo isolated working heart parameters. P2X4R coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with nitric oxide synthase 3 (eNOS) in wild-type cardiac myocytes. Mice with cardiac-specific P2X4R overexpression had increased S-nitrosylation, cyclic GMP, NO formation, and were protected from postinfarct and pressure overload HF. Inhibitor of eNOS, L-N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine hydrochloride, blocked the salutary effect of cardiac P2X4R overexpression in postinfarct and pressure overload HF as did eNOS knockout. This study establishes a new protective role for endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R in HF and is the first to demonstrate a physical interaction between the myocyte receptor and eNOS, a mediator of HF protection. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Nuclear delivery of recombinant OCT4 by chitosan nanoparticles for transgene-free generation of protein-induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammam, Salma; Malak, Peter; Correa, Daphne; Rothfuss, Oliver; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Lamprecht, Alf; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2016-06-21

    Protein-based reprogramming of somatic cells is a non-genetic approach for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), whereby reprogramming factors, such as OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, are delivered as functional proteins. The technique is considered safer than transgenic methods, but, unfortunately, most protein-based protocols provide very low reprogramming efficiencies. In this study, we developed exemplarily a nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery system for the reprogramming factor OCT4. To this end, we expressed human OCT4 in Sf9 insect cells using a baculoviral expression system. Recombinant OCT4 showed nuclear localization in Sf9 cells indicating proper protein folding. In comparison to soluble OCT4 protein, encapsulation of OCT4 in nuclear-targeted chitosan NPs strongly stabilized its DNA-binding activity even under cell culture conditions. OCT4-loaded NPs enabled cell treatment with high micromolar concentrations of OCT4 and successfully delivered active OCT4 into human fibroblasts. Chitosan NPs therefore provide a promising tool for the generation of transgene-free iPSCs.

  8. An Empirical Assessment of Transgene Flow from a Bt Transgenic Poplar Plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    Full Text Available To assess the possible impact of transgenic poplar plantations on the ecosystem, we analyzed the frequency and distance of gene flow from a mature male transgenic Populus nigra plantation carrying the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene (Bt poplar and the survival of Bt poplar seeds. The resultant Bt poplar seeds occurred at a frequency of ~0.15% at 0 m to ~0.02% at 500 m from the Bt poplar plantation. The germination of Bt poplar seeds diminished within three weeks in the field (germination rate from 68% to 0% compared to 48% after three weeks of storage at 4°C. The survival rate of seedlings in the field was 0% without any treatment but increased to 1.7% under the addition of four treatments (cleaning and trimming, watering, weeding, and covering with plastic film to maintain moisture after being seeded in the field for eight weeks. The results of this study indicate that gene flow originating from the Bt poplar plantation occurred at an extremely low level through pollen or seeds under natural conditions. This study provides first-hand field data on the extent of transgene flow in poplar plantations and offers guidance for the risk assessment of transgenic poplar plantations.

  9. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; de Llanos, Rosa; Varó, Inmaculada; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Puig, Sergi; Navarro, Juan C

    2017-03-21

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C 18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1 n- 15 ( ∆5 20:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1 n- 9 ( ∆11 20:1) to ∆5,11 20:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5 n- 3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C 24 ) PUFAs.

  11. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants.

  12. Oleuropein aglycone protects transgenic C. elegans strains expressing Aβ42 by reducing plaque load and motor deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Diomede

    Full Text Available The presence of amyloid aggregates of the 42 amino acid peptide of amyloid beta (Aβ42 in the brain is the characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Amyloid beta (Aβ deposition is also found in muscle fibers of individuals affected by inclusion body myositis (sIBM, a rare muscular degenerative disease affecting people over 50. Both conditions are presently lacking an effective therapeutic treatment. There is increasing evidence to suggest that natural polyphenols may prevent the formation of toxic amyloid aggregates; this applies also to oleuropein aglycone (OLE, the most abundant polyphenol in extra virgin olive oil, previously shown to hinder amylin and Aβ aggregation. Here we evaluated the ability of OLE to interfere with Aβ proteotoxicity in vivo by using the transgenic CL2006 and CL4176 strains of Caenorhabditis elegans, simplified models of AD and of sIBM, which express human Aβ in the cytoplasm of body wall muscle cells. OLE-fed CL2006 worms displayed reduced Aβ plaque deposition, less abundant toxic Aβ oligomers, remarkably decreased paralysis and increased lifespan with respect to untreated animals. A protective effect was also observed in CL4176 worms but only when OLE was administered before the induction of the Aβ transgene expression. These effects were specific, dose-related, and not mediated by the known polyphenolic anti-oxidant activity, suggesting that, in this model organism, OLE interferes with the Aβ aggregation skipping the appearance of toxic species, as already shown in vitro for Aβ42.

  13. Tissue-specific posttranscriptional downregulation of expression of the S100A4(mts1) gene in transgenic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambartsumian, N; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grigorian, M

    1998-01-01

    The S100A4(mts1) is a gene associated with generation of metastatic disease. In order to analyze the consequences of alteration of the pattern of expression of the S100A4(mts1) gene we obtained strains of transgenic mice bearing the S100A4(mts1) gene under the control of a ubiquitous and constitu....../or posttranslational degradation....

  14. Differences in elongation of very long chain fatty acids and fatty acid metabolism between triple-negative and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yuji; Nishiumi, Shin; Kono, Seishi; Takao, Shintaro; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2017-08-29

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TN) is more aggressive than other subtypes of breast cancer and has a lower survival rate. Furthermore, detailed biological information about the disease is lacking. This study investigated characteristics of metabolic pathways in TN. We performed the metabolome analysis of 74 breast cancer tissues and the corresponding normal breast tissues using LC/MS. Furthermore, we classified the breast cancer tissues into ER-positive, PgR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer (EP+H-) and TN, and then the differences in their metabolic pathways were investigated. The RT-PCR and immunostaining were carried out to examine the expression of ELOVL1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. We identified 142 of hydrophilic metabolites and 278 of hydrophobic lipid metabolites in breast tissues. We found the differences between breast cancer and normal breast tissues in choline metabolism, glutamine metabolism, lipid metabolism, and so on. Most characteristic of comparison between EP+H- and TN were differences in fatty acid metabolism was which were related to the elongation of very long chain fatty acids were detected between TN and EP+H-. Real-time RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of ELOVL1, 5, and 6 were significantly upregulated by 8.5-, 4.6- and 7.0-fold, respectively, in the TN tumors compared with their levels in the corresponding normal breast tissue samples. Similarly, the mRNA expression levels of ELOVL1, 5, and 6 were also significantly higher in the EP+H- tissues than in the corresponding normal breast tissues (by 4.9-, 3.4-, and 2.1-fold, respectively). The mRNA expression level of ELOVL6 was 2.6-fold higher in the TN tumors than in the EP+H- tumors. During immunostaining, the TN and EP+H- tumors demonstrated stronger ELOVL1 and 6 staining than the corresponding normal breast tissues, but ELOVL5 was not stained strongly in the TN or EP+H- tumors. Furthermore, the TN tumors exhibited stronger ELOVL1 and 6 staining than the EP+H- tumors. Marked

  15. RNAi-derived transgenic resistance to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Tanti, Bhaben; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea is an important grain legume crop of Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. Leaf curl and golden mosaic diseases caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) have emerged as most devastating viral diseases of cowpea in Southeast Asia. In this study, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) strategy to control cowpea-infecting MYMIV. For this, we generated transgenic cowpea plants harbouring three different intron hairpin RNAi constructs, containing the AC2, AC4 and fusion of AC2 and AC4 (AC2+AC4) of seven cowpea-infecting begomoviruses. The T0 and T1 transgenic cowpea lines of all the three constructs accumulated transgene-specific siRNAs. Transgenic plants were further assayed up to T1 generations, for resistance to MYMIV using agro-infectious clones. Nearly 100% resistance against MYMIV infection was observed in transgenic lines, expressing AC2-hp and AC2+AC4-hp RNA, when compared with untransformed controls and plants transformed with empty vectors, which developed severe viral disease symptoms within 3 weeks. The AC4-hp RNA expressing lines displayed appearance of milder symptoms after 5 weeks of MYMIV-inoculation. Northern blots revealed a positive correlation between the level of transgene-specific siRNAs accumulation and virus resistance. The MYMIV-resistant transgenic lines accumulated nearly zero or very low titres of viral DNA. The transgenic cowpea plants had normal phenotype with no yield penalty in greenhouse conditions. This is the first demonstration of RNAi-derived resistance to MYMIV in cowpea.

  16. Overexpression of Interleukin-4 in the Thyroid of Transgenic Mice Upregulates the Expression of Duox1 and the Anion Transporter Pendrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouri, Younes; Hahn, Stephan; Many, Marie-Christine; Craps, Julie; Refetoff, Samuel; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Dumont, Jacques E.; Van Sande, Jacqueline; Corvilain, Bernard; Miot, Françoise; De Deken, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background: The dual oxidases (Duox) are involved in hydrogen peroxide generation, which is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and therefore they are markers of thyroid function. During inflammation, cytokines upregulate DUOX gene expression in the airway and the intestine, suggesting a role for these proteins in innate immunity. It was previously demonstrated that interleukin-4 (IL-4) upregulates DUOX gene expression in thyrocytes. Although the role of IL-4 in autoimmune thyroid diseases has been studied extensively, the effects of IL-4 on thyroid physiology remain largely unknown. Therefore, a new animal model was generated to study the impact of IL-4 on thyroid function. Methods: Transgenic (Thyr-IL-4) mice with thyroid-targeted expression of murine IL-4 were generated. Transgene expression was verified at the mRNA and protein level in thyroid tissues and primary cultures. The phenotype of the Thyr-IL-4 animals was characterized by measuring serum thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin levels and performing thyroid morphometric analysis, immunohistochemistry, whole transcriptome sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and ex vivo thyroid function assays. Results: Thyrocytes from two Thyr-IL-4 mouse lines (#30 and #52) expressed IL-4, which was secreted into the extracellular space. Although 10-month-old transgenic animals had T4 and thyrotropin serum levels in the normal range, they had altered thyroid follicular structure with enlarged follicles composed of elongated thyrocytes containing numerous endocytic vesicles. These follicles were positive for T4 staining the colloid, indicating their capacity to produce thyroid hormones. RNA profiling of Thyr-IL-4 thyroid samples revealed modulation of multiple genes involved in inflammation, while no major leukocyte infiltration could be detected. Upregulated expression of Duox1, Duoxa1, and the pendrin anion exchanger gene (Slc26a4) was detected. In contrast, the iodide symporter gene

  17. Expression of apoplast-targeted plant defensin MtDef4.2 confers resistance to leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina but does not affect mycorrhizal symbiosis in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Fellers, John; Adholeya, Alok; Velivelli, Siva L S; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Nersesian, Natalya; Clemente, Thomas; Shah, Dilip

    2017-02-01

    Rust fungi of the order Pucciniales are destructive pathogens of wheat worldwide. Leaf rust caused by the obligate, biotrophic basidiomycete fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt) is an economically important disease capable of causing up to 50 % yield losses. Historically, resistant wheat cultivars have been used to control leaf rust, but genetic resistance is ephemeral and breaks down with the emergence of new virulent Pt races. There is a need to develop alternative measures for control of leaf rust in wheat. Development of transgenic wheat expressing an antifungal defensin offers a promising approach to complement the endogenous resistance genes within the wheat germplasm for durable resistance to Pt. To that end, two different wheat genotypes, Bobwhite and Xin Chun 9 were transformed with a chimeric gene encoding an apoplast-targeted antifungal plant defensin MtDEF4.2 from Medicago truncatula. Transgenic lines from four independent events were further characterized. Homozygous transgenic wheat lines expressing MtDEF4.2 displayed resistance to Pt race MCPSS relative to the non-transgenic controls in growth chamber bioassays. Histopathological analysis suggested the presence of both pre- and posthaustorial resistance to leaf rust in these transgenic lines. MtDEF4.2 did not, however, affect the root colonization of a beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. This study demonstrates that the expression of apoplast-targeted plant defensin MtDEF4.2 can provide substantial resistance to an economically important leaf rust disease in transgenic wheat without negatively impacting its symbiotic relationship with the beneficial mycorrhizal fungus.

  18. Calcium electrotransfer for termination of transgene expression in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Spanggaard, Iben; Olsen, Caroline Holkman

    2011-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer is expanding in clinical use, thus we have searched for an emergency procedure to stop transgene expression in case of serious adverse events. Calcium is cytotoxic at high intracellular levels, so we tested effects of calcium electrotransfer on transgene expression in muscle....... A clinical grade calcium solution (20 μl, 168 mM) was injected into transfected mouse or rat tibialis cranialis muscle. Ca(2+) uptake was quantified using calcium 45 ((45)Ca), and voltage and time between injection and pulsation were varied. Extinction of transgene expression was investigated by using both...... voltage pulses of 1000 V/cm. Using these parameters, in vivo imaging showed that transgene expression significantly decreased 4 hr after Ca(2+) electrotransfer and was eliminated within 24 hr. Similarly, serum erythropoietin was reduced by 46% at 4 hr and to control levels at 2 days. Histological analyses...

  19. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenza, G.L.; Traystman, M.D.; Gearhart, J.D.; Antonarakis, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5' flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3' flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels

  20. [TSA improve transgenic porcine cloned embryo development and transgene expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Bo; Huan, Yan-Jun; Wang, Feng; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Zhong-Feng; Wu, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2011-07-01

    Uncompleted epigenetic reprogramming is attributed to the low efficiency of producing transgenic cloned animals. Histone modification associated with epigenetics can directly influence the embryo development and transgene expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can change the status of histone acetylation, improve somatic cell reprogramming, and enhance cloning efficiency. TSA prevents the chromatin structure from being condensed, so that transcription factor could binds to DNA sequence easily and enhance transgene expression. Our study established the optimal TSA treatment on porcine donor cells and cloned embryos, 250 nmol/L, 24 h and 40 nmol/L, 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that both the cloned embryo and the donor cell treated by TSA resulted in the highest development efficiency. Meanwhile, TSA can improve transgene expression in donor cell and cloned embryo. In summary, TSA can significantly improve porcine reconstructed embryo development and transgene expression.

  1. Broader expression of the mouse platelet factor 4-cre transgene beyond the megakaryocyte lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuy, F; Aguilar, A; Strassel, C; Eckly, A; Freund, J-N; Duluc, I; Gachet, C; Lanza, F; Léon, C

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing cre recombinase under the control of the platelet factor 4 (Pf4) promoter, in the context of a 100-kb bacterial artificial chromosome, have become a valuable tool with which to study genetic modifications in the platelet lineage. However, the specificity of cre expression has recently been questioned, and the time of its onset during megakaryopoiesis remains unknown. To characterize the expression of this transgene, we used double-fluorescent cre reporter mice. In the bone marrow, Pf4-cre-mediated recombination had occurred in all CD42-positive megakaryocytes as early as stage I of maturation, and in rare CD42-negative cells. In circulating blood, all platelets had recombined, along with only a minor fraction of CD45-positive cells. However, we found that all tissues contained recombined cells of monocyte/macrophage origin. When recombined, these cells might potentially modify the function of the tissues under particular conditions, especially inflammatory conditions, which further increase recombination in immune cells. Unexpectedly, a subset of epithelial cells from the distal colon showed signs of recombination resulting from endogenous Pf4-cre expression. This is probably the basis of the unexplained colon tumors developed by Apc(flox/flox) ;Pf4-cre mice, generated in a separate study on the role of Apc in platelet formation. Altogether, our results indicate early recombination with full penetrance in megakaryopoiesis, and confirm the value of Pf4-cre mice for the genetic engineering of megakaryocytes and platelets. However, care must be taken when investigating the role of platelets in processes outside hemostasis, especially when immune cells might be involved. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. Resistance to organophosphorus agent toxicity in transgenic mice expressing the G117H mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxia; Ticu Boeck, Andreea; Duysen, Ellen G.; Van Keuren, Margaret; Saunders, Thomas L.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2004-01-01

    Organophosphorus toxicants (OP) include chemical nerve agents and pesticides. The goal of this work was to find out whether an animal could be made resistant to OP toxicity by genetic engineering. The human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutant G117H was chosen for study because it has the unusual ability to hydrolyze OP as well as acetylcholine, and it is resistant to inhibition by OP. Human G117H BChE, under the control of the ROSA26 promoter, was expressed in all tissues of transgenic mice. A stable transgenic mouse line expressed 0.5 μg/ml of human G117H BChE in plasma as well as 2 μg/ml of wild-type mouse BChE. Intestine, kidneys, stomach, lungs, heart, spleen, liver, brain, and muscle expressed 0.6-0.15 μg/g of G117H BChE. Transgenic mice were normal in behavior and fertility. The LD50 dose of echothiophate for wild-type mice was 0.1 mg/kg sc. This dose caused severe cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality in wild-type mice, but caused no deaths and only mild toxicity in transgenic animals. The mechanism of protection was investigated by measuring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BChE activity. It was found that AChE and endogenous BChE were inhibited to the same extent in echothiophate-treated wild type and transgenic mice. This led to the hypothesis that protection against echothiophate toxicity was not explained by hydrolysis of echothiophate. In conclusion, the transgenic G117H BChE mouse demonstrates the factors required to achieve protection from OP toxicity in a vertebrate animal

  3. Rapid characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean oils by chemometric methods using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Pinho, Jéssica S. A.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate classification were applied to discriminate soybean oil samples into non-transgenic and transgenic. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract relevant features from the spectral data and to remove the anomalous samples. The best results were obtained when with Support Vectors Machine-Discriminant Analysis (SVM-DA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) after mean centering plus multiplicative scatter correction. For SVM-DA the percentage of successful classification was 100% for the training group and 100% and 90% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively. For PLS-DA the percentage of successful classification was 95% and 100% in training group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively and 100% and 80% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic respectively. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can provide a rapid, nondestructive and reliable method to distinguish non-transgenic and transgenic soybean oils.

  4. Identification of NY-BR-1-specific CD4(+) T cell epitopes using HLA-transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardyan, Adriane; Osen, Wolfram; Zörnig, Inka; Podola, Lilli; Agarwal, Maria; Aulmann, Sebastian; Ruggiero, Eliana; Schmidt, Manfred; Halama, Niels; Leuchs, Barbara; von Kalle, Christof; Beckhove, Philipp; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Jäger, Dirk; Eichmüller, Stefan B

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer represents the second most common cancer type worldwide and has remained the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. The differentiation antigen NY-BR-1 appears overexpressed in invasive mammary carcinomas compared to healthy breast tissue, thus representing a promising target antigen for T cell based tumor immunotherapy approaches. Since efficient immune attack of tumors depends on the activity of tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) effector T cells, NY-BR-1 was screened for the presence of HLA-restricted CD4(+) T cell epitopes that could be included in immunological treatment approaches. Upon NY-BR-1-specific DNA immunization of HLA-transgenic mice and functional ex vivo analysis, a panel of NY-BR-1-derived library peptides was determined that specifically stimulated IFNγ secretion among splenocytes of immunized mice. Following in silico analyses, four candidate epitopes were determined which were successfully used for peptide immunization to establish NY-BR-1-specific, HLA-DRB1*0301- or HLA-DRB1*0401-restricted CD4(+) T cell lines from splenocytes of peptide immunized HLA-transgenic mice. Notably, all four CD4(+) T cell lines recognized human HLA-DR-matched dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with lysates of NY-BR-1 expressing human tumor cells, demonstrating natural processing of these epitopes also within the human system. Finally, CD4(+) T cells specific for all four CD4(+) T cell epitopes were detectable among PBMC of breast cancer patients, showing that CD4(+) T cell responses against the new epitopes are not deleted nor inactivated by self-tolerance mechanisms. Our results present the first NY-BR-1-specific HLA-DRB1*0301- and HLA-DRB1*0401-restricted T cell epitopes that could be exploited for therapeutic intervention against breast cancer. © 2014 UICC.

  5. Characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines established from CEA424/SV40 T antigen-transgenic mice with or without a human CEA transgene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nöckel, Jessica; Engel, Natasja K van den; Winter, Hauke; Hatz, Rudolf A; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Kammerer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. Patients with gastric cancer at an advanced disease stage have a poor prognosis, due to the limited efficacy of available therapies. Therefore, the development of new therapies, like immunotherapy for the treatment of gastric cancer is of utmost importance. Since the usability of existing preclinical models for the evaluation of immunotherapies for gastric adenocarcinomas is limited, the goal of the present study was to establish murine in vivo models which allow the stepwise improvement of immunotherapies for gastric cancer. Since no murine gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines are available we established four cell lines (424GC, mGC3, mGC5, mGC8) from spontaneously developing tumors of CEA424/SV40 T antigen (CEA424/Tag) mice and three cell lines derived from double-transgenic offsprings of CEA424/Tag mice mated with human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-transgenic (CEA424/Tag-CEA) mice (mGC2 CEA , mGC4 CEA , mGC11 CEA ). CEA424/Tag is a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse strain harboring the Tag under the control of a -424/-8 bp CEA gene promoter which leads to the development of invasive adenocarcinoma in the glandular stomach. Tumor cell lines established from CEA424/Tag-CEA mice express the well defined tumor antigen CEA under the control of its natural regulatory elements. The epithelial origin of the tumor cells was proven by morphological criteria including the presence of mucin within the cells and the expression of the cell adhesion molecules EpCAM and CEACAM1. All cell lines consistently express the transgenes CEA and/or Tag and MHC class I molecules leading to their susceptibility to lysis by Tag-specific CTL in vitro. Despite the presentation of CTL-epitopes derived from the transgene products the tumor cell lines were tumorigenic when grafted into C57BL/6, CEA424/Tag or CEA424/Tag-CEA-transgenic hosts and no significant differences in tumor take and tumor growth were observed in the different hosts

  6. Transgenic Parasites Stably Expressing Full-Length Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein as a Model for Vaccine Down-Selection in Mice Using Sterile Protection as an Endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael D.; Nicki, Jennifer; Pool, Christopher D.; DeBot, Margot; Illam, Ratish M.; Brando, Clara; Bozick, Brooke; De La Vega, Patricia; Angra, Divya; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea; Murphy, Jittawadee R.; Bennett, Jason W.; Schwenk, Robert J.; Ockenhouse, Christian F.

    2013-01-01

    Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum is a protective human malaria vaccine candidate. There is an urgent need for models that can rapidly down-select novel CSP-based vaccine candidates. In the present study, the mouse-mosquito transmission cycle of a transgenic Plasmodium berghei malaria parasite stably expressing a functional full-length P. falciparum CSP was optimized to consistently produce infective sporozoites for protection studies. A minimal sporozoite challenge dose was established, and protection was defined as the absence of blood-stage parasites 14 days after intravenous challenge. The specificity of protection was confirmed by vaccinating mice with multiple CSP constructs of differing lengths and compositions. Constructs that induced high NANP repeat-specific antibody titers in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were protective, and the degree of protection was dependent on the antigen dose. There was a positive correlation between antibody avidity and protection. The antibodies in the protected mice recognized the native CSP on the parasites and showed sporozoite invasion inhibitory activity. Passive transfer of anti-CSP antibodies into naive mice also induced protection. Thus, we have demonstrated the utility of a mouse efficacy model to down-select human CSP-based vaccine formulations. PMID:23536694

  7. scid Thymocytes with TCRbeta gene rearrangements are targets for the oncogenic effect of SCL and LMO1 transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervinsky, D S; Lam, D H; Melman, M P; Gross, K W; Aplan, P D

    2001-09-01

    SCL and LMO1 were both discovered by virtue of their activation by chromosomaltranslocation in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Overexpression of SCL and LMO1 in the thymus of transgenic mice leads to T-ALL at a young age. scid (severe combined immunodeficient) mice are unable to efficiently recombine antigen receptor genes and consequently display a developmental block at the CD4-CD8- to CD4+CD8+ transition. To test the hypothesis that this developmental block would protect SCL/LMO1 transgenic mice from developing T-ALL, we crossed the SCL and LMO1 transgenes onto a scid background. The age of onset for T-ALL in the SCL/LMO1/scid mice was significantly delayed (P < 0.001) compared with SCL/LMO1/wild-type mice. Intriguingly, all of the SCL/LMO1/scid malignancies displayed clonal, in-frame TCRbeta gene rearrangements. Taken together, these findings suggest that the "leaky" scid thymocyte that undergoes a productive TCRbeta gene rearrangement is susceptible to the oncogenic action of SCL and LMO1 and additionally suggests that TCRbeta gene rearrangements may be required for the oncogenic action of SCL and LMO1.

  8. Gene flow from transgenic common beans expressing the bar gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Josias C; Carneiro, Geraldo E S; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2010-01-01

    Gene flow is a common phenomenon even in self-pollinated plant species. With the advent of genetically modified plants this subject has become of the utmost importance due to the need for controlling the spread of transgenes. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and intensity of outcrossing in transgenic common beans. In order to evaluate the outcross rates, four experiments were conducted in Santo Antonio de Goiás (GO, Brazil) and one in Londrina (PR, Brazil), using transgenic cultivars resistant to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium and their conventional counterparts as recipients of the transgene. Experiments with cv. Olathe Pinto and the transgenic line Olathe M1/4 were conducted in a completely randomized design with ten replications for three years in one location, whereas the experiments with cv. Pérola and the transgenic line Pérola M1/4 were conducted at two locations for one year, with the transgenic cultivar surrounded on all sides by the conventional counterpart. The outcross occurred at a negligible rate of 0.00741% in cv. Pérola, while none was observed (0.0%) in cv. Olathe Pinto. The frequency of gene flow was cultivar dependent and most of the observed outcross was within 2.5 m from the edge of the pollen source. Index terms: Phaseolus vulgaris, outcross, glufosinate ammonium.

  9. Establishment and characterization of CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ri-ichi; Kuramochi, Takashi; Aoyagi, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Shu; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kasai, Noriyuki; Hakamata, Yoji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ueda, Masatsugu

    2007-02-01

    Cell marking is a very important procedure for identifying donor cells after cell and/or organ transplantation in vivo. Transgenic animals expressing marker proteins such as enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their tissues are a powerful tool for research in fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The purpose of this study was to establish transgenic rabbit lines that ubiquitously express EGFP under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/beta-actin promoter (CAG) to provide a fluorescent transgenic animal as a bioresource. We microinjected the EGFP expression vector into 945 rabbit eggs and 4 independent transgenic candidate pups were obtained. Two of them died before sexual maturation and one was infertile. One transgenic male candidate founder rabbit was obtained and could be bred by artificial insemination. The rabbit transmitted the transgene in a Mendelian manner. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, we detected the transgene at 7q11 on chromosome 7 as a large centromeric region in two F1 offspring (one female and one male). Eventually, one transgenic line was established. Ubiquitous EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in all examined organs. There were no gender-related differences in fluorescence. The established CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit will be an important bioresource and a useful tool for various studies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  10. Intratracheal injection of adenovirus containing the human MNSOD transgene protects athymic nude mice from irradiation-induced organizing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, Michael W.; Bray, Jenifer A.; Krager, Stephen; Berry, Luann M.; Gooding, William; Engelhardt, John F.; Zwacka, Ralf; Travis, Elizabeth L.; Greenberger, Joel S.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A dose and volume limiting factor in radiation treatment of thoracic cancer is the development of fibrosis in normal lung. The goal of the present study was to determine whether expression prior to irradiation of a transgene for human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) protects against irradiation-induced lung damage in mice. Methods and Materials: Athymic Nude (Nu/J) mice were intratracheally injected with 10 9 plaque-forming units (PFU) of a replication-incompetent mutant adenovirus construct containing the gene for either human MnSOD, human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) or LacZ. Four days later the mice were irradiated to the pulmonary cavity to doses of 850, 900, or 950 cGy. To demonstrate adenoviral infection, nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out with primers specific for either human MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD transgene on freshly explanted lung, trachea, or alveolar type II cells, and immunohistochemistry was used to measure LacZ expression. RNA was extracted on day 0, 1, 4, or 7 after 850 cGy of irradiation from lungs of mice that had previously received adenovirus or had no treatment. Slot blot analysis was performed to quantitate RNA expression for IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TGF-β, MnSOD, or Cu/ZnSOD. Lung tissue was explanted and tested for biochemical activity of MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD after adenovirus injection. Other mice were sacrificed 132 days after irradiation, lungs excised, frozen in OCT, (polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol mixture) sectioned, H and E stained, and evaluated for percent of the lung demonstrating organizing alveolitis. Results: Mice injected intratracheally with adenovirus containing the gene for human MnSOD had significantly reduced chronic lung irradiation damage following 950 cGy, compared to control mice or mice injected with adenovirus containing the gene for human Cu/ZnSOD or LacZ. Immunohistochemistry

  11. Characterization of mercury bioremediation by transgenic bacteria expressing metallothionein and polyphosphate kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Ruiz Gloriene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of transgenic bacteria has been proposed as a suitable alternative for mercury remediation. Ideally, mercury would be sequestered by metal-scavenging agents inside transgenic bacteria for subsequent retrieval. So far, this approach has produced limited protection and accumulation. We report here the development of a transgenic system that effectively expresses metallothionein (mt-1 and polyphosphate kinase (ppk genes in bacteria in order to provide high mercury resistance and accumulation. Results In this study, bacterial transformation with transcriptional and translational enhanced vectors designed for the expression of metallothionein and polyphosphate kinase provided high transgene transcript levels independent of the gene being expressed. Expression of polyphosphate kinase and metallothionein in transgenic bacteria provided high resistance to mercury, up to 80 μM and 120 μM, respectively. Here we show for the first time that metallothionein can be efficiently expressed in bacteria without being fused to a carrier protein to enhance mercury bioremediation. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry analyzes revealed that the mt-1 transgenic bacteria accumulated up to 100.2 ± 17.6 μM of mercury from media containing 120 μM Hg. The extent of mercury remediation was such that the contaminated media remediated by the mt-1 transgenic bacteria supported the growth of untransformed bacteria. Cell aggregation, precipitation and color changes were visually observed in mt-1 and ppk transgenic bacteria when these cells were grown in high mercury concentrations. Conclusion The transgenic bacterial system described in this study presents a viable technology for mercury bioremediation from liquid matrices because it provides high mercury resistance and accumulation while inhibiting elemental mercury volatilization. This is the first report that shows that metallothionein expression provides mercury resistance and

  12. Transgenic Anopheles gambiae expressing an antimalarial peptide suffer no significant fitness cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare C McArthur

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases present some of the greatest health challenges faced by the world today. In many cases, existing control measures are compromised by insecticide resistance, pathogen tolerance to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines. In light of these difficulties, new genetic tools for disease control programmes, based on the deployment of genetically modified mosquitoes, are seen as having great promise. Transgenic strains may be used to control disease transmission either by suppressing vector populations or by replacing susceptible with refractory genotypes. In practice, the fitness of the transgenic strain relative to natural mosquitoes will be a critical determinant of success. We previously described a transgenic strain of Anopheles gambiae expressing the Vida3 peptide into the female midgut following a blood-meal, which exhibited significant protection against malaria parasites. Here, we investigated the fitness of this strain relative to non-transgenic controls through comparisons of various life history traits. Experiments were designed, as far as possible, to equalize genetic backgrounds and heterogeneity such that fitness comparisons focussed on the presence and expression of the transgene cassette. We also employed reciprocal crosses to identify any fitness disturbance associated with inheritance of the transgene from either the male or female parent. We found no evidence that the presence or expression of the effector transgene or associated fluorescence markers caused any significant fitness cost in relation to larval mortality, pupal sex ratio, fecundity, hatch rate or longevity of blood-fed females. In fact, fecundity was increased in transgenic strains. We did, however, observe some fitness disturbances associated with the route of inheritance of the transgene. Maternal inheritance delayed male pupation whilst paternal inheritance increased adult longevity for both males and unfed females. Overall, in comparison to

  13. Attenuation of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic nigrostriatal lesions in superoxide dismutase transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadet, J.L.; Hirata, H.; Asanuma, M.

    1998-01-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine is a neurotoxin that produces degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in rodents. Its toxicity is thought to involve the generation of superoxide anion secondary to its autoxidation. To examine the effects of the overexpression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase activity on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage, we have measured the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on striatal and nigral dopamine transporters and nigral tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase transgenic mice. Intracerebroventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (50 μg) in non-transgenic mice produced reductions in the size of striatal area and an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle on both sides of the brains of mice killed two weeks after the injection. In addition, 6-hydroxydopamine caused marked decreases in striatal and nigral [ 125 I]RTI-121-labelled dopamine transporters not only on the injected side but also on the non-injected side of non-transgenic mice; this was associated with decreased cell number and size of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta on both sides in these mice. In contrast, superoxide dismutase transgenic mice were protected against these neurotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine, with the homozygous transgenic mice showing almost complete protection.These results provide further support for a role of superoxide anion in the toxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine. They also provide further evidence that reactive oxygen species may be the main determining factors in the neurodegenerative effects of catecholamines. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 in pigs confers resistance against xenograft rejection during ex vivo perfusion of porcine kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Björn; Ramackers, Wolf; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Lemme, Erika; Hassel, Petra; Queisser, Anna-Lisa; Herrmann, Doris; Barg-Kues, Brigitte; Carnwath, Joseph W; Klose, Johannes; Tiede, Andreas; Friedrich, Lars; Baars, Wiebke; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Winkler, Michael; Niemann, Heiner

    2011-01-01

    The major immunological hurdle to successful porcine-to-human xenotransplantation is the acute vascular rejection (AVR), characterized by endothelial cell (EC) activation and perturbation of coagulation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its derivatives have anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory effects and protect against reactive oxygen species, rendering HO-1 a promising molecule to control AVR. Here, we report the production and characterization of pigs transgenic for human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) and demonstrate significant protection in porcine kidneys against xenograft rejection in ex vivo perfusion with human blood and transgenic porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) in a TNF-α-mediated apoptosis assay. Transgenic and non-transgenic PAEC were tested in a TNF-α-mediated apoptosis assay. Expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin) was measured by real-time PCR. hHO-1 transgenic porcine kidneys were perfused with pooled and diluted human AB blood in an ex vivo perfusion circuit. MHC class-II up-regulation after induction with IFN-γ was compared between wild-type and hHO-1 transgenic PAEC. Cloned hHO-1 transgenic pigs expressed hHO-1 in heart, kidney, liver, and in cultured ECs and fibroblasts. hHO-1 transgenic PAEC were protected against TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. Real-time PCR revealed reduced expression of adhesion molecules like ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. These effects could be abrogated by the incubation of transgenic PAECs with the specific HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphorine IX (Zn(II)PPIX, 20 μm). IFN-γ induced up-regulation of MHC class-II molecules was significantly reduced in PAECs from hHO-1 transgenic pigs. hHO-1 transgenic porcine kidneys could successfully be perfused with diluted human AB-pooled blood for a maximum of 240 min (with and without C1 inh), while in wild-type kidneys, blood flow ceased after ∼60 min. Elevated levels of d-Dimer and TAT were detected, but no significant consumption of fibrinogen and

  15. Stability of transgene expression, field performance and recombination breeding of transformed barley lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, H.; Jensen, L.G.; Wong, O.T.

    2001-01-01

    in homozygous transgenic T-3 plants, and these remained constant over a 3-year period. In micro-malting experiments, the heat-stable enzyme reached levels of up to 1.4 mug.mg(-1) protein and survived kiln drying at levels of 70-100%. In the field trials of 1997 and 1998 the transgenic lines had a reduced 1000...... lines yielded approximately 6 t.ha(-1) and Golden Promise 7.7 t.ha(-1). Cross-breeding was carried out to transfer the transgene into a more suitable genetic background. Crosses of the semi-dwarf ari-e mutant Golden Promise gave rise to the four morphological phenotypes nutans, high erect, erect...... transformants were observed in some F-4 lines homozygous for the morphological phenotypes and for the transgene. In the case of a homozygous nutans line, the transgenic plants had a higher 1000-grain weight than those lacking the transgene. Like mutants providing useful output traits, transgenic plants...

  16. Transgenic Mice Over-Expressing RBP4 Have RBP4-Dependent and Light-Independent Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mei; Phelps, Eric; Balangue, Michael J; Dockins, Aaron; Moiseyev, Gennadiy; Shin, Younghwa; Kane, Shelley; Otalora, Laura; Ma, Jian-Xing; Farjo, Rafal; Farjo, Krysten M

    2017-08-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4-Tg) develop progressive retinal degeneration, characterized by microglia activation, yet the precise mechanisms underlying retinal degeneration are unclear. Previous studies showed RBP4-Tg mice have normal ocular retinoid levels, suggesting that degeneration is independent of the retinoid visual cycle or light exposure. The present study addresses whether retinal degeneration is light-dependent and RBP4-dependent by testing the effects of dark-rearing and pharmacological lowering of serum RBP4 levels, respectively. RBP4-Tg mice reared on normal mouse chow in normal cyclic light conditions were directly compared to RBP4-Tg mice exposed to chow supplemented with the RBP4-lowering compound A1120 or dark-rearing conditions. Quantitative retinal histological analysis was conducted to assess retinal degeneration, and electroretinography (ERG) and optokinetic tracking (OKT) tests were performed to assess retinal and visual function. Ocular retinoids and bis-retinoid A2E were quantified. Dark-rearing RBP4-Tg mice effectively reduced ocular bis-retinoid A2E levels, but had no significant effect on retinal degeneration or dysfunction in RBP4-Tg mice, demonstrating that retinal degeneration is light-independent. A1120 treatment lowered serum RBP4 levels similar to wild-type mice, and prevented structural retinal degeneration. However, A1120 treatment did not prevent retinal dysfunction in RBP4-Tg mice. Moreover, RBP4-Tg mice on A1120 diet had significant worsening of OKT response and loss of cone photoreceptors compared to RBP4-Tg mice on normal chow. This may be related to the very significant reduction in retinyl ester levels in the retina of mice on A1120-supplemented diet. Retinal degeneration in RBP4-Tg mice is RBP4-dependent and light-independent.

  17. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winther, K.D.; Secher, Jan Ole Bertelsen

    2015-01-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large...... White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig...... in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17...

  18. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Hühns, Maja; Broer, Inge; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2014-12-01

    Composite potato plants offer an extremely fast, effective and reliable system for studies on gene functions in roots using antisense or inverted-repeat but not sense constructs for gene inactivation. Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root-pathogen interactions and gene silencing in the roots. The proportion of transgenic roots among the roots induced was high (80-100%) in the four potato cultivars tested (Albatros, Desirée, Sabina and Saturna). No wild-type adventitious roots were formed at mock inoculation site. All strains of A. rhizogenes tested induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots of composite potato plants expressed significantly higher amounts of β-glucuronidase (GUS) than the roots of a GUS-transgenic potato line event. Silencing of the uidA transgene (GUS) was tested by inducing roots on the GUS-transgenic cv. Albatros event with strains of A. rhizogenes over-expressing either the uidA sense or antisense transcripts, or inverted-repeat or hairpin uidA RNA. The three last mentioned constructs caused 2.5-4.0 fold reduction in the uidA mRNA expression. In contrast, over-expression of uidA resulted in over 3-fold increase in the uidA mRNA and GUS expression, indicating that sense-mediated silencing (co-suppression) was not functional in roots. The results suggest that composite plants offer a useful experimental system for potato research, which has gained little previous attention.

  19. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 10(7) TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10(-4). The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system.

  20. Expression of a radish defensin in transgenic wheat confers increased resistance to Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia cerealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Zhou, Miaoping; Zhang, Zengyan; Ren, Lijuan; Du, Lipu; Zhang, Boqiao; Xu, Huijun; Xin, Zhiyong

    2011-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Wheat sharp eyespot, mainly caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis, is one of the major diseases of wheat in China. The defensin RsAFP2, a small cyteine-rich antifungal protein from radish (Raphanus sativus), was shown to inhibit growth in vitro of agronomically important fungal pathogens, such as F. graminearum and R. cerealis. The RsAFP2 gene was transformed into Chinese wheat variety Yangmai 12 via biolistic bombardment to assess the effectiveness of the defensin in protecting wheat from the fungal pathogens in multiple locations and years. The genomic PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that RsAFP2 was integrated into the genomes of the transgenic wheat lines and heritable. RT-PCR and Western blot proved that the RsAFP2 was expressed in these transgenic wheat lines. Disease tests showed that four RsAFP2 transgenic lines (RA1-RA4) displayed enhanced resistance to F. graminearum compared to the untransformed Yangmai 12 and the null-segregated plants. Assays on Q-RT-PCR and disease severity showed that the express level of RsAFP2 was associated with the enhanced resistance degree. Two of these transgenic lines (RA1 and RA2) also exhibited enhanced resistance to R. cerealis. These results indicated that the expression of RsAFP2 conferred increased resistance to F. graminearum and R. cerealis in transgenic wheat.

  1. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  2. Eosinophils subvert host resistance to an intracellular pathogen by instigating non-protective IL-4 in CCR2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A H; Bueter, C L; Rothenberg, M E; Deepe, G S

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils contribute to type II immune responses in helminth infections and allergic diseases; however, their influence on intracellular pathogens is less clear. We previously reported that CCR2 -/- mice exposed to the intracellular fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum exhibit dampened immunity caused by an early exaggerated interleukin (IL)-4 response. We sought to identify the cellular source promulgating IL-4 in infected mutant animals. Eosinophils were the principal instigators of non-protective IL-4 and depleting this granulocyte population improved fungal clearance in CCR2 -/- animals. The deleterious impact of eosinophilia on mycosis was also recapitulated in transgenic animals overexpressing eosinophils. Mechanistic examination of IL-4 induction revealed that phagocytosis of H. capsulatum via the pattern recognition receptor complement receptor (CR) 3 triggered the heightened IL-4 response in murine eosinophils. This phenomenon was conserved in human eosinophils; exposure of cells to the fungal pathogen elicited a robust IL-4 response. Thus, our findings elucidate a detrimental attribute of eosinophil biology in fungal infections that could potentially trigger a collapse in host defenses by instigating type II immunity.

  3. Effects of P-efficient Transgenic Rice OsPT4 on Inorganic Phosphorus Fractions in Red Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Lin-lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In a rhizobox experiment with phosphorus(P fertilizer application and P-deficiency, planting wild-type rice(Nipp, P-efficient mutant rice(PHO2, P-efficient transgenic rice(OsPT4 were chosen to evaluate effects of phosphorus efficient transgenic rice on inorganic phosphorus in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil. The obtained results were summarized as follows:(1Significant higer dry weight and P accumulation were observed in OsPT4 and PHO2 than in Nipp, but lower total P and inorganic phosphorus observed in OsPT4 and PHO2 than in Nipp;(2The concentrations of inorganic phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil were sorted as follows:O-P > Fe-P > Al-P > Ca-P, and the order of inorganic phosphorus fractions adapted to three rice materials;(3When added phosphorus fertilizer, the concents of rhizospheric Al-P, Fe-P and non-rhizospheric Ca-P in three rice materials had no significant difference. The concents of rhizospheric soil O-P and Ca-P in OsPT4 and PHO2 were significantly inferior to Nipp, and their concents of non-rhizospheric soil Al-P, Fe-P and O-P were significantly lower than Nipp. When added no phosphorus fertilizer, the concents of rhizospheric Al-P, O-P, Ca-P and non-rhizosphere Al-P, Ca-P in three rice materials had no significant difference, and the concents of rhizosphere Fe-P and non-rhizosphere soil Fe-P, O-P in OsPT4 and PHO2 were significantly lower than Nipp, but rhizosphere Ca-P was significantly higher than Nipp.

  4. Radiation arteriopathy in the transgenic arteriovenous fistula model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Michael T; Arnold, Christine M; Kim, Yung J; Bogarin, Ernesto A; Stewart, Campbell L; Wulfstat, Amanda A; Derugin, Nikita; Deen, Dennis; Young, William L

    2008-05-01

    The transgenic arteriovenous fistula model, surgically constructed with transgenic mouse aorta interposed in common carotid artery-to-external jugular vein fistulae in nude rats, has a 4-month experimental window because patency and transgenic phenotype are lost over time. We adapted this model to investigate occlusive arteriopathy in brain arteriovenous malformations after radiosurgery by radiating grafted aorta before insertion in the fistula. We hypothesized that high-dose radiation would reproduce the arteriopathy observed clinically within the experimental time window and that deletions of endoglin (ENG) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes would modify the radiation response. Radiation arteriopathy in the common carotid arteries of 171 wild-type mice was examined with doses of 25, 80, 120, or 200 Gy (Experiment 1). Radiation arteriopathy in 68 wild-type arteriovenous fistulae was examined histologically and morphometrically with preoperative radiation doses of 0, 25, or 200 Gy (Experiment 2). Radiation arteriopathy in 51 transgenic arteriovenous fistulae (36 ENG and 15 eNOS knock-out fistulae) was examined using preoperative radiation doses of 0, 25, or 200 Gy (Experiment 3). High-dose radiation (200 Gy) of mouse common carotid arteries induced only mild arteriopathy (mean score, 0.66) without intimal hyperplasia and with high mortality (68%). Radiation arteriopathy in wild-type arteriovenous fistulae was severe (mean score, 3.5 at 200 Gy), with intimal hyperplasia and medial disruption at 3 months, decreasing luminal areas with increasing dose, and no mortality. Arteriopathy was robust in transgenic arteriovenous fistulae with ENG +/- and with eNOS +/-, with thick intimal hyperplasia in the former and distinct smooth muscle cell proliferation in the latter. The transgenic arteriovenous fistula model can be adapted to rapidly reproduce radiation arteriopathy observed in resected brain arteriovenous malformations after radiosurgery. High

  5. Overview on the investigations of transgenic plums in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, PT3 and PT5 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natu...

  6. Overview of the investigation of transgenic plums in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and PT3 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natural i...

  7. Hepatitis C virus core protein targets 4E-BP1 expression and phosphorylation and potentiates Myc-induced liver carcinogenesis in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Cosette; Lejamtel, Charlène; Benzoubir, Nassima; Battaglia, Serena; Sidahmed-Adrar, Nazha; Desterke, Christophe; Lemasson, Matthieu; Rosenberg, Arielle R; Samuel, Didier; Bréchot, Christian; Pflieger, Delphine; Le Naour, François; Bourgeade, Marie-Françoise

    2017-08-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver diseases including the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Particularly, core protein has been involved in HCV-related liver pathologies. However, the impact of HCV core on signaling pathways supporting the genesis of HCC remains largely elusive. To decipher the host cell signaling pathways involved in the oncogenic potential of HCV core, a global quantitative phosphoproteomic approach was carried out. This study shed light on novel differentially phosphorylated proteins, in particular several components involved in translation. Among the eukaryotic initiation factors that govern the translational machinery, 4E-BP1 represents a master regulator of protein synthesis that is associated with the development and progression of cancers due to its ability to increase protein expression of oncogenic pathways. Enhanced levels of 4E-BP1 in non-modified and phosphorylated forms were validated in human hepatoma cells and in mouse primary hepatocytes expressing HCV core, in the livers of HCV core transgenic mice as well as in HCV-infected human primary hepatocytes. The contribution of HCV core in carcinogenesis and the status of 4E-BP1 expression and phosphorylation were studied in HCV core/Myc double transgenic mice. HCV core increased the levels of 4E-BP1 expression and phosphorylation and significantly accelerated the onset of Myc-induced tumorigenesis in these double transgenic mice. These results reveal a novel function of HCV core in liver carcinogenesis potentiation. They position 4E-BP1 as a tumor-specific target of HCV core and support the involvement of the 4E-BP1/eIF4E axis in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  8. Multi-Organ Damage in Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Transgenic Mice Infected with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyu Zhao

    Full Text Available The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV causes severe acute respiratory failure and considerable extrapumonary organ dysfuction with substantial high mortality. For the limited number of autopsy reports, small animal models are urgently needed to study the mechanisms of MERS-CoV infection and pathogenesis of the disease and to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutics against MERS-CoV infection. In this study, we developed a transgenic mouse model globally expressing codon-optimized human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4, the receptor for MERS-CoV. After intranasal inoculation with MERS-CoV, the mice rapidly developed severe pneumonia and multi-organ damage, with viral replication being detected in the lungs on day 5 and in the lungs, kidneys and brains on day 9 post-infection. In addition, the mice exhibited systemic inflammation with mild to severe pneumonia accompanied by the injury of liver, kidney and spleen with neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. Importantly, the mice exhibited symptoms of paralysis with high viral burden and viral positive neurons on day 9. Taken together, this study characterizes the tropism of MERS-CoV upon infection. Importantly, this hDPP4-expressing transgenic mouse model will be applicable for studying the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV infection and investigating the efficacy of vaccines and antiviral agents designed to combat MERS-CoV infection.

  9. Comparison of nutrition composition of transgenic maize (chitinase gene) with its non-transgenic counterpart

    OpenAIRE

    Ping-mei, Yan; Yu-kui, Rui; Xiao-yan, Yan; Zheng, Chai; Qing, Wang; Jian-zhong, Du; Yi, Sun

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the nutrition components of transgenic maize seeds (chitinase gene), achieved by the pollen-mediated approach, with its non-transgenic counterpart, Vitamin B1, vitamin B2, fatty acids and essential amino acids of transgenic maize seeds and their counterparts were analyzed by the Chinese national standard methods or AOAC methods. The results showed that the contents of all the six kinds of fatty acids detected in transgenic maize seeds were significantly higher than those i...

  10. Aberrant Wound Healing in an Epidermal Interleukin-4 Transgenic Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Bao, Lei; Chan, Lawrence S.; DiPietro, Luisa A.; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing in a pre-existing Th2-dominated skin milieu was assessed by using an epidermal specific interleukin-4 (IL-4) transgenic (Tg) mouse model, which develops a pruritic inflammatory skin condition resembling human atopic dermatitis. Our results demonstrated that IL-4 Tg mice had delayed wound closure and re-epithelialization even though these mice exhibited higher degrees of epithelial cell proliferation. Wounds in IL-4 Tg mice also showed a marked enhancement in expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, elevated infiltration of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, macrophages, CD3+ lymphocytes, and epidermal dendritic T lymphocytes. In addition, these mice exhibited a significantly higher level of angiogenesis as compared to wild type mice. Furthermore, wounds in IL-4 Tg mice presented with larger amounts of granulation tissue, but had less expression and deposition of collagen. Taken together, an inflamed skin condition induced by IL-4 has a pronounced negative influence on the healing process. Understanding more about the pathogenesis of wound healing in a Th2- dominated environment may help investigators explore new potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:26752054

  11. Short-term carcinogenicity testing of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ) in E mu-pim-1 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Mortensen, Alicja; Kristiansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    The usefulness of transgenic E mu-pim-1 mice over-expressing the pim-1 oncogene in lymphoid tissues, as sensitive test organisms was studied in a short-term carcinogenicity study. The mice were fed standard diet Altromin 1314 supplemented either with 0.03% 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b......]pyridine (PhIP) for 7 months or with 0.03% 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) for 6 months, PhIP and IQ are heterocyclic amines formed during cooking of meat and fish and are mutagenic to bacteria and cultured mammalian cells, PhIP is a potent mouse lymphomagen, while IQ is a liver carcinogen...... to non-transgenic mice. Our results suggest that the transgenic E mu-pim-1 mouse may be a useful model for short-term carcinogenicity screening of potential genotoxic carcinogens having the lymphoid system as target tissue, The carcinogen IQ which does not have the lymphoid system as a target...

  12. Comparison of nutritional value of transgenic peanut expressing bar and rcg3 genes with non-transgenic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robab, U.E.; )

    2014-01-01

    The transgenic peanut plants expressing bar and rcg3 genes were subjected to assessment of any change in nutritional value of the crop at various locations. The protein and fat contents of transgenic lines were compared with the non-transgenic parent varieties. Protein content in the transgenic lines was higher as compared to that in non-transgenic counterparts and differences among locations for fat and protein content were significant. No differences among fatty acids were recorded for genes, events and locations. Irrespective of small differences, all the values were in range described for this crop and transgenic lines appeared to be substantially equivalent to non-transgenic parent varieties. (author)

  13. Editing Transgenic DNA Components by Inducible Gene Replacement in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Potter, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Gene conversions occur when genomic double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) trigger unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a homologous template sequence. Exogenous or mutated sequence can be introduced through this homology-directed repair (HDR). We leveraged gene conversion to develop a method for genomic editing of existing transgenic insertions in Drosophila melanogaster. The clustered regularly-interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is used in the homology assisted CRISPR knock-in (HACK) method to induce DSBs in a GAL4 transgene, which is repaired by a single-genomic transgenic construct containing GAL4 homologous sequences flanking a T2A-QF2 cassette. With two crosses, this technique converts existing GAL4 lines, including enhancer traps, into functional QF2 expressing lines. We used HACK to convert the most commonly-used GAL4 lines (labeling tissues such as neurons, fat, glia, muscle, and hemocytes) to QF2 lines. We also identified regions of the genome that exhibited differential efficiencies of HDR. The HACK technique is robust and readily adaptable for targeting and replacement of other genomic sequences, and could be a useful approach to repurpose existing transgenes as new genetic reagents become available. PMID:27334272

  14. Epigenetic variants of a transgenic petunia line show hypermethylation in transgene DNA: an indication for specific recognition of foreign DNA in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P; Heidmann, I

    1994-05-25

    We analysed de novo DNA methylation occurring in plants obtained from the transgenic petunia line R101-17. This line contains one copy of the maize A1 gene that leads to the production of brick-red pelargonidin pigment in the flowers. Due to its integration into an unmethylated genomic region the A1 transgene is hypomethylated and transcriptionally active. Several epigenetic variants of line 17 were selected that exhibit characteristic and somatically stable pigmentation patterns, displaying fully coloured, marbled or colourless flowers. Analysis of the DNA methylation patterns revealed that the decrease in pigmentation among the epigenetic variants was correlated with an increase in methylation, specifically of the transgene DNA. No change in methylation of the hypomethylated integration region could be detected. A similar increase in methylation, specifically in the transgene region, was also observed among progeny of R101-17del, a deletion derivative of R101-17 that no longer produces pelargonidin pigments due to a deletion in the A1 coding region. Again de novo methylation is specifically directed to the transgene, while the hypomethylated character of neighbouring regions is not affected. Possible mechanisms for transgene-specific methylation and its consequences for long-term use of transgenic material are discussed.

  15. Dominant Lethal Pathologies in Male Mice Engineered to Contain an X-Linked DUX4 Transgene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Dandapat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an enigmatic disease associated with epigenetic alterations in the subtelomeric heterochromatin of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat. Each repeat unit encodes DUX4, a gene that is normally silent in most tissues. Besides muscular loss, most patients suffer retinal vascular telangiectasias. To generate an animal model, we introduced a doxycycline-inducible transgene encoding DUX4 and 3′ genomic DNA into a euchromatic region of the mouse X chromosome. Without induction, DUX4 RNA was expressed at low levels in many tissues and animals displayed a variety of unexpected dominant leaky phenotypes, including male-specific lethality. Remarkably, rare live-born males expressed DUX4 RNA in the retina and presented a retinal vascular telangiectasia. By using doxycycline to induce DUX4 expression in satellite cells, we observed impaired myogenesis in vitro and in vivo. This mouse model, which shows pathologies due to FSHD-related D4Z4 sequences, is likely to be useful for testing anti-DUX4 therapies in FSHD.

  16. Construction and analysis of the transgenic carrot and celery plants expressing the recombinant thaumatin II protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchakivska Yu. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To obtain the transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II in order to increase plant stress tolerance. Methods. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the carrot and celery seedlings was used for obtaining the transgenic plants. Presence and transcription of the transgene in plant tissues were proved by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. The plants were tested for the biotic stress tolerance by in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity assays and for the salinity and osmotic stress tolerance by plant survival test in presence of NaCl and PEG in different concentrations. Results. Transgenic plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II gene (transcription proved for 60–100 % were obtained by agrobacterial transformation. The transgenic carrot plant extracts inhibited the growth of the studied phytopathogenic bacteria strains but exhibited no antifungal activity. Survival level of transgenic plants under the salinity and osmotic stress effect was definitely higher comparing to the untransgenic ones. The analysis of the photosynthetic pigment content in the transgenic carrot plants showed no significant difference of this parameter under salinity stress that may indicate a possible protective activity of the recombinant protein. Conclusions. The obtained in our study transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express the recombinant thaumatin II gene were characterized by antibacterial activity and increased tolerance to salinity and osmotic stress factors.

  17. MnSOD and catalase transgenes demonstrate that protection of islets from oxidative stress does not alter cytokine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hainan; Li, Xiaoyan; Epstein, Paul N

    2005-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are proposed mediators of cytokine-induced beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. We produced transgenic mice with increased beta-cell expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Expression of these antioxidants increased beta-cell ROS scavenging and improved beta-cell survival after treatment with different sources of ROS. MnSOD or catalase conferred protection against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced beta-cell injury. Coexpression of MnSOD and catalase provided synergistic protection against peroxynitrite and STZ. To determine the potential effect of these antioxidants on cytokine-induced toxicity, we exposed isolated islets to a cytokine mixture, including interleukin-1beta and interferon-gamma. Cytokine toxicity was measured as reduced metabolic activity after 6 days and reduced insulin secretion after 1 day. Cytokines increased ROS production, and both antioxidants were effective in reducing cytokine-induced ROS. However, MnSOD and/or catalase provided no protection against cytokine-induced injury. To understand this, the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling cascade was investigated. Antioxidants reduced NF-kappaB activation by ROS, but none of the antioxidants altered activation by cytokines, as measured by inhibitor of kappaB phosphorylation, NF-kappaB translocation, inducible NO synthase activation, and NO production. Our data agree with previous reports that antioxidants benefit beta-cell survival against ROS damage, but they are not consistent with reports that antioxidants reduce cytokine toxicity. ROS appear to have no role in cytokine toxicity in primary beta-cells.

  18. Genomic localization of the Z/EG transgene in the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Sophie; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Lobe, Corrinne; Larue, Lionel

    2010-02-01

    The Z/EG transgenic mouse line, produced by Novak et al., displays tissue-specific EGFP expression after Cre-mediated recombination. The autofluorescence of EGFP allows the visualization of cells of interest displaying Cre recombination. The initial construct was designed such that cells without Cre recombination express the beta-galactosidase marker, facilitating counterselection. We used inverse PCR to identify the site of integration of the Z/EG transgene, to improve the efficiency of homozygous Z/EG mouse production. Recombined cells produced large amounts of EGFP protein, resulting in higher levels of fluorescence and therefore greater contrast with nonrecombined cells. We mapped the transgene to the G1 region of chromosome 5. This random insertion was found to have occurred 230-bp upstream from the start codon of the Rasa4 gene. The insertion of the Z/EG transgene in the C57BL/6 genetic background had no effect on Rasa4 expression. Homozygous Z/EG mice therefore had no obvious phenotype. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Transgenic Killer Commensal Bacteria as Mucosal Protectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As first line of defense against the majority of infections and primary site for their transmission, mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity and genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts represent the most suitable sites to deliver protective agents for the prevention of infectious diseases. Mucosal protection is important not only for life threatening diseases but also for opportunistic infections which currently represent a serious burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost of cures. Candida albicans is among the most prevalent causes of mucosal infections not only in immuno- compromised patients, such as HIV-infected subjects who are frequently affected by oral and esophageal candidiasis, but also in otherwise healthy individuals, as in the case of acute vaginitis. Unfortunately, current strategies for mucosal protection against candidiasis are severely limited by the lack of effective vaccines and the relative paucity and toxicity of commercially available antifungal drugs. An additional option has been reported in a recent

  20. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  1. Ectopic over-expression of peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (SbpAPX) gene confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Natwar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-08-15

    Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase gene (SbpAPX) of an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata imparts abiotic stress endurance and plays a key role in the protection against oxidative stress. The cloned SbpAPX gene was transformed to local variety of peanut and about 100 transgenic plants were developed using optimized in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation method. The T0 transgenic plants were confirmed for the gene integration; grown under controlled condition in containment green house facility; seeds were harvested and T1 plants were raised. Transgenic plants (T1) were further confirmed by PCR using gene specific primers and histochemical GUS assay. About 40 transgenic plants (T1) were selected randomly and subjected for salt stress tolerance study. Transgenic plants remained green however non-transgenic plants showed bleaching and yellowish leaves under salt stress conditions. Under stress condition, transgenic plants continued normal growth and completed their life cycle. Transgenic peanut plants exhibited adequate tolerance under salt stress condition and thus could be explored for the cultivation in salt affected areas for the sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Insect resistance to Nilaparvata lugens and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in transgenic indica rice and the inheritance of gna+sbti transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Xu, Xinping; Xing, Hengtai; Zhu, Huachen; Fan, Qin

    2005-04-01

    Molecular genetic analysis and insect bioassay of transgenic indica rice 'Zhuxian B' plants carrying snowdrop lectin gene (gna) and soybean trypsin inhibitor gene (sbti) were investigated in detail. PCR, 'dot' blot and PCR-Southern blot analysis showed that both transgenes had been incorporated into the rice genome and transmitted up to R3 progeny in most lines tested. Some transgenic lines exhibited Mendelian segregation, but the other showed either 1:1 (positive: negative for the transgenes) or other aberrant segregation patterns. The segregation patterns of gna gene crossed between R2 and R3 progeny. In half of transgenic R3 lines, gna and sbti transgenes co-segregated. Two independent homozygous lines expressing double transgenes were identified in R3 progeny. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the copy numbers of integrated gna and sbti transgenes varied from one to ten in different lines. Insect bioassay data showed that most transgenic plants had better resistance to both Nilaparvata lugens (Stahl) and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) than wild-type plants. The insect resistance of transgenic lines increased with the increase in transgene positive ratio in most of the transgenic lines. In all, we obtained nine lines of R3 transgenic plants, including one pure line, which had better resistance to both N lugens and C medinalis than wild-type plants. Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Illegal gene flow from transgenic creeping bentgrass: the saga continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Allison A

    2012-10-01

    Ecologists have paid close attention to environmental effects that fitness-enhancing transgenes might have following crop-to-wild gene flow (e.g. Snow et al. 2003). For some crops, gene flow also can lead to legal problems,especially when government agencies have not approved transgenic events for unrestricted environmental release.Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), a common turf grass used in golf courses, is the focus of both areas of concern. In 2002, prior to expected deregulation (still pending), The Scotts Company planted creeping bentgrass with transgenic resistance to the herbicide glyphosate,also known as RoundUp, on 162 ha in a designated control area in central Oregon (Fig. 1).Despite efforts to restrict gene flow, wind-dispersed pollen carried transgenes to florets of local A. stolonifera and A. gigantea as far as 14 km away, and to sentinel plants placed as far as 21 km away (Watrud et al. 2004).Then, in August 2003, a strong wind event moved transgenic seeds from wind rows of cut bentgrass into nearby areas. The company’s efforts to kill all transgenic survivors in the area failed: feral glyphosate-resistant populations of A. stolonifera were found by Reichman et al.(2006), and 62% of 585 bentgrass plants had the telltale CP4 EPSPS transgene in 2006 (Zapiola et al. 2008; Fig. 2).Now, in this issue, the story gets even more interesting as Zapiola & Mallory-Smith (2012) describe a transgenic,intergeneric hybrid produced on a feral, transgenic creeping bentgrass plant that received pollen from Polypogon monspeliensis (rabbitfoot grass). Their finding raises a host of new questions about the prevalence and fitness of intergeneric hybrids, as well as how to evaluate the full extent of gene flow from transgenic crops.

  4. Nematode neuropeptides as transgenic nematicides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D Warnock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs seriously threaten global food security. Conventionally an integrated approach to PPN management has relied heavily on carbamate, organophosphate and fumigant nematicides which are now being withdrawn over environmental health and safety concerns. This progressive withdrawal has left a significant shortcoming in our ability to manage these economically important parasites, and highlights the need for novel and robust control methods. Nematodes can assimilate exogenous peptides through retrograde transport along the chemosensory amphid neurons. Peptides can accumulate within cells of the central nerve ring and can elicit physiological effects when released to interact with receptors on adjoining cells. We have profiled bioactive neuropeptides from the neuropeptide-like protein (NLP family of PPNs as novel nematicides, and have identified numerous discrete NLPs that negatively impact chemosensation, host invasion and stylet thrusting of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. Transgenic secretion of these peptides from the rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis, and the terrestrial microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reduce tomato infection levels by up to 90% when compared with controls. These data pave the way for the exploitation of nematode neuropeptides as a novel class of plant protective nematicide, using novel non-food transgenic delivery systems which could be deployed on farmer-preferred cultivars.

  5. Transgenic poplars with reduced lignin show impaired xylem conductivity, growth efficiency and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter Kitin; Steven H. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    We studied xylem anatomy and hydraulic architecture in 14 transgenic insertion events and a control line of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) that varied in lignin content. Transgenic events had different levels of down-regulation of two genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL). Two-year-old trees were characterized after...

  6. Eosinophils Subvert Host Resistance to an Intracellular Pathogen by Instigating Non-Protective IL-4 in CCR2−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash H.; Bueter, Chelsea L.; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Deepe, George S.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils contribute to type II immune responses in helminth infections and allergic diseases, however, their influence on intracellular pathogens is less clear. We previously reported that CCR2−/− mice exposed to the intracellular fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum exhibit dampened immunity caused by an early exaggerated IL-4 response. We sought to identify the cellular source promulgating interleukin (IL)-4 in infected mutant animals. Eosinophils were the principal instigators of non-protective IL-4 and depleting this granulocyte population improved fungal clearance in CCR2−/− animals. The deleterious impact of eosinophilia on mycosis was also recapitulated in transgenic animals overexpressing eosinophils. Mechanistic examination of IL-4 induction revealed that phagocytosis of H. capsulatum via the pattern recognition receptor complement receptor (CR) 3 triggered the heightened IL-4 response in murine eosinophils. This phenomenon was conserved in human eosinophils; exposure of cells to the fungal pathogen elicited a robust IL-4 response. Thus, our findings elucidate a detrimental attribute of eosinophil biology in fungal infections that could potentially trigger a collapse in host defenses by instigating type II immunity. PMID:27049063

  7. Combination of Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase and a membrane-affecting fungicide on control of Alternaria leaf spot in transgenic broccoli plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, A; Earle, E D

    2001-04-01

    Progeny from transgenic broccoli (cv. Green Comet) expressing a Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene were used to assess the interaction between endochitinase and the fungicide Bayleton in the control of Alternaria brassicicola. In vitro assays have shown synergistic effects of endochitinase and fungicides on fungal pathogens. Our study examined the in planta effects of endochitinase and Bayleton, individually and in combination. Two month old transgenic and non-transgenic plants were sprayed with ED50 levels of Bayleton and/or inoculated with an A. brassicicola spore suspension. Disease levels in non-sprayed transgenic plants were not statistically different from sprayed transgenic plants nor from sprayed non-transgenic controls. Thus endochitinase-transgenic plants alone provided a significant reduction of disease severity, comparable to the protection by fungicide on non-transgenic plants. Comparison of the expected additive and observed effects revealed no synergism between endochitinase and Bayleton (at ED50 level), and usually less than an additive effect. Some transgenic lines sprayed with fungicide at doses higher than ED50 showed resistance similar to the non-sprayed transgenic lines, again suggesting no synergistic effect. Lack of synergism may be due to incomplete digestion of the cell wall by endochitinase, so that the effect of Bayleton at the cell membrane is not enhanced.

  8. [New advances in animal transgenic technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen-Hong; Miao, Xiang-Yang; Zhu, Rui-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Animal transgenic technology is one of the fastest growing biotechnology in the 21st century. It is used to integrate foreign genes into the animal genome by genetic engineering technology so that foreign genes can be expressed and inherited to the offspring. The transgenic efficiency and precise control of gene expression are the key limiting factors on preparation of transgenic animals. A variety of transgenic techniques are available, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages and still needs further study because of unresolved technical and safety issues. With the in-depth research, the transgenic technology will have broad application prospects in the fields of exploration of gene function, animal genetic improvement, bioreactor, animal disease models, organ transplantation and so on. This article reviews the recently developed animal gene transfer techniques, including germline stem cell mediated method to improve the efficiency, gene targeting to improve the accuracy, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing technology, and the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) transgenic technology. The new transgenic techniques can provide a better platform for the study of trans-genic animals and promote the development of medical sciences, livestock production, and other fields.

  9. Characterization and subcellular compartmentation of recombinant 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase from Arabidopsis in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I; Rodgers, M; Pepin, R; Hsieh, T F; Matringe, M

    1999-04-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4HPPD) catalyzes the formation of homogentisate (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetate) from p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and molecular oxygen. In plants this enzyme activity is involved in two distinct metabolic processes, the biosynthesis of prenylquinones and the catabolism of tyrosine. We report here the molecular and biochemical characterization of an Arabidopsis 4HPPD and the compartmentation of the recombinant protein in chlorophyllous tissues. We isolated a 1508-bp cDNA with one large open reading frame of 1338 bp. Southern analysis strongly suggested that this Arabidopsis 4HPPD is encoded by a single-copy gene. We investigated the biochemical characteristics of this 4HPPD by overproducing the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli JM105. The subcellular localization of the recombinant 4HPPD in chlorophyllous tissues was examined by overexpressing its complete coding sequence in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. We performed western analyses for the immunodetection of protein extracts from purified chloroplasts and total leaf extracts and for the immunocytochemistry on tissue sections. These analyses clearly revealed that 4HPPD was confined to the cytosol compartment, not targeted to the chloroplast. Western analyses confirmed the presence of a cytosolic form of 4HPPD in cultured green Arabidopsis cells.

  10. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  11. lin-4 and the NRDE pathway are required to activate a transgenic lin-4 reporter but not the endogenous lin-4 locus in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Alan L; Foster, Daniel J; Dixon, Julia; Slack, Frank J

    2018-01-01

    As the founding member of the microRNA (miRNA) gene family, insights into lin-4 regulation and function have laid a conceptual foundation for countless miRNA-related studies that followed. We previously showed that a transcriptional lin-4 reporter in C. elegans was positively regulated by a lin-4-complementary element (LCE), and by lin-4 itself. In this study, we sought to (1) identify additional factors required for lin-4 reporter expression, and (2) validate the endogenous relevance of a potential positive autoregulatory mechanism of lin-4 expression. We report that all four core nuclear RNAi factors (nrde-1, nrde-2, nrde-3 and nrde-4), positively regulate lin-4 reporter expression. In contrast, endogenous lin-4 levels were largely unaffected in nrde-2;nrde-3 mutants. Further, an endogenous LCE deletion generated by CRISPR-Cas9 revealed that the LCE was also not necessary for the activity of the endogenous lin-4 promoter. Finally, mutations in mature lin-4 did not reduce primary lin-4 transcript levels. Taken together, these data indicate that under growth conditions that reveal effects at the transgenic locus, a direct, positive autoregulatory mechanism of lin-4 expression does not occur in the context of the endogenous lin-4 locus.

  12. lin-4 and the NRDE pathway are required to activate a transgenic lin-4 reporter but not the endogenous lin-4 locus in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan L Jiao

    Full Text Available As the founding member of the microRNA (miRNA gene family, insights into lin-4 regulation and function have laid a conceptual foundation for countless miRNA-related studies that followed. We previously showed that a transcriptional lin-4 reporter in C. elegans was positively regulated by a lin-4-complementary element (LCE, and by lin-4 itself. In this study, we sought to (1 identify additional factors required for lin-4 reporter expression, and (2 validate the endogenous relevance of a potential positive autoregulatory mechanism of lin-4 expression. We report that all four core nuclear RNAi factors (nrde-1, nrde-2, nrde-3 and nrde-4, positively regulate lin-4 reporter expression. In contrast, endogenous lin-4 levels were largely unaffected in nrde-2;nrde-3 mutants. Further, an endogenous LCE deletion generated by CRISPR-Cas9 revealed that the LCE was also not necessary for the activity of the endogenous lin-4 promoter. Finally, mutations in mature lin-4 did not reduce primary lin-4 transcript levels. Taken together, these data indicate that under growth conditions that reveal effects at the transgenic locus, a direct, positive autoregulatory mechanism of lin-4 expression does not occur in the context of the endogenous lin-4 locus.

  13. The production of multi-transgenic pigs: update and perspectives for xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Heiner; Petersen, Bjoern

    2016-06-01

    The domestic pig shares many genetic, anatomical and physiological similarities to humans and is thus considered to be a suitable organ donor for xenotransplantation. However, prior to clinical application of porcine xenografts, three major hurdles have to be overcome: (1) various immunological rejection responses, (2) physiological incompatibilities between the porcine organ and the human recipient and (3) the risk of transmitting zoonotic pathogens from pig to humans. With the introduction of genetically engineered pigs expressing high levels of human complement regulatory proteins or lacking expression of α-Gal epitopes, the HAR can be consistently overcome. However, none of the transgenic porcine organs available to date was fully protected against the binding of anti-non-Gal xenoreactive natural antibodies. The present view is that long-term survival of xenografts after transplantation into primates requires additional modifications of the porcine genome and a specifically tailored immunosuppression regimen compliant with current clinical standards. This requires the production and characterization of multi-transgenic pigs to control HAR, AVR and DXR. The recent emergence of new sophisticated molecular tools such as Zinc-Finger nucleases, Transcription-activator like endonucleases, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system has significantly increased efficiency and precision of the production of genetically modified pigs for xenotransplantation. Several candidate genes, incl. hTM, hHO-1, hA20, CTLA4Ig, have been explored in their ability to improve long-term survival of porcine xenografts after transplantation into non-human primates. This review provides an update on the current status in the production of multi-transgenic pigs for xenotransplantation which could bring porcine xenografts closer to clinical application.

  14. Twenty six-week exposure to 2 amino-3 methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) does not significantly increase the incidence of tumours in HMGCR/mts1 tg579 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Lukanidin, E.; Ambartsumian, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    HMGCR/mtsl t9579 transgenic mice were designed to direct the expression of metastasis-promoting mts 1 (S100A4) gene to all the tissues. In order to test the usefulness of this mouse model for carcinogenicity tests shorter than that recommended by OECD guideline mr. 451, HMGCR/mtsl tg579 transgenic...

  15. Neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a short review that introduces recent advances of neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies. The anatomical complexity of the nervous system remains a subject of tremendous fascination among neuroscientists. In order to tackle this extraordinary complexity, powerful transgenic technologies a...

  16. Cultured cells of the blood-brain barrier from apolipoprotein B-100 transgenic mice: effects of oxidized low-density lipoprotein treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lénárt, Nikolett; Walter, Fruzsina R; Bocsik, Alexandra; Sántha, Petra; Tóth, Melinda E; Harazin, András; Tóth, Andrea E; Vizler, Csaba; Török, Zsolt; Pilbat, Ana-Maria; Vígh, László; Puskás, László G; Sántha, Miklós; Deli, Mária A

    2015-07-17

    The apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) transgenic mouse line is a model of human atherosclerosis. Latest findings suggest the importance of ApoB-100 in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and microvascular/perivascular localization of ApoB-100 protein was demonstrated in the cerebral cortex of ApoB-100 transgenic mice. The aim of the study was to characterize cultured brain endothelial cells, pericytes and glial cells from wild-type and ApoB-100 transgenic mice and to study the effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) on these cells. Morphology of cells isolated from brains of wild type and ApoB-100 transgenic mice was characterized by immunohistochemistry and the intensity of immunolabeling was quantified by image analysis. Toxicity of oxLDL treatment was monitored by real-time impedance measurement and lactate dehydrogenase release. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production, barrier permeability in triple co-culture blood-brain barrier model and membrane fluidity were also determined after low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or oxLDL treatment. The presence of ApoB-100 was confirmed in brain endothelial cells, while no morphological change was observed between wild type and transgenic cells. Oxidized but not native LDL exerted dose-dependent toxicity in all three cell types, induced barrier dysfunction and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in both genotypes. A partial protection from oxLDL toxicity was seen in brain endothelial and glial cells from ApoB-100 transgenic mice. Increased membrane rigidity was measured in brain endothelial cells from ApoB-100 transgenic mice and in LDL or oxLDL treated wild type cells. The morphological and functional properties of cultured brain endothelial cells, pericytes and glial cells from ApoB-100 transgenic mice were characterized and compared to wild type cells for the first time. The membrane fluidity changes in ApoB-100 transgenic cells related to brain microvasculature indicate

  17. Biotechnology network promotes knowledge of transgenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Picado, Patricia; Valdez Melara, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Red de Ingenieria Genetica Aplicada al Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales (Rigatrop) integrated by a group of scientists from the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Universidad Nacional (UNA) and of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (TEC) have organized two forums on the topic of transgenics. The first forum has shown successful experiences of development of transgenic crops in Latin America, as for example: the transgenic bean, project realized in Brazil and transgenic eggplant in Bangladesh. The second forum has been about transgenics and environment effected at the UCR, on the occasion of World Environment Day. Rigatrop members are working currently in two projects applying biotechnological tools to coffee [es

  18. Expression of a potato antimicrobial peptide SN1 increases resistance to take-all pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Qi, Lin; Wang, Jingfen; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Wang, Aiyun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-08-01

    Take-all, caused by soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), is a devastating root disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Breeding resistant wheat cultivars is the most promising and reliable approach to protect wheat from take-all. Currently, no resistant wheat germplasm is available to breed cultivars using traditional methods. In this study, gene transformation was carried out using Snakin-1 (SN1) gene isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) because the peptide shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro. Purified SN1 peptide also inhibits in vitro the growth of Ggt mycelia. By bombardment-mediated method, the gene SN1 was transformed into Chinese wheat cultivar Yangmai 18 to generate SN1 transgenic wheat lines, which were used to assess the effectiveness of the SN1 peptide in protecting wheat from Ggt. Genomic PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that the alien gene SN1 was integrated into the genomes of five transgenic wheat lines and heritable from T₀ to T₄ progeny. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that the introduced SN1 gene was transcribed and highly expressed in the five transgenic wheat lines. Following challenging with Ggt, disease test results showed that compared to segregants lacking the transgene and untransformed wheat plants, these five transgenic wheat lines expressing SN1 displayed significantly enhanced resistance to take-all. These results suggest that SN1 may be a potentially transgenic tool for improving the take-all resistance of wheat.

  19. IgG2 antibodies against a clinical grade Plasmodium falciparum CSP vaccine antigen associate with protection against transgenic sporozoite challenge in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schwenk

    Full Text Available The availability of a highly purified and well characterized circumsporozoite protein (CSP is essential to improve upon the partial success of recombinant CSP-based malaria vaccine candidates. Soluble, near full-length, Plasmodium falciparum CSP vaccine antigen (CS/D was produced in E. coli under bio-production conditions that comply with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP. A mouse immunogenicity study was conducted using a stable oil-in-water emulsion (SE of CS/D in combination with the Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4 agonist Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA/SE, or one of two TLR7/8 agonists: R848 (un-conjugated or 3M-051 (covalently conjugated. Compared to Alum and SE, GLA/SE induced higher CS/D specific antibody response in Balb/c mice. Subclass analysis showed higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio of GLA/SE induced antibodies as compared to Alum and SE. TLR synergy was not observed when soluble R848 was mixed with GLA/SE. Antibody response of 3M051 formulations in Balb/c was similar to GLA/SE, except for the higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio and a trend towards higher T cell responses in 3M051 containing groups. However, no synergistic enhancement of antibody and T cell response was evident when 3M051 conjugate was mixed with GLA/SE. In C57Bl/6 mice, CS/D adjuvanted with 3M051/SE or GLA/SE induced higher CSP repeat specific titers compared to SE. While, 3M051 induced antibodies had high IgG2c:IgG1 ratio, GLA/SE promoted high levels of both IgG1 and IgG2c. GLA/SE also induced more potent T-cell responses compared to SE in two independent C57/BL6 vaccination studies, suggesting a balanced and productive T(H1/T(H2 response. GLA and 3M-051 similarly enhanced the protective efficacy of CS/D against challenge with a transgenic P. berghei parasite and most importantly, high levels of cytophilic IgG2 antibodies were associated with protection in this model. Our data indicated that the cGMP-grade, soluble CS/D antigen combined with the TLR4-containing adjuvant GLA/SE warrants

  20. Enhanced virus resistance in transgenic maize expressing a dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease gene from E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Cao

    Full Text Available Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD, caused by several Fijiviruses in the family Reoviridae, is a global disease that is responsible for substantial yield losses in maize. Although some maize germplasm have low levels of polygenic resistance to MRDD, highly resistant cultivated varieties are not available for agronomic field production in China. In this work, we have generated transgenic maize lines that constitutively express rnc70, a mutant E. coli dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease gene. Transgenic lines were propagated and screened under field conditions for 12 generations. During three years of evaluations, two transgenic lines and their progeny were challenged with Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, the causal agent of MRDD in China, and these plants exhibited reduced levels of disease severity. In two normal years of MRDD abundance, both lines were more resistant than non-transgenic plants. Even in the most serious MRDD year, six out of seven progeny from one line were resistant, whereas non-transgenic plants were highly susceptible. Molecular approaches in the T12 generation revealed that the rnc70 transgene was integrated and expressed stably in transgenic lines. Under artificial conditions permitting heavy virus inoculation, the T12 progeny of two highly resistant lines had a reduced incidence of MRDD and accumulation of RBSDV in infected plants. In addition, we confirmed that the RNC70 protein could bind directly to RBSDV dsRNA in vitro. Overall, our data show that RNC70-mediated resistance in transgenic maize can provide efficient protection against dsRNA virus infection.

  1. Immune selection of tumor cells in TCR β-chain transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaeva, Yulia Yu; Grinenko, Tatyana S; Vagida, Murad S; Kalinina, Anastasia A; Khromykh, Ludmila M; Kazansky, Dmitry B

    2014-10-01

    The concept of immunological surveillance implies that immunogenic variants of tumor cells arising in the organism can be recognized by the immune system. Tumor progression is provided by somatic evolution of tumor cells under the pressure of the immune system. The loss of MHC Class I molecules on the surface of tumor cells is one of the most known outcomes of immune selection. This study developed a model of immune selection based on the immune response of TCR 1d1 single β-chain transgenic B10.D2(R101) (K(d)I(d)D(b)) mice to allogeneic EL4 (H-2(b)) thymoma cells. In wild-type B10.D2(R101) mice, immunization with EL4 cells induced a vigorous CTL response targeted to the H-2K(b) molecule and results in full rejection of the tumor cells. In contrast, transgenic mice developed a compromised proliferative response in mixed-lymphocyte response assays and were unable to reject transplanted allogeneic EL4 cells. During the immune response to EL4 cells, CD8(+) T-lymphocytes with endogenous β-chains accumulated predominantly in the spleen of transgenic mice and only a small part of the T-lymphocytes expressing transgenic β-chains became CD8(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) effectors. Then, instead of a full elimination of tumor cells as in wild-type mice, a reproducible prolonged equilibrium phase and subsequent escape was observed in transgenic mice that resulted in death of 90% of the mice in 40-60 days after grafting. Prolonged exposure of tumor cells to the pressure of the immune system in transgenic mice in vivo resulted in a stable loss of H-2K(b) molecules on the EL4 cell surface. Genetic manipulation of the T-lymphocyte repertoire was sufficient to reproduce the classic pattern of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system, usually observed in reliable syngeneic models of anti-tumor immunity. This newly-developed model could be used in further studies of immunoregulatory circuits common for transplantational and anti-tumor immune responses.

  2. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... practice. However, the useful life-span of many resistant cultivars is only a few years, due to the breakdown of the .... Thus, suppression of insect feeding by transgenic .... different types of defense-responsive genes were found.

  3. Overexpression of an endo-1,4-β-glucanase V gene (EGV) from Trichoderma reesei leads to the accumulation of cellulase activity in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Liu, F; Hu, Y F; Xia, M; Cheng, B J; Zhu, S W; Ma, Q

    2015-12-21

    The ectopic expression of cellulase in biomass can reduce the cost of biofuel conversion. This trait modification technique is highly beneficial for biofuel production. In this study, we isolated an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase gene (EGV) from Trichoderma reesei and inserted this gene downstream of a fragment encoding the signal peptide Apo-SP in a modified pCAMBIA1301 vector to obtain an Apo-SP and AsRed fusion protein. Transient expression of this fusion protein in onion epidermal cells showed that the Apo-SP signal was localized to the plastids. EGV transgenic rice plants that did not carry screening marker genes were obtained through overexpression of the pDTB double T-DNA vector. Western blotting showed that EGV was expressed in the dry straw of T0 generation transgenic rice plants and in fresh leaves of the T1 generation. More importantly, our results also showed that the peptide product of EGV in the transgenic plants folded correctly and was capable of digesting the cellulase substrate CMC. Additionally, cellulase activity remained stable in the straw that had been dried at room temperature for three months. This study presents an important technical approach for the development of transgenic rice straw that has stable cellulase activity and can be used for biofuel conversion.

  4. Innate Immune Activation Can Trigger Experimental Spondyloarthritis in HLA-B27/Huβ2m Transgenic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N. van Tok

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spondyloarthritis (SpA does not display the typical features of auto-immune disease. Despite the strong association with MHC class I, CD8+ T cells are not required for disease induction in the HLA-B27/Huβ2m transgenic rats. We used Lewis HLA-B27/Huβ2m transgenic rats [21-3 × 283-2]F1, HLA-B7/Huβ2m transgenic rats [120-4 × 283-2]F1, and wild-type rats to test our hypothesis that SpA may be primarily driven by the innate immune response. In vitro, splenocytes were stimulated with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cytokine expression and production was measured. In vivo, male and female rats were immunized with 30, 60, or 90 µg of heat-inactivated M. tuberculosis and clinically monitored for spondylitis and arthritis development. After validation of the model, we tested whether prophylactic and therapeutic TNF targeting affected spondylitis and arthritis. In vitro stimulation with heat-inactivated M. tuberculosis strongly induced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-6, IL-1α, and IL-1β, in the HLA-B27 transgenic rats compared with controls. In vivo immunization induced an increased spondylitis and arthritis incidence and an accelerated and synchronized onset of spondylitis and arthritis in HLA-B27 transgenic males and females. Moreover, immunization overcame the protective effect of orchiectomy. Prophylactic TNF targeting resulted in delayed spondylitis and arthritis development and reduced arthritis severity, whereas therapeutic TNF blockade did not affect spondylitis and arthritis severity. Collectively, these data indicate that innate immune activation plays a role in the initiation of HLA-B27-associated disease and allowed to establish a useful in vivo model to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease initiation and progression.

  5. Transgene mobilization and regulatory uncertainty for non-GE fruit products of transgenic rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldsen, Victor M; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Bennett, Alan B

    2012-10-31

    Genetically engineered (GE) rootstocks may offer some advantages for biotechnology applications especially in woody perennial crops such as grape or walnut. Transgrafting combines horticultural grafting practices with modern GE methods for crop improvement. Here, a non-GE conventional scion (upper stem portion) is grafted onto a transgenic GE rootstock. Thus, the scion does not contain the genetic modification present in the rootstock genome. We examined transgene presence in walnut and tomato GE rootstocks and non-GE fruit-bearing scions. Mobilization of transgene DNA, protein, and mRNA across the graft was not detected. Though transgenic siRNA mobilization was not observed in grafted tomatoes or walnut scions, transgenic siRNA signal was detected in walnut kernels. Prospective benefits from transgrafted plants include minimized risk of GE pollen flow (Lev-Yadun and Sederoff, 2001), possible use of more than one scion per approved GE rootstock which could help curb the estimated US$136 million (CropLife International, 2011) cost to bring a GE crop to international markets, as well as potential for improved consumer and market acceptance since the consumable product is not itself GE. Thus, transgrafting provides an alternative option for agricultural industries wishing to expand their biotechnology portfolio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Split-Cre complementation restores combination activity on transgene excision in hair roots of transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Wen

    Full Text Available The Cre/loxP system is increasingly exploited for genetic manipulation of DNA in vitro and in vivo. It was previously reported that inactive ''split-Cre'' fragments could restore Cre activity in transgenic mice when overlapping co-expression was controlled by two different promoters. In this study, we analyzed recombination activities of split-Cre proteins, and found that no recombinase activity was detected in the in vitro recombination reaction in which only the N-terminal domain (NCre of split-Cre protein was expressed, whereas recombination activity was obtained when the C-terminal (CCre or both NCre and CCre fragments were supplied. We have also determined the recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins which were co-expressed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco. No Cre recombination event was observed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco when the NCre or CCre genes were expressed alone. In contrast, an efficient recombination event was found in transgenic hairy roots co-expressing both inactive split-Cre genes. Moreover, the restored recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins fused with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS was higher than that of intact Cre in transgenic lines. Thus, DNA recombination mediated by split-Cre proteins provides an alternative method for spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression in transgenic plants.

  7. Non-motor and motor features in LRRK2 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Bichler

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms are increasingly recognized as important features of Parkinson's disease (PD. LRRK2 mutations are common causes of familial and sporadic PD. Non-motor features have not been yet comprehensively evaluated in LRRK2 transgenic mouse models.Using a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the R1441G mutation of the human LRRK2 gene, we have investigated the longitudinal correlation between motor and non-motor symptoms and determined if specific non-motor phenotypes precede motor symptoms.We investigated the onset of motor and non-motor phenotypes on the LRRK2(R1441G BAC transgenic mice and their littermate controls from 4 to 21 month-old using a battery of behavioral tests. The transgenic mutant mice displayed mild hypokinesia in the open field from 16 months old, with gastrointestinal dysfunctions beginning at 6 months old. Non-motor features such as depression and anxiety-like behaviors, sensorial functions (pain sensitivity and olfaction, and learning and memory abilities in the passive avoidance test were similar in the transgenic animals compared to littermate controls.LRRK2(R1441G BAC transgenic mice displayed gastrointestinal dysfunction at an early stage but did not have abnormalities in fine behaviors, olfaction, pain sensitivity, mood disorders and learning and memory compared to non-transgenic littermate controls. The observations on olfaction and gastrointestinal dysfunction in this model validate findings in human carriers. These mice did recapitulate mild Parkinsonian motor features at late stages but compensatory mechanisms modulating the progression of PD in these models should be further evaluated.

  8. Transgenic expression of microRNA-181d augments the stress-sensitivity of CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes.

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    Serkan Belkaya

    Full Text Available Physiological stress resulting from infections, trauma, surgery, alcoholism, malnutrition, and/or pregnancy results in a substantial depletion of immature CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes. We previously identified 18 distinct stress-responsive microRNAs (miRs in the thymus upon systemic stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS or the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (Dex. MiRs are short, non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in the immune system by targeting diverse mRNAs, suggesting that their modulation in the thymus in response to stress could impact thymopoiesis. MiR-181d is one such stress-responsive miR, exhibiting a 15-fold down-regulation in expression. We utilized both transgenic and gene-targeting approaches to study the impact of miR-181d on thymopoiesis under normal and stress conditions. The over-expression of miR-181d in developing thymocytes reduced the total number of immature CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes. LPS or Dex injections caused a 4-fold greater loss of these cells when compared with the wild type controls. A knockout mouse was developed to selectively eliminate miR-181d, leaving the closely spaced and contiguous family member miR-181c intact. The targeted elimination of just miR-181d resulted in a thymus stress-responsiveness similar to wild-type mice. These experiments suggest that one or more of three other miR-181 family members have overlapping or compensatory functions. Gene expression comparisons of thymocytes from the wild type versus transgenic mice indicated that miR-181d targets a number of stress, metabolic, and signaling pathways. These findings demonstrate that selected miRs enhance stress-mediated thymic involution in vivo.

  9. Detailed characterization of Mirafiori lettuce virus-resistant transgenic lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, Yoichi; Fujiyama, Ryoi; Noguchi, Yuji; Kubota, Masaharu; Ito, Hidekazu; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Lettuce big-vein disease is caused by Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV), which is vectored by the soil-borne fungus Olpidium brassicae. A MiLV-resistant transgenic lettuce line was developed through introducing inverted repeats of the MiLV coat protein (CP) gene. Here, a detailed characterization study of this lettuce line was conducted by comparing it with the parental, non-transformed 'Kaiser' cultivar. There were no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic lettuce in terms of pollen fertility, pollen dispersal, seed production, seed dispersal, dormancy, germination, growth of seedlings under low or high temperature, chromatographic patterns of leaf extracts, or effects of lettuce on the growth of broccoli or soil microflora. A significant difference in pollen size was noted, but the difference was small. The length of the cotyledons of the transgenic lettuce was shorter than that of 'Kaiser,' but there were no differences in other morphological characteristics. Agrobacterium tumefaciens used for the production of transgenic lettuce was not detected in transgenic seeds. The transgenic T(3), T(4), and T(5) generations showed higher resistance to MiLV and big-vein symptoms expression than the resistant 'Pacific' cultivar, indicating that high resistance to lettuce big-vein disease is stably inherited. PCR analysis showed that segregation of the CP gene was nearly 3:1 in the T(1) and T(2) generations, and that the transgenic T(3) generation was homozygous for the CP gene. Segregation of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (npt II) gene was about 3:1 in the T(1) generation, but the full length npt II gene was not detected in the T(2) or T(3) generation. The segregation pattern of the CP and npt II genes in the T(1) generation showed the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio. These results suggest that the fragment including the CP gene and that including the npt II gene have been integrated into two unlinked loci, and that the T(1) plant selected in our study did

  10. Genetic Mechanisms of Coffee Extract Protection in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model of β-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Dostal, Vishantie; Roberts, Christine M.; Link, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that coffee and/or caffeine consumption may reduce Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. We found that coffee extracts can similarly protect against β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) toxicity in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans Alzheimer's disease model. The primary protective component(s) in this model is not caffeine, although caffeine by itself can show moderate protection. Coffee exposure did not decrease Aβ transgene expression and did not need to be present during...

  11. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone von Burg

    Full Text Available In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew became more favourable for another pest (aphids.

  12. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Burg, Simone; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici) and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM) mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew) became more favourable for another pest (aphids).

  13. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

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    Chou Hong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. Results In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme β-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1 gene, from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus, was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial E1 gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer, with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the E1 protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial E1 enzyme were obtained that expressed the gene at high levels without severely impairing plant growth and development. However, some transgenic plants exhibited a shorter stature and flowered earlier than the wild type plants. The E1 specific activities in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20-fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. A zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the E1 enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid for one hour at 39°C and another hour at 81°C yielded 43% more reducing sugars than wild type rice

  14. CD4+ T Cells Mediate Aspergillosis Vaccine Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Arevalo, Diana; Kalkum, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive effector CD4 + T cells play essential roles in the defense against fungal infections, especially against invasive aspergillosis (IA). Such protective CD4 + T cells can be generated through immunization with specialized antifungal vaccines, as has been demonstrated for pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infections in mouse experiments. Adaptive transfer of fungal antigen-specific CD4 + T cells conferred protection onto non-immunized naive mice, an experimental approach that could potentially become a future treatment option for immunosuppressed IA patients, focusing on the ultimate goal to improve their otherwise dim chances for survival. Here, we describe the different techniques to analyze CD4 + T cell immune responses after immunization with a recombinant fungal protein. We present three major methods that are used to analyze the role of CD4 + T cells in protection against A. fumigatus challenge. They include (1) transplantation of CD4 + T cells from vaccinated mice into immunosuppressed naive mice, observing increasing protection of the cell recipients, (2) depletion of CD4 + T cells from vaccinated mice, which abolishes vaccine protection, and (3) T cell proliferation studies following stimulation with overlapping synthetic peptides or an intact protein vaccine. The latter can be used to validate immunization status and to identify protective T cell epitopes in vaccine antigens. In the methods detailed here, we used versions of the well-studied Asp f3 protein expressed in a bacterial host, either as the intact full length protein or its N-terminally truncated version, comprised of residues 15-168. However, these methods are generally applicable and can well be adapted to study other protein-based subunit vaccines.

  15. Drought tolerance and proteomics studies of transgenic wheat containing the maize C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Na; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Li, Yan; Wang, Huiwei; Qi, Xueli; Fang, Yuhui; Hua, Xia

    2016-11-01

    Enhancing drought tolerance of crops has been a great challenge in crop improvement. Here, we report the maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene was able to confer drought tolerance and increase grain yield in transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. The improved of drought tolerance was associated with higher levels of proline, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and higher water use efficiency. The transgenic wheat plants had also a more extensive root system as well as increased photosynthetic capacity during stress treatments. The increased grain yield of the transgenic wheat was contributed by improved biomass, larger spike and grain numbers, and heavier 1000-grain weight under drought-stress conditions. Under non-stressed conditions, there were no significant increases in these of the measured traits except for photosynthetic rate when compared with parental wheat. Proteomic research showed that the expression levels of some proteins, including chlorophyll A-B binding protein and pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, which are related to photosynthesis, PAP fibrillin, which is involved in cytoskeleton synthesis, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, which catalyzes methionine synthesis, were induced in the transgenic wheat under drought stress. Additionally, the expression of glutamine synthetase, which is involved in ammonia assimilation, was induced by drought stress in the wheat. Our study shows that PEPC can improve both stress tolerance and grain yield in wheat, demonstrating the efficacy of PEPC in crop improvement.

  16. Progress on researches of transgenic alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huiqin; Wang Mi; Ren Weibo; Xu Zhu; Chen Libo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the progress on the researches of transgenic alfalfa in the past two decades had been reviewed in the aspects of regeneration system, transformation, improvement of the important traits and so on. Moreover, such problems as variation of transgene expression and safety of transgenic plant had also been discussed and propose had been given for the future research work. (authors)

  17. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hong L.; Dai, Ziyu; Hsieh, Chia W.; Ku, Maurice S.

    2011-12-10

    Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme {beta}-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial enzyme were obtained, which expressed the gene at high levels with a normal phenotype. The specific activities of E1 in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20 fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. Zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid yielded almost twice more reducing sugars than wild type straw. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic rice can effectively serve as a bioreactor for large-scale production of active, thermostable cellulose hydrolytic enzymes. As a feedstock, direct expression of large amount of cellulases in

  18. Dendritic cell mediated delivery of plasmid DNA encoding LAMP/HIV-1 Gag fusion immunogen enhances T cell epitope responses in HLA DR4 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory G Simon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the identification and bioinformatics analysis of HLA-DR4-restricted HIV-1 Gag epitope peptides, and the application of dendritic cell mediated immunization of DNA plasmid constructs. BALB/c (H-2d and HLA-DR4 (DRA1*0101, DRB1*0401 transgenic mice were immunized with immature dendritic cells transfected by a recombinant DNA plasmid encoding the lysosome-associated membrane protein-1/HIV-1 Gag (pLAMP/gag chimera antigen. Three immunization protocols were compared: 1 primary subcutaneous immunization with 1x10(5 immature dendritic cells transfected by electroporation with the pLAMP/gag DNA plasmid, and a second subcutaneous immunization with the naked pLAMP/gag DNA plasmid; 2 primary immunization as above, and a second subcutaneous immunization with a pool of overlapping peptides spanning the HIV-1 Gag sequence; and 3 immunization twice by subcutaneous injection of the pLAMP/gag DNA plasmid. Primary immunization with pLAMP/gag-transfected dendritic cells elicited the greatest number of peptide specific T-cell responses, as measured by ex vivo IFN-gamma ELISpot assay, both in BALB/c and HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. The pLAMP/gag-transfected dendritic cells prime and naked DNA boost immunization protocol also resulted in an increased apparent avidity of peptide in the ELISpot assay. Strikingly, 20 of 25 peptide-specific T-cell responses in the HLA-DR4 transgenic mice contained sequences that corresponded, entirely or partially to 18 of the 19 human HLA-DR4 epitopes listed in the HIV molecular immunology database. Selection of the most conserved epitope peptides as vaccine targets was facilitated by analysis of their representation and variability in all reported sequences. These data provide a model system that demonstrates a the superiority of immunization with dendritic cells transfected with LAMP/gag plasmid DNA, as compared to naked DNA, b the value of HLA transgenic mice as a model system for the identification and evaluation

  19. Transgenics, agroindustry and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alejandro León Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food sovereignty has been implemented constitutionally in Ecuador; however, many of the actions and policies are designed to benefit the dominant model of food production, based in agroindustry, intensive monocultures, agrochemicals and transgenics. This article reflects upon the role of family farming as a generator of food sovereignty, and secondly the threat to them by agroindustry agriculture based in transgenic. The role played by food aid in the introduction of transgenic in Latin America and other regions of the world is also analyzed.

  20. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  1. BoHV-4-Based Vector Single Heterologous Antigen Delivery Protects STAT1(-/- Mice from Monkeypoxvirus Lethal Challenge.

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    Valentina Franceschi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV is the etiological agent of human (MPX. It is an emerging orthopoxvirus zoonosis in the tropical rain forest of Africa and is endemic in the Congo-basin and sporadic in West Africa; it remains a tropical neglected disease of persons in impoverished rural areas. Interaction of the human population with wildlife increases human infection with MPX virus (MPXV, and infection from human to human is possible. Smallpox vaccination provides good cross-protection against MPX; however, the vaccination campaign ended in Africa in 1980, meaning that a large proportion of the population is currently unprotected against MPXV infection. Disease control hinges on deterring zoonotic exposure to the virus and, barring that, interrupting person-to-person spread. However, there are no FDA-approved therapies against MPX, and current vaccines are limited due to safety concerns. For this reason, new studies on pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapeutics are still of great interest, not only for the scientific community but also for the governments concerned that MPXV could be used as a bioterror agent. In the present study, a new vaccination strategy approach based on three recombinant bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 vectors, each expressing different MPXV glycoproteins, A29L, M1R and B6R were investigated in terms of protection from a lethal MPXV challenge in STAT1 knockout mice. BoHV-4-A-CMV-A29LgD106ΔTK, BoHV-4-A-EF1α-M1RgD106ΔTK and BoHV-4-A-EF1α-B6RgD106ΔTK were successfully constructed by recombineering, and their capacity to express their transgene was demonstrated. A small challenge study was performed, and all three recombinant BoHV-4 appeared safe (no weight-loss or obvious adverse events following intraperitoneal administration. Further, BoHV-4-A-EF1α-M1RgD106ΔTK alone or in combination with BoHV-4-A-CMV-A29LgD106ΔTK and BoHV-4-A-EF1α-B6RgD106ΔTK, was shown to be able to protect, 100% alone and 80% in combination, STAT1(-/- mice

  2. Enhanced whitefly resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing double stranded RNA of v-ATPase A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Nidhi; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Pradhyumna K

    2014-01-01

    Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA) designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi), thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA) coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops.

  3. Enhanced whitefly resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing double stranded RNA of v-ATPase A gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Thakur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi, thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops.

  4. Genetic load and transgenic mitigating genes in transgenic Brassica rapa (field mustard × Brassica napus (oilseed rape hybrid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Suzanne I

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One theoretical explanation for the relatively poor performance of Brassica rapa (weed × Brassica napus (crop transgenic hybrids suggests that hybridization imparts a negative genetic load. Consequently, in hybrids genetic load could overshadow any benefits of fitness enhancing transgenes and become the limiting factor in transgenic hybrid persistence. Two types of genetic load were analyzed in this study: random/linkage-derived genetic load, and directly incorporated genetic load using a transgenic mitigation (TM strategy. In order to measure the effects of random genetic load, hybrid productivity (seed yield and biomass was correlated with crop- and weed-specific AFLP genomic markers. This portion of the study was designed to answer whether or not weed × transgenic crop hybrids possessing more crop genes were less competitive than hybrids containing fewer crop genes. The effects of directly incorporated genetic load (TM were analyzed through transgene persistence data. TM strategies are proposed to decrease transgene persistence if gene flow and subsequent transgene introgression to a wild host were to occur. Results In the absence of interspecific competition, transgenic weed × crop hybrids benefited from having more crop-specific alleles. There was a positive correlation between performance and number of B. napus crop-specific AFLP markers [seed yield vs. marker number (r = 0.54, P = 0.0003 and vegetative dry biomass vs. marker number (r = 0.44, P = 0.005]. However under interspecific competition with wheat or more weed-like conditions (i.e. representing a situation where hybrid plants emerge as volunteer weeds in subsequent cropping systems, there was a positive correlation between the number of B. rapa weed-specific AFLP markers and seed yield (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001, although no such correlation was detected for vegetative biomass. When genetic load was directly incorporated into the hybrid genome, by inserting a

  5. Isogenic transgenic homozygous fish induced by artificial parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Y K; Cho, Y S; Kim, D S

    2000-12-01

    As a model system for vertebrate transgenesis, fish have many attractive advantages, especially with respect to the characteristics of eggs, allowing us to produce isogenic, transgenic, homozygous vertebrates by combining with chromosome-set manipulation. Here, we describe the large-scale production of isogenic transgenic homozygous animals using our experimental organism, the mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis, by the simple process of artificial parthenogenesis in a single generation. These isogenic fish have retained transgenic homozygous status in a stable manner during the subsequent 5 years, and exhibited increased levels of transgene expression. Furthermore, their isogenic nature was confirmed by cloned transgenic homozygous offspring produced via another step of parthenogenic reproduction of the isogenic homozygous transgenic fish. These results demonstrate that a combination of transgenesis and artificial parthenogenesis will make the rapid utilization of genetically pure homozygous transgenic system in vertebrate transgenesis possible.

  6. Red rot resistant transgenic sugarcane developed through expression of β-1,3-glucanase gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Nayyar

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is a commercially important crop, vulnerable to fungal disease red rot caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went. The pathogen attacks sucrose accumulating parenchyma cells of cane stalk leading to severe losses in cane yield and sugar recovery. We report development of red rot resistant transgenic sugarcane through expression of β-1,3-glucanase gene from Trichoderma spp. The transgene integration and its expression were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in first clonal generation raised from T0 plants revealing up to 4.4-fold higher expression, in comparison to non-transgenic sugarcane. Bioassay of transgenic plants with two virulent C. falcatum pathotypes, Cf 08 and Cf 09 causing red rot disease demonstrated that some plants were resistant to Cf 08 and moderately resistant to Cf 09. The electron micrographs of sucrose storing stalk parenchyma cells from these plants displayed characteristic sucrose-filled cells inhibiting Cf 08 hyphae and lysis of Cf 09 hyphae; in contrast, the cells of susceptible plants were sucrose depleted and prone to both the pathotypes. The transgene expression was up-regulated (up to 2.0-fold in leaves and 5.0-fold in roots after infection, as compared to before infection in resistant plants. The transgene was successfully transmitted to second clonal generation raised from resistant transgenic plants. β-1,3-glucanase protein structural model revealed that active sites Glutamate 628 and Aspartate 569 of the catalytic domain acted as proton donor and nucleophile having role in cleaving β-1,3-glycosidic bonds and pathogen hyphal lysis.

  7. The effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on physiology and insecticide activity in non-transgenic and Bt-transgenic cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan eLe Van

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the demands for nanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP applications in agriculture increase, the ecological risk has drawn more attention because of the unpredictable results of interactions between NPs and transgenic crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs on Bt-transgenic cotton in comparison with conventional cotton for 10 days. Each treatment was conducted in triplicate, and each experiment was repeated three times. Results demonstrated that Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs inhibited the plant height and root length of Bt-transgenic cotton and promoted root hairs and biomass of non-transgenic cotton. Nutrients such as Na and K in Bt-transgenic cotton roots increased, while Zn contents decreased with Fe2O3 NPs. Most hormones in the roots of Bt-transgenic cotton increased at low Fe2O3 NP exposure (100 mg·L−1 but decreased at high concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs (1000 mg·L−1. Fe2O3 NPs increased the Bt-toxin in leaves and roots of Bt-transgenic cotton. Fe2O3 NPs were absorbed into roots, then transported to the shoots of both Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons. The bioaccumulation of Fe2O3 NPs in plants might be a potential risk for agricultural crops and affect the environment and human health.

  8. Setting the record straight: a rebuttal to an erroneous analysis on transgenic insecticidal crops and natural enemies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shelton, A. M.; Naranjo, S. E.; Romeis, J.; Hellmich, R. L.; Wolt, J. D.; Federici, B. A.; Albajes, R.; Bigler, F.; Burgess, E. P. J.; Dively, G. P.; Gatehouse, A. M. R.; Malone, L. A.; Roush, R.; Sears, M.; Sehnal, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2009), s. 317-322 ISSN 0962-8819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : transgenic insecticidal crops Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 2.467, year: 2009

  9. Transgene flow: Facts, speculations and possible countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence has accumulated that unintended transgene escape occurs in oilseed rape, maize, cotton and creeping bentgrass. The escaped transgenes are found in variant cultivars, in wild type plants as well as in hybrids of sexually compatible species. The fact that in some cases stacked events are present that have not been planted commercially, implies unintended recombination of transgenic traits. As the consequences of this continuous transgene escape for the ecosystem cannot be reliably predicted, I propose to use more sophisticated approaches of gene technology in future. If possible GM plants should be constructed using either site-directed mutagenesis or cisgenic strategies to avoid the problem of transgene escape. In cases where a transgenic trait is needed, efficient containment should be the standard approach. Various strategies available or in development are discussed. Such a cautious approach in developing novel types of GM crops will enhance the sustainable potential of GM crops and thus increase the public trust in green gene technology. PMID:25523171

  10. Breeding of transgenic cattle for human coagulation factor IX by a combination of lentiviral system and cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzani, P S; Sangalli, J R; De Bem, T H C; Bressan, F F; Fantinato-Neto, P; Pimentel, J R V; Birgel-Junior, E H; Fontes, A M; Covas, D T; Meirelles, F V

    2013-02-28

    Recombinant coagulation factor IX must be produced in mammalian cells because FIX synthesis involves translational modifications. Human cell culture-based expression of human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) is expensive, and large-scale production capacity is limited. Transgenic animals may greatly increase the yield of therapeutic proteins and reduce costs. In this study, we used a lentiviral system to obtain transgenic cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce transgenic animals. Lentiviral vectors carrying hFIX driven by 3 bovine β-casein promoters were constructed. Bovine epithelial mammary cells were transduced by lentivirus, selected with blasticidin, plated on extracellular matrix, and induced by lactogenic hormones; promoter activity was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Transcriptional activity of the 5.335-kb promoter was 6-fold higher than the 3.392- and 4.279-kb promoters, which did not significantly differ. Transgenic bovine fibroblasts were transduced with lentivirus carrying the 5.335-kb promoter and used as donor cells for SCNT. Cloned transgenic embryo production yielded development rates of 28.4%, similar to previous reports on cloned non-transgenic embryos. The embryos were transferred to recipient cows (N = 21) and 2 births of cloned transgenic cattle were obtained. These results suggest combination of the lentiviral system and cloning may be a good strategy for production of transgenic cattle.

  11. Transgenic Epigenetics: Using Transgenic Organisms to Examine Epigenetic Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A. McEachern

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-model organisms are generally more difficult and/or time consuming to work with than model organisms. In addition, epigenetic analysis of model organisms is facilitated by well-established protocols, and commercially-available reagents and kits that may not be available for, or previously tested on, non-model organisms. Given the evolutionary conservation and widespread nature of many epigenetic mechanisms, a powerful method to analyze epigenetic phenomena from non-model organisms would be to use transgenic model organisms containing an epigenetic region of interest from the non-model. Interestingly, while transgenic Drosophila and mice have provided significant insight into the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary conservation of the epigenetic processes that target epigenetic control regions in other model organisms, this method has so far been under-exploited for non-model organism epigenetic analysis. This paper details several experiments that have examined the epigenetic processes of genomic imprinting and paramutation, by transferring an epigenetic control region from one model organism to another. These cross-species experiments demonstrate that valuable insight into both the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary conservation of epigenetic processes may be obtained via transgenic experiments, which can then be used to guide further investigations and experiments in the species of interest.

  12. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-07-19

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs.

  13. A vaccine encoding conserved promiscuous HIV CD4 epitopes induces broad T cell responses in mice transgenic to multiple common HLA class II molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Pereira Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Current HIV vaccine approaches are focused on immunogens encoding whole HIV antigenic proteins that mainly elicit cytotoxic CD8+ responses. Mounting evidence points toward a critical role for CD4+ T cells in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication, probably due to cognate help. Vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses might, therefore, have a protective effect in HIV replication. In addition, successful vaccines may have to elicit responses to multiple epitopes in a high proportion of vaccinees, to match the highly variable circulating strains of HIV. Using rational vaccine design, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding 18 algorithm-selected conserved, "promiscuous" (multiple HLA-DR-binding B-subtype HIV CD4 epitopes - previously found to be frequently recognized by HIV-infected patients. We assessed the ability of the vaccine to induce broad T cell responses in the context of multiple HLA class II molecules using different strains of HLA class II- transgenic mice (-DR2, -DR4, -DQ6 and -DQ8. Mice displayed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of significant breadth and magnitude, and 16 out of the 18 encoded epitopes were recognized. By virtue of inducing broad responses against conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes that can be recognized in the context of widely diverse, common HLA class II alleles, this vaccine concept may cope both with HIV genetic variability and increased population coverage. The vaccine may thus be a source of cognate help for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by conventional immunogens, in a wide proportion of vaccinees.

  14. Inheritance and effectiveness of two transgenes determining PVY resistance in progeny from crossing independently transformed tobacco lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubacka, Anna; Sacco, Ermanno; Olszak-Przybyś, Hanna; Doroszewska, Teresa

    2017-05-01

    Genetic transformation of plants allows us to obtain improved genotypes enriched with the desired traits. However, if transgenic lines were to be used in breeding programs the stability of inserted transgenes is essential. In the present study, we followed the inheritance of transgenes in hybrids originated from crossing two transgenic tobacco lines resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY): MN 944 LMV with the transgene containing Lettuce mosaic virus coat protein gene (LMV CP) and AC Gayed ROKY2 with PVY replicase gene (ROKY2). Progeny populations generated by successive self-pollination were analyzed with respect to the transgene segregation ratio and resistance to Potato virus Y in tests carried out under greenhouse conditions. The presence of the virus in inoculated plants was detected by DAS-ELISA method. The results demonstrated the Mendelian fashion of inheritance of transgenes which were segregated independently and stably. As a result, we obtained T 4 generation of hybrid with both transgenes stacked and which was highly resistant to PVY.

  15. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  16. Selectivity and Efficiency of Late Transgene Expression by Transcriptionally Targeted Oncolytic Adenoviruses Are Dependent on the Transgene Insertion Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirin, Christina; Rohmer, Stanimira; Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Behr, Michael; Hesse, Andrea; Engelhardt, Sarah; Erbs, Philippe; Enk, Alexander H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Key challenges facing cancer therapy are the development of tumor-specific drugs and potent multimodal regimens. Oncolytic adenoviruses possess the potential to realize both aims by restricting virus replication to tumors and inserting therapeutic genes into the virus genome, respectively. A major effort in this regard is to express transgenes in a tumor-specific manner without affecting virus replication. Using both luciferase as a sensitive reporter and genetic prodrug activation, we show that promoter control of E1A facilitates highly selective expression of transgenes inserted into the late transcription unit. This, however, required multistep optimization of late transgene expression. Transgene insertion via internal ribosome entry site (IRES), splice acceptor (SA), or viral 2A sequences resulted in replication-dependent expression. Unexpectedly, analyses in appropriate substrates and with matching control viruses revealed that IRES and SA, but not 2A, facilitated indirect transgene targeting via tyrosinase promoter control of E1A. Transgene expression via SA was more selective (up to 1,500-fold) but less effective than via IRES. Notably, we also revealed transgene-dependent interference with splicing. Hence, the prodrug convertase FCU1 (a cytosine deaminase–uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion protein) was expressed only after optimizing the sequence surrounding the SA site and mutating a cryptic splice site within the transgene. The resulting tyrosinase promoter-regulated and FCU1-encoding adenovirus combined effective oncolysis with targeted prodrug activation therapy of melanoma. Thus, prodrug activation showed potent bystander killing and increased cytotoxicity of the virus up to 10-fold. We conclude that armed oncolytic viruses can be improved substantially by comparing and optimizing strategies for targeted transgene expression, thereby implementing selective and multimodal cancer therapies. PMID:20939692

  17. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  18. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  19. Recent progress on technologies and applications of transgenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... this, the methods for producing transgenic poultry must become routine. ... and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have been developed to generate transgenic chickens. ... any procedure aimed at generating transgenic birds.

  20. The novel gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata increases powdery mildew resistance in transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingmin eDai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. The PR-4 gene was overexpressed in regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and also repressed the growth of powdery mildew. The PR gene responds differently to different stresses in the PR-4 transformants. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion.

  1. Transgenic Pm3 multilines of wheat show increased powdery mildew resistance in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Diaz Quijano, Carolina; Buesing, Gabriele; Herren, Gerhard; Parlange, Francis; Barret, Pierre; Tassy, Caroline; Sautter, Christof; Winzeler, Michael; Keller, Beat

    2012-05-01

    Resistance (R) genes protect plants very effectively from disease, but many of them are rapidly overcome when present in widely grown cultivars. To overcome this lack of durability, strategies that increase host resistance diversity have been proposed. Among them is the use of multilines composed of near-isogenic lines (NILs) containing different disease resistance genes. In contrast to classical R-gene introgression by recurrent backcrossing, a transgenic approach allows the development of lines with identical genetic background, differing only in a single R gene. We have used alleles of the resistance locus Pm3 in wheat, conferring race-specific resistance to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici), to develop transgenic wheat lines overexpressing Pm3a, Pm3c, Pm3d, Pm3f or Pm3g. In field experiments, all tested transgenic lines were significantly more resistant than their respective nontransformed sister lines. The resistance level of the transgenic Pm3 lines was determined mainly by the frequency of virulence to the particular Pm3 allele in the powdery mildew population, Pm3 expression levels and most likely also allele-specific properties. We created six two-way multilines by mixing seeds of the parental line Bobwhite and transgenic Pm3a, Pm3b and Pm3d lines. The Pm3 multilines were more resistant than their components when tested in the field. This demonstrates that the difference in a single R gene is sufficient to cause host-diversity effects and that multilines of transgenic Pm3 wheat lines represent a promising strategy for an effective and sustainable use of Pm3 alleles. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Big Animal Cloning Using Transgenic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Case Study of Goat Transgenic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Using of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could improve production traits and disease resistance by improving the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. However, robust ESCs have not been established from domestic ungulates. In the present study, we generated goat induced pluripotent stem cells (giPSCs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat induced pluripotent stem cells (tgiPSCs) from dairy goat fibroblasts (gFs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat fibroblasts (tgFs), respectively, using lentiviruses that contained hOCT4, hSOX2, hMYC, and hKLF4 without chemical compounds. The giPSCs and tgiPSCs expressed endogenous pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2, MYC, KLF4, and NANOG. Moreover, they were able to maintain a normal karyotype and differentiate into derivatives from all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Using SCNT, tgFs and tgiPSCs were used as donor cells to produce embryos, which were named tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. The fusion rates and cleavage rates had no significant differences between tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. However, the expression of IGF-2, which is an important gene associated with embryonic development, was significantly lower in tgiPSC-Embryos than in tgF-Embryos and was not significantly different from vivo-Embryos.

  3. PP005. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension in transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkholt Andersen, Louise; Herse, Florian; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats overexpress......INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats...... determined once weekly. After three weeks, animals were sacrificed. Heart tissue was examined for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The vitamin D depleted group had higher blood pressure at week 1 (mean difference 23.4mmHg, 95% CI 9.1-37.7) and tended...

  4. Production of multiple transgenic Yucatan miniature pigs expressing human complement regulatory factors, human CD55, CD59, and H-transferase genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hee Jeong

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to generate transgenic pigs coexpressing human CD55, CD59, and H-transferase (HT using an IRES-mediated polycistronic vector. The study focused on hyperacute rejection (HAR when considering clinical xenotransplantation as an alternative source for human organ transplants. In total, 35 transgenic cloned piglets were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT and were confirmed for genomic integration of the transgenes from umbilical cord samples by PCR analysis. Eighteen swine umbilical vein endothelial cells (SUVEC were isolated from umbilical cord veins freshly obtained from the piglets. We observed a higher expression of transgenes in the transgenic SUVEC (Tg SUVEC compared with the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Among these genes, HT and hCD59 were expressed at a higher level in the tested Tg organs compared with non-Tg control organs, but there was no difference in hCD55 expression between them. The transgenes in various organs of the Tg clones revealed organ-specific and spatial expression patterns. Using from 0 to 50% human serum solutions, we performed human complement-mediated cytolysis assays. The results showed that, overall, the Tg SUVEC tested had greater survival rates than did the non-Tg SUVEC, and the Tg SUVEC with higher HT expression levels tended to have more down-regulated α-Gal epitope expression, resulting in greater protection against cytotoxicity. By contrast, several Tg SUVEC with low CD55 expression exhibited a decreased resistance response to cytolysis. These results indicated that the levels of HT expression were inversely correlated with the levels of α-Gal epitope expression and that the combined expression of hCD55, hCD59, and HT proteins in SUVECs markedly enhances a protective response to human serum-mediated cytolysis. Taken together, these results suggest that combining a polycistronic vector system with SCNT methods provides a fast and efficient alternative

  5. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26172952

  6. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  7. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Szalonek

    Full Text Available Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin than wild type (WT. Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII, as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  8. Enhanced salt stress tolerance in transgenic potato plants expressing IbMYB1, a sweet potato transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Jie; Kim, Myoung-Duck; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Chen, Wei

    2013-12-01

    IbMYB1, a transcription factor (TF) for R2R3-type MYB TFs, is a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis during storage of sweet potatoes. Anthocyanins provide important antioxidants of nutritional value to humans, and also protect plants from oxidative stress. This study aimed to increase transgenic potatoes' (Solanum tuberosum cv. LongShu No.3) tolerance to environmental stress and enhance their nutritional value. Transgenic potato plants expressing IbMYB1 genes under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter (referred to as SM plants) were successfully generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Two representative transgenic SM5 and SM12 lines were evaluated for enhanced tolerance to salinity, UV-B rays, and drought conditions. Following treatment of 100 mM NaCl, seedlings of SM5 and SM12 lines showed less root damage and more shoot growth than control lines expressing only an empty vector. Transgenic potato plants in pots treated with 400 mM NaCl showed high amounts of secondary metabolites, including phenols, anthocyanins, and flavonoids, compared with control plants. After treatment of 400 mM NaCl, transgenic potato plants also showed high DDPH radical scavenging activity and high PS II photochemical efficiency compared with the control line. Furthermore, following treatment of NaCl, UV-B, and drought stress, the expression levels of IbMYB1 and several structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis such as CHS, DFR, and ANS in transgenic plants were found to be correlated with plant phenotype. The results suggest that enhanced IbMYB1 expression affects secondary metabolism, which leads to improved tolerance ability in transgenic potatoes.

  9. Discrimination of Transgenic Rice Based on Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Regression Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Long

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS, a non-destructive measurement technique, was combined with partial least squares regression discrimiant analysis (PLS-DA to discriminate the transgenic (TCTP and mi166 and wild type (Zhonghua 11 rice. Furthermore, rice lines transformed with protein gene (OsTCTP and regulation gene (Osmi166 were also discriminated by the NIRS method. The performances of PLS-DA in spectral ranges of 4 000–8 000 cm-1 and 4 000–10 000 cm-1 were compared to obtain the optimal spectral range. As a result, the transgenic and wild type rice were distinguished from each other in the range of 4 000–10 000 cm-1, and the correct classification rate was 100.0% in the validation test. The transgenic rice TCTP and mi166 were also distinguished from each other in the range of 4 000–10 000 cm-1, and the correct classification rate was also 100.0%. In conclusion, NIRS combined with PLS-DA can be used for the discrimination of transgenic rice.

  10. HIV-1 transgenic rats develop T cell abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, William; Abdelwahab, Sayed; Sadowska, Mariola; Huso, David; Neal, Ashley; Ahearn, Aaron; Bryant, Joseph; Gallo, Robert C.; Lewis, George K.; Reitz, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    HIV-1 infection leads to impaired antigen-specific T cell proliferation, increased susceptibility of T cells to apoptosis, progressive impairment of T-helper 1 (Th1) responses, and altered maturation of HIV-1-specific memory cells. We have identified similar impairments in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Tg rats developed an absolute reduction in CD4 + and CD8 + T cells able to produce IFN-γ following activation and an increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis. CD4 + and CD8 + effector/memory (CD45RC - CD62L - ) pools were significantly smaller in Tg rats compared to non-Tg controls, although the converse was true for the naieve (CD45RC + CD62L + ) T cell pool. Our interpretation is that the HIV transgene causes defects in the development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets, and that activation-induced apoptosis may be an essential factor in this process

  11. Age-related response of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic miceto phthalic anhydrideexposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ji Eun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes are associated with susceptibility to infection, malignancy, autoimmunity, response to vaccination and wound healing. To investigate the relationship of several pathological phenotypes of allergic inflammationto age, alterations in theIL-4 derived luciferase signal and general phenotype biomarkers were measured in young (2-month-old and old (12-month-old IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg mice with phthalic anhydride (PA-induced allergic inflammationfor 2 weeks. There was no difference in the ear phenotypes and thickness between young and old mice, although these levels were higher in the PA-treated group thantheacetone-olive oil (AOO-treated group. The luciferase signal was detected in the mesenteric lymph node (ML, thymus and pancreas of both young and old PA-treated mice, but showed a greater increasein old Tg mice (exceptin thethymus. Agreaterincrease inthe epidermal thickness and dermal thickness was measured in old PA-treated mice than young PA-treated mice, while total mast cell number remainedconstant in both groups. Furthermore, the concentration of IgE was greater in young PA-treated mice than in old PA-treated mice,as wasthe expression of VEGF and IL-6. Taken together, theresults of this study showed that an animal’s age is an important factor that must be considered when PA-induced allergic inflammation in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice areinvestigated to screen for allergens and therapeutic compounds.

  12. Arsenite and its metabolites, MMAIII and DMAIII, modify CYP3A4, PXR and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Diaz, I.M.; Estrada-Muniz, E.; Reyes-Hernandez, O.D.; Ramirez, P.; Vega, L.; Elizondo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cancer and several other diseases through alterations of cellular homeostasis and hepatic function. Cytochrome P450 (P450) modification may be one of the factors contributing to these disorders. Several reports have established that exposure to arsenite modifies P450 expression by decreasing or increasing mRNA and protein levels. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the predominant P450 expressed in the human liver and intestines, which is regulated mainly by the Pregnane X Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor alpha (PXR-RXR alpha) heterodimer, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The present study investigates the effect of sodium arsenite and its metabolites monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III ) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA III ) on CYP3A4, PXR, and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. Sodium arsenite treatment increases mRNA, protein and CYP3A4 activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the increase in protein expression was not as marked as compared to the increase in mRNA levels. Arsenite treatment induces the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates, indicating that the activation of this mechanism may explain the differences observed between the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of DMA III induces CYP3A4 in a similar way, while treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of MMA III increases mostly mRNA, and to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 activity. Sodium arsenite and both its metabolites increase PXR mRNA, while only DMA III induces RXR alpha expression. Overall, these results suggest that sodium arsenite and its metabolites induce CYP3A4 expression by increasing PXR expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice.

  13. Specific roles of tocopherols and tocotrienols in seed longevity and germination tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Defu; Li, Yanlan; Fang, Tao; Shi, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiwen

    2016-03-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols are lipophilic antioxidants that are abundant in plant seeds. Although their roles have been extensively studied, our understanding of their functions in rice seeds is still limited. In this study, on the basis of available RNAi rice plants constitutively silenced for homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT) and tocopherol cyclase (TC), we developed transgenic plants that silenced homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase (HGGT). All the RNAi plants showed significantly reduced germination percentages and a higher proportion of abnormal seedlings than the control plants, with HGGT transgenics showing the most severe phenotype. The accelerated aging phenotype corresponded well with the amount of H2O2 accumulated in the embryo, glucose level, and ion leakage, but not with the amount of O(2-) accumulated in the embryo and lipid hydroperoxides levels in these genotypes. Under abiotic stress conditions, HPT and TC transgenics showed lower germination percentage and seedling growth than HGGT transgenics, while HGGT transgenics showed almost the same status as the wild type. Therefore, we proposed that tocopherols in the germ may protect the embryo from reactive oxygen species under both accelerated aging and stress conditions, whereas tocotrienols in the pericarp may exclusively help in reducing the metabolic activity of the seed during accelerated aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF ESCAPED TRANSGENIC CREEPING BENTGRASS IN OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    When transgenic plants are cultivated near wild species that are sexually compatible with the crop, gene flow between the crop and wild plants is possible. A resultant concern is that transgene flow and transgene introgression within wild populations could have unintended ecologi...

  15. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  16. DICER-LIKE2 plays a primary role in transitive silencing of transgenes in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizolwenkosi Mlotshwa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dicer-like (DCL enzymes play a pivotal role in RNA silencing in plants, processing the long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA that triggers silencing into the primary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs that mediate it. The siRNA population can be augmented and silencing amplified via transitivity, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR-dependent pathway that uses the target RNA as substrate to generate secondary siRNAs. Here we report that Arabidopsis DCL2-but not DCL4-is required for transitivity in cell-autonomous, post-transcriptional silencing of transgenes. An insertion mutation in DCL2 blocked sense transgene-induced silencing and eliminated accumulation of the associated RDR-dependent siRNAs. In hairpin transgene-induced silencing, the dcl2 mutation likewise eliminated accumulation of secondary siRNAs and blocked transitive silencing, but did not block silencing mediated by primary siRNAs. Strikingly, in all cases, the dcl2 mutation eliminated accumulation of all secondary siRNAs, including those generated by other DCL enzymes. In contrast, mutations in DCL4 promoted a dramatic shift to transitive silencing in the case of the hairpin transgene and enhanced silencing induced by the sense transgene. Suppression of hairpin and sense transgene silencing by the P1/HC-Pro and P38 viral suppressors was associated with elimination of secondary siRNA accumulation, but the suppressors did not block processing of the stem of the hairpin transcript into primary siRNAs. Thus, these viral suppressors resemble the dcl2 mutation in their effects on siRNA biogenesis. We conclude that DCL2 plays an essential, as opposed to redundant, role in transitive silencing of transgenes and may play a more important role in silencing of viruses than currently thought.

  17. Tobacco expressing pap1 increases the responses to par and uv-a by enhancing soluble sugars and flavonoids and elevating plant protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sompornpailin, K.; Kanthang, S.

    2015-01-01

    Five lines of transgenic tobacco over-expressing Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (PAP1) cDNA were analysis of metabolic response against the radiation and their protection of the plant under tissue culture condition. PAP1 transgenic and wild type (WT) plants were treated with the radiations of photosynthetically activate radiation (PAR) or PAR combined with UV-A. All lines of transgenic significantly increased in amounts of p-coumaric acid, naringenin apigenin more than WT under both treatments. Additional UV-A radiating to plant rose up kaempferol content in WT plant (1.5 times) and in PAP1 transgenics (1.8 times). These transgenic plants treated under both conditions had also increased anthocyanin substances (pelargonidin) with significant value after compared to WT. Content of total soluble sugar (TSS) was related to the content of total flavonoids in transgenic. PAR combined with UV-A had a lower induction of the electrolyte leakage percentage and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the transgenic leaf tissue compared to WT tissue. The metabolic substance levels were considered on its protection of plant cells. In transgenic tissue, the enhancement of apigenin level strongly diminished the increase level of electrolyte leakage while the levels of TSS, p-coumaric acid and naringinin less affected. Moreover, the increase levels of kaempferol and pelargonidin associated with the decrease level of MDA, while the TSS level reversely responded. The PAP1 transgenic increased response of light by adaptation of their metabolites (TSS, p-coumaric acid and flavonoids) consequently enhance parameter indicating protections of the cell. (author)

  18. Transgene mus som sygdomsmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Mikkel Bruhn; Porse, Bo Torben

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have proven to be useful tools in understanding both basic biology and the events associated with disease. Recent technical advances in the area of genomic manipulation in combination with the availability of the human and murine genomic sequences now allow the precise...... tailoring of the mouse genome. In this review we describe a few systems in which transgenic animal models have been employed for the purpose of studying the etiology of human diseases. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Feb-17...

  19. A proteomic study to identify soya allergens--the human response to transgenic versus non-transgenic soya samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Rita; Martins, Isabel; Jeno, Paul; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Oliveira, Maria Margarida

    2007-01-01

    In spite of being among the main foods responsible for allergic reactions worldwide, soybean (Glycine max)-derived products continue to be increasingly widespread in a variety of food products due to their well-documented health benefits. Soybean also continues to be one of the elected target crops for genetic modification. The aim of this study was to characterize the soya proteome and, specifically, IgE-reactive proteins as well as to compare the IgE response in soya-allergic individuals to genetically modified Roundup Ready soya versus its non-transgenic control. We performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts from a 5% genetically modified Roundup Ready flour sample and its non-transgenic control followed by Western blotting with plasma from 5 soya-sensitive individuals. We used peptide tandem mass spectrometry to identify soya proteins (55 protein matches), specifically IgE-binding ones, and to evaluate differences between transgenic and non-transgenic samples. We identified 2 new potential soybean allergens--one is maturation associated and seems to be part of the late embryogenesis abundant proteins group and the other is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. None of the individuals tested reacted differentially to the transgenic versus non-transgenic samples under study. Soybean endogenous allergen expression does not seem to be altered after genetic modification. Proteomics should be considered a powerful tool for functional characterization of plants and for food safety assessment. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The Relationship between Insect Resistance and Tree Age of Transgenic Triploid Populus tomentosa Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yachao; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Guiying; Liu, Xiaojie; Li, Li; Wang, Jinmao; Yang, Minsheng

    2018-01-01

    To explore the stability of insect resistance during the development of transgenic insect-resistant trees, this study investigated how insect resistance changes as transgenic trees age. We selected 19 transgenic insect-resistant triploid Populus tomentosa lines as plant material. The presence of exogenous genes and Cry1Ac protein expression were verified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses. The toxicity for Clostera anachoreta and Lymantria dispar was evaluated by feeding fresh leaves to first instar larvae after the trees were planted in the field for 2 years and after the sixth year. Results of PCR showed that the exogenous genes had a long-term presence in the poplar genome. ELISA analyses showed significant differences existed on the 6-year-old transgenic lines. The insect-feeding experiment demonstrated significant differences in the mortality rates of C. anachoreta and L. dispar among different transgenic lines. The average corrected mortality rates of C. anachoreta and L. dispar ranged from 5.6-98.7% to 35.4-7.2% respectively. The larval mortality rates differed significantly between the lines at different ages. Up to 52.6% of 1-year-old transgenic lines and 42.1% of 2-year-old transgenic lines caused C. anachoreta larval mortality rates to exceed 80%, whereas only 26.3% of the 6-year-old transgenic lines. The mortality rates of L. dispar exhibited the same trend: 89.5% of 1-year-old transgenic lines and 84.2% of 2-year-old transgenic lines caused L. dispar larval mortality rates to exceed 80%; this number decreased to 63.2% for the 6-year-old plants. The proportion of 6-year-old trees with over 80% larval mortality rates was clearly lower than that of the younger trees. The death distribution of C. anachoreta in different developmental stages also showed the larvae that fed on the leaves of 1-year-old trees were killed mostly during L 1 and L 2 stages, whereas the proportion of larvae that died in L 3

  1. Neuronal erythropoietin overexpression is protective against kanamycin-induced hearing loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächinger, David; Horvath, Lukas; Eckhard, Andreas; Goosmann, Madeline M; Honegger, Tim; Gassmann, Max; Vogel, Johannes; Naldi, Arianne Monge

    2018-07-01

    Aminoglycosides have detrimental effects on the hair cells of the inner ear, yet these agents indisputably are one of the cornerstones in antibiotic therapy. Hence, there is a demand for strategies to prevent aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity, which are not available today. In vitro data suggests that the pleiotropic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective against aminoglycoside-induced hair cell loss. Here, we use a mouse model with EPO-overexpression in neuronal tissue to evaluate whether EPO could also in vivo protect from aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were measured in 12-weeks-old mice before and after treatment with kanamycin for 15 days, which resulted in both C57BL/6 and EPO-transgenic animals in a high-frequency hearing loss. However, ABR threshold shifts in EPO-transgenic mice were significantly lower than in C57BL/6 mice (mean difference in ABR threshold shift 13.6 dB at 32 kHz, 95% CI 3.8-23.4 dB, p = 0.003). Correspondingly, quantification of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons by immunofluorescence revealed that EPO-transgenic mice had a significantly lower hair cell and spiral ganglion neuron loss than C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, neuronal overexpression of EPO is protective against aminoglycoside-induce hearing loss, which is in accordance with its known neuroprotective effects in other organs, such as the eye or the brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. GmPGIP3 enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiyun; Wei, Xuening; Rong, Wei; Dang, Liang; Du, Li-Pu; Qi, Lin; Xu, Hui-Jun; Shao, Yanjun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-05-01

    Take-all (caused by the fungal pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Ggt) and common root rot (caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana) are devastating root diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Development of resistant wheat cultivars has been a challenge since no resistant wheat accession is available. GmPGIP3, one member of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family in soybean (Glycine max), exhibited inhibition activity against fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs) in vitro. In this study, the GmPGIP3 transgenic wheat plants were generated and used to assess the effectiveness of GmPGIP3 in protecting wheat from the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. Four independent transgenic lines were identified by genomic PCR, Southern blot, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The introduced GmPGIP3 was integrated into the genomes of these transgenic lines and could be expressed. The expressing GmPGIP3 protein in these transgenic wheat lines could inhibit the PGs produced by Ggt and B. sorokiniana. The disease response assessments postinoculation showed that the GmPGIP3-expressing transgenic wheat lines displayed significantly enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases caused by the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. These data suggested that GmPGIP3 is an attractive gene resource in improving resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in wheat.

  3. Protective Role of Cross-Reactive CD8 T Cells Against Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Elong Ngono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Infection with one of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4 presumably leads to lifelong immunity against the infecting serotype but not against heterotypic reinfection, resulting in a greater risk of developing Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome (DHF/DSS during secondary infection. Both antibodies and T cell responses have been implicated in DHF/DSS pathogenesis. According to the T cell-based hypothesis termed “original antigenic sin,” secondary DENV infection is dominated by non-protective, cross-reactive T cells that elicit an aberrant immune response. The goal of our study was to compare the roles of serotype-specific and cross-reactive T cells in protection vs. pathogenesis during DENV infection in vivo. Specifically, we utilized IFN-α/βR−/− HLA*B0702 transgenic mice in the context of peptide vaccination with relevant human CD8 T cell epitopes. IFN-α/βR−/− HLA*B0702 transgenic mice were immunized with DENV serotype 2 (DENV2-specific epitopes or variants found in any of the other three serotypes (DENV1, DENV3 or DENV4, followed by challenge with DENV. Although cross-reactive T cell responses were lower than responses elicited by serotype-specific T cells, immunization with either serotype-specific or variant peptide epitopes enhanced viral clearance, demonstrating that both serotype-specific and cross-reactive T cells can contribute to protection in vivo against DENV infection.

  4. Transgene IL-6 Enhances DC-Stimulated CTL Responses by Counteracting CD4+25+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Suppression via IL-6-Induced Foxp3 Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Kalyanasundaram Bhanumathy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs, the most potent antigen-presenting cells have been extensively applied in clinical trials for evaluation of antitumor immunity. However, the efficacy of DC-mediated cancer vaccines is still limited as they are unable to sufficiently break the immune tolerance. In this study, we constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector (AdVIL-6 expressing IL-6, and generated IL-6 transgene-engineered DC vaccine (DCOVA/IL-6 by transfection of murine bone marrow-derived ovalbumin (OVA-pulsed DCs (DCOVA with AdVIL-6. We then assessed DCOVA/IL-6-stimulated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL responses and antitumor immunity in OVA-specific animal tumor model. We demonstrate that DCOVA/IL-6 vaccine up-regulates expression of DC maturation markers, secretes transgene-encoded IL-6, and more efficiently stimulates OVA-specific CTL responses and therapeutic immunity against OVA-expressing B16 melanoma BL6-10OVA in vivo than the control DCOVA/Null vaccine. Moreover, DCOVA/IL-6-stimulated CTL responses were relatively maintained in mice with transfer of CD4+25+Foxp3+ Tr-cells, but significantly reduced when treated with anti-IL-6 antibody. In addition, we demonstrate that IL-6 down-regulates Foxp3-expression of CD4+25+Foxp3+ Tr-cells in vitro. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AdV-mediated IL-6 transgene-engineered DC vaccine stimulates potent CTL responses and antitumor immunity by counteracting CD4+25+ Tr immunosuppression via IL-6-induced Foxp3 down-regulation. Thus, IL-6 may be a good candidate for engineering DCs for cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Enhanced resistance to stripe rust disease in transgenic wheat expressing the rice chitinase gene RC24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Wang, Jian; Du, Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Li, Lan; Xu, Ziqin

    2013-10-01

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease of wheat worldwide which is primarily caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici. Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing rice class chitinase gene RC24 were developed by particle bombardment of immature embryos and tested for resistance to Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici. under greenhouse and field conditions. Putative transformants were selected on kanamycin-containing media. Polymease chain reaction indicated that RC24 was transferred into 17 transformants obtained from bombardment of 1,684 immature embryos. Integration of RC24 was confirmed by Southern blot with a RC24-labeled probe and expression of RC24 was verified by RT-PCR. Nine transgenic T1 lines exhibited enhanced resistance to stripe rust infection with lines XN8 and BF4 showing the highest level of resistance. Southern blot hybridization confirmed the stable inheritance of RC24 in transgenic T1 plants. Resistance to stripe rust in transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants was confirmed over two consecutive years in the field. Increased yield (27-36 %) was recorded for transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants compared to controls. These results suggest that rice class I chitinase RC24 can be used to engineer stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  6. An Efficient Method for Generation of Transgenic Rats Avoiding Embryo Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhola Shankar Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rats are preferred over mice as an animal model, transgenic animals are generated predominantly using mouse embryos. There are limitations in the generation of transgenic rat by embryo manipulation. Unlike mouse embryos, most of the rat embryos do not survive after male pronuclear DNA injection which reduces the efficiency of generation of transgenic rat by this method. More importantly, this method requires hundreds of eggs collected by killing several females for insertion of transgene to generate transgenic rat. To this end, we developed a noninvasive and deathless technique for generation of transgenic rats by integrating transgene into the genome of the spermatogonial cells by testicular injection of DNA followed by electroporation. After standardization of this technique using EGFP as a transgene, a transgenic disease model displaying alpha thalassemia was successfully generated using rats. This efficient method will ease the generation of transgenic rats without killing the lives of rats while simultaneously reducing the number of rats used for generation of transgenic animal.

  7. Galactose-extended glycans of antibodies produced by transgenic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.; Bardor, M.; Molthoff, J.W.; Gomord, V.; Elbers, I.; Stevens, L.H.; Jordi, W.; Lommen, A.; Faye, L.; Lerouge, P.; Bosch, D.

    2001-01-01

    Plant-specific N-glycosylation can represent an important limitation for the use of recombinant glycoproteins of mammalian origin produced by transgenic plants. Comparison of plant and mammalian N-glycan biosynthesis indicates that β1,4-galactosyltransferase is the most important enzyme that is

  8. Intein-mediated Cre protein assembly for transgene excision in hybrid progeny of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Wang, Lijun; Yang, Chen; Ran, Lingyu; Wen, Mengling; Fu, Xianan; Fan, Di; Luo, Keming

    2016-10-01

    An approach for restoring recombination activity of complementation split-Cre was developed to excise the transgene in hybrid progeny of GM crops. Growing concerns about the biosafety of genetically modified (GM) crops has currently become a limited factor affecting the public acceptance. Several approaches have been developed to generate selectable-marker-gene-free GM crops. However, no strategy was reported to be broadly applicable to hybrid crops. Previous studies have demonstrated that complementation split-Cre recombinase restored recombination activity in transgenic plants. In this study, we found that split-Cre mediated by split-intein Synechocystis sp. DnaE had high recombination efficiency when Cre recombinase was split at Asp232/Asp233 (866 bp). Furthermore, we constructed two plant expression vectors, pCA-NCre-In and pCA-Ic-CCre, containing NCre866-In and Ic-CCre866 fragments, respectively. After transformation, parent lines of transgenic Arabidopsis with one single copy were generated and used for hybridization. The results of GUS staining demonstrated that the recombination activity of split-Cre could be reassembled in these hybrid progeny of transgenic plants through hybridization and the foreign genes flanked by two loxP sites were efficiently excised. Our strategy may provide an effective approach for generating the next generation of GM hybrid crops without biosafety concerns.

  9. Metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium in plant cell cultures of transgenic (rhizomania-resistant) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, B P; Zumdick, A; Schuphan, I; Schmidt, B

    2001-01-01

    The metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium was investigated in heterotrophic cell suspension and callus cultures of transgenic (bar-gene) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris). Similar studies were performed with suspensions of carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium). 14C-labelled chemicals were the (racemic) glufosinate, L-glufosinate, and D-glufosinate, as well as the metabolites N-acetyl L-glufosinate and 3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPP). Cellular absorption was generally low, but depended noticeably on plant species, substance and enantiomer. Portions of non-extractable residues ranged from 0.1% to 1.2% of applied 14C. Amounts of soluble metabolites resulting from glufosinate or L-glufosinate were between 0.0% and 26.7% of absorbed 14C in non-transgenic cultures and 28.2% and 59.9% in transgenic sugarbeet. D-Glufosinate, MPP and N-acetyl L-glufosinate proved to be stable. The main metabolite in transgenic sugarbeet was N-acetyl L-glufosinate, besides traces of MPP and 4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid (MPB). In non-transgenic sugarbeet, glufosinate was transformed to a limited extent to MPP and trace amounts of MPB. In carrot, D stramonium and D purpurea, MPP was also the main product; MPB was identified as a further trace metabolite in D stramonium and D purpurea.

  10. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Sapra, Geeta; Patterson, Natalie L; Cemerlang, Nelly; Kiriazis, Helen; Ueyama, Tomomi; Febbraio, Mark A; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC). Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions.

  11. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca C Bernardo

    Full Text Available Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF. AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC. Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions.

  12. Transgenic potatoes for potato cyst nematode control can replace pesticide use without impact on soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jayne; Wang, Dong; Lilley, Catherine J; Urwin, Peter E; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    Current and future global crop yields depend upon soil quality to which soil organisms make an important contribution. The European Union seeks to protect European soils and their biodiversity for instance by amending its Directive on pesticide usage. This poses a challenge for control of Globodera pallida (a potato cyst nematode) for which both natural resistance and rotational control are inadequate. One approach of high potential is transgenically based resistance. This work demonstrates the potential in the field of a new transgenic trait for control of G. pallida that suppresses root invasion. It also investigates its impact and that of a second transgenic trait on the non-target soil nematode community. We establish that a peptide that disrupts chemoreception of nematodes without a lethal effect provides resistance to G. pallida in both a containment and a field trial when precisely targeted under control of a root tip-specific promoter. In addition we combine DNA barcoding and quantitative PCR to recognise nematode genera from soil samples without microscope-based observation and use the method for nematode faunal analysis. This approach establishes that the peptide and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor that offer distinct bases for transgenic plant resistance to G. pallida do so without impact on the non-target nematode soil community.

  13. Transgenic potatoes for potato cyst nematode control can replace pesticide use without impact on soil quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Green

    Full Text Available Current and future global crop yields depend upon soil quality to which soil organisms make an important contribution. The European Union seeks to protect European soils and their biodiversity for instance by amending its Directive on pesticide usage. This poses a challenge for control of Globodera pallida (a potato cyst nematode for which both natural resistance and rotational control are inadequate. One approach of high potential is transgenically based resistance. This work demonstrates the potential in the field of a new transgenic trait for control of G. pallida that suppresses root invasion. It also investigates its impact and that of a second transgenic trait on the non-target soil nematode community. We establish that a peptide that disrupts chemoreception of nematodes without a lethal effect provides resistance to G. pallida in both a containment and a field trial when precisely targeted under control of a root tip-specific promoter. In addition we combine DNA barcoding and quantitative PCR to recognise nematode genera from soil samples without microscope-based observation and use the method for nematode faunal analysis. This approach establishes that the peptide and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor that offer distinct bases for transgenic plant resistance to G. pallida do so without impact on the non-target nematode soil community.

  14. Enhanced disease resistance and drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants overexpressing protein elicitors from Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Han, Qiang; Zi, Qian; Lv, Shun; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice. The expression of salicylic acid (SA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-related genes was also increased, suggesting that these two elicitors may trigger SA signaling to protect the rice from damage during pathogen infection and regulate the ABA content to increase drought tolerance in transgenic rice. Trypan blue staining indicated that expressing MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 in rice plants inhibited hyphal growth of the rice blast fungus. Relative water content (RWC), water usage efficiency (WUE) and water loss rate (WLR) were measured to confirm the high capacity for water retention in transgenic rice. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice also exhibited enhanced agronomic traits such as increased plant height and tiller number.

  15. The influence of chronic stress on anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function in different human GFAP-ApoE transgenic adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Tao; Zhao, Jun; Fang, Hui; Liu, Ya-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 allele (ApoE4) is an important genetic risk factor for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors such as stress may play a critical role in AD pathogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the anxiety-like behavioral and cognitive changes in different human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-ApoE transgenic adult male mice under chronic stress conditions. On the open field test, anxiety-like behavior was increased in the non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice relative to the corresponding GFAP-ApoE3 (ApoE ɛ3 allele) mice. Anxiety-like behavior was increased in the stressed GFAP-ApoE3 mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE3 mice, but was unexpectedly decreased in the stressed GFAP-ApoE4 mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 mice. On the novel object recognition task, both GFAP-ApoE4 and GFAP-ApoE3 mice exhibited long-term non-spatial memory impairment after chronic stress. Interestingly, short-term non-spatial memory impairment (based on the novel object recognition task) was observed only in the stressed GFAP-ApoE4 male mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice. In addition, short-term spatial memory impairment was observed in the stressed GFAP-ApoE3 transgenic male mice relative to non-stressed GFAP-ApoE3 transgenic male mice; however, short-term spatial memory performance of GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic male mice was not reduced compared to non-stressed control mice based on the Y-maze task. In conclusion, our findings suggested that chronic stress affects anxiety-like behavior and spatial and non-spatial memory in GFAP-ApoE transgenic mice in an ApoE isoform-dependent manner.

  16. Transgenic rice plants expressing a fused protein of Cry1Ab/Vip3H has resistance to rice stem borers under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shen, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2010-08-01

    Six transgenic rice, Oryza sativa L., lines (G6H1, G6H2, G6H3, G6H4, G6H5, and G6H6) expressing a fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein, were evaluated for resistance against the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and the stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage was up to 100% at 168 h after infestation. The cumulative feeding area by Asiatic rice borer neonate larvae on all transgenic lines was significantly reduced compared with the untransformed parental 'Xiushui 110' rice. A 2-yr field evaluation showed that damage during the vegetative stage (deadheart) or during the reproductive stage (whitehead) caused by Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens for transgenic lines was much lower than the control. For three lines (G6H1, G6H2, and G6H6), no damage was found during the entire growing period. Estimation of fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein concentrations using PathoScreen kit for Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac protein indicated that the expression levels of Cry1Ab protein both in main stems (within the average range of 0.006-0.073% of total soluble protein) and their flag leaves (within the average range of 0.001-0.038% of total soluble protein) were significantly different among six transgenic lines at different developmental stages. Both laboratory and field researches suggested that the transgenic rice lines have considerable potential for protecting rice from attack by both stem borers.

  17. Generation of transgenic goats by pronuclear microinjection: a retrospective analysis of a commercial operation (1995-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, W; Blash, S; Buzzell, N; Pollock, D; Chen, L; Hawkins, N; Howe, J; Miner, K; Pollock, J; Porter, C; Schofield, M; Echelard, Y; Meade, H

    2018-02-01

    Production of transgenic founder goats involves introducing and stably integrating an engineered piece of DNA into the genome of the animal. At LFB USA, the ultimate use of these transgenic goats is for the production of recombinant human protein therapeutics in the milk of these dairy animals. The transgene or construct typically links a milk protein specific promoter sequence, the coding sequence for the gene of interest, and the necessary downstream regulatory sequences thereby directing expression of the recombinant protein in the milk during the lactation period. Over the time period indicated (1995-2012), pronuclear microinjection was used in a number of programs to insert transgenes into 18,120, 1- or 2- cell stage fertilized embryos. These embryos were transferred into 4180 synchronized recipient females with 1934 (47%) recipients becoming pregnant, 2594 offspring generated, and a 109 (4.2%) of those offspring determined to be transgenic. Even with new and improving genome editing tools now available, pronuclear microinjection is still the predominant and proven technology used in this commercial setting supporting regulatory filings and market authorizations when producing founder transgenic animals with large transgenes (> 10 kb) such as those necessary for directing monoclonal antibody production in milk.

  18. Efficiency of two enucleation methods connected to handmade cloning to produce transgenic porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J; Villemoes, K; Zhang, Y

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our work was to establish an efficient-oriented enucleation method to produce transgenic embryos with handmade cloning (HMC). After 41â€"42 h oocytes maturation, the oocytes were further cultured with or without 0.4 μg/ml demecolcine for 45 min [chemically assisted handmade...... cytoplasts without extrusion cones or PB were selected as recipients. Two cytoplasts were electrofused with one transgenic fibroblasts expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), while non-transgenic fibroblasts were used as controls. Reconstructed embryos were cultured in Well of Wells (WOWs) with porcine......%) of cloned embryos with GFP transgenic fibroblast cells after CAHE vs OHE. With adjusted time-lapse for zonae-free cloned embryos cultured in WOWs with PZM-3, it was obvious that in vitro developmental competence after CAHE was compromised when compared with the OHE method. OHE enucleation method seems...

  19. Overexpression of TaLEA gene from Tamarix androssowii improves salt and drought tolerance in transgenic poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gao

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA genes were confirmed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. An LEA gene from Tamarixandrossowii (named TaLEA was transformed into Xiaohei poplar (Populussimonii × P. nigra via Agrobacterium. Twenty-five independent transgenic lines were obtained that were resistant to kanamycin, and 11 transgenic lines were randomly selected for further analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR and ribonucleic acid (RNA gel blot indicated that the TaLEA gene had been integrated into the poplar genome. The height growth rate, malondialdehyde (MDA content, relative electrolyte leakage and damages due to salt or drought to transgenic and non-transgenic plants were compared under salt and drought stress conditions. The results showed that the constitutive expression of the TaLEA gene in transgenic poplars could induce an increase in height growth rate and a decrease in number and severity of wilted leaves under the salt and drought stresses. The MDA content and relative electrolyte leakage in transgenic lines under salt and drought stresses were significantly lower compared to those in non-transgenic plants, indicating that the TaLEA gene may enhance salt and drought tolerance by protecting cell membranes from damage. Moreover, amongst the lines analyzed for stress tolerance, the transgenic line 11 (T11 showed the highest tolerance levels under both salinity and drought stress conditions. These results indicated that the TaLEA gene could be a salt and drought tolerance candidate gene and could confer a broad spectrum of tolerance under abiotic stresses in poplars.

  20. Overexpression of TaLEA gene from Tamarix androssowii improves salt and drought tolerance in transgenic poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weidong; Bai, Shuang; Li, Qingmei; Gao, Caiqiu; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Guangde; Tan, Feili

    2013-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes were confirmed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. An LEA gene from Tamarixandrossowii (named TaLEA) was transformed into Xiaohei poplar (Populussimonii × P. nigra) via Agrobacterium. Twenty-five independent transgenic lines were obtained that were resistant to kanamycin, and 11 transgenic lines were randomly selected for further analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) gel blot indicated that the TaLEA gene had been integrated into the poplar genome. The height growth rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrolyte leakage and damages due to salt or drought to transgenic and non-transgenic plants were compared under salt and drought stress conditions. The results showed that the constitutive expression of the TaLEA gene in transgenic poplars could induce an increase in height growth rate and a decrease in number and severity of wilted leaves under the salt and drought stresses. The MDA content and relative electrolyte leakage in transgenic lines under salt and drought stresses were significantly lower compared to those in non-transgenic plants, indicating that the TaLEA gene may enhance salt and drought tolerance by protecting cell membranes from damage. Moreover, amongst the lines analyzed for stress tolerance, the transgenic line 11 (T11) showed the highest tolerance levels under both salinity and drought stress conditions. These results indicated that the TaLEA gene could be a salt and drought tolerance candidate gene and could confer a broad spectrum of tolerance under abiotic stresses in poplars.

  1. Transgenic rabbits as a model organism for production of human clotting factor VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasicek, D.; Chrenek, P.; Makarevich, A.; Bauer, M.; Jurcik, R.; Suvegova, K.; Rafay, J.; Bulla, J.; Hetenyi, L.; Erickson, J.; Paleyanda, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Human clotting factor VIII (hFVIII) is a very complex and large protein whose expression is difficult, as hFVIII requires extensive post-translational modification to be biologically active. This paper reports the generation of transgenic rabbits as a model species for testing the expression of hFVIII in the mammary gland. For micro-injection, a fusion gene construct was used, consisting of 2.5 kb murine whey acidic protein (mWAP) promoter, 7.2 kb cDNA of hFVIII, and 4.6 kb of 3' flanking sequences of the mWAP gene. from 130 micro-injected zygotes transferred into recipients, 30 offspring were delivered. The pups were screened for the transgene by PCR, using DNA isolated from the ear, and results were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The transgene was identified in one female founder animal, and it was transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian fashion, thus demonstrating stable integration of the gene construct into the germline of the transgenic rabbits. (author)

  2. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  3. Overexpressing Exogenous 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase (EPSPS Genes Increases Fecundity and Auxin Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Fang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants overproducing EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase may exhibit enhanced fitness in glyphosate-free environments. If so, introgression of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS into wild relative species may lead to increased competitiveness of crop-wild hybrids, resulting in unpredicted environmental impact. Assessing fitness effects of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS in a model plant species can help address this question, while elucidating how overproducing EPSPS affects the fitness-related traits of plants. We produced segregating T2 and T3Arabidopsis thaliana lineages with or without a transgene overexpressing EPSPS isolated from rice or Agrobacterium (CP4. For each of the three transgenes, we compared glyphosate tolerance, some fitness-related traits, and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid content in transgene-present, transgene-absent, empty vector (EV, and parental lineages in a common-garden experiment. We detected substantially increased glyphosate tolerance in T2 plants of transgene-present lineages that overproduced EPSPS. We also documented significant increases in fecundity, which was associated with increased auxin content in T3 transgene-present lineages containing rice EPSPS genes, compared with their segregating transgene-absent lineages, EV, and parental controls. Our results from Arabidopsis with nine transgenic events provide a strong support to the hypothesis that transgenic plants overproducing EPSPS can benefit from a fecundity advantage in glyphosate-free environments. Stimulated biosynthesis of auxin, an important plant growth hormone, by overproducing EPSPS may play a role in enhanced fecundity of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The obtained knowledge is useful for assessing environmental impact caused by introgression of transgenes overproducing EPSPS from any GE crop into populations of its wild relatives.

  4. Overexpressing Exogenous 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase (EPSPS) Genes Increases Fecundity and Auxin Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia; Nan, Peng; Gu, Zongying; Ge, Xiaochun; Feng, Yu-Qi; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2018-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants overproducing EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) may exhibit enhanced fitness in glyphosate-free environments. If so, introgression of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS into wild relative species may lead to increased competitiveness of crop-wild hybrids, resulting in unpredicted environmental impact. Assessing fitness effects of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS in a model plant species can help address this question, while elucidating how overproducing EPSPS affects the fitness-related traits of plants. We produced segregating T 2 and T 3 Arabidopsis thaliana lineages with or without a transgene overexpressing EPSPS isolated from rice or Agrobacterium ( CP4 ). For each of the three transgenes, we compared glyphosate tolerance, some fitness-related traits, and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) content in transgene-present, transgene-absent, empty vector (EV), and parental lineages in a common-garden experiment. We detected substantially increased glyphosate tolerance in T 2 plants of transgene-present lineages that overproduced EPSPS. We also documented significant increases in fecundity, which was associated with increased auxin content in T 3 transgene-present lineages containing rice EPSPS genes, compared with their segregating transgene-absent lineages, EV, and parental controls. Our results from Arabidopsis with nine transgenic events provide a strong support to the hypothesis that transgenic plants overproducing EPSPS can benefit from a fecundity advantage in glyphosate-free environments. Stimulated biosynthesis of auxin, an important plant growth hormone, by overproducing EPSPS may play a role in enhanced fecundity of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The obtained knowledge is useful for assessing environmental impact caused by introgression of transgenes overproducing EPSPS from any GE crop into populations of its wild relatives.

  5. The growth performance of F1 transgenic mutiara catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar; Buwono, I. D.; Agung, M. U. K.

    2018-04-01

    The growth of catfish (African or Sangkuriang strain) these days is tend to decreased. One of the solutions due to this problem is to improve the genetics of growth using transgenesis technology, toward more profitable. The specific objective of the research is to detect the transmission of exogenous GH (African catfish GH inserts) inside the F1 transgenic Mutiara catfish using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method and to evaluate the growth performance of transgenic Mutiara catfish made using the parameters of feed conversion (FCR = Feed Conversion Ratio). Transgenic catfish (strain mutiara) F0 and F1 carried African catfish GH (600 bp) can be produced. Superiority characters of transgenic catfish represented heritability (h2 ) and heterosis (H), indicating that the offspring of hybrid F1 transgenic mutiara catfish had phenotypes rapid growth (h2 = 17.55 % and H = 42.83 %) compared to non-transgenic catfish (h 2 = 10.07 % and H = 18.56 %). Evaluation of the efficiency of feed use parameters feed conversion ratio, shows that F1 transgenic mutiara catfish (FCR = 0.85) more efficient in converting feed into meat.

  6. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch plants indicated that the ...

  7. Cloning and functional characterization of MusaVND1 using transgenic banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2015-06-01

    Vascular related NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) domain-containing genes regulate secondary wall deposition and differentiation of xylem vessel elements. MusaVND1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis VND1 and contains the highly conserved NAC domain. The expression of MusaVND1 is highest in developing corm and during lignification conditions, the increase in expression of MusaVND1 coincides with the expression of PAL, COMT and C4H genes. MusaVND1 encodes a nuclear localized protein as MusaVND1-GFP fusion protein gets localized to nucleus. Transient overexpression of MusaVND1 converts banana embryogenic cells to xylem vessel elements, with a final differentiation frequency of 33.54% at the end of tenth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaVND1 showed stunted growth and were characterized by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Transgenic banana plants showed transdifferentiation of various types of cells into xylem vessel elements and ectopic deposition of lignin in cells of various plant organs such as leaf and corm. Tracheary element formation was seen in the cortical region of transgenic corm as well as in epidermal cells of leaves. Biochemical analysis indicates significantly higher levels of lignin and cellulose content in transgenic banana lines than control plants. MusaVND1 overexpressing transgenic banana plants showed elevated expression levels of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis pathway. Further expression of different MYB transcription factors positively regulating secondary wall deposition was also up regulated in MusaVND1 transgenic lines.

  8. Expression levels of antimicrobial peptide tachyplesin I in transgenic Ornithogalum lines affect the resistance to Pectobacterium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Alexander; Joshi, Janak Raj; Carmi, Nir; Yedidia, Iris

    2016-11-20

    The genus Ornithogalum includes several ornamental species that suffer substantial losses from bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacteria. The absence of effective control measures for use against soft rot bacteria led to the initiation of a project in which a small antimicrobial peptide from an Asian horseshoe crab, tachyplesin (tpnI), was introduced into two commercial cultivars: O. dubium and O. thyrsoides. Disease severity and bacterial colonization were examined in transgenic lines expressing this peptide. Disease resistance was evaluated in six lines of each species by measuring bacterial proliferation in the plant tissue. Three transgenic lines of each species were subjected to further analysis in which the expression level of the transgene was evaluated using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. The development of disease symptoms and bacterial colonization of the plant tissue were also examined using GFP-expressing strain of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Pcb3. Confocal-microscopy imaging revealed significantly reduced quantities of bacterial cells in the transgenic plant lines that had been challenged with the bacterium. The results clearly demonstrate that tpnI expression reduces bacterial proliferation, colonization and disease symptom (reduced by 95-100%) in the transgenic plant tissues. The quantity of tpnI transcripts, as measured by qRT-PCR, was negatively correlated with the protection afforded to the plants, as measured by the reduced severity of disease symptoms in the tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  10. The Dmp1-SOST Transgene Interacts With and Downregulates the Dmp1-Cre Transgene and the Rosa(Notch) Allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2016-05-01

    Activation of Notch1 in osteocytes of Rosa(Notch) mice, where a loxP-flanked STOP cassette and the Nicd coding sequence were targeted to the reverse orientation splice acceptor (Rosa)26 locus, causes osteopetrosis associated with suppressed Sost expression and enhanced Wnt signaling. To determine whether Sost downregulation mediates the effects of Notch activation in osteocytes, Rosa(Notch) mice were crossed with transgenics expressing Cre recombinase or SOST under the control of the dentin matrix protein (Dmp)1 promoter. Dmp1-SOST transgenics displayed vertebral osteopenia and a modest femoral cancellous and cortical bone phenotype, whereas hemizygous Dmp1-Cre transgenics heterozygous for the Rosa(Notch) allele (Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch)) exhibited osteopetrosis. The phenotype of Notch activation in osteocytes was prevented in Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice hemizygous for the Dmp1-SOST transgene. The effect was associated with downregulated Notch signaling and suppressed Dmp1 and Rosa26 expression. To test whether SOST regulates Notch expression in osteocytes, cortical bone cultures from Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice or from Rosa(Notch) control littermates were exposed to recombinant human SOST. The addition of SOST had only modest effects on Notch target gene mRNA levels and suppressed Dmp1, but not Cre or Rosa26, expression. These findings suggest that prevention of the Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) skeletal phenotype by Dmp1-SOST is not secondary to SOST expression but to interactions among the Dmp1-SOST and Dmp1-Cre transgenes and the Rosa26 locus. In conclusion, the Dmp1-SOST transgene suppresses the expression of the Dmp1-Cre transgene and of Rosa26. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Transgene teknikker erstatter problematisk avl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder.......Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder....

  12. Hyperactive mutant of a wheat plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter improves the growth and salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Lai, Zesen; Yin, Xiaochang; Yu, Shan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Cong, Xinli; Luo, Yuehua; Xu, Haixia; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-12-01

    Wheat SOS1 (TaSOS1) activity could be relieved upon deletion of the C-terminal 168 residues (the auto-inhibitory domain). This truncated form of wheat SOS1 (TaSOS1-974) was shown to increase compensation (compared to wild-type TaSOS1) for the salt sensitivity of a yeast mutant strain, AXT3K, via increased Na + transportation out of cells during salinity stress. Expression of the plasma membrane proteins TaSOS1-974 or TaSOS1 improved the growth of transgenic tobacco plants compared with wild-type plants under normal conditions. However, plants expressing TaSOS1-974 grew better than TaSOS1-transformed plants. Upon salinity stress, Na + efflux and K + influx rates in the roots of transgenic plants expressing TaSOS1-974 or TaSOS1 were greater than those of wild-type plants. Furthermore, compared to TaSOS1-transgenic plants, TaSOS1-974-expressing roots showed faster Na + efflux and K + influx, resulting in less Na + and more K + accumulation in TaSOS1-974-transgenic plants compared to TaSOS1-transgenic and wild-type plants. TaSOS1-974-expressing plants had the lowest MDA content and electrolyte leakage among all tested plants, indicating that TaSOS1-974 might protect the plasma membrane against oxidative damage generated by salt stress. Overall, TaSOS1-974 conferred higher salt tolerance in transgenic plants compared to TaSOS1. Consistent with this result, transgenic plants expressing TaSOS1-974 showed a better growth performance than TaSOS1-expressing and wild-type plants under saline conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene confer resistance to Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Ji, Xiangzhuo; Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Lina; Si, Huaijun; Wu, Jiahe; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a fatal pest, which is a quarantine pest in China. The CPB has now invaded the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and is constantly spreading eastward in China. In this study, we developed transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the cry3A gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic plants under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, while they expressed only in leaves and stems under the control of potato leaf and stem-specific promoter ST-LS1. The mortality of the larvae was higher (28% and 36%) on the transgenic plant line 35S1 on the 3rd and 4th days, and on ST3 (48%) on the 5th day after inoculation with instar larvae. Insect biomass accumulation on the foliage of the transgenic plant lines 35S1, 35S2 and ST3 was significantly lower (0.42%, 0.43% and 0.42%). Foliage consumption was lowest on transgenic lines 35S8 and ST2 among all plant foliage (7.47 mg/larvae/day and 12.46 mg/larvae/day). The different transgenic plant foliages had varied inhibition to larval growth. The survivors on the transgenic lines obviously were smaller than their original size and extremely weak. The transgenic potato plants with CPB resistance could be used to develop germplasms or varieties for controlling CPB damage and halting its spread in China. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Ubiquitin fusion expression and tissue-dependent targeting of hG-CSF in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is an important human cytokine which has been widely used in oncology and infection protection. To satisfy clinical needs, expression of recombinant hG-CSF has been studied in several organisms, including rice cell suspension culture and transient expression in tobacco leaves, but there was no published report on its expression in stably transformed plants which can serve as a more economical expression platform with potential industrial application. Results In this study, hG-CSF expression was investigated in transgenic tobacco leaves and seeds in which the accumulation of hG-CSF could be enhanced through fusion with ubiquitin by up to 7 fold in leaves and 2 fold in seeds, leading to an accumulation level of 2.5 mg/g total soluble protein (TSP) in leaves and 1.3 mg/g TSP in seeds, relative to hG-CSF expressed without a fusion partner. Immunoblot analysis showed that ubiquitin was processed from the final protein product, and ubiquitination was up-regulated in all transgenic plants analyzed. Driven by CaMV 35S promoter and phaseolin signal peptide, hG-CSF was observed to be secreted into apoplast in leaves but deposited in protein storage vacuole (PSV) in seeds, indicating that targeting of the hG-CSF was tissue-dependent in transgenic tobacco. Bioactivity assay showed that hG-CSF expressed in both seeds and leaves was bioactive to support the proliferation of NFS-60 cells. Conclusions In this study, the expression of bioactive hG-CSF in transgenic plants was improved through ubiquitin fusion strategy, demonstrating that protein expression can be enhanced in both plant leaves and seeds through fusion with ubiquitin and providing a typical case of tissue-dependent expression of recombinant protein in transgenic plants. PMID:21985646

  15. Recent advances in the development of new transgenic animal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiangyang

    2013-03-01

    Transgenic animal technology is one of the fastest growing biotechnology areas. It is used to integrate exogenous genes into the animal genome by genetic engineering technology so that these genes can be inherited and expressed by offspring. The transgenic efficiency and precise control of gene expression are the key limiting factors in the production of transgenic animals. A variety of transgenic technologies are available. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages and needs further study because of unresolved technical and safety issues. Further studies will allow transgenic technology to explore gene function, animal genetic improvement, bioreactors, animal disease models, and organ transplantation. This article reviews the recently developed animal transgenic technologies, including the germ line stem cell-mediated method to improve efficiency, gene targeting to improve accuracy, RNA interference-mediated gene silencing technology, zinc-finger nuclease gene targeting technology and induced pluripotent stem cell technology. These new transgenic techniques can provide a better platform to develop transgenic animals for breeding new animal varieties and promote the development of medical sciences, livestock production, and other fields.

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    of biosafety protocol is necessary to protect human health and environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of genetic engineering. The debate between proponents and opponents of GM technology has created major obstacles in hamessing benefits of the technology It has now become clear that transgenics willbe accepted by the public only when doubts related with general risks and environmental safety are adequately dispelled. Thus, there is need to organize public awareness and present the benefits of Bt transgenic crops to improve social attitude for their rational deployment. In this review, an attempt has been made to discuss social and environmental safety issues of Bt transgenic crops.

  17. A Novel 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivative Improves Spatial Learning and Memory and Modifies Brain Protein Expression in Wild Type and Transgenic APPSweDI Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiba Jansone

    Full Text Available Ca2+ blockers, particularly those capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB, have been suggested as a possible treatment or disease modifying agents for neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigated the effects of a novel 4-(N-dodecyl pyridinium group-containing 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative (AP-12 on cognition and synaptic protein expression in the brain. Treatment of AP-12 was investigated in wild type C57BL/6J mice and transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice (Tg APPSweDI using behavioral tests and immunohistochemistry, as well as mass spectrometry to assess the blood-brain barrier (BBB penetration. The data demonstrated the ability of AP-12 to cross the BBB, improve spatial learning and memory in both mice strains, induce anxiolytic action in transgenic mice, and increase expression of hippocampal and cortical proteins (GAD67, Homer-1 related to synaptic plasticity. The compound AP-12 can be seen as a prototype molecule for use in the design of novel drugs useful to halt progression of clinical symptoms (more specifically, anxiety and decline in memory of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Physiological characteristics and metabolomics of transgenic wheat containing the maize C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene under high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xueli; Xu, Weigang; Zhang, Jianzhou; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Mingzhong; Hu, Lin; Wang, Huiwei; Dong, Haibin; Li, Yan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two transgenic wheat lines, PC27 and PC51, containing the maize PEPC gene and its wild-type (WT) were used as experimental material to study the effects of high temperature on their photosynthetic physiological characteristics and metabolome. The results showed that transgenic wheat lines had higher photosynthetic rate (P n ) than WT under non-stress treatment (NT) and high temperature stress treatment (HT), and more significantly under HT. The change trends of F v /F m , Ф PSII , and q P were similar to P n , whereas that of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was the opposite. Compared with WT, no differences in chlorophyll content between the transgenic wheat and WT were observed under NT, but two transgenic lines had relatively higher contents than WT under HT. The change trends of Chlorophyll a/b radio, the decreased values of F m , W k , and V j , and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme were consistent with the chlorophyll content. Compared with WT, transgenic wheat lines exhibited lower rate of superoxide anion production, H 2 O 2 and malondialdehyde content under HT, and no significant differences were observed under NT. The expression pattern of the ZmPEPC gene and wheat endogenous photosynthesis-related genes were in agreement with that of P n . Compared with WT, about 13 different metabolites including one organic acid, six amino acids, four sugars, and two polyols were identified under NT; 25 different metabolites including six organic acids, 12 amino acids, four sugars, and three polyols were identified under HT. Collectively, our results indicate that ZmPEPC gene can enhance photochemical and antioxidant enzyme activity, upregulate the expression of photosynthesis-related genes, delay degradation of chlorophyll, change contents of proline and other metabolites in wheat, and ultimately improves its heat tolerance.

  19. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jun; Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan; Fan, Xiaotang; Xu, Haiwei; Bai, Yun

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP swe /PS1 ΔE9 mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP swe /PS1 ΔE9 transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  20. in transgenic cucumber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... College of Horticulture, South China Agriculture University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong ... The pattern of expression vector pBI-PacPAP. ..... Disease scale ... These transgenic T0 plants were self-pollinated and the.

  1. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

  2. Germline excision of transgenes in Aedes aegypti by homing endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Azadeh; Anderson, Michelle A E; Myles, Kevin M; Adelman, Zach N

    2013-01-01

    Aedes (Ae.) aegypti is the primary vector for dengue viruses (serotypes1-4) and chikungunya virus. Homing endonucleases (HEs) are ancient selfish elements that catalyze double-stranded DNA breaks (DSB) in a highly specific manner. In this report, we show that the HEs Y2-I-AniI, I-CreI and I-SceI are all capable of catalyzing the excision of genomic segments from the Ae. aegypti genome in a heritable manner. Y2-I-AniI demonstrated the highest efficiency at two independent genomic targets, with 20-40% of Y2-I-AniI-treated individuals producing offspring that had lost the target transgene. HE-induced DSBs were found to be repaired via the single-strand annealing (SSA) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways in a manner dependent on the availability of direct repeat sequences in the transgene. These results support the development of HE-based gene editing and gene drive strategies in Ae. aegypti, and confirm the utility of HEs in the manipulation and modification of transgenes in this important vector.

  3. Advancing environmental risk assessment for transgenic biofeedstock crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolt Jeffrey D

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transgenic modification of plants is a key enabling technology for developing sustainable biofeedstocks for biofuels production. Regulatory decisions and the wider acceptance and development of transgenic biofeedstock crops are considered from the context of science-based risk assessment. The risk assessment paradigm for transgenic biofeedstock crops is fundamentally no different from that of current generation transgenic crops, except that the focus of the assessment must consider the unique attributes of a given biofeedstock crop and its environmental release. For currently envisioned biofeedstock crops, particular emphasis in risk assessment will be given to characterization of altered metabolic profiles and their implications relative to non-target environmental effects and food safety; weediness and invasiveness when plants are modified for abiotic stress tolerance or are domesticated; and aggregate risk when plants are platforms for multi-product production. Robust risk assessments for transgenic biofeedstock crops are case-specific, initiated through problem formulation, and use tiered approaches for risk characterization.

  4. 37 CFR 211.4 - Registration of claims of protection in mask works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protection in mask works. 211.4 Section 211.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.4 Registration of claims of protection in mask works. (a) General. This section prescribes conditions for the registration of claims of...

  5. Host-induced silencing of essential genes in Puccinia triticina through transgenic expression of RNAi sequences reduces severity of leaf rust infection in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Vinay; Jordan, Mark; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

    2018-05-01

    Leaf rust, caused by the pathogenic fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt), is one of the most serious biotic threats to sustainable wheat production worldwide. This obligate biotrophic pathogen is prevalent worldwide and is known for rapid adaptive evolution to overcome resistant wheat varieties. Novel disease control approaches are therefore required to minimize the yield losses caused by Pt. Having shown previously the potential of host-delivered RNA interference (HD-RNAi) in functional screening of Pt genes involved in pathogenesis, we here evaluated the use of this technology in transgenic wheat plants as a method to achieve protection against wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection. Stable expression of hairpin RNAi constructs with sequence homology to Pt MAP-kinase (PtMAPK1) or a cyclophilin (PtCYC1) encoding gene in susceptible wheat plants showed efficient silencing of the corresponding genes in the interacting fungus resulting in disease resistance throughout the T 2 generation. Inhibition of Pt proliferation in transgenic lines by in planta-induced RNAi was associated with significant reduction in target fungal transcript abundance and reduced fungal biomass accumulation in highly resistant plants. Disease protection was correlated with the presence of siRNA molecules specific to targeted fungal genes in the transgenic lines harbouring the complementary HD-RNAi construct. This work demonstrates that generating transgenic wheat plants expressing RNAi-inducing transgenes to silence essential genes in rust fungi can provide effective disease resistance, thus opening an alternative way for developing rust-resistant crops. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Genome scan identifies a locus affecting gamma-globin expression in human beta-cluster YAC transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.D.; Cooper, P.; Fung, J.; Weier, H.U.G.; Rubin, E.M.

    2000-03-01

    Genetic factors affecting post-natal g-globin expression - a major modifier of the severity of both b-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, have been difficult to study. This is especially so in mice, an organism lacking a globin gene with an expression pattern equivalent to that of human g-globin. To model the human b-cluster in mice, with the goal of screening for loci affecting human g-globin expression in vivo, we introduced a human b-globin cluster YAC transgene into the genome of FVB mice . The b-cluster contained a Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) g allele resulting in postnatal expression of human g-globin in transgenic mice. The level of human g-globin for various F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the FVB transgenics and other inbred mouse strains was assessed. The g-globin level of the C3HeB/FVB transgenic mice was noted to be significantly elevated. To map genes affecting postnatal g-globin expression, a 20 centiMorgan (cM) genome scan of a C3HeB/F VB transgenics [prime] FVB backcross was performed, followed by high-resolution marker analysis of promising loci. From this analysis we mapped a locus within a 2.2 cM interval of mouse chromosome 1 at a LOD score of 4.2 that contributes 10.4% of variation in g-globin expression level. Combining transgenic modeling of the human b-globin gene cluster with quantitative trait analysis, we have identified and mapped a murine locus that impacts on human g-globin expression in vivo.

  7. Preliminarily study on the maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Hu, Wei; Olsen, Rolf Eric; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2017-10-01

    The present study preliminarily examined the differences in maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on four gastropods species (Bellamya aeruginosa, Radix auricularia, Parafossarulus sinensis and Alocinma longicornis) under laboratory conditions. In the maximum handling size trial, five fish from each age group (1-year-old and 2-year-old) and each genotype (transgenic and non-transgenic) of common carp were individually allowed to feed on B. aeruginosa with wide shell height range. The results showed that maximum handling size increased linearly with fish length, and there was no significant difference in maximum handling size between the two genotypes. In the size selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on three size groups of B. aeruginosa. The results show that the two genotypes of C. carpio favored the small-sized group over the large-sized group. In the species selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on thin-shelled B. aeruginosa and thick-shelled R. auricularia, and five pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on two gastropods species (P. sinensis and A. longicornis) with similar size and shell strength. The results showed that both genotypes preferred thin-shelled Radix auricularia rather than thick-shelled B. aeruginosa, but there were no significant difference in selectivity between the two genotypes when fed on P. sinensis and A. longicornis. The present study indicates that transgenic and non-transgenic C. carpio show similar selectivity of predation on the size- and species-limited gastropods. While this information may be useful for assessing the environmental risk of transgenic carp, it does not necessarily demonstrate that transgenic common carp might

  8. Transgenic Monkey Model of the Polyglutamine Diseases Recapitulating Progressive Neurological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Minakawa, Eiko N.; Motohashi, Hideyuki H.; Takayama, Osamu; Popiel, H. Akiko; Puentes, Sandra; Owari, Kensuke; Nakatani, Terumi; Nogami, Naotake; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yonekawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yoko; Fujita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hikaru; Aizawa, Shu; Nagano, Seiichi; Yamada, Daisuke; Wada, Keiji; Kohsaka, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and the polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, are becoming prevalent as a consequence of elongation of the human lifespan. Although various rodent models have been developed to study and overcome these diseases, they have limitations in their translational research utility owing to differences from humans in brain structure and function and in drug metabolism. Here, we generated a transgenic marmoset model of the polyQ diseases, showing progressive neurological symptoms including motor impairment. Seven transgenic marmosets were produced by lentiviral introduction of the human ataxin 3 gene with 120 CAG repeats encoding an expanded polyQ stretch. Although all offspring showed no neurological symptoms at birth, three marmosets with higher transgene expression developed neurological symptoms of varying degrees at 3–4 months after birth, followed by gradual decreases in body weight gain, spontaneous activity, and grip strength, indicating time-dependent disease progression. Pathological examinations revealed neurodegeneration and intranuclear polyQ protein inclusions accompanied by gliosis, which recapitulate the neuropathological features of polyQ disease patients. Consistent with neuronal loss in the cerebellum, brain MRI analyses in one living symptomatic marmoset detected enlargement of the fourth ventricle, which suggests cerebellar atrophy. Notably, successful germline transgene transmission was confirmed in the second-generation offspring derived from the symptomatic transgenic marmoset gamete. Because the accumulation of abnormal proteins is a shared pathomechanism among various neurodegenerative diseases, we suggest that this new marmoset model will contribute toward elucidating the pathomechanisms of and developing clinically applicable therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28374014

  9. Water resources protection strategy: Revision 1, Attachment 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) must provide a demonstration of compliance with the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water protection standards for inactive mill sites pursuant to 40 CFR Part 192. This plan outlines the proposed strategy to demonstrate compliance with the ground water standards at the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This demonstration consists of (1) the ground water protection standard, (2) a performance assessment, (3) a closure performance demonstration, and (4) a performance monitoring and corrective action program

  10. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology—animal welfare—has not been approached through systematic assessment...... and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals...... months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs...

  11. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2014-01-01

    induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots...

  12. Transgene Expression and Repression in Transgenic Rats Bearing the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase-Simian Virus 40 T Antigen or the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase-Transforming Growth Factor-α Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J.; Dragan, Yvonne P.; Hikita, Hiroshi; Shimel, Randee; Takimoto, Koichi; Heath, Susan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Pitot, Henry C.

    1999-01-01

    Transgenic Sprague-Dawley rats expressing either human transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) or simian virus 40 large and small T antigen (TAg), each under the control of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) promoter, were developed as an approach to the study of the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis in the presence of a transgene regulatable by diet and/or hormones. Five lines of PEPCK-TGFα transgenic rats were established, each genetic line containing from one to several copies of the transgene per haploid genome. Two PEPCK-TAg transgenic founder rats were obtained, each with multiple copies of the transgene. Expression of the transgene was undetectable in the TGFα transgenic rats and could not be induced when the animals were placed on a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. The transgene was found to be highly methylated in all of these lines. No pathological alterations in the liver and intestine were observed at any time (up to 2 years) during the lives of these rats. One line of transgenic rats expressing the PEPCK-TAg transgene developed pancreatic islet cell hyperplasias and carcinomas, with few normal islets evident in the pancreas. This transgene is integrated as a hypomethylated tandem array of 10 to 12 copies on chromosome 8q11. Expression of large T antigen is highest in pancreatic neoplasms, but is also detectable in the normal brain, kidney, and liver. Mortality is most rapid in males, starting at 5 months of age and reaching 100% by 8 months. Morphologically, islet cell differentiation in the tumors ranges from poor to well differentiated, with regions of necrosis and fibrosis. Spontaneous metastasis of TAg-positive tumor cells to regional lymph nodes was observed. These studies indicate the importance of DNA methylation in the repression of specific transgenes in the rat. However, the expression of the PEPCK-TAg induces neoplastic transformation in islet cells, probably late in neuroendocrine cell differentiation. T antigen expression

  13. Regulation of Expression of the prb-1b / ACC Deaminase gene by UV-B in Transgenic tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamot, B.K.; Pauls, K.P.; Glick, R.

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase gene from Enterobacter cloacae UWA4 under the control of a pathogenesis-related promoter (prb-1b) from tobacco were challenged by abiotic stresses to determine the expression patterns of the transgene. No ACC deaminase RNA or protein was detected bu RT-PCR and in western blots prepared from leaf proteins of transgenic plants after wounding or treatment with alpha-amino butyric acid, xylanase, ethephon, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid , ethylene, or ethylene plus jasmonic acid. However, expression of the ACC deaminase transgene was observed in leaves and roots of transformed tomato lines exposed to UV light. The UV response required a minimum of 48 h of exposure and was specific to UV-B light

  14. Growth hormone transgenic tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) compensate for increased metabolic rate to preserve exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Martínez, R.; Morales, A.

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic tilapia hybrids (Oreochromis mossambicus × O. hornorum) carrying a single copy of a homologous cDNA growth hormone exhibit higher growth rates than their wild-type conspecifics (Martinez et al. 1999). Swimming respirometry was employed to determine whether the increased growth rate...... higher in transgenics, such that aerobic scope was similar in both groups, and there was no difference in maximum sustainable U (5.2 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.7 bl s-1 in transgenics vs. wild-types, respectively). Following 2 h recovery from exercise, tilapia were exposed to progressive hypoxia (stepwise......Pa, respectively). The results indicate that stimulation of growth consequent to ectopic expression of growth hormone in transgenic tilapia (Martinez et al. 1999) is linked to increased rates of maintenance metabolism. The swimming and hypoxia experiments indicate, however, that the transgenics were able...

  15. Reproductive fitness of outcrossed hybrids between transgenic broccoli (brassica oleracea) carrying the ipt transgene and conventional varieties of kale, broccoli and cauliflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, P.; Tu, Y.; Lin, C.; Chang, H.; Chen, L.; Litfu, A

    2014-01-01

    Pollens are potential carriers for genetically modified crops to transfer genetic materials horizontally to other plants. For phanerogams, pollen viability and cross-compatibility are critical factors for successful outcross hybridization. To evaluate this possibility, this project investigated pollen viability and pod setting rate by comparing broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Planck) and broccoli transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene. Both served as pollen donors and four other varieties as pollen receptors to determine outcross rates. For pollen viability, F1 progeny was higher (p?0.05) for the cross of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue significantly by FDA (fluorescein diacetate) assay. Higher successful hybrids were observed for transgenic ipt broccoli with Fu Yue, Li Syue and Green King. As pollen properties, number and grain diameter were significantly larger (p?0.05) in hybrid combinations of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue and Green King significantly (p?0.05). The pod setting rates were higher while transgenic ipt broccoli served as donor plant. These results analyzing pollen properties between transgenic crops with possible outcross candidates would serve as one of those critical strategies for evaluating environmental biosafety issues for transgenic crops. (author)

  16. An Intergenic Region Shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Tissue Specific and Stress Inducible Bidirectional Promoter Analyzed in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joydeep; Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Houtz, Robert L.; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985) are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS) in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85) showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold) compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87). The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold) under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications. PMID:24260266

  17. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  18. Field Trial and Molecular Characterization of RNAi-Transgenic Tomato Plants That Exhibit Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes.

  19. Intermittent Fasting Protects against Alzheimer's Disease Possible through Restoring Aquaporin-4 Polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingzhu; Zhan, Zhipeng; Li, Xinhui; Xing, Aiping; Jiang, Congmin; Chen, Yanqiu; Shi, Wanying; An, Li

    2017-01-01

    The impairment of amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance in the brain plays a causative role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Polarity distribution of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is important to remove Aβ from brain. AQP4 polarity can be influenced by the ratio of two AQP4 isoforms M1 and M23 (AQP4-M1/M23), however, it is unknown whether the ratio of AQP4-M1/M23 changes in AD. Histone deacetylase 3 has been reported to be significantly increased in AD brain. Moreover, evidence indicated that microRNA-130a (miR-130a) possibly mediates the regulation of histone deacetylase 3 on AQP4-M1/M23 ratio by repressing the transcriptional activity of AQP4-M1 in AD. This study aimed to investigate whether intermittent fasting (IF), increasing the level of an endogenous histone deacetylases inhibitor β-hydroxybutyrate, restores AQP4 polarity via miR-130a mediated reduction of AQP4-M1/M23 ratio in protection against AD. The results showed that IF ameliorated cognitive dysfunction, prevented brain from Aβ deposition, and restored the AQP4 polarity in a mouse model of AD (APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice). Additionally, IF down-regulated the expression of AQP4-M1 and histone deacetylase 3, reduced AQP4-M1/M23 ratio, and increased miR-130a expression in the cerebral cortex of APP/PS1 mice. In vitro , β-hydroxybutyrate was found to down-regulate the expression of AQP4-M1 and histone deacetylase 3, reduce AQP4-M1/M23 ratio, and increase AQP4-M23 and miR-130a expression in 2 μM Aβ-treated U251 cells. Interestingly, on the contrary to the result observed in 2 μM Aβ-treated cells, AQP4 expression was obviously decreased in cells exposed to 10 μM Aβ. miR-130a mimic decreased the expression of AQP4-M1 and the ratio of AQP4-M1/M23, as well as silencing histone deacetylase 3 caused the up-regulation of AQP4 and miR-130a, and the reduction of AQP4-M1/M23 ratio in U251 cells. In conclusion, IF exhibits beneficial effects against AD. The mechanism may be associated with recovery of AQP4 polarity, resulting from

  20. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses.

  1. Design and Management of Field Trials of Transgenic Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedő, Zoltán; Rakszegi, Mariann; Láng, László

    The development of gene transformation systems has allowed the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. The design and the management of field trials vary according to the purpose for which transgenic cereals are developed. Breeders study the phenotypic and genotypic stability of transgenic plants, monitor the increase in homozygosity of transgenic genotypes under field conditions, and develop backcross generations to transfer the introduced genes into secondary transgenic cereal genotypes. For practical purposes, they may also multiply seed of the transgenic lines to produce sufficient amounts of grain for the detailed analysis of trait(s) of interest, to determine the field performance of transgenic lines, and to compare them with the non-transformed parental genotypes. Prior to variety registration, the Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) tests and Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) experiments are carried out in field trials. Field testing includes specific requirements for transgenic cereals to assess potential environmental risks. The capacity of the pollen to survive, establish and disseminate in the field test environment, the potential for gene transfer, the effects of products expressed by the introduced sequences and phenotypic and genotypic instability that might cause deleterious effects must all be specifically monitored, as required by EU Directives 2003/701/EC (1) on the release of genetically modified higher plants in the environment.

  2. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  3. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  4. Single molecule Raman spectroscopic assay to detect transgene from GM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Ulhas S; Chavhan, Rahul L; Schulz, Burkhard; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Substantial concerns have been raised for the safety of transgenics on human health and environment. Many organizations, consumer groups, and environmental agencies advocate for stringent regulations to avoid transgene products' contamination in food cycle or in nature. Here we demonstrate a novel approach using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect and quantify transgene from GM plants. We show a highly sensitive and accurate quantification of transgene DNA from multiple transgenic lines of Arabidopsis. The assay allows us to detect and quantify the transgenes as low as 0.10 pg without need for PCR-amplification. This technology is relatively cheap, quick, simple, and suitable for detection at low target concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced salt tolerance of transgenic poplar plants expressing a manganese superoxide dismutase from Tamarix androssowii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu Cheng; Qu, Guan Zheng; Li, Hong Yan; Wu, Ying Jie; Wang, Chao; Liu, Gui Feng; Yang, Chuan Ping

    2010-02-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) play important role in stress tolerance of plants. In this study, an MnSOD gene (TaMnSOD) from Tamarix androssowii, under the control of the CaMV35S promoter, was introduced into poplar (Populus davidiana x P. bolleana). The physiological parameters, including SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrical conductivity (REC) and relative weight gain, of transgenic lines and wild type (WT) plants, were measured and compared. The results showed that SOD activity was enhanced in transgenic plants, and the MDA content and REC were significantly decreased compared to WT plants when exposed to NaCl stress. In addition, the relative weight gains of the transgenic plants were 8- to 23-fold of those observed for WT plants after NaCl stress for 30 days. The data showed that the SOD activities that increased in transgenic lines are 1.3-4-folds of that increased in the WT plant when exposed to NaCl stress. Our analysis showed that increases in SOD activities as low as 0.15-fold can also significantly enhance salt tolerance in transgenic plants, suggesting an important role of increased SOD activity in plant salt tolerance

  6. Immune activation induces immortalization of HTLV-1 LTR-Tax transgenic CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Swaims, Alison Y.; Khani, Francesca; Zhang, Yingyu; Roberts, Arthur I.; Devadas, Satish; Shi, Yufang; Rabson, Arnold B.

    2010-01-01

    Infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) results in a variety of diseases including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Although the pathogenesis of these disorders is poorly understood, it involves complex interactions with the host immune system. Activation of infected T cells may play an important role in disease pathogenesis through induction of the oncogenic HTLV-1 Tax transactivator protein. To test this hypothesis, we employed transgenic mice in which Tax is regulate...

  7. Single-Step Purification and Characterization of A Recombinant Serine Proteinase Inhibitor from Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shweta; Agarwal, Saurabh; Sanyal, Indraneel; Amla, D V

    2016-05-01

    Expression of recombinant therapeutic proteins in transgenic plants has a tremendous impact on safe and economical production of biomolecules for biopharmaceutical industry. The major limitation in their production is downstream processing of recombinant protein to obtain higher yield and purity of the final product. In this study, a simple and rapid process has been developed for purification of therapeutic recombinant α1-proteinase inhibitor (rα1-PI) from transgenic tomato plants, which is an abundant serine protease inhibitor in human serum and chiefly inhibits the activity of neutrophil elastase in lungs. We have expressed rα1-PI with modified synthetic gene in transgenic tomato plants at a very high level (≃3.2 % of total soluble protein). The heterologous protein was extracted with (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, followed by chromatographic separation on different matrices. However, only immunoaffinity chromatography resulted into homogenous preparation of rα1-PI with 54 % recovery. The plant-purified rα1-PI showed molecular mass and structural conformation comparable to native serum α1-PI, as shown by mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy. The results of elastase inhibition assay revealed biological activity of the purified rα1-PI protein. This work demonstrates a simple and efficient one-step purification of rα1-PI from transgenic plants, which is an essential prerequisite for further therapeutic development.

  8. Male mating strategy and the introgression of a growth hormone transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valosaari, Kata-Riina; Aikio, Sami; Kaitala, Veijo

    2008-11-01

    Escaped transgenic organisms (GMO's) may threaten the populations of their wild relatives if able to hybridize with each other. The introgression of a growth enhancement transgene into a wild Atlantic salmon population may be affected by the transgene's effects not only on fitness parameters, but also on mating behaviour. Large anadromous GMO males are most preferred in mating, but a transgene can also give the large sneakers a reproductive advantage over the smaller wild individuals. With a simulation model, we studied whether the increase in the proportion and mating success of sneakers in transgenic and hybrid genotypes could facilitate the introgression of a transgene into wild population after the release of GMOs. The model combines population dynamics and Mendelian inheritance of a transgenic trait. We found that the introgression of the transgene is strongly affected by the greater mating preference of large GMO males. Furthermore, the difference in reproductive success between the anadromous versus sneaker strategy defines how much GMO's have to be preferred to be able to invade. These results emphasize the importance of detailed knowledge of reproductive systems and the effect of a transgene on the phenotype and behaviour of GMOs when assessing the consequences of their release or escape to the wild.

  9. Adaptability and stability of transgenic soybean lines and cultivars in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsequently, genotypic adaptability and stability were evaluated by the methods of Eberhart and Russel (1966), Lin and Binns modified by Carneiro, Annicchiarico and Centroid. All methods presented partial coherence on classifying the best genotypes and allowed the identification of the transgenic lines L1 and L4, and ...

  10. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  11. Docosahexaenoic (DHA modulates phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (Gpx4 gene expression to ensure self-protection from oxidative damage in hippocampal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eCasañas-Sanchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 is a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid particularly abundant in nerve cell membrane phospholipids. DHA is a pleiotropic molecule that, not only modulates the physicochemical properties and architecture of neuronal plasma membrane, but it is also involved in multiple facets of neuronal biology, from regulation of synaptic function to neuroprotection and modulation of gene expression. As a highly unsaturated fatty acid due to the presence of six double bonds, DHA is susceptible for oxidation, especially in the highly pro-oxidant environment of brain parenchyma. We have recently reported the ability of DHA to regulate the transcriptional program controlling neuronal antioxidant defenses in a hippocampal cell line, especially the glutathione/glutaredoxin system. Within this antioxidant system, DHA was particularly efficient in triggering the upregulation of Gpx4 gene, which encodes for the nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PH-GPx/GPx4, the main enzyme protecting cell membranes against lipid peroxidation and capable to reduce oxidized phospholipids in situ. We show here that this novel property of DHA is also significant in the hippocampus of wild-type mice and APP/PS1 transgenic mice, a familial model of Alzheimer’s disease. By doing this, DHA stimulates a mechanism to self-protect from oxidative damage even in the neuronal scenario of high aerobic metabolism and in the presence of elevated levels of transition metals, which inevitably favor the generation of reactive oxygen species. Noticeably, DHA also upregulated a novel Gpx4 splicing variant, harboring part of the first intronic region, which according to the ‘sentinel RNA hypothesis’ would expand the ability of Gpx4 (and DHA to provide neuronal antioxidant defense independently of conventional nuclear splicing in cellular compartments, like dendritic zones, located away from nuclear

  12. A Novel mouse model of enhanced proteostasis: Full-length human heat shock factor 1 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Anson; Wei, Rochelle; Halade, Dipti; Yoo, Si-Eun; Ran, Qitao; Richardson, Arlan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Development of mouse overexpressing native human HSF1 in all tissues including CNS. → HSF1 overexpression enhances heat shock response at whole-animal and cellular level. → HSF1 overexpression protects from polyglutamine toxicity and favors aggresomes. → HSF1 overexpression enhances proteostasis at the whole-animal and cellular level. -- Abstract: The heat shock response (HSR) is controlled by the master transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 maintains proteostasis and resistance to stress through production of heat shock proteins (HSPs). No transgenic model exists that overexpresses HSF1 in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 and observed a 2-4-fold increase in HSF1 mRNA and protein expression in all tissues studied of HSF1 transgenic (HSF1 +/0 ) mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates, including several regions of the CNS. Basal expression of HSP70 and 90 showed only mild tissue-specific changes; however, in response to forced exercise, the skeletal muscle HSR was more elevated in HSF1 +/0 mice compared to WT littermates and in fibroblasts following heat shock, as indicated by levels of inducible HSP70 mRNA and protein. HSF1 +/0 cells elicited a significantly more robust HSR in response to expression of the 82 repeat polyglutamine-YFP fusion construct (Q82YFP) and maintained proteasome-dependent processing of Q82YFP compared to WT fibroblasts. Overexpression of HSF1 was associated with fewer, but larger Q82YFP aggregates resembling aggresomes in HSF1 +/0 cells, and increased viability. Therefore, our data demonstrate that tissues and cells from mice overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 exhibit enhanced proteostasis.

  13. Lead discovery for mammalian elongation of long chain fatty acids family 6 using a combination of high-throughput fluorescent-based assay and RapidFire mass spectrometry assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamiya, Mari; Sakurai, Masaaki; Teranishi, Fumie; Ikeda, Tomoko; Kamiyama, Tsutomu; Asai, Akira

    2016-01-01

    A high-throughput RapidFire mass spectrometry assay is described for elongation of very long-chain fatty acids family 6 (Elovl6). Elovl6 is a microsomal enzyme that regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Elovl6 may be a new therapeutic target for fat metabolism disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To identify new Elovl6 inhibitors, we developed a high-throughput fluorescence screening assay in 1536-well format. However, a number of false positives caused by fluorescent interference have been identified. To pick up the real active compounds among the primary hits from the fluorescence assay, we developed a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay and a conventional radioisotope assay. These assays have the advantage of detecting the main products directly without using fluorescent-labeled substrates. As a result, 276 compounds (30%) of the primary hits (921 compounds) in a fluorescence ultra-high-throughput screening method were identified as common active compounds in these two assays. It is concluded that both methods are very effective to eliminate false positives. Compared with the radioisotope method using an expensive 14 C-labeled substrate, the RapidFire mass spectrometry method using unlabeled substrates is a high-accuracy, high-throughput method. In addition, some of the hit compounds selected from the screening inhibited cellular fatty acid elongation in HEK293 cells expressing Elovl6 transiently. This result suggests that these compounds may be promising lead candidates for therapeutic drugs. Ultra-high-throughput fluorescence screening followed by a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay was a suitable strategy for lead discovery against Elovl6. - Highlights: • A novel assay for elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids 6 (Elovl6) is proposed. • RapidFire mass spectrometry (RF-MS) assay is useful to select real screening hits. • RF-MS assay is proved to be beneficial because of

  14. M2 Macrophages Play Critical Roles in Progression of Inflammatory Liver Disease in Hepatitis C Virus Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Kimura, Kiminori; Tokunaga, Yuko; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Tateno, Chise; Hayashi, Yukiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages in liver tissue are widely defined as important inflammatory cells in chronic viral hepatitis due to their proinflammatory activity. We reported previously that interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) play significant roles in causing chronic hepatitis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) transgenic mice (S. Sekiguchi et al., PLoS One 7:e51656, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051656). In addition, we showed that recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing an HCV nonstructural protein (rVV-N25) could protect against the progression of chronic hepatitis by suppression of macrophage activation. Here, we focus on the role of macrophages in liver disease progression in HCV transgenic mice and examine characteristic features of macrophages following rVV-N25 treatment. The number of CD11b(+) F4/80(+) CD11c(-) CD206(+) (M2) macrophages in the liver of HCV transgenic mice was notably increased compared to that of age-matched control mice. These M2 macrophages in the liver produced elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. rVV-N25 infection suppressed the number and activation of M2 macrophages in liver tissue. These results suggested that inflammatory cytokines produced by M2-like macrophages contribute to the induction of chronic liver inflammation in HCV transgenic mice. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of rVV-N25 might be induced by the suppression of the number and activation of hepatic macrophages. HCV causes persistent infections that can lead to chronic liver diseases, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma; the search for an HCV curative is the focus of ongoing research. Recently, effective anti-HCV drugs have been developed; however, vaccine development still is required for the prevention and therapy of infection by this virus. We demonstrate here that M2 macrophages are important for the pathogenesis of HCV-caused liver diseases and additionally show that M2 macrophages contribute to the therapeutic mechanism observed following r

  15. Assessing the value of transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Hugh

    2002-10-01

    In the current controversy about the value of transgenic crops, matters open to empirical inquiry are centrally at issue. One such matter is a key premise in a common argument (that I summarize) that transgenic crops should be considered to have universal value. The premise is that there are no alternative forms of agriculture available to enable the production of sufficient food to feed the world. The proponents of agroecology challenge it, claiming that agroecology provides an alternative, and they deny the claim that it is well founded on empirical evidence. It is, therefore, a matter of both social and scientific importance that this premise and the criticisms of it be investigated rigorously and empirically, so that the benefits and disadvantages of transgenic-intensive agriculture and agroecology can be compared in a reliable way. Conducting adequate investigation about the potential contribution of agroecology requires that the cultural conditions of its practice (and, thus, of the practices and movements of small-scale farmers in the "third world") be strengthened--and this puts the interests of investigation into tension with the socio-economic interests driving the development of transgenics. General issues about relationship between ethical argument and empirical (scientific) investigation are raised throughout the article.

  16. Metal resistance sequences and transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard Brian; Summers, Anne O.; Rugh, Clayton L.

    1999-10-12

    The present invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding a metal ion resistance protein, which are expressible in plant cells. The metal resistance protein provides for the enzymatic reduction of metal ions including but not limited to divalent Cu, divalent mercury, trivalent gold, divalent cadmium, lead ions and monovalent silver ions. Transgenic plants which express these coding sequences exhibit increased resistance to metal ions in the environment as compared with plants which have not been so genetically modified. Transgenic plants with improved resistance to organometals including alkylmercury compounds, among others, are provided by the further inclusion of plant-expressible organometal lyase coding sequences, as specifically exemplified by the plant-expressible merB coding sequence. Furthermore, these transgenic plants which have been genetically modified to express the metal resistance coding sequences of the present invention can participate in the bioremediation of metal contamination via the enzymatic reduction of metal ions. Transgenic plants resistant to organometals can further mediate remediation of organic metal compounds, for example, alkylmetal compounds including but not limited to methyl mercury, methyl lead compounds, methyl cadmium and methyl arsenic compounds, in the environment by causing the freeing of mercuric or other metal ions and the reduction of the ionic mercury or other metal ions to the less toxic elemental mercury or other metals.

  17. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  18. Molecular investigations of the soil, rhizosphere and transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape and maize plants in combination with herbicide (Basta) application under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Dieter; Rosenbrock-Krestel, Hilkea; Kirchhof, Gudrun; Bieber, Evi; Giunaschwili, Nathela; Müller, Rüdiger; Fischbeck, Gerhard; Wagner, Tobias; Sandermann, Heinrich; Hartmann, Anton

    2008-01-01

    A field study was conducted during 1994 to 1998 on the Experimental Farm Roggenstein, near Fürstenfeldbruck, Bavaria, Germany to determine the effect of transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape in combination with the herbicide Basta [glufosinate-ammonium, phosphinothricin, ammonium (2RS)-2-amino-4-(methylphosphinato) butyric acid] application on soil microorganisms and the behaviour of the synthetic transgenic DNA in response to normal agricultural practice. No influence of Basta on microbial biomass could be detected. The phospholipid fatty acid analysis of soil extracts showed no difference between Basta application and mechanical weed control, whereas conventional herbicide application revealed a different pattern. Basta application resulted in a changed population of weeds with a selective effect for Viola arvensis. During senescence, transgenic rape DNA was degraded similar to endogenous control DNA. After ploughing the chopped plant material in the soil, transgenic as well as endogenous control DNA sequences could be detected for up to 4 weeks for rape and up to 7 months for maize, whereas PCR analysis of composted transgenic maize revealed the presence of the transgene over a period of 22 months.

  19. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  20. The Development of a Remote Sensor System and Decision Support Systems Architecture to Monitor Resistance Development in Transgenic Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacas, Joseph; Glaser, John; Copenhaver, Kenneth; May, George; Stephens, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that "significant benefits accrue to growers, the public, and the environment" from the use of transgenic pesticidal crops due to reductions in pesticide usage for crop pest management. Large increases in the global use of transgenic pesticidal crops has reduced the amounts of broad spectrum pesticides used to manage pest populations, improved yield and reduced the environmental impact of crop management. A significant threat to the continued use of this technology is the evolution of resistance in insect pest populations to the insecticidal Bt toxins expressed by the plants. Management of transgenic pesticidal crops with an emphasis on conservation of Bt toxicity in field populations of insect pests is important to the future of sustainable agriculture. A vital component of this transgenic pesticidal crop management is establishing the proof of concept basic understanding, situational awareness, and monitoring and decision support system tools for more than 133650 square kilometers (33 million acres) of bio-engineered corn and cotton for development of insect resistance . Early and recent joint NASA, US EPA and ITD remote imagery flights and ground based field experiments have provided very promising research results that will potentially address future requirements for crop management capabilities.

  1. Cold temperature blocks thyroid hormone-induced changes in lipid and energy metabolism in the liver of Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunsuke; Awai, Koichiro; Ishihara, Akinori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles to low temperature affects many biological processes including lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone (TH) signaling pathway, resulting in arrest of TH-induced metamorphosis. To clarify what molecular events occur in this phenomenon, we investigated the glycerophospholipid and fatty acid (FA) compositions, the activities of mitochondrial enzymes and the transcript levels of related genes in the liver of control (26 °C) and cold-treated (4 °C) tadpoles with or without 5 nM 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). Exposure to T3 decreased the tail height and polyunsaturation of FAs in the glycerophospholipids, and increased plasma glucose levels and transcript levels of primary TH-response genes including TH receptor, and some energy metabolic (cox4, srebp1 and fas) and FA chain elongase genes (elovl3 and elovl5). However, these T3-induced responses were abolished at 4 °C. Exposure to cold temperature enhanced plasma glucose, triglyceride and free FA levels, monounsaturation of FAs, mitochondrial enzymes activities (cytochrome c oxidase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase; U/g liver), with the upregulation of the genes involved in glycogenolysis (pygl), gluconeogenesis (pck1 and g6pc2), FA β-oxidation (acadl), and cholesterol uptake and synthesis (hmgcr, srebp2 and ldlr1), glycerophospholipids synthesis (pcyt1, pcyt2, pemt, and pparg), and FA monounsaturation (scd1) and chain elongation (elovl1 and elovl2). T3 had little effect on the cold-induced changes. Our study demonstrated that exposures to T3 and cold temperature exert different effects on lipid metabolism, resulting in changes in the FA composition in glycerophospholipids, and suggests that a cold-induced signal may block TH-signaling pathway around primary TH-response genes.

  2. Overexpression of host plant urease in transgenic silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Huang, Chunlin; Sun, Qiang; Guo, Huizhen; Peng, Zhengwen; Dang, Yinghui; Liu, Weiqiang; Xing, Dongxu; Xu, Guowen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-06-01

    Bombyx mori and mulberry constitute a model of insect-host plant interactions. Urease hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and is important for the nitrogen metabolism of silkworms because ammonia is assimilated into silk protein. Silkworms do not synthesize urease and acquire it from mulberry leaves. We synthesized the artificial DNA sequence ureas using the codon bias of B. mori to encode the signal peptide and mulberry urease protein. A transgenic vector that overexpresses ure-as under control of the silkworm midgut-specific P2 promoter was constructed. Transgenic silkworms were created via embryo microinjection. RT-PCR results showed that urease was expressed during the larval stage and qPCR revealed the expression only in the midgut of transgenic lines. Urea concentration in the midgut and hemolymph of transgenic silkworms was significantly lower than in a nontransgenic line when silkworms were fed an artificial diet. Analysis of the daily body weight and food conversion efficiency of the fourth and fifth instar larvae and economic characteristics indicated no differences between transgenic silkworms and the nontransgenic line. These results suggested that overexpression of host plant urease promoted nitrogen metabolism in silkworms.

  3. Lentiviral-Mediated Transgene Expression Can Potentiate Intestinal Mesenchymal-Epithelial Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Aimee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesenchymal-epithelial signaling is essential for the development of many organs and is often disrupted in disease. In this study, we demonstrate the use of lentiviral-mediated transgene delivery as an effective approach for ectopic transgene expression and an alternative to generation of transgenic animals. One benefit to this approach is that it can be used independently or in conjunction with established transgenic or knockout animals for studying modulation of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. To display the power of this approach, we explored ectopic expression of a Wnt ligand in the mouse intestinal mesenchyme and demonstrate its functional influence on the adjacent epithelium. Our findings highlight the efficient use of lentiviral-mediated transgene expression for modulating mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in vivo.

  4. Lentiviral-Mediated Transgene Expression Can Potentiate Intestinal Mesenchymal-Epithelial Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dismuke Adria D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesenchymal-epithelial signaling is essential for the development of many organs and is often disrupted in disease. In this study, we demonstrate the use of lentiviral-mediated transgene delivery as an effective approach for ectopic transgene expression and an alternative to generation of transgenic animals. One benefit to this approach is that it can be used independently or in conjunction with established transgenic or knockout animals for studying modulation of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. To display the power of this approach, we explored ectopic expression of a Wnt ligand in the mouse intestinal mesenchyme and demonstrate its functional influence on the adjacent epithelium. Our findings highlight the efficient use of lentiviral-mediated transgene expression for modulating mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in vivo.

  5. Expression of Recombinant Human Alpha-Lactalbumin in the Milk of Transgenic Goats Using a Hybrid Pomoter/Enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Guo Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve nutrient content of goat milk, we describe the construction of a vector (pBLAC containing a hybrid goat β-lactoglobulin (BLG promoter/cytomegalovirus (CMV enhancer. We also describe the generation of transgenic goats expressing rhLA by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Of 334 one-cell stage embryos derived from three transgenic cell lines and 99 embryos derived from non-transgenic (NT cells surgically transferred to the oviducts of 37 recipients, two recipients delivered two kids (2% from the non-transfected line and five recipients delivered six kids (1.8% from transgenic cell lines, three of which died within 2 days. Compared to the NT donor cells, transfection of donor cells does not negatively affect the development of nuclear transfer embryos into viable transgenic offspring. However, the clone efficiency in cell line number 1 was lower than that in numbers 2 and 3, and in the NT lines (0.9% versus 1.9% 2.4% and 2%; P<0.05. Two transgenic cloned goats expressed rhLA in the milk at 0.1–0.9 mg/mL. The mammary gland-specific expression vector pBLAC with hybrid BLG/CMV can drive the hLA gene to express in vitro and in vivo. These data establish the basis for use of a hybrid promoter/enhancer strategy to produce rhLA transgenic goats.

  6. Keeping the genie in the bottle: transgene biocontainment by excision in pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hong S; Li, Yi; Stewart, C Neal

    2010-01-01

    Gene flow from transgenic plants is an environmental and regulatory concern. While biocontainment might be achieved using male sterility or transgenic mitigation tools, we believe that perhaps the optimal solution might be simply to remove transgenes from pollen. Male sterility might not be ideal for many pollinators, and might not be implementable using standardized genes. Transgenic mitigation might not be useful to control conspecific gene flow (e.g. crop to crop), and relies on competition and not biocontainment per se. Site-specific recombination systems could allow highly efficient excision of transgenes in pollen to eliminate, or at least minimize, unwanted transgene movement via pollen dispersal. There are other potential biotechnologies, such as zinc finger nucleases, that could be also used for transgene excision.

  7. Dose-Dependent Rescue of KO Amelogenin Enamel by Transgenes in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlack, Felicitas B; Xia, Yan; Pugach, Megan K

    2017-01-01

    Mice lacking amelogenin (KO) have hypoplastic enamel. Overexpression of the most abundant amelogenin splice variant M180 and LRAP transgenes can substantially improve KO enamel, but only ~40% of the incisor thickness is recovered and the prisms are not as tightly woven as in WT enamel. This implies that the compositional complexity of the enamel matrix is required for different aspects of enamel formation, such as organizational structure and thickness. The question arises, therefore, how important the ratio of different matrix components, and in particular amelogenin splice products, is in enamel formation. Can optimal expression levels of amelogenin transgenes representing both the most abundant splice variants and cleavage product at protein levels similar to that of WT improve the enamel phenotype of KO mice? Addressing this question, our objective was here to understand dosage effects of amelogenin transgenes ( Tg ) representing the major splice variants M180 and LRAP and cleavage product CTRNC on enamel properties. Amelogenin KO mice were mated with M180 Tg , CTRNC Tg and LRAP Tg mice to generate M180 Tg and CTRNC Tg double transgene and M180 Tg , CTRNC Tg , LRAP Tg triple transgene mice with transgene hemizygosity (on one allelle) or homozygosity (on both alleles). Transgene homo- vs. hemizygosity was determined by qPCR and relative transgene expression confirmed by Western blot. Enamel volume and mineral density were analyzed by microCT, thickness and structure by SEM, and mechanical properties by Vickers microhardness testing. There were no differences in incisor enamel thickness between amelogenin KO mice with three or two different transgenes, but mice homozygous for a given transgene had significantly thinner enamel than mice hemizygous for the transgene ( p structure, but only up to a maximum of ~80% that of molar and ~40% that of incisor wild-type enamel.

  8. High concentration of human lactoferrin in milk of rhLf-transgenic cows relieves signs of bovine experimental Staphylococcus chromogenes intramammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simojoki, Heli; Hyvönen, Paula; Orro, Toomas; Pyörälä, Satu

    2010-08-15

    Six transgenic cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) in their milk and five normal cows at the same lactation stage were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus chromogenes to study the effect of a high concentration of lactoferrin in milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci such as S. chromogenes have become very common as agents causing mild or subclinical mastitis. All transgenic cows became infected but showed no clinical signs, unlike the control cows, which developed mild clinical mastitis. Transgenic cows eliminated bacteria faster from the quarters than did the controls. Local clinical signs were milder, and the inflammatory reaction assessed by NAGase activity in the milk and by the concentration of milk amyloid A was lower in the transgenic cows. The mild response probably reflected the rapid elimination of bacteria. The milk concentration of rhLf remained constant throughout the study period, but the total concentration of bovine lactoferrin in the milk peaked in both groups at 46h post-challenge. Three cows, all in the control group, exhibited systemic acute phase response as increased concentrations of serum amyloid A in the blood circulation. Transgenic cows with a high concentration of human lactoferrin in their milk seemed to be protected from clinical disease and from prolonged inflammatory reaction, but not from experimental intramammary infection induced by S. chromogenes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dose-Dependent Rescue of KO Amelogenin Enamel by Transgenes in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicitas B. Bidlack

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mice lacking amelogenin (KO have hypoplastic enamel. Overexpression of the most abundant amelogenin splice variant M180 and LRAP transgenes can substantially improve KO enamel, but only ~40% of the incisor thickness is recovered and the prisms are not as tightly woven as in WT enamel. This implies that the compositional complexity of the enamel matrix is required for different aspects of enamel formation, such as organizational structure and thickness. The question arises, therefore, how important the ratio of different matrix components, and in particular amelogenin splice products, is in enamel formation. Can optimal expression levels of amelogenin transgenes representing both the most abundant splice variants and cleavage product at protein levels similar to that of WT improve the enamel phenotype of KO mice? Addressing this question, our objective was here to understand dosage effects of amelogenin transgenes (Tg representing the major splice variants M180 and LRAP and cleavage product CTRNC on enamel properties. Amelogenin KO mice were mated with M180Tg, CTRNCTg and LRAPTg mice to generate M180Tg and CTRNCTg double transgene and M180Tg, CTRNCTg, LRAPTg triple transgene mice with transgene hemizygosity (on one allelle or homozygosity (on both alleles. Transgene homo- vs. hemizygosity was determined by qPCR and relative transgene expression confirmed by Western blot. Enamel volume and mineral density were analyzed by microCT, thickness and structure by SEM, and mechanical properties by Vickers microhardness testing. There were no differences in incisor enamel thickness between amelogenin KO mice with three or two different transgenes, but mice homozygous for a given transgene had significantly thinner enamel than mice hemizygous for the transgene (p < 0.05. The presence of the LRAPTg did not improve the phenotype of M180Tg/CTRNCTg/KO enamel. In the absence of endogenous amelogenin, the addition of amelogenin transgenes representing the most

  10. Bean Yellow Dwarf Virus replicons for high-level transgene expression in transgenic plants and cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuren; Mason, Hugh

    2006-02-05

    A novel stable transgenic plant expression system was developed using elements of the replication machinery of Bean Yellow Dwarf Virus (BeYDV). The system contains two transgenes: 1) The BeYDV replicon vector with an expression cassette flanked by cis-acting DNA elements of BeYDV, and 2) The viral replication initiator protein (Rep) controlled by an alcohol-inducible promoter. When Rep expression was triggered by treatment with ethanol, it induced release of the BeYDV replicon from stably integrated T-DNA and episomal replication to high copy number. Replicon amplification resulted in substantially increased transgene mRNA levels (up to 80-fold) and translation products (up to 10-fold) after induction of Rep expression by ethanol treatment in tobacco NT1 cells and leaves of whole potato plants. Thus, the BeYDV stable transformant replicon system is a powerful tool for plant-based production of recombinant proteins. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 16 CFR 1204.4 - Electric shock protection tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric shock protection tests. 1204.4 Section 1204.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... the cable shall be between 28 and 29 feet (8.5 to 8.8 meters) above a horizontal plane through the...

  12. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... production of flowers, apomixis (Nassar et al., 2000; ... In order to increase the stress tolerance capacity of ... stress-related procedure due to the activities of auxin ... the evaluation of the transgenic lines for rate of OES .... Some transgenic lines carrying the 35S-AOX fragment amplified using 35S303F1 and.

  13. Antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ induces cerebellar amyloid-β levels and motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jing; Sun, Bing; Chen, Kui; Fan, Li; Wang, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidences show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is involved in the modulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) cascade causing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and treatment with PPARγ agonists protects against AD pathology. However, the function of PPARγ steady-state activity in Aβ cascade and AD pathology remains unclear. In this study, an antagonist of PPARγ, GW9662, was injected into the fourth ventricle of APP/PS1 transgenic mice to inhibit PPARγ activity in cerebellum. The results show that inhibition of PPARγ significantly induced Aβ levels in cerebellum and caused cerebellar motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, GW9662 treatment markedly decreased the cerebellar levels of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), which is responsible for the cellular degradation of Aβ. Since cerebellum is spared from significant Aβ accumulation and neurotoxicity in AD patients and animal models, these findings suggest a crucial role of PPARγ steady-state activity in protection of cerebellum against AD pathology.

  14. Regulatable Transgene Expression for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kawata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a debilitating complication associated with drug treatment of cancer for which there are no effective strategies of prevention or treatment. In this study, we examined the effect of intermittent expression of neurotophin-3 (NT-3 or interleukin-10 (IL-10 from replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV-based regulatable vectors delivered by subcutaneous inoculation to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG on the development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. We constructed two different tetracycline (tet-on-based regulatable HSV vectors, one expressing NT-3 and the other expressing IL-10, in which the transactivator expression in the tet-on system was under the control of HSV latency-associated promoter 2 (LAP-2, and expression of the transgene was controlled by doxycycline (DOX. We examined the therapeutic effect of intermittent expression of the transgene in animals with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy modeled by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (16 mg/kg once a week for 5 weeks. Intermittent expression of either NT-3 or IL-10 3 days before and 1 day after paclitaxel administration protected animals against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy over the course of 5 weeks. These results suggest the potential of regulatable vectors for prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  15. Regulatable Transgene Expression for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Wu, Zetang

    2017-09-15

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating complication associated with drug treatment of cancer for which there are no effective strategies of prevention or treatment. In this study, we examined the effect of intermittent expression of neurotophin-3 (NT-3) or interleukin-10 (IL-10) from replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based regulatable vectors delivered by subcutaneous inoculation to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) on the development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. We constructed two different tetracycline (tet)-on-based regulatable HSV vectors, one expressing NT-3 and the other expressing IL-10, in which the transactivator expression in the tet-on system was under the control of HSV latency-associated promoter 2 (LAP-2), and expression of the transgene was controlled by doxycycline (DOX). We examined the therapeutic effect of intermittent expression of the transgene in animals with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy modeled by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (16 mg/kg) once a week for 5 weeks. Intermittent expression of either NT-3 or IL-10 3 days before and 1 day after paclitaxel administration protected animals against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy over the course of 5 weeks. These results suggest the potential of regulatable vectors for prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  16. Establishment of HLA-DR4 transgenic mice for the identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes of tumor-associated antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Yatsuda

    Full Text Available Reports have shown that activation of tumor-specific CD4(+ helper T (Th cells is crucial for effective anti-tumor immunity and identification of Th-cell epitopes is critical for peptide vaccine-based cancer immunotherapy. Although computer algorithms are available to predict peptides with high binding affinity to a specific HLA class II molecule, the ability of those peptides to induce Th-cell responses must be evaluated. We have established HLA-DR4 (HLA-DRA*01:01/HLA-DRB1*04:05 transgenic mice (Tgm, since this HLA-DR allele is most frequent (13.6% in Japanese population, to evaluate HLA-DR4-restricted Th-cell responses to tumor-associated antigen (TAA-derived peptides predicted to bind to HLA-DR4. To avoid weak binding between mouse CD4 and HLA-DR4, Tgm were designed to express chimeric HLA-DR4/I-E(d, where I-E(d α1 and β1 domains were replaced with those from HLA-DR4. Th cells isolated from Tgm immunized with adjuvant and HLA-DR4-binding cytomegalovirus-derived peptide proliferated when stimulated with peptide-pulsed HLA-DR4-transduced mouse L cells, indicating chimeric HLA-DR4/I-E(d has equivalent antigen presenting capacity to HLA-DR4. Immunization with CDCA155-78 peptide, a computer algorithm-predicted HLA-DR4-binding peptide derived from TAA CDCA1, successfully induced Th-cell responses in Tgm, while immunization of HLA-DR4-binding Wilms' tumor 1 antigen-derived peptide with identical amino acid sequence to mouse ortholog failed. This was overcome by using peptide-pulsed syngeneic bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DC followed by immunization with peptide/CFA booster. BM-DC-based immunization of KIF20A494-517 peptide from another TAA KIF20A, with an almost identical HLA-binding core amino acid sequence to mouse ortholog, successfully induced Th-cell responses in Tgm. Notably, both CDCA155-78 and KIF20A494-517 peptides induced human Th-cell responses in PBMCs from HLA-DR4-positive donors. Finally, an HLA-DR4 binding DEPDC1191

  17. Cloning of transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells; an efficient method to analyse and reduce high natural heterogeneity of transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocarova, Eva; Fischer, Lukas

    2009-04-22

    Phenotypic characterization of transgenic cell lines, frequently used in plant biology studies, is complicated because transgene expression in individual cells is often heterogeneous and unstable. To identify the sources and to reduce this heterogeneity, we transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and then introduced a simple cloning procedure to generate cell lines derived from the individual transformed cells. Expression of the transgene was monitored by analysing GFP fluorescence in the cloned lines and also in lines obtained directly after transformation. The majority ( approximately 90%) of suspension culture lines derived from calli that were obtained directly from transformation consisted of cells with various levels of GFP fluorescence. In contrast, nearly 50% of lines generated by cloning cells from the primary heterogeneous suspensions consisted of cells with homogenous GFP fluorescence. The rest of the lines exhibited "permanent heterogeneity" that could not be resolved by cloning. The extent of fluorescence heterogeneity often varied, even among genetically identical clones derived from the primary transformed lines. In contrast, the offspring of subsequent cloning of the cloned lines was uniform, showing GFP fluorescence intensity and heterogeneity that corresponded to the original clone. The results demonstrate that, besides genetic heterogeneity detected in some lines, the primary lines often contained a mixture of epigenetically different cells that could be separated by cloning. This indicates that a single integration event frequently results in various heritable expression patterns, which are probably accidental and become stabilized in the offspring of the primary transformed cells early after the integration event. Because heterogeneity in transgene expression has proven to be a serious problem, it is highly advisable to use transgenes tagged with

  18. GFAP-Cre-mediated transgenic activation of Bmi1 results in pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart A Westerman

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb repressive complex 1 and plays different roles during embryonic development, depending on the developmental context. Bmi1 over expression is observed in many types of cancer, including tumors of astroglial and neural origin. Although genetic depletion of Bmi1 has been described to result in tumor inhibitory effects partly through INK4A/Arf mediated senescence and apoptosis and also through INK4A/Arf independent effects, it has not been proven that Bmi1 can be causally involved in the formation of these tumors. To see whether this is the case, we developed two conditional Bmi1 transgenic models that were crossed with GFAP-Cre mice to activate transgenic expression in neural and glial lineages. We show here that these mice generate intermediate and anterior lobe pituitary tumors that are positive for ACTH and beta-endorphin. Combined transgenic expression of Bmi1 together with conditional loss of Rb resulted in pituitary tumors but was insufficient to induce medulloblastoma therefore indicating that the oncogenic function of Bmi1 depends on regulation of p16(INK4A/Rb rather than on regulation of p19(ARF/p53. Human pituitary adenomas show Bmi1 overexpression in over 50% of the cases, which indicates that Bmi1 could be causally involved in formation of these tumors similarly as in our mouse model.

  19. [Premature immunosenescence in triple-transgenic mice for Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Ianire; Cruces, Julia; Vida, Carmen; Sanfeliu, Coral; Manassra, Rashed; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    A deterioration of the neuroimmunoendocrine network has been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the peripheral immune response has hardly been investigated in this pathology. Since some immune function parameters have been established as good markers of the rate of ageing, and can predict longevity, the aim of the present work was to study some of these functions in splenic leucocytes in transgenic mice for AD of different ages. Young female (4 ± 1 months), adult (9 ± 1 months), and mature (12 ± 1 months) triple-transgenic mice for AD (3 xTgAD) and non-transgenic (NTg) control mice of the same ages were used. The chemotaxis, the anti-tumour activity of « natural killer » (NK) cells and the lymphoproliferative response in the presence of the mitogens concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide, functions that decrease with age, were determined in splenic leucocytes. In addition, the differences in lifespan between 3 xTgAD and NTg were studied in parallel using other animals, until their death through natural causes. In 3 xTgAD, with respect to NTg, chemotaxis decreased at all ages studied, whereas in lymphoproliferative response this reduction was shown at 4 months and 9 months. NK activity was diminished only in young 3 xTgAD with respect to NTg. The 3 xTgAD showed a shorter lifespan than the NTg control group. The 3 xTgAD mice show a premature immunosenescence, which could explain their early mortality. The determination of these immune functions at peripheral level could serve as a marker of the progression of the Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethics and Transgenic Crops: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    This article represents a review of some of the ethical dilemmas that have arisen as a result of the development and deployment of transgenic crop plants. The potential for transgenic crops to alleviate human hunger and the possible effects on human health are discussed. Risks and benefits to the environment resulting from genetic engineering of crops for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses are considered, in addition to effects on biodiversity. The socio-economic impacts and distributi...

  1. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This "Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse" system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent...

  2. Fowlpoxvirus recombinants coding for the CIITA gene increase the expression of endogenous MHC-II and Fowlpox Gag/Pro and Env SIV transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissa, Massimiliano; Forlani, Greta; Zanotto, Carlo; Tosi, Giovanna; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Accolla, Roberto S; Radaelli, Antonia

    2018-01-01

    A complete eradication of an HIV infection has never been achieved by vaccination and the search for new immunogens that can induce long-lasting protective responses is ongoing. Avipoxvirus recombinants are host-restricted for replication to avian species and they do not have the undesired side effects induced by vaccinia recombinants. In particular, Fowlpox (FP) recombinants can express transgenes over long periods and can induce protective immunity in mammals, mainly due to CD4-dependent CD8+ T cells. In this context, the class II transactivator (CIITA) has a pivotal role in triggering the adaptive immune response through induction of the expression of class-II major histocompatibility complex molecule (MHC-II), that can present antigens to CD4+ T helper cells. Here, we report on construction of novel FPgp and FPenv recombinants that express the highly immunogenic SIV Gag-pro and Env structural antigens. Several FP-based recombinants, with single or dual genes, were also developed that express CIITA, driven from H6 or SP promoters. These recombinants were used to infect CEF and Vero cells in vitro and determine transgene expression, which was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Subcellular localisation of the different proteins was evaluated by confocal microscopy, whereas HLA-DR or MHC-II expression was measured by flow cytometry. Fowlpox recombinants were also used to infect syngeneic T/SA tumour cells, then injected into Balb/c mice to elicit MHC-II immune response and define the presentation of the SIV transgene products in the presence or absence of FPCIITA. Antibodies to Env were measured by ELISA. Our data show that the H6 promoter was more efficient than SP to drive CIITA expression and that CIITA can enhance the levels of the gag/pro and env gene products only when infection is performed by FP single recombinants. Also, CIITA expression is higher when carried by FP single recombinants than when combined with FPgp or FPenv constructs and can

  3. Field performance of transgenic citrus trees: assessment of the long-term expression of uidA and nptII transgenes and its impact on relevant agronomic and phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Elsa; Peris, Josep E; Peña, Leandro

    2012-07-15

    The future of genetic transformation as a tool for the improvement of fruit trees depends on the development of proper systems for the assessment of unintended effects in field-grown GM lines. In this study, we used eight transgenic lines of two different citrus types (sweet orange and citrange) transformed with the marker genes β-glucuronidase (uidA) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) as model systems to study for the first time in citrus the long-term stability of transgene expression and whether transgene-derived pleiotropic effects occur with regard to the morphology, development and fruit quality of orchard-grown GM citrus trees. The stability of the integration and expression of the transgenes was confirmed in 7-year-old, orchard-grown transgenic lines by Southern blot analysis and enzymatic assays (GUS and ELISA NPTII), respectively. Little seasonal variation was detected in the expression levels between plants of the same transgenic line in different organs and over the 3 years of analysis, confirming the absence of rearrangements and/or silencing of the transgenes after transferring the plants to field conditions. Comparisons between the GM citrus lines with their non-GM counterparts across the study years showed that the expression of these transgenes did not cause alterations of the main phenotypic and agronomic plant and fruit characteristics. However, when comparisons were performed between diploid and tetraploid transgenic citrange trees and/or between juvenile and mature transgenic sweet orange trees, significant and consistent differences were detected, indicating that factors other than their transgenic nature induced a much higher phenotypic variability. Our results indicate that transgene expression in GM citrus remains stable during long-term agricultural cultivation, without causing unexpected effects on crop characteristics. This study also shows that the transgenic citrus trees expressing the selectable marker genes that are most

  4. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion.

  5. Abnormal differentiation, hyperplasia and embryonic/perinatal lethality in BK5-T/t transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Schneider-Broussard, Robin; Hollowell, Debra; McArthur, Mark; Jeter, Collene R.; Benavides, Fernando; DiGiovanni, John; Tang, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    The cell-of-origin has a great impact on the types of tumors that develop and the stem/progenitor cells have long been considered main targets of malignant transformation. The SV40 large T and small t antigens (T/t), have been targeted to multiple differentiated cellular compartments in transgenic mice. In most of these studies, transgenic animals develop tumors without apparent defects in animal development. In this study, we used the bovine keratin 5 (BK5) promoter to target the T/t antigens to stem/progenitor cell-containing cytokeratin 5 (CK5) cellular compartment. A transgene construct, BK5-T/t, was made and microinjected into the male pronucleus of FVB/N mouse oocytes. After implanting ∼1700 embryos, only 7 transgenics were obtained, including 4 embryos (E9.5, E13, E15, and E20) and 3 postnatal animals, which died at P1, P2, and P18, respectively. Immunohistological analysis revealed aberrant differentiation and prominent hyperplasia in several transgenic CK5 tissues, especially the upper digestive organs (tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus, and forestomach) and epidermis, the latter of which also showed focal dysplasia. Altogether, these results indicate that constitutive expression of the T/t antigens in CK5 cellular compartment results in abnormal epithelial differentiation and leads to embryonic/perinatal animal lethality. PMID:19272531

  6. Efficiency to Discovery Transgenic Loci in GM Rice Using Next Generation Sequencing Whole Genome Re-sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doori Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization technology in genetically modified organisms, in addition to how transgenic biotechnologies are developed now require full transparency to assess the risk to living modified and non-modified organisms. Next generation sequencing (NGS methodology is suggested as an effective means in genome characterization and detection of transgenic insertion locations. In the present study, we applied NGS to insert transgenic loci, specifically the epidermal growth factor (EGF in genetically modified rice cells. A total of 29.3 Gb (~72× coverage was sequenced with a 2 × 150 bp paired end method by Illumina HiSeq2500, which was consecutively mapped to the rice genome and T-vector sequence. The compatible pairs of reads were successfully mapped to 10 loci on the rice chromosome and vector sequences were validated to the insertion location by polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. The EGF transgenic site was confirmed only on chromosome 4 by PCR. Results of this study demonstrated the success of NGS data to characterize the rice genome. Bioinformatics analyses must be developed in association with NGS data to identify highly accurate transgenic sites.

  7. 4. European forum of radiation protection sciences. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This 4. European forum of radiation protection sciences was the occasion for nuclear professionals to share their experience and to present the tools and techniques implemented in dismantling operations in the respect of radiation protection rules. This document brings together the abstracts and the available presentations given at this forum: 1 - Dismantling organisation and management - regulations: dismantling environment (A. Gay, Areva NC); Dismantling at the CEA (Ph. Guiberteau, DEN-Saclay); Optimisation of future dismantlement at the design and operation stage of facilities (P. Poncet, Areva); Action of the labour Ministry for workers radiation protection (T. Lahaye, DGT); 2 - Dismantling experience feedbacks 1: Radiation protection and dismantlement at Marcoule (J. Chardin, Areva NC); INB 106 dismantling (N. Pauwels, UDIL); Dismantling wastes management and valorisation of ALS and Saturne accelerators at Saclay (C. Salmon, CEA-Saclay); Chooz power plant deconstruction (L. Bardou, EDF); 3-4 - Dismantling projects: Phenix power plant dismantling (C. Beretti, CEA-Marcoule); Radiological characterization impact on the DGB project (H.C. Turbatte, F. Lemperiere, DGB Eurodif); Contribution of scientific calculations to reactor dismantling studies (A. Van Lauwe, CEA-Saclay); Acceptance committee of radiological cleansing companies (S. Faure, DPSN); Externalizing of the radiation protection skilled person (J.P. Piferrer, ATSR); International network of radiation protection professionals (G. Abela, EDF); 5 - Dismantling experience feedback 2: gloveboxes dismounting at La Hague plant (R. Choquet, P. Mougnard, Areva NC); Nuclear submarines dismantling in Russia (C. Deregel, Topp-Decide); Radioactive waste management of CERN accelerators (Y. Algoet, CERN); Nuclear facilities decommissioning (M. Berton, CEA, B. Marc, DRIM Sogeris); Asbestos removal in radiological environment (R. Blanc, Areva NC); 6-7-8 - Tools and methods: Aspilaser, decontamination by laser ablation (F

  8. Extracellular Secretion of Phytase from Transgenic Wheat Roots Allows Utilization of Phytate for Enhanced Phosphorus Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Samreen; Maqbool, Asma; Ashraf, Mehwish; Malik, Kauser Abdulla

    2017-08-01

    A significant portion of organic phosphorus comprises of phytates which are not available to wheat for uptake. Hence for enabling wheat to utilize organic phosphorus in form of phytate, transgenic wheat expressing phytase from Aspergillus japonicus under barley root-specific promoter was developed. Transgenic events were initially screened via selection media containing BASTA, followed by PCR and BASTA leaf paint assay after hardening. Out of 138 successfully regenerated T o events, only 12 had complete constructs and thus further analyzed. Positive T1 transgenic plants, grown in sand, exhibited 0.08-1.77, 0.02-0.67 and 0.44-2.14 fold increase in phytase activity in root extracts, intact roots and external root solution, respectively, after 4 weeks of phosphorus stress. Based on these results, T2 generation of four best transgenic events was further analyzed which showed up to 1.32, 56.89, and 15.40 fold increase in phytase activity in root extracts, intact roots and external root solution, respectively, while in case of real-time PCR, maximum fold increase of 19.8 in gene expression was observed. Transgenic lines showed 0.01-1.18 fold increase in phosphorus efficiency along with higher phosphorus content when supplied phytate or inorganic phosphorus than control plants. Thus, this transgenic wheat may aid in reducing fertilizer utilization and enhancing wheat yield.

  9. Neurodegeneration caused by expression of human truncated tau leads to progressive neurobehavioural impairment in transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrnkova, Miroslava; Zilka, Norbert; Minichova, Zuzana; Koson, Peter; Novak, Michal

    2007-01-26

    Human truncated tau protein is an active constituent of the neurofibrillary degeneration in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. We have shown that modified tau protein, when expressed as a transgene in rats, induced AD characteristic tau cascade consisting of tau hyperphosphorylation, formation of argyrophilic tangles and sarcosyl-insoluble tau complexes. These pathological changes led to the functional impairment characterized by a variety of neurobehavioural symptoms. In the present study we have focused on the behavioural alterations induced by transgenic expression of human truncated tau. Transgenic rats underwent a battery of behavioural tests involving cognitive- and sensorimotor-dependent tasks accompanied with neurological assessment at the age of 4.5, 6 and 9 months. Behavioural examination of these rats showed altered spatial navigation in Morris water maze resulting in less time spent in target quadrant (popen field was not influenced by transgene expression. However beam walking test revealed that transgenic rats developed progressive sensorimotor disturbances related to the age of tested animals. The disturbances were most pronounced at the age of 9 months (p<0.01). Neurological alterations indicating impaired reflex responses were other added features of behavioural phenotype of this novel transgenic rat. These results allow us to suggest that neurodegeneration, caused by the non-mutated human truncated tau derived from sporadic human AD, result in the neuronal dysfunction consequently leading to the progressive neurobehavioural impairment.

  10. A transgenic mouse model for measles virus infection of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Glenn F.; Manchester, Marianne; Daniels, Lia R.; Callahan, Eric M.; Belman, Alec R.; Oldstone, Michael B. A.

    1997-01-01

    In addition to the rash, fever, and upper respiratory tract congestion that are the hallmarks of acute measles virus (MV) infection, invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) can occur, establishing a persistent infection primarily in neurons. The recent identification of the human membrane glycoprotein, CD46, as the MV receptor allowed for the establishment of transgenic mice in which the CD46 gene was transcriptionally regulated by a neuron-specific promoter. Expression of the measles receptor rendered primary CD46-positive neurons permissive to infection with MV–Edmonston. Notably, viral transmission within these cultures occurred in the absence of extracellular virus, presumably via neuronal processes. No infection was seen in nontransgenic mice inoculated intracerebrally with MV–Edmonston. In contrast, scattered neurons were infected following inoculation of transgenic adults, and an impressive widespread neuronal infection was established in transgenic neonates. The neonatal infection resulted in severe CNS disease by 3–4 weeks after infection. Illness was characterized initially by awkward gait and a lack of mobility, and in later stages seizures leading to death. These results show that expression of the MV receptor on specific murine cells (neurons) in vivo is absolutely essential to confer both susceptibility to infection and neurologic disease by this human virus. The disparity in clinical findings between neonatal and adult transgenic mice indicates that differences exist between the developing and mature CNS with respect to MV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:9114047

  11. Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M Wayne; Hopkins, Christopher E

    2008-01-01

    developed a method that inserts a single copy of a transgene into a defined site. Mobilization of a Mos1 transposon generates a double-strand break in noncoding DNA. The break is repaired by copying DNA from an extrachromosomal template into the chromosomal site. Homozygous single-copy insertions can...... be obtained in less than 2 weeks by injecting approximately 20 worms. We have successfully inserted transgenes as long as 9 kb and verified that single copies are inserted at the targeted site. Single-copy transgenes are expressed at endogenous levels and can be expressed in the female and male germlines....

  12. Glycinebetaine synthesizing transgenic potato plants exhibit enhanced tolerance to salt and cold stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Hussain, J.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are the most important contributors towards low productivity of major food crops. Various attempts have been made to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants by classical breeding and genetic transformation. Genetic transformation with glycinebetaine (GB) synthesizing enzymes' gene(s) in naturally non accumulating plants has resulted in enhanced tolerance against variety of abiotic stresses. Present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of GB synthesizing transgenic potato plants against salt and cold stresses. Transgenic potato plants were challenged against salt and cold stresses at whole plant level. Transgenic lines were characterized to determine the transgene copy number. Different parameters like integrity, chlorophyll contents, tuber yield and vegetative biomass were studied to monitor the stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. The results were compared with Non-transgenic (NT) plants and statistically analyzed to evaluate significant differences. Multi-copy insertion of expression cassette was found in both transgenic lines. Upon salt stress, transgenic plants maintained better growth as compared to NT plants. The tuber yield of transgenic plants was significantly greater than NT plants in salt stress. Transgenic plants showed improved membrane integrity against cold stress by depicting appreciably reduced ion leakage as compared to NT plants. Moreover, transgenic plants showed significantly less chlorophyll bleaching than NT plants upon cold stress. In addition, NT plants accumulated significantly less biomass, and yielded fewer tubers as compared to transgenic plants after cold stress treatment. The study will be a committed step for field evaluation of transgenic plants with the aim of commercialization. (author)

  13. Hyperactive hypothalamus, motivated and non-distractible chronic overeating in ADAR2 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akubuiro, A; Bridget Zimmerman, M; Boles Ponto, L L; Walsh, S A; Sunderland, J; McCormick, L; Singh, M

    2013-04-01

    ADAR2 transgenic mice misexpressing the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2 (Adenosine Deaminase that act on RNA) show characteristics of overeating and experience adult onset obesity. Behavioral patterns and brain changes related to a possible addictive overeating in these transgenic mice were explored as transgenic mice display chronic hyperphagia. ADAR2 transgenic mice were assessed in their food preference and motivation to overeat in a competing reward environment with ad lib access to a running wheel and food. Metabolic activity of brain and peripheral tissue were assessed with [(18) F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and RNA expression of feeding related genes, ADAR2, dopamine and opiate receptors from the hypothalamus and striatum were examined. The results indicate that ADAR2 transgenic mice exhibit, (1) a food preference for diets with higher fat content, (2) significantly increased food intake that is non-distractible in a competing reward environment, (3) significantly increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of ADAR2, serotonin 2C receptor (5HT2C R), D1, D2 and mu opioid receptors and no change in corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNAs and significantly reduced ADAR2 protein expression in the hypothalamus, (4) significantly increased D1 receptor and altered bioamines with no change in ADAR2, mu opioid and D2 receptor mRNA expression in the striatum and (5) significantly greater glucose metabolism in the hypothalamus, brain stem, right hippocampus, left and right mid brain regions and suprascapular peripheral tissue than controls. These results suggest that highly motivated and goal-oriented overeating behaviors of ADAR2 transgenic mice are associated with altered feeding, reward-related mRNAs and hyperactive brain mesolimbic region. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  14. Production and characterization of soluble human TNFRI-Fc and human HO-1(HMOX1) transgenic pigs by using the F2A peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sol Ji; Cho, Bumrae; Koo, Ok Jae; Kim, Hwajung; Kang, Jung Taek; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Su Jin; Yeom, Hye Jung; Moon, Joonho; Lee, Eun Mi; Choi, Ji Yei; Hong, Ju Ho; Jang, Goo; Hwang, Joing-Ik; Yang, Jaeseok; Lee, Byeong Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2014-06-01

    Generation of transgenic pigs for xenotransplantation is one of the most promising technologies for resolving organ shortages. Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1/HMOX1) can protect transplanted organs by its strong anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Soluble human TNFRI-Fc (shTNFRI-Fc) can inhibit the binding of human TNF-α (hTNF-α) to TNF receptors on porcine cells, and thereby, prevent hTNF-α-mediated inflammation and apoptosis. Herein, we successfully generated shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 transgenic (TG) pigs expressing both shTNFRI-Fc and hemagglutinin-tagged-human heme oxygenase-1 (HA-hHO-1) by using an F2A self-cleaving peptide. shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 transgenes containing the F2A peptide were constructed under the control of the CAG promoter. Transgene insertion and copy number in the genome of transgenic pigs was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis. Expressions of shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 in TG pigs were confirmed using PCR, RT-PCR, western blot, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 were expressed in various organs, including the heart, lung, and spleen. ELISA assays detected shTNFRI-Fc in the sera of TG pigs. For functional analysis, fibroblasts isolated from a shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG pig (i.e., #14; 1 × 10(5) cells) were cultured with hTNF-α (20 ng/mL) and cycloheximide (10 μg/mL). The viability of shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG pig fibroblasts was significantly higher than that of the wild type (wild type vs. shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG at 24 h, 31.6 ± 3.2 vs. 60.4 ± 8.3 %, respectively; p hHO-1 TG pig fibroblasts was lower than that of the wild type pig fibroblasts (wild type vs. shTNFRI-Fc-F2A-HA-hHO-1 TG at 12 h, 812,452 ± 113,078 RLU vs. 88,240 ± 10,438 RLU, respectively; p hHO-1 TG pigs generated by the F2A self-cleaving peptide express both shTNFRI-Fc and HA-hHO-1 molecules, which provides protection against oxidative and inflammatory injury

  15. Complex genomic rearrangement in CCS-LacZ transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Dina Myers; Darrow, Bruce J; Kim, Sang Do; Zhang, Jie; Jongbloed, Monique R M; Rentschler, Stacey; Moskowitz, Ivan P G; Seidman, Jonathan; Fishman, Glenn I

    2007-02-01

    The cardiac conduction system (CCS)-lacZ insertional mouse mutant strain genetically labels the developing and mature CCS. This pattern of expression is presumed to reflect the site of transgene integration rather than regulatory elements within the transgene proper. We sought to characterize the genomic structure of the integration locus and identify nearby gene(s) that might potentially confer the observed CCS-specific transcription. We found rearrangement of chromosome 7 between regions D1 and E1 with altered transcription of multiple genes in the D1 region. Several lines of evidence suggested that regulatory elements from at least one gene, Slco3A1, influenced CCS-restricted reporter gene expression. In embryonic hearts, Slco3A1 was expressed in a spatial pattern similar to the CCS-lacZ transgene and was similarly neuregulin-responsive. At later stages, however, expression patterns of the transgene and Slco3A1 diverged, suggesting that the Slco3A1 locus may be necessary, but not sufficient to confer CCS-specific transgene expression in the CCS-lacZ line. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Intermittent Fasting Protects against Alzheimer’s Disease Possible through Restoring Aquaporin-4 Polarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhu Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The impairment of amyloid-β (Aβ clearance in the brain plays a causative role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Polarity distribution of aquaporin-4 (AQP4 is important to remove Aβ from brain. AQP4 polarity can be influenced by the ratio of two AQP4 isoforms M1 and M23 (AQP4-M1/M23, however, it is unknown whether the ratio of AQP4-M1/M23 changes in AD. Histone deacetylase 3 has been reported to be significantly increased in AD brain. Moreover, evidence indicated that microRNA-130a (miR-130a possibly mediates the regulation of histone deacetylase 3 on AQP4-M1/M23 ratio by repressing the transcriptional activity of AQP4-M1 in AD. This study aimed to investigate whether intermittent fasting (IF, increasing the level of an endogenous histone deacetylases inhibitor β-hydroxybutyrate, restores AQP4 polarity via miR-130a mediated reduction of AQP4-M1/M23 ratio in protection against AD. The results showed that IF ameliorated cognitive dysfunction, prevented brain from Aβ deposition, and restored the AQP4 polarity in a mouse model of AD (APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice. Additionally, IF down-regulated the expression of AQP4-M1 and histone deacetylase 3, reduced AQP4-M1/M23 ratio, and increased miR-130a expression in the cerebral cortex of APP/PS1 mice. In vitro, β-hydroxybutyrate was found to down-regulate the expression of AQP4-M1 and histone deacetylase 3, reduce AQP4-M1/M23 ratio, and increase AQP4-M23 and miR-130a expression in 2 μM Aβ-treated U251 cells. Interestingly, on the contrary to the result observed in 2 μM Aβ-treated cells, AQP4 expression was obviously decreased in cells exposed to 10 μM Aβ. miR-130a mimic decreased the expression of AQP4-M1 and the ratio of AQP4-M1/M23, as well as silencing histone deacetylase 3 caused the up-regulation of AQP4 and miR-130a, and the reduction of AQP4-M1/M23 ratio in U251 cells. In conclusion, IF exhibits beneficial effects against AD. The mechanism may be associated with recovery of AQP4 polarity

  17. Optimisation of transgene action at the post-transcriptional level: high quality parthenocarpic fruits in industrial tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defez Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic engineering of parthenocarpy confers to horticultural plants the ability to produce fruits under environmental conditions that curtail fruit productivity and quality. The DefH9-iaaM transgene, whose predicted action is to confer auxin synthesis specifically in the placenta, ovules and derived tissues, has been shown to confer parthenocarpy to several plant species (tobacco, eggplant, tomato and varieties. Results UC82 tomato plants, a typical cultivar used by the processing industry, transgenic for the DefH9-iaaM gene produce parthenocarpic fruits that are malformed. UC82 plants transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM, a DefH9-iaaM derivative gene modified in its 5'ULR by replacing 53 nucleotides immediately upstream of the AUG initiation codon with an 87 nucleotides-long sequence derived from the rolA intron sequence, produce parthenocarpic fruits of high quality. In an in vitro translation system, the iaaM mRNA, modified in its 5'ULR is translated 3–4 times less efficiently than the original transcript. An optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy correlates with a reduced transgene mRNA steady state level in DefH9-RI-iaaM flower buds in comparison to DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Consistent with the known function of the iaaM gene, flower buds transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene contain ten times more IAA than control untransformed flower buds, but five times less than DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Conclusions By using an auxin biosynthesis transgene downregulated at the post-transcriptional level, an optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy has been achieved in a genetic background not suitable for the original transgene. Thus, the method allows the generation of a wider range of expressivity of the desired trait in transgenic plants.

  18. THE ABILITY OF FAST-GROWING TRANSGENIC AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus ON PREDATOR AVOIDANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Institute for Fish Breeding has produced transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus containing stripped catfish growth hormone gene (PccBA-PhGH with growth 19.86% faster than that of non-transgenic fish. This fish has high potential to be released and utilized for fish farming sector to increase national production. However, there is not yet information about environmental risk of this fish. One of the major fitness traits determining potential environmental risk is predator avoidance. This study aimed to determine the predator avoidance ability of transgenic African catfish in an experimental laboratory condition. In this study, thirty five individuals each of transgenic and non-transgenic with body weight of about 0.1 ± 0.019 g were communally stocked in 60 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm aquarium with limited feeding frequency (ad libitum twice a day. One day after the fish were stocked, the predators were added to each aquarium. The non-transgenic and transgenic with body weight of 1.0 ± 0.024 g were stocked as predators as many as five individual in each aquarium. After approximately two weeks of predation, all remaining fish were collected for transgenic verification by PCR method. Genomic DNA was isolated from fin tissue of individually survivors. The results of this study showed that the transgenic fish had worse predator avoidance and lower cannibal than non-transgenic (P0.05 in limited food. The transgenic fish may have lower fitness than non-transgenic.

  19. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Human Asymptomatic CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes-Based Vaccine Protects Against Ocular Herpes in a “Humanized” HLA Transgenic Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Huang, Jiawei; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A clinical vaccine that protects from ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and disease still is lacking. In the present study, preclinical vaccine trials of nine asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptides, selected from HSV-1 glycoproteins B (gB), and tegument proteins VP11/12 and VP13/14, were performed in the “humanized” HLA–transgenic rabbit (HLA-Tg rabbit) model of ocular herpes. We recently reported that these peptides are highly recognized by CD8+ T cells from “naturally” protected HSV-1–seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Methods. Mixtures of three ASYMP CD8+ T-cell peptides derived from either HSV-1 gB, VP11/12, or VP13/14 were delivered subcutaneously to different groups of HLA-Tg rabbits (n = 10) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, twice at 15-day intervals. The frequency and function of HSV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cells induced by these peptides and their protective efficacy, in terms of survival, virus replication in the eye, and ocular herpetic disease were assessed after an ocular challenge with HSV-1 (strain McKrae). Results. All mixtures elicited strong and polyfunctional IFN-γ– and TNF-α–producing CD107+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, associated with a significant reduction in death, ocular herpes infection, and disease (P herpes, and provide a prototype vaccine formulation that may be highly efficacious for preventing ocular herpes in humans. PMID:26098469

  20. Molecular mechanisms underlying protective effects of quercetin against mitochondrial dysfunction and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in cell culture and MitoPark transgenic mouse models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Muhammet; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-06-01

    Quercetin, one of the major flavonoids in plants, has been recently reported to have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative processes. However, since the molecular signaling mechanisms governing these effects are not well clarified, we evaluated quercetin's effect on the neuroprotective signaling events in dopaminergic neuronal models and further tested its efficacy in the MitoPark transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin significantly induced the activation of two major cell survival kinases, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and Akt in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PKD1 blocked the activation of Akt, suggesting that PKD1 acts as an upstream regulator of Akt in quercetin-mediated neuroprotective signaling. Quercetin also enhanced cAMP response-element binding protein phosphorylation and expression of the cAMP response-element binding protein target gene brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Results from qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, mtDNA content analysis, and MitoTracker assay experiments revealed that quercetin augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. Quercetin also increased mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity and protected MN9D cells against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. To further evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of quercetin against the mitochondrial dysfunction underlying PD, we used the progressive dopaminergic neurodegenerative MitoPark transgenic mouse model of PD. Oral administration of quercetin significantly reversed behavioral deficits, striatal dopamine depletion, and TH neuronal cell loss in MitoPark mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that quercetin activates the PKD1-Akt cell survival signaling axis and suggest that further exploration of quercetin as a promising neuroprotective agent for treating PD may offer clinical benefits. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, Andrea J.; Vesely, Susanne; Nero, Vincent; Rodriguez, Hilda; McCormack, Kimberley; Shah, Saleh; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors. - Using transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as phytoremediation methods increased plant tolerance at a metal-contaminated field site under low flood conditions

  2. Plant mitochondrial genome: “A sweet and safe home'' for transgene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfer of transgene through pollens to related plant species is a big environmental concern. Mitochondrion is also a superb and putative aspirant for transgene containment like plastids. Having its own transcription and translation machinery, and maternal inheritance gives assurance of transgene containment with high ...

  3. The effect of ethylene on transgenic melon ripening and fruit quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In cell wall expression analysis, MPG1 increased when fruits of transgenic melons were exposed to ethylene; showing they are ethylene- dependent. MPG2 decreased ... Ethylene productions in transgenic fruits were reestablished when ethylene was applied, exhibiting the same behavior as transgenic fruits. Antioxidant ...

  4. Apple, Cherry, and Blackcurrant Increases Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation in Liver of Transgenic Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balstad, Trude; Paur, Ingvild; Poulsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) is essential in normal physiology, and several human disorders involve inappropriate regulation of NF-B. Diets dominated by plant-based foods protect against chronic diseases, and several food derived compounds have been identified as promising NF-B modulators. We...... investigated the effects of diets supplemented with apple, blackcurrant, or cherries on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-B activation in transgenic NF-B-luciferase mice. Whole body and organ specific NF-B activities were determined. The mice had ad libitum access to the respective experimental diets for 7...... slightly higher whole-body NF-B activation at 4 h, and all 3 experimental groups had higher NF-B activation at 6 h. LPS-induced NF-B activation in liver was increased with all 3 experimental diets, but no effects were observed in other organs. Our findings indicate that high intakes of lyophilized fruits...

  5. 12 CFR 590.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 590.4 Section 590.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... manufactured housing loans—consumer protection provisions. (a) Definitions. As used in this section: (1... protection to consumers. Such determinations shall be published in the Federal Register and shall operate...

  6. Wheat chloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter confers heat and abiotic stress inducible expression in transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetika Khurana

    Full Text Available The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs have been found to play a critical role in physiological stress conditions in protecting proteins from irreversible aggregation. To characterize the hloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter in detail, deletion analysis of the promoter is carried out and analysed via transgenics in Arabidopsis. In the present study, complete assessment of the importance of CCAAT-box elements along with Heat shock elements (HSEs in the promoter of sHSP26 was performed. Moreover, the importance of 5' untranslated region (UTR has also been established in the promoter via Arabidopsis transgenics. An intense GUS expression was observed after heat stress in the transgenics harbouring a full-length promoter, confirming the heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Transgenic plants without UTR showed reduced GUS expression when compared to transgenic plants with UTR as was confirmed at the RNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and GUS histochemical assays, thus suggesting the possible involvement of some regulatory elements present in the UTR in heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Promoter activity was also checked under different abiotic stresses and revealed differential expression in different deletion constructs. Promoter analysis based on histochemical assay, real-time qPCR and fluorimetric analysis revealed that HSEs alone could not transcribe GUS gene significantly in sHSP26 promoter and CCAAT box elements contribute synergistically to the transcription. Our results also provide insight into the importance of 5`UTR of sHsp26 promoter thus emphasizing the probable role of imperfect CCAAT-box element or some novel cis-element with respect to heat stress.

  7. Generation and characterization of gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish for evaluating endocrine-disrupting effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; Chen, Xiaowen; Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    The glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene encodes the shared α subunit of the three pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone β (Fshβ), luteinizing hormone β (Lhβ) and thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ). In our current study, we identified and characterized the promoter region of zebrafish gsuα and generated a stable gsuα:EGFP transgenic line, which recapitulated the endogenous gsuα expression in the early developing pituitary gland. A relatively conserved regulatory element set is presented in the promoter regions of zebrafish and three other known mammalian gsuα promoters. Our results also demonstrated that the expression patterns of the gsuα:EGFP transgene were all identical to those expression patterns of the endogenous gsuα expression in the pituitary tissue when our transgenic fish were treated with various endocrine chemicals, including forskolin (FSK), SP600125, trichostatin A (TSA), KClO 4 , dexamethasone (Dex), β-estradiol and progesterone. Thus, this gsuα:EGFP transgenic fish reporter line provides another valuable tool for investigating the lineage development of gsuα-expressing gonadotrophins and the coordinated regulation of various glycoprotein hormone subunit genes. These reporter fish can serve as a novel platform to perform screenings of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vivo as well. - Highlights: • Identification of the promoter of zebrafish glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene • Generation of stable transmission gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter • Demonstration of the recapitulation of the gsuα:EGFP and endogenous gsuα expression • Suggestion of the gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a novel platform for EDC study

  8. Generation and characterization of gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish for evaluating endocrine-disrupting effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chen, Xiaowen; Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yin, Zhan, E-mail: zyin@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Ningbo Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology (China)

    2014-07-01

    The glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene encodes the shared α subunit of the three pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone β (Fshβ), luteinizing hormone β (Lhβ) and thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ). In our current study, we identified and characterized the promoter region of zebrafish gsuα and generated a stable gsuα:EGFP transgenic line, which recapitulated the endogenous gsuα expression in the early developing pituitary gland. A relatively conserved regulatory element set is presented in the promoter regions of zebrafish and three other known mammalian gsuα promoters. Our results also demonstrated that the expression patterns of the gsuα:EGFP transgene were all identical to those expression patterns of the endogenous gsuα expression in the pituitary tissue when our transgenic fish were treated with various endocrine chemicals, including forskolin (FSK), SP600125, trichostatin A (TSA), KClO{sub 4}, dexamethasone (Dex), β-estradiol and progesterone. Thus, this gsuα:EGFP transgenic fish reporter line provides another valuable tool for investigating the lineage development of gsuα-expressing gonadotrophins and the coordinated regulation of various glycoprotein hormone subunit genes. These reporter fish can serve as a novel platform to perform screenings of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vivo as well. - Highlights: • Identification of the promoter of zebrafish glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene • Generation of stable transmission gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter • Demonstration of the recapitulation of the gsuα:EGFP and endogenous gsuα expression • Suggestion of the gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a novel platform for EDC study.

  9. Resistance to BmNPV via overexpression of an exogenous gene controlled by an inducible promoter and enhancer in transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jiang

    Full Text Available The hycu-ep32 gene of Hyphantria cunea NPV can inhibit Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV multiplication in co-infected cells, but it is not known whether the overexpression of the hycu-ep32 gene has an antiviral effect in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Thus, we constructed four transgenic vectors, which were under the control of the 39 K promoter of BmNPV (39 KP, Bombyx mori A4 promoter (A4P, hr3 enhancer of BmNPV combined with 39 KP, and hr3 combined with A4P. Transgenic lines were created via embryo microinjection using practical diapause silkworm. qPCR revealed that the expression level of hycu-ep32 could be induced effectively after BmNPV infection in transgenic lines where hycu-ep32 was controlled by hr3 combined with 39 KP (i.e., HEKG. After oral inoculation of BmNPV with 3 × 10(5 occlusion bodies per third instar, the mortality with HEKG-B was approximately 30% lower compared with the non-transgenic line. The economic characteristics of the transgenic lines remained unchanged. These results suggest that overexpression of an exogenous antiviral gene controlled by an inducible promoter and enhancer is a feasible method for breeding silkworms with a high antiviral capacity.

  10. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  11. Transgenics in Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Transgenics in Agriculture. D Rex Arunraj B Gajendra Babu. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 83-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0083-0092 ...

  12. Hepatic steatosis in transgenic mice overexpressing human histone deacetylase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ai-Guo; Seo, Sang-Beom; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Shin, Hye-Jun; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2005-01-01

    It is generally thought that histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of genes. However, little information is available concerning the specific functions of individual HDACs in disease states. In this study, two transgenic mice lines were established which harbored the human HDAC1 gene. Overexpressed HDAC1 was detected in the nuclei of transgenic liver cells, and HDAC1 enzymatic activity was significantly higher in the transgenic mice than in control littermates. The HDAC1 transgenic mice exhibited a high incidence of hepatic steatosis and nuclear pleomorphism. Molecular studies showed that HDAC1 may contribute to nuclear pleomorphism through the p53/p21 signaling pathway

  13. Cell suspension culture-mediated incorporation of the rice bel gene into transgenic cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ke

    Full Text Available Cotton plants engineered for resistance to the herbicides, glyphosate or glufosinate have made a considerable impact on the production of the crop worldwide. In this work, embryogenic cell cultures derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Coker 312 hypocotyl callus were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the rice cytochrome P450 gene, CYP81A6 (bel. In rice, bel has been shown to confer resistance to both bentazon and sulfanylurea herbicides. Transformed cells were selected on a liquid medium supplemented alternately or simultaneously with kanamycin (50mg/L and bentazon (4.2 µmol. A total of 17 transgenic cotton lines were recovered, based on the initial resistance to bentazon and on PCR detection of the bel transgene. Bel integration into the cotton genome was confirmed by Southern blot and expression of the transgene was verified by RT-PCR. In greenhouse and experimental plot trials, herbicide (bentazon tolerance of up to 1250 mg/L was demonstrated in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines with a single copy of the bel gene showed normal Mendelian inheritance of the characteristic. Importantly, resistance to bentazon was shown to be stably incorporated in the T1, T2 and T3 generations of self-fertilised descendents and in plants outcrossed to another upland cotton cultivar. Engineering resistance to bentazon in cotton through the heterologous expression of bel opens the possibility of incorporating this trait into elite cultivars, a strategy that would give growers a more flexible alternative to weed management in cotton crops.

  14. [Chromosomal localization of foreign genes in transgenic mice using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Gong, Xiu-li; Li, Wei; Guo, Xin-bing; Zhu, Yi-wen; Huang, Ying

    2008-02-01

    To establish a highly sensitive and specific dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (D-FISH) method used for chromosomal localization of foreign genes in double transgenic mice. Two strains of double transgenic mice were used in this experiment, one was integrated with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) and the enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP), the other was with the short hairpin RNA interference(RNAi) and beta(654). Splenic cells cultured in vitro were arrested in metaphase by colchicine and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled and biotinylated DNA probes, then detected by rhodamine-conjugated avidin and FITC-conjugated anti-digoxigenin. Dual-color fluorescence signals were detected on the same metaphase in both transgenic mice strains. In HSV-tk/eGFP double transgenic mice, strong green fluorescence for HSV-tk and red for eGFP were observed and localized at 2E5-G3 and 8A2-A4 respectively. In beta(654)/RNAi mice, beta(654) was detected as red fluorescence on chromosome 7D3-E2, and RNAi showed random integration on chromosomes. It was detected as green fluorescence on chromosome 12B1 in one mouse, while on 1E2.3-1F and 3A3 in the other. Highly sensitive and specific D-FISH method was established using the self-prepared DNA probes, and chromosomal localization of the foreign genes was also performed in combination with G-banding in double transgenic mice. This technology will facilitate the researches in transgenic animals and gene therapy models.

  15. Efficient generation of knock-in transgenic zebrafish carrying reporter/driver genes by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yukiko; Hisano, Yu; Kawahara, Atsuo; Higashijima, Shin-ichi

    2014-10-08

    The type II bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system is rapidly becoming popular for genome-engineering due to its simplicity, flexibility, and high efficiency. Recently, targeted knock-in of a long DNA fragment via homology-independent DNA repair has been achieved in zebrafish using CRISPR/Cas9 system. This raised the possibility that knock-in transgenic zebrafish could be efficiently generated using CRISPR/Cas9. However, how widely this method can be applied for the targeting integration of foreign genes into endogenous genomic loci is unclear. Here, we report efficient generation of knock-in transgenic zebrafish that have cell-type specific Gal4 or reporter gene expression. A donor plasmid containing a heat-shock promoter was co-injected with a short guide RNA (sgRNA) targeted for genome digestion, a sgRNA targeted for donor plasmid digestion, and Cas9 mRNA. We have succeeded in establishing stable knock-in transgenic fish with several different constructs for 4 genetic loci at a frequency being exceeding 25%. Due to its simplicity, design flexibility, and high efficiency, we propose that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in will become a standard method for the generation transgenic zebrafish.

  16. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio introduced in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio, found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the existing fluorescent protein GFP from the Genbank, this could help identify quickly if they are new genes or variants thereof as these novel fluorescent proteins may be introduced in aquatic GMO in the future. Thus, developing and improving biosecurity measures through its timely detection at the molecular genetic level.

  17. Development of transgenic finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) resistant to leaf blast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacimuthu, S; Ceasar, S Antony

    2012-03-01

    Finger millet plants conferring resistance to leaf blast disease have been developed by inserting a rice chitinase (chi11) gene through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plasmid pHyg-Chi.11 harbouring the rice chitinase gene under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter was introduced into finger millet using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (pSB1). Transformed plants were selected and regenerated on hygromycin-supplemented medium. Transient expression of transgene was confirmed by GUS histochemical staining. The incorporation of rice chitinase gene in R0 and R1 progenies was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Expression of chitinase gene in finger millet was confirmed by Western blot analysis with a barley chitinase antibody. A leaf blast assay was also performed by challenging the transgenic plants with spores of Pyricularia grisea. The frequency of transient expression was 16.3% to 19.3%. Stable frequency was 3.5% to 3.9%. Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of 3.1 kb chitinase gene. Western blot analysis detected the presence of 35 kDa chitinase enzyme. Chitinase activity ranged from 19.4 to 24.8. In segregation analysis, the transgenic R1 lines produced three resistant and one sensitive for hygromycin, confirming the normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Transgenic plants showed high level of resistance to leaf blast disease compared to control plants. This is the first study reporting the introduction of rice chitinase gene into finger millet for leaf blast resistance.

  18. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate protects against cerebral ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Hosoi, Toru; Okuma, Yasunobu; Kaneko, Masayuki; Nomura, Yasuyuki

    2004-10-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is a low molecular weight fatty acid that has been used for treatment of urea cycle disorders in children, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia. It has been demonstrated recently that 4-PBA can act as a chemical chaperone by reducing the load of mutant or mislocated proteins retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) under conditions associated with cystic fibrosis and liver injury. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of 4-PBA on cerebral ischemic injury. Pre- or post-treatment with 4-PBA at therapeutic doses attenuated infarction volume, hemispheric swelling, and apoptosis and improved neurological status in a mouse model of hypoxia-ischemia. Moreover, 4-PBA suppressed ER-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein induction, and caspase-12 activation. In neuroblastoma neuro2a cells, 4-PBA reduced caspase-12 activation, DNA fragmentation, and cell death induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. It protected against ER stress-induced but not mitochondria-mediated cell death. Additionally, 4-PBA inhibited the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in primary cultured glial cells under hypoxia/reoxygenation. These results indicate that 4-PBA could protect against cerebral ischemia through inhibition of ER stress-mediated apoptosis and inflammation. Therefore, the multiple actions of 4-PBA may provide a strong effect in treatment of cerebral ischemia, and its use as a chemical chaperone would provide a novel approach for the treatment of stroke.

  19. Prospecting for Microelement Function and Biosafety Assessment of Transgenic Cereal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofen Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microelement contents and metabolism are vitally important for cereal plant growth and development as well as end-use properties. While minerals phytotoxicity harms plants, microelement deficiency also affects human health. Genetic engineering provides a promising way to solve these problems. As plants vary in abilities to uptake, transport, and accumulate minerals, and the key enzymes acting on that process is primarily presented in this review. Subsequently, microelement function and biosafety assessment of transgenic cereal plants have become a key issue to be addressed. Progress in genetic engineering of cereal plants has been made with the introduction of quality, high-yield, and resistant genes since the first transgenic rice, corn, and wheat were born in 1988, 1990, and 1992, respectively. As the biosafety issue of transgenic cereal plants has now risen to be a top concern, many studies on transgenic biosafety have been carried out. Transgenic cereal biosafety issues mainly include two subjects, environmental friendliness and end-use safety. Different levels of gene confirmation, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and nutritiomics, absorption, metabolism, and function have been investigated. Also, the different levels of microelement contents have been measured in transgenic plants. Based on the motivation of the requested biosafety, systematic designs, and analysis of transgenic cereal are also presented in this review paper.

  20. Prospecting for Microelement Function and Biosafety Assessment of Transgenic Cereal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaofen; Luo, Qingchen; Huang, Kaixun; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2018-01-01

    Microelement contents and metabolism are vitally important for cereal plant growth and development as well as end-use properties. While minerals phytotoxicity harms plants, microelement deficiency also affects human health. Genetic engineering provides a promising way to solve these problems. As plants vary in abilities to uptake, transport, and accumulate minerals, and the key enzymes acting on that process is primarily presented in this review. Subsequently, microelement function and biosafety assessment of transgenic cereal plants have become a key issue to be addressed. Progress in genetic engineering of cereal plants has been made with the introduction of quality, high-yield, and resistant genes since the first transgenic rice, corn, and wheat were born in 1988, 1990, and 1992, respectively. As the biosafety issue of transgenic cereal plants has now risen to be a top concern, many studies on transgenic biosafety have been carried out. Transgenic cereal biosafety issues mainly include two subjects, environmental friendliness and end-use safety. Different levels of gene confirmation, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and nutritiomics, absorption, metabolism, and function have been investigated. Also, the different levels of microelement contents have been measured in transgenic plants. Based on the motivation of the requested biosafety, systematic designs, and analysis of transgenic cereal are also presented in this review paper.

  1. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1–21 days and 61.0% during 22–42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers. PMID:26599444

  2. Age-related prodiabetogenic effects of transgenic resistin in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Kurtz, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 23, Suppl. 4 (2006), s. 271-271 ISSN 0742-3071. [World Diabetes Congress /19./. 03.12.2006-07.12.2006, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/06/0028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : resistin * autocrine effects * transgenic Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  3. Expression of active recombinant human alpha 1-antitrypsin in transgenic rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoud, M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Dalemans, W.; Pointu, H.; Attal, J.; Schultz, H.; Clesse, D.; Stinnakre, M.G.; Pavirani, A.; Houdebine, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    A DNA construct containing the human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene including 1.5 and 4 kb of 5' and 3' flanking sequences, was microinjected into the pronucleus of rabbit embryos. The recombinant human protein was (a) expressed in the blood circulation of F0 and F1 transgenic rabbits at an average

  4. [Expression of plant antimicrobial peptide pro-SmAMP2 gene increases resistance of transgenic potato plants to Alternaria and Fusarium pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetchinkina, E M; Komakhina, V V; Vysotskii, D A; Zaitsev, D V; Smirnov, A N; Babakov, A V; Komakhin, R A

    2016-09-01

    The chickweed (Stellaria media L.) pro-SmAMP2 gene encodes the hevein-like peptides that have in vitro antimicrobial activity against certain harmful microorganisms. These peptides play an important role in protecting the chickweed plants from infection, and the pro-SmAMP2 gene was previously used to protect transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants from phytopathogens. In this study, the pro-SmAMP2 gene under control of viral CaMV35S promoter or under control of its own pro-SmAMP2 promoter was transformed into cultivated potato plants of two cultivars, differing in the resistance to Alternaria: Yubiley Zhukova (resistant) and Skoroplodny (susceptible). With the help of quantitative real-time PCR, it was demonstrated that transgenic potato plants expressed the pro-SmAMP2 gene under control of both promoters at the level comparable to or exceeding the level of the potato actin gene. Assessment of the immune status of the transformants demonstrated that expression of antimicrobial peptide pro-SmAMP2 gene was able to increase the resistance to a complex of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. phytopathogens only in potato plants of the Yubiley Zhukova cultivar. The possible role of the pro-SmAMP2 products in protecting potatoes from Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. is discussed.

  5. Transgenic animals and their application in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Bagle TR, Kunkulol RR, Baig MS, More SY

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animals are animals that are genetically altered to have traits that mimic symptoms of specific human pathologies. They provide genetic models of various human diseases which are important in understanding disease and developing new targets. In early 1980 Gordon and co-workers described the first gene addition experiment using the microinjection technology and since then the impact of transgenic technology on basic research has been significant. Within 20 years of its inception, AT...

  6. Kidneys From α1,3-Galactosyltransferase Knockout/Human Heme Oxygenase-1/Human A20 Transgenic Pigs Are Protected From Rejection During Ex Vivo Perfusion With Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Hellen E; Petersen, Björn; Ramackers, Wolf; Petkov, Stoyan; Herrmann, Doris; Hauschild-Quintern, Janet; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Hassel, Petra; Ziegler, Maren; Baars, Wiebke; Bergmann, Sabine; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Winkler, Michael; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-07-01

    Multiple modifications of the porcine genome are required to prevent rejection after pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Here, we produced pigs with a knockout of the α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1-KO) combined with transgenic expression of the human anti-apoptotic/anti-inflammatory molecules heme oxygenase-1 and A20, and investigated their xenoprotective properties. The GGTA1-KO/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1)/human A20 (hA20) transgenic pigs were produced in a stepwise approach using zinc finger nuclease vectors targeting the GGTA1 gene and a Sleeping Beauty vector coding for hA20. Two piglets were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and sequencing. The biological function of the genetic modifications was tested in a (51)Chromium release assay and by ex vivo kidney perfusions with human blood. Disruption of the GGTA1 gene by deletion of few basepairs was demonstrated in GGTA1-KO/hHO-1/hA20 transgenic pigs. The hHO-1 and hA20 mRNA expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Ex vivo perfusion of 2 transgenic kidneys was feasible for the maximum experimental time of 240 minutes without symptoms of rejection. Results indicate that GGTA1-KO/hHO-1/hA20 transgenic pigs are a promising model to alleviate rejection and ischemia-reperfusion damage in porcine xenografts and could serve as a background for further genetic modifications toward the production of a donor pig that is clinically relevant for xenotransplantation.

  7. Flanking sequence determination and specific PCR identification of transgenic wheat B102-1-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jijuan; Xu, Junyi; Zhao, Tongtong; Cao, Dongmei; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Piqiao; Luan, Fengxia

    2014-01-01

    The exogenous fragment sequence and flanking sequence between the exogenous fragment and recombinant chromosome of transgenic wheat B102-1-2 were successfully acquired using genome walking technology. The newly acquired exogenous fragment encoded the full-length sequence of transformed genes with transformed plasmid and corresponding functional genes including ubi, vector pBANF-bar, vector pUbiGUSPlus, vector HSP, reporter vector pUbiGUSPlus, promoter ubiquitin, and coli DH1. A specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification method for transgenic wheat B102-1-2 was established on the basis of designed primers according to flanking sequence. This established specific PCR strategy was validated by using transgenic wheat, transgenic corn, transgenic soybean, transgenic rice, and non-transgenic wheat. A specifically amplified target band was observed only in transgenic wheat B102-1-2. Therefore, this method is characterized by high specificity, high reproducibility, rapid identification, and excellent accuracy for the identification of transgenic wheat B102-1-2.

  8. ZyFISH: a simple, rapid and reliable zygosity assay for transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal McHugh

    Full Text Available Microinjection of DNA constructs into fertilized mouse oocytes typically results in random transgene integration at a single genomic locus. The resulting transgenic founders can be used to establish hemizygous transgenic mouse lines. However, practical and experimental reasons often require that such lines be bred to homozygosity. Transgene zygosity can be determined by progeny testing assays which are expensive and time-consuming, by quantitative Southern blotting which is labor-intensive, or by quantitative PCR (qPCR which requires transgene-specific design. Here, we describe a zygosity assessment procedure based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (zyFISH. The zyFISH protocol entails the detection of transgenic loci by FISH and the concomitant assignment of homozygosity using a concise and unbiased scoring system. The method requires small volumes of blood, is scalable to at least 40 determinations per assay, and produces results entirely consistent with the progeny testing assay. This combination of reliability, simplicity and cost-effectiveness makes zyFISH a method of choice for transgenic mouse zygosity determinations.

  9. HIV-1 transgenic rat CD4+ T cells develop decreased CD28 responsiveness and suboptimal Lck tyrosine dephosphorylation following activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anjana; Pati, Shibani; Nyugen, Anhthu; Barabitskaja, Oxana; Mondal, Prosanta; Anderson, Michael; Gallo, Robert C.; Huso, David L.; Reid, William

    2006-01-01

    Impaired CD4+ T cell responses, resulting in dysregulated T-helper 1 (Th1) effector and memory responses, are a common result of HIV-1 infection. These defects are often preceded by decreased expression and function of the α/β T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex and of co-stimulatory molecules including CD28, resulting in altered T cell proliferation, cytokine secretion and cell survival. We have previously shown that HIV Tg rats have defective development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets. Here we identify abnormalities in activated HIV-1 Tg rat CD4+ T cells that include decreased pY505 dephosphorylation of Lck (required for Lck activation), decreased CD28 function, reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-xL, decreased secretion of the mitogenic lympokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and increased activation induced apoptosis. These events likely lead to defects in antigen-specific signaling and may help explain the disruption of Th1 responses and the generation of specific effector/memory subsets in transgenic CD4+ T cells

  10. Application of Transgenic Technologies to Papaya: Developments and Biosafety Assessments in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kertbundit, Sunee; Juříček, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2010), s. 52-57 ISSN 1749-0413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : coat protein-mediated resistance * GMO * Papaya ringspot virus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2010_Kertbundit_TransgenicPlantJournal_52.pdf

  11. Creating Transgenic shRNA Mice by Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premsrirut, Prem K.; Dow, Lukas E.; Park, Youngkyu; Hannon, Gregory J.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) enables sequence-specific, experimentally induced silencing of virtually any gene by tapping into innate regulatory mechanisms that are conserved among most eukaryotes. The principles that enable transgenic RNAi in cell lines can also be used to create transgenic animals, which express short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in a regulated or tissue-specific fashion. However, RNAi in transgenic animals is somewhat more challenging than RNAi in cultured cells. The activities of promoters that are commonly used for shRNA expression in cell culture can vary enormously in different tissues, and founder lines also typically vary in transgene expression due to the effects of their single integration sites. There are many ways to produce mice carrying shRNA transgenes and the method described here uses recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). RMCE permits insertion of the shRNA transgene into a well-characterized locus that gives reproducible and predictable expression in each founder and enhances the probability of potent expression in many cell types. This procedure is more involved and complex than simple pronuclear injection, but if even a few shRNA mice are envisioned, for example, to probe the functions of several genes, the effort of setting up the processes outlined below are well worthwhile. Note that when creating a transgenic mouse, one should take care to use the most potent shRNA possible. As a rule of thumb, the sequence chosen should provide >90% knockdown when introduced into cultured cells at single copy (e.g., on retroviral infection at a multiplicity of ≤0.3). PMID:24003198

  12. Expression of multiple resistance genes enhances tolerance to environmental stressors in transgenic poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Su

    Full Text Available Commercial and non-commercial plants face a variety of environmental stressors that often cannot be controlled. In this study, transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento' harboring five effector genes (vgb, SacB, JERF36, BtCry3A and OC-I were subjected to drought, salinity, waterlogging and insect stressors in greenhouse or laboratory conditions. Field trials were also conducted to investigate long-term effects of transgenic trees on insects and salt tolerance in the transformants. In greenhouse studies, two transgenic lines D5-20 and D5-21 showed improved growth, as evidenced by greater height and basal diameter increments and total biomass relative to the control plants after drought or salt stress treatments. The improved tolerance to drought and salt was primarily attributed to greater instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi in the transgenic trees. The chlorophyll concentrations tended to be higher in the transgenic lines under drought or saline conditions. Transformed trees in drought conditions accumulated more fructan and proline and had increased Fv/Fm ratios (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II under waterlogging stress. Insect-feeding assays in the laboratory revealed a higher total mortality rate and lower exuviation index of leaf beetle [Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting] larvae fed with D5-21 leaves, suggesting enhanced insect resistance in the transgenic poplar. In field trials, the dominance of targeted insects on 2-year-old D5-21 transgenic trees was substantially lower than that of the controls, indicating enhanced resistance to Coleoptera. The average height and DBH (diameter at breast height of 2.5-year-old transgenic trees growing in naturally saline soil were 3.80% and 4.12% greater than those of the control trees, but these increases were not significant. These results suggested that multiple stress-resistance properties in important crop tree species could be simultaneously improved, although

  13. Transgenic plants expressing GLK1 and CCA1 having increased nitrogen assimilation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruzzi, Gloria [New York, NY; Gutierrez, Rodrigo A [Santiago, CL; Nero, Damion C [Woodside, NY

    2012-04-10

    Provided herein are compositions and methods for producing transgenic plants. In specific embodiments, transgenic plants comprise a construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1, operably linked to a plant-specific promote, wherein the CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 is ectopically overexpressed in the transgenic plants, and wherein the promoter is optionally a constitutive or inducible promoter. In other embodiments, transgenic plants in which express a lower level of CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 are provided. Also provided herein are commercial products (e.g., pulp, paper, paper products, or lumber) derived from the transgenic plants (e.g., transgenic trees) produced using the methods provided herein.

  14. Tyloses and phenolic deposits in xylem vessels impede water transport in low-lignin transgenic poplars: a study by cryo-fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Kitin; Steven L. Voelker; Frederick C. Meinzer; Hans Beekman; Steven H. Strauss; Barbara. Lachenbruch

    2010-01-01

    Of 14 transgenic poplar genotypes (Populus tremula x Populus alba) with antisense 4-coumarate:coenzynle A ligase that were grown in the field for 2 years, five that had substantial lignin reductions also had greatly reduced xylem-specific conductivity compared with that of control trees and those transgenic events with small...

  15. Brain phenotype of transgenic mice overexpressing cystathionine β-synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinciane Régnier

    Full Text Available The cystathionine β-synthase (CBS gene, located on human chromosome 21q22.3, is a good candidate for playing a role in the Down Syndrome (DS cognitive profile: it is overexpressed in the brain of individuals with DS, and it encodes a key enzyme of sulfur-containing amino acid (SAA metabolism, a pathway important for several brain physiological processes.Here, we have studied the neural consequences of CBS overexpression in a transgenic mouse line (60.4P102D1 expressing the human CBS gene under the control of its endogenous regulatory regions. These mice displayed a ∼2-fold increase in total CBS proteins in different brain areas and a ∼1.3-fold increase in CBS activity in the cerebellum and the hippocampus. No major disturbance of SAA metabolism was observed, and the transgenic mice showed normal behavior in the rotarod and passive avoidance tests. However, we found that hippocampal synaptic plasticity is facilitated in the 60.4P102D1 line.We demonstrate that CBS overexpression has functional consequences on hippocampal neuronal networks. These results shed new light on the function of the CBS gene, and raise the interesting possibility that CBS overexpression might have an advantageous effect on some cognitive functions in DS.

  16. Brain phenotype of transgenic mice overexpressing cystathionine β-synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnier, Vinciane; Billard, Jean-Marie; Gupta, Sapna; Potier, Brigitte; Woerner, Stéphanie; Paly, Evelyne; Ledru, Aurélie; David, Sabrina; Luilier, Sabrina; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Vacano, Guido; Kraus, Jan P; Patterson, David; Kruger, Warren D; Delabar, Jean M; London, Jaqueline

    2012-01-01

    The cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) gene, located on human chromosome 21q22.3, is a good candidate for playing a role in the Down Syndrome (DS) cognitive profile: it is overexpressed in the brain of individuals with DS, and it encodes a key enzyme of sulfur-containing amino acid (SAA) metabolism, a pathway important for several brain physiological processes. Here, we have studied the neural consequences of CBS overexpression in a transgenic mouse line (60.4P102D1) expressing the human CBS gene under the control of its endogenous regulatory regions. These mice displayed a ∼2-fold increase in total CBS proteins in different brain areas and a ∼1.3-fold increase in CBS activity in the cerebellum and the hippocampus. No major disturbance of SAA metabolism was observed, and the transgenic mice showed normal behavior in the rotarod and passive avoidance tests. However, we found that hippocampal synaptic plasticity is facilitated in the 60.4P102D1 line. We demonstrate that CBS overexpression has functional consequences on hippocampal neuronal networks. These results shed new light on the function of the CBS gene, and raise the interesting possibility that CBS overexpression might have an advantageous effect on some cognitive functions in DS.

  17. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Song, Congfeng; Borth, Wayne; Sether, Diane; Melzer, Michael; Hu, John

    2011-10-20

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  18. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  19. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  20. A transgenic rat expressing human APP with the Swedish Alzheimer's disease mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Ronnie; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Kloskowska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, transgenic mice have become valuable tools for studying mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). With the aim of developing an animal model better for memory and neurobehavioural testing, we have generated a transgenic rat model of AD. These animals express human amyloid precursor...... in cerebrovascular blood vessels with very rare diffuse plaques. We believe that crossing these animals with mutant PS1 transgenic rats will result in accelerated plaque formation similar to that seen in transgenic mice....

  1. Bioavailability of transgenic microRNAs in genetically modified plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic expression of small RNAs is a prevalent approach in agrobiotechnology for the global enhancement of plant foods. Meanwhile, emerging studies have, on the one hand, emphasized the potential of transgenic microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel dietary therapeutics and, on the other, suggested potentia...

  2. Transgenic cultures: from the economic viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mosquera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of transgenic seeds for agricultural purposes poses modification to their production, due to the potential for reaching desired characteristics such as greater yield, this being fundamental in an economic environment characterised by open market conditions. However, acceptance of products resulting from genetic engineering is far from becoming a simple process; discussion relating to the predominance of private sector interests, the monopoly of knowledge and the safety of such seeds/food is currently in the spotlight. This article presents the main points of debate regarding adoption of transgenic cultures, contributing to discussion about this topic for Colombia.

  3. Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c-Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0162 TITLE: Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c -Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and...DATES COVERED 15Sept2013 - 14Sept2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c -Myc Oncogenic...ABSTRACT We previously made a PB-Cre4/Ai-Myc model for Cre-induced and androgen-independent expression of c -Myc and Luc2 in prostate. This is designed

  4. Degradation behaviour of phosphinothricin in nontransgenic and transgenic maize- and rape cells as well as in whole plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, G.; Pawlizki, K.H.; Ruhland, M.

    2000-01-01

    Up to now only very few publications are available about the metabolism of phosphinothricin (D/L-PPT, trade names: BASTA trademark , LIBERTY trademark ) in plants. In most of these reports degradation studies with cell cultures using very low herbicide concentrations are described. There are no publications about the degradation in transgenic intact plants under outdoor conditions yet. In order to clarify the question, whether the degradation in transgenic crops may differ from that in nontransgenic plants and if there exist differences between D- and L-PPT, the degradation of 14 C-D/L-, -L- and -D-PPT in transgenic and nontransgenic cell cultures as well as in intact, transgenic rape and maize plants was studied under outdoor conditions. D-PPT was not metabolised to a reasonable extent both in cell cultures and whole plants, all metabolites were formed from L-PPT. At harvest the amounts of total residues in maize plants ranged from 9 to 16% of the applied herbicide dosage and in rape plants from 35 to 47%. In nontransgenic plant cells L-PPT was exclusively metabolised to different methylphosphinico fatty acids. The main metabolite both in transgenic cells and whole plants with a content of 60 to 90% of total residues in rape and maize was N-acetyl-L-PPT, which seems to be stable in transgenic plants. In addition very low amounts of the same methylphosphinico fatty acids as in nontransgenic cells were detected in transgenic plants. More than 95% of the total residues were extractable by water, the formation of nonpolar and nonextractable residues was below 4%. At harvest the highest amounts of the residues were found in the treated leaves (4-15%), the lowest in the kernals (0,07-0,6%). According to these results total residues of PPT will not exceed the official tolerances in transgenic rape and maize if application follows good agricultural practice. (orig.) [de

  5. Klotho Protects Dopaminergic Neuron Oxidant-Induced Degeneration by Modulating ASK1 and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds K Brobey

    Full Text Available Klotho transgenic mice exhibit resistance to oxidative stress as measured by their urinal levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, albeit this anti-oxidant defense mechanism has not been locally investigated in the brain. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the reactive oxygen species (ROS-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1/p38 MAPK pathway regulates stress levels in the brain of these mice and showed that: 1 the ratio of free ASK1 to thioredoxin (Trx-bound ASK1 is relatively lower in the transgenic brain whereas the reverse is true for the Klotho knockout mice; 2 the reduced p38 activation level in the transgene corresponds to higher level of ASK1-bound Trx, while the KO mice showed elevated p38 activation and lower level of-bound Trx; and 3 that 14-3-3ζ is hyper phosphorylated (Ser-58 in the transgene which correlated with increased monomer forms. In addition, we evaluated the in vivo robustness of the protection by challenging the brains of Klotho transgenic mice with a neurotoxin, MPTP and analyzed for residual neuron numbers and integrity in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results show that Klotho overexpression significantly protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative damage, partly by modulating p38 MAPK activation level. Our data highlight the importance of ASK1/p38 MAPK pathway in the brain and identify Klotho as a possible anti-oxidant effector.

  6. Arm-Gal4 inheritance influences development and lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, F A; Staveley, B E

    2015-10-19

    The UAS-Gal4 ectopic expression system is a widely used and highly valued tool that allows specific gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Yeast transcription factor Gal4 can be directed using D. melanogaster transcriptional control elements, and is often assumed to have little effect on the organism. By evaluation of the consequences of maternal and paternal inheritance of a Gal4 transgene under the transcriptional regulation of armadillo control elements (arm-Gal4), we demonstrated that Gal4 expression could be detrimental to development and longevity. Male progeny expressing arm-Gal4 in the presence of UAS-lacZ transgene had reduced numbers and size of ommatidia, compared to flies expressing UAS-lacZ transgene under the control of other Gal4 transgenes. Aged at 25°C, the median life span of male flies with maternally inherited elav-Gal4 was 70 days, without a responding transgene or with UAS-lacZ. The median life span of maternally inherited arm-Gal4 male flies without a responding transgene was 48 days, and 40 days with the UAS-lacZ transgene. A partial rescue of this phenotype was observed with the expression of UAS-lacZ under paternal arm-Gal4 control, having an average median lifespan of 60 days. This data suggests that arm-Gal4 has detrimental effects on Drosophila development and lifespan that are directly dependent upon parental inheritance, and that the benign responder and reporter gene UAS-lacZ may influence D. melanogaster development. These findings should be taken into consideration during the design and execution of UAS-Gal4 expression experiments.

  7. Activated Natural Killer Cells Mediate the Suppressive Effect of Interleukin-4 on Tumor Development via STAT6 Activation in an Atopic Condition Melanoma Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Ju Son; Yu Yeon Jung; Mi Hee Park; Hye Lim Lee; Min Ji Song; Hwan-Soo Yoo; Dae Youn Hwang; Sang Bae Han; Jin Tae Hong

    2017-01-01

    A protective effect of allergy for cancer has been suggested, but the results are somewhat conflicting, and the mechanism remains elusive. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) signaling has been identified as a potentially important pathway in the development of allergies and the suppression of cancer development. To evaluate the allergy responses in IL-4?mediated tumor development, we compared the growth of B16F10 melanoma cells in 4% phthalic anhydride (PA)-treated IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic mice (IL-4 mice...

  8. Transgenic wheat expressing Thinopyrum intermedium MYB transcription factor TiMYB2R-1 shows enhanced resistance to the take-all disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Lihua; Zhou, Xianyao; Zhou, Miaoping; Lu, Yan; Ma, Lingjian; Ma, Hongxiang; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-05-01

    The disease take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, is one of the most destructive root diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding resistant cultivars is an effective way to protect wheat from take-all. However, little progress has been made in improving the disease resistance level in commercial wheat cultivars. MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. In this study, an R2R3-MYB gene in Thinopyrum intermedium, TiMYB2R-1, was cloned and characterized. The gene sequence includes two exons and an intron. The expression of TiMYB2R-1 was significantly induced following G. graminis infection. An in vitro DNA binding assay proved that TiMYB2R-1 protein could bind to the MYB-binding site cis-element ACI. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was localized in the nucleus. TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat plants were generated, characterized molecularly, and evaluated for take-all resistance. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that TiMYB2R-1 was integrated into the genomes of three independent transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns and the transgene was heritable. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was highly expressed in the transgenic wheat lines. Based on disease response assessments for three successive generations, the significantly enhanced resistance to take-all was observed in the three TiMYB2R-1-overexpressing transgenic wheat lines. Furthermore, the transcript levels of at least six wheat defence-related genes were significantly elevated in the TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat lines. These results suggest that engineering and overexpression of TiMYB2R-1 may be used for improving take-all resistance of wheat and other cereal crops.

  9. Constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred enhanced growth and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Youl; Kim, Eun Yu; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids are not only important components of cell membranes, but participate in diverse processes in higher plants. In this study, we generated Capsicum annuum phospholipiase A1 (CaPLA1) overexpressing transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The T4 CaPLA1-overexpressing rice plants (Ubi:CaPLA1) had a higher root:shoot mass ratio than the wild-type plants in the vegetative stage. Leaf epidermal cells from transgenic plants had more cells than wild-type plants. Genes that code for cyclin and lipid metabolic enzymes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines. When grown under typical paddy field conditions, the transgenic plants produced more tillers, longer panicles and more branches per panicle than the wild-type plants, all of which resulted in greater grain yield. Microarray analysis suggests that gene expressions that are related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, and redox state were widely altered in CaPLA1-overexpressing transgenic rice plants. Ubi:CaPLA1 plants had a reduced membrane peroxidation state, as determined by malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels and higher peroxidase activity than wild-type rice plants. Furthermore, three isoprenoid synthetic genes encoding terpenoid synthase, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase were up-regulated in CaPLA1-overexpressing plants. We suggest that constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred increased grain yield with enhanced growth in transgenic rice plants by alteration of gene activities related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, membrane peroxidation state and isoprenoid biosynthesis.

  10. Principles and application of transgenic technology in marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine organisms into which a foreign gene or noncoding DNA fragment is artificially introduced and stably integrated in their genomes are termed transgenic marine organisms. Since the first report in 1985, a wide range of transgenic fish and marine bivalve mollusks have been produced by microinjec...

  11. AAVPG: A vigilant vector where transgene expression is induced by p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajgelman, Marcio C.; Medrano, Ruan F.V.; Carvalho, Anna Carolina P.V.; Strauss, Bryan E., E-mail: bstrauss@usp.br

    2013-12-15

    Using p53 to drive transgene expression from viral vectors may provide on demand expression in response to physiologic stress, such as hypoxia or DNA damage. Here we introduce AAVPG, an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector where a p53-responsive promoter, termed PG, is used to control transgene expression. In vitro assays show that expression from the AAVPG-luc vector was induced specifically in the presence of functional p53 (1038±202 fold increase, p<0.001). The AAVPG-luc vector was an effective biosensor of p53 activation in response to hypoxia (4.48±0.6 fold increase in the presence of 250 µM CoCl{sub 2}, p<0.001) and biomechanical stress (2.53±0.4 fold increase with stretching, p<0.05). In vivo, the vigilant nature of the AAVPG-luc vector was revealed after treatment of tumor-bearing mice with doxorubicin (pre-treatment, 3.4×10{sup 5}±0.43×10{sup 5} photons/s; post-treatment, 6.6×10{sup 5}±2.1×10{sup 5} photons/s, p<0.05). These results indicate that the AAVPG vector is an interesting option for detecting p53 activity both in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • AAV vector where transgene expression is controlled by the tumor suppressor p53. • The new vector, AAVPG, shown to function as a biosensor of p53 activity, in vitro and in vivo. • The p53 activity monitored by the AAVPG vector is relevant to cancer and other diseases. • AAVPG reporter gene expression was activated upon DNA damage, hypoxia and mechanical stress.

  12. Transgenic tools to characterize neuronal properties of discrete populations of zebrafish neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Chie; Kimura, Yukiko; Hirata, Hiromi; Suster, Maximiliano L; Kawakami, Koichi; Higashijima, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    The developing nervous system consists of a variety of cell types. Transgenic animals expressing reporter genes in specific classes of neuronal cells are powerful tools for the study of neuronal network formation. We generated a wide variety of transgenic zebrafish that expressed reporter genes in specific classes of neurons or neuronal progenitors. These include lines in which neurons of specific neurotransmitter phenotypes expressed fluorescent proteins or Gal4, and lines in which specific subsets of the dorsal progenitor domain in the spinal cord expressed fluorescent proteins. Using these, we examined domain organization in the developing dorsal spinal cord, and found that there are six progenitor domains in zebrafish, which is similar to the domain organization in mice. We also systematically characterized neurotransmitter properties of the neurons that are produced from each domain. Given that reporter gene expressions occurs in a wide area of the nervous system in the lines generated, these transgenic fish should serve as powerful tools for the investigation of not only the neurons in the dorsal spinal cord but also neuronal structures and functions in many other regions of the nervous system.

  13. GC-MS-based metabolmics analysis of transgenic rice with human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, W.; Wang, L.; Zhu, S.; Li, Hao; Yang, D.

    2017-01-01

    This study was to analyze the difference of the metabolite profiles between non-transgenic (TP309-8) and human serum albumin (HSA) transgenic rice (TP309-HSA-8, TP309-HSA-9, corresponding to 8th and 9th generation) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by multivariate analyses methods including principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). As a result, 12 differential metabolites were identified between TP309-HSA-8 and TP309-8, of which 6 were known compounds (trehalose, citric acid, valine, glycine, asparagine and pantothenic acid) and they were enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism, carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation and biosynthesis, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and antidyslipidemic agents pathways, respectively. There were 4 different compounds between TP309-HSA-8 and TP309-HSA-9, including known compounds [asparagine and oleic acid (C18:1)]. However, no pathways were enriched for them. Our findings preliminarily reveal transgenic HSA may be beneficial for rice growth and providing more essential amino acid for human beings by altering the metabolite profiles. (author)

  14. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants via salicylic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Meng-Meng; Yang, Dong-Yue; Zhu, Shao-Bo; Ma, Na-Na; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of SA, which resulted in significant physiological and gene expression changes in transgenic tobacco plants, leading to the decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco. NAC family, the largest transcription factors in plants, responses to different environmental stimuli. Here, we isolated a typical NAC transcription factor (SlJA2) from tomato and got transgenic tobacco with SlJA2 over-expression. Expression of SlJA2 was induced by heat stress (42 °C), chilling stress (4 °C), drought stress, osmotic stress, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of salicylic acid by regulating expression of salicylic acid degradation gene under heat stress. Compared to WT plants, stomatal apertures and water loss increased in transgenic plants, and the damage of photosynthetic apparatus and chlorophyll breakdown were more serious in transgenic plants under heat stress. Meanwhile, more H 2 O 2 and O 2 ·- were accumulated transgenic plants and proline synthesis was restricted, which resulted in more serious oxidative damage compared to WT. qRT-PCR analysis showed that over-expression of SlJA2 could down-regulate genes involved in reactive oxygen species scavenging, proline biosynthesis, and response to heat stress. All the above results indicated that SlJA2 may be a negative regulator responded to plant's heat tolerance. Thus, this study provides new insight into roles of NAC family member in plant response to abiotic stress.

  15. Overexpression of a modiifed AM79 aroA gene in transgenic maize confers high tolerance to glyphosate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhen-jing; CAO Gao-yi; ZHANG Yu-wen; LIU Yan; LIU Yun-jun

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that a bacterial 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) encoding gene AM79 aroA can be a candidate gene to develop glyphosate-tolerant transgenic crops (Cao et al. 2012). In this study, AM79 aroA was redesigned using the plant biased codons and eliminating the motifs which would lead to the instability of mRNA, to create a synthetic gene that would be expressed highly in plant cel s. The redesigned and artiifcial y synthesized gene, named as mAM79, was cloned into plant expression vector pM3301UbiSpAM79, where mAM79 is fused with signal peptide sequence of pea rib-1,5-bisphospate carboxylase (rbcS) smal subunit and control ed by ubiquitin promoter. The plasmid was transformed into maize (Zea mays) immature embryos using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Total 74 regenerated plants were obtained and PCR analysis showed that these transgenic plants had the integration of mAM79. Southern blot analysis was performed on the genomic DNA from four transgenic lines, and the result showed that one or two copies of mAM79 were integrated into maize genome. RT-PCR analysis result indicated that mAM79 was highly transcribed in transgenic maize plants. When sprayed with glyphosate, transgenic maize line AM85 and AM72 could tolerate 4-fold of commercial usage of glyphosate;however, al the non-transgenic maize plants were kil ed by glyphosate. The results in this study conifrmed that mAM79 could be used to develop glyphosate-tolerant maize, and the obtained transgenic maize lines could be used for the breeding of glyphosate-tolerant maize.

  16. Competitive performance of transgenic wheat resistant to powdery mildew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kalinina

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM plants offer an ideal model system to study the influence of single genes that confer constitutive resistance to pathogens on the ecological behaviour of plants. We used phytometers to study competitive interactions between GM lines of spring wheat Triticum aestivum carrying such genes and control lines. We hypothesized that competitive performance of GM lines would be reduced due to enhanced transgene expression under pathogen levels typically encountered in the field. The transgenes pm3b from wheat (resistance against powdery mildew Blumeria graminis or chitinase and glucanase genes from barley (resistance against fungi in general were introduced with the ubiquitin promoter from maize (pm3b and chitinase genes or the actin promoter from rice (glucanase gene. Phytometers of 15 transgenic and non-transgenic wheat lines were transplanted as seedlings into plots sown with the same 15 lines as competitive environments and subject to two soil nutrient levels. Pm3b lines had reduced mildew incidence compared with control lines. Chitinase and chitinase/glucanase lines showed the same high resistance to mildew as their control in low-nutrient treatment and slightly lower mildew rates than the control in high-nutrient environment. Pm3b lines were weaker competitors than control lines. This resulted in reduced yield and seed number. The Pm3b line with the highest transgene expression had 53.2% lower yield than the control whereas the Pm3b line which segregated in resistance and had higher mildew rates showed only minor costs under competition. The line expressing both chitinase and glucanase genes also showed reduced yield and seed number under competition compared with its control. Our results suggest that single transgenes conferring constitutive resistance to pathogens can have ecological costs and can weaken plant competitiveness even in the presence of the pathogen. The magnitude of these costs appears related to the degree

  17. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, P.-C.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Lee, K.-M.

    2008-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4 + T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4 + T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni

  18. Comparison of Model Predictions and Laboratory Observations of Transgene Frequencies in Continuously-Breeding Mosquito Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Laura; North, Ace; Collins, C. Matilda; Mumford, John D.; Facchinelli, Luca; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Benedict, Mark Q.

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of transgenes in the environment is a consideration in risk assessments of transgenic organisms. Combining mathematical models that predict the frequency of transgenes and experimental demonstrations can validate the model predictions, or can detect significant biological deviations that were neither apparent nor included as model parameters. In order to assess the correlation between predictions and observations, models were constructed to estimate the frequency of a transgene causing male sexual sterility in simulated populations of a malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that were seeded with transgenic females at various proportions. Concurrently, overlapping-generation laboratory populations similar to those being modeled were initialized with various starting transgene proportions, and the subsequent proportions of transgenic individuals in populations were determined weekly until the transgene disappeared. The specific transgene being tested contained a homing endonuclease gene expressed in testes, I-PpoI, that cleaves the ribosomal DNA and results in complete male sexual sterility with no effect on female fertility. The transgene was observed to disappear more rapidly than the model predicted in all cases. The period before ovipositions that contained no transgenic progeny ranged from as little as three weeks after cage initiation to as long as 11 weeks. PMID:27669312

  19. Assessment of the potential for gene flow from transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) to eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon-Sub; Anderson, Eric K; Stojšin, Duška; McPherson, Marc A; Baltazar, Baltazar; Horak, Michael J; de la Fuente, Juan Manuel; Wu, Kunsheng; Crowley, James H; Rayburn, A Lane; Lee, D K

    2017-08-01

    Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) belongs to the same tribe of the Poaceae family as maize (Zea mays L.) and grows naturally in the same region where maize is commercially produced in the USA. Although no evidence exists of gene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass in nature, experimental crosses between the two species were produced using specific techniques. As part of environmental risk assessment, the possibility of transgene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass populations in nature was evaluated with the objectives: (1) to assess the seeds of eastern gamagrass populations naturally growing near commercial maize fields for the presence of a transgenic glyphosate-tolerance gene (cp4 epsps) that would indicate cross-pollination between the two species, and (2) to evaluate the possibility of interspecific hybridization between transgenic maize used as male parent and eastern gamagrass used as female parent. A total of 46,643 seeds from 54 eastern gamagrass populations collected in proximity of maize fields in Illinois, USA were planted in a field in 2014 and 2015. Emerged seedlings were treated with glyphosate herbicide and assessed for survival. An additional 48,000 seeds from the same 54 eastern gamagrass populations were tested for the presence of the cp4 epsps transgene markers using TaqMan ® PCR method. The results from these trials showed that no seedlings survived the herbicide treatment and no seed indicated presence of the herbicide tolerant cp4 epsps transgene, even though these eastern gamagrass populations were exposed to glyphosate-tolerant maize pollen for years. Furthermore, no interspecific hybrid seeds were produced from 135 hand-pollination attempts involving 1529 eastern gamagrass spikelets exposed to maize pollen. Together, these results indicate that there is no evidence of gene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass in natural habitats. The outcome of this study should be taken in consideration when assessing for environmental

  20. Novel roles for genetically modified plants in environmental protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Tomáš; Kotrba, Pavel; Svatoš, Aleš; Nováková, Martina; Demnerová, K.; Macková, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2008), s. 146-152 ISSN 0167-7799 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055204; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : transgenic plant * environmental protection * insect pheromone * phytoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 6.624, year: 2008

  1. Protective antibody and CD8+ T-cell responses to the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein induced by a nanoparticle vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Kaba

    Full Text Available The worldwide burden of malaria remains a major public health problem due, in part, to the lack of an effective vaccine against the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. An effective vaccine will most likely require the induction of antigen specific CD8(+ and CD4(+ T-cells as well as long-lasting antibody responses all working in concert to eliminate the infection. We report here the effective modification of a self-assembling protein nanoparticle (SAPN vaccine previously proven effective in control of a P. berghei infection in a rodent model to now present B- and T-cell epitopes of the human malaria parasite P. falciparum in a platform capable of being used in human subjects.To establish the basis for a SAPN-based vaccine, B- and CD8(+ T-cell epitopes from the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP and the universal CD4 T-helper epitope PADRE were engineered into a versatile small protein (∼125 amino acids that self-assembles into a spherical nanoparticle repetitively displaying the selected epitopes. P. falciparum epitope specific immune responses were evaluated in mice using a transgenic P. berghei malaria parasite of mice expressing the human malaria full-length P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (Tg-Pb/PfCSP. We show that SAPN constructs, delivered in saline, can induce high-titer, long-lasting (1 year protective antibody and poly-functional (IFNγ(+, IL-2(+ long-lived central memory CD8(+ T-cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these Ab or CD8(+ T-cells can independently provide sterile protection against a lethal challenge of the transgenic parasites.The SAPN construct induces long-lasting antibody and cellular immune responses to epitope specific sequences of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP and prevents infection in mice by a transgenic P. berghei parasite displaying the full length PfCSP.

  2. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  3. Mains protection. 4. ed.; Netzschutztechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossig, Thomas [Omicron Electronics GmbH, Klaus (Austria); Schossig, Walter

    2013-06-01

    Besides the description of the function of the line equipment, transformer protection functions and protection equipments, selective earth fault detection, voltage regulation, the control of the detuning information for the selection, commissioning and business management will be given. Special emphasis is put on a general adjustment standards and audit recommendations. Also transducers, auxiliary power supply and switching fault detection as well as classifications for equipment and circuit documents are mentioned. Updates affect particularly error clarification times, stimulation reliability, protection of SF6 switchgear, power directional frequency load shedding, protection of decentralized power plants, selective earth fault detection and communication in switch boards.

  4. Expression of the Native Cholera Toxin B Subunit Gene and Assembly as Functional Oligomers in Transgenic Tobacco Chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Henry; Lee, Seung-Bum; Panchal, Tanvi; Wiebe, Peter O.

    2012-01-01

    The B subunits of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (LTB) and cholera toxin of Vibrio cholerae (CTB) are candidate vaccine antigens. Integration of an unmodified CTB-coding sequence into chloroplast genomes (up to 10,000 copies per cell), resulted in the accumulation of up to 4.1% of total soluble tobacco leaf protein as functional oligomers (410-fold higher expression levels than that of the unmodified LTB gene expressed via the nuclear genome). However, expresssion levels reported are an underestimation of actual accumulation of CTB in transgenic chloroplasts, due to aggregation of the oligomeric forms in unboiled samples similar to the aggregation observed for purified bacterial antigen. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of the CTB gene into the chloroplast genome. Western blot analysis showed that the chloroplast-synthesized CTB assembled into oligomers and were antigenically identical with purified native CTB. Also, binding assays confirmed that chloroplast- synthesized CTB binds to the intestinal membrane GM1-ganglioside receptor, indicating correct folding and disulfide bond formation of CTB pentamers within transgenic chloroplasts. In contrast to stunted nuclear transgenic plants, chloroplast transgenic plants were morphologically indistinguishable from untransformed plants, when CTB was constitutively expressed in chloroplasts. Introduced genes were inherited stably in subsequent generations, as confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Increased production of an efficient transmucosal carrier molecule and delivery system, like CTB, in transgenic chloroplasts makes plant-based oral vaccines and fusion proteins with CTB needing oral administration commercially feasible. Successful expression of foreign genes in transgenic chromoplasts and availability of marker-free chloroplast transformation techniques augurs well for development of vaccines in edible parts of transgenic plants. Furthermore, since the quaternary structure of

  5. High blood pressure in transgenic mice carrying the rat angiotensinogen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, S; Mullins, J J; Bunnemann, B; Metzger, R; Hilgenfeldt, U; Zimmermann, F; Jacob, H; Fuxe, K; Ganten, D; Kaling, M

    1992-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated by injecting the entire rat angiotensinogen gene into the germline of NMRI mice. The resulting transgenic animals were characterized with respect to hemodynamics, parameters of the renin angiotension system, and expression of the transgene. The transgenic line TGM(rAOGEN)123 developed hypertension with a mean arterial blood pressure of 158 mmHg in males and 132 mmHg in females. In contrast, the transgenic line TGM(rAOGEN)92 was not hypertensive. Rat angiotensinogen was detectable only in plasma of animals of line 123. Total plasma angiotensinogen and plasma angiotensin II concentrations were about three times as high as those of negative control mice. In TGM(rAOGEN)123 the transgene was highly expressed in liver and brain. Transcripts were also detected in heart, kidney and testis. In TGM(rAOGEN)92 the brain was the main expressing organ. In situ hybridization revealed an mRNA distribution in the brain of TGM(rAOGEN)123 similar to the one in rat. In TGM(rAOGEN)92 the expression pattern in the brain was aberrant. These data indicate that overexpression of the angiotensinogen gene in liver and brain leads to the development of hypertension in transgenic mice. The TGM(rAOGEN)123 constitutes a high angiotensin II type of hypertension and may provide a new experimental animal model to study the kinetics and function of the renin angiotensin system. Images PMID:1547785

  6. Micrometam C Protects against Oxidative Stress in Inflammation Models in Zebrafish and RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Micrometam C is a core of novel marine compound isolated from the mangrove associates Micromelum falcatum. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of micrometam C in inflammation models in the transgenic zebrafish line Tg (corola: eGFP and RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that micrometam C significantly suppressed the migration of immune cells in tail-cutting-induced inflammation in transgenic zebrafish and reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS in both zebrafish and macrophages. In addition, micrometam C also restored LPS-induced reduction of endogenous antioxidants, such as catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD. The protective effects of micrometam C were in parallel to its inhibition of NADPH oxidase and nuclear factor-kappa-binding (NF-κB activity. Thus, the present results demonstrate that micrometam C protects against LPS-induced inflammation possibly through its antioxidant property.

  7. THE SEGREGATION PATTERN OF INSECT RESISTANCE GENES IN THE PROGENIES AND CROSSES OF TRANSGENIC ROJOLELE RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoto Satoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Successful application of genetic transformation technique, especially in developing rice variety resistant to brown plant hopper and stem borer, will depend on transgene being expressed and the gene inherited in a stable and predictable manner. This study aimed to analyse transgene segregation pattern of the progenies and the crosses of transgenic rice cv. Rojolele harboring cry1Ab and gna genes. The third generation (T2 of fivetransgenic Rojolele events containing gna and/or cry1Ab were evaluated for two generations to identify the homozygous lines and to study their inheritance. The homozygous lines were selected based on the result of PCR technique. The segregation patterns of gna and cry1Ab were studied in eight F2 populations derived from Rojolele x transgenic Rojolele homozygous for cry1Ab and or gna and their reciprocal crosses. Data  resulted from PCR of F2 population were analysed using a Chi Square test. The study obtained six homozygous lines for gna, namely A22- 1-32, A22-1-37, C72-1-9, F11-1-48, K21-1-39, K21-1-48, and two homozygous lines for cry1Ab, namely K21-1-39 and K21- 1-48. Both cry1Ab and gna transgenes had been inherited through selfing and crossing with their wild type as indicated from the F1 containing gna and cry1Ab as many as 48.4% and 47.4%, respectively. In six of the eight crosses, gna was inherited in a 3:1 ratio consistent with Mendelian inheritance of a single dominant locus, while in the remaining two crosses, gna was segregated in a 1:1 ratio. The presence of cry1Ab in F2 populations also showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in all crosses. In the F2 population derived from F1 plant containing cry1Ab and gna, both transgenes segregated in a 9:3:3:1 dihybrid segregation ratio. This study will add to the diversity of genetic sources for insect resistance and allow further use of these transgenic lines for pyramiding resistance to brown plant hopper and stem borer or  separately in rice breeding programs whenever

  8. Ethical perception of human gene in transgenic banana | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic banana has been developed to prevent hepatitis B through vaccination. Its production seems to be an ideal alternative for cheaper vaccines. The objective of this paper is to assess the ethical perception of transgenic banana which involved the transfer of human albumin gene, and to compare their ethical ...

  9. Rapid method for identification of transgenic fish zygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Alimuddin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of zygosity in transgenik fish is normally achieved by PCR analysis with genomic DNA template extracted from the tissue of progenies which are derived by mating the transgenic fish and wild-type counterpart.  This method needs relatively large amounts of fish material and is time- and labor-intensive. New approaches addressing this problem could be of great help for fish biotechnologists.  In this experiment, we applied a quantitative real-time PCR (qr-PCR method to analyze zygosity in a stable line of transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio carrying masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou D6-desaturase-like gene. The qr-PCR was performed using iQ SYBR Green Supermix in the iCycler iQ Real-time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA.  Data were analyzed using the comparative cycle threshold method.  The results demonstrated a clear-cut identification of all transgenic fish (n=20 classified as a homozygous or heterozygous.  Mating of those fish with wild-type had revealed transgene transmission to the offspring following expected Mendelian laws. Thus, we found that the qTR-PCR to be effective for a rapid and precise determination of zygosity in transgenic fish. This technique could be useful in the establishment of breeding programs for mass transgenic fish production and in experiments in which zygosity effect could have a functional impact. Keywords: quantitative real-time PCR; zygosity; transgenic fish; mass production   ABSTRAK Identifikasi sigositas ikan transgenik biasanya dilakukan menggunakan analisa PCR dengan cetakan DNA genomik yang diekstraksi dari jaringan ikan hasil persilangan antara ikan transgenik dan ikan normal.   Metode ini memerlukan ikan dalam jumlah yang banyak, dan juga waktu serta tenaga.  Pendekatan baru untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut akan memberikan manfaat besar kepada peneliti bioteknologi perikanan.  Pada penelitian ini, kami menggunakan metode PCR real-time kuantitatif (krt-PCR untuk

  10. Generation of BAC transgenic epithelial organoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Schwank

    Full Text Available Under previously developed culture conditions, mouse and human intestinal epithelia can be cultured and expanded over long periods. These so-called organoids recapitulate the three-dimensional architecture of the gut epithelium, and consist of all major intestinal cell types. One key advantage of these ex vivo cultures is their accessibility to live imaging. So far the establishment of transgenic fluorescent reporter organoids has required the generation of transgenic mice, a laborious and time-consuming process, which cannot be extended to human cultures. Here we present a transfection protocol that enables the generation of recombinant mouse and human reporter organoids using BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome technology.

  11. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay D; Parnaik, Veena K

    2017-07-01

    Lamins are key determinants of nuclear organization and function in the metazoan nucleus. Mutations in human lamin A cause a spectrum of genetic diseases that affect cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle as well as other tissues. A few laminopathies have been modeled using the mouse. As zebrafish is a well established model for the study of cardiac development and disease, we have investigated the effects of heart-specific lamin A mutations in transgenic zebrafish. We have developed transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing conserved lamin A mutations that cause cardiac dysfunction in humans. Expression of zlamin A mutations Q291P and M368K in the heart was driven by the zebrafish cardiac troponin T2 promoter. Homozygous mutant embryos displayed nuclear abnormalities in cardiomyocyte nuclei. Expression analysis showed the upregulation of genes involved in heart regeneration in transgenic mutant embryos and a cell proliferation marker was increased in adult heart tissue. At the physiological level, there was deviation of up to 20% from normal heart rate in transgenic embryos expressing mutant lamins. Adult homozygous zebrafish were fertile and did not show signs of early mortality. Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  12. Age-related changes in body composition of bovine growth hormone transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Amanda J; Chung, Min-Yu; List, Edward O; Walker, Jennifer; Okada, Shigeru; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2009-03-01

    GH has a significant impact on body composition due to distinct anabolic and catabolic effects on lean and fat mass, respectively. Several studies have assessed body composition in mice expressing a GH transgene. Whereas all studies report enhanced growth of transgenic mice as compared with littermate controls, there are inconsistencies in terms of the relative proportion of lean mass to fat mass in these animals. The purpose of this study was to characterize the accumulation of adipose and lean mass with age and according to gender in a bovine (b) GH transgenic mouse line. Weight and body composition measurements were assessed in male and female bGH mice with corresponding littermate controls in the C57BL/6J genetic background. Body composition measurements began at 6 wk and continued through 1 yr of age. At the conclusion of the study, tissue weights were determined and triglyceride content was quantified in liver and kidney. Although body weights for bGH mice were significantly greater than their corresponding littermate controls at all time points, body composition measurements revealed an unexpected transition midway through analyses. That is, younger bGH mice had relatively more fat mass than nontransgenic littermates, whereas bGH mice became significantly leaner than controls by 4 months in males and 6 months in females. These results reveal the importance in timing and gender when conducting studies related to body composition or lean and fat tissue in GH transgenic mice or in other genetically manipulated mouse strains in which body composition may be impacted.

  13. Comparison of Model Predictions and Laboratory Observations of Transgene Frequencies in Continuously-Breeding Mosquito Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Valerio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of transgenes in the environment is a consideration in risk assessments of transgenic organisms. Combining mathematical models that predict the frequency of transgenes and experimental demonstrations can validate the model predictions, or can detect significant biological deviations that were neither apparent nor included as model parameters. In order to assess the correlation between predictions and observations, models were constructed to estimate the frequency of a transgene causing male sexual sterility in simulated populations of a malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that were seeded with transgenic females at various proportions. Concurrently, overlapping-generation laboratory populations similar to those being modeled were initialized with various starting transgene proportions, and the subsequent proportions of transgenic individuals in populations were determined weekly until the transgene disappeared. The specific transgene being tested contained a homing endonuclease gene expressed in testes, I-PpoI, that cleaves the ribosomal DNA and results in complete male sexual sterility with no effect on female fertility. The transgene was observed to disappear more rapidly than the model predicted in all cases. The period before ovipositions that contained no transgenic progeny ranged from as little as three weeks after cage initiation to as long as 11 weeks.

  14. Generation of Triple-Transgenic Forsythia Cell Cultures as a Platform for the Efficient, Stable, and Sustainable Production of Lignans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Jun; Matsumoto, Erika; Morimoto, Kinuyo; Koyama, Tomotsugu; Satake, Honoo

    2015-01-01

    Sesamin is a furofuran lignan biosynthesized from the precursor lignan pinoresinol specifically in sesame seeds. This lignan is shown to exhibit anti-hypertensive activity, protect the liver from damages by ethanol and lipid oxidation, and reduce lung tumor growth. Despite rapidly elevating demand, plant sources of lignans are frequently limited because of the high cost of locating and collecting plants. Indeed, the acquisition of sesamin exclusively depends on the conventional extraction of particular Sesamum seeds. In this study, we have created the efficient, stable and sustainable sesamin production system using triple-transgenic Forsythia koreana cell suspension cultures, U18i-CPi-Fk. These transgenic cell cultures were generated by stably introducing an RNAi sequence against the pinoresinol-glucosylating enzyme, UGT71A18, into existing CPi-Fk cells, which had been created by introducing Sesamum indicum sesamin synthase (CYP81Q1) and an RNA interference (RNAi) sequence against pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase (PLR) into F. koreanna cells. Compared to its transgenic prototype, U18i-CPi-Fk displayed 5-fold higher production of pinoresinol aglycone and 1.4-fold higher production of sesamin, respectively, while the wildtype cannot produce sesamin due to a lack of any intrinsic sesamin synthase. Moreover, red LED irradiation of U18i-CPi-Fk specifically resulted in 3.0-fold greater production in both pinoresinol aglycone and sesamin than production of these lignans under the dark condition, whereas pinoresinol production was decreased in the wildtype under red LED. Moreover, we developed a procedure for sodium alginate-based long-term storage of U18i-CPi-Fk in liquid nitrogen. Production of sesamin in U18i-CPi-Fk re-thawed after six-month cryopreservation was equivalent to that of non-cryopreserved U18i-CPi-Fk. These data warrant on-demand production of sesamin anytime and anywhere. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that U18i-CP-Fk is an

  15. Effects of Metformin on Tissue Oxidative and Dicarbonyl Stress in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Expressing Human C-Reactive Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Malínská

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress play important roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Metformin is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because it effectively suppresses gluconeogenesis in the liver. However, its "pleiotropic" effects remain controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of metformin on inflammation, oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in an animal model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, using spontaneously hypertensive rats that transgenically express human C-reactive protein (SHR-CRP. We treated 8-month-old male transgenic SHR-CRP rats with metformin (5 mg/kg/day mixed as part of a standard diet for 4 weeks. A corresponding untreated control group of male transgenic SHR-CRP rats were fed a standard diet without metformin. In a similar fashion, we studied a group of nontransgenic SHR treated with metformin and an untreated group of nontransgenic SHR controls. In each group, we studied 6 animals. Parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were measured using standard methods. Gene expression profiles were determined using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. Statistical significance was evaluated by two-way ANOVA. In the SHR-CRP transgenic strain, we found that metformin treatment decreased circulating levels of inflammatory response marker IL-6, TNFα and MCP-1 while levels of human CRP remained unchanged. Metformin significantly reduced oxidative stress (levels of conjugated dienes and TBARS and dicarbonyl stress (levels of methylglyoxal in left ventricles, but not in kidneys. No significant effects of metformin on oxidative and dicarbonyl stress were observed in SHR controls. In addition, metformin treatment reduced adipose tissue lipolysis associated with human CRP. Possible molecular mechanisms of metformin action-studied by gene expression profiling in the liver-revealed deregulated genes from inflammatory and insulin signaling

  16. Generation of Triple-Transgenic Forsythia Cell Cultures as a Platform for the Efficient, Stable, and Sustainable Production of Lignans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Murata

    Full Text Available Sesamin is a furofuran lignan biosynthesized from the precursor lignan pinoresinol specifically in sesame seeds. This lignan is shown to exhibit anti-hypertensive activity, protect the liver from damages by ethanol and lipid oxidation, and reduce lung tumor growth. Despite rapidly elevating demand, plant sources of lignans are frequently limited because of the high cost of locating and collecting plants. Indeed, the acquisition of sesamin exclusively depends on the conventional extraction of particular Sesamum seeds. In this study, we have created the efficient, stable and sustainable sesamin production system using triple-transgenic Forsythia koreana cell suspension cultures, U18i-CPi-Fk. These transgenic cell cultures were generated by stably introducing an RNAi sequence against the pinoresinol-glucosylating enzyme, UGT71A18, into existing CPi-Fk cells, which had been created by introducing Sesamum indicum sesamin synthase (CYP81Q1 and an RNA interference (RNAi sequence against pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase (PLR into F. koreanna cells. Compared to its transgenic prototype, U18i-CPi-Fk displayed 5-fold higher production of pinoresinol aglycone and 1.4-fold higher production of sesamin, respectively, while the wildtype cannot produce sesamin due to a lack of any intrinsic sesamin synthase. Moreover, red LED irradiation of U18i-CPi-Fk specifically resulted in 3.0-fold greater production in both pinoresinol aglycone and sesamin than production of these lignans under the dark condition, whereas pinoresinol production was decreased in the wildtype under red LED. Moreover, we developed a procedure for sodium alginate-based long-term storage of U18i-CPi-Fk in liquid nitrogen. Production of sesamin in U18i-CPi-Fk re-thawed after six-month cryopreservation was equivalent to that of non-cryopreserved U18i-CPi-Fk. These data warrant on-demand production of sesamin anytime and anywhere. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that U18i

  17. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young; Park, Jin-Ki; Sorrell, Alice M.; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Woo, Jae-Seok; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Chang, Won-Kyong; Shim, Hosup

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. → hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. → hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  18. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ki [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sorrell, Alice M. [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jae-Seok [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong-Hwan [Genomics and Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won-Kyong [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hosup, E-mail: shim@dku.edu [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. {yields} hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. {yields} hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  19. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappel, David A; Lantier, Louise; Palmisano, Brian T; Wasserman, David H; Stafford, John M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  20. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Cappel

    Full Text Available Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α. These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  1. Adsorptive loss of secreted recombinant proteins in transgenic rice cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jun-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Hoon; Cheon, Su-Hwan; Ryu, Hyun-Nam; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Dong-Il

    2012-03-01

    Adsorptive loss of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) in transgenic rice cell suspension cultures was investigated using glass flasks, plastic flasks, disposable vessels, and stainless steel vessels. When hCTLA4Ig was added to the glass flasks containing sterile AA medium, a rapid decrease in the concentration of hCTLA4Ig, independent on pH, was observed resulting in more than 90% of the protein loss within 1 h due to the surface adsorption. When the same experiments were performed on four different types of culture equipments mentioned above, the lowest adsorption level was observed in the plastic flasks and the highest level was observed in the glass flasks. The use of the plastic flasks retarded the adsorptive loss of hCTLA4Ig at the early stage of the protein production. There was a significant increase in the production of hCTLA4Ig when the flasks were coated with bovine serum albumin. However, the spike test of purified hCTLA4Ig at two different concentrations of 15 and 100 mg L(-1) in 500-mL spinner flasks confirmed that the amount of hCTLA4Ig adsorbed was dependent on the surface area of the flasks but not on the concentrations. In conclusion, although the protein adsorption affected the total amount of the protein yielded to some extent, it could be regarded as a minor factor in transgenic plant cell cultures with higher titer.

  2. Single-Event Transgene Product Levels Predict Levels in Genetically Modified Breeding Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampala, Satyalinga Srinivas; Fast, Brandon J; Richey, Kimberly A; Gao, Zhifang; Hill, Ryan; Wulfkuhle, Bryant; Shan, Guomin; Bradfisch, Greg A; Herman, Rod A

    2017-09-13

    The concentration of transgene products (proteins and double-stranded RNA) in genetically modified (GM) crop tissues is measured to support food, feed, and environmental risk assessments. Measurement of transgene product concentrations in breeding stacks of previously assessed and approved GM events is required by many regulatory authorities to evaluate unexpected transgene interactions that might affect expression. Research was conducted to determine how well concentrations of transgene products in single GM events predict levels in breeding stacks composed of these events. The concentrations of transgene products were compared between GM maize, soybean, and cotton breeding stacks (MON-87427 × MON-89034 × DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 × MON-87411 × DAS-59122-7 × DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2 × DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 × MON-88913-8 × DAS-81910-7 cotton) and their component single events (MON-87427, MON-89034, DAS-Ø15Ø7-1, MON-87411, DAS-59122-7, and DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2, and DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5, DAS-24236-5, SYN-IR102-7, MON-88913-8, and DAS-81910-7 cotton). Comparisons were made within a crop and transgene product across plant tissue types and were also made across transgene products in each breeding stack for grain/seed. Scatter plots were generated comparing expression in the stacks to their component events, and the percent of variability accounted for by the line of identity (y = x) was calculated (coefficient of identity, I 2 ). Results support transgene concentrations in single events predicting similar concentrations in breeding stacks containing the single events. Therefore, food, feed, and environmental risk assessments based on concentrations of transgene products in single GM events are generally applicable to breeding stacks composed of these events.

  3. 17 CFR 403.4 - Customer protection-reserves and custody of securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customer protection-reserves... TREASURY REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 15C OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 PROTECTION OF CUSTOMER SECURITIES AND BALANCES § 403.4 Customer protection—reserves and custody of securities. Every registered...

  4. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and regeneration of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Sanyal, Indraneel; Amla, D V

    2011-09-01

    To develop an efficient genetic transformation system of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), callus derived from mature embryonic axes of variety P-362 was transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring p35SGUS-INT plasmid containing the uidA gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) and the nptII gene for kanamycin selection. Various factors affecting transformation efficiency were optimized; as Agrobacterium suspension at OD(600) 0.3 with 48 h of co-cultivation period at 20°C was found optimal for transforming 10-day-old MEA-derived callus. Inclusion of 200 μM acetosyringone, sonication for 4 s with vacuum infiltration for 6 min improved the number of GUS foci per responding explant from 1.0 to 38.6, as determined by histochemical GUS assay. For introducing the insect-resistant trait into chickpea, binary vector pRD400-cry1Ac was also transformed under optimized conditions and 18 T(0) transgenic plants were generated, representing 3.6% transformation frequency. T(0) transgenic plants reflected Mendelian inheritance pattern of transgene segregation in T(1) progeny. PCR, RT-PCR, and Southern hybridization analysis of T(0) and T(1) transgenic plants confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the chickpea genome. The expression level of Bt-Cry protein in T(0) and T(1) transgenic chickpea plants was achieved maximum up to 116 ng mg(-1) of soluble protein, which efficiently causes 100% mortality to second instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera as analyzed by an insect mortality bioassay. Our results demonstrate an efficient and rapid transformation system of chickpea for producing non-chimeric transgenic plants with high frequency. These findings will certainly accelerate the development of chickpea plants with novel traits.

  5. Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, A.-S.; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Kumar, A.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to musculoskeletal disuse and radiation result in bone loss; we hypothesized that these catabolic treatments cause excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby alter the tight balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used transgenic mice which over-express the human gene for catalase, targeted to mitochondria (MCAT). Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts the ROS hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. MCAT mice were shown previously to display reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress and radiosensitivity of the CNS compared to wild type controls (WT). As expected, MCAT mice expressed the transgene in skeletal tissue, and in marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors cultured ex vivo, and also showed greater catalase activity compared to wildtype (WT) mice (3-6 fold). Colony expansion in marrow cells cultured under osteoblastogenic conditions was 2-fold greater in the MCAT mice compared to WT mice, while the extent of mineralization was unaffected. MCAT mice had slightly longer tibiae than WT mice (2%, P less than 0.01), although cortical bone area was slightly lower in MCAT mice than WT mice (10%, p=0.09). To challenge the skeletal system, mice were treated by exposure to combined disuse (2 wk Hindlimb Unloading) and total body irradiation Cs(137) (2 Gy, 0.8 Gy/min), then bone parameters were analyzed by 2-factor ANOVA to detect possible interaction effects. Treatment caused a 2-fold increase (p=0.015) in malondialdehyde levels of bone tissue (ELISA) in WT mice, but had no effect in MCAT mice. These findings indicate that the transgene conferred protection from oxidative damage caused by treatment. Unexpected differences between WT and MCAT mice emerged in skeletal responses to treatment.. In WT mice, treatment did not alter osteoblastogenesis, cortical bone area, moment of inertia, or bone perimeter, whereas in MCAT mice, treatment increased these

  6. AFLP analysis and improved phytoextraction capacity of transgenic gshI-poplar clones (Populus x canescens L.) for copper in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulai, G. [St. Stephanus Univ., Dept. of Genetics and PB (Hungary); HAS-SIU Research Group for Molecular Plant Breeding (Hungary); IGER, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom); Humphreys, M.; Skoet, K.; Skoet, L.; Heywood, S.; Lovatt, A.; Roderick, H.; Abberton, M. [IGER, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom); Bittsanszky, A.; Kiss, J.; Szabo, Z. [St. Stephanus Univ., Dept. of Genetics and PB (Hungary); Gullner, G.; Koemives, T. [Plant Protection Inst., Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Radimszky, L. [Soil Science Inst., Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Rennenberg, H. [Albert-Ludwigs-Univ., Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie, Freiburg (Germany); Heszky, L. [St. Stephanus Univ., Dept. of Genetics and PB (Hungary); HAS-SIU Research Group for Molecular Plant Breeding (Hungary)

    2005-04-01

    Clone stability and in vitro phytoextraction capacity of vegetative clones of P. x canescens (2n = 4x = 38) including two transgenic clones (ggs11 and lgl6) were studied as in vitro leaf disc cultures. Presence of the gshI-transgene in the transformed clones was detected in PCR reactions using gshI-specific primers. Clone stability was determined by fAFLP (fluorescent amplified DNA fragment length polymorphism) analysis. In total, 682 AFLP fragments were identified generated by twelve selective primer pairs after EcoRI-MseI digestion. Four fragments generated by EcoAGT-MseCCC were different (99.4% genetic similarity) which proves an unexpectedly low bud mutation frequency in P. x canescens. For the study of phytoextraction capacity leaf discs (8 mm) were exposed to a concentration series of ZnSO{sub 4} (10{sup -1} to 10{sup -5} M) incubated for 21 days on aseptic tissue culture media WPM containing 1 {mu}M Cu. ZN{sup 2+} caused phytotoxicity only at high concentrations (10{sup -1} to 10{sup -2} M). The transgenic poplar cyt-ECS (ggs11) clone, as stimulated by the presence of Zn, showed elevated heavy metal (Cu) uptake as compared to the non-transformed clone. These results suggest that gshI-transgenic poplars may be suitable for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with zinc and copper. (orig.)

  7. Restoration of spermatogenesis and male fertility using an androgen receptor transgene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Walker

    Full Text Available Androgens signal through the androgen receptor (AR to regulate male secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive tract development, prostate function, sperm production, bone and muscle mass as well as body hair growth among other functions. We developed a transgenic mouse model in which endogenous AR expression was replaced by a functionally modified AR transgene. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC was constructed containing all AR exons and introns plus 40 kb each of 5' and 3' regulatory sequence. Insertion of an internal ribosome entry site and the EGFP gene 3' to AR allowed co-expression of AR and EGFP. Pronuclear injection of the BAC resulted in six founder mice that displayed EGFP production in appropriate AR expressing tissues. The six founder mice were mated into a Sertoli cell specific AR knockout (SCARKO background in which spermatogenesis is blocked at the meiosis stage of germ cell development. The AR-EGFP transgene was expressed in a cyclical manner similar to that of endogenous AR in Sertoli cells and fertility was restored as offspring were produced in the absence of Sertoli cell AR. Thus, the AR-EGFP transgene under the control of AR regulatory elements is capable of rescuing AR function in a cell selective, AR-null background. These initial studies provide proof of principle that a strategy employing the AR-EGFP transgene can be used to understand AR functions. Transgenic mice expressing selective modifications of the AR-EGFP transgene may provide crucial information needed to elicit the molecular mechanisms by which AR acts in the testis and other androgen responsive tissues.

  8. Transgenic plants: from first successes to future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Angenon, Geert; De Block, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue was held between the Guest Editors of the Special Issue on "Plant Transgenesis" of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. and Marc De Block. He was one of the first scientists worldwide to obtain transgenic plants transformed with the chimeric selectable marker genes encoding neomycin phosphotransferase and bialaphos that confer resistance against the antibiotic kanamycin and the herbicide Basta®/glufosinate, respectively at the Department of Genetics of Ghent University and, later on, at the spin-off company, Plant Genetic Systems. Today, these two genes are still the most frequently utilized markers in transgene technology. Marc De Block chose to work on the improvement of crops in an industrial environment to help realize the production of superior seeds or products. He was part of the team that developed the male sterility/restorer system in canola (Brassica napus var. napus) that led to the first hybrid lines to be commercialized as successful products of transgene technology. In more than 30 years of research, he developed transformation procedures for numerous crops, designed histochemical, biochemical and physiological assays to monitor plant performance, and made original and innovative contributions to plant biology. Presently, he considers transgenic research part of the toolbox for plant improvement and essential for basic plant research.

  9. Impact of Transgenic Brassica napus Harboring the Antifungal Synthetic Chitinase (NiC Gene on Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity and Enzyme Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Khan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic Brassica napus harboring the synthetic chitinase (NiC gene exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal resistance. As the rhizosphere microorganisms play an important role in element cycling and nutrient transformation, therefore, biosafety assessment of NiC containing transgenic plants on soil ecosystem is a regulatory requirement. The current study is designed to evaluate the impact of NiC gene on the rhizosphere enzyme activities and microbial community structure. The transgenic lines with the synthetic chitinase gene (NiC showed resistance to Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing fungal pathogen. The rhizosphere enzyme analysis showed no significant difference in the activities of fivesoil enzymes: alkalyine phosphomonoestarase, arylsulphatase, β-glucosidase, urease and sucrase between the transgenic and non-transgenic lines of B. napus varieties, Durr-e-NIFA (DN and Abasyne-95 (AB-95. However, varietal differences were observed based on the analysis of molecular variance. Some individual enzymes were significantly different in the transgenic lines from those of non-transgenic but the results were not reproducible in the second trail and thus were considered as environmental effect. Genotypic diversity of soil microbes through 16S–23S rRNA intergenic spacer region amplification was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of the transgene. No significant diversity (4% for bacteria and 12% for fungal between soil microbes of NiC B. napus and the non-transgenic lines was found. However, significant varietal differences were observed between DN and AB-95 with 79% for bacterial and 54% for fungal diversity. We conclude that the NiC B. napus lines may not affect the microbial enzyme activities and community structure of the rhizosphere soil. Varietal differences might be responsible for minor changes in the tested parameters.

  10. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Fan, Xiaotang [Department of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xu, Haiwei, E-mail: haiweixu2001@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Bai, Yun, E-mail: baiyungene@gmail.com [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2009-07-31

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  11. Accurate measure of transgene copy number in crop plants using droplet digital PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic transformation is a powerful means for the improvement of crop plants, but requires labor- and resource-intensive methods. An efficient method for identifying single-copy transgene insertion events from a population of independent transgenic lines is desirable. Currently, transgene copy numb...

  12. Maternal endometrial oedema may increase perinatal mortality of cloned and transgenic piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winter, K.D.; Dantzer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    The perinatal mortality of cloned animals is a well-known problem. In the present retrospective study, we report on mortality of cloned transgenic or non-transgenic piglets produced as part of several investigations. Large White (LW) sows (n = 105) received hand-made cloned LW or minipig...... endometrial oedema in sows pregnant with cloned and transgenic piglets, as well as in empty recipients, at term. The growth of certain organs in some of the cloned piglets was reduced and the rate of stillborn piglets was greater in cloned and transgenic piglets delivered vaginally, possibly because of oedema...

  13. Potential of MuS1 Transgenic Tobacco for Phytoremediation of the Urban Soils Contaminated with Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, Y. N.; Kim, S. H.

    2010-05-01

    Urban soils are prone to contamination by trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Phytoremediation is one of the attractive remediation methods for soils contaminated with trace elements due to its non-destructive and environmentally-friendly characteristic. Scientists have tried to find hyper-accumulator plants in nature or to develop transgenic plant through genetic engineering. This study was carried out to identify a potential of MuS1 transgenic tobacco for phytoremediation of the urban soils contaminated with Cd. MuS1 is known as a multiple stress related gene with several lines. The previous study using RT-PCR showed that the expression of MuS1 gene in tobacco plant induced tolerance to Cd stress. For this study, MuS1 transgenic tobacco and wild-type tobacco (control) were cultivated in a hydroponic system treated with Cd (0, 50, 100 and 200μM Cd) for 3 weeks. At harvest, both tobacco and nutrient solution were collected and were analyzed for Cd. Effect of Cd treatment on morphological change of the tobacco leaves was also observed by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The tolerance of MuS1 transgenic tobacco to Cd stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco at all Cd levels. Especially, wild-type tobacco showed chlorosis and withering with 200μM Cd treatment, whereas MuS1 transgenic tobacco gradually recovered from Cd damage. Wild-type tobacco accumulated more Cd (4.65mg per plant) than MuS1 transgenic tobacco (2.37mg per plant) with 200μM Cd treatment. Cd translocation rate from root to leaves was 81.8 % for wild-type tobacco compared to 37.1 % for MuS1 transgenic tobacco. Result of VP-SEM showed that the number of trichome in the leaves for wild-type tobacco increased in comparison with that for untreated samples after 3 weeks, while that for MuS1 transgenic tobacco was not changed by Cd treatment. Results showed that the mechanism of the recovery of the MuS1 tobacco plant was not by high level of Cd uptake and accumulation

  14. Heterologous human/rat HER2-specific exosome-targeted T cell vaccine stimulates potent humoral and CTL responses leading to enhanced circumvention of HER2 tolerance in double transgenic HLA-A2/HER2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yufeng; Wu, Jie; Xu, Aizhang; Ahmeqd, Shahid; Sami, Amer; Chibbar, Rajni; Freywald, Andrew; Zheng, Changyu; Xiang, Jim

    2018-03-07

    DNA vaccines composed of heterologous human HER2 and rat neu sequences induce stronger antibody response and protective antitumor immunity than either HER2 or neu DNA vaccines in transgenic mice. We previously developed HER2-specific exosome-targeted T-cell vaccine HER2-T EXO capable of stimulating HER2-specific CD8 + T-cell responses, but only leading to partial protective immunity in double-transgenic HLA-A2/HER2 mice with self-immune tolerance to HER2. Here, we constructed an adenoviral vector AdV HuRt expressing HuRt fusion protein composed of NH 2 -HER2 1-407 (Hu) and COOH-neu 408-690 (Rt) fragments, and developed a heterologous human/rat HER2-specific exosome-targeted T-cell vaccine HuRt-T EXO using polyclonal CD4 + T-cells uptaking exosomes released by AdV HuRt -transfected dendritic cells. We found that the HuRt-T EXO vaccine stimulates enhanced CD4 + T-cell responses leading to increased induction of HER2-specific antibody (∼70 µg/ml) compared to that (∼40 µg/ml) triggered by the homologous HER2-T EXO vaccine. By using PE-H-2K d /HER2 23-71 tetramer, we determined that HuRt-T EXO stimulates stronger HER2-specific CD8 + T-cell responses eradicating 90% of HER2-specific target cells, while HER2-T EXO -induced CD8 + T-cell responses only eliminating 53% targets. Furthermore, HuRt-T EXO , but not HER2-T EXO vaccination, is capable of suppressing early stage-established HER2-expressing 4T1 HER2 breast cancer in its lung metastasis or subcutaneous form in BALB/c mice, and of completely protecting transgenic HLA-A2/HER2 mice from growth of HLA-A2/HER2-expressing BL6-10 A2/HER2 melanoma. HuRt-T EXO -stimulated HER2-specific CD8 + T-cells not only are cytolytic to trastuzumab-resistant HLA-A2/HER2-expressing BT474/A2 breast tumor cells in vitro but also eradicates pre-established BT474/A2 tumors in athymic nude mice. Therefore, our novel heterologous human/rat HER2-specific T-cell vaccine HuRt-T EXO, circumventing HER2 tolerance, may provide a new

  15. RNAi-mediated transgenic tospovirus resistance broken by intraspecies NSs complementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassani-Mehraban, A.; Brenkman, A.B.; Broek, N.F.J.; Goldbach, R.W.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Extension of an inverted repeat transgene cassette, containing partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences from four different tomato-infecting Tospovirus spp. with a partial N gene sequence from the tomato strain of Tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV-t), renders transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants

  16. Transgenic nonhuman primates for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models that represent human diseases constitute an important tool in understanding the pathogenesis of the diseases, and in developing effective therapies. Neurodegenerative diseases are complex disorders involving neuropathologic and psychiatric alterations. Although transgenic and knock-in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and Huntington's disease (HD have been created, limited representation in clinical aspects has been recognized and the rodent models lack true neurodegeneration. Chemical induction of HD and PD in nonhuman primates (NHP has been reported, however, the role of intrinsic genetic factors in the development of the diseases is indeterminable. Nonhuman primates closely parallel humans with regard to genetic, neuroanatomic, and cognitive/behavioral characteristics. Accordingly, the development of NHP models for neurodegenerative diseases holds greater promise for success in the discovery of diagnoses, treatments, and cures than approaches using other animal species. Therefore, a transgenic NHP carrying a mutant gene similar to that of patients will help to clarify our understanding of disease onset and progression. Additionally, monitoring disease onset and development in the transgenic NHP by high resolution brain imaging technology such as MRI, and behavioral and cognitive testing can all be carried out simultaneously in the NHP but not in other animal models. Moreover, because of the similarity in motor repertoire between NHPs and humans, it will also be possible to compare the neurologic syndrome observed in the NHP model to that in patients. Understanding the correlation between genetic defects and physiologic changes (e.g. oxidative damage will lead to a better understanding of disease progression and the development of patient treatments, medications and preventive approaches for high risk individuals. The impact of the transgenic NHP model in understanding the role which

  17. Generation of transgenic mice producing fungal xylanase in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    express exogenous digestive enzymes, since a single- stomached animal, such as a pig, can secret .... transgenic founder mice; 1 to15 are fifteen wild-type founder mice; M, marke; β-actin, endogenous control. (C) Identification of transgenic mice by ... 61.48±0.34%), gross energy digestibility (WT vs. TG = 68.79±0.51% vs.

  18. Transgenic mouse models of hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirma, Nameer B; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R

    2012-09-01

    Mouse models of breast cancer, especially transgenic and knockout mice, have been established as valuable tools in shedding light on factors involved in preneoplastic changes, tumor development and malignant progression. The majority of mouse transgenic models develop estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors. This is seen as a drawback because the majority of human breast cancers present an ER positive phenotype. On the other hand, several transgenic mouse models have been developed that produce ER positive mammary tumors. These include mice over-expressing aromatase, ERα, PELP-1 and AIB-1. In this review, we will discuss the value of these models as physiologically relevant in vivo systems to understand breast cancer as well as some of the pitfalls involving these models. In all, we argue that the use of transgenic models has improved our understanding of the molecular aspects and biology of breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A primary study of high performance transgenic rice through maize UBI-1 promoter fusing selective maker gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, J.; Cai, P.; Qing, F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the expression vector pBI121, we successfully constructed a plant over-expression vector of Hspa4 gene fusing with selective maker gene (hygromycin-resistance gene) driven by the Ubi-1 promoter (pBI121-Ubi-Hpt-Hspa4, p121UHH). The plant expression vectors p121UHH and pCAMBIA1301-Ubi-Hspa4 (p1301UH) were transformed into the rice callus, mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We screened 17 p121UHH-positive transgenic plants and 15 p1301UH-positive transgenic plants by the hygromycin-resistance gene. The pick-up rate of the resistance callus was 51.7% and 42.5%, respectively, and the rate of regeneration for the resistance callus was 51.2% and 49.1%, respectively. The result of polymerase chain reaction (P CR) identification indicated that the pick-up rate of positive transgenic plants was 51.7% and 42.5% and the total transformation efficiency was 16.5% and 6.2%, and the former was 2.66 time s of the later. The results of the experiment indicate that the possibility of the appearance of false positive results in the fusing of a plant over-expression vector with a selective maker gene is much less. (author)

  20. CONSTRUCTION AND STUDY OF Althaea officinalis TRANSGENIC ROOTS CULTURE WITH HUMAN INTERFERON α2B GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Matvieieva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to obtain Althaea officinalis L. «hairy» root culture with human interferon α2b gene (ifn-α2b, to measure fructans content and antiviral activity of extracts from the transgenic roots. Transformation of leaf and root explants was carried out by means of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Antiviral activity was measured by the reduction in cytopathic effect of vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain in bovine kidney cells line MDBK. Transformation frequency was 100% for leaf and root explants. RT-PCR confirmed ifn- α2b gene transcription. The clones of transgenic roots differed in mass increasing from 0, 036 ± 0,008 up to 0,371 ± 0,019 g in 30 days cultivation and in fructan synthesis from 67,2± 4,47 up to 154,6 ± 6,62 mg/g roots dry weight. Extracts from «hairy»roots culture were characterized by high antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus — up to 26 000 IU/ g of roots fresh weight. In some cases the genetic transformation shown to lead increasing the growth rate and increasing the level of fructan synthesis in transgenic A. officinalis roots. Extracts from cultivated in vitro marshmallow transgenic roots were characterized by high level of antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus. Thus, there were obtained transgenic A. officinalis roots, characterized by high growth rate, significant accumulation of fructans and high antiviral activity.

  1. Recombineering strategies for developing next generation BAC transgenic tools for optogenetics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Jonathan T; Feng, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The development and application of diverse BAC transgenic rodent lines has enabled rapid progress for precise molecular targeting of genetically-defined cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. These transgenic tools have played a central role in the optogenetic revolution in neuroscience. Indeed, an overwhelming proportion of studies in this field have made use of BAC transgenic Cre driver lines to achieve targeted expression of optogenetic probes in the brain. In addition, several BAC transgenic mouse lines have been established for direct cell-type specific expression of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). While the benefits of these new tools largely outweigh any accompanying challenges, many available BAC transgenic lines may suffer from confounds due in part to increased gene dosage of one or more "extra" genes contained within the large BAC DNA sequences. Here we discuss this under-appreciated issue and propose strategies for developing the next generation of BAC transgenic lines that are devoid of extr